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Sample records for schema-based program synthesis

  1. Combining Model-driven and Schema-based Program Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Whittle, John

    2004-01-01

    We describe ongoing work which aims to extend the schema-based program synthesis paradigm with explicit models. In this context, schemas can be considered as model-to-model transformations. The combination of schemas with explicit models offers a number of advantages, namely, that building synthesis systems becomes much easier since the models can be used in verification and in adaptation of the synthesis systems. We illustrate our approach using an example from signal processing.

  2. The Role of Ontologies in Schema-based Program Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bures, Tomas; Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Nistor, Eugen C.

    2004-01-01

    Program synthesis is the process of automatically deriving executable code from (non-executable) high-level specifications. It is more flexible and powerful than conventional code generation techniques that simply translate algorithmic specifications into lower-level code or only create code skeletons from structural specifications (such as UML class diagrams). Key to building a successful synthesis system is specializing to an appropriate application domain. The AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER systems, under development at NASA Ames, operate in the two domains of data analysis and state estimation, respectively. The central concept of both systems is the schema, a representation of reusable computational knowledge. This can take various forms, including high-level algorithm templates, code optimizations, datatype refinements, or architectural information. A schema also contains applicability conditions that are used to determine when it can be applied safely. These conditions can refer to the initial specification, to intermediate results, or to elements of the partially-instantiated code. Schema-based synthesis uses AI technology to recursively apply schemas to gradually refine a specification into executable code. This process proceeds in two main phases. A front-end gradually transforms the problem specification into a program represented in an abstract intermediate code. A backend then compiles this further down into a concrete target programming language of choice. A core engine applies schemas on the initial problem specification, then uses the output of those schemas as the input for other schemas, until the full implementation is generated. Since there might be different schemas that implement different solutions to the same problem this process can generate an entire solution tree. AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER have reached the level of maturity where they enable users to solve interesting application problems, e.g., the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images

  3. Improving Students' Proportional Thinking Using Schema-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.; Rodriguez, Michael; Lindell, Mary; Someki, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an instructional program (schema-based instruction, SBI) designed to teach 7th graders how to comprehend and solve proportion problems involving ratios/rates, scale drawings, and percents. The SBI program emphasized the underlying mathematical structure of problems via schematic diagrams, focused on a…

  4. Three-dimensional motor schema based navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, Ronald C.

    1989-01-01

    Reactive schema-based navigation is possible in space domains by extending the methods developed for ground-based navigation found within the Autonomous Robot Architecture (AuRA). Reformulation of two dimensional motor schemas for three dimensional applications is a straightforward process. The manifold advantages of schema-based control persist, including modular development, amenability to distributed processing, and responsiveness to environmental sensing. Simulation results show the feasibility of this methodology for space docking operations in a cluttered work area.

  5. AutoBayes Program Synthesis System System Internals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann Martin

    2011-01-01

    This lecture combines the theoretical background of schema based program synthesis with the hands-on study of a powerful, open-source program synthesis system (Auto-Bayes). Schema-based program synthesis is a popular approach toward program synthesis. The lecture will provide an introduction into this topic and discuss how this technology can be used to generate customized algorithms. The synthesis of advanced numerical algorithms requires the availability of a powerful symbolic (algebra) system. Its task is to symbolically solve equations, simplify expressions, or to symbolically calculate derivatives (among others) such that the synthesized algorithms become as efficient as possible. We will discuss the use and importance of the symbolic system for synthesis. Any synthesis system is a large and complex piece of code. In this lecture, we will study Autobayes in detail. AutoBayes has been developed at NASA Ames and has been made open source. It takes a compact statistical specification and generates a customized data analysis algorithm (in C/C++) from it. AutoBayes is written in SWI Prolog and many concepts from rewriting, logic, functional, and symbolic programming. We will discuss the system architecture, the schema libary and the extensive support infra-structure. Practical hands-on experiments and exercises will enable the student to get insight into a realistic program synthesis system and provides knowledge to use, modify, and extend Autobayes.

  6. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  7. Expanding Schema-Based Transfer Instruction to Help Third Graders Solve Real-Life Mathematical Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Finelli, Robin; Courey, Susan J.; Hamlett, Carol L.

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical problem solving is a transfer challenge requiring children to develop schemas for recognizing novel problems as belonging to familiar problem types for which they know solutions. Schema-based transfer instruction (SBTI) explicitly teaches transfer features that change problems in superficial ways to make them appear novel even though…

  8. Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falzon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

  9. Retrofitting the AutoBayes Program Synthesis System with Concrete Syntax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    AutoBayes is a fully automatic, schema-based program synthesis system for statistical data analysis applications. Its core component is a schema library. i.e., a collection of generic code templates with associated applicability constraints which are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis. Currently, AutoBayes is implemented in Prolog; the schemas thus use abstract syntax (i.e., Prolog terms) to formulate the templates. However, the conceptual distance between this abstract representation and the concrete syntax of the generated programs makes the schemas hard to create and maintain. In this paper we describe how AutoBayes is retrofitted with concrete syntax. We show how it is integrated into Prolog and describe how the seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with AutoBayes's remaining legacy meta-programming kernel based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually mitigate individual schemas without forcing a disruptive migration of the entire system to a different First experiences show that a smooth migration can be achieved. Moreover, it can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments.

  10. Digital filter synthesis computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, R. A.; Munoz, R. M.

    1968-01-01

    Digital filter synthesis computer program expresses any continuous function of a complex variable in approximate form as a computational algorithm or difference equation. Once the difference equation has been developed, digital filtering can be performed by the program on any input data list.

  11. General Aviation Synthesis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T.; Schairer, E.; Bowles, J.; Waters, M.

    1984-01-01

    Program performs preliminary design of fixed-wing aircraft. Emphasis placed on fixed wing aircraft with propulsion systems varying from single piston engine with fixed-pitch propeller through twin turbo-prop/turbofan systems used in business or transport aircraft. GASP written in FORTRAN IV.

  12. Schema-based learning of adaptable and flexible prey- catching in anurans II. Learning after lesioning.

    PubMed

    Corbacho, Fernando; Nishikawa, Kiisa C; Weerasuriya, Ananda; Liaw, Jim-Shih; Arbib, Michael A

    2005-12-01

    The previous companion paper describes the initial (seed) schema architecture that gives rise to the observed prey-catching behavior. In this second paper in the series we describe the fundamental adaptive processes required during learning after lesioning. Following bilateral transections of the hypoglossal nerve, anurans lunge toward mealworms with no accompanying tongue or jaw movement. Nevertheless anurans with permanent hypoglossal transections eventually learn to catch their prey by first learning to open their mouth again and then lunging their body further and increasing their head angle. In this paper we present a new learning framework, called schema-based learning (SBL). SBL emphasizes the importance of the current existent structure (schemas), that defines a functioning system, for the incremental and autonomous construction of ever more complex structure to achieve ever more complex levels of functioning. We may rephrase this statement into the language of Schema Theory (Arbib 1992, for a comprehensive review) as the learning of new schemas based on the stock of current schemas. SBL emphasizes a fundamental principle of organization called coherence maximization, that deals with the maximization of congruence between the results of an interaction (external or internal) and the expectations generated for that interaction. A central hypothesis consists of the existence of a hierarchy of predictive internal models (predictive schemas) all over the control center-brain-of the agent. Hence, we will include predictive models in the perceptual, sensorimotor, and motor components of the autonomous agent architecture. We will then show that predictive models are fundamental for structural learning. In particular we will show how a system can learn a new structural component (augment the overall network topology) after being lesioned in order to recover (or even improve) its original functionality. Learning after lesioning is a special case of structural

  13. Effectiveness of Schema-Based Instruction for Improving Seventh-Grade Students' Proportional Reasoning: A Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Rodriguez, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of schema-based instruction (SBI) on 7th-grade students' mathematical problem-solving performance. SBI is an instructional intervention that emphasizes the role of mathematical structure in word problems and also provides students with a heuristic to self-monitor and aid problem solving. Using a…

  14. DIFMAP: an interactive program for synthesis imaging.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, M. C.; Pearson, T. J.; Taylor, G. B.

    1994-05-01

    DIFMAP is a new interactive program for synthesis imaging. It includes data display, data editing, selfcalibration, imaging, and deconvolution. The program, written in ANSI C, runs on UNIX workstations.

  15. GASP- GENERAL AVIATION SYNTHESIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The General Aviation Synthesis Program, GASP, was developed to perform tasks generally associated with the preliminary phase of aircraft design. GASP gives the analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner during preliminary design efforts. During the development of GASP, emphasis was placed on small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying from a single piston engine with a fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/turbofan systems as employed in business or transport type aircraft. The program is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines of design, integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedures. GASP provides a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, and performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies. By utilizing GASP, the impact of various aircraft requirements and design factors may be studied in a systematic manner, with benefits being measured in terms of overall aircraft performance and economics. The GASP program consists of a control module and six "technology" submodules which perform the various independent studies required in the design of general aviation or small transport type aircraft. The six technology modules include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, weight and balance, mission analysis, and economics. The geometry module calculates the dimensions of the synthesized aircraft components based on such input parameters as number of passengers, aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweep angles, and thickness of wing and tail surfaces. The aerodynamics module calculates the various lift and drag coefficients of the synthesized aircraft based on inputs concerning configuration geometry, flight conditions, and type of high lift device. The propulsion module determines the engine size and performance for the synthesized aircraft

  16. A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products. Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

  17. A split-path schema-based RFID data storage model in supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

  18. Mathematical programming formulations for satellite synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Puneet; Reilly, Charles H.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of satellite synthesis can be described as optimally allotting locations and sometimes frequencies and polarizations, to communication satellites so that interference from unwanted satellite signals does not exceed a specified threshold. In this report, mathematical programming models and optimization methods are used to solve satellite synthesis problems. A nonlinear programming formulation which is solved using Zoutendijk's method and a gradient search method is described. Nine mixed integer programming models are considered. Results of computer runs with these nine models and five geographically compatible scenarios are presented and evaluated. A heuristic solution procedure is also used to solve two of the models studied. Heuristic solutions to three large synthesis problems are presented. The results of our analysis show that the heuristic performs very well, both in terms of solution quality and solution time, on the two models to which it was applied. It is concluded that the heuristic procedure is the best of the methods considered for solving satellite synthesis problems.

  19. Meeting the Needs of Students with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Mathematics Classrooms: The Role of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses schema-based instruction (SBI) as an alternative to traditional instruction for enhancing the mathematical problem solving performance of students with learning disabilities (LD). In the authors' most recent research and developmental efforts, they designed SBI to meet the needs of middle school students with LD in inclusive…

  20. The Development of an Interactive Videodisc Program on Protein Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazan, Charlene Corey

    An interactive videodisk (IVD) program was developed to reinforce learning of the biological concept of protein synthesis for high school students. The laser videodisc "The Living Textbook Life Science" was the source of frames, and the authoring system of G. Smith was used to create the disc. The interactive program was designed to make the…

  1. An implementation of the distributed programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for implementing a flexible software system that combines large, complex programs with small, user-supplied, problem-dependent programs and that distributes their execution between a mainframe and a minicomputer. The Programming Structural Synthesis System (PROSSS) was the specific software system considered. The results of such distributed implementation are flexibility of the optimization procedure organization and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables.

  2. [Synthesis of 107 Workplace Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussert, Kathy M.

    A study examined information from 107 workplace literacy program descriptions from the United States and drew conclusions about joint partnerships, funding, and flexibility. Most of the program descriptions were found in an extensive search using the ERIC database. The programs described were from 1989 and 1990. Some of the findings were the…

  3. Stiffness coupling application to modal synthesis program, users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhar, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV computer program used to perform modal synthesis of structures by stiffness coupling, using the dynamic transformation method is described. The program was named SCAMP (Stiffness Coupling Approach Modal-Synthesis Program). The program begins with the entry of a substructure's physical mode shapes and eigenvalues or a substructure's mass and stiffness matrix. If the mass and stiffness matrices are entered, the eigen problem for the individual substructure is solved. Provisions are included for a maximum of 20 substructures which are coupled by stiffness matrix springs. Each substructure has a number degrees of freedom (DOF), except that for DOF greater than 100; vector sets having maximum row and column size of 100 were generated prior to entering SCAMP. The substructures are then coupled together via coupling springs, and the dynamic transformation is used to reduce the size of the eigen problem.

  4. Data synthesis and display programs for wave distribution function analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, L. R. O.; Yeh, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    At the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) software was written to synthesize and display artificial data for use in developing the methodology of wave distribution analysis. The software comprises two separate interactive programs, one for data synthesis and the other for data display.

  5. An implementation of the programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Bhat, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    A particular implementation of the programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS) is described. This software system combines a state of the art optimization program, a production level structural analysis program, and user supplied, problem dependent interface programs. These programs are combined using standard command language features existing in modern computer operating systems. PROSSS is explained in general with respect to this implementation along with the steps for the preparation of the programs and input data. Each component of the system is described in detail with annotated listings for clarification. The components include options, procedures, programs and subroutines, and data files as they pertain to this implementation. An example exercising each option in this implementation to allow the user to anticipate the type of results that might be expected is presented.

  6. Alternative mathematical programming formulations for FSS synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, C. H.; Mount-Campbell, C. A.; Gonsalvez, D. J. A.; Levis, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of mathematical programming models and two solution strategies are suggested for the problem of allocating orbital positions to (synthesizing) satellites in the Fixed Satellite Service. Mixed integer programming and almost linear programming formulations are presented in detail for each of two objectives: (1) positioning satellites as closely as possible to specified desired locations, and (2) minimizing the total length of the geostationary arc allocated to the satellites whose positions are to be determined. Computational results for mixed integer and almost linear programming models, with the objective of positioning satellites as closely as possible to their desired locations, are reported for three six-administration test problems and a thirteen-administration test problem.

  7. System for Structural Synthesis Combines Finite-Element Analysis and Optimization Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Programming System for Structural Synthesis, EAL/PROSSS, provides structural-synthesis capability by combining EAL and CONMIN computer programs with set of interface procedures. EAL is general-purpose finiteelement structural-analysis program; CONMIN is general-purpose optimization program. User supplies two smaller problem-dependent programs to define design variables, constraints, and objective function.

  8. Mathematics Word Problem Solving: An Investigation into Schema-Based Instruction in a Computer-Mediated Setting and a Teacher-Mediated Setting with Mathematically Low-Performing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leh, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that teacher-delivered schema-based instruction (SBI) facilitates significant increases in mathematics word problem solving (WPS) skills for diverse students; however research is unclear whether technology affordances facilitate superior gains in computer-mediated (CM) instruction in mathematics WPS when compared to…

  9. Programmed synthesis of 3D tissues

    PubMed Central

    Todhunter, Michael E; Jee, Noel Y; Hughes, Alex J; Coyle, Maxwell C; Cerchiari, Alec; Farlow, Justin; Garbe, James C; LaBarge, Mark A; Desai, Tejal A; Gartner, Zev J

    2015-01-01

    Reconstituting tissues from their cellular building blocks facilitates the modeling of morphogenesis, homeostasis, and disease in vitro. Here, we describe DNA Programmed Assembly of Cells (DPAC) to reconstitute the multicellular organization of tissues having programmed size, shape, composition, and spatial heterogeneity. DPAC uses dissociated cells that are chemically functionalized with degradable oligonucleotide “velcro,” allowing rapid, specific, and reversible cell adhesion to other surfaces coated with complementary DNA sequences. DNA-patterned substrates function as removable and adhesive templates, and layer-by-layer DNA-programmed assembly builds arrays of tissues into the third dimension above the template. DNase releases completed arrays of microtissues from the template concomitant with full embedding in a variety of extracellular matrix (ECM) gels. DPAC positions subpopulations of cells with single-cell spatial resolution and generates cultures several centimeters long. We used DPAC to explore the impact of ECM composition, heterotypic cell-cell interactions, and patterns of signaling heterogeneity on collective cell behaviors. PMID:26322836

  10. PASS: A computer program for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer code for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis provides rapid and accurate analysis for aircraft structures that can be adequately modeled by beam finite elements. The philosophy used in developing the program was to provide a basic framework that can be used for structural synthesis. It is anticipated that a user will need to add detail to this framework in order to perform his specific task. With this philosophy in mind, the program was written so that it is easily divided into segments, thereby making it readily adaptable. The theoretical portion of this manual describes the basic structure of the program and details the development of the unique beam element that is used. The present capability of the algorithm is stated and suggestions are made regarding enhancements to this capability. User information is also given that provides an overview of the program's construction, identifies the required inputs, describes the program output, provides some comments on the program use, and exhibits results for a simple example.

  11. Automatic reactor model synthesis with genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Dürrenmatt, David J; Gujer, Willi

    2012-01-01

    Successful modeling of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) processes requires an accurate description of the plant hydraulics. Common methods such as tracer experiments are difficult and costly and thus have limited applicability in practice; engineers are often forced to rely on their experience only. An implementation of grammar-based genetic programming with an encoding to represent hydraulic reactor models as program trees should fill this gap: The encoding enables the algorithm to construct arbitrary reactor models compatible with common software used for WWTP modeling by linking building blocks, such as continuous stirred-tank reactors. Discharge measurements and influent and effluent concentrations are the only required inputs. As shown in a synthetic example, the technique can be used to identify a set of reactor models that perform equally well. Instead of being guided by experience, the most suitable model can now be chosen by the engineer from the set. In a second example, temperature measurements at the influent and effluent of a primary clarifier are used to generate a reactor model. A virtual tracer experiment performed on the reactor model has good agreement with a tracer experiment performed on-site. PMID:22277238

  12. Users manual for the Variable dimension Automatic Synthesis Program (VASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. S.; Lee, H. Q.

    1971-01-01

    A dictionary and some problems for the Variable Automatic Synthesis Program VASP are submitted. The dictionary contains a description of each subroutine and instructions on its use. The example problems give the user a better perspective on the use of VASP for solving problems in modern control theory. These example problems include dynamic response, optimal control gain, solution of the sampled data matrix Ricatti equation, matrix decomposition, and pseudo inverse of a matrix. Listings of all subroutines are also included. The VASP program has been adapted to run in the conversational mode on the Ames 360/67 computer.

  13. The Effects of Schema-Based Instruction on the Proportional Thinking of Students With Mathematics Difficulties With and Without Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Jitendra, Asha K; Dupuis, Danielle N; Star, Jon R; Rodriguez, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the effect of schema-based instruction (SBI) on the proportional problem-solving performance of students with mathematics difficulties only (MD) and students with mathematics and reading difficulties (MDRD). Specifically, we examined the responsiveness of 260 seventh grade students identified as MD or MDRD to a 6-week treatment (SBI) on measures of proportional problem solving. Results indicated that students in the SBI condition significantly outperformed students in the control condition on a measure of proportional problem solving administered at posttest (g = 0.40) and again 6 weeks later (g = 0.42). The interaction between treatment group and students' difficulty status was not significant, which indicates that SBI was equally effective for both students with MD and those with MDRD. Further analyses revealed that SBI was particularly effective at improving students' performance on items related to percents. Finally, students with MD significantly outperformed students with MDRD on all measures of proportional problem solving. These findings suggest that interventions designed to include effective instructional features (e.g., SBI) promote student understanding of mathematical ideas. PMID:25312518

  14. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program has a two-fold purpose. It can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general-purpose branched trajectory optimization program. In the former use, it has the Space Shuttle Synthesis Program as well as a simplified stage weight module for optimally sizing manned recoverable launch vehicles. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent; the second employs the method of quasilinearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

  15. Requirements engineering and program synthesis: Mutually exclusive or synergistic?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    There has often been a clash within the formal methods community between early life-cycle proponents such as the requirements engineering community and late life-cycle proponents such as the program synthesis community. This talk will first characterize these positions and their underlying assumptions, and then expose a common set of problems and approaches. The talk will then propose an integrated life-cycle framework, and expound on its potential benefits. Technical challenges to achieving this integrated life-cycle framework will be described, as well as some preliminary work towards that goal.

  16. AutoBayes Program Synthesis System Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Jafari, Hamed; Pressburger, Tom; Denney, Ewen; Buntine, Wray; Fischer, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Program synthesis is the systematic, automatic construction of efficient executable code from high-level declarative specifications. AutoBayes is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the statistical data analysis domain; in particular, it solves parameter estimation problems. It has seen many successful applications at NASA and is currently being used, for example, to analyze simulation results for Orion. The input to AutoBayes is a concise description of a data analysis problem composed of a parameterized statistical model and a goal that is a probability term involving parameters and input data. The output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code computing the values for those parameters that maximize the probability term. AutoBayes can solve many subproblems symbolically rather than having to rely on numeric approximation algorithms, thus yielding effective, efficient, and compact code. Statistical analysis is faster and more reliable, because effort can be focused on model development and validation rather than manual development of solution algorithms and code.

  17. Development of a weight/sizing design synthesis computer program. Volume 1: Program formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a weight/sizing design synthesis methodology for use in support of the main line space shuttle program is discussed. The methodology has a minimum number of data inputs and quick turn around capabilities. The methodology makes it possible to: (1) make weight comparisons between current shuttle configurations and proposed changes, (2) determine the effects of various subsystems trades on total systems weight, and (3) determine the effects of weight on performance and performance on weight.

  18. Schema-Based Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensar, Ferhat

    2015-01-01

    Schema is one of the most common terms used for classifying and constructing knowledge. Therefore, a schema is a pre-planned set of concepts. It usually contains social information and is used to represent chain of events, perceptions, situations, relationships and even objects. For example, Kant initially defines the idea of schema as some…

  19. The AutoBayes Program Synthesis System: System Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Pressburger, Thomas; Rosu, Grigore; Schumann, Johann; Norvog, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    AUTOBAYES is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the statistical data analysis domain. Its input is a concise description of a data analysis problem in the form of a statistical model; its output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code which can be linked dynamically into the Matlab and Octave environments. AUTOBAYES synthesizes code by a schema-guided deductive process. Schemas (i.e., code templates with associated semantic constraints) are applied to the original problem and recursively to emerging subproblems. AUTOBAYES complements this approach by symbolic computation to derive closed-form solutions whenever possible. In this paper, we concentrate on the interaction between the symbolic computations and the deductive synthesis process. A statistical model specifies for each problem variable (i.e., data or parameter) its properties and dependencies in the form of a probability distribution, A typical data analysis task is to estimate the best possible parameter values from the given observations or measurements. The following example models normal-distributed data but takes prior information (e.g., from previous experiments) on the data's mean value and variance into account.

  20. ACCESS computer program for the synthesis of large structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleury, C.; Ramanathan, R. K.; Salama, M.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The structural-synthesis computer code ACCESS-3, originally limited to the optimization of relatively simple problems involving truss, membrane, and shear panel elements, has been restructured to make it applicable to structures with a larger number of degrees-of-freedom, design variables, and constraints. The modifications made allow the use of six degrees-of-freedom per node and permit the out-of-core solution of large matrix equations encountered at the analysis stage. Also, finite elements which permit pure bending as well as combined bending and membrane (axial) behavior have been added to satisfy the need for a more comprehensive set of elements. Like its predecessor, the new version of the program combines the approximation concepts with primal or dual formulations to provide an efficient optimization tool.

  1. IMAGES: A digital computer program for interactive modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive digital computer program for modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis was written. Both mathematical and operation considerations are described; however, the mathematical presentation is limited to those concepts essential to the operational capability of the program. The program is capable of both modal and spectral synthesis of multi-input control systems. It is user friendly, has scratchpad capability and dynamic memory, and can be used to design either state or output feedback systems.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of hexaarylbenzenes with five or six different substituents enabled by programmed synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shin; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Junichiro

    2015-03-01

    Since its discovery in 1825, benzene has served as one of the most used and indispensable building blocks of chemical compounds, ranging from pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals to plastics and those used in organic electronic devices. Benzene has six hydrogen atoms that can each be replaced by different substituents, which means that the structural diversity of benzene derivatives is intrinsically extraordinary. The number of possible substituted benzenes from n different substituents is (2n + 2n2 + 4n3 + 3n4 + n6)/12. However, owing to a lack of general synthetic methods for making multisubstituted benzenes, this potentially huge structural diversity has not been fully exploited. Here, we describe a programmed synthesis of hexaarylbenzenes using C-H activation, cross-coupling and [4+2] cycloaddition reactions. The present method allows for the isolation and structure-property characterization of hexaarylbenzenes with distinctive aryl substituents at all positions for the first time. Moreover, the established protocol can be applied to the synthesis of tetraarylnaphthalenes and pentaarylpyridines.

  3. ACCESS 1: Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis program documentation and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The program documentation and user's guide for the ACCESS-1 computer program is presented. ACCESS-1 is a research oriented program which implements a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and general mathematical programming algorithms are applied in the design optimization procedure. Implementation of the computer program, preparation of input data and basic program structure are described, and three illustrative examples are given.

  4. Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George E.

    An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

  5. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 1: Main program. Part 1: Theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    The General Aviation synthesis program performs tasks generally associated with aircraft preliminary design and allows an analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner. GASP emphasizes small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying froma single piston engine with fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/ turbofan powered business or transport type aircraft. The program, which may be operated from a computer terminal in either the batch or interactive graphic mode, is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedure. The model is a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies, and assessing the impact of advanced technologies on aircraft performance and economics.

  6. Realization of texture synthesis algorithm based on mixed programming via COM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rizhao; Pu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Dan; Chen, Hong

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the respective characteristics of VS2005 and MATLAB and their performances and introduces several methods of mixed programming. Then, the paper discusses the advantages and great applications of texture synthesis from sample (TSFS) and Image Quilting algorithm which is a typical algorithm of TSFS. Further, the paper realizes the Image Quilting algorithm by using mixed programming between VS2005 and MATLAB2007a via COM. We can perceive that mixed programming via COM that is used in developing texture synthesis program can not only speeds up its efficiency and reliability, but also strengthen the convenience of operation and visualization. Finally, the paper summarizes the relationship between texture synthesis parameters and synthesis effects from the experiment.

  7. Realization of texture synthesis algorithm based on mixed programming via COM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Rizhao; Pu, Yuanyuan; Xu, Dan; Chen, Hong

    2011-12-01

    This paper analyzes the respective characteristics of VS2005 and MATLAB and their performances and introduces several methods of mixed programming. Then, the paper discusses the advantages and great applications of texture synthesis from sample (TSFS) and Image Quilting algorithm which is a typical algorithm of TSFS. Further, the paper realizes the Image Quilting algorithm by using mixed programming between VS2005 and MATLAB2007a via COM. We can perceive that mixed programming via COM that is used in developing texture synthesis program can not only speeds up its efficiency and reliability, but also strengthen the convenience of operation and visualization. Finally, the paper summarizes the relationship between texture synthesis parameters and synthesis effects from the experiment.

  8. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The QL module of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is described. Execution of this module is initiated when and if subroutine PADSI calls subroutine GROPE. Subroutine GROPE controls the high level logical flow of the QL module. The purpose of the module is to determine a trajectory that satisfies the necessary variational conditions for optimal performance. The module achieves this by solving a nonlinear multi-point boundary value problem. The numerical method employed is described. It is an iterative technique that converges quadratically when it does converge. The three basic steps of the module are: (1) initialization, (2) iteration, and (3) culmination. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

  9. Applying Aspect-Oriented Programming to Intelligent Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    I discuss a component-centered, aspect-oriented system, the Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), NASA's initiative on Intelligent Synthesis Environments (ISE), and the application of OIF to the architecture of ISE.

  10. Creative Synthesis and TPACK: Supporting Teachers through a Technology and Inquiry-Rich Graduate Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfra, Meghan McGlinn; Spires, Hiller A.

    2013-01-01

    This study offers a new way to assess TPACK within the context of a graduate program revitalized to focus on new literacies. Whereas previous studies have focused on teacher lesson planning or modeling best practices, our research examines TPACK by exploring the Creative Synthesis Projects of graduates from our program. These projects reveal the…

  11. Development of weight/sizing design synthesis computer program. Volume 3: User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The user manual for the weight/sizing design synthesis program is presented. The program is applied to an analysis of the basic weight relationships for the space shuttle which contribute significant portions of the inert weight. The relationships measure the parameters of load, geometry, material, and environment. A verbal description of the processes simulated, data input procedures, output data, and values present in the program is included.

  12. Music 4C, a multi-voiced synthesis program with instruments defined in C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, James W.

    2003-04-01

    Music 4C is a program which runs under Unix (including Linux) and provides a means for the synthesis of arbitrary signals as defined by the C code. The program is actually a loose translation of an earlier program, Music 4BF [H. S. Howe, Jr., Electronic Music Synthesis (Norton, 1975)]. A set of instrument definitions are driven by a numerical score which consists of a series of ``events.'' Each event gives an instrument name, start time and duration, and a number of parameters (e.g., pitch) which describe the event. Each instrument definition consists of event parameters, performance variables, initializations, and a synthesis algorithmic code. Thus, the synthetic signal, no matter how complex, is precisely defined. Moreover, the resulting sounds can be overlaid in any arbitrary pattern. The program serves as a mixer of algorithmically produced sounds or recorded sounds taken from sample files or synthesized from spectrum files. A score file can be entered by hand, generated from a program, translated from a MIDI file, or generated from an alpha-numeric score using an auxiliary program, Notepro. Output sample files are in wav, snd, or aiff format. The program is provided in the C source code for download.

  13. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 1: Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program formulation for PADS computer program is presented. It can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general-purpose branched trajectory optimization program. In the former use, it has the Space Shuttle Synthesis Program as well as a simplified stage weight module for optimally sizing manned recoverable launch vehicles. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent; the second employs the method of quasilinearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module.

  14. Computer program for network synthesis by frequency response fit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program synthesizes a passive network by minimizing the difference in desired and actual frequency response. The program solves for the critical points of the error function /weighted least squares fit between calculated and desired frequency response/ by the multivariable Newton-Raphson method with components constrained to an admissible region.

  15. Conjunctive programming: An interactive approach to software system synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    This report introduces a technique of software documentation called conjunctive programming and discusses its role in the development and maintenance of software systems. The report also describes the conjoin tool, an adjunct to assist practitioners. Aimed at supporting software reuse while conforming with conventional development practices, conjunctive programming is defined as the extraction, integration, and embellishment of pertinent information obtained directly from an existing database of software artifacts, such as specifications, source code, configuration data, link-edit scripts, utility files, and other relevant information, into a product that achieves desired levels of detail, content, and production quality. Conjunctive programs typically include automatically generated tables of contents, indexes, cross references, bibliographic citations, tables, and figures (including graphics and illustrations). This report presents an example of conjunctive programming by documenting the use and implementation of the conjoin program.

  16. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 7: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The economic analysis includes: manufacturing costs; labor costs; parts costs; operating costs; markups and consumer price. A user's manual for a computer program to calculate the final consumer price is included.

  17. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 3: User manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The two-fold purpose of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is discussed. The program can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general purpose branched trajectory optimization program. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent. The second module uses the method of quasi-linearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module.

  18. ADS: A FORTRAN program for automated design synthesis: Version 1.10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1985-01-01

    A new general-purpose optimization program for engineering design is described. ADS (Automated Design Synthesis - Version 1.10) is a FORTRAN program for solution of nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The program is segmented into three levels: strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search. At each level, several options are available so that a total of over 100 possible combinations can be created. Examples of available strategies are sequential unconstrained minimization, the Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method, and Sequential Linear Programming. Available optimizers include variable metric methods and the Method of Feasible Directions as examples, and one-dimensional search options include polynomial interpolation and the Golden Section method as examples. Emphasis is placed on ease of use of the program. All information is transferred via a single parameter list. Default values are provided for all internal program parameters such as convergence criteria, and the user is given a simple means to over-ride these, if desired.

  19. Benefits of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programs: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David L.; Dyer, James E.

    1997-01-01

    A review of literature from 1964 to 1993 identified the benefits of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs, including agriculture knowledge and positive work attitudes. Classroom, SAE, and Future Farmers of America complemented each other. The research base is state specific and fragmented and lacks cohesiveness. (SK)

  20. Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to improving elementary mathematics: mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and instructional process programs. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of at least 12 weeks, and…

  1. Educational Priorities for Language Arts Programs: A Comparative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swander, Alice Jane

    To determine the priorities that linguists and educators stress as essential to the development of positive language arts programs, numerous works by selected linguists and educators were read. Letters were also sent to major publishing companies requesting complimentary copies of current elementary language arts textbook series for evaluation.…

  2. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 2: Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    The gross characteristics of an aircraft under study are specified to the subroutines SIZE. The principal quantities specified are both geometric (lengths and areas) and operational (altitude and Mach number). The sequence of computations carried out by SIZE is controlled by the parameter NPC which is passed into SIZE by COMMON. When NPC-0, the computation is initialized. Subsequently, NPC is set to 2 and the program advances through the geometric computations. Geometry models for the fuselage, wing, empennage, cabin pressurization, and nacelle area are examined.

  3. Analysis of Air Traffic Track Data with the AutoBayes Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann Martin Philip; Cate, Karen; Lee, Alan G.

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS) is aiming to provide substantial computer support for the air traffic controllers. Algorithms for the accurate prediction of aircraft movements are of central importance for such software systems but trajectory prediction has to work reliably in the presence of unknown parameters and uncertainties. We are using the AutoBayes program synthesis system to generate customized data analysis algorithms that process large sets of aircraft radar track data in order to estimate parameters and uncertainties. In this paper, we present, how the tasks of finding structure in track data, estimation of important parameters in climb trajectories, and the detection of continuous descent approaches can be accomplished with compact task-specific AutoBayes specifications. We present an overview of the AutoBayes architecture and describe, how its schema-based approach generates customized analysis algorithms, documented C/C++ code, and detailed mathematical derivations. Results of experiments with actual air traffic control data are discussed.

  4. Development of a weight/sizing design synthesis computer program. Volume 2: Program Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The program for the computerized analysis of weight estimation relationships for those elements of the space shuttle vehicle which contribute a significant portion of the inert weight is discussed. A listing of each module and subroutine of the program is presented. Included are a generalized flow chart describing the subroutine linkage of the complete program and detailed flow charts for each subprogram.

  5. A new implementation of the programming system for structural synthesis (PROSSS-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This new implementation of the PROgramming System for Structural Synthesis (PROSSS-2) combines a general-purpose finite element computer program for structural analysis, a state-of-the-art optimization program, and several user-supplied, problem-dependent computer programs. The results are flexibility of the optimization procedure, organization, and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables. The analysis-optimization process results in a minimized objective function, typically the mass. The analysis and optimization programs are executed repeatedly by looping through the system until the process is stopped by a user-defined termination criterion. However, some of the analysis, such as model definition, need only be one time and the results are saved for future use. The user must write some small, simple FORTRAN programs to interface between the analysis and optimization programs. One of these programs, the front processor, converts the design variables output from the optimizer into the suitable format for input into the analyzer. Another, the end processor, retrieves the behavior variables and, optionally, their gradients from the analysis program and evaluates the objective function and constraints and optionally their gradients. These quantities are output in a format suitable for input into the optimizer. These user-supplied programs are problem-dependent because they depend primarily upon which finite elements are being used in the model. PROSSS-2 differs from the original PROSSS in that the optimizer and front and end processors have been integrated into the finite element computer program. This was done to reduce the complexity and increase portability of the system, and to take advantage of the data handling features found in the finite element program.

  6. Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2003-01-01

    Program generation and transformation systems manipulate large, pa- rameterized object language fragments. Support for user-definable concrete syntax makes this easier but is typically restricted to certain object and meta languages. We show how Prolog can be retrofitted with concrete syntax and describe how a seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with an existing legacy meta-programming system based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually migrate the schemas of the AUTOBAYES program synthesis system to concrete syntax. Fit experiences show that this can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and an improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments and improves the locality in the schemas.

  7. ADS: A FORTRAN program for automated design synthesis, version 1.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1984-01-01

    A new general-purpose optimization program for engineering design is described. ADS-1 (Automated Design Synthesis - Version 1) is a FORTRAN program for solution of nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The program is segmented into three levels, being strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search. At each level, several options are available so that a total of over 100 possible combinations can be created. Examples of available strategies are sequential unconstrained minimization, the Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method, and Sequential Linear Programming. Available optimizers include variable metric methods and the Method of Feasible Directions as examples and one-dimensional search options include polynomial interpolation and the Golden Section method as examples. Emphasis is placed on ease of use of the program. All information is transferred via a single parameter list. Default values are provided for all internal program parameters such as convergence criteria, and the user is given a simple means to over-ride these, if desired. The program is demonstrated with a simple structural design example.

  8. Evaluations of After-School Programs: A Meta-Evaluation of Methodologies and Narrative Synthesis of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Little, Catherine; Hamann, Mary Sue; Jurs, Stephen G.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a meta-analysis of methodologies used to evaluate after school programs and attempted a synthesis of evaluation findings. Results show that evaluation reports demonstrate moderate compliance with the Program Evaluation Standards of the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation but evidence did not allow for meta-analysis of…

  9. Integrated design and synthesis of smart material systems: an overview of the ARPA SPICES program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Jack H.

    1995-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) program is comprised of a consortium of industrial, academic and government labs to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products using active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. Each team member possesses a specialty in the area of smart structures which has been focused towards the development of several actively controlled smart material systems. Since smart structures involve the integration of multiple engineering disciplines, it is the objective of the consortium to establish cost effective design processes between this multiorganizational team for future incorporation of this new technology into each members respective product lines. To accomplish this task, the disciplines of materials, manufacturing, analytical modeling, actuation, sensing, signal processing, and control had to be synthesized into a unified approach between all ten consortium members. The process developed for intelligent structural systems can truly be classified as multiorganization/multidiciplined Integrated Product Development. This process is described in detail as it applies to the SPICES development articles and smart material fabrication in general.

  10. Synthesis of feedback control law for stabilization of chaotic system oscillations by means of analytic programming - Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Zelinka, Ivan; Davendra, Donald; Jasek, Roman

    2012-11-01

    This research deals with a synthesis of control law for selected discrete chaotic system - logistic equation by means of analytic programming. The novelty of the approach is that a tool for symbolic regression - analytic programming - is used for the purpose of stabilization of higher periodic orbits - oscillations between several values of chaotic system. The paper consists of the descriptions of analytic programming as well as used chaotic system and detailed proposal of cost function used in optimization process. For experimentation, Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) with analytic programming and Differential evolution (DE) as second algorithm for meta-evolution were used.

  11. Synthesis and processing of intelligent cost-effective structures: a final review of the ARPA SPICES program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Jack H.

    1996-05-01

    The Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures (SPICES) program is comprised of a consortium of industrial, academic and government labs working to develop cost effective material processing and synthesis technologies to enable new products using active vibration suppression and control devices to be brought to market. Since smart structures involve the integration of multiple engineering disciplines, it has been the objective of the consortium to establish cost effective design processes between this multi-organizational team for future incorporating of this new technology into each members respective product lines. Over the twenty-four month program many new improvements in sensors, actuators, modeling, manufacturing/integration and controls have been realized. The paper outlines the four phases of development in the program and the impact some of the key technologies will have on the smart structure development process in the future.

  12. Object detection via feature synthesis using MDL-based genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingqiang; Bhanu, Bir

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we use genetic programming (GP) to synthesize composite operators and composite features from combinations of primitive operations and primitive features for object detection. The motivation for using GP is to overcome the human experts' limitations of focusing only on conventional combinations of primitive image processing operations in the feature synthesis. GP attempts many unconventional combinations that in some cases yield exceptionally good results. To improve the efficiency of GP and prevent its well-known code bloat problem without imposing severe restriction on the GP search, we design a new fitness function based on minimum description length principle to incorporate both the pixel labeling error and the size of a composite operator into the fitness evaluation process. To further improve the efficiency of GP, smart crossover, smart mutation and a public library ideas are incorporated to identify and keep the effective components of composite operators. Our experiments, which are performed on selected training regions of a training image to reduce the training time, show that compared to normal GP, our GP algorithm finds effective composite operators more quickly and the learned composite operators can be applied to the whole training image and other similar testing images. Also, compared to a traditional region-of-interest extraction algorithm, the composite operators learned by GP are more effective and efficient for object detection. PMID:15971921

  13. Model-integrated program synthesis environment for parallel/real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michael S.; Sztipanovitz, Janos; Karsai, Gabor; Nichols, James A.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, it is shown that, through the use of model- integrated program synthesis (MIPS), parallel real-time implementations of image processing data flows can be synthesized from high level graphical specifications. The complex details in inherent to parallel and real-time software development become transparent to the programmer, enabling the cost-effective exploitation of parallel hardware for building more flexible and powerful real-time imaging systems. The model integrated real-time image processing system (MIRTIS) is presented as an example. MIRTIS employs the multigraph architecture (MGA), a framework and set of tools for building MIPS systems, to generate parallel real-time image processing software which runs under the control of a parallel run-time kernel on a network of Texas Instruments TMS320C40 DSPs (C40s). The MIRTIS models contain graphical declarations of the image processing computations to be performed, the available hardware resources, and the timing constraints of the application. The MIRTIS model interpreter performs the parallelization, scaling, and mapping of the computations to the resources automatically or determines that the timing constraints cannot be met with the available resources. MIRTIS is a clear example of how parallel real-time image processing systems can be built which are (1) cost-effectively programmable, (2) flexible, (3) scalable, and (4) built from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components.

  14. Indirect synthesis of multi-degree of freedom transient systems. [linear programming for a kinematically linear system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, W. D.; Chen, Y. H.

    1974-01-01

    An indirect synthesis method is used in the efficient optimal design of multi-degree of freedom, multi-design element, nonlinear, transient systems. A limiting performance analysis which requires linear programming for a kinematically linear system is presented. The system is selected using system identification methods such that the designed system responds as closely as possible to the limiting performance. The efficiency is a result of the method avoiding the repetitive systems analyses accompanying other numerical optimization methods.

  15. North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision

    SciTech Connect

    Huntzinger, Deborah; Post, Wilfred M; Michalak, Anna; West, Tristram O.; Jacobson, Andrew; Baker, Ian; Chen, Jing M.; Davis, Kenneth; Hayes, Daniel J; Hoffman, Forrest M; Jain, Atul; Liu, Shuguang; Mcguire, David; Neilson, Ronald; Poulter, Ben; Tian, Hanqin; Thornton, Peter E; Tomelleri, Enrico; Viovy, Nicolas; Xiao, Jingfeng; Cook, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Oxide Feedstock Powders for the Fuel Cycle R&D Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voit, Stewart L; Vedder, Raymond James; Johnson, Jared A

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear fuel feedstock properties, such as physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics, have a significant impact on the fuel fabrication process and, by extension, the in-reactor fuel performance. This has been demonstrated through studies with UO{sub 2} spanning greater than 50 years. The Fuel Cycle R&D Program with The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy has initiated an effort to develop a better understanding of the relationships between oxide feedstock, fresh fuel properties, and in-reactor fuel performance for advanced mixed oxide compositions. Powder conditioning studies to enable the use of less than ideal powders for ceramic fuel pellet processing are ongoing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and an understanding of methods to increase the green density and homogeneity of pressed pellets has been gained for certain powders. Furthermore, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing methods for the co-conversion of mixed oxides along with techniques to analyze the degree of mixing. Experience with the fabrication of fuel pellets using co-synthesized multi-constituent materials is limited. In instances where atomically mixed solid solutions of two or more species are needed, traditional ceramic processing methods have been employed. Solution-based processes may be considered viable synthesis options, including co-precipitation (AUPuC), direct precipitation, direct-conversion (Modified Direct Denitration or MDD) and internal/external gelation (sol-gel). Each of these techniques has various advantages and disadvantages. The Fiscal Year 2010 feedstock development work at ORNL focused on the synthesis and characterization of one batch of UO{sub x} and one batch of U{sub 80}Ce{sub 20}O{sub x}. Oxide material synthesized at ORNL is being shipped to LANL for fuel fabrication process development studies. The feedstock preparation was performed using the MDD process which utilizes a rotary kiln to continuously thermally denitrate double

  17. Integration of a code for aeroelastic design of conventional and composite wings into ACSYNT, an aircraft synthesis program. [wing aeroelastic design (WADES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of program estimates of wing weight, material distribution. structural loads and elastic deformations with actual Northrop F-5A/B data is presented. Correlation coefficients obtained using data from a number of existing aircraft were computed for use in vehicle synthesis to estimate wing weights. The modifications necessary to adapt the WADES code for use in the ACSYNT program are described. Basic program flow and overlay structure is outlined. An example of the convergence of the procedure in estimating wing weights during the synthesis of a vehicle to satisfy F-5 mission requirements is given. A description of inputs required for use of the WADES program is included.

  18. Bourbaki's structure theory in the problem of complex systems simulation models synthesis and model-oriented programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Yu. I.

    2015-01-01

    The work is devoted to the application of Bourbaki's structure theory to substantiate the synthesis of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems, where every component may be a complex system itself. An application of the Bourbaki's structure theory offers a new approach to the design and computer implementation of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems—model synthesis and model-oriented programming. It differs from the traditional object-oriented approach. The central concept of this new approach and at the same time, the basic building block for the construction of more complex structures is the concept of models-components. A model-component endowed with a more complicated structure than, for example, the object in the object-oriented analysis. This structure provides to the model-component an independent behavior-the ability of standard responds to standard requests of its internal and external environment. At the same time, the computer implementation of model-component's behavior is invariant under the integration of models-components into complexes. This fact allows one firstly to construct fractal models of any complexity, and secondly to implement a computational process of such constructions uniformly-by a single universal program. In addition, the proposed paradigm allows one to exclude imperative programming and to generate computer code with a high degree of parallelism.

  19. An expert system for choosing the best combination of options in a general-purpose program for automated design synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.; Barthelemy, J. F. M.

    1985-01-01

    An expert system was developed to aid a user of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general-purpose optimization computer program in selecting the best combination of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options for solving a problem. There are approximately 100 such combinations available in ADS. The knowledge base contains over 200 rules, and is divided into three categories: constrained problems, unconstrained problems, and constrained problems treated as unconstrained problems. The inference engine is written in LISP and is available on DEC-VAX and IBM PC/XT computers.

  20. Integrated programs for women with substance use issues and their children: a qualitative meta-synthesis of processes and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a need for services that effectively and comprehensively address the complex needs of women with substance use issues and their children. A growing body of literature supports the relevance of integrated treatment programs that offer a wide range of services in centralized settings. Quantitative studies suggest that these programs are associated with positive outcomes. A qualitative meta-synthesis was conducted to provide insight into the processes that contribute to recovery in integrated programs and women's perceptions of benefits for themselves and their children. Methods A comprehensive search of published and unpublished literature to August 2009 was carried out for narrative reports of women's experiences and perceptions of integrated treatment programs. Eligibility for inclusion in the meta-synthesis was determined using defined criteria. Quality assessment was then conducted. Qualitative data and interpretations were extracted from studies of adequate quality, and were synthesized using a systematic and iterative process to create themes and overarching concepts. Results A total of 15 documents were included in the meta-synthesis. Women experienced a number of psychosocial processes during treatment that played a role in their recovery and contributed to favourable outcomes. These included: development of a sense of self; development of personal agency; giving and receiving of social support; engagement with program staff; self-disclosure of challenges, feelings, and past experiences; recognizing patterns of destructive behaviour; and goal setting. A final process, the motivating presence of children, sustained women in their recovery journeys. Perceived outcomes included benefits for maternal and child well-being, and enhanced parenting capacity. Conclusion A number of distinct but interconnected processes emerged as being important to women's addiction recovery. Women experienced individual growth and transformative learning that led

  1. Effective Programs for Elementary Science: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Which science programs have been proven to help elementary students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the science achievement of students in grades K-6: (1) Inquiry-oriented programs without science kits, such as Increasing Conceptual Challenge, Science IDEAS, and Collaborative…

  2. Automated synthesis of both the topology and numerical parameters for seven patented optical lens systems using genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lee W.; Al-Sakran, Sameer H.; Koza, John R.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes how genetic programming was used as an automated invention machine to synthesize both the topology and numerical parameters for seven previously patented optical lens systems, including one aspherical system and one issued in the 21st-century. Two of the evolved optical lens systems infringe the claims of the patents and the others are novel solutions that satisfy the design goals stated in the patent. The automatic synthesis was done "from scratch"--that is, without starting from a pre-existing good design and without pre-specifying the number of lenses, the topological layout of the lenses, or the numerical parameters of the lenses. Genetic programming is a form of evolutionary computation used to automatically solve problems. It starts from a high-level statement of what needs to be done and progressively breeds a population of candidate individuals over many generations using the principle of Darwinian natural selection and genetic recombination. The paper describes how genetic programming created eyepieces that duplicated the functionality of seven previously patented lens systems. The seven designs were created in a substantially similar and routine way, suggesting that the use of genetic programming in the automated design of both the topology and numerical parameters for optical lens systems may have widespread utility.

  3. Enantioselective synthesis of an ophiobolin sesterterpene via a programmed radical cascade.

    PubMed

    Brill, Zachary G; Grover, Huck K; Maimone, Thomas J

    2016-05-27

    Cyclase enzymes weave simple polyprenyl chains into the elaborate polycyclic ring systems of terpenes, a sequence that is often difficult to emulate under abiotic conditions. Here we report a disparate synthetic approach to complex terpenes whereby simple prenyl-derived chains are cyclized using radical, rather than cationic, reaction pathways. This strategy allowed us to efficiently forge the intricate 5-8-5 fused ring systems found in numerous complex natural product classes and also enabled a nine-step total synthesis of (-)-6-epi-ophiobolin N, a member of the large family of cytotoxic ophiobolin sesterterpenes. A small-molecule thiol catalyst was found to override the inherent diastereoselectivity observed during a reductive radical cascade cyclization process. This work lays the foundation for efficient synthesis of terpenoid ring systems of interest in medicinal research, particularly those that have been historically challenging to access. PMID:27230373

  4. F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. Computer Implementation of the F100 Multivariable Control Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    As turbofan engines become more complex, the development of controls necessitate the use of multivariable control techniques. A control developed for the F100-PW-100(3) turbofan engine by using linear quadratic regulator theory and other modern multivariable control synthesis techniques is described. The assembly language implementation of this control on an SEL 810B minicomputer is described. This implementation was then evaluated by using a real-time hybrid simulation of the engine. The control software was modified to run with a real engine. These modifications, in the form of sensor and actuator failure checks and control executive sequencing, are discussed. Finally recommendations for control software implementations are presented.

  5. An expert system for choosing the best combination of options in a general purpose program for automated design synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.; Barthelemy, J.-F. M.

    1986-01-01

    An expert system called EXADS has been developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. ADS has approximately 100 combinations of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from which to choose. It is difficult for a nonexpert to make this choice. This expert system aids the user in choosing the best combination of options based on the users knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge stored in the knowledge base. The knowledge base is divided into three categories; constrained problems, unconstrained problems, and constrained problems being treated as unconstrained problems. The inference engine and rules are written in LISP, contains about 200 rules, and executes on DEC-VAX (with Franz-LISP) and IBM PC (with IQ-LISP) computers.

  6. Effective Programs in Middle and High School Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. [Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    What mathematics programs have been proven to help middle and high school students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the mathematics achievement of students in grades 6-12: (1) Mathematics Curricula (MC), such as The "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project," "Connected…

  7. Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    What mathematics programs have been proven to help elementary students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the mathematics achievement of students in grades K-6: (1) Mathematics Curricula (MC), such as "Everyday Mathematics," "Saxon Math," and other standard and alternative…

  8. Effective Reading Programs for Middle and High Schools: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    What reading programs have been proven to help middle and high school students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on four types of programs designed to improve the reading achievement of students in grades 6-12: (1) Reading Curricula (Curr), such as "LANGUAGE!," "McDougal Littel," and other standard and alternative textbooks;…

  9. Preschool Programs: A Synthesis of Current Policy Issues. A Center Policy & Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Once again, early education has emerged as a major policy and program topic. And, while the importance of early education is undisputed, the increasing calls for "Universal Preschool" and full-day kindergartens have yielded considerable controversy. Our specific interest in public policy for preschool programs stems from our concerns about…

  10. Regulation of leptin synthesis and secretion before birth: implications for the early programming of adult obesity.

    PubMed

    McMillen, I C; Edwards, L J; Duffield, J; Muhlhausler, B S

    2006-03-01

    A series of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have shown that there are associations between the fetal and neonatal nutritional environment and the amount and distribution of adipose tissue in adult life. This review considers the evidence for these relationships and discusses the potential impact of the prenatal nutritional experience on the development of the endocrine and neuroendocrine systems that regulate energy balance, with a particular emphasis on the role of the adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin. In the rodent, leptin derived from the mother may exert an important influence on the development of the appetite regulatory neural network and on the subsequent regulation of leptin synthesis and the risk for obesity in the offspring. In species such as the human and sheep, there is also recent evidence that the synthesis and secretion of adipocyte-derived hormones, such as leptin, are regulated in fetal life. Furthermore, the hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate energy intake and expenditure in adult life are also present within the fetal brain and may be regulated by the prevailing level of maternal and hence fetal nutrient and hormonal signals, including leptin. This work is important in determining those initiating mechanisms within the 'fat-brain' axis in early life that precede the development of adult obesity. PMID:16514185

  11. Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    Program generation and transformation systems work on two language levels, the object-level (i e., the language of the manipulated programs), and the meta-level (i.e., the implementation language of the system itself). The meta-level representations of object-level program fragments are usually built in an essentially syntax-free fashion using the operations provided by the meta-language. However, syntax matters and a large conceptual distance between the two languages makes it difficult to maintain and extend such systems. Here we describe how an existing Prolog-based system can gradually be retrofitted with concrete object-level syntax, thus shrinking this distance.

  12. Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

  13. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project Part 1: Overview and experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Huntzinger, D.N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A.M; Schaefer, K.; King, A.W.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A.; Liu, S.; Cook, R.; Post, W.M.; Berthier, G.; Hayes, D.; Huang, M.; Ito, A.; Lei, H.; Lu, C.; Mao, J.; Peng, C.H.; Peng, S.; Poulter, B.; Riccuito, D.; Shi, X.; Tian, H.; Wang, W.; Zeng, N.; Zhao, F.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

  14. Developing a Model for Supervised Agricultural Experience Program Quality: A Synthesis of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, James E.; Osborne, Edward W.

    1996-01-01

    A literature review revealed the following: (1) there are no standard criteria to measure the quality of supervised agricultural experience (SAE) programs; (2) teacher attitudes and past SAE experiences strongly influence quality; (3) the number of teachers with SAE experience is declining; and (4) school laboratory facilities are essential for…

  15. Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Version 1.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to improving elementary mathematics: Mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and instructional process programs. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of 12 weeks, and achievement…

  16. Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. [Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Which elementary reading approaches have been proven to help struggling readers to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on six types of programs designed to improve the reading achievement of children having difficulty in learning to read: (1) One-to-One Tutoring by Teachers (TT) such as "Reading Recovery," "Auditory…

  17. AN INTEGRATED SYNTHESIS OF KEY AND POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview and initial insights into the findings based on results from EPA's PM Supersites Program and related studies. Many key atmospheric sciences findings have been identified through the research conducted during the last five years as part of t...

  18. Schema-Based Processing in Australian Speakers of Aboriginal English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifian, Farzad

    2001-01-01

    Explores features of Aboriginal English discourse that appear to be associated with some distinctive roles played by schemas in processing and formation of discourse by Aboriginal children. Examines the complexity of intercultural communication between Australian aborigines and the dominant class of white Australians. (Author/VWL)

  19. Proactive schema based link lifetime estimation and connectivity ratio.

    PubMed

    Bachir, Bouamoud; Ali, Ouacha; Ahmed, Habbani; Mohamed, Elkoutbi

    2014-01-01

    The radio link between a pair of wireless nodes is affected by a set of random factors such as transmission range, node mobility, and environment conditions. The properties of such radio links are continually experienced when nodes status balances between being reachable and being unreachable; thereby on completion of each experience the statistical distribution of link lifetime is updated. This aspect is emphasized in mobile ad hoc network especially when it is deployed in some fields that require intelligent processing of data information such as aerospace domain. PMID:24526882

  20. Motor Schema-Based Cellular Automaton Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Wenguo; Hasemi, Yuji; Fan, Weicheng

    A new cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics based on motor schema is presented. Each pedestrian is treated as an intelligent mobile robot, and motor schemas including move-to-goal, avoid-away and avoid-around drive pedestrians to interact with their environment. We investigate the phenomenon of many pedestrians with different move velocities escaping from a room. The results show that the pedestrian with high velocity have predominance in competitive evacuation, if we only consider repulsion from or avoiding around other pedestrians, and interaction with each other leads to disordered evacuation, i.e., decreased evacuation efficiency. Extensions of the model using learning algorithms for controlling pedestrians, i.e., reinforcement learning, neural network and genetic algorithms, etc. are noted.

  1. Recognition mechanisms for schema-based knowledge representations

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    The author considers generalizing formal recognition methods from parsing theory to schemata knowledge representations. Within artificial intelligence, recognition tasks include aspects of natural language understanding, computer vision, episode understanding, speech recognition, and others. The notion of schemata as a suitable knowledge representation for these tasks is discussed. A number of problems with current schemata-based recognition systems are presented. To gain insight into alternative approaches, the formal context-free parsing method of earley is examined. It is shown to suggest a useful control structure model for integrating top-down and bottom-up search in schemata representations. 46 references.

  2. An Interactive Concert Program Based on Infrared Watermark and Audio Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsi-Chun; Lee, Wen-Pin Hope; Liang, Feng-Ju

    The objective of this research is to propose a video/audio system which allows the user to listen the typical music notes in the concert program under infrared detection. The system synthesizes audio with different pitches and tempi in accordance with the encoded data in a 2-D barcode embedded in the infrared watermark. The digital halftoning technique has been used to fabricate the infrared watermark composed of halftone dots by both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). The results show that this interactive system successfully recognizes the barcode and synthesizes audio under infrared detection of a concert program which is also valid for human observation of the contents. This interactive video/audio system has greatly expanded the capability of the printout paper to audio display and also has many potential value-added applications.

  3. AutoBayes/CC: Combining Program Synthesis with Automatic Code Certification: System Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to formally demonstrate software quality. It concentrates on aspects of software quality that can be defined and formalized via properties, e.g., operator safety or memory safety. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies these quality properties. The proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently, by the code consumer or by certification authorities, e.g., the FAA. It is the idea underlying such approaches as proof-carrying code [6]. Code certification can be viewed as a more practical version of traditional Hoare-style program verification. The properties to be verified are fairly simple and regular so that it is often possible to use an automated theorem prover to automatically discharge all emerging proof obligations. Usually, however, the programmer must still splice auxiliary annotations (e.g., loop invariants) into the program to facilitate the proofs. For complex properties or larger programs this quickly becomes the limiting factor for the applicability of current certification approaches.

  4. Preliminary performance estimates of a highly maneuverable remotely piloted vehicle. [computerized synthesis program to assess effects of vehicle and mission parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Axelson, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A computerized synthesis program has been used to assess the effects of various vehicle and mission parameters on the performance of a highly maneuverable remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) for the air-to-air combat role. The configuration used in the study is a trapezoidal-wing and body concept, with forward-mounted stabilizing and control surfaces. The study mission consists of an outbound cruise, an acceleration phase, a series of subsonic and supersonic turns, and a return cruise. Performance is evaluated in terms of both the required vehicle weight to accomplish this mission and combat effectiveness as measured by turning and acceleration capability. The report describes the synthesis program, the mission, the vehicle, and the results of sensitivity and trade studies.

  5. Family caregivers' support needs after brain injury: a synthesis of perspectives from caregivers, programs, and researchers.

    PubMed

    Gan, Caron; Gargaro, Judith; Brandys, Clare; Gerber, Gary; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    There is a dearth of support for family members who assume caregiving responsibilities following acquired brain injury (ABI). This qualitative study broadens the understanding of ABI caregiver support needs through data triangulation from multiple interview sources across different settings. Thirty-nine caregivers across urban and rural settings in Ontario participated in focus groups. Interviews focused on ABI support services received, their utility, access barriers, needed supports, and suggestions for service delivery. Key informant interviews were also held with four US researchers funded through the TBI Model Systems, one Canadian provincial government health official, and representatives from 11 Ontario ABI programs including two brain injury associations. Interviews focused on existing or proposed caregiver programs and gaps in services. A coding framework was developed through content analysis, centring on five themes: coping, supports that worked, supports needed, barriers, and ideal world recommendations. Perspectives from those involved in receiving, providing and researching caregiver interventions following ABI were synthesized to provide a thorough, detailed depiction of the ongoing support needs of caregivers. This convergence of evidence underscores that caregiver support needs transcend geographical boundaries and must be comprehensive, accessible, long-term, and encompass education, emotional, and instrumental support. Recommendations for ABI caregiver support services are offered. PMID:20634597

  6. Consequences of Early Life Programing by Genetic and Environmental Influences: A Synthesis Regarding Pubertal Timing.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christian L; DiVall, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual maturation is closely tied to growth and body weight gain, suggesting that regulative metabolic pathways are shared between somatic and pubertal development. The pre- and postnatal environment affects both growth and pubertal development, indicating that common pathways are affected by the environment. Intrauterine and early infantile developmental phases are characterized by high plasticity and thereby susceptibility to factors that affect metabolic function as well as related reproductive function throughout life. In children born small for gestational age, poor nutritional conditions during gestation can modify metabolic systems to adapt to expectations of chronic undernutrition. These children are potentially poorly equipped to cope with energy-dense diets and are possibly programmed to store as much energy as possible, causing rapid weight gain with the risk for adult disease and premature onset of puberty. Environmental factors can cause modifications to the genome, so-called epigenetic changes, to affect gene expression and subsequently modify phenotypic expression of genomic information. Epigenetic modifications, which occur in children born small for gestational age, are thought to underlie part of the metabolic programming that subsequently effects both somatic and pubertal development. PMID:26680576

  7. Environmental studies data base: development and data synthesis activities of the US Subseabed Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L S; Hesssler, R R; Jackson, D W; Marietta, M G; Smith, Jr, K L; Yayanos, A A

    1980-01-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program is assessing the scientific feasibility of subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Studies of disposal methods and of the barriers to radionuclide migration (canister, waste form and sediment) suggest that environmental information will be needed to address the impact of accidental release of radionuclides in the deep sea. Biological, physical, and geochemical data are being collected from field and laboratory studies as well as from literature searches. These data are being analyzed using a multicompartmental radionuclide transport model and appropriate physical oceanographic models. The data integrated into this framework will help answer two questions: what are the environmental effects of radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea, and what are the effects of such a release upon man.

  8. Environmental studies data base development and data synthesis activities of the US Subseabed Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L S; Marietta, M G; Hessler, R R; Smith, Jr, K L; Yayanos, A A; Jackson, D W

    1981-05-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program is assessing the scientific feasibility of subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Studies of disposal methods and of the barriers to radionuclide migration (canister, waste form, and sediment) suggest that environmental information will be needed to address the impact of accidental release of radionuclides in the deep sea. Biological, physical, and geochemical data are being collected from field and laboratory studies as well as from literature searches. These data are being analyzed using a multicompartmental radionuclide transport model and appropriate physical oceanographic models. The data integrated into this framework will help answer two questions - what are the environmental effects of radionuclides that may be released in the deep sea, and what are the effects of such a release upon man.

  9. Synthesis of articles in Evaluation and Program Planning: 2010-2016.

    PubMed

    Schumacker, Randall; Hua, Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Published articles from the Evaluation and Program Planning journal were examined over a six year period from 2010 to 2016. We investigated the focus of the journal, evaluation type (formative vs summative), number of articles published, place of authorship, number of authors, research domain of articles, research topics, and data collection method used. Results indicated that (a) public health, evaluation, and adolescent/child research domains were most prevalent; (b) most authors were from North-America; (c) most articles had three or more authors; and (d) document review was most prevalent data collection method. We suggest that more articles with a multicultural background be published, and more articles be solicited from other countries to fulfull the international mission of the journal. PMID:27449754

  10. Algorithmization and programming of operator activities for parametric synthesis of speech using the CT-1 system controlled by the MERA 303 minicomputer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarkowski, A.

    1983-08-01

    The System of Programmed Synthesizer Service is proposed as a means of automating operator functions achieved during parametric speech synthesis with the help of the synthesizing computer system COMPUTALKER CT-1. The characteristics of the proposed system are described, with emphasis on the collaboration between the synthesizer and other internal devices within the computer system. The various functions of the system are shown in the form of block programs corresponding to the different functions. Complete evaluation of the system will be possible only after long-term synthetic speech experiments are concluded.

  11. Parametric integer linear programming: a synthesis of branch and bound with cutting planes

    SciTech Connect

    Rountree, S.L.K.; Gillett, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    A branch and bound algorithm is designed to solve the general integer linear programing problem with parametric right-hand sides. The right-hand sides have the form b + THETA d, where b and d are conformable vectors, d consists of nonegative constants, and THETA varies from zero to one. The method consists of first determining all possible right-hand side ineger constants and appending this set of integer constants to the initial tableau to form an expanded problem with a finite number of family members. The implicit enumeration method gives a lower bound on the integer solutions. The branch and bound method is used with fathoming tests that allow one family member possibly to fathom other family members. A cutting plane option applies a finite number of cuts to each node before branching. In addition, the cutting plane method is invoked whenever some members are feasible at a node and others are infeasible. The branching and cutting process is repeated until the entire family of problems has been solved. 3 tables.

  12. Thermodynamic study and methanothermal temperature-programmed reaction synthesis of molybdenum carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohi, Parham; Alizadeh, Reza; Fatehifar, Esmaeil

    2016-03-01

    Nanostructured molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) was successfully prepared from molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) using methanothermal temperature-programmed reaction. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that in presence of methane, the formation of Mo2C from MoO3 occurs through the path of MoO3 → MoO2 → Mo2C. The carburized MoO3 was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), CHNS/O analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). At final carburization temperatures of 700 and 800°C and at methane contents ranging from 5vol% to 20vol%, Mo2C was the only solid product observed in the XRD patterns. The results indicated that the effect of methane content on the formation of the carbide phase is substantial compared with the effect of carburization time. Elemental analysis showed that at a final temperature of 700°C, the carbon content of carburized MoO3 is very close to the theoretical carbon mass percentage in Mo2C. At higher carburization temperatures, excess carbon was deposited onto the surface of Mo2C. High-surface-area Mo2C was obtained at extremely low heating rates; this high-surface-area material is a potential electrocatalyst.

  13. Optimal bipedal interactions with dynamic terrain: synthesis and analysis via nonlinear programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubicki, Christian; Goldman, Daniel; Ames, Aaron

    In terrestrial locomotion, gait dynamics and motor control behaviors are tuned to interact efficiently and stably with the dynamics of the terrain (i.e. terradynamics). This controlled interaction must be particularly thoughtful in bipeds, as their reduced contact points render them highly susceptible to falls. While bipedalism under rigid terrain assumptions is well-studied, insights for two-legged locomotion on soft terrain, such as sand and dirt, are comparatively sparse. We seek an understanding of how biological bipeds stably and economically negotiate granular media, with an eye toward imbuing those abilities in bipedal robots. We present a trajectory optimization method for controlled systems subject to granular intrusion. By formulating a large-scale nonlinear program (NLP) with reduced-order resistive force theory (RFT) models and jamming cone dynamics, the optimized motions are informed and shaped by the dynamics of the terrain. Using a variant of direct collocation methods, we can express all optimization objectives and constraints in closed-form, resulting in rapid solving by standard NLP solvers, such as IPOPT. We employ this tool to analyze emergent features of bipedal locomotion in granular media, with an eye toward robotic implementation.

  14. Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community College Journal, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Includes a collection of eight short articles describing model community college programs. Discusses a literacy program, a mobile computer classroom, a support program for at-risk students, a timber-harvesting program, a multimedia presentation on successful women graduates, a career center, a collaboration with NASA, and an Israeli engineering…

  15. Summary of the 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report is a summary of the 2006 synthesis report prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  16. A Program of Research and Education to Advance the Design, Synthesis, and Optimization of Aero-Space System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandusky, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception in December 1999, the program has provided support for a total of 11 Graduate Research Scholar Assistants, of these, 6 have completed their MS degree program. The program has generated 3 MS theses and a total of 4 publications/presentations.

  17. Hardware-software-co-design of parallel and distributed systems using a behavioural programming and multi-process model with high-level synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    A new design methodology for parallel and distributed embedded systems is presented using the behavioural hardware compiler ConPro providing an imperative programming model based on concurrently communicating sequential processes (CSP) with an extensive set of interprocess-communication primitives and guarded atomic actions. The programming language and the compiler-based synthesis process enables the design of constrained power- and resourceaware embedded systems with pure Register-Transfer-Logic (RTL) efficiently mapped to FPGA and ASIC technologies. Concurrency is modelled explicitly on control- and datapath level. Additionally, concurrency on data-path level can be automatically explored and optimized by different schedulers. The CSP programming model can be synthesized to hardware (SoC) and software (C,ML) models and targets. A common source for both hardware and software implementation with identical functional behaviour is used. Processes and objects of the entire design can be distributed on different hardware and software platforms, for example, several FPGA components and software executed on several microprocessors, providing a parallel and distributed system. Intersystem-, interprocess-, and object communication is automatically implemented with serial links, not visible on programming level. The presented design methodology has the benefit of high modularity, freedom of choice of target technologies, and system architecture. Algorithms can be well matched to and distributed on different suitable execution platforms and implementation technologies, using a unique programming model, providing a balance of concurrency and resource complexity. An extended case study of a communication protocol used in high-density sensor-actuator networks should demonstrate and compare the design of a hardware and software target. The communication protocol is suited for high-density intra-and interchip networks.

  18. Educating Children with Special Needs in the State of Washington: A Synthesis of Recent Studies. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Roy M.

    The report synthesizes findings of seven studies on educational processes and outcomes of students with special needs in the State of Washington. Studies include a statewide assessment, statewide teacher survey, analysis of participation in categorical programs, evaluation of individual categorical programs, an investigation of an innovative…

  19. Counselors and Faculty: Synthesis of Service for Holistic Education. A Community College Action Program for Organizational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarry, Nancy S.

    This study constitutes a community college action program for organizational development in which a modified Delphi procedure was used to gain group consensus. The study has three foci: (1) devising and implementing an action program and process for use with the target population, counselors and academic faculty to create awareness of the need to…

  20. Are workplace health promotion programs effective at improving presenteeism in workers? a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Presenteeism is highly prevalent and costly to employers. It is defined as being present at work, but limited in some aspect of job performance by a health problem. Workplace health promotion (WHP) is a common strategy used to enhance on-the-job productivity. The primary objective is to determine if WHP programs are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objectives are to identify characteristics of successful programs and potential risk factors for presenteeism. Methods The Cochrane Library, Medline, and other electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2010. Reference lists were examined, key journals were hand-searched and experts were contacted. Included studies were original research that contained data on at least 20 participants (≥ 18 years of age), and examined the impacts of WHP programs implemented at the workplace. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to rate studies. 'Strong' and 'moderate' studies were abstracted into evidence tables, and a best evidence synthesis was performed. Interventions were deemed successful if they improved the outcome of interest. Their program components were identified, as were possible risk factors contributing to presenteeism. Results After 2,032 titles and abstracts were screened, 47 articles were reviewed, and 14 were accepted (4 strong and 10 moderate studies). These studies contained preliminary evidence for a positive effect of some WHP programs. Successful programs offered organizational leadership, health risk screening, individually tailored programs, and a supportive workplace culture. Potential risk factors contributing to presenteeism included being overweight, a poor diet, a lack of exercise, high stress, and poor relations with co-workers and management. Limitations: This review is limited to English publications. A large number of reviewed studies (70%) were inadmissible due to issues of bias, thus limiting the amount of primary

  1. 2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  2. 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  3. Synthesis: Intertwining product and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis is a proposed systematic process for rapidly creating different members of a program family. Family members are described by variations in their requirements. Requirements variations are mapped to variations on a standard design to generate production quality code and documentation. The approach is made feasible by using principles underlying design for change. Synthesis incorporates ideas from rapid prototyping, application generators, and domain analysis. The goals of Synthesis and the Synthesis process are discussed. The technology needed and the feasibility of the approach are also briefly discussed. The status of current efforts to implement Synthesis methodologies is presented.

  4. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 2: Environmental driver data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Liu, S.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Viovy, N.; Post, W. M.; Schwalm, C. R.; Schaefer, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Cook, R. B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model-model and model-observation comparisons. This paper describes the global and North American environmental driver data sets prepared for the MsTMIP activity to both support their use in MsTMIP and make these data, along with the processes used in selecting/processing these data, accessible to a broader audience. Based on project needs and lessons learned from past model intercomparison activities, we compiled climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover change (LULCC), C3 / C4 grasses fractions, major crops, phenology and soil data into a standard format for global (0.5° × 0.5° resolution) and regional (North American: 0.25° × 0.25° resolution) simulations. In order to meet the needs of MsTMIP, improvements were made to several of the original environmental data sets, by improving the quality, and/or changing their spatial and temporal coverage, and resolution. The resulting standardized model driver data sets are being used by over 20 different models participating in MsTMIP. The data are archived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC, http://daac.ornl.gov) to provide long-term data management and distribution.

  5. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 2: Environmental driver data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Liu, S.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Viovy, N.; Post, W. M.; Schwalm, C. R.; Schaefer, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Cook, R. B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.

    2013-11-01

    Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM model skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model-model and model-observation comparisons. This paper describes the global and North American environmental driver data sets prepared for the MsTMIP activity to both support their use in MsTMIP and make these data, along with the processes used in selecting/processing these data, accessible to a broader audience. Based on project needs, we compiled climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), C3/C4 grasses fractions, major crops, phenology, and soil data into a standard format for global (0.5° x 0.5° resolution) and regional (North American, 0.25° x 0.25° resolution) simulations. In order to meet the needs of MsTMIP, improvements were made to several of the original environmental data sets, by changing the quality, the spatial and temporal coverage, resolution, or a combination of these. The resulting standardized model driver data sets are being used by over 20 different models participating MsTMIP. The data are archived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC, http://daac.ornl.gov) to provide long-term data management and distribution.

  6. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 2: Environmental driver data

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yaxing; Liu, Shishi; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Michalak, Anna M.; Viovy, Nicolas; Post, Wilfred M.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Schaeffer, Kevin; Jacobson, Andrew R.; Lu, Chaoqun; Tian, Hanqin; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Cook, Robert B.; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying

    2014-12-05

    Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model model and model observation comparisons. In this article, we describe the global and North American environmental driver data sets prepared for the MsTMIP activity to both support their use in MsTMIP and make these data, along with the processes used in selecting/processing these data, accessible to a broader audience. Based on project needs and lessons learned from past model intercomparison activities, we compiled climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover change (LULCC), C3 / C4 grasses fractions, major crops, phenology and soil data into a standard format for global (0.5⁰ x 0.5⁰ resolution) and regional (North American: 0.25⁰ x 0.25⁰ resolution) simulations. In order to meet the needs of MsTMIP, improvements were made to several of the original environmental data sets, by improving the quality, and/or changing their spatial and temporal coverage, and resolution. The resulting standardized model driver data sets are being used by over 20 different models participating in MsTMIP. Lastly, the data are archived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC, http://daac.ornl.gov) to provide long-term data management and distribution.

  7. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project – Part 2: Environmental driver data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wei, Yaxing; Liu, Shishi; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Michalak, Anna M.; Viovy, Nicolas; Post, Wilfred M.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Schaeffer, Kevin; Jacobson, Andrew R.; Lu, Chaoqun; et al

    2014-12-05

    Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model model and model observation comparisons. Inmore » this article, we describe the global and North American environmental driver data sets prepared for the MsTMIP activity to both support their use in MsTMIP and make these data, along with the processes used in selecting/processing these data, accessible to a broader audience. Based on project needs and lessons learned from past model intercomparison activities, we compiled climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover change (LULCC), C3 / C4 grasses fractions, major crops, phenology and soil data into a standard format for global (0.5⁰ x 0.5⁰ resolution) and regional (North American: 0.25⁰ x 0.25⁰ resolution) simulations. In order to meet the needs of MsTMIP, improvements were made to several of the original environmental data sets, by improving the quality, and/or changing their spatial and temporal coverage, and resolution. The resulting standardized model driver data sets are being used by over 20 different models participating in MsTMIP. Lastly, the data are archived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC, http://daac.ornl.gov) to provide long-term data management and distribution.« less

  8. XND1, a member of the NAC domain family in Arabidopsis thaliana, negatively regulates lignocellulose synthesis and programmed cell death in xylem

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; U. Avci; E. Grant; C.H. Haigler; E.P. Beers

    2007-10-23

    Members of the large Arabidopsis NAC domain transcription factor family are regulators of meristem development, organ elongation and separation, and deposition of patterned secondary cell walls. XYLEM NAC DOMAIN 1 (XND1) is highly expressed in xylem. Changes observed for XND1 knockout plants compared with wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana included a reduction in both plant height and tracheary element length and an increase in metaxylem relative to protoxylem in roots of plants treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Overexpression of XND1 resulted in extreme dwarfism associated with the absence of xylem vessels and little or no expression of tracheary element marker genes. In contrast, phloem marker-gene expression was not altered and phloem-type cells still formed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that parenchyma-like cells in the incipient xylem zone in hypocotyls of XND1 overexpressors lacked secondary wall thickenings and retained their cytoplasmic content. Considered together, these findings suggest that XND1 affects tracheary element growth through regulation of secondary wall synthesis and programmed cell death.

  9. Land-use conversion and changing soil carbon stocks in China's 'Grain-for-Green' Program: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lei; Liu, Guo-Bin; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of either forest or grassland on degraded cropland has been proposed as an effective method for climate change mitigation because these land use types can increase soil carbon (C) stocks. This paper synthesized 135 recent publications (844 observations at 181 sites) focused on the conversion from cropland to grassland, shrubland or forest in China, better known as the 'Grain-for-Green' Program to determine which factors were driving changes to soil organic carbon (SOC). The results strongly indicate a positive impact of cropland conversion on soil C stocks. The temporal pattern for soil C stock changes in the 0-100 cm soil layer showed an initial decrease in soil C during the early stage (<5 years), and then an increase to net C gains (>5 years) coincident with vegetation restoration. The rates of soil C change were higher in the surface profile (0-20 cm) than in deeper soil (20-100 cm). Cropland converted to forest (arbor) had the additional benefit of a slower but more persistent C sequestration capacity than shrubland or grassland. Tree species played a significant role in determining the rate of change in soil C stocks (conifer < broadleaf, evergreen < deciduous forests). Restoration age was the main factor, not temperature and precipitation, affecting soil C stock change after cropland conversion with higher initial soil C stock sites having a negative effect on soil C accumulation. Soil C sequestration significantly increased with restoration age over the long-term, and therefore, the large scale of land-use change under the 'Grain-for-Green' Program will significantly increase China's C stocks. PMID:24357470

  10. RIP140 Represses the “Brown-in-White” Adipocyte Program Including a Futile Cycle of Triacyclglycerol Breakdown and Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kiskinis, Evangelos; Chatzeli, Lemonia; Curry, Edward; Kaforou, Myrsini; Frontini, Andrea; Cinti, Saverio; Montana, Giovanni; Parker, Malcolm G.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a corepressor of nuclear receptors that is highly expressed in adipose tissues. We investigated the role of RIP140 in conditionally immortal preadipocyte cell lines prepared from white or brown fat depots. In white adipocytes, a large set of brown fat-associated genes was up-regulated in the absence of RIP140. In contrast, a relatively minor role can be ascribed to RIP140 in the control of basal gene expression in differentiated brown adipocytes because significant changes were observed only in Ptgds and Fabp3. The minor role of RIP140 in brown adipocytes correlates with the similar histology and uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA staining in knockout compared with wild-type brown adipose tissue (BAT). In contrast, RIP140 knockout sc white adipose tissue (WAT) shows increased numbers of multilocular adipocytes with elevated staining for uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA. Furthermore in a white adipocyte cell line, the markers of BRITE adipocytes, Tbx1, CD137, Tmem26, Cited1, and Epsti1 were repressed in the presence of RIP140 as was Prdm16. Microarray analysis of wild-type and RIP140-knockout white fat revealed elevated expression of genes associated with cold-induced expression or high expression in BAT. A set of genes associated with a futile cycle of triacylglycerol breakdown and resynthesis and functional assays revealed that glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity as well as [3H]glycerol incorporation were elevated in the absence of RIP140. Thus, RIP140 blocks the BRITE program in WAT, preventing the expression of brown fat genes and inhibiting a triacylglycerol futile cycle, with important implications for energy homeostasis. PMID:24479876

  11. Derivation of sorting programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Joseph; Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1990-01-01

    Program synthesis for critical applications has become a viable alternative to program verification. Nested resolution and its extension are used to synthesize a set of sorting programs from their first order logic specifications. A set of sorting programs, such as, naive sort, merge sort, and insertion sort, were successfully synthesized starting from the same set of specifications.

  12. Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life

  13. Solar array synthesis computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faith, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    Photovoltaic characteristics have been measured on solar cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons to fluences ranging from 1 x 10 to the 13th power e/sq cm to 1 x 10 to the 16th power e/sq cm, for cell temperatures ranging from 123 K to 473 K and for illumination intensities ranging from 5m W/sq cm to 1830m W/sq cm. Empirical equations have been derived from these measurements to describe the behavior of light generated current, open circuit voltage and I-V curve shape over various portions of these temperature/illumination ranges. Both 10 ohms/cm and 17 ohms/cm n-p silicon solar cells were tested, and similar analytical expressions were formulated for easy comparison between the two resistivities.

  14. Undergraduate Research as Chemical Education--A Symposium: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: The Total Synthesis of Maytansine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Thomas E.

    1984-01-01

    An undergraduate research program in natural product synthesis was established at a small liberal arts college. Discusses program goals (including the total synthesis of maytansine), objectives, and accomplishments to date. Guidelines for establishing such programs are offered. (JN)

  15. Key Scientific and Policy- and Health-Relevant Findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies: An Integration and Synthesis of Results.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1998, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a major air quality program, known as the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program. The Supersites Program was a multi year, $27 million air quality monitoring program consisting of eight regional air quality projects...

  16. Using Realist Synthesis to Develop an Evidence Base from an Identified Data Set on Enablers and Barriers for Alcohol and Drug Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Barbara; MacLean, Sarah; Berends, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how "realist synthesis" methodology (Pawson, 2002) was adapted to review a large sample of community based projects addressing alcohol and drug use problems. Our study drew on a highly varied sample of 127 projects receiving funding from a national non-government organisation in Australia between 2002 and 2008.…

  17. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  18. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  19. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  20. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  1. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Tijrn

    2003-01-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  2. Developing a model for understanding patient collection of observations of daily living: A qualitative meta-synthesis of the Project HealthDesign Program

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah J.; Keller, Sara R.; Hayes, Gillian R.; Dorr, David A.; Ash, Joan S.; Sittig, Dean F.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a meta-synthesis of five different studies that developed, tested, and implemented new technologies for the purpose of collecting Observations of Daily Living (ODL). From this synthesis, we developed a model to explain user motivation as it relates to ODL collection. We describe this model that includes six factors that motivate patients’ collection of ODL data: usability, illness experience, relevance of ODLs, information technology infrastructure, degree of burden, and emotional activation. We show how these factors can act as barriers or facilitators to the collection of ODL data and how interacting with care professionals and sharing ODL data may also influence ODL collection, health-related awareness, and behavior change. The model we developed and used to explain ODL collection can be helpful to researchers and designers who study and develop new, personal health technologies to empower people to improve their health. PMID:26949381

  3. Integrating Schema-Based Instruction and Response Cards for Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, James Raymond; Tucci, Stacey; Jolivette, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of No Child Left Behind (2002), the academic expectations of students with disabilities have changed. Students with disabilities are now held to the same academic standards as their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, the 2004 provisions in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act state that students with…

  4. SECAD-- a Schema-based Environment for Configuring, Analyzing and Documenting Integrated Fusion Simulations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shasharina, Svetlana

    2012-05-23

    SECAD is a project that developed a GUI for running integrated fusion simulations as implemented in FACETS and SWIM SciDAC projects. Using the GUI users can submit simulations locally and remotely and visualize the simulation results.

  5. A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fracker, Martin L.

    1988-01-01

    Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

  6. Schema-Based Analysis of Gendered Self-Disclosure in Persian: Writing for Dating Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khodadady, Ebrahim; Mehr, Somayeh Javadi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a textual analysis of letters written by 21 male and 21 female participants in Persian. Each writer wrote two letters, one to a dating service and another one to a hypothetical person chosen and introduced by the center. Therefore, a total of 84 letters were collected from the participants. Schema theory was used to find the…

  7. Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Soo; Liebich, R.E.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

  8. Neglected Numerators, Drifting Denominators, and Fractured Fractions: Determining Participation Rates for Students with Disabilities in Statewide Assessment Programs. Synthesis Report 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Ron; And Others

    This report evaluates the degree to which current assessment practices and programs include students with disabilities. It notes the difficulty of accurately determining the participation of students with disabilities in large-scale assessment programs due to a lack of data, differing definitions of eligible testing populations, and the…

  9. Ben's Model: A Multivocal Synthesis for an Evidence-Based, Family-Centered Program Planning Model for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music, Amber D.

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the prevalence of children with autism increases, and community programs should be prepared to address the needs of this population. Comprehensive Treatment Models (CTMs) are in place to help serve children with autism, but the components of these programs are diverse. Furthermore, recommendations from prominent organizations such as…

  10. Applications of computer graphics to aircraft synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, R. L.; Putnam, R.

    1975-01-01

    The history of the development of an aircraft configuration synthesis program using interactive computer graphics was described. A system based on time-sharing was compared to two different concepts based on distributed computing.

  11. ISSYS: An integrated synergistic Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dovi, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated Synergistic Synthesis System (ISSYS), an integrated system of computer codes in which the sequence of program execution and data flow is controlled by the user, is discussed. The commands available to exert such control, the ISSYS major function and rules, and the computer codes currently available in the system are described. Computational sequences frequently used in the aircraft structural analysis and synthesis are defined. External computer codes utilized by the ISSYS system are documented. A bibliography on the programs is included.

  12. Benzoylurea Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ranfeng; Liu, Chunjuan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qingmin

    2015-08-12

    Benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors are widely used in integrated pest management (IPM) and insecticide resistance management (IRM) programs due to their low toxicity to mammals and predatory insects. In the past decades, a large number of benzoylurea derivatives have been synthesized, and 15 benzoylurea chitin synthesis inhibitors have been commercialized. This review focuses on the history of commercial benzolyphenylureas (BPUs), synthetic methods, structure-activity relationships (SAR), action mechanism research, environmental behaviors, and ecotoxicology. Furthermore, their disadvantages of high risk to aquatic invertebrates and crustaceans are pointed out. Finally, we propose that the para-substituents at anilide of benzoylphenylureas should be the functional groups, and bipartite model BPU analogues are discussed in an attempt to provide new insight for future development of BPUs. PMID:26168369

  13. Macromitophagy, neutral lipids synthesis, and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation protect yeast from "liponecrosis", a previously unknown form of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Sara; Richard, Vincent R; Beach, Adam; Leonov, Anna; Feldman, Rachel; Mattie, Sevan; Khelghatybana, Leila; Piano, Amanda; Greenwood, Michael; Vali, Hojatollah; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    We identified a form of cell death called "liponecrosis." It can be elicited by an exposure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to exogenous palmitoleic acid (POA). Our data imply that liponecrosis is: (1) a programmed, regulated form of cell death rather than an accidental, unregulated cellular process and (2) an age-related form of cell death. Cells committed to liponecrotic death: (1) do not exhibit features characteristic of apoptotic cell death; (2) do not display plasma membrane rupture, a hallmark of programmed necrotic cell death; (3) akin to cells committed to necrotic cell death, exhibit an increased permeability of the plasma membrane for propidium iodide; (4) do not display excessive cytoplasmic vacuolization, a hallmark of autophagic cell death; (5) akin to cells committed to autophagic death, exhibit a non-selective en masse degradation of cellular organelles and require the cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinase Atg1p for executing the death program; and (6) display a hallmark feature that has not been reported for any of the currently known cell death modalities-namely, an excessive accumulation of lipid droplets where non-esterified fatty acids (including POA) are deposited in the form of neutral lipids. We therefore concluded that liponecrotic cell death subroutine differs from the currently known subroutines of programmed cell death. Our data suggest a hypothesis that liponecrosis is a cell death module dynamically integrated into a so-called programmed cell death network, which also includes the apoptotic, necrotic, and autophagic modules of programmed cell death. Based on our findings, we propose a mechanism underlying liponecrosis. PMID:24196447

  14. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  15. Network synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion, with numerous examples, on the application of state variable methods to network analysis and synthesis is reported. The state variable point of view is useful in the design of control circuits for regulators because, unlike frequency domain methods, it is applicable to linear and nonlinear problems. The reported are intended as an introduction to this theory.

  16. Modular Synthesis of Heparin-Related Tetra-, Hexa- and Octasaccharides with Differential O-6 Protections: Programming for Regiodefined 6-O-Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Baráth, Marek; Jayson, Gordon C.; Miller, Gavin J.; Gardiner, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Heparin and heparan sulphate (H/HS) are important members of the glycosaminoglycan family of sugars that regulate a substantial number of biological processes. Such biological promiscuity is underpinned by hetereogeneity in their molecular structure. The degree of O-sulfation, particularly at the 6-position of constituent d-GlcN units, is believed to play a role in modulating the effects of such sequences. Synthetic chemistry is essential to be able to extend the diversity of HS-like fragments with defined molecular structure, and particularly to deconvolute the biological significance of modifications at O6. Here we report a synthetic approach to a small matrix of protected heparin-type oligosaccharides, containing orthogonal d-GlcN O-6 protecting groups at programmed positions along the chain, facilitating access towards programmed modifications at specific sites, relevant to sulfation or future mimetics. PMID:25859776

  17. Transcriptomic Analysis of Chronic Hepatitis B and C and Liver Cancer Reveals MicroRNA-Mediated Control of Cholesterol Synthesis Programs

    PubMed Central

    Selitsky, Sara R.; Dinh, Timothy A.; Toth, Cynthia L.; Kurtz, C. Lisa; Honda, Masao; Struck, Benjamin R.; Kaneko, Shuichi; Vickers, Kasey C.; Lemon, Stanley M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC), and associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are characterized by cholesterol imbalance and dyslipidemia; however, the key regulatory drivers of these phenotypes are incompletely understood. Using gene expression microarrays and high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs, we performed integrative analysis of microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression in nonmalignant and matched cancer tissue samples from human subjects with CHB or CHC and HCC. We also carried out follow-up functional studies of specific miRNAs in a cell-based system. These studies led to four major findings. First, pathways affecting cholesterol homeostasis were among the most significantly overrepresented among genes dysregulated in chronic viral hepatitis and especially in tumor tissue. Second, for each disease state, specific miRNA signatures that included miRNAs not previously associated with chronic viral hepatitis, such as miR-1307 in CHC, were identified. Notably, a few miRNAs, including miR-27 and miR-224, were components of the miRNA signatures of all four disease states: CHB, CHC, CHB-associated HCC, and CHC-associated HCC. Third, using a statistical simulation method (miRHub) applied to the gene expression data, we identified candidate master miRNA regulators of pathways controlling cholesterol homeostasis in chronic viral hepatitis and HCC, including miR-21, miR-27, and miR-33. Last, we validated in human hepatoma cells that both miR-21 and miR-27 significantly repress cholesterol synthesis and that miR-27 does so in part through regulation of the gene that codes for the rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (HMGCR). PMID:26646011

  18. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-02

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE�s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  19. Maitotoxin: An Inspiration for Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Aversa, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Maitotoxin holds a special place in the annals of natural products chemistry as the largest and most toxic secondary metabolite known to date. Its fascinating, ladder-like, polyether molecular structure and diverse spectrum of biological activities elicited keen interest from chemists and biologists who recognized its uniqueness and potential as a probe and inspiration for research in chemistry and biology. Synthetic studies in the area benefited from methodologies and strategies that were developed as part of chemical synthesis programs directed toward the total synthesis of some of the less complex members of the polyether marine biotoxin class, of which maitotoxin is the flagship. This account focuses on progress made in the authors’ laboratories in the synthesis of large maitotoxin domains with emphasis on methodology development, strategy design, and structural comparisons of the synthesized molecules with the corresponding regions of the natural product. The article concludes with an overview of maitotoxin’s biological profile and future perspectives. PMID:21709816

  20. Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: A spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dietze, Michael; Vargas, Rodrigo; Richardson, Andrew D.; Stoy, Paul C.; Barr, Alan; Anderson, Ryan; Arain, M. A.; Baker, Ian; Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Jing Ming; Ciais, Philippe; Flanagan, Lawrence; Gough, Christopher; Grant, R. F.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kucharik, Chris; Lafleur, Peter; Liu, Shuguang; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Luo, Yiqi; Munger, J. W.; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David T.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Riley, William; Sahoo, Alok Kumar; Schaefer, Kevin; Suyker, Andrew E.; Tian, Hanqin; Tonitto, Christine; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, Shashi B.; Wang, Weifeng; Weng, Ensheng

    2011-12-20

    Ecosystem models are important tools for diagnosing the carbon cycle and projecting its behavior across space and time. Most assessments of model performance occur at individual temporal scales, but ecosystems respond to drivers at multiple time scales. Spectral methods, such as wavelet analyses, present an alternative approach that enables the identification of the dominant time scales contributing to model performance in the frequency domain. In this study we used wavelet analyses to synthesize the performance of twenty-one ecosystem models at nine eddy-covariance towers as part of the North American Carbon Program's site-level inter-comparison. This study expands upon previous single-site and single-model analyses to determine what patterns of model failure are consistent across a diverse range of models and sites.

  1. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring techniques for particulate matter mass and chemical components: a synthesis of findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Paul A; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program to provide key stakeholders (government and private sector) with significantly improved information needed to develop effective and efficient strategies for reducing PM on urban and regional scales. All Supersites projects developed and evaluated methods and instruments, and significant advances have been made and applied within these programs to yield new insights to our understanding of PM accumulation in air as well as improved source-receptor relationships. The tested methods include a variety of continuous and semicontinuous instruments typically with a time resolution of an hour or less. These methods often overcome many of the limitations associated with measuring atmospheric PM mass concentrations by daily filter-based methods (e.g., potential positive or negative sampling artifacts). Semicontinuous coarse and ultrafine mass measurement methods also were developed and evaluated. Other semicontinuous monitors tested measured the major components of PM such as nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon, trace elements, and water content of the aerosol as well as methods for other physical properties of PM, such as number concentration, size distribution, and particle density. Particle mass spectrometers, although unlikely to be used in national routine monitoring networks in the foreseeable future because of their complex technical requirements and cost, are mentioned here because of the wealth of new information they provide on the size-resolved chemical composition of atmospheric particles on a near continuous basis. Particle mass spectrometers likely represent the greatest advancement in PM measurement technology during the last decade. The improvements in time resolution achieved by the reported semicontinuous methods have proven to be especially useful in characterizing ambient PM, and are becoming essential in allowing scientists to

  2. Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the ‘Top End’ of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. Methods A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of ‘out of hospital’ or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Results Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations

  3. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R.; Williams, Christopher A.; Schaefer, Kevin; Anderson, Ryan; Arain, A.; Baker, Ian; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Barr, Alan; Black, T. A.; Gu, Lianhong; Riciutto, Dan M.

    2010-12-01

    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO2 exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO2 exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans 220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO2 exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was 10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  4. Linear systems analysis program, L224(QR). Volume 2: Supplemental system design and maintenance document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidergott, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    The computer program known as QR is described. Classical control systems analysis and synthesis (root locus, time response, and frequency response) can be performed using this program. Programming details of the QR program are presented.

  5. Automatic programming for critical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loganantharaj, Raj L.

    1988-01-01

    The important phases of a software life cycle include verification and maintenance. Usually, the execution performance is an expected requirement in a software development process. Unfortunately, the verification and the maintenance of programs are the time consuming and the frustrating aspects of software engineering. The verification cannot be waived for the programs used for critical applications such as, military, space, and nuclear plants. As a consequence, synthesis of programs from specifications, an alternative way of developing correct programs, is becoming popular. The definition, or what is understood by automatic programming, has been changed with our expectations. At present, the goal of automatic programming is the automation of programming process. Specifically, it means the application of artificial intelligence to software engineering in order to define techniques and create environments that help in the creation of high level programs. The automatic programming process may be divided into two phases: the problem acquisition phase and the program synthesis phase. In the problem acquisition phase, an informal specification of the problem is transformed into an unambiguous specification while in the program synthesis phase such a specification is further transformed into a concrete, executable program.

  6. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, C.R.; Williams, C.A.; Schaefer, K.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.; Black, T.A.; Chen, G.; Ciais, P.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dietze, M.; Dragoni, D.; Fischer, M.L.; Flanagan, L.B.; Grant, R.F.; Gu, L.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Kucharik, C.; Lafleur, P.M.; Law, B.E.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Ma, S.; Margolis, H.; Matamala, R.; McCaughey, H.; Monson, R. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.T.; Riciutto, D.M.; Riley, W.J.; Sahoo, A.K.; Sprintsin, M.; Sun, J.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Verbeeck, H.; Verma, S.B.

    2011-06-01

    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO{sub 2} exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans {approx}220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was {approx}10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  7. Tectonics and geology of spreading ridge subduction at the Chile Triple Junction: a synthesis of results from Leg 141 of the Ocean Drilling Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrmann, J.H.; Lewis, S.D.; Cande, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    An active oceanic spreading ridge is being subducted beneath the South American continent at the Chile Triple Junction. This process has played a major part in the evolution of most of the continental margins that border the Pacific Ocean basin. A combination of high resolution swath bathymetric maps, seismic reflection profiles and drillhole and core data from five sites drilled during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 141 provide important data that define the tectonic, structural and stratigraphic effects of this modern example of spreading ridge subduction. A change from subduction accretion to subduction erosion occurs along-strike of the South American forearc. This change is prominently expressed by normal faulting, forearc subsidence, oversteepening of topographic slopes and intensive sedimentary mass wasting, overprinted on older signatures of sediment accretion, overthrusting and uplift processes in the forearc. Data from drill sites north of the triple junction (Sites 859-861) show that after an important phase of forearc building in the early to late Pliocene, subduction accretion had ceased in the late Pliocene. Since that time sediment on the downgoing oceanic Nazca plate has been subducted. Site 863 was drilled into the forearc in the immediate vicinity of the triple junction above the subducted spreading ridge axis. Here, thick and intensely folded and faulted trench slope sediments of Pleistocene age are currently involved in the frontal deformation of the forearc. Early faults with thrust and reverse kinematics are overprinted by later normal faults. The Chile Triple Junction is also the site of apparent ophiolite emplacement into the South American forearc. Drilling at Site 862 on the Taitao Ridge revealed an offshore volcanic sequence of Plio-Pleistocene age associated with the Taitao Fracture Zone, adjacent to exposures of the Pliocene-aged Taitao ophiolite onshore. Despite the large-scale loss of material from the forearc at the triple junction

  8. Evolution in an Integrated Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellamy, Lynn

    A description is given of a bifurctional, integrated Chemical Engineering program at The College of Petroleum and Minerals in Saudi Arabia. The Program and the institution have evolved from a highly technical and specialized orientation to one that can be characterized as a broader based, management orientation. A synthesis is given of the reasons…

  9. Computer Music Synthesis and Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, Lydia

    What is computer music composition? Composers are using the computer for everything from MIDI instruments communicating with computer sequencers, pitch trackers analyzing the sounds of acoustic instruments and converting them to pitch information, live performers with recorded music, performers with interactive computer programs, computer music produced by dancers using sensors, automatic music composition with the computer programs composing the music, composing with sounds or parts of sounds rather than notes, how to structure the use of time, composing with timbres, or the colors of sounds, and timbre morphing, such as a gong morphing to a voice, composing with textures and texture morphing, such as fluttertonguing morphing to pitch, granular synthesis, trills and convolution.

  10. A Research Synthesis of the Evaluation Capacity Building Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labin, Susan N.; Duffy, Jennifer L.; Meyers, Duncan C.; Wandersman, Abraham; Lesesne, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    The continuously growing demand for program results has produced an increased need for evaluation capacity building (ECB). The "Integrative ECB Model" was developed to integrate concepts from existing ECB theory literature and to structure a synthesis of the empirical ECB literature. The study used a broad-based research synthesis method with…

  11. Approximation concepts for efficient structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Miura, H.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that efficient structural synthesis capabilities can be created by using approximation concepts to mesh finite element structural analysis methods with nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The history of the application of mathematical programming techniques to structural design optimization problems is reviewed. Several rather general approximation concepts are described along with the technical foundations of the ACCESS 1 computer program, which implements several approximation concepts. A substantial collection of structural design problems involving truss and idealized wing structures is presented. It is concluded that since the basic ideas employed in creating the ACCESS 1 program are rather general, its successful development supports the contention that the introduction of approximation concepts will lead to the emergence of a new generation of practical and efficient, large scale, structural synthesis capabilities in which finite element analysis methods and mathematical programming algorithms will play a central role.

  12. [New synthesis empathogenic agents].

    PubMed

    Velea, D; Hautefeuille, M; Vazeille, G; Lantran-Davoux, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of synthesis drugs is the object of numerous written articles and TV programs in the last, decade. These synthesis drugs or "designer drugs", are well known for their ability to enhance, reinforce or appease social difficulties and relationships. In the research for empathetic and entactogenic relations one discover an obvious lack of communication and "warmth" in personal or professional relationship. An image of chemical "well being" has become a frequent stereotype of a society with an atrophying of performance and values while supposedly dedicating itself to individual performance. The youths are the first victims of these new drugs, the economical and social environment are the main reinforcing factors of this behaviour. The main characteristic of these drugs, is the non-recognition of their danger, some users go so far as to describe this category of substances as "drugs which are not drugs". As a characteristic, the use of a these synthesis drugs is almost recreative, during the week-end and holiday. The drug addiction is different than that of opiates or cocaine. One can observe some cases of real dependence--corresponding to the DSW IV criterion--when the personality of the users is the main characteristic (narcissic failure, immature personality, family and school problems). Many adverse effects--hypertension, kidney failure, psychoses--were declared. The mass-media has presented many articles concerning Ecstasy (MDMA). This is the most used drug during the rave parties. Its adverse effects are well known and proven. The authors would like to present other more recent synthesis drugs, also known as "analogs". These drugs, a kind of mixture between amphetamine-like (MDMA, MBDB, MDA) and misused medicines (ketamine, gamma OH, atropine) represent a real danger. GHB, 2 CB, HMB, are some of these recent substances. The possibility to procure them on the Web, or to produce them by oneself, add to their danger because of the lack of controls on toxicity

  13. Synthesis of cubane based energetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert J.; Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Penwell, Paul E.

    1993-02-01

    The need to pack more power with less weight into less space in tomorrow's weapons drove this program for the synthesis of super energetic materials. Our original impetus was a program based solely on the energetic properties of cubane. However, in the course of our studies here and in a parallel ONR sponsored program, we discovered and developed an alternative oxidizer to cubyl based systems, the dinitramide salts. We will report on our developments in the synthesis of new oxidizers based on cubane and dinitramide. In this research, we developed new methods for the functionalization of the cubane nucleus and synthesized new energetic cubanes. We developed several new routes for the synthesis of the dinitramino group. Our work on the preparation of the dinitramide group led to the synthesis of the dinitramide ion, and as a consequence ammonium dinitramide. We have in turn used this synthesis to prepare cubane ammonium dinitramide salts. We synthesized cubane-1,4bis-(ammonium dinitramide) and cubane1,2,4,7-tetrakis(ammonium dinitramide) as well as several other dinitramide salts.

  14. EOPS Operational Program Review: 1984-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.; Ruskus, Joan

    A synthesis is provided of the information collected between September 1984 and April 1985 by Operational Program Review (OPR) teams regarding 22 California community college Extended Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS) programs. Chapter 1 explains the purposes and evaluation methods of OPRs, and outlines the general characteristics of the…

  15. Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Datko, Anne H.; Mudd, S. Harvey

    1988-01-01

    The methylation steps in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by tissue culture preparations of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and soybean (Glycine max), and by soybean leaf discs, have been studied. Preparations were incubated with tracer concentrations of l-[3H3C]methionine and the kinetics of appearance of radioactivity in phosphomethylethanolamine, phosphodimethylethanolamine, phosphocholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, methylethanolamine, dimethylethanolamine, and choline followed at short incubation times. With soybean (tissue culture or leaves), an initial methylation utilizes phosphoethanolamine as substrate, forming phosphomethylethanolamine. The latter is converted to phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, which is successively methylated to phosphatidyldimethyethanolamine and to phosphatidylcholine. With carrot, again, an initial methylation is of phosphoethanolamine. Subsequent methylations occur at both the phospho-base and phosphatidyl-base levels. Both of these patterns differ qualitatively from that previously demonstrated in Lemna (SH Mudd, AH Datko 1986 Plant Physiol 82: 126-135) in which all three methylations occur at the phospho-base level. For soybean and carrot, some added contribution from initial methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine has not been excluded. These results, together with those from similar experiments carried out with water-stressed barley leaves (WD Hitz, D Rhodes, AD Hanson 1981 Plant Physiol 68: 814-822) and salinized sugarbeet leaves (AD Hanson, D Rhodes 1983 Plant Physiol 71: 692-700) suggest that in higher plants some, perhaps all, phosphatidylcholine synthesis occurs via a common committing step (conversion of phosphoethanolamine to phosphomethylethanolamine) followed by a methylation pattern which differs from plant to plant. PMID:16666397

  16. 77 FR 8324 - Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop; Notice of Public...: Real- Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) Program and solicit user needs for its Transformative Concepts... program is to generate and acquire environmentally-relevant real-time transportation data, and use...

  17. Object-oriented concurrent programming

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

  18. Arctic freshwater synthesis: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.

    2015-11-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason for joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. Hence, the key objective of the AFSΣ was to produce an updated, comprehensive, and integrated review of the structure and function of the entire AFS. The AFSΣ was organized around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources and modeling, and the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ—Introduction reviews the motivations for, and foci of, previous studies of the AFS, discusses criteria used to define the domain of the AFS, and details key characteristics of the definition adopted for the AFSΣ.

  19. Substructural controller synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Tzu-Jeng; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A decentralized design procedure which combines substructural synthesis, model reduction, decentralized controller design, subcontroller synthesis, and controller reduction is proposed for the control design of flexible structures. The structure to be controlled is decomposed into several substructures, which are modeled by component mode synthesis methods. For each substructure, a subcontroller is designed by using the linear quadratic optimal control theory. Then, a controller synthesis scheme called Substructural Controller Synthesis (SCS) is used to assemble the subcontrollers into a system controller, which is to be used to control the whole structure.

  20. Machine‐Assisted Organic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Daniel E.; Myers, Rebecca M.; Battilocchio, Claudio; Ingham, Richard. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this Review we describe how the advent of machines is impacting on organic synthesis programs, with particular emphasis on the practical issues associated with the design of chemical reactors. In the rapidly changing, multivariant environment of the research laboratory, equipment needs to be modular to accommodate high and low temperatures and pressures, enzymes, multiphase systems, slurries, gases, and organometallic compounds. Additional technologies have been developed to facilitate more specialized reaction techniques such as electrochemical and photochemical methods. All of these areas create both opportunities and challenges during adoption as enabling technologies. PMID:26193360

  1. Recent advances in antenna synthesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A technique for the synthesis of planar aperture antennas has been developed. It applies equally well to continuous or array type apertures. Patterns with shaped main beams and complex sidelobe structures can be synthesized. The method involves applying corrections iteratively and converging toward the desired pattern. The iteration process terminates when the synthesized pattern approximates the desired pattern to within a specified tolerance. A computer program has been written to perform all calculations. The source distribution which is required to produce the synthesized pattern is provided as output. The method is such that patterns requiring complex source distributions will not be synthesized (such as superdirective patterns).

  2. New frontiers in design synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldin, Daniel S.; Venneri, Samuel L.; Noor, Ahmed K.

    1999-09-01

    The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed.

  3. New frontiers in design synthesis.

    PubMed

    Goldin, D S; Venneri, S L; Noor, A K

    1999-01-01

    The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering Systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed. PMID:11542518

  4. New frontiers in design synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldin, D. S.; Venneri, S. L.; Noor, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering Systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed.

  5. Software Synthesis for High Productivity Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Bodik, Rastislav

    2010-09-01

    Over the three years of our project, we accomplished three key milestones: We demonstrated how ideas from generative programming and software synthesis can help support the development of bulk-synchronous distributed memory kernels. These ideas are realized in a new language called MSL, a C-like language that combines synthesis features with high level notations for array manipulation and bulk-synchronous parallelism to simplify the semantic analysis required for synthesis. We also demonstrated that these high level notations map easily to low level C code and show that the performance of this generated code matches that of handwritten Fortran. Second, we introduced the idea of solver-aided domain-specific languages (SDSLs), which are an emerging class of computer-aided programming systems. SDSLs ease the construction of programs by automating tasks such as verification, debugging, synthesis, and non-deterministic execution. SDSLs are implemented by translating the DSL program into logical constraints. Next, we developed a symbolic virtual machine called Rosette, which simplifies the construction of such SDSLs and their compilers. We have used Rosette to build SynthCL, a subset of OpenCL that supports synthesis. Third, we developed novel numeric algorithms that move as little data as possible, either between levels of a memory hierarchy or between parallel processors over a network. We achieved progress in three aspects of this problem. First we determined lower bounds on communication. Second, we compared these lower bounds to widely used versions of these algorithms, and noted that these widely used algorithms usually communicate asymptotically more than is necessary. Third, we identified or invented new algorithms for most linear algebra problems that do attain these lower bounds, and demonstrated large speed-ups in theory and practice.

  6. Program Aids Analysis And Optimization Of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Lamarsh, William J., II

    1994-01-01

    NETS/ PROSSS (NETS Coupled With Programming System for Structural Synthesis) computer program developed to provide system for combining NETS (MSC-21588), neural-network application program and CONMIN (Constrained Function Minimization, ARC-10836), optimization program. Enables user to reach nearly optimal design. Design then used as starting point in normal optimization process, possibly enabling user to converge to optimal solution in significantly fewer iterations. NEWT/PROSSS written in C language and FORTRAN 77.

  7. Teaching Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis Using Interactive Microcomputer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Anthony G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis (HENS) program used at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Massachusetts) as an aid to teaching the energy integration step in process design. Focuses on the benefits of the computer graphics used in the program to increase the speed of generating and changing networks. (TW)

  8. Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilchik, Shay

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is…

  9. Conceptual spacecraft systems design and synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Systems (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth designs is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze, and conduct parametric studies and modify earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  10. Algorithmic synthesis using Python compiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Linczuk, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a python to VHDL compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and translate it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the programmed circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. This can be achieved by using many computational resources at the same time. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Using higher level of abstraction and High-Level Synthesis compiler implementation time can be reduced. The compiler has been implemented using the Python language. This article describes design, implementation and results of created tools.

  11. Velocimetry signal synthesis with fringen.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H., III

    2011-02-01

    An important part of velocimetry analysis is the recovery of a known velocity history from simulated data signals. The fringen program synthesizes VISAR and PDV signals, given a specified velocity history, using exact formulations for the optical signal. Time-dependent light conditions, non-ideal measurement conditions, and various diagnostic limitations (noise, etc.) may be incorporated into the simulated signals. This report describes the fringen program, which performs forward VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) and PDV (Photonic Doppler Velocimetry, also known as heterodyne velocimetry) analysis. Nearly all effects that might occur in VISAR/PDV measurement of a single velocity can be modeled by fringen. The program operates in MATLAB, either within a graphical interface or as a user-callable function. The current stable version of fringen is 0.3, which was released in October 2010. The following sections describe the operation and use of fringen. Section 2 gives a brief overview of VISAR and PDV synthesis. Section 3 illustrates the graphical and console interface of fringen. Section 4 presents several example uses of the program. Section 5 summarizes program capabilities and discusses potential future work.

  12. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  13. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  14. Photocontrol of Anthocyanin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mancinelli, A. L.; Yang, Chia-Ping Huang; Lindquist, P.; Anderson, O. R.; Rabino, I.

    1975-01-01

    Streptomycin enhances the synthesis of anthocyanins and inhibits the synthesis of chlorophylls and the development of chloroplasts in dark-grown seedlings of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), mustard (Sinapis alba), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and turnip (Brassica rapa) exposed to prolonged periods of irradiation in various spectral regions. These results suggest that the contribution of photosynthesis to light-dependent high irradiance reaction anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip is minimal, if any at all. So far, phytochrome is the only photoreceptor whose action in the control of light-dependent anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip has been satisfactorily demonstrated. Images PMID:16659061

  15. Total Synthesis of (+)-Acutiphycin

    PubMed Central

    Moslin, Ryan M.; Jamison, Timothy F.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic studies toward the total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin (1) resulted in the discovery of additive-free, highly regioselective nickel-catalyzed reductive coupling reactions of aldehydes and 1,6-enynes and the construction of an advanced intermediate in studies directed toward the synthesis of 1. Ultimately, though not employing the nickel-catalyzed reaction, a highly convergent total synthesis of (+)-acutiphycin featuring an intermolecular SmI2-mediated Reformatsky coupling reaction and macrolactonization initiated by a retro-ene reaction of an alkoxyalkyne was achieved. The resulting synthesis was 18 steps in the longest linear sequence from either methyl acetoacetate or isobutyraldehyde. PMID:17985925

  16. Models of speech synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, R

    1995-01-01

    The term "speech synthesis" has been used for diverse technical approaches. In this paper, some of the approaches used to generate synthetic speech in a text-to-speech system are reviewed, and some of the basic motivations for choosing one method over another are discussed. It is important to keep in mind, however, that speech synthesis models are needed not just for speech generation but to help us understand how speech is created, or even how articulation can explain language structure. General issues such as the synthesis of different voices, accents, and multiple languages are discussed as special challenges facing the speech synthesis community. PMID:7479805

  17. Synthesis of Fondaparinux: modular synthesis investigation for heparin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Lian, Gaoyan; Zhou, Ying

    2013-04-19

    The anti-thromboembolic pentasaccharide Fondaparinux was synthesized in 36 steps for the longest linear route, with 0.017% overall yield from D-glucose. Only three kinds of protecting groups were used for hydroxyl protection, Bn, Ac, and Bz, to accomplish this complex synthesis without decreasing the synthetic efficiency. Three L-idopyranosyl donors were investigated. Thioethyl glycoside is an efficient donor for L-idopyranosyl glycosylation with full α-selectivity, while L-idopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate resulted in poor α/β selectivity. A practical synthesis of key intermediate 1,6-anhydro-L-idopyranose 17 by H(+)/β-CD catalyst was developed. PMID:23474455

  18. Dynamic analysis of large structures by modal synthesis techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurty, W. C.; Hart, G. C.; Collins, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Several criteria that may be used to evaluate the merits of some of the existing techniques for the dynamic analysis of large structures which involve division into substructures or components are examined. These techniques make use of component displacement modes to synthetize global systems of generalized coordinates and, for that reason, they have come to be known as modal synthesis or component mode methods. Two techniques have been found to be particularly useful - i.e., the modal synthesis method with fixed attachment modes, and the modal synthesis method with free attachment modes. These two methods are treated in detail, and general flow charts are presented for guidance in computer programming.

  19. Programing and Programed Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Susan Meyer

    The impact of programed instruction on the educational system has been minimal quantitatively and qualitatively. In the interface between education and programing there are serious weaknesses in the design of materials, severe problems in the economics of design and use, and an almost insurmountable gulf between the philosophy or point of view on…

  20. Feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Takamizawa, K.; Werntz, P.; Lapean, J.; Barts, R.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: General Reflector Antenna Systems Program version 7(GRASP7); Multiple Reflector Analysis Program for Cylindrical Antennas (MRAPCA); Tri-Reflector 2D Synthesis Code (TRTDS); a geometrical optics and a physical optics synthesis techniques; beam scanning reflector, the type 2 and 6 reflectors, spherical reflector, and multiple reflector imaging systems; and radiometric array design.

  1. Automated synthesis of distillation sequences using fuzzy logic and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, T.L.; Harrison, B.K.; Niccolai, M.J. )

    1994-08-01

    An automated distillation sequencing system (DSEQSYS) is presented, which consists of three components: a control program, a fuzzy heuristic synthesis program, and a process simulator. DSEQSYS, when applied to problems previously reported in the literature, overcomes some of the disadvantages of using heuristics or mathematical programming alone. DSEQSYS can address problems involving nonsharp separations, nonideal chemical behavior, and conflicting heuristics. A simple approach for converting the traditional separation heuristics into corresponding fuzzy heuristics is also demonstrated.

  2. Total Synthesis of (-)-Cardiopetaline.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yoshitake; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2016-05-20

    The total synthesis of (-)-cardiopetaline, an aconitine-type natural product, has been accomplished. Our synthesis involved a Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement of a sulfonyloxirane that enabled, in a single step, the construction of the bicyclo[3.2.1] system in the aconitine skeleton and effective introduction of oxygen functional groups at the appropriate positions. PMID:27166640

  3. Reaction synthesis of intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1994-12-31

    Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides was utilized to obtain nickel, iron, and cobalt aluminides. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain intermetallics and their composites. Extrusion conditions, reduction ratios, and hot-pressing conditions of the intermetallics and their composites are discussed.

  4. Automatic Synthesis Imaging with Difmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, T. J.; Shepherd, M. C.; Taylor, G. B.; Myers, S. T.

    1994-12-01

    Difmap is a new interactive program for synthesis imaging. It includes data display, data editing, self-calibration, imaging, deconvolution, and model-fitting. The program can handle continuum, spectral-line, and polarization data from connected-element and very-long-baseline interferometer arrays. The program is written in ANSI C and runs on UNIX workstations. We describe the operation of the program with example data sets from the Very Large Array, the global VLBI network, and the Owens Valley Millimeter Array. We have developed Difmap scripts for automatic mapping and self-calibration of both VLA and VLBI data. We describe the strategies adopted for choosing the imaging, deconvolution, and self-calibration parameters, and show how these automatic scripts have made possible the rapid imaging of several hundred sources in the Caltech--Jodrell Bank VLBI surveys (CJ1 and CJ2) and several thousand sources in a VLA search for gravitational lenses (CLASS). Other images made with automatic mapping in Difmap are presented at this meeting by Fassnacht et al., Myers et al., and Taylor et al.

  5. Do Mandatory Welfare-to-Work Programs Affect the Well-Being of Children? A Synthesis of Child Research Conducted as Part of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Gayle

    As policymakers have sought to balance the goal of fostering poor children's well-being with that of encouraging adult's self-sufficiency, public assistance has become more predicated on custodial parents' involvement in work or mandatory welfare-to-work programs activities. This report examines the effects of welfare-to-work programs on the…

  6. General aviation design synthesis utilizing interactive computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.; Smith, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Interactive computer graphics is a fast growing area of computer application, due to such factors as substantial cost reductions in hardware, general availability of software, and expanded data communication networks. In addition to allowing faster and more meaningful input/output, computer graphics permits the use of data in graphic form to carry out parametric studies for configuration selection and for assessing the impact of advanced technologies on general aviation designs. The incorporation of interactive computer graphics into a NASA developed general aviation synthesis program is described, and the potential uses of the synthesis program in preliminary design are demonstrated.

  7. Total Synthesis of Teixobactin.

    PubMed

    Giltrap, Andrew M; Dowman, Luke J; Nagalingam, Gayathri; Ochoa, Jessica L; Linington, Roger G; Britton, Warwick J; Payne, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    The first total synthesis of the cyclic depsipeptide natural product teixobactin is described. Synthesis was achieved by solid-phase peptide synthesis, incorporating the unusual l-allo-enduracididine as a suitably protected synthetic cassette and employing a key on-resin esterification and solution-phase macrolactamization. The synthetic natural product was shown to possess potent antibacterial activity against a range of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, including a virulent strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). PMID:27191730

  8. Method of sound synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Miner, Nadine E.; Caudell, Thomas P.

    2004-06-08

    A sound synthesis method for modeling and synthesizing dynamic, parameterized sounds. The sound synthesis method yields perceptually convincing sounds and provides flexibility through model parameterization. By manipulating model parameters, a variety of related, but perceptually different sounds can be generated. The result is subtle changes in sounds, in addition to synthesis of a variety of sounds, all from a small set of models. The sound models can change dynamically according to changes in the simulation environment. The method is applicable to both stochastic (impulse-based) and non-stochastic (pitched) sounds.

  9. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  10. Synthesis of Chiral Cyclopentenones.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Svilen P; Nunes, João P M; Guerra, Krassimira; Kurteva, Vanya B; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2016-05-25

    The cyclopentenone unit is a very powerful synthon for the synthesis of a variety of bioactive target molecules. This is due to the broad diversity of chemical modifications available for the enone structural motif. In particular, chiral cyclopentenones are important precursors in the asymmetric synthesis of target chiral molecules. This Review provides an overview of reported methods for enantioselective and asymmetric syntheses of cyclopentenones, including chemical and enzymatic resolution, asymmetric synthesis via Pauson-Khand reaction, Nazarov cyclization and organocatalyzed reactions, asymmetric functionalization of the existing cyclopentenone unit, and functionalization of chiral building blocks. PMID:27101336

  11. Synthesis of amino acids

    DOEpatents

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1979-09-21

    A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  12. Child Abuse and Neglect Programs: Practice and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Monica B.

    Presented are detailed reports of eight child abuse and neglect programs, and a synthesis of the information obtained through onsite visits to programs and a review of the literature. Provided in Part I are the descriptive case studies of two hospital-based programs (Children's Trauma Center, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland,…

  13. SUMMARY OF EMISSIONS MANAGEMENT STRATEGY POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S PM SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an integrated synthesis of key scientific and policy-relevant findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program. This presentation provides a summary of the program and the integrated synthesis. Since there are many examples of such findings, ranging f...

  14. ACCESS-2: Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis, user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A user's guide is presented for the ACCESS-2 computer program. ACCESS-2 is a research oriented program which implements a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and general mathematical programming algorithms are applied in the design optimization procedure.

  15. Total synthesis of atropurpuran.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.0(4,9).0(4,12)]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  16. Chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the reactions of synthesis gas, many of which have been developed in the last few years. The subject matter is treated primarily from the point of view of chemicals manufacture. Although both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis of synthesis gas are covered here, there is a bias towards the former mainly because recent developments largely involve homogeneous catalysis. Drawing extensively from both the journal and patent literature through the end of 1981, the book provides an overview of this developing area of chemistry. Contents: Glossary. Chapter 1. Introduction to Petrochemicals. 2. Mechanistic Principles. 3. Hydrocarbon Synthesis. 4. Olefin Hydroformulation. 5. Olefin Carbonylation and Related Reactions. 6. Methanol and Formaldehyde. 7. Methanol Carbonylation and Related Chemistry. 8. Nitrogen-Containing Systems. 9. Direct Conversion of Synthesis Gas to Oxygenates. 10. Summary-Directions for the Future.

  17. Total synthesis of atropurpuran

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Huan; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Xiu; Nie, Wei; Qin, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Due to their architectural intricacy and biological significance, the synthesis of polycyclic diterpenes and their biogenetically related alkaloids have been the subject of considerable interest over the last few decades, with progress including the impressive synthesis of several elusive targets. Despite tremendous efforts, conquering the unique structural types of this large natural product family remains a long-term challenge. The arcutane diterpenes and related alkaloids, bearing a congested tetracyclo[5.3.3.04,9.04,12]tridecane unit, are included in these unsolved enigmas. Here we report a concise approach to the construction of the core structure of these molecules and the first total synthesis of (±)-atropurpuran. Pivotal features of the synthesis include an oxidative dearomatization/intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition cascade, sequential aldol and ketyl-olefin cyclizations to assemble the highly caged framework, and a chemoselective and stereoselective reduction to install the requisite allylic hydroxyl group in the target molecule. PMID:27387707

  18. Assessment of protein synthesis in highly aerobic canine species at the onset and during exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlicher, Sarah E.; Drake, Joshua C.; Peelor, Frederick F.; Biela, Laurie M.; Pratt-Phillips, Shannon; Davis, Michael; Hamilton, Karyn L.

    2015-01-01

    Canis lupus familiaris, the domesticated dog, is capable of extreme endurance performance. The ability to perform sustained aerobic exercise is dependent on a well-developed mitochondrial reticulum. In this study we examined the cumulative muscle protein and DNA synthesis in groups of athletic dogs at the onset of an exercise training program and following a strenuous exercise training program. We hypothesized that both at the onset and during an exercise training program there would be greater mitochondrial protein synthesis rates compared with sedentary control with no difference in mixed or cytoplasmic protein synthesis rates. Protein synthetic rates of three protein fractions and DNA synthesis were determined over 1 wk using 2H2O in competitive Alaskan Huskies and Labrador Retrievers trained for explosive device detection. Both groups of dogs had very high rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the sedentary state [Alaskan Huskies: Mixed = 2.28 ± 0.12, cytoplasmic (Cyto) = 2.91 ± 0.10, and mitochondrial (Mito) = 2.62 ± 0.07; Labrador Retrievers: Mixed = 3.88 ± 0.37, Cyto = 3.85 ± 0.06, and Mito = 2.92 ± 0.20%/day]. Mitochondrial (Mito) protein synthesis rates did not increase at the onset of an exercise training program. Exercise-trained dogs maintained Mito protein synthesis during exercise training when mixed (Mixed) and cytosolic (Cyto) fractions decreased, and this coincided with a decrease in p-RpS6 but also a decrease in p-ACC signaling. Contrary to our hypothesis, canines did not have large increases in mitochondrial protein synthesis at the onset or during an exercise training program. However, dogs have a high rate of protein synthesis compared with humans that perhaps does not necessitate an extra increase in protein synthesis at the onset of aerobic exercise training. PMID:25614602

  19. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  20. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  1. Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This article lists postsecondary programs specifically for people with deafness and other postsecondary programs with supportive services for students with deafness. Alphabetized by state, contact information is provided for each of the programs, along with date the program was founded, programs, degrees, and number of students and staff with…

  2. De novo gene synthesis design using TmPrime software.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo-Huang; Bode, Marcus; Huang, Mo Chao; Cheong, Wai Chye; Lim, Li Shi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents TmPrime, a computer program to design oligonucleotide for both ligase chain reaction (LCR)- and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based de novo gene synthesis. The program divides a long input DNA sequence based on user-specified melting temperatures and assembly conditions, and dynamically optimizes the length of oligonucleotides to achieve homologous melting temperatures. The output reports the melting temperatures, oligonucleotide sequences, and potential formation of secondary structures in a PDF file, which will be sent to the user via e-mail. The program also provides functions on sequence pooling to separate long genes into smaller pieces for multipool assembly and codon optimization for expression based on the highest organism-specific codon frequency. This software has been successfully used in the design and synthesis of various genes with total length >20 kbp. This program is freely available at http://prime.ibn.a-star.edu.sg. PMID:22328437

  3. Synthesis and toughness properties of resins and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    Tensile and shear moduli of four ACEE (Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program) resins are presented along with ACEE composite material modulus predictions based on micromechanics. Compressive strength and fracture toughness of the resins and composites were discussed. In addition, several resin synthesis techniques are reviewed.

  4. Dynamic substructuring for shock spectrum analysis using component mode synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpheeters, Barton W.; Lev, Avivi; Bogert, Philip B.; Scavuzzo, Rudolph J.

    1988-01-01

    Component mode synthesis was used to analyze different types of structures with MSC NASTRAN. The theory and technique of using Multipoint Constraint Equations (MPCs) to connect substructures to each other or to a common foundation is presented. Computation of the dynamic response of the system from shack spectrum inputs was automated using the DMAP programming language of the MSC NASTRAN finite element code.

  5. A Synthesis of Current Research in Migrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnur, James O.

    Purposes of this document are to present a broad view of migrant education which would inform educators of the current practices and procedures being employed and to provide impetus for more and better migrant education programs. The scope of this research synthesis encompasses the age range of the migrant (and his education) from cradle to…

  6. The Teaching of Protein Synthesis--A Microcomputer Based Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodridge, Frank

    1983-01-01

    Describes two computer programs (BASIC for 32K Commodore PET) for teaching protein synthesis. The first is an interactive test of base-pairing knowledge, and the second generates random DNA nucleotide sequences, with instructions for substitution, insertion, and deletion printed out for each student. (JN)

  7. A Review and Synthesis of Technical Education Research in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David Allen

    In order to aid teachers and administrators in improving programs in technical education, this report provides a brief review and synthesis of some of the recent research concerning post-high school technical education in the State of Oklahoma. The research is divided into the following topics: history, statewide surveys, placement and employment,…

  8. Programs To Aid FORTRAN Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragosta, Arthur E.

    1987-01-01

    Program-development time decreased while program quality increased. FORTRAN Programming Tools are series of programming tools used to support development and maintenance of FORTRAN 77 source codes. Included are debugging aid, central-processing-unit time-monitoring program, source-code maintenance aids, print utilities, and library of useful, well-documented programs. Tools assist in reducing development time and encouraging high-quality programming. Although intended primarily for FORTRAN programmers, some tools used on data files and other programming languages. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  9. Big6 Turbotools and Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    The different tools that are helpful during the Synthesis stage, their role in boosting students abilities in Synthesis and the way in which it can be customized to meet the needs of each group of students are discussed. Big6 TurboTools offers several tools to help complete the task. In Synthesis stage, these same tools along with Turbo Report and…

  10. Enhancement of RNA Synthesis, Protein Synthesis, and Abscission by Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, F. B.; Holm, R. E.

    1966-01-01

    Ethylene stimulated RNA and protein synthesis in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Red Kidney) abscission zone explants prior to abscission. The effect of ethylene on RNA synthesis and abscission was blocked by actinomycin D. Carbon dioxide, which inhibits the effect of ethylene on abscission, also inhibited the influence of ethylene on protein synthesis. An aging period appears to be essential before bean explants respond to ethylene. Stimulation of protein synthesis by ethylene occurred only in receptive or senescent explants. Treatment of juvenile explants with ethylene, which has no effect on abscission also has no effect on protein synthesis. Evidence in favor of a hormonal role for ethylene during abscission is discussed. PMID:16656405

  11. Glycals in enantiospecific synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikov, Alexander G.; Tolstikov, Genrikh A.

    1993-06-01

    The reactions of 1,2-unsaturated sugars (glycals) are considered in this review in relation to problems of the enantiospecific synthesis of natural products, their fragments, and their analogues. The reactions occurring both with retention of the heterocycle and those carried out with the aim of obtaining open chain chiral units are discussed. It is shown that the use of glycals as a stock of chiral substances which determine the configuration of the asymmetric centres in the target products of multistage synthesis is promising. Schemes for the synthesis of natural products of different types are considered: O- and C-glycosides, nucleosides, oligosaccharides, pheromones, antibiotics, toxins, glycosphingolipids, etc. The bibliography includes 161 references.

  12. Synthesis of organosilicon compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, G.

    1996-12-31

    Silicon-containing polymers have been a focus of synthesis and study in Dr. Barton`s group because of their chemistry and properties which are not offered by other systems or materials. For example, the polymer -[-SiMe{sub 2}C{triple_bond}C-]{sub n}-can be easily processed to films or fibers from melt or solution, and thermally converted to a SiC-containing ceramic in high yield at high temperature. In recent years, carbosilane dendritic polymers have been of great interests in many research groups. However, no synthesis of carbosilane dendrimers with functionalties both inside and outside the dendrimer has been reported. Functionality is very important in the synthesis of preceramic polymers. This thesis will be devoted to exploring several new organosilicon polymer systems.

  13. Ridge 2000 Data Integration and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, D. J.; Ferrini, V.; Carbotte, S.; Blackman, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Ridge 2000 (R2K) program is transitioning toward an increased emphasis on integration and synthesis of data acquired on multi-disciplinary expeditions focused on understanding the geo-biological processes associated with hydrothermal systems on mid-ocean ridges (MORs). This phase of the program will focus not only on the compilation of existing data, but also on integration of results across disciplines, and development of models that examine the linkages between spreading, hydrothermal, and ecosystem processes. During this phase of the program, data from throughout the global mid-ocean ridge system will be important to achieve a more holistic understanding of MOR processes and how they relate to the Ridge 2000 data sets from each Integrated Study Site (ISS). A series of workshops were held in Fall 2008 to bring together researchers from each ISS to help coordinate the integration and synthesis phase of the program. While most cruises conducted during the R2K program have been cataloged and basic metadata made available through R2K Data Portal (http://www.marine- geo.org/ridge2000), additional data, including derived and interpreted data sets from R2K-funded expeditions and other ridge-related expeditions are important to make available during this phase in the program. Once data are available, a variety of data access and visualization tools including GeoMapApp, Google Earth, and IVS-Fledermaus can be used to help coordinate analysis and integration efforts. We focus on highlighting potential scientific applications made possible with currently available software tools, and report on the R2K community feedback and utilization of data bases and visualization tools brought to light during the Fall 2008 workshops. geo.org/ridge2000

  14. Electrochemical synthesis of cyclopropanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elinson, M. N.; Dorofeeva, E. O.; Vereshchagin, A. N.; Nikishin, G. I.

    2015-05-01

    Data on methods of electrochemical synthesis of cyclopropanes are summarized and described systematically. Direct electrochemical methods to afford cyclopropanes in both cathodic and anodic processes are considered. Among indirect electrochemical methods such as the processes employing electrogenerated bases and also those involving electrogenerated metal complexes, attention is focused on the most promising methods for the synthesis of functionally substituted cyclopropanes, namely, the electrocatalytic cascade and multicomponent transformations of CH acids and also the joint electrolysis of CH acids and activated alkenes or carbonyl compounds in the presence of alkali metal halides as mediators. The bibliography includes 62 references.

  15. Diophantine frequency synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sotiriadis, Paul Peter

    2006-11-01

    A methodology for fine-step, fast-hopping, low-spurs phase-locked loop based frequency synthesis is presented. It uses mathematical properties of integer numbers and linear Diophantine equations to overcome the constraining relation between frequency step and phase-comparator frequency that is inherent in conventional phase-locked loop based frequency synthesis. The methodology leads to fine-step, fast-hopping, modular-structured frequency synthesizers with potentially very low spurs, especially in the vicinity of the carrier. The paper focuses on the mathematical principles of the new methodology and the related number theoretic algorithms. PMID:17091835

  16. Enantioselective Synthesis of (-)-Dysiherbaine.

    PubMed

    Do, Ha; Kang, Chang Won; Cho, Joon Hyung; Gilbertson, Scott R

    2015-08-21

    Dysiherbaine, a natural product isolated from the Marine sponge Dysidea herbacea, has been shown to be a selective agonist of non-NMDA type glutamate receptors, kainate receptors. An enantioselective synthesis of dysiherbaine is reported. Metathesis of the diene followed by conversion of the resulting alkene to the amino alcohol and addition of the amino acid provides the natural product. This synthesis differs from previous approaches to the molecule in that the functionality on the tetrahydropyran ring is installed late in the route. PMID:26258884

  17. Risk-Assessment Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, William C.; Mittman, David S.

    1993-01-01

    RISK D/C is prototype computer program assisting in attempts to do program risk modeling for Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architectures proposed in Synthesis Group Report. Risk assessment performed with respect to risk events, probabilities, and severities of potential results. Enables ranking, with respect to effectiveness, of risk-mitigation strategies proposed for exploration program architecture. Allows for fact that risk assessment in early phases of planning subjective. Although specific to SEI in present form, also used as software framework for development of risk-assessment programs for other specific uses. Developed for Macintosh(TM) series computer. Requires HyperCard(TM) 2.0 or later, as well as 2 Mb of random-access memory and System 6.0.8 or later.

  18. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

  19. Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2004-01-01

    A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

  20. Synthesis of stiffened shells of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Computer programs for the synthesis of shells of various configurations were developed. The conditions considered are: (1) uniform shells (mainly cones) using a membrane buckling analysis, (2) completely uniform shells (cones, spheres, toroidal segments) using linear bending prebuckling analysis, and (3) revision of second design process to reduce the number of design variables to about 30 by considering piecewise uniform designs. A perturbation formula was derived and this allows exact derivatives of the general buckling load to be computed with little additional computer time.

  1. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for space frame synthesis based on the application of a full gamut of approximation concepts is presented. It is found that with the thoughtful selection of design space, objective function approximation, constraint approximation and mathematical programming problem formulation options it is possible to obtain near minimum mass designs for a significant class of space frame structural systems while requiring fewer than 10 structural analyses. Example problems are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for frame structures subjected to multiple static loading conditions with limits on structural stiffness and strength.

  2. Magnetic field synthesis for microwave magnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, F. R.

    1982-04-01

    The Microwave and Quantum Magnetics Group of the M.I.T. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science undertook a two-year research program directed at developing synthesis procedures that allow magnetostatic and/or magnetoelastic modes to be specially tailored for microwave signal processing applications that include magnetically tunable filters and limiters as well as delay lines that are either linearly dispersive or nondispersive over prescribed bandwidths. Special emphasis was given to devices employing thin films of yttrium iron garnet (YIG) that are blessed with spatially nonuniform dc magnetic fields.

  3. Collaborative Information Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Catherine; Pratt, Wanda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the growth in the quantity of scientific literature and advances in information retrieval techniques to find relevant articles. Explores user behavior and information requirements of scientists as they interact with medical literature to answer research questions and introduces METIS (Multi-user extraction and information synthesis) to…

  4. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  5. Synthesis of (+)-Coronafacic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Sheth, Ritesh B.; Tian, Weiwei

    2009-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of (+)-coronafacic acid has been achieved. Rhodium catalyzed cyclization of an α-diazoester provided the intermediate cyclopentanone in high enantiomeric purity. Subsequent Fe-mediated cyclocarbonylation of a derived alkenyl cyclopropane gave a bicyclic enone, that then was hydrogenated and carried on to the natural product. PMID:19231870

  6. Matrix Synthesis and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The role of NASA in the area of composite material synthesis; evaluation techniques; prediction analysis techniques; solvent-resistant tough composite matrix; resistance to paint strippers; acceptable processing temperature and pressure for thermoplastics; and the role of computer modeling and fiber interface improvement were discussed.

  7. Total synthesis of jiadifenolide.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-07-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  8. Synthesis in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsella, Maria

    This paper discusses various techniques that scientists and other professionals can use to keep current in their field despite the large amount of available information, such as consulting abstracts, indexes, reviews, and catalogues. It also examines specific language patterns that are used in the sciences to produce synthesis and abridgement,…

  9. Total Synthesis of Jiadifenolide**

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  10. The New Synthesis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holton, Gerald

    1978-01-01

    This article addresses the following questions: (1) What are the aims and claims of contemporary sociobiology? (2) How does the enterprise fit into the history of ideas? and (3) Does sociobiology have the earmarks of being the beginning of a major synthesis? (Author/AM)