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1

Combining Model-driven and Schema-based Program Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe ongoing work which aims to extend the schema-based program synthesis paradigm with explicit models. In this context, schemas can be considered as model-to-model transformations. The combination of schemas with explicit models offers a number of advantages, namely, that building synthesis systems becomes much easier since the models can be used in verification and in adaptation of the synthesis systems. We illustrate our approach using an example from signal processing.

Denney, Ewen; Whittle, John

2004-01-01

2

Using Domain Models in Extensible Schema-based Software Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software used in NASA missions is growing more and more complex, but at the same time it needs to satisfy increasingly stringent a ordability and relia-bility requirements. Software synthesis provides a way of achieving these goals by generating code from high-level specifications. Two applications developed within the ASE group, AutoBayes [7] and AutoFilter [15], use schema-based software synthesis to

Eugen C. Nistor

3

Improving Students' Proportional Thinking Using Schema-Based Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of an instructional program (schema-based instruction, SBI) designed to teach 7th graders how to comprehend and solve proportion problems involving ratios/rates, scale drawings, and percents. The SBI program emphasized the underlying mathematical structure of problems via schematic diagrams, focused on a…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.; Rodriguez, Michael; Lindell, Mary; Someki, Fumio

2011-01-01

4

AutoBayes Program Synthesis System System Internals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This lecture combines the theoretical background of schema based program synthesis with the hands-on study of a powerful, open-source program synthesis system (Auto-Bayes). Schema-based program synthesis is a popular approach toward program synthesis. The lecture will provide an introduction into this topic and discuss how this technology can be used to generate customized algorithms. The synthesis of advanced numerical algorithms requires the availability of a powerful symbolic (algebra) system. Its task is to symbolically solve equations, simplify expressions, or to symbolically calculate derivatives (among others) such that the synthesized algorithms become as efficient as possible. We will discuss the use and importance of the symbolic system for synthesis. Any synthesis system is a large and complex piece of code. In this lecture, we will study Autobayes in detail. AutoBayes has been developed at NASA Ames and has been made open source. It takes a compact statistical specification and generates a customized data analysis algorithm (in C/C++) from it. AutoBayes is written in SWI Prolog and many concepts from rewriting, logic, functional, and symbolic programming. We will discuss the system architecture, the schema libary and the extensive support infra-structure. Practical hands-on experiments and exercises will enable the student to get insight into a realistic program synthesis system and provides knowledge to use, modify, and extend Autobayes.

Schumann, Johann Martin

2011-01-01

5

Programing Structural Synthesis System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program aids research in analysis and optimization. Programing Structural Synthesis System (PROSSS2) developed to provide structural-synthesis capability by combining access to SPAR with CONMIN program and set of interface procedures. SPAR is large general-purpose finite-element structural-analysis program, and CONMIN is large general-purpose optimization program. PROSSS2 written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

Rogers, James L., Jr.

1986-01-01

6

From program verification to program synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel technique for the synthesis of imperative programs. Automated program synthesis has the potential to make programming and the design of systems easier by allowing programs to be specified at a higher-level than executable code. In our approach, which we call proof-theoretic synthesis, the user provides an input-output functional specification, a description of the atomic operations

Saurabh Srivastava; Sumit Gulwani; Jeffrey S. Foster

2010-01-01

7

From program verification to program synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel technique for the synthesis of imper- ative programs. Automated program synthesis has the potential to make programming and the design of systems easier by allowing programs to be specified at a higher-level than executable code. In our approach, which we call proof-theoretic synthesis, the user pro- vides an input-output functional specification, a description of the

Saurabh Srivastava; Sumit Gulwani; Jeffrey S. Foster

2010-01-01

8

The Effects of Simplified Schema-Based Instruction on Elementary Students' Mathematical Word Problem Solving Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an evidence-based mathematical intervention in word problem solving for elementary students. One of the purposes of teaching mathematics is to help students apply mathematics to real life situations. As we know, teaching word problem solving is a very suitable format for this purpose. Schema-based instruction (SBI) is one of the most…

Fang, Houbin Lewis

2012-01-01

9

Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

Falzon, P.

1984-01-01

10

Programmed Organic Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes recent attempts to program computers to map synthetic routes to organic compounds. The computer is provided with structural information for many molecules and reaction descriptions; when a target compound is specified, the computer lists possible precursors, thus indicating possible synthetic routes. (MLH)

Heusler, Karl

1975-01-01

11

Schema-based learning of adaptable and flexible prey- catching in anurans II. Learning after lesioning.  

PubMed

The previous companion paper describes the initial (seed) schema architecture that gives rise to the observed prey-catching behavior. In this second paper in the series we describe the fundamental adaptive processes required during learning after lesioning. Following bilateral transections of the hypoglossal nerve, anurans lunge toward mealworms with no accompanying tongue or jaw movement. Nevertheless anurans with permanent hypoglossal transections eventually learn to catch their prey by first learning to open their mouth again and then lunging their body further and increasing their head angle. In this paper we present a new learning framework, called schema-based learning (SBL). SBL emphasizes the importance of the current existent structure (schemas), that defines a functioning system, for the incremental and autonomous construction of ever more complex structure to achieve ever more complex levels of functioning. We may rephrase this statement into the language of Schema Theory (Arbib 1992, for a comprehensive review) as the learning of new schemas based on the stock of current schemas. SBL emphasizes a fundamental principle of organization called coherence maximization, that deals with the maximization of congruence between the results of an interaction (external or internal) and the expectations generated for that interaction. A central hypothesis consists of the existence of a hierarchy of predictive internal models (predictive schemas) all over the control center-brain-of the agent. Hence, we will include predictive models in the perceptual, sensorimotor, and motor components of the autonomous agent architecture. We will then show that predictive models are fundamental for structural learning. In particular we will show how a system can learn a new structural component (augment the overall network topology) after being lesioned in order to recover (or even improve) its original functionality. Learning after lesioning is a special case of structural learning but clearly shows that solutions cannot be known/hardwired a priori since it cannot be known, in advance, which substructure is going to break down. PMID:16320080

Corbacho, Fernando; Nishikawa, Kiisa C; Weerasuriya, Ananda; Liaw, Jim-Shih; Arbib, Michael A

2005-12-01

12

Effectiveness of Schema-Based Instruction for Improving Seventh-Grade Students' Proportional Reasoning: A Randomized Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of schema-based instruction (SBI) on 7th-grade students' mathematical problem-solving performance. SBI is an instructional intervention that emphasizes the role of mathematical structure in word problems and also provides students with a heuristic to self-monitor and aid problem solving. Using a…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Rodriguez, Michael C.

2013-01-01

13

A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management  

PubMed Central

In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products. Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

2013-01-01

14

GASP- GENERAL AVIATION SYNTHESIS PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Aviation Synthesis Program, GASP, was developed to perform tasks generally associated with the preliminary phase of aircraft design. GASP gives the analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner during preliminary design efforts. During the development of GASP, emphasis was placed on small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying from a single piston engine with a fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/turbofan systems as employed in business or transport type aircraft. The program is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines of design, integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedures. GASP provides a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, and performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies. By utilizing GASP, the impact of various aircraft requirements and design factors may be studied in a systematic manner, with benefits being measured in terms of overall aircraft performance and economics. The GASP program consists of a control module and six "technology" submodules which perform the various independent studies required in the design of general aviation or small transport type aircraft. The six technology modules include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, weight and balance, mission analysis, and economics. The geometry module calculates the dimensions of the synthesized aircraft components based on such input parameters as number of passengers, aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweep angles, and thickness of wing and tail surfaces. The aerodynamics module calculates the various lift and drag coefficients of the synthesized aircraft based on inputs concerning configuration geometry, flight conditions, and type of high lift device. The propulsion module determines the engine size and performance for the synthesized aircraft. Both cruise and take-off requirements for the aircraft may be specified. This module can currently simulate turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and reciprocating or rotating combustion engines. The weight and balance module accepts as input gross weight, payload, aircraft geometry, and weight trend coefficients for use in calculating the size of tip tanks and wing location required such that the synthesized aircraft is in balance for center of gravity travel. In the mission analysis module, the taxi, take-off, climb, cruise, and landing segments of a specified mission are analyzed to compute the total range, and the aircraft size required to provide this range is determined. In the economic module both the flyaway and operating costs are determined from estimated resources and services cost. The six technology modules are integrated into a single synthesis system by the control module. This integrated approach ensures that the results from each module contain the effect of design interactions among all the modules. Starting from a set of simple input quantities concerning aircraft type, size, and performance, the synthesis is extended to the point where all of the important aircraft characteristics have been analyzed quantitatively. Together, the synthesis model and procedure develops aircraft configurations in a manner useful in parametric analysis and provides a useful step toward more detailed analytical and experimental studies. The GASP program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 200K(octal) of 60 bit words. The GASP program was developed in 1978.

Galloway, T. L.

1994-01-01

15

Motor schema based navigation for a mobile robot: An approach to programming by behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor schemas are proposed as a basic unit of behavior specification for the navigation of a mobile robot. These are multiple concurrent processes which operate in conjunction with associated perceptual schemas and contribute independently to the overall concerted action of the vehicle. The motivation behind the use of schemas for this domain is drawn from neuroscientific, psychological and robotic sources.

Ronald C. Arkin

1987-01-01

16

Virtual drug screen schema based on multiview similarity integration and ranking aggregation.  

PubMed

The current drug virtual screen (VS) methods mainly include two categories. i.e., ligand/target structure-based virtual screen and that, utilizing protein-ligand interaction fingerprint information based on the large number of complex structures. Since the former one focuses on the one-side information while the later one focuses on the whole complex structure, they are thus complementary and can be boosted by each other. However, a common problem faced here is how to present a comprehensive understanding and evaluation of the various virtual screen results derived from various VS methods. Furthermore, there is still an urgent need for developing an efficient approach to fully integrate various VS methods from a comprehensive multiview perspective. In this study, our virtual screen schema based on multiview similarity integration and ranking aggregation was tested comprehensively with statistical evaluations, providing several novel and useful clues on how to perform drug VS from multiple heterogeneous data sources. (1) 18 complex structures of HIV-1 protease with ligands from the PDB were curated as a test data set and the VS was performed with five different drug representations. Ritonavir ( 1HXW ) was selected as the query in VS and the weighted ranks of the query results were aggregated from multiple views through four similarity integration approaches. (2) Further, one of the ranking aggregation methods was used to integrate the similarity ranks calculated by gene ontology (GO) fingerprint and structural fingerprint on the data set from connectivity map, and two typical HDAC and HSP90 inhibitors were chosen as the queries. The results show that rank aggregation can enhance the result of similarity searching in VS when two or more descriptions are involved and provide a more reasonable similarity rank result. Our study shows that integrated VS based on multiple data fusion can achieve a remarkable better performance compared to that from individual ones and, thus, serves as a promising way for efficient drug screening, taking advantages of the rapidly accumulated molecule representations and heterogeneous data in the pharmacological area. PMID:22332590

Kang, Hong; Sheng, Zhen; Zhu, Ruixin; Huang, Qi; Liu, Qi; Cao, Zhiwei

2012-03-26

17

Mathematical programming formulations for satellite synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of satellite synthesis can be described as optimally allotting locations and sometimes frequencies and polarizations, to communication satellites so that interference from unwanted satellite signals does not exceed a specified threshold. In this report, mathematical programming models and optimization methods are used to solve satellite synthesis problems. A nonlinear programming formulation which is solved using Zoutendijk's method and a gradient search method is described. Nine mixed integer programming models are considered. Results of computer runs with these nine models and five geographically compatible scenarios are presented and evaluated. A heuristic solution procedure is also used to solve two of the models studied. Heuristic solutions to three large synthesis problems are presented. The results of our analysis show that the heuristic performs very well, both in terms of solution quality and solution time, on the two models to which it was applied. It is concluded that the heuristic procedure is the best of the methods considered for solving satellite synthesis problems.

Bhasin, Puneet; Reilly, Charles H.

1987-01-01

18

SATISFIABILITY-BASED PROGRAM REASONING AND PROGRAM SYNTHESIS 1  

E-print Network

Dissertation directed by: Professor Jeffrey S. Foster Department of Computer Science Program reasoning consists on the ideas presented in this dissertation. #12;SATISFIABILITY-BASED PROGRAM REASONING AND PROGRAM SYNTHESIS and contentious research thought I decided to pursue, amazes me in hindsight. It would be fair to say that he

Foster, Jeff

19

Algorithmic Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Distributed Programs Ali Ebnenasir  

E-print Network

-tolerance, Automatic addition of fault- tolerance, Program synthesis, Program transformation, Dis- tributed programs 1Algorithmic Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Distributed Programs Ali Ebnenasir Department of Computer Synthesizing fault-tolerant distributed programs from their fault- intolerant version is NP-hard in the size

Ebnenasir, Ali

20

VASP- VARIABLE DIMENSION AUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VASP is a variable dimension Fortran version of the Automatic Synthesis Program, ASP. The program is used to implement Kalman filtering and control theory. Basically, it consists of 31 subprograms for solving most modern control problems in linear, time-variant (or time-invariant) control systems. These subprograms include operations of matrix algebra, computation of the exponential of a matrix and its convolution integral, and the solution of the matrix Riccati equation. The user calls these subprograms by means of a FORTRAN main program, and so can easily obtain solutions to most general problems of extremization of a quadratic functional of the state of the linear dynamical system. Particularly, these problems include the synthesis of the Kalman filter gains and the optimal feedback gains for minimization of a quadratic performance index. VASP, as an outgrowth of the Automatic Synthesis Program, has the following improvements: more versatile programming language; more convenient input/output format; some new subprograms which consolidate certain groups of statements that are often repeated; and variable dimensioning. The pertinent difference between the two programs is that VASP has variable dimensioning and more efficient storage. The documentation for the VASP program contains a VASP dictionary and example problems. The dictionary contains a description of each subroutine and instructions on its use. The example problems include dynamic response, optimal control gain, solution of the sampled data matrix Riccati equation, matrix decomposition, and a pseudo-inverse of a matrix. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on the IBM 360. The VASP program was developed in 1971.

White, J. S.

1994-01-01

21

A Comparison of the Effects of Image-Schema-Based Instruction and Translation-Based Instruction on the Acquisition of L2 Polysemous Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quasi-experimental study investigated the effectiveness of two types of vocabulary instruction--image-schema-based instruction (ISBI) and translation-based instruction (TBI)--on the acquisition of second language (L2) polysemous words. Fifty-eight Japanese high school learners of English were divided into two treatment groups (ISBI and TBI)…

Morimoto, Shun; Loewen, Shawn

2007-01-01

22

Meeting the Needs of Students With Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Mathematics Classrooms: The Role of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Problem-Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses schema-based instruction (SBI) as an alternative to traditional instruction for enhancing the mathematical problem solving performance of students with learning disabilities (LD). In the authors' most recent research and developmental efforts, they designed SBI to meet the needs of middle school students with LD in inclusive mathematics classrooms by addressing the research literatures in special education, cognitive

Asha K. Jitendra; Jon R. Star

2011-01-01

23

Meeting the Needs of Students with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Mathematics Classrooms: The Role of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses schema-based instruction (SBI) as an alternative to traditional instruction for enhancing the mathematical problem solving performance of students with learning disabilities (LD). In the authors' most recent research and developmental efforts, they designed SBI to meet the needs of middle school students with LD in inclusive…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.

2011-01-01

24

Using Psychometric Technology in Educational Assessment: The Case of a Schema-Based Isomorphic Approach to the Automatic Generation of Quantitative Reasoning Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with the investigation of the psychometric quality and constructs validity of algebra word problems generated by means of a schema-based version of the automatic min-max approach. Based on review of the research literature in algebra word problem solving and automatic item generation this new approach is introduced as a…

Arendasy, Martin; Sommer, Markus

2007-01-01

25

Automatic Synthesis Of Greedy Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a knowledge based approach to automatically generate Lisp programs using the Greedy method of algorithm design. The system's knowledge base is composed of heuristics for recognizing problems amenable to the Greedy method and knowledge about the Greedy strategy itself (i.e., rules for local optimization, constraint satisfaction, candidate ordering and candidate selection). The system has been able to generate programs for a wide variety of problems including the job-scheduling problem, the 0-1 knapsack problem, the minimal spanning tree problem, and the problem of arranging files on tape to minimize access time. For the special class of problems called matroids, the synthesized program provides optimal solutions, whereas for most other problems the solutions are near-optimal.

Bhansali, Sanjay; Miriyala, Kanth; Harandi, Mehdi T.

1989-03-01

26

A Summary of the PSI Program Synthesis System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the current status of the PSI program synthesis system. It alloius program specification dialogues using natural language, traces and examples from which a high-level program model is acquired. This model is then refined into an efficient implementation of the program. PSI consists of several modules including a parser-interpreter, trace and examples inference expert, dialogue moderator, program model

C. Green

1977-01-01

27

The design of the PSI program synthesis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the current state of the PSI automatic program synthesis system and discusses the design considerations. The PSI system allows a user to specify a desired program in a dialogue using natural language and traces. PSI then synthesizes a program meeting these specifications. The target programs are simple symbolic computation programs in LISP. PSI may

C. Cordell Green

1976-01-01

28

Towards High-Assurance High-Performance Program Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Domain-specific automatic program synthesis tools, also called application generators, are playing an ever-increasing role in software development. However, high-performance application generators require difficult manual construction, and are very difficult to verify correct. This paper describes research and an implemented system that transforms program synthesis tools based on deductive synthesis into high-performance application generators. Deductive synthesis uses theorem-proving to construct solutions when given problem specifications. The verification condition for a deductive synthesis tool is essentially the soundness of the implemented inference rules. Theory Operationalization for Program Synthesis (TOPS) synergistically combines reformulation, automated mathematical classification, and compilation through partial deduction to decision procedures. It transforms general-purpose deductive synthesis, with exponential performance, into efficient special-purpose deductive synthesis, with near-linear performance. This paper describes our experience with and empirical results of PD(TH) theory-based partial deduction - in which partial deduction of a set of first-order formulae is performed within the context of a background theory. The implemented TOPS system currently performs a special variant of PD(TH) in which the compilation process results in the transformation of a set of first order formulae into the theory of an instantiated library decision procedure augmented by a compiled unit theory.

Lowry, Michael; Roach, Steven; vanBaalen, Jeffrey

1997-01-01

29

An implementation of the distributed programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for implementing a flexible software system that combines large, complex programs with small, user-supplied, problem-dependent programs and that distributes their execution between a mainframe and a minicomputer. The Programming Structural Synthesis System (PROSSS) was the specific software system considered. The results of such distributed implementation are flexibility of the optimization procedure organization and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables.

Rogers, J. L., Jr.

1981-01-01

30

Distributed Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Programs in the High Atomicity Model  

E-print Network

transformation, Program synthesis, Distributed algorithms, Fault-tolerance, Parallel synthesis. 1 IntroductionDistributed Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Programs in the High Atomicity Model Borzoo Bonakdarpour://www.cse.msu.edu/~{borzoo,sandeep,abujarad} Abstract. In this paper, we concentrate on distributed algorithms for automated synthesis of fault

Kulkarni, Sandeep

31

Mathematics Word Problem Solving: An Investigation into Schema-Based Instruction in a Computer-Mediated Setting and a Teacher-Mediated Setting with Mathematically Low-Performing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substantial evidence indicates that teacher-delivered schema-based instruction (SBI) facilitates significant increases in mathematics word problem solving (WPS) skills for diverse students; however research is unclear whether technology affordances facilitate superior gains in computer-mediated (CM) instruction in mathematics WPS when compared to…

Leh, Jayne

2011-01-01

32

[Synthesis of 107 Workplace Literacy Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined information from 107 workplace literacy program descriptions from the United States and drew conclusions about joint partnerships, funding, and flexibility. Most of the program descriptions were found in an extensive search using the ERIC database. The programs described were from 1989 and 1990. Some of the findings were the…

Bussert, Kathy M.

33

Data synthesis and display programs for wave distribution function analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) software was written to synthesize and display artificial data for use in developing the methodology of wave distribution analysis. The software comprises two separate interactive programs, one for data synthesis and the other for data display.

Storey, L. R. O.; Yeh, K. J.

1992-01-01

34

System Synthesis in Instructional Programming: The Intermediate Phases of the Program Construction Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this second volume of a three-volume series on the construction of self-instructional systems, the system synthesis phase is described and directions are given for the construction of a preliminary system version. In order to aid the program constructor in establishing the correct sequence of instruction, various models of programing are…

Bjerstedt, Ake

35

Users manual for the Variable dimension Automatic Synthesis Program (VASP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dictionary and some problems for the Variable Automatic Synthesis Program VASP are submitted. The dictionary contains a description of each subroutine and instructions on its use. The example problems give the user a better perspective on the use of VASP for solving problems in modern control theory. These example problems include dynamic response, optimal control gain, solution of the sampled data matrix Ricatti equation, matrix decomposition, and pseudo inverse of a matrix. Listings of all subroutines are also included. The VASP program has been adapted to run in the conversational mode on the Ames 360/67 computer.

White, J. S.; Lee, H. Q.

1971-01-01

36

Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program has a two-fold purpose. It can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general-purpose branched trajectory optimization program. In the former use, it has the Space Shuttle Synthesis Program as well as a simplified stage weight module for optimally sizing manned recoverable launch vehicles. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent; the second employs the method of quasilinearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

1972-01-01

37

Optical thin film synthesis program based on the use of Fourier transforms  

E-print Network

Optical thin film synthesis program based on the use of Fourier transforms J. A. Dobrowolski and D the essential equations necessaryfor the implementation of Sossi's formulation of the FT thin film synthesis There exist two basic approaches to the synthesis of optical multilayer systems with irregular spectral

Lowe, David

38

Integration of Major Computer Program Packages into Experimental Courses: Organic Synthesis Design and the Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents discussion on: (1) computer assisted synthesis in industry and academia; (2) computer applications to teaching organic synthesis; (3) a computer program (ORGSYN) incorporating reactions to synthesize aliphatic compounds; and (4) the design of a computer program as a heuristic device in an introductory organic course. (SK)

Sandel, Bonnie Burns; Solomon, Robert W.

1981-01-01

39

A Program Structure for Event-Based Speech Synthesis by Rules within a Flexible Segmental Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program structure based on recently developed techniques for operating system simulation has the required flexibility for use as a speech synthesis algorithm research framework. This program makes synthesis possible with less rigid time and frequency-component structure than simpler schemes. It also meets real-time operation and memory-size…

Hill, David R.

1978-01-01

40

Development of a weight/sizing design synthesis computer program. Volume 1: Program formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a weight/sizing design synthesis methodology for use in support of the main line space shuttle program is discussed. The methodology has a minimum number of data inputs and quick turn around capabilities. The methodology makes it possible to: (1) make weight comparisons between current shuttle configurations and proposed changes, (2) determine the effects of various subsystems trades on total systems weight, and (3) determine the effects of weight on performance and performance on weight.

Garrison, J. M.

1973-01-01

41

Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

Brooks, George E.

42

IMAGES: A digital computer program for interactive modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive digital computer program for modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis was written. Both mathematical and operation considerations are described; however, the mathematical presentation is limited to those concepts essential to the operational capability of the program. The program is capable of both modal and spectral synthesis of multi-input control systems. It is user friendly, has scratchpad capability and dynamic memory, and can be used to design either state or output feedback systems.

Jones, R. L.

1984-01-01

43

Labeled Formaldehyde Synthesis Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program national laboratory  

E-print Network

]methyl iodide. Technology Competitive Advantage The 2 minute synthesis affords a high yield of [11 CLabeled Formaldehyde Synthesis Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program national Status Provisional U.S. Patent Application Filed June 20, 2008 Brookhaven National Laboratory Christine

44

AUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS OF ROBOT PROGRAMS FOR A BIPED STATIC WALKER BY EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes a method to synthesis robot programs by Evolutionary Computation (EC). The problem of biped robot walking is chosen to test the proposed method. Walking motion is divided into six stages and the evolution is carried out stage-by-stage. The locomotion is restricted to forward walking on the flat and smooth surface with static balance. The synthesis process composed

Chanchai CHAISUKKOSOL; Prabhas CHONGSTITVATANA

45

Observations on the interaction between coding and efficiency knowledge in the PSI Program Synthesis System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how the synthesis phase of the PSI system constructs programs from high level program models by using coding knowledge and efficiency knowledge. In our preliminary implementation, these knowledge bases are separated into distinct modules, the coding expert and the efficiency expert. We describe how the coding expert uses rule-based programming knowledge to produce alternative algorithm and data

David R. Barstow; Elaine Kant

1976-01-01

46

On the Use of Inductive Reasoning in Program Synthesis: Prejudice and Prospects  

E-print Network

On the Use of Inductive Reasoning in Program Synthesis: Prejudice and Prospects Pierre Flener Lubos that have however not been fulfilled by languages such as Prolog. It is but a recent trend to dissociate

Flener, Pierre

47

Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The QL module of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is described. Execution of this module is initiated when and if subroutine PADSI calls subroutine GROPE. Subroutine GROPE controls the high level logical flow of the QL module. The purpose of the module is to determine a trajectory that satisfies the necessary variational conditions for optimal performance. The module achieves this by solving a nonlinear multi-point boundary value problem. The numerical method employed is described. It is an iterative technique that converges quadratically when it does converge. The three basic steps of the module are: (1) initialization, (2) iteration, and (3) culmination. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

1972-01-01

48

Applying Aspect-Oriented Programming to Intelligent Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I discuss a component-centered, aspect-oriented system, the Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), NASA's initiative on Intelligent Synthesis Environments (ISE), and the application of OIF to the architecture of ISE.

Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

49

Development of weight/sizing design synthesis computer program. Volume 3: User Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The user manual for the weight/sizing design synthesis program is presented. The program is applied to an analysis of the basic weight relationships for the space shuttle which contribute significant portions of the inert weight. The relationships measure the parameters of load, geometry, material, and environment. A verbal description of the processes simulated, data input procedures, output data, and values present in the program is included.

Garrison, J. M.

1973-01-01

50

Music 4C, a multi-voiced synthesis program with instruments defined in C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Music 4C is a program which runs under Unix (including Linux) and provides a means for the synthesis of arbitrary signals as defined by the C code. The program is actually a loose translation of an earlier program, Music 4BF [H. S. Howe, Jr., Electronic Music Synthesis (Norton, 1975)]. A set of instrument definitions are driven by a numerical score which consists of a series of ``events.'' Each event gives an instrument name, start time and duration, and a number of parameters (e.g., pitch) which describe the event. Each instrument definition consists of event parameters, performance variables, initializations, and a synthesis algorithmic code. Thus, the synthetic signal, no matter how complex, is precisely defined. Moreover, the resulting sounds can be overlaid in any arbitrary pattern. The program serves as a mixer of algorithmically produced sounds or recorded sounds taken from sample files or synthesized from spectrum files. A score file can be entered by hand, generated from a program, translated from a MIDI file, or generated from an alpha-numeric score using an auxiliary program, Notepro. Output sample files are in wav, snd, or aiff format. The program is provided in the C source code for download.

Beauchamp, James W.

2003-04-01

51

Fas-induced programmed cell death is mediated by a Ras-regulated O2- synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Fas induces apoptosis in lymphocytes via a poorly defined intracellular signalling cascade. Previously, we have demonstrated the involvement and significance of a signalling cascade from the Fas receptor via sphingomyelinases and ceramide to Ras in Fas-induced apoptosis. Here we demonstrate rapid and transient synthesis of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) via activation of Ras after Fas. Genetic inhibition of Ras by transfection of transdominant inhibitory N17Ras blocked Fas-mediated ROI synthesis and programmed cell death. Likewise, the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and N-t-butyl-phenylnitrone abolished Fas-induced cell death, pointing to an important role for Ras-triggered ROI synthesis in Fas-mediated programmed cell death. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8943716

Gulbins, E; Brenner, B; Schlottmann, K; Welsch, J; Heinle, H; Koppenhoefer, U; Linderkamp, O; Coggeshall, K M; Lang, F

1996-01-01

52

Mechanical Verification of Automatic Synthesis of FaultTolerant Programs 1  

E-print Network

theorem prover. The algorithms in [7,8], focus on the problem of transforming a given faultMechanical Verification of Automatic Synthesis of Fault­Tolerant Programs 1 Sandeep S. Kulkarni://www.cse.msu.edu/~{sandeep,borzoo,ebnenasi} Abstract. Fault­tolerance is a crucial property in many systems. Thus, mechanical verification

Kulkarni, Sandeep

53

Mechanical Verification of Automatic Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Programs1  

E-print Network

theorem prover. The algorithms in [7,8], focus on the problem of transforming a given faultMechanical Verification of Automatic Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Programs1 Sandeep S. Kulkarni://www.cse.msu.edu/~{sandeep,borzoo,ebnenasi} Abstract. Fault-tolerance is a crucial property in many systems. Thus, mechanical verification

Kulkarni, Sandeep

54

PARSHL: An Analysis/Synthesis Program for Non-Harmonic Sounds Based on a Sinusoidal Representation  

E-print Network

. With these techniques, the signal is modeled as a sum of sine waves, and the parameters to be determined by analysis are the slowly time-varying amplitude and frequency for each sine wave. In the following subsections, wePARSHL: An Analysis/Synthesis Program for Non-Harmonic Sounds Based on a Sinusoidal Representation

Smith III, Julius Orion

55

Efficient Dense Stereo with Occlusions for New View-Synthesis by Four-State Dynamic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm is proposed for efficient stereo and novel view synthesis. Given the video streams acquired by two synchronized cameras the proposed algorithm synthesises images from a virtual camera in arbitrary position near the physical cameras. The new technique is based on an improved, dynamic-programming, stereo algorithm for efficient novel view generation. The two main contributions of this paper

Antonio Criminisi; Andrew Blake; Carsten Rother; Jamie Shotton; Philip H. S. Torr

2007-01-01

56

quiral: a computer program for the synthesis of chiral molecules from sugars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quiral computer program analyzes the 3D structure of a target organic molecule to find which sugar(s) can be used as a starting material for its synthesis. The program also proposes schemes for the preparation of rare or unavailable sugars whose chiral centers fit with those of the target molecule. Castanospermine, an anti-HIV natural compound is chosen as an example

Jean-Marc Nuzillard; Arnaud Haudrechy

2007-01-01

57

An MSG-method for inductive logic program synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNAPSE2 is an upgraded version of SYNAPSE (developed by Flener [1995]),\\u000awhich is an implementation of an inductive synthesis mechanism that\\u000asemi-automatically synthesizes divide-and-conquer logic algorithms in a\\u000aschema-guided way, from non-incrementally given examples and properties of\\u000aan intended relation. SYNAPSE2 goes through six steps, instantiating the\\u000aplace-holders of a chosen divide-and-conquer logic algorithm schema. At\\u000aStep 5, the MSG-Method

Esra Erdem

1996-01-01

58

Computer program for network synthesis by frequency response fit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program synthesizes a passive network by minimizing the difference in desired and actual frequency response. The program solves for the critical points of the error function /weighted least squares fit between calculated and desired frequency response/ by the multivariable Newton-Raphson method with components constrained to an admissible region.

Green, S.

1967-01-01

59

Conjunctive programming: An interactive approach to software system synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report introduces a technique of software documentation called conjunctive programming and discusses its role in the development and maintenance of software systems. The report also describes the conjoin tool, an adjunct to assist practitioners. Aimed at supporting software reuse while conforming with conventional development practices, conjunctive programming is defined as the extraction, integration, and embellishment of pertinent information obtained directly from an existing database of software artifacts, such as specifications, source code, configuration data, link-edit scripts, utility files, and other relevant information, into a product that achieves desired levels of detail, content, and production quality. Conjunctive programs typically include automatically generated tables of contents, indexes, cross references, bibliographic citations, tables, and figures (including graphics and illustrations). This report presents an example of conjunctive programming by documenting the use and implementation of the conjoin program.

Tausworthe, Robert C.

1992-01-01

60

GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 7: Economics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The economic analysis includes: manufacturing costs; labor costs; parts costs; operating costs; markups and consumer price. A user's manual for a computer program to calculate the final consumer price is included.

1978-01-01

61

Exception handling and object-oriented programming: towards a synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a discussion and a specification of an exception handling system dedicated to object-oriented programming. We show how a full object-oriented representation of exceptions and of protocols to handle them, using meta-classes, makes the system powerful as well as extendible and solves many classical exception handling issues. We explain the interest for object-oriented programming of handlers attached to

Christophe Dony; Marie Curie

1990-01-01

62

Analysis of Air Traffic Track Data with the AutoBayes Synthesis System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS) is aiming to provide substantial computer support for the air traffic controllers. Algorithms for the accurate prediction of aircraft movements are of central importance for such software systems but trajectory prediction has to work reliably in the presence of unknown parameters and uncertainties. We are using the AutoBayes program synthesis system to generate customized data analysis algorithms that process large sets of aircraft radar track data in order to estimate parameters and uncertainties. In this paper, we present, how the tasks of finding structure in track data, estimation of important parameters in climb trajectories, and the detection of continuous descent approaches can be accomplished with compact task-specific AutoBayes specifications. We present an overview of the AutoBayes architecture and describe, how its schema-based approach generates customized analysis algorithms, documented C/C++ code, and detailed mathematical derivations. Results of experiments with actual air traffic control data are discussed.

Schumann, Johann Martin Philip; Cate, Karen; Lee, Alan G.

2010-01-01

63

Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 3: User manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-fold purpose of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is discussed. The program can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general purpose branched trajectory optimization program. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent. The second module uses the method of quasi-linearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module.

1972-01-01

64

Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to improving elementary mathematics: mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and instructional process programs. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of at least 12 weeks, and…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

2008-01-01

65

Effective Beginning Reading Programs: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article systematically reviews research on the achievement outcomes of four types of approaches to improving the beginning reading success of children in kindergarten and first grade: Reading curricula, instructional technology, instructional process programs, and combinations of curricula and instructional process. Study inclusion criteria…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Davis, Susan

2009-01-01

66

Optimal register sharing for high-level synthesis of SSA form programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Register sharing for high-level synthesis of programs represented in static single assignment (SSA) form is proven to have a polynomial-time solution. Register sharing is modeled as a graph-coloring problem. Although graph coloring is NP-Complete in the general case, an interference graph constructed for a pro- gram in SSA form probably belongs to the class of chordal graphs that have an

Philip Brisk; Foad Dabiri; Roozbeh Jafari; Majid Sarrafzadeh

2006-01-01

67

Motor Schema-Based Mobile Robot Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor schemas serve as the basic unit of behavior specifica tion for the navigation of a mobile robot. They are multiple concurrent processes that operate in conjunction with asso ciated perceptual schemas and contribute independently to the overall concerted action of the vehicle. The motivation be hind the use of schemas for this domain is drawn from neuro- scientific, psychological,

Ronald C. Arkin

1989-01-01

68

A new implementation of the programming system for structural synthesis (PROSSS-2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This new implementation of the PROgramming System for Structural Synthesis (PROSSS-2) combines a general-purpose finite element computer program for structural analysis, a state-of-the-art optimization program, and several user-supplied, problem-dependent computer programs. The results are flexibility of the optimization procedure, organization, and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables. The analysis-optimization process results in a minimized objective function, typically the mass. The analysis and optimization programs are executed repeatedly by looping through the system until the process is stopped by a user-defined termination criterion. However, some of the analysis, such as model definition, need only be one time and the results are saved for future use. The user must write some small, simple FORTRAN programs to interface between the analysis and optimization programs. One of these programs, the front processor, converts the design variables output from the optimizer into the suitable format for input into the analyzer. Another, the end processor, retrieves the behavior variables and, optionally, their gradients from the analysis program and evaluates the objective function and constraints and optionally their gradients. These quantities are output in a format suitable for input into the optimizer. These user-supplied programs are problem-dependent because they depend primarily upon which finite elements are being used in the model. PROSSS-2 differs from the original PROSSS in that the optimizer and front and end processors have been integrated into the finite element computer program. This was done to reduce the complexity and increase portability of the system, and to take advantage of the data handling features found in the finite element program.

Rogers, James L., Jr.

1984-01-01

69

Trajectory module of the NASA Ames Research Center aircraft synthesis program ACSYNT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was developed to calculate trajectories for both military and commercial aircraft for use in the aircraft synthesis program, ACSYNT. The function of the trajectory module was to calculate the changes in the vehicle's flight conditions and weight, as fuel is consumed, during the flying of one or more missions. The trajectory calculations started with a takeoff, followed by up to 12 phases chosen from among the following: climb, cruise, acceleration, combat, loiter, descent, and paths. In addition, a balanced field length was computed. The emphasis was on relatively simple formulations and analytic expressions suitable for rapid computation since a prescribed trajectory had to be calculated many times in the process of converging an aircraft design, or finding an optimum configuration. The trajectory module consists of about 2500 cards and operational on a CDC 7600 computer.

Tauber, M. E.; Paterson, J. A.

1978-01-01

70

Synthesis of feedback control law for stabilization of chaotic system oscillations by means of analytic programming - Preliminary study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with a synthesis of control law for selected discrete chaotic system - logistic equation by means of analytic programming. The novelty of the approach is that a tool for symbolic regression - analytic programming - is used for the purpose of stabilization of higher periodic orbits - oscillations between several values of chaotic system. The paper consists of the descriptions of analytic programming as well as used chaotic system and detailed proposal of cost function used in optimization process. For experimentation, Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) with analytic programming and Differential evolution (DE) as second algorithm for meta-evolution were used.

Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Zelinka, Ivan; Davendra, Donald; Jasek, Roman

2012-11-01

71

An Implementation of the Berlekamp-Massey Linear Feedback Shift-Register Synthesis Algorithm in the C Programming Language  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an implementation of the Berlekamp-Massey linear feedback shift-register (LFSR) synthesis algorithm in the C programming language. Two pseudo-code versions of the code are given, the operation of LFSRs is explained, C-version of the pseudo-code versions is presented, and the output of the code, when run on two input samples, is shown.

CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.

1999-08-01

72

Design of alpha-transglucosidases of controlled specificity for programmed chemoenzymatic synthesis of antigenic oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Combined with chemical synthesis, the use of biocatalysts holds great potential to open the way to novel molecular diversity. We report in vitro chemoenzymatic pathways that, for the first time, take advantage of enzyme engineering to produce complex microbial cell-surface oligosaccharides and circumvent the chemical boundaries of glycochemistry. Glycoenzymes were designed to act on nonnatural conveniently protected substrates to produce intermediates compatible with a programmed chemical elongation. The study was focused on the synthesis of oligosaccharides mimicking the O-antigen motif of Shigella flexneri serotypes 1b and 3a, which could be used for the development of multivalent carbohydrate-based vaccines. A semirational engineering approach was successfully applied to amylosucrase, a transglucosidase that uses a low cost sucrose substrate as a glucosyl donor. The main difficulty was to retain the enzyme specificity toward sucrose, while creating a new catalytic function to render the enzyme able to regiospecifically glucosylate protected nonnatural acceptors. A structurally guided library of 133 mutants was generated from which several mutants with either completely new specificity toward methyl alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside or a tremendously enhanced one toward allyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranoside acceptors were isolated. The best variants were used to synthesize glucosylated building blocks. They were then converted into acceptors and potential donors compatible with chemical elongation toward oligosaccharide fragments of the O-antigens of the two targeted serotypes. This is the first report of a successful engineering of an alpha-transglycosidase acceptor binding site that led to new specificities. It demonstrates the potential of appropriate combinations of a planned chemoenzymatic pathway and enzyme engineering in glycochemistry. PMID:19432472

Champion, Elise; André, Isabelle; Moulis, Claire; Boutet, Julien; Descroix, Karine; Morel, Sandrine; Monsan, Pierre; Mulard, Laurence A; Remaud-Siméon, Magali

2009-06-01

73

Integration of a code for aeroelastic design of conventional and composite wings into ACSYNT, an aircraft synthesis program. [wing aeroelastic design (WADES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of program estimates of wing weight, material distribution. structural loads and elastic deformations with actual Northrop F-5A/B data is presented. Correlation coefficients obtained using data from a number of existing aircraft were computed for use in vehicle synthesis to estimate wing weights. The modifications necessary to adapt the WADES code for use in the ACSYNT program are described. Basic program flow and overlay structure is outlined. An example of the convergence of the procedure in estimating wing weights during the synthesis of a vehicle to satisfy F-5 mission requirements is given. A description of inputs required for use of the WADES program is included.

Mullen, J., Jr.

1976-01-01

74

Synthesis and Characterization of Oxide Feedstock Powders for the Fuel Cycle R&D Program  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel feedstock properties, such as physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics, have a significant impact on the fuel fabrication process and, by extension, the in-reactor fuel performance. This has been demonstrated through studies with UO{sub 2} spanning greater than 50 years. The Fuel Cycle R&D Program with The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy has initiated an effort to develop a better understanding of the relationships between oxide feedstock, fresh fuel properties, and in-reactor fuel performance for advanced mixed oxide compositions. Powder conditioning studies to enable the use of less than ideal powders for ceramic fuel pellet processing are ongoing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and an understanding of methods to increase the green density and homogeneity of pressed pellets has been gained for certain powders. Furthermore, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing methods for the co-conversion of mixed oxides along with techniques to analyze the degree of mixing. Experience with the fabrication of fuel pellets using co-synthesized multi-constituent materials is limited. In instances where atomically mixed solid solutions of two or more species are needed, traditional ceramic processing methods have been employed. Solution-based processes may be considered viable synthesis options, including co-precipitation (AUPuC), direct precipitation, direct-conversion (Modified Direct Denitration or MDD) and internal/external gelation (sol-gel). Each of these techniques has various advantages and disadvantages. The Fiscal Year 2010 feedstock development work at ORNL focused on the synthesis and characterization of one batch of UO{sub x} and one batch of U{sub 80}Ce{sub 20}O{sub x}. Oxide material synthesized at ORNL is being shipped to LANL for fuel fabrication process development studies. The feedstock preparation was performed using the MDD process which utilizes a rotary kiln to continuously thermally denitrate double salts of ammonium and metals to produce free-flowing powders that have good ceramic properties for fuel fabrication. Feedstock powder properties of interest include: particle size and distribution, surface area, phase purity, morphology, tap and bulk density, and flow characteristics.

Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL; Johnson, Jared A [ORNL

2010-09-01

75

An expert system for choosing the best combination of options in a general-purpose program for automated design synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system was developed to aid a user of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general-purpose optimization computer program in selecting the best combination of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options for solving a problem. There are approximately 100 such combinations available in ADS. The knowledge base contains over 200 rules, and is divided into three categories: constrained problems, unconstrained problems, and constrained problems treated as unconstrained problems. The inference engine is written in LISP and is available on DEC-VAX and IBM PC/XT computers.

Rogers, J. L., Jr.; Barthelemy, J. F. M.

1985-01-01

76

Cognitive Effects of Programming in Logo: A Review of Literature and Synthesis of Strategies for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of literature on programing in Logo, including prerequisites of programing, cognitive effects of programing, stages of programing, and levels of programing expertise. An analysis of the literature establishes the need for operationalizing problem solving with Logo, and a research strategy to meet this need is suggested. (32…

Singh, Jagjit Kaur

1992-01-01

77

A Synthesis of Research on Group-Based Mastery Learning Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A synthesis of findings from 38 studies on group-based applications of mastery learning strategies are presented. Meta-analytic procedures were used to combine the results of the studies and to calculate overall estimates of the effects of group-based applications. Results show that such applications yield consistently positive effects on both…

Guskey, Thomas R.; Gates, Sally L.

78

Effective Programs for Elementary Science: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which science programs have been proven to help elementary students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the science achievement of students in grades K-6: (1) Inquiry-oriented programs without science kits, such as Increasing Conceptual Challenge, Science IDEAS, and Collaborative…

Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

2012-01-01

79

Title: Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.2: Thresholds of Climate Change on Subject and Purpose: The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), a consortium of  

E-print Network

state changes or regime shifts in ecosystems in response to climate change. Committee membershipTitle: Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.2: Thresholds of Climate Change on Ecosystems Subject and Purpose: The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), a consortium of Federal agencies performing

Torgersen, Christian

80

F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. Computer Implementation of the F100 Multivariable Control Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As turbofan engines become more complex, the development of controls necessitate the use of multivariable control techniques. A control developed for the F100-PW-100(3) turbofan engine by using linear quadratic regulator theory and other modern multivariable control synthesis techniques is described. The assembly language implementation of this control on an SEL 810B minicomputer is described. This implementation was then evaluated by using a real-time hybrid simulation of the engine. The control software was modified to run with a real engine. These modifications, in the form of sensor and actuator failure checks and control executive sequencing, are discussed. Finally recommendations for control software implementations are presented.

Soeder, J. F.

1983-01-01

81

Analysis and Synthesis of DOL Experience in Youth Transition to Work Programs. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report reviews the experience with Federal programs concerned with the transition from school to work and abstracts lessons and guiding principles which might prove useful for planning and administering training and employment programs. The current labor force situation of youth (persons 16-24 years of age) is reviewed, impediments to the…

Walther, Regis H.

82

Preschool Programs: A Synthesis of Current Policy Issues. A Center Policy & Practice Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Once again, early education has emerged as a major policy and program topic. And, while the importance of early education is undisputed, the increasing calls for "Universal Preschool" and full-day kindergartens have yielded considerable controversy. Our specific interest in public policy for preschool programs stems from our concerns about…

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006

2006-01-01

83

A Synthesis of Issues Related to the Implementation of Bilingual Education Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To increase the possibility for successful programs and to determine the validity of the concept of bilingual education for limited English-speaking children, this discussion centers on issues which militate against full-scale implementation of bilingual education programs in some school districts. The narrative defines innovation as an "entity…

Dominguez, Domingo

84

A Grid-based Ant Colony System for Automatic Program Synthesis  

E-print Network

to iteratively modify a pool of program solu- tion candidates by means of some genetic operations including programmers to enable the automatic creation of code out of a set of specifications, without human interven made by Genetic Programming (GP) in the last decade or so [7, 9]. GP is based on a stochastic process

Fernandez, Thomas

85

Proactive Schema Based Link Lifetime Estimation and Connectivity Ratio  

PubMed Central

The radio link between a pair of wireless nodes is affected by a set of random factors such as transmission range, node mobility, and environment conditions. The properties of such radio links are continually experienced when nodes status balances between being reachable and being unreachable; thereby on completion of each experience the statistical distribution of link lifetime is updated. This aspect is emphasized in mobile ad hoc network especially when it is deployed in some fields that require intelligent processing of data information such as aerospace domain. PMID:24526882

Bachir, Bouamoud; Ali, Ouacha; Ahmed, Habbani; Mohamed, Elkoutbi

2014-01-01

86

Recognition mechanisms for schema-based knowledge representations  

SciTech Connect

The author considers generalizing formal recognition methods from parsing theory to schemata knowledge representations. Within artificial intelligence, recognition tasks include aspects of natural language understanding, computer vision, episode understanding, speech recognition, and others. The notion of schemata as a suitable knowledge representation for these tasks is discussed. A number of problems with current schemata-based recognition systems are presented. To gain insight into alternative approaches, the formal context-free parsing method of earley is examined. It is shown to suggest a useful control structure model for integrating top-down and bottom-up search in schemata representations. 46 references.

Havens, W.S.

1983-01-01

87

ERTS Schema-based GPS Following and Obstacle Avoidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ERTS robotic golf cart is controlled using a Schema Architecture to follow a path of GPS waypoints and to avoid obstacles. The theory behind a bare-bones version of the architecture is presented, followed by actual testing data in simulation and on the real golf cart. Finally, more involved versions of the architecture which were implemented, but not tested extensively

Richard Veale

88

Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program generation and transformation systems work on two language levels, the object-level (i e., the language of the manipulated programs), and the meta-level (i.e., the implementation language of the system itself). The meta-level representations of object-level program fragments are usually built in an essentially syntax-free fashion using the operations provided by the meta-language. However, syntax matters and a large conceptual distance between the two languages makes it difficult to maintain and extend such systems. Here we describe how an existing Prolog-based system can gradually be retrofitted with concrete object-level syntax, thus shrinking this distance.

Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

2004-01-01

89

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT COMPONENT OF THE FIELD VERIFICATION PROGRAM: DATA PRESENTATION AND SYNTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The exposure assessment component of the aquatic portion of the Field Verification Program (FVP) related the source input of dredged material contaminants to corresponding concentration distributions in space and time in the vicinity of the disposal mound. he specific objectives ...

90

A preliminary synthesis of major scientific results during the SALSA program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the primary results of the Semi-Arid Land–Surface–Atmosphere (SALSA) Program in the context of improvements to our overall understanding of hydrologic, ecologic, and atmospheric processes and their interactions in a semi-arid basin. The major findings and future research needs associated with the different core components of the program are emphasized.

A. Chehbouni; D. C. Goodrich; M. S. Moran; C. J. Watts; Y. H. Kerr; G. Dedieu; W. G. Kepner; W. J. Shuttleworth; S. Sorooshian

2000-01-01

91

The North American Carbon Program Multi-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 1: Overview and experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g., nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g., photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e., model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A. M.; Schaefer, K.; King, A. W.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A.; Liu, S.; Cook, R. B.; Post, W. M.; Berthier, G.; Hayes, D.; Huang, M.; Ito, A.; Lei, H.; Lu, C.; Mao, J.; Peng, C. H.; Peng, S.; Poulter, B.; Riccuito, D.; Shi, X.; Tian, H.; Wang, W.; Zeng, N.; Zhao, F.; Zhu, Q.

2013-12-01

92

Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

Fisher, S.C.

1995-12-31

93

Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Version 1.2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to improving elementary mathematics: Mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and instructional process programs. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of 12 weeks, and achievement…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

2007-01-01

94

Effective Programs in Middle and High School Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of mathematics programs for middle and high schools. Study inclusion requirements include use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of at least 12 weeks, and equality at pretest. There were 100 qualifying studies, 26 of which used random assignment to treatments. Effect…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Groff, Cynthia

2009-01-01

95

Extended School Day/Year Programs: A Research Synthesis. Spotlight on Student Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis reviews the data on two types of extended school programs--those that extend the number of hours per day students spend in school, and those that extend the school year. Proponents of extending the school day or the school year frequently cite examples from outside the United States, where the average school year is often longer, and…

Evans, William; Bechtel, David

96

Preliminary performance estimates of a highly maneuverable remotely piloted vehicle. [computerized synthesis program to assess effects of vehicle and mission parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized synthesis program has been used to assess the effects of various vehicle and mission parameters on the performance of a highly maneuverable remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) for the air-to-air combat role. The configuration used in the study is a trapezoidal-wing and body concept, with forward-mounted stabilizing and control surfaces. The study mission consists of an outbound cruise, an acceleration phase, a series of subsonic and supersonic turns, and a return cruise. Performance is evaluated in terms of both the required vehicle weight to accomplish this mission and combat effectiveness as measured by turning and acceleration capability. The report describes the synthesis program, the mission, the vehicle, and the results of sensitivity and trade studies.

Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Axelson, J. A.

1974-01-01

97

AutoBayes/CC: Combining Program Synthesis with Automatic Code Certification: System Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Code certification is a lightweight approach to formally demonstrate software quality. It concentrates on aspects of software quality that can be defined and formalized via properties, e.g., operator safety or memory safety. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies these quality properties. The proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently, by the code consumer or by certification authorities, e.g., the FAA. It is the idea underlying such approaches as proof-carrying code [6]. Code certification can be viewed as a more practical version of traditional Hoare-style program verification. The properties to be verified are fairly simple and regular so that it is often possible to use an automated theorem prover to automatically discharge all emerging proof obligations. Usually, however, the programmer must still splice auxiliary annotations (e.g., loop invariants) into the program to facilitate the proofs. For complex properties or larger programs this quickly becomes the limiting factor for the applicability of current certification approaches.

Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

98

Environmental studies data base: development and data synthesis activities of the US Subseabed Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

The US Subseabed Disposal Program is assessing the scientific feasibility of subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Studies of disposal methods and of the barriers to radionuclide migration (canister, waste form and sediment) suggest that environmental information will be needed to address the impact of accidental release of radionuclides in the deep sea. Biological, physical, and geochemical data are being collected from field and laboratory studies as well as from literature searches. These data are being analyzed using a multicompartmental radionuclide transport model and appropriate physical oceanographic models. The data integrated into this framework will help answer two questions: what are the environmental effects of radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea, and what are the effects of such a release upon man.

Gomez, L.S.; Hesssler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Yayanos, A.A.

1980-01-01

99

Synthesis of Tungsten Carbides by Temperature-Programmed Reaction with CH 4–H 2 Mixtures. Influence of the CH 4 and Hydrogen Content in the Carburizing Mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of the composition of a carburizing CH4–H2 gas mixture on the process of reduction–carburization over WO3 has been studied. Bulk tungsten carbide synthesis has been carried out from WO3 in different CH4–H2 mixtures (CH4–H2=1\\/1–3\\/1; CH4–N2=1\\/1; pure CH4) at atmospheric pressure by temperature-programmed reduction–carburization (TPRC). The composition of the reaction products has been monitored and quantified by gas chromatography

J.-M. Giraudon; P. Devassine; J.-F. Lamonier; L. Delannoy; L. Leclercq; G. Leclercq

2000-01-01

100

Summary of the 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report is a summary of the 2006 synthesis report prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

101

Key Ingredients of Anti-Stigma Programs for Health Care Providers: A Data Synthesis of Evaluative Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective: As part of its ongoing effort to combat stigma against mental illness among health care providers, the Mental Health Commission of Canada partnered with organizations conducting anti-stigma interventions. Our objective was to evaluate program effectiveness and to better understand what makes some programs more effective than others. Our paper reports the elements of these programs found to be most strongly associated with favourable outcomes. Methods: Our study employed a multi-phased, mixed-methods design. First, a grounded theory qualitative study was undertaken to identify key program elements. Next, each program (n = 22) was coded according to the presence or absence of the identified key program ingredients. Then, random-effects, meta-regression modelling was used to examine the association between program outcomes and the key ingredients. Results: The qualitative analysis led to a 6-ingredient model of key program elements. Results of the quantitative analysis showed that programs that included all 6 of these ingredients performed significantly better than those that did not. Individual analyses of each of the 6 ingredients showed that including multiple forms of social contact and emphasizing recovery were characteristics of the most effective programs. Conclusions: The results provide a validation of a 6-ingredient model of key program elements for anti-stigma programming for health care providers. Emphasizing recovery and including multiple types of social contact are of particular importance for maximizing the effectiveness of anti-stigma programs for health care providers.

Knaak, Stephanie; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B

2014-01-01

102

Hardware-software-co-design of parallel and distributed systems using a behavioural programming and multi-process model with high-level synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design methodology for parallel and distributed embedded systems is presented using the behavioural hardware compiler ConPro providing an imperative programming model based on concurrently communicating sequential processes (CSP) with an extensive set of interprocess-communication primitives and guarded atomic actions. The programming language and the compiler-based synthesis process enables the design of constrained power- and resourceaware embedded systems with pure Register-Transfer-Logic (RTL) efficiently mapped to FPGA and ASIC technologies. Concurrency is modelled explicitly on control- and datapath level. Additionally, concurrency on data-path level can be automatically explored and optimized by different schedulers. The CSP programming model can be synthesized to hardware (SoC) and software (C,ML) models and targets. A common source for both hardware and software implementation with identical functional behaviour is used. Processes and objects of the entire design can be distributed on different hardware and software platforms, for example, several FPGA components and software executed on several microprocessors, providing a parallel and distributed system. Intersystem-, interprocess-, and object communication is automatically implemented with serial links, not visible on programming level. The presented design methodology has the benefit of high modularity, freedom of choice of target technologies, and system architecture. Algorithms can be well matched to and distributed on different suitable execution platforms and implementation technologies, using a unique programming model, providing a balance of concurrency and resource complexity. An extended case study of a communication protocol used in high-density sensor-actuator networks should demonstrate and compare the design of a hardware and software target. The communication protocol is suited for high-density intra-and interchip networks.

Bosse, Stefan

2011-05-01

103

Synthesis gas demonstration plant program, Phase I. Deliverable No. 7F: Phases II and III environmental monitoring plans  

SciTech Connect

The baseline monitoring program established existing conditions at the site from which construction and operational impacts were predicted in the Environmental Report. The purpose of construction and operational programs is to identify and quantify impacts and monitor the effectiveness of selected mitigation measures. The construction and operational programs are a refinement of the baseline monitoring program. The goal is to avoid redundance by monitoring specific activities and areas where impacts could occcur. This includes utilizing data required for permit compliance (air and water discharges and solid waste disposal). A review of the baseline monitoring program was also conducted to determine if data gaps or voids existed in the baseline program which could be filled with a preconstruction monitoring program. The review was conducted in light of the potential impacts from construction and operational activities identified in the Environmental Report. Review of the baseline monitoring program and the Environmental Report indicated the need for some additional data. Therefore, a preconstruction monitoring program has been designed to fill in the data gaps and strengthen the data base for subsequent impact and mitigative measure assessments.

Not Available

1980-01-01

104

Are workplace health promotion programs effective at improving presenteeism in workers? a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Presenteeism is highly prevalent and costly to employers. It is defined as being present at work, but limited in some aspect of job performance by a health problem. Workplace health promotion (WHP) is a common strategy used to enhance on-the-job productivity. The primary objective is to determine if WHP programs are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objectives are to identify characteristics of successful programs and potential risk factors for presenteeism. Methods The Cochrane Library, Medline, and other electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2010. Reference lists were examined, key journals were hand-searched and experts were contacted. Included studies were original research that contained data on at least 20 participants (? 18 years of age), and examined the impacts of WHP programs implemented at the workplace. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to rate studies. 'Strong' and 'moderate' studies were abstracted into evidence tables, and a best evidence synthesis was performed. Interventions were deemed successful if they improved the outcome of interest. Their program components were identified, as were possible risk factors contributing to presenteeism. Results After 2,032 titles and abstracts were screened, 47 articles were reviewed, and 14 were accepted (4 strong and 10 moderate studies). These studies contained preliminary evidence for a positive effect of some WHP programs. Successful programs offered organizational leadership, health risk screening, individually tailored programs, and a supportive workplace culture. Potential risk factors contributing to presenteeism included being overweight, a poor diet, a lack of exercise, high stress, and poor relations with co-workers and management. Limitations: This review is limited to English publications. A large number of reviewed studies (70%) were inadmissible due to issues of bias, thus limiting the amount of primary evidence. The uncertainties surrounding presenteeism measurement is of significant concern as a source of bias. Conclusions The presenteeism literature is young and heterogeneous. There is preliminary evidence that some WHP programs can positively affect presenteeism and that certain risk factors are of importance. Future research would benefit from standard presenteeism metrics and studies conducted across a broad range of workplace settings. PMID:21615940

2011-01-01

105

Programs  

Cancer.gov

NCI's Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) works with the Small Business Innovation Research Program to help small business to develop and commercialize novel proteomic technologies and products to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer.

106

Synthesis: Intertwining product and process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthesis is a proposed systematic process for rapidly creating different members of a program family. Family members are described by variations in their requirements. Requirements variations are mapped to variations on a standard design to generate production quality code and documentation. The approach is made feasible by using principles underlying design for change. Synthesis incorporates ideas from rapid prototyping, application generators, and domain analysis. The goals of Synthesis and the Synthesis process are discussed. The technology needed and the feasibility of the approach are also briefly discussed. The status of current efforts to implement Synthesis methodologies is presented.

Weiss, David M.

1990-01-01

107

Program  

Cancer.gov

Through the DCIDE program, the developer of a promising diagnostic agent or probe will be given access to the pre-clinical development resources of the National Cancer Institute in a manner that is intended to remove the most common barriers between laboratory discoveries and IND status.

108

2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

109

2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

110

Implementation of the State Children's Health Insurance Program: Synthesis of State Evaluations. Background for the Report to Congress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) provides funds to states to expand health insurance coverage for low-income children who are uninsured. States have a great deal of flexibility to design and implement SCHIP, resulting in considerable diversity across states. Enrollment reached 3.4 million in federal fiscal year 2000 and…

Rosenbach, Margo; Ellwood, Marilyn; Irvin, Carol; Young, Cheryl; Conroy, Wendy; Quinn, Brian; Kell, Megan

111

Effective Programs in Middle and High School Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Version 1.4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of mathematics programs for middle and high schools. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of at least twelve weeks, and equality at pretest. There were 102 qualifying studies, 28 of which used random assignment to treatments.…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Groff, Cynthia

2008-01-01

112

The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 2: Environmental driver data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM model skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model-model and model-observation comparisons. This paper describes the global and North American environmental driver data sets prepared for the MsTMIP activity to both support their use in MsTMIP and make these data, along with the processes used in selecting/processing these data, accessible to a broader audience. Based on project needs, we compiled climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), C3/C4 grasses fractions, major crops, phenology, and soil data into a standard format for global (0.5° x 0.5° resolution) and regional (North American, 0.25° x 0.25° resolution) simulations. In order to meet the needs of MsTMIP, improvements were made to several of the original environmental data sets, by changing the quality, the spatial and temporal coverage, resolution, or a combination of these. The resulting standardized model driver data sets are being used by over 20 different models participating MsTMIP. The data are archived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC, http://daac.ornl.gov) to provide long-term data management and distribution.

Wei, Y.; Liu, S.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Viovy, N.; Post, W. M.; Schwalm, C. R.; Schaefer, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Cook, R. B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.

2013-11-01

113

Aperture synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reviews the principles of aperture synthesis theory, with emphasis on earth rotation aperture synthesis, and the main data processing techniques for aperture synthesis telescope systems. A derivation is given for the formula giving the brightness distribution recorded by a continuum aperture synthesis system which samples the complex autocorrelation function of the electric field. The basic formulas are presented

W. N. Brouw

1975-01-01

114

Land-use conversion and changing soil carbon stocks in China's 'Grain-for-Green' Program: a synthesis.  

PubMed

The establishment of either forest or grassland on degraded cropland has been proposed as an effective method for climate change mitigation because these land use types can increase soil carbon (C) stocks. This paper synthesized 135 recent publications (844 observations at 181 sites) focused on the conversion from cropland to grassland, shrubland or forest in China, better known as the 'Grain-for-Green' Program to determine which factors were driving changes to soil organic carbon (SOC). The results strongly indicate a positive impact of cropland conversion on soil C stocks. The temporal pattern for soil C stock changes in the 0-100 cm soil layer showed an initial decrease in soil C during the early stage (<5 years), and then an increase to net C gains (>5 years) coincident with vegetation restoration. The rates of soil C change were higher in the surface profile (0-20 cm) than in deeper soil (20-100 cm). Cropland converted to forest (arbor) had the additional benefit of a slower but more persistent C sequestration capacity than shrubland or grassland. Tree species played a significant role in determining the rate of change in soil C stocks (conifer < broadleaf, evergreen < deciduous forests). Restoration age was the main factor, not temperature and precipitation, affecting soil C stock change after cropland conversion with higher initial soil C stock sites having a negative effect on soil C accumulation. Soil C sequestration significantly increased with restoration age over the long-term, and therefore, the large scale of land-use change under the 'Grain-for-Green' Program will significantly increase China's C stocks. PMID:24357470

Deng, Lei; Liu, Guo-Bin; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

2014-11-01

115

RIP140 Represses the "Brown-in-White" Adipocyte Program Including a Futile Cycle of Triacyclglycerol Breakdown and Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a corepressor of nuclear receptors that is highly expressed in adipose tissues. We investigated the role of RIP140 in conditionally immortal preadipocyte cell lines prepared from white or brown fat depots. In white adipocytes, a large set of brown fat-associated genes was up-regulated in the absence of RIP140. In contrast, a relatively minor role can be ascribed to RIP140 in the control of basal gene expression in differentiated brown adipocytes because significant changes were observed only in Ptgds and Fabp3. The minor role of RIP140 in brown adipocytes correlates with the similar histology and uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA staining in knockout compared with wild-type brown adipose tissue (BAT). In contrast, RIP140 knockout sc white adipose tissue (WAT) shows increased numbers of multilocular adipocytes with elevated staining for uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA. Furthermore in a white adipocyte cell line, the markers of BRITE adipocytes, Tbx1, CD137, Tmem26, Cited1, and Epsti1 were repressed in the presence of RIP140 as was Prdm16. Microarray analysis of wild-type and RIP140-knockout white fat revealed elevated expression of genes associated with cold-induced expression or high expression in BAT. A set of genes associated with a futile cycle of triacylglycerol breakdown and resynthesis and functional assays revealed that glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity as well as [3H]glycerol incorporation were elevated in the absence of RIP140. Thus, RIP140 blocks the BRITE program in WAT, preventing the expression of brown fat genes and inhibiting a triacylglycerol futile cycle, with important implications for energy homeostasis. PMID:24479876

Kiskinis, Evangelos; Chatzeli, Lemonia; Curry, Edward; Kaforou, Myrsini; Frontini, Andrea; Cinti, Saverio; Montana, Giovanni; Parker, Malcolm G.

2014-01-01

116

Synthesis of Tungsten Carbides by Temperature-Programmed Reaction with CH 4-H 2 Mixtures. Influence of the CH 4 and Hydrogen Content in the Carburizing Mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the composition of a carburizing CH 4-H 2 gas mixture on the process of reduction-carburization over WO 3 has been studied. Bulk tungsten carbide synthesis has been carried out from WO 3 in different CH 4-H 2 mixtures (CH 4-H 2=1/1-3/1; CH 4-N 2=1/1; pure CH 4) at atmospheric pressure by temperature-programmed reduction-carburization (TPRC). The composition of the reaction products has been monitored and quantified by gas chromatography analysis (GCA) and the results have been compared to those obtained for a reference sample WC20 (CH 4-H 2=1/4). The solids have been characterized by elemental analysis, XRD, XPS, and BET surface area measurements. The overall process is complex. Considering first the reduction, both H 2 and CH 4 act as oxides reducing agents and are converted respectively into H 2O, CO, and to a less extent CO 2. If the reduction steps follow the same sequence observed under pure H 2, WO 3?W 20O 58?WO 2?W, with the strong difference that W metal is detected only at the surface to be rapidly carburized, the overall reduction process can be accomplished under CH 4-H 2 mixtures at temperatures all the lower than PCH 4/ PH 2 increases. Prereduction of WO 3 into bulk WO 2 allows an easier reduction in practically pure CH 4 (95% (v/v) CH 4-H 2) as reduction with CH 4 increases the rate of the WO 2?W transformation. Studies of the carburization suggest that CH 4 decomposes on a metallic surface into C (or CH x) species before bulk WO 2 reduction followed by surface carburization. Then carbon diffuses into the bulk of the solid to give first ?-W 2C whose formation occurs rapidly. ?-W 2C transformation into WC is slower and seems to be very much influenced by the ratio PCH 4/ PH 2 which controls the rate of carbon deposit at the surface of the solid. The best surface area carbide of 27 m 2.g -1 consisting of a core of ?-W 2C covered with ?-WC has been obtained by using WO 2 as starting material.

Giraudon, J.-M.; Devassine, P.; Lamonier, J.-F.; Delannoy, L.; Leclercq, L.; Leclercq, G.

2000-11-01

117

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

none

1998-07-01

118

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-01-01

119

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-01-01

120

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter J. Tijrn

2000-06-30

121

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-04-01

122

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-08-01

123

Creating a Mediated Schema Based on Initial Correspondences Rachel A. Pottinger  

E-print Network

with FirstName and LastName as children), or some other way? The answer affects the behavior of Merge, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new

Pottinger, Rachel

124

Extracting result schema based on query instances in the Deep Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep Web sources contain a large of high-quality and query-related structured date. One of the challenges in the Deep Web\\u000a is extracting result schemas of Deep Web sources. To address this challenge, this paper describes a novel approach that extracts\\u000a both result data and the result schema of a Web database. The approach first models the query interface of a

Tiezheng Nie; Ge Yu; Derong Shen; Yue Kou; Wei Liu

2007-01-01

125

Integrating Schema-Based Instruction and Response Cards for Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of No Child Left Behind (2002), the academic expectations of students with disabilities have changed. Students with disabilities are now held to the same academic standards as their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, the 2004 provisions in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act state that students with…

Schwab, James Raymond; Tucci, Stacey; Jolivette, Kristine

2013-01-01

126

Using Realist Synthesis to Develop an Evidence Base from an Identified Data Set on Enablers and Barriers for Alcohol and Drug Program Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to show how "realist synthesis" methodology (Pawson, 2002) was adapted to review a large sample of community based projects addressing alcohol and drug use problems. Our study drew on a highly varied sample of 127 projects receiving funding from a national non-government organisation in Australia between 2002 and 2008.…

Hunter, Barbara; MacLean, Sarah; Berends, Lynda

2012-01-01

127

Cancer Tracer Synthesis Resources  

Cancer.gov

The Cancer Imaging Program has been creating Investigational New Drug Applications (IND) for imaging agents in order to engage in multi-center clinical trials of these materials. A subset of the documents filed is being made available to the research community to implement routine synthesis of tracers at their own facilities and to assist investigators with the filing of their own INDs. The first of these document sets is for F-18 fluorothymidine (FLT).

128

From Boolean to Quantitative Synthesis Pavol Cern  

E-print Network

From Boolean to Quantitative Synthesis Pavol Cerný IST Austria cernyp@ist.ac.at Thomas A in order for the program to meet the specification. In this paper, we argue that quantitative objectives objective that models performance. Other quantitative notions useful in synthesis include fault tolerance

Cerny, Pavol

129

Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 1. Cationic plastoquinone derivatives: Synthesis and in vitro studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of cationic plastoquinone derivatives (SkQs) containing positively charged phosphonium or rhodamine moieties connected\\u000a to plastoquinone by decane or pentane linkers is described. It is shown that SkQs (i) easily penetrate through planar, mitochondrial,\\u000a and outer cell membranes, (ii) at low (nanomolar) concentrations, posses strong antioxidant activity in aqueous solution,\\u000a BLM, lipid micelles, liposomes, isolated mitochondria, and cells, (iii) at

Y. N. Antonenko; A. V. Avetisyan; L. E. Bakeeva; B. V. Chernyak; V. A. Chertkov; L. V. Domnina; O. Yu. Ivanova; D. S. Izyumov; L. S. Khailova; S. S. Klishin; G. A. Korshunova; K. G. Lyamzaev; M. S. Muntyan; O. K. Nepryakhina; A. A. Pashkovskaya; O. Yu. Pletjushkina; A. V. Pustovidko; V. A. Roginsky; T. I. Rokitskaya; E. K. Ruuge; V. B. Saprunova; I. V. Skulachev; R. A. Simonyan; M. V. Skulachev; N. V. Sumbatyan; I. V. Sviryaeva; V. N. Tashlitsky; J. M. Vassiliev; M. Yu. Vyssokikh; L. S. Yaguzhinsky; A. A. Zamyatnin; V. P. Skulachev

2008-01-01

130

In vitro Synthesis of Bacteriophage Lysozyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active lysozyme of bacteriophage T4 has been synthesized in a cell free system programmed by RNA from cells infected with the phage. The appearance of this lysozyme activity has the characteristics of de novo synthesis.

W. Salser; R. F. Gesteland; A. Bolle

1967-01-01

131

Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

Chang, Young-Soo [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Liebich, R.E. [Raytheon Environmental Services Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-07-01

132

Macromitophagy, neutral lipids synthesis, and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation protect yeast from "liponecrosis", a previously unknown form of programmed cell death.  

PubMed

We identified a form of cell death called "liponecrosis." It can be elicited by an exposure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to exogenous palmitoleic acid (POA). Our data imply that liponecrosis is: (1) a programmed, regulated form of cell death rather than an accidental, unregulated cellular process and (2) an age-related form of cell death. Cells committed to liponecrotic death: (1) do not exhibit features characteristic of apoptotic cell death; (2) do not display plasma membrane rupture, a hallmark of programmed necrotic cell death; (3) akin to cells committed to necrotic cell death, exhibit an increased permeability of the plasma membrane for propidium iodide; (4) do not display excessive cytoplasmic vacuolization, a hallmark of autophagic cell death; (5) akin to cells committed to autophagic death, exhibit a non-selective en masse degradation of cellular organelles and require the cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinase Atg1p for executing the death program; and (6) display a hallmark feature that has not been reported for any of the currently known cell death modalities-namely, an excessive accumulation of lipid droplets where non-esterified fatty acids (including POA) are deposited in the form of neutral lipids. We therefore concluded that liponecrotic cell death subroutine differs from the currently known subroutines of programmed cell death. Our data suggest a hypothesis that liponecrosis is a cell death module dynamically integrated into a so-called programmed cell death network, which also includes the apoptotic, necrotic, and autophagic modules of programmed cell death. Based on our findings, we propose a mechanism underlying liponecrosis. PMID:24196447

Sheibani, Sara; Richard, Vincent R; Beach, Adam; Leonov, Anna; Feldman, Rachel; Mattie, Sevan; Khelghatybana, Leila; Piano, Amanda; Greenwood, Michael; Vali, Hojatollah; Titorenko, Vladimir I

2014-01-01

133

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE?s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

None

1998-12-02

134

GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Glutathione (GSH) is present in all mammalian tissues as the most abundant non-protein thiol that defends against oxidative stress. GSH is also a key determinant of redox signaling, vital in detoxification of xenobiotics, regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune function, and fibrogenesis. Biosynthesis of GSH occurs in the cytosol in a tightly regulated manner. Key determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of the sulfur amino acid precursor, cysteine, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), which is composed of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis is GSH synthetase (GS). SCOPE OF REVIEW This review summarizes key functions of GSH and focuses on factors that regulate the biosynthesis of GSH, including pathological conditions where GSH synthesis is dysregulated. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS GCL subunits and GS are regulated at multiple levels and often in a coordinated manner. Key transcription factors that regulate the expression of these genes include NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) via the antioxidant response element (ARE), AP-1, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B). There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of GSH synthesis contributes to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary and liver fibrosis, alcoholic liver disease, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE GSH is a key antioxidant that also modulates diverse cellular processes. A better understanding of how its synthesis is regulated and dysregulated in disease states may lead to improvement in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:22995213

Lu, Shelly C.

2012-01-01

135

Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 1. Cationic plastoquinone derivatives: synthesis and in vitro studies.  

PubMed

Synthesis of cationic plastoquinone derivatives (SkQs) containing positively charged phosphonium or rhodamine moieties connected to plastoquinone by decane or pentane linkers is described. It is shown that SkQs (i) easily penetrate through planar, mitochondrial, and outer cell membranes, (ii) at low (nanomolar) concentrations, posses strong antioxidant activity in aqueous solution, BLM, lipid micelles, liposomes, isolated mitochondria, and cells, (iii) at higher (micromolar) concentrations, show pronounced prooxidant activity, the "window" between anti- and prooxidant concentrations being very much larger than for MitoQ, a cationic ubiquinone derivative showing very much lower antioxidant activity and higher prooxidant activity, (iv) are reduced by the respiratory chain to SkQH2, the rate of oxidation of SkQH2 being lower than the rate of SkQ reduction, and (v) prevent oxidation of mitochondrial cardiolipin by OH*. In HeLa cells and human fibroblasts, SkQs operate as powerful inhibitors of the ROS-induced apoptosis and necrosis. For the two most active SkQs, namely SkQ1 and SkQR1, C(1/2) values for inhibition of the H2O2-induced apoptosis in fibroblasts appear to be as low as 1x10(-11) and 8x10(-13) M, respectively. SkQR1, a fluorescent representative of the SkQ family, specifically stains a single type of organelles in the living cell, i.e. energized mitochondria. Such specificity is explained by the fact that it is the mitochondrial matrix that is the only negatively-charged compartment inside the cell. Assuming that the Deltapsi values on the outer cell and inner mitochondrial membranes are about 60 and 180 mV, respectively, and taking into account distribution coefficient of SkQ1 between lipid and water (about 13,000 : 1), the SkQ1 concentration in the inner leaflet of the inner mitochondrial membrane should be 1.3x10(8) times higher than in the extracellular space. This explains the very high efficiency of such compounds in experiments on cell cultures. It is concluded that SkQs are rechargeable, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants of very high efficiency and specificity. Therefore, they might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo. PMID:19120014

Antonenko, Y N; Avetisyan, A V; Bakeeva, L E; Chernyak, B V; Chertkov, V A; Domnina, L V; Ivanova, O Yu; Izyumov, D S; Khailova, L S; Klishin, S S; Korshunova, G A; Lyamzaev, K G; Muntyan, M S; Nepryakhina, O K; Pashkovskaya, A A; Pletjushkina, O Yu; Pustovidko, A V; Roginsky, V A; Rokitskaya, T I; Ruuge, E K; Saprunova, V B; Severina, I I; Simonyan, R A; Skulachev, I V; Skulachev, M V; Sumbatyan, N V; Sviryaeva, I V; Tashlitsky, V N; Vassiliev, J M; Vyssokikh, M Yu; Yaguzhinsky, L S; Zamyatnin, A A; Skulachev, V P

2008-12-01

136

GRADUATE PROGRAM UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS  

E-print Network

SELF STUDY GRADUATE PROGRAM UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE COLLEGE OF LIBERALARTS TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY March 2007 #12;SELF STUDY GRADUATE PROGRAM UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS DEPARTMENT........................................................................................ 4 Brief History of Degree Programs and the Department

137

Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the ‘Top End’ of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change  

PubMed Central

Background Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. Methods A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of ‘out of hospital’ or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Results Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations and staff numbers with the required skills for providing care for infants, and an ‘outpatient’ model of care. Services were also characterised by absent Aboriginal leadership and inadequate coordination between remote and tertiary services that is essential to improve quality of care and reduce ‘system-introduced’ risk. Conclusion Evidence-informed redesign of maternity services and delivery of care has improved clinical effectiveness and quality for women. However, more work is needed to address substandard care provided for infants and their parents. PMID:24890910

2014-01-01

138

Automatic programming for critical applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The important phases of a software life cycle include verification and maintenance. Usually, the execution performance is an expected requirement in a software development process. Unfortunately, the verification and the maintenance of programs are the time consuming and the frustrating aspects of software engineering. The verification cannot be waived for the programs used for critical applications such as, military, space, and nuclear plants. As a consequence, synthesis of programs from specifications, an alternative way of developing correct programs, is becoming popular. The definition, or what is understood by automatic programming, has been changed with our expectations. At present, the goal of automatic programming is the automation of programming process. Specifically, it means the application of artificial intelligence to software engineering in order to define techniques and create environments that help in the creation of high level programs. The automatic programming process may be divided into two phases: the problem acquisition phase and the program synthesis phase. In the problem acquisition phase, an informal specification of the problem is transformed into an unambiguous specification while in the program synthesis phase such a specification is further transformed into a concrete, executable program.

Loganantharaj, Raj L.

1988-01-01

139

A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO2 exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO2 exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans ˜220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO2 exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was ˜10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

Schwalm, Christopher R.; Williams, Christopher A.; Schaefer, Kevin; Anderson, Ryan; Arain, M. Altaf; Baker, Ian; Barr, Alan; Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Guangsheng; Chen, Jing Ming; Ciais, Philippe; Davis, Kenneth J.; Desai, Ankur; Dietze, Michael; Dragoni, Danilo; Fischer, Marc L.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Grant, Robert; Gu, Lianhong; Hollinger, David; Izaurralde, R. CéSar; Kucharik, Chris; Lafleur, Peter; Law, Beverly E.; Li, Longhui; Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Luo, Yiqi; Ma, Siyan; Margolis, Hank; Matamala, Roser; McCaughey, Harry; Monson, Russell K.; Oechel, Walter C.; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David T.; Riciutto, Dan M.; Riley, William; Sahoo, Alok Kumar; Sprintsin, Michael; Sun, Jianfeng; Tian, Hanqin; Tonitto, Christina; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, Shashi B.

2010-09-01

140

Silica-templated synthesis of ordered mesoporous tungsten carbide/graphitic carbon composites with nanocrystalline walls and high surface areas via a temperature-programmed carburization route.  

PubMed

Ordered mesostructured tungsten carbide and graphitic carbon composites (WC/C) with nanocrystalline walls are fabricated for the first time by a temperature-programmed carburization approach with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) as a precursor and mesoporous silica materials as hard templates. The mesostructure, crystal phase, and amount of deposited graphitic carbon can be conveniently tuned by controlling the silica template (SBA-15 or KIT-6), carburizing temperature (700-1000 degrees C), the PTA-loading amount, and the carburizing atmosphere (CH(4) or a CH(4)/H(2) mixture). A high level of deposited carbon is favorable for connecting and stabilizing the WC nanocrystallites to achieve high mesostructural regularity, as well as promoting the carburization reaction. Meanwhile, large pore sizes and high mesoporosity of the silica templates can promote WC-phase formation. These novel, ordered, mesoporous WC/C nanocomposites with high surface areas (74-169 m(2) g(-1)), large pore volumes (0.14-0.17 cm(3) g(-1)), narrow pore-size distributions (centered at about 3 nm), and very good oxidation resistance (up to 750 degrees C) have potential applications in fuel-cell catalysts and nanodevices. PMID:19743431

Wu, Zhangxiong; Yang, Yunxia; Gu, Dong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Dan; Chen, Zhenxia; Tu, Bo; Webley, Paul A; Zhao, Dongyuan

2009-12-01

141

Java Programming Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Java Programming Certificate Program COMPUTER PROGRAMMING The Java programming language lies that fuel the Internet economy. In addition, the portability inherent in Java is useful for programming This certificate program is designed for people who already have introductory Java programming experience

Loudon, Catherine

142

Java Programming Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Java Programming Certificate Program COMPUTER PROGRAMMING The Java programming language lies that fuel the Internet economy. In addition, the portability inherent in Java is useful for programming Enroll This certificate program is designed for people who already have introductory Java programming

Loudon, Catherine

143

Mechanical Verification of Automatic Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant  

E-print Network

their fault-tolerance requirements. Towards this end, we verify the transformation algorithms presented of transforming a given fault-intolerant program to a fault-tolerant program. To verify these algo- rithms, firstMechanical Verification of Automatic Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Programs1 Sandeep S. Kulkarni

Ebnenasir, Ali

144

An Internet Browser Plug-in for Real-time Audio Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an Internet browser plug-in for interactive real-time sound synthesis. The plug-in runs the pure data (Pd) sound synthesis engine within the browser, and allows flexible and transparent sound generation and control. Pd is a general sound synthesis language that is based on the MAX graphical programming paradigm, which allows constructing and implementing a broad range of sound synthesis

Marcos Alonso; Gunter Geiger; Sergi Jordà

2004-01-01

145

A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO{sub 2} exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans {approx}220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was {approx}10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

Schwalm, C.R.; Williams, C.A.; Schaefer, K.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.; Black, T.A.; Chen, G.; Ciais, P.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dietze, M.; Dragoni, D.; Fischer, M.L.; Flanagan, L.B.; Grant, R.F.; Gu, L.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Kucharik, C.; Lafleur, P.M.; Law, B.E.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Ma, S.; Margolis, H.; Matamala, R.; McCaughey, H.; Monson, R. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.T.; Riciutto, D.M.; Riley, W.J.; Sahoo, A.K.; Sprintsin, M.; Sun, J.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Verbeeck, H.; Verma, S.B.

2011-06-01

146

Translating Nature's Library: The Bryostatins and Function-Oriented Synthesis  

PubMed Central

We review in part our computational, design, synthesis, and biological studies on a remarkable class of compounds and their designed analogs that have led to preclinical candidates for the treatment of cancer, a first-in-class approach to Alzheimer's disease, and a promising strategy to eradicate HIV/AIDS. Because these leads target, in part, protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, they have therapeutic potential even beyond this striking set of therapeutic indications. This program has given rise to new synthetic methodology and represents an increasingly important direction of synthesis focused on achieving function through synthesis-informed design (function-oriented synthesis). PMID:22661768

Wender, Paul A.; Loy, Brian A.; Schrier, Adam J.

2012-01-01

147

Incremental Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Borzoo Bonakdarpour and Sandeep S. Kulkarni  

E-print Network

propose a sound and complete synthesis algorithm that transforms a fault-intolerant real-time programIncremental Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Programs1 Borzoo Bonakdarpour and Sandeep S. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automated addition of fault- tolerance to an existing fault

Kulkarni, Sandeep

148

Incremental Synthesis of FaultTolerant RealTime Borzoo Bonakdarpour and Sandeep S. Kulkarni  

E-print Network

propose a sound and complete synthesis algorithm that transforms a fault­intolerant real­time programIncremental Synthesis of Fault­Tolerant Real­Time Programs 1 Borzoo Bonakdarpour and Sandeep S. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automated addition of fault­ tolerance to an existing fault

Kulkarni, Sandeep

149

Chlorophyll: Synthesis-Aided Compiler for Low-Power Spatial Architectures  

E-print Network

Chlorophyll: Synthesis-Aided Compiler for Low-Power Spatial Architectures Phitchaya Mangpo Chlorophyll, a synthesis-aided programming model and compiler for the GreenArrays GA144, an extremely minimal competitors, but currently can only be programmed using a low- level stack-based language. The Chlorophyll

Bodik, Rastisla

150

Enhanced Generalized Ant Programming (EGAP) School of Computer Science  

E-print Network

of automatic programming while emphasizing the technique of Ant Programming (AP). AP uses an ant foraging modification, program synthesis. I.2.11 [Computing Methodologies]: Distributed Artificial Intelligence) technique. In automatic programming, the goal of the desired program is first specified; then, based upon

Fernandez, Thomas

151

Design entry and synthesis Functional simulation  

E-print Network

) »check out Xilinx university program ·http://www.xilinx.com/university/students/ »select quick link to Design Circuits Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools have become essential to the design of digital languages and circuit synthesis · two major languages ­ VHDL and Verilog Simulation » functional simulation

Chamberlain, Roger

152

Extensible Image Synthesis Dieter W. Fellner  

E-print Network

imply that the same program organization and methods of user interaction are suitable for all graphicsExtensible Image Synthesis Dieter W. Fellner Department of Computer Science, University of Bonn in the field of 3D graphics. But as the hardware gets faster, software will become the critical factor

Clausen, Michael

153

Evaluation of Driver Education and Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What contributions do driver education and training programs make to the Nation's highway safety program? An answer to this question was sought through a synthesis of four feasibility studies concerning the effectiveness of current or proposed driver education programs. These preliminary investigations failed to identify any clear proof that…

Harman, Harry H.; And Others

154

Research on Metallurgical Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Microstructural synthesis in combined precipitation hardened-dispersion strengthened (PH-DS) aluminum alloys; Synthesis of dispersion strengthened titanium alloys by attritor milling; Evaluation of new high temperature titanium alloys; Vapor dep...

B. A. Wilcox, G. T. Hahn, R. I. Jaffee

1972-01-01

155

Total Synthesis of (?)-Himandrine  

E-print Network

We describe the first total synthesis of (?)-himandrine, a member of the class II galbulimima alkaloids. Noteworthy features of this chemistry include a diastereoselective Diels?Alder reaction in the rapid synthesis of the ...

Movassaghi, Mohammad

156

Guided Face Cartoon Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new method, called guided synthesis, to synthesize a face cartoon from a face photo. The guided synthesis is defined as a local linear model, which gen- erates a cartoon image by incorporating the content of guidance images taken from the training set. Our synthesis operation is achieved based on four weight functions. The first

Hongliang Li; Guanghui Liu; King Ngi Ngan

2011-01-01

157

00GENETIC PROGRAMMING Automatic Synthesis of Topologies  

E-print Network

of a system (conventionally called the plant) to match a desired response (called the reference signal) (Dorf than a science." The purpose of a controller is to force, in a meritorious way, the actual response processing block. A parallel situation arises in connection with networks of chemical reactions (metabolic

Fernandez, Thomas

158

INDUCTIVE SYNTHESIS OF RECURSIVE LOGIC PROGRAMS  

E-print Network

. -------------------------------------------------------------- Ass't Prof. Pierre Flener (Principal Advisor) I certify that I have read this thesis and that in my. -------------------------------------------------------------- Ass't Prof. Ilyas �içekli I certify that I have read this thesis and that in my opinion it is fully. -------------------------------------------------------------- Ass't Prof. Ays¸e Göker Approved for the Institute of Engineering and Science

Flener, Pierre

159

Automatic synthesis of high performance mathematical programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of computing platforms is at a historic inflection point. CPU frequency has stalled (in 2004 at about 3GHz), which means future performance gains will only be achievable due to increasing parallelism in the form of multiple cores and vector instructions sets. The impact on the developers of high performance libraries implementing important mathematical functionality such as matrix-multiplication, linear

Markus Püschel

2009-01-01

160

Minimum weight aerospace structural synthesis program  

E-print Network

Flowchart Two-Spar Wing Box Cross Section N-Spar Wing Box Cross Section Plot of Weight vs Rib Spacing Plot of Weight vs Number of Spars 38 39 42 54 63 63 69 69 85 Viii NOMENCLATURE C r D D2 D E EX1 EX2 EXC EXR F c F ST F SU f G... limit rib secant skin tangent upper web CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION To design an aerospace structure, the preliminary de- sign engineer must, as a minimum, know the outside dimen- sions of the structure and the loads it must carry. His task...

Walker, John Michael

2012-06-07

161

Introduction to peptide synthesis.  

PubMed

This overview presents a review of classical and current solid-phase peptide synthesis techniques. Peptide synthesis has become a more practical part of present-day scientific research following the advent of solid-phase techniques, and has practical commercial and scientific implications. This unit provides information on solid-phase peptide-synthesis methodology, offering descriptions of different supports, coupling reagents, and practical approaches to the synthesis of modified residues and structures. It also presents information concerning protein synthesis and the purification and analysis of synthetic peptides. This methodology has great implications for the design of synthetic peptides to serve in antibody production. PMID:18265296

Fields, Gregg B

2002-08-01

162

New frontiers in design synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed.

Goldin, Daniel S.; Venneri, Samuel L.; Noor, Ahmed K.

1999-09-01

163

New frontiers in design synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering Systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed.

Goldin, D. S.; Venneri, S. L.; Noor, A. K.

1999-01-01

164

New frontiers in design synthesis.  

PubMed

The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering Systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed. PMID:11542518

Goldin, D S; Venneri, S L; Noor, A K

1999-01-01

165

Intercultural Programs Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report evaluates the programs of the Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools' Office of Intercultural Programs' services. The programs are designed to provide educational equity and serve as a resource for students, parents, community, and staff in a variety of areas, including: a voluntary transfer program; paired and magnet schools; extended day…

Jones, Mary Lynne

166

High-Level Synthesis of Software Function Calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter presents a novel framework in high-level synthesis where hardware modules synthesized from functions in a given ANSI-C program can call the other software functions in the program. This enables high-level synthesis from C programs that contains calls to hard-to-synthesize functions, such as dynamic memory management, I/O request, or very large and complex functions. A single-thread implementation scheme is shown, whose correctness has been verified through register transfer level simulation.

Nishimura, Masanari; Ishiura, Nagisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Kanbara, Hiroyuki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki

167

Teaching Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis Using Interactive Microcomputer Graphics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis (HENS) program used at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Massachusetts) as an aid to teaching the energy integration step in process design. Focuses on the benefits of the computer graphics used in the program to increase the speed of generating and changing networks. (TW)

Dixon, Anthony G.

1987-01-01

168

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

None

1998-11-01

169

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

None

1999-04-01

170

Reexamining tf.idf based information retrieval with Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

Reexamining tf.idf based information retrieval with Genetic Programming NIR OREN University.3 [Information Retrieval]: Retrieval Models; I2.2 [Automatic Programming]: Program Synthesis---Genetic: Genetic Programming, Information Retrieval, tf.idf 1. INTRODUCTION The central focus of the field

Fernandez, Thomas

171

Strategic Partnering to Evaluate Cancer Signatures (SPECS) | Scientific Programs  

Cancer.gov

This proposal will define a molecular classification schema for organ-confined prostate cancer. The schema will be based on patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation found within prostate tumors and the surrounding stroma. The aim of the project is to create a method for classifying such tumors based on tumor biology rather than simply on histology. The development of a classification schema based on molecular profiles would improve our ability to treat and manage organ-confined prostate cancer.

172

Program Aids Analysis And Optimization Of Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NETS/ PROSSS (NETS Coupled With Programming System for Structural Synthesis) computer program developed to provide system for combining NETS (MSC-21588), neural-network application program and CONMIN (Constrained Function Minimization, ARC-10836), optimization program. Enables user to reach nearly optimal design. Design then used as starting point in normal optimization process, possibly enabling user to converge to optimal solution in significantly fewer iterations. NEWT/PROSSS written in C language and FORTRAN 77.

Rogers, James L., Jr.; Lamarsh, William J., II

1994-01-01

173

System-level synthesis using re-programmable components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors formulate the synthesis problem of complex behavioral descriptions with performance constraints as a hardware-software co-design problem. The target system architecture consists of a software component as a program running on a re-programmable processor assisted by application-specific hardware components. System synthesis is performed by first partitioning the input system description into hardware and software portions and then by implementing

R. K. Gupta; G. De Micheli

1992-01-01

174

RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The RIDGE Program is a National Science Foundation initiative that promotes interdisciplinary study, scientific communication, and outreach related to all aspects of the globe-encircling, mid-ocean ridge system. The RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis Project site provides free access to downloadable multibeam bathymetric images and datasets of suboceanic ridges and vents. From either a hotlinked world map or a drop-down menu, users can specify the feature of interest - from the Reykjanes Ridge to the Shona Hotspot to the Galapagos Spreading Center - then progressively zoom to finer grid scales. The bathymetric images are depicted at different node spacings (100 m to 1500m) and grids are supported by the appropriate metadata. The images are also accompanied by ping data (including ship tracks) and other related data, which may include coaxial segment perspective images or isochron interpretation maps. Also, for many of the grids the user can specify subsample regions or retrieve contour areas of subregions. Links throughout the site include those to the main RIDGE page, a gallery of coaxial images, information on Served Data Formats, and the Principal Investigators involved with the Project.

175

DCTD — Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP)  

Cancer.gov

DTP’s Pharmaceutical Resources Branch bears the responsibility of acquiring bulk materials for formulation and synthesis, formulating drugs and testing them, producing clinical dosage forms, and stability testing of clinical dosage forms. This branch provides clinical researchers, both academic and institutional, with top-quality drugs for clinical trials and formulates drug compounds that are under development by the NExT program.

176

Models of speech synthesis.  

PubMed Central

The term "speech synthesis" has been used for diverse technical approaches. In this paper, some of the approaches used to generate synthetic speech in a text-to-speech system are reviewed, and some of the basic motivations for choosing one method over another are discussed. It is important to keep in mind, however, that speech synthesis models are needed not just for speech generation but to help us understand how speech is created, or even how articulation can explain language structure. General issues such as the synthesis of different voices, accents, and multiple languages are discussed as special challenges facing the speech synthesis community. PMID:7479805

Carlson, R

1995-01-01

177

Synthesis of multiple shaped beam antenna patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of research into the problem of finding an excitation of a given antenna such that the desired radiation pattern is approximated to within acceptable limits. This is to be done in such a fashion that boundary conditions involving hardware limitations may be inserted into the problem. The intended application is synthesis of multiple shaped beam antennas. Since this is perhaps the most difficult synthesis problem an antenna engineer is likely to encounter, the approach taken was to include as a by-product capability for synthesizing simpler patterns. The synthesis technique has been almost totally computerized. The class of antennas which may be synthesized with the computer program are those which may be represented as planar (continuous or discrete) current distributions. The technique is not limited in this sense and could indeed by extended to include, for example, the synthesis of conformal arrays or current distributions on the surface of reflectors. The antenna types which the program is set up to synthesize are: line source, rectangular aperture, circular aperture, linear array, rectangular array, and arbitrary planar array.

Stutzman, W. L.; Coffey, E. L.

1973-01-01

178

Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. Specifically, the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- uptake were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

2008-02-01

179

Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. The synthesis of one class of membrane lipids, the phospholipids, also creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- incorporation were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

2007-08-01

180

Automated synthesis of distillation sequences using fuzzy logic and simulation  

SciTech Connect

An automated distillation sequencing system (DSEQSYS) is presented, which consists of three components: a control program, a fuzzy heuristic synthesis program, and a process simulator. DSEQSYS, when applied to problems previously reported in the literature, overcomes some of the disadvantages of using heuristics or mathematical programming alone. DSEQSYS can address problems involving nonsharp separations, nonideal chemical behavior, and conflicting heuristics. A simple approach for converting the traditional separation heuristics into corresponding fuzzy heuristics is also demonstrated.

Flowers, T.L.; Harrison, B.K.; Niccolai, M.J. (Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States))

1994-08-01

181

Chemical Biology Coop Program (New for January 2011) Students from the Chemical Biology Coop Program will be prepared to conduct work terms in areas such as  

E-print Network

Chemical Biology Coop Program (New for January 2011) Students from the Chemical Biology Coop of the Chemical Biology Coop Program: Bioanalytical Chemistry Organic Chemistry & synthesis Cellular & molecular biology Nucleic acid structure & function Metabolism and regulation Modern physics Genetics Biomolecular

Hitchcock, Adam P.

182

Total synthesis of (?)-cleistenolide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total synthesis of (?)-cleistenolide, a novel natural product recently isolated from the annonaceae species cleistochlamys kirkii oliver, is described. The synthesis proceeds starting from easily accessible d-manitol using a selective benzoylation, a selective acetonide deprotection, silylprotection and ring-closing metathesis reaction.

Palakuri Ramesh; H. M. Meshram

2011-01-01

183

Chemical Process Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Process synthesis is the specification of chemical and physical operations and the selection and interconnection of equipment to implement these operations to effect desired chemical processing transformations. Optimization and evolutionary and systematic generation process synthesis approaches are described. (Author/SK)

Siirola, J. J.

1982-01-01

184

Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have been an era of rapid progress in peptide research. This era was begun by the work of Sanger on the amino acid sequence determination of insulin and by du Vigneaud on the structure determination and synthesis of oxytocin. This period has seen impressive progress in the structure elucidation and synthesis of many peptides of natural

John Morrow Stewart

1976-01-01

185

Total synthesis of ingenol.  

PubMed

A total synthesis of the biologically important diterpene ingenol has been completed. Ring-closing olefin metathesis was used to construct the strained "inside-outside" tetracyclic skeleton, and a series of diastereoselective reactions were employed to complete the synthesis. Another naturally occurring ingenane, 20-deoxyingenol, has also been prepared. PMID:15600313

Nickel, Andrew; Maruyama, Toru; Tang, Haifeng; Murphy, Prescott D; Greene, Blake; Yusuff, Naeem; Wood, John L

2004-12-22

186

Synthesis of Pandamarilactone-1  

PubMed Central

The first total synthesis of pandamarilactone-1, an alkaloid of Pandanus amaryllifolius, is reported. The nine-step synthesis features furan oxidation with singlet oxygen and then spiro-N,O-acetalization and elimination to generate the natural product and further Pandanus alkaloids, pandamarilactonines A–D. PMID:24479880

2014-01-01

187

Do Mandatory Welfare-to-Work Programs Affect the Well-Being of Children? A Synthesis of Child Research Conducted as Part of the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As policymakers have sought to balance the goal of fostering poor children's well-being with that of encouraging adult's self-sufficiency, public assistance has become more predicated on custodial parents' involvement in work or mandatory welfare-to-work programs activities. This report examines the effects of welfare-to-work programs on the…

Hamilton, Gayle

188

Key scientific findings and policy- and health-relevant insights from the US. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies: an integration and synthesis of results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 400 peer-reviewed journal articles and likely more than 1000 presentations resulted from the research conducted through EPA's PM Supersites Program. From the start, the program was developed with a policy focus - providing new information on the accumulation and sources of PM in air on urban and regional scales that might allow for the development of more effective approaches

Paul A. Solomon; Philip K. Hopke; John Froines; Richard Scheffe; Edward Staples; Shekar Viswanathan; Ve´ronique Francois; Guy Matejka; Nathalie Skhiri; Thomas Lagier; Wei-Yea Chen; Jehng-Jung Kao; Hongwei Lu; Guohe Huang; Zhenfang Liu; Li He; Zhenxing Shen; Richard Arimoto; Junji Cao; Renjian Zhang; Xuxiang Li; Na Du; Tomoaki Okuda; Shunsuke Nakao; Shigeru Tanaka; Gang Sun; Steven Hoff; Brian Zelle; Minda Nelson; Yi-Chyun Hsu; Mei-Hsiu Lai; Wei-Chi Wang; Hung-Lung Chiang; Zhu-Xin Shieh; Ming-Shean Chou; Yu-Feng Chang; Hsiao-Ting Perng; Charles Blanchard; Shelley Tanenbaum; Douglas Lawson; Mindong Bai; Zhitao Zhang; Mindi Bai; Xiyao Bai; Honghui Gao

2008-01-01

189

Intercultural Programs: Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Office of Intercultural Programs of the Des Moines public schools addresses the equity needs of the district through a wide range of equity services. The Office serves as a resource for students, parents, community, and staff, and provides service in the areas of: (1) the Voluntary Transfer Program; (2) paired and magnet schools; (3) extended…

Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

190

Program Slicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program slicing is a method used by experienced computer programmers for abstracting from programs. Starting from a subset of a program's behavior, slicing reduces that program to a minimal form which still produces that behavior. The reduced program, called a “slice”, is an independent program guaranteed to faithfully represent the original program within the domain of the specified subset of

Mark Weiser

1984-01-01

191

Program Slicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program slicing is a method used by experienced computer programmers for abstracting from programs. Starting from a subset of a program's behavior, slicing reduces that program to a minimal form which still produces that behavior. The reduced program, called a “slice”, is an independent program guaranteed to faithfully represent the original program within the domain of the specified subset of

Mark Weiser

1981-01-01

192

SUMMARY OF EMISSIONS MANAGEMENT STRATEGY POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S PM SUPERSITES PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is developing an integrated synthesis of key scientific and policy-relevant findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program. This presentation provides a summary of the program and the integrated synthesis. Since there are many examples of such findings, ranging f...

193

Chemical Synthesis of Proteins  

PubMed Central

Proteins have become accessible targets for chemical synthesis. The basic strategy is to use native chemical ligation, Staudinger ligation, or other orthogonal chemical reactions to couple synthetic peptides. The ligation reactions are compatible with a variety of solvents and proceed in solution or on a solid support. Chemical synthesis enables a level of control on protein composition that greatly exceeds that attainable with ribosome-mediated biosynthesis. Accordingly, the chemical synthesis of proteins is providing previously unattainable insight into the structure and function of proteins. PMID:15869385

Nilsson, Bradley L.; Soellner, Matthew B.; Raines, Ronald T.

2010-01-01

194

Youth Programs. Practical Lessons from Research and Program Experience. December 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue offers a synthesis of the lessons from work/education partnerships in 21 cities and discussions of a number of leading work/education partnership program models. "Effective Work/Education Partnerships" summarizes lessons of effective partnerships identified during an examination of 21 programs sponsored by the Edna McConnell Clark…

Youth Programs: Practical Lessons from Research and Program Experience, 1987

1987-01-01

195

Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

Not Available

1993-02-01

196

Opportunities for Promoting Understanding through Synthesis (OPUS)  

NSF Publications Database

... collaboration on a synthesis. OPUS awards will facilitate critical synthesis, and do so in a way ... a synthesis. We expect that OPUS awards will have the potential of generating critical synthesis ...

197

Total synthesis of pseudodehydrothyrsiferol.  

PubMed

An enantioselective total synthesis of pseudodehydrothyrsiferol has been accomplished. The synthetic sequence highlights formation of the highly strained tetrahydropyran C-ring by a Mitsunobu-type S(N)2 reaction with an oxygen nucleophile. PMID:19113900

Hioki, Hideaki; Motosue, Masatoshi; Mizutani, Yasuhiko; Noda, Akira; Shimoda, Tomoaki; Kubo, Miwa; Harada, Kenichi; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Kodama, Mitsuaki

2009-02-01

198

Fiber draw synthesis  

E-print Network

The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid ...

Orf, Nicholas D.

199

Modern Evolutionary Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Wickipedia describes the modern evolutionary synthesis. This theory brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. Essentially, the modern synthesis (or neo-Darwinism) introduces the connection between two important discoveries; the units of evolution (genes) with the mechanism of evolution (selection). The site features links to any of the topics discussed.

Wikipedia

200

Synthesis and Analysis of Automatic Assessment Methods Generating intelligent MCQs  

E-print Network

Synthesis and Analysis of Automatic Assessment Methods in CS1 Generating intelligent MCQs Des for synthesising multiple choice ques- tions which can be used in automated assessment. Whilst using multiple or comprehension of a programming concept, creating suitable multiple choice questions that accurately test

Gibson, J. Paul

201

Designing and Implementing a Capstone Gerontology Seminar: Synthesis and Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the design and implementation of Gerontology: Synthesis and Action, the capstone seminar for the undergraduate and graduate certificate in gerontology program at Marylhurst University, a small, private liberal arts university in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. The institutional and programmatic context in which this…

Sasser, Jennifer R.

2005-01-01

202

The Teaching of Protein Synthesis--A Microcomputer Based Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two computer programs (BASIC for 32K Commodore PET) for teaching protein synthesis. The first is an interactive test of base-pairing knowledge, and the second generates random DNA nucleotide sequences, with instructions for substitution, insertion, and deletion printed out for each student. (JN)

Goodridge, Frank

1983-01-01

203

Using computer games for hybrid systems controller synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a formal method for feedback controller synthesis using interactive computer programs with graphical interface (in short, computer games). The main theoretical tool used in this method is the concept of trajectory robustness, which is established using the theory of approximate bisimulation. Approximate bisimulation has been used to establish robustness (in ?? sense) of execution trajectories of dynamical systems

A. Agung Julius; Sina Afshari

2010-01-01

204

Synthesis of plantwide control systems using PID controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuning PI controllers as part of a systematic methodology to synthesize plantwide control systems is discussed. In the synthesis methodology the manipulated variables used to control safety variables are first selected using mixed integer linear programming optimization, and the safety variables are assumed to be controlled in a SISO manner with PI controllers. Then, the PI controllers are incorporated into

Ping Wang; Thomas J. McAvoy

1999-01-01

205

The IEP: A Synthesis of Current Literature since 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a synthesis of literature from 1997-2002 on the individualized education program (IEP), a core component of federal and state laws on the education of students with disabilities. The first section identifies the significant changes related to the IEP in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997. The…

Sopko, Kim Moherek

206

Automatic Synthesis of Fine-Motion Strategies for Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active compliance enables robots to carry out tasks in the presence of significant sensing and control errors. Compliant motions are quite difficult for humans to specify, however. Furthermore, robot programs are quite sensitive to details of geometry and to error characteristics and must, therefore, be constructed anew for each task. These factors motivate the search for automatic synthesis tools for

Tomás Lozano-Pérez; Matthew T. Mason; Russell H. Taylor

1984-01-01

207

Optimal temporal partitioning and synthesis for reconfigurable architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a 0-1 non-linear programming (NLP) model for combined temporal partitioning and high-level synthesis from behavioral specifications destined to be implemented on reconfigurable processors. We present tight linearizations of the NLP model. We present effective variable selection heuristics for a branch and bound solution of the derived linear programming model. We show how tight linearizations combined with good variable

Meenakshi Kaul; Ranga Vemuri

1998-01-01

208

Microfluidic synthesis of colloidal nanomaterials  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on microfluidics based approaches for synthesis and surface-engineering of colloidal particles. Bottom-up assembly through colloidal nucleation and growth is a popular route to the controlled synthesis ...

Khan, Saif A

2006-01-01

209

Big6 Turbotools and Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The different tools that are helpful during the Synthesis stage, their role in boosting students abilities in Synthesis and the way in which it can be customized to meet the needs of each group of students are discussed. Big6 TurboTools offers several tools to help complete the task. In Synthesis stage, these same tools along with Turbo Report and…

Tooley, Melinda

2005-01-01

210

Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes  

E-print Network

Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes Program Career: Descripton College School;Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes Program Career: Descripton College School/ College 1

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

211

Mentors' perceptions of the effectiveness of the components and technological venues implemented in online teacher induction programs for novice teachers  

E-print Network

This descriptive study provided a synthesis of the form, structure, activity and relationship components utilized by online teacher induction programs designed to support novice teachers. Mentors involved in online teacher induction programs...

Livengood, Kimberly K.

2007-04-25

212

Synthesis of Feedback Controller for Chaotic Systems by Means of Evolutionary Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with a synthesis of control law for three selected discrete chaotic systems by means of analytic programming. The novality of the approach is that a tool for symbolic regression—analytic programming—is used for such kind of difficult problem. The paper consists of the descriptions of analytic programming as well as chaotic systems and used cost function. For experimentation, Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) with analytic programming was used.

Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Zelinka, Ivan; Davendra, Donald; Jasek, Roman

2011-06-01

213

A High-Level Approach to Synthesis of High-Performance Codes for Quantum Chemistry: The Tensor Contraction  

E-print Network

the approach to storage and data locality optimization using a model-driven search-based approach. Section 4A High-Level Approach to Synthesis of High-Performance Codes for Quantum Chemistry: The Tensor § Abstract This paper provides an overview of a program synthesis system for a class of quantum chemistry

Baumgartner, Gerald

214

Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

1985-01-01

215

Tiled texture synthesis  

E-print Network

TILED TEXTURE SYNTHESIS A Thesis by LORI ANNE GREEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject: Visualization... Sciences TILED TEXTURE SYNTHESIS A Thesis by LORI ANNE GREEN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Ergun Akleman (Chair of Committee) John Keyser...

Green, Lori Anne

2004-09-30

216

Sponsored Program Resources SPONSORED PROGRAMS  

E-print Network

Sponsored Program Resources - 1 - SPONSORED PROGRAMS Sponsored programs are research, instruction for sponsored programs is provided through an agreement between the sponsor and Syracuse University are being achieved and funds properly used Sponsored programs are managed by the Office of Sponsored

Mather, Patrick T.

217

Synthesis of stiffened shells of revolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs for the synthesis of shells of various configurations were developed. The conditions considered are: (1) uniform shells (mainly cones) using a membrane buckling analysis, (2) completely uniform shells (cones, spheres, toroidal segments) using linear bending prebuckling analysis, and (3) revision of second design process to reduce the number of design variables to about 30 by considering piecewise uniform designs. A perturbation formula was derived and this allows exact derivatives of the general buckling load to be computed with little additional computer time.

Thornton, W. A.

1974-01-01

218

Total synthesis of asterredione.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of asterredione was efficiently accomplished over five linear steps and in 21.5% overall yield. As the crucial step, the 2-quaternary 1,3-cyclopentenedione skeleton of asterredione was readily achieved using the Darzens/ring-expansion strategy developed in our laboratory. The structure of synthesized asterredione was fully confirmed by X-ray crystallography. PMID:24517486

Gai, Sinan; Zhang, Qing; Hu, Xiangdong

2014-03-01

219

Challenges in Speech Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Similar to other speech- and language-processing disciplines such as speech recognition or machine translation, speech synthesis,\\u000a the artificial production of human-like speech, has become very powerful over the last 10 years.

David Suendermann; Harald Höge; Alan Black

220

Synthesis and Summary  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Imaging Informatics:Synthesis, Summary and DiscussionRonald M. Summers, M.D., Ph.D.Clinical CenterDiagnostic Radiology DepartmentNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MDwww.cc.nih.gov/drd/summers.html Overview Review of the Meeting Perspective

221

Synthesis of (?)-12-Deacetoxyscalaradial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to the synthesis of the cytotoxic marine sesterterpenoid (?)-12-deacetoxyscalaradial (1) is described. The starting product has been the methyl 18?H-scalar-16-en-19-oate (2), obtained according to a known procedure from manool (4).

Nicon Ungur; Margherita Gavagnin; Guido Cimino

1996-01-01

222

Synthesis of porritoxin.  

PubMed

A total synthesis following the sequence in Scheme 1 confirms that porritoxin possesses revised structure 3, not the originally assigned 1. A key reaction was the use of iron pentacarbonyl to formylate an aryllithium when DMF and methyl formate proved insufficiently reactive. PMID:15058971

Cornella, Ivan; Kelly, T Ross

2004-03-19

223

Total synthesis of adicardin.  

PubMed

The first synthesis of adicardin, a compound with anti-chronic renal failure activity isolated from Hydrangea macrophylla, has been described. The structures of the target compound and intermediates have been validated by MS, NMR, and identical with the natural product. PMID:20183314

Li, Wei; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Tong, Yuan-Feng; Hao, Ling-Hua; Yang, Qing-Yun; Qi, Yan; Wu, Song

2009-08-01

224

Facile Synthesis of (?)-Paeonilide  

PubMed Central

(±)-Paeonilide, a novel monoterpenoid metabolite from the roots of Paeonia delavayi showing anti-platelet activating factor activity, is convergently synthesized in five steps with 59% overall yield. The application of benzoyl peroxide-promoted radical addition of unsaturated ester to aldehyde and subsequent topologically favored cyclization greatly simplified the synthesis. PMID:17411097

Du, Yuguo; Liu, Jun; Linhardt, Robert J.

2014-01-01

225

Microwave Photochemistry Organic Synthesis  

E-print Network

Microwave Photochemistry in Organic Synthesis V. C�rkva, M. H�jek Institute of Chemical Process pressure, ultraviolet radiation and recently applied microwave radiation. The paper is focused on combination of UV and microwave radiation technique, i.e. on the combination of short- and long

Cirkva, Vladimir

226

Combustion synthesis and nanomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent developments and trends in combustion science towards the synthesis of nanomaterials are discussed. Different modifications made to conventional combustion approaches for preparation of nanomaterials are critically analyzed. Special attention is paid to various applications of combustion synthesized nanosized products.

Singanahally T. Aruna; Alexander S. Mukasyan

2008-01-01

227

Synthesis in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses various techniques that scientists and other professionals can use to keep current in their field despite the large amount of available information, such as consulting abstracts, indexes, reviews, and catalogues. It also examines specific language patterns that are used in the sciences to produce synthesis and abridgement,…

Horsella, Maria

228

Algorithmic Synthesis for Biology  

E-print Network

synthesis to the production of 1) life-saving therapeutic drugs, 2) green non-fossil fuels, 3) green Core ROs (Mass-balance) Electronic ROs (VSEPR) ... Statistical ROs (Seen; stat) Fixed ROs (Seen (Mass-balance) Electronic ROs (VSEPR) ... Statistical ROs (Seen; stat) Fixed ROs (Seen; concretely

Srivastava, Saurabh

229

Pesticide National Synthesis Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pesticide National Synthesis Project homepage offers a number of publications and reports on pesticides in the Hydrologic System. The site also features data sets, national maps of pesticide use, and some special topic reports, as well as information on the Project and its staff.

230

in High Level Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces hot potato high level synthesis transformation techniques. These techniques add deflection operations in the behavioral description of a computation in such a way that the requirements for two important components of the final implementation cost, the number of registers and the number of interconnects, are significantly reduced. Moreover, it is shown how hot potato techniques can be

Miodrag Potkonjak; Sujit Dey

231

Integration of Knowledge in Synthesis Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss what is knowledge for synthesis and how knowledge is used in synthesis process. Variety of knowledge is crucial in synthesis process like design. Such variety of knowledge in turn makes it difficult to collect and integrate knowledge that is the main process of synthesis. We model synthesis process as integration of knowledge units called design

Hideaki Takeda; Akira Tsumaya; Tetsuo Tomiyama

232

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Fourth quarterly report, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

NONE

1997-10-01

233

Evolutionary Synthesis of a Trajectory Integrator for an Analogue Brain-Computer Interface Mouse  

E-print Network

Evolutionary Synthesis of a Trajectory Integrator for an Analogue Brain-Computer Interface Mouse. Recently significant steps have been made towards effective EEG- based brain-computer interfaces for mouse programming, obtaining extremely promising results. Keywords: Genetic Programming, Brain-Computer Interfaces

Fernandez, Thomas

234

Adventure Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing the historical development of Adventure Education concepts and programs, this publication describes past and present programs and presents suggestions relative to future programming. Specifically, the following are discussed: (1) Informal Education Programs (Outward Bound; the National Outdoor Leadership School; and other informal…

Metcalfe, John A.

235

Programming Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 434. Programming Languages (3) Prerequisites: CSC 332 and CSC 360. Comparative study of programming languages from both theoretical and applied viewpoints. Typical issues include syntax and semantics, scope and binding times, storage allocation, parameter-passing techniques, control structures, run-time representation of programs and data. Detailed examples from the imperative, functional, parallel, object-oriented and logical programming paradigms.

Berman, David

2003-04-21

236

SYCRAFT: A Tool for Synthesizing Distributed Fault-Tolerant Programs  

E-print Network

can write. Given a set of fault actions and a specification, the tool transforms the input distributed to have access to synthesis methods that transform existing fault-intolerant dis- tributed programsSYCRAFT: A Tool for Synthesizing Distributed Fault-Tolerant Programs Borzoo Bonakdarpour

Kulkarni, Sandeep

237

SYCRAFT: A Tool for Synthesizing Distributed FaultTolerant Programs #  

E-print Network

can write. Given a set of fault actions and a specification, the tool transforms the input distributed to have access to synthesis methods that transform existing fault­intolerant dis­ tributed programsSYCRAFT: A Tool for Synthesizing Distributed Fault­Tolerant Programs # Borzoo Bonakdarpour

Kulkarni, Sandeep

238

Occupational Safety and Health Programs in Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide was developed in response to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and is intended to assist teachers in implementing courses in occupational safety and health as part of a career education program. The material is a synthesis of films, programed instruction, slides and narration, case studies, safety pamphlets,…

DiCarlo, Robert D.; And Others

239

Program Highlights CAHME Accredited Program  

E-print Network

Program Highlights CAHME Accredited Program The University of Utah's MHA program received, becoming the first MHA program in Utah to earn accreditation. Dual-Degree Experience At the David Eccles School of Business, you'll create an even more powerful MHA by pairing the degree with one of our other

Tipple, Brett

240

Process Synthesis and Optimization of Biorefinery Configurations  

E-print Network

biorefinery design. In the synthesis problem, a systems-based "forward-backward" approach was developed. It involves forward synthesis of biomass to possible intermediates and reverse synthesis starting with desired products and identifying necessary species...

Pham, Viet

2012-10-19

241

Knowledge-based synthesis of custom VLSI router software. [Very Large Scale Integration  

SciTech Connect

This thesis describes a synthesis architecture for automatic generation of technology-sensitive VLSI physical design tools from high-level specifications. Physical design refers to the process of reducing a structural description of a piece of hardwater down to the geometric layout of an integrated circuit. Successful physical design tools must cope with shifting technology and application environments. The author argues that the appropriate place for technology-dependent information is not in the run-time environment of such tools, but in a generator for these tools. They describe a synthesis architecture and its prototype implementation - called ELF - that integrates knowledge of the application domain with knowledge of generic programming mechanics. ELF strives to meet the demands of the target technology by automatically generating an implementation of the tool to match the application requirements. The ELF synthesis architecture has three key features. First, a very high level language, lacking data structure implementation specifications, is used to describe algorithm design styles. Second, application domain knowledge and generic program synthesis knowledge are used to guide search among candidate design styles for all necessary component algorithms, and to deduce compatible data structure implementations for these components. Third, code generation is used to transform the resulting abstract descriptions of selected algorithms and data structures into final, executable code. Code generation is an incremental, stepwise refinement process, and also relies on application domain knowledge, as well as generic program synthesis knowledge. A wide variety of fully-functional routers has been synthesized by ELF, and verified on both synthetic and industrial routing benchmarks. ELF demonstrates a synthesis architecture that efficiently generates router software using router domain-specific and generic program synthesis knowledge as a synthesis guide.

Setliff, D.E.

1989-01-01

242

Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-malbrancheamide B.  

PubMed

The asymmetric total synthesis of the chlorinated [2.2.2]-diazabicyclic indole alkaloid (+)-malbrancheamide B is reported. Key to the synthesis is a domino reaction sequence that employs an aldol condensation, alkene isomerization, and intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Diastereofacial selection between the azadiene stereofaces is enforced with a chiral aminal auxiliary. A formal 7-step (longest linear route) synthesis of (±)-malbrancheamide B is also reported. PMID:23360221

Laws, Stephen W; Scheerer, Jonathan R

2013-03-15

243

Total synthesis of taxol.  

PubMed

Taxol, a substance originally isolated from the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia) more than two decades ago, has recently been approved for the clinical treatment of cancer patients. Hailed as having provided one of the most significant advances in cancer therapy, this molecule exerts its anticancer activity by inhibiting mitosis through enhancement of the polymerization of tubulin and consequent stabilization of microtubules. The scarcity of taxol and the ecological impact of harvesting it have prompted extension searches for alternative sources including semisynthesis, cellular culture production and chemical synthesis. The latter has been attempted for almost two decades, but these attempts have been thwarted by the magnitude of the synthetic challenge. Here we report the total synthesis of taxol by a convergent strategy, which opens a chemical pathway for the production of both the natural product itself and a variety of designed taxoids. PMID:7906395

Nicolaou, K C; Yang, Z; Liu, J J; Ueno, H; Nantermet, P G; Guy, R K; Claiborne, C F; Renaud, J; Couladouros, E A; Paulvannan, K

1994-02-17

244

Synthesis of optical birefringent networks.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outline of synthesis procedures, with description of the birefringent networks which result from their use. Optical compensators are employed in synthesis procedures in two different ways. The first role is simply the practical one of compensating for slightly incorrect crystal lengths. The second role occurs because some synthesis procedures require different fractional retardations for the stages of the network. Lyot and Solc filters are described, and an attempt is made to show how birefringent networks function. Experimental results are presented, and the application of synthesis procedures to electrooptic networks is discussed.

Ammann, E. O.

1971-01-01

245

Computer Synthesis Approaches of Hyperboloid Gear Drives with Linear Contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer design has improved forming different type software for scientific researches in the field of gearing theory as well as performing an adequate scientific support of the gear drives manufacture. Here are attached computer programs that are based on mathematical models as a result of scientific researches. The modern gear transmissions require the construction of new mathematical approaches to their geometric, technological and strength analysis. The process of optimization, synthesis and design is based on adequate iteration procedures to find out an optimal solution by varying definite parameters. The study is dedicated to accepted methodology in the creation of soft- ware for the synthesis of a class high reduction hyperboloid gears - Spiroid and Helicon ones (Spiroid and Helicon are trademarks registered by the Illinois Tool Works, Chicago, Ill). The developed basic computer products belong to software, based on original mathematical models. They are based on the two mathematical models for the synthesis: "upon a pitch contact point" and "upon a mesh region". Computer programs are worked out on the basis of the described mathematical models, and the relations between them are shown. The application of the shown approaches to the synthesis of commented gear drives is illustrated.

Abadjiev, Valentin; Kawasaki, Haruhisa

2014-09-01

246

Extended cooperative control synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on research for extending the Cooperative Control Synthesis methodology to include a more accurate modeling of the pilot's controller dynamics. Cooperative Control Synthesis (CCS) is a methodology that addresses the problem of how to design control laws for piloted, high-order, multivariate systems and/or non-conventional dynamic configurations in the absence of flying qualities specifications. This is accomplished by emphasizing the parallel structure inherent in any pilot-controlled, augmented vehicle. The original CCS methodology is extended to include the Modified Optimal Control Model (MOCM), which is based upon the optimal control model of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison in 1970. This model provides a modeling of the pilot's compensation dynamics that is more accurate than the simplified pilot dynamic representation currently in the CCS methodology. Inclusion of the MOCM into the CCS also enables the modeling of pilot-observation perception thresholds and pilot-observation attention allocation affects. This Extended Cooperative Control Synthesis (ECCS) allows for the direct calculation of pilot and system open- and closed-loop transfer functions in pole/zero form and is readily implemented in current software capable of analysis and design for dynamic systems. Example results based upon synthesizing an augmentation control law for an acceleration command system in a compensatory tracking task using the ECCS are compared with a similar synthesis performed by using the original CCS methodology. The ECCS is shown to provide augmentation control laws that yield more favorable, predicted closed-loop flying qualities and tracking performance than those synthesized using the original CCS methodology.

Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

1994-01-01

247

Synthesis of insecticide chlorfenapyr  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of chlorfenapyr was achieved by starting from? 2 (p2chlorophenyl) glycine. The glycine reacted with trifluo2 romethyl acetic anhydride , and further with 22chloroacrylonitrile , giving the intermediate 22 (p2chlorophenyl) 252 (trifluoromethyl) pyr2 role232carbonitrile. The intermediate went through bromination at pyrrole in the presence of a base , and the resulting bromide was then subjected to ethoxymethylation by reaction

XU Shang; J IANG; WANG Xiao; WAN Qin; XU Zhi

2006-01-01

248

Synthesis of (-)-Astrogorgiadiol  

PubMed Central

Astrogorgiadiol is a naturally occurring Vitamin D analogue that, in cell culture, downregulates the production of the cytokine osteopontin (OPN). OPN has been implicated in virulent asthma, and OPN knockout mice do not develop osteoporosis. As we have pursued whole animal studies with astrogorgiadiol, we have increased the scale of the synthesis. We report an improved preparation of the A-ring synthon and the scale-up of the diasteromerically pure D-ring/sidechain chiron. PMID:22212905

Taber, Douglass F.; Raciti, David M.

2011-01-01

249

Chemical Synthesis Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on thousands of chemical compounds, including synthesis references and physical properties. The database is searchable by keyword and browseable by journal title. For each compound, the information includes molecular formula and weight, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, International Chemical Identifier (InChIKey), and Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry System (SMILES) notation. There is also information on synonyms, physical properties (boiling and melting points, density), an illustration of chemical structure, spectral data, and links to additional data.

250

Synthesis of 20-deoxoluteone  

Microsoft Academic Search

20-Deoxoluteone has been synthesized from sclareol. Sclareol was brominated with phosphorus tribromide to form a mixture of\\u000a primary allyl bromides, from which, by the malonic synthesis, a mixture of bicyclogeranylgeranylacetic acids was obtained\\u000a which was cyclized with fluorosulfonic acid to form a mixture of two diastereomeric ?-lactones. The predominating lactone\\u000a was converted by successive reduction with lithium tetrahydroaluminate, oxidation with

P. F. Vlad; N. D. Ungur; Nguyen Van Hung

1990-01-01

251

Total synthesis of ingenol.  

PubMed

Total synthesis of ingenol, a diterpene isolated from the genus Euphorbia, was accomplished on the basis of the novel key reactions. The highly strained ingenane skeleton was constructed through an intramolecular cyclization reaction of an acetylene dicobalt complex followed by a rearrangement reaction of an epoxy alcohol. The C(3),C(4),C(5)-triol moiety was introduced by a stereoselective double dihydroxylation reaction of a diene having C(2)-C(3) and C(4)-C(5) double bonds. PMID:12568608

Tanino, Keiji; Onuki, Kei; Asano, Kohei; Miyashita, Masaaki; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Kuwajima, Isao

2003-02-12

252

Hyaluronan Synthesis and Myogenesis  

PubMed Central

Exogenous hyaluronan is known to alter muscle precursor cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, ultimately inhibiting myogenesis in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of endogenous hyaluronan synthesis during myogenesis. In quantitative PCR studies, the genes responsible for synthesizing hyaluronan were found to be differentially regulated during muscle growth, repair, and pathology. Although all Has genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3) were differentially regulated in these models, only Has2 gene expression consistently associated with myogenic differentiation. During myogenic differentiation in vitro, Has2 was the most highly expressed of the synthases and increased after induction of differentiation. To test whether this association between Has2 expression and myogenesis relates to a role for Has2 in myoblast differentiation and fusion, C2C12 myoblasts were depleted of Has2 by siRNA and induced to differentiate. Depletion of Has2 inhibited differentiation and caused a loss of cell-associated hyaluronan and the hyaluronan-dependent pericellular matrix. The inhibition of differentiation caused by loss of hyaluronan was confirmed with the hyaluronan synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone. In hyaluronan synthesis-blocked cultures, restoration of the pericellular matrix could be achieved through the addition of exogenous hyaluronan and the proteoglycan versican, but this was not sufficient to restore differentiation to control levels. These data indicate that intrinsic hyaluronan synthesis is necessary for myoblasts to differentiate and form syncytial muscle cells, but the hyaluronan-dependent pericellular matrix is not sufficient to support differentiation alone; additional hyaluronan-dependent cell functions that are yet unknown may be required for myogenic differentiation. PMID:23493399

Hunt, Liam C.; Gorman, Chris; Kintakas, Christopher; McCulloch, Daniel R.; Mackie, Eleanor J.; White, Jason D.

2013-01-01

253

Continuous organic electrochemical synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and reduction of glucose to sorbitol has been successfully paired in an undivided packed bed electrode flow cell. The use of a Raney nickel powder catalytic cathode significantly improved the current efficiency for sorbitol production, as compared to a high hydrogen overpotential Zn(Hg) cathode. The optimum operating conditions for the paired synthesis are: activity W-2 Raney nickel powder cathode, graphite chip anode, a 1.6 M glucose and 0.4 M CaBr/sub 2/ initial solution composition, pH 6-7, 60/sup 0/C solution temperature, a current density of 250 to 500 mA and a solution volumetric flow rate of 100 ml min/sup -1/. Under these conditions the sorbitol current efficiencies are at least 80%, the glucose acid current efficiencies are 100% and the product yields are quantitative. A separation scheme for the paired synthesis has also been devised. It consists of the precipitation of the oxidation product (calcium gluconate) and the ethanol extraction of glucose and CaBr/sub 2/ from sorbitol. Based on a preliminary economic analysis of the cost of raw materials, energy and the electrochemical cell and separation equipment the cost of producing 1 lb calcium gluconate and 0.68 lb sorbitol in a paired synthesis was estimated to be $0.896. The cost of producing the same amount of sorbitol and calcium gluconate in separate electrochemical cells was calculated to be $1.20. Thus, the paired synthesis appears to be an economically viable process.

Nobe, K.; Baizer, M.; Pintauro, P.; Park, K.; Gilbert, S.

1984-07-01

254

Reversible logic circuit synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible or information-lossless circuits have applications in digital signal processing, communication, computer graphics and cryptography. They are also a fundamental requirement in the emerging field of quantum computation. We investigate the synthesis of reversible circuits that employ a minimum number of gates and contain no redundant input-output line-pairs (temporary storage channels). We prove constructively that every even permutation can be

Vivek V. Shende; Aditya K. Prasad; I. L. Markov; J. P. Hayes

2002-01-01

255

Laser pulse synthesis system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A laser pulse synthesis system is provided. A further aspect of the present system uses a phase-only modulator to measure ultrashort laser pulses. An additional aspect achieves interferences between split subpulses even though the subpulses have different frequencies. Yet another aspect of a laser system employs multi-comb phase shaping of a laser pulse. In another aspect, a laser system includes pulse characterization and arbitrary or variable waveform generation through spectral phase comb shaping.

2014-03-18

256

Deductive Glue Code Synthesis for Embedded Software Systems Based on Code Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated code synthesis is a constructive process that can be used to generate programs from specifications. It can, thus, greatly reduce the software development cost and time. The use of formal code synthesis approach for software generation further increases the dependability of the system. Though code synthesis has many potential benefits, the synthesis techniques are still limited. Meanwhile, components are widely used in embedded system development. Applying code synthesis to component based software development (CBSD) process can greatly enhance the capability of code synthesis while reducing the component composition efforts. In this paper, we discuss the issues and techniques for applying deductive code synthesis techniques to CBSD. For deductive synthesis in CBSD, a rule base is the key for inferring appropriate component composition. We use the code patterns to guide the development of rules. Code patterns have been proposed to capture the typical usages of the components. Several general composition operations have been identified to facilitate systematic composition. We present the technique for rule development and automated generation of new patterns from existing code patterns. A case study of using this method in building a real-time control system is also presented.

Liu, Jian; Fu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yansheng; Bastani, Farokh; Yen, I-Ling; Tai, Ann; Chau, Savio N.

2006-01-01

257

Pheromones and kairomones for control of pest insects. Some current results from a Swedish research program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some recent results from a research program dealing with the isolation, identifica- tion, and synthesis of biologically active compounds for applications in agriculture and forestry will be reported. The solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) technique has been suc- cessfully used for identification of the main sex pheromone components of Cydia and Bonagota species (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae). Synthesis of a series of dodecadienols,

Torbjörn Norin

2001-01-01

258

Aircraft noise synthesis system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

1987-01-01

259

REGULATION OF GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous intracellular peptide with diverse functions that include detoxification, antioxidant defense, maintenance of thiol status, and modulation of cell proliferation. GSH is synthesized in the cytosol of all mammalian cells in a tightly regulated manner. The major determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of cysteine, the sulfur amino acid precursor, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL). GCL is composed for a catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunit and they are regulated at multiple levels and at times differentially. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis, GSH synthase (GS) is also regulated in a coordinated manner as GCL subunits and its up-regulation can further enhance the capacity of the cell to synthesize GSH. Oxidative stress is well known to induce the expression of GSH synthetic enzymes. Key transcription factors identified thus far include Nrf2/Nrf1 via the antioxidant response element (ARE), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor ? B (NF?B). Dysregulation of GSH synthesis is increasingly being recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary fibrosis, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. Manipulation of the GSH synthetic capacity is an important target in the treatment of many of these disorders. PMID:18601945

Lu, Shelly C.

2009-01-01

260

Alcohol Medical Scholars Program--A Mentorship Program for Improving Medical Education regarding Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Alcohol Medical Scholars Program (AMSP) is designed to improve medical education related to substance use disorders (SUDs) through mentorship of junior, full-time academic faculty from medical schools across the United States. Scholarship focuses on literature review and synthesis, lecture development and delivery, increasing SUD education in…

Neufeld, Karin J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

261

Formes: An object and time oriented system for music composition and synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known [Winograd79] that the development and use of complex systems was stifled by the inadequacy of ordinary programming languages. Music Composition and Synthesis (MCS) by computer offers an appropriate example of this “complexity barrier”. Object-Oriented programming matches a lot of MCS requirements: an object-oriented programming environment, called Formes, has been developed at IRCAM, including original features like

Pierre Cointe; Xavier Rodet

1984-01-01

262

Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

263

Programming SIPStrategies  

E-print Network

. Correctness and E#ciency . Problems and Improvements Stefan Brass: Deductive Databases and Logic Programming and sketch possible solutions. Stefan Brass: Deductive Databases and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2007 7. SLDMagic Method Stefan Brass: Deductive Databases and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2007 7. Magic Sets 7

Brass, Stefan

264

Flexibility Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

Connors, G. Patrick

265

Graduate Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes graduate programs in instructional technology, educational media and communications, school library media, and closely allied programs in the United States. Entries provide name and address, chairperson, types of degrees offered, special features of the program, admission requirements, degree requirements, number of faculty, number of…

Burdett, Anna E.

2003-01-01

266

Program Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Triton College's proposed method of conducting periodic comprehensive evaluations of the quality and potential of its academic programs has five components. First, a self-study is conducted by the faculty and administrators of the program being reviewed, in a year-long comprehensive examination of the program. Second, an external consultant, with…

Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

267

Analysis and synthesis of abstract data types through generalization from examples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of general patterns of behavior from a set of input/output examples can be a useful technique in the automated analysis and synthesis of software systems. These generalized descriptions of the behavior form a set of assertions which can be used for validation, program synthesis, program testing and run-time monitoring. Describing the behavior is characterized as a learning process in which general patterns can be easily characterized. The learning algorithm must choose a transform function and define a subset of the transform space which is related to equivalence classes of behavior in the original domain. An algorithm for analyzing the behavior of abstract data types is presented and several examples are given. The use of the analysis for purposes of program synthesis is also discussed.

Wild, Christian

1987-01-01

268

Is Sustainability Possible? A Review and Commentary on Empirical Studies of Program Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important final step in the life cycles of programs and their evaluation involves assessing new programs' or innovations' sustainability. This review and synthesis of 19 empirical studies of the sustainability of American and Canadian health-related programs examines the extent of sustainability achieved and summarizes factors contributing to…

Scheirer, Mary Ann

2005-01-01

269

Mississippi/Alabama Pinnacle Trend Ecosystem Monitoring Final Synthesis Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Final Synthesis Report summarizes a four-year program to characterize and monitor carbonate mounds on the Mississippi/Alabama outer continental shelf (OCS). The study area is shown in Fig.ES.1. The study was conducted by Continental Shelf Associates, Inc. and the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) of Texas A&M University (TAMU), for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Biological Resources Division.

Texas A&M University, Geochemical and Environmental Research Group

2001-01-01

270

Investigation on Evolutionary Chaos Controller Synthesis for Hénon Map Stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with the synthesis of control law by means of Analytic Programming (AP) for the Hénon Map, which is discrete chaotic system. The tool for symbolic regression (AP) is used for the purpose of stabilization of stable state and higher periodic orbits, which represent oscillations between several values of chaotic system. For experimentation, Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) with AP and Differential Evolution (DE) as the second algorithm for meta-evolution were used.

Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Zelinka, Ivan

2011-09-01

271

CADICS - Cyclic Analog-to-Digital Converter Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

CADICS is a technology-independent synthesis tool for generating complete netlists and layouts for CMOS cyclic analog-to-digital converters from a set of specifications. The program is capable of synthesizing A\\/D converters which have a broad range of sampling rate, resolution (up to 12 bits plus sign bit), and silicon area, and performance comparable to a manual approach without using any standard

Gani Jusuf; Paul R. Gray; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1990-01-01

272

STRATEGIES TO REDUCE OR REPLACE THE USE OF ANIMALS IN THE ENDOCRINE SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM.  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone synthesis and androgen (AR...

273

Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-laurenditerpenol.  

PubMed

A highly convergent total synthesis of (-)-laurenditerpenol has been accomplished through an organolithium to aldehyde nucleophilic addition. Preparation of the prerequisite key intermediates in optically pure form was based on an improved, short, and efficient synthesis of "wine lactone" from (S)-limonene and Corey's catalytic enantioselective Diels-Alder reaction of 2,5-dimethyl furan with diethyl fumarate. PMID:22905649

Pitsinos, Emmanuel N; Athinaios, Nikolaos; Vidali, Veroniki P

2012-09-01

274

Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Cassiol  

PubMed Central

An enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-cassiol is reported. The complex derived from Pd2(pmdba)3 and enantiopure t-BuPHOX ligand catalyzes enantioconvergent decarboxylative alkylation to generate the quaternary carbon stereocenter at an early stage. The overall synthetic strategy involves a convergent late-stage coupling of two fragments. The synthesis features a longest linear sequence of eight steps. PMID:19093836

Petrova, Krastina V.; Mohr, Justin T.; Stoltz, Brian M.

2009-01-01

275

Biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an active area of academic and, more importantly, “application research” in nanotechnology. A variety of chemical and physical procedures could be used for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. However, these methods are fraught with many problems including use of toxic solvents, generation of hazardous by-products, and high energy consumption. Accordingly, there is an essential need

Kaushik N. Thakkar; Snehit S. Mhatre; Rasesh Y. Parikh

2010-01-01

276

Total synthesis of (-)-calyciphylline N.  

PubMed

The total synthesis of the architecturally complex Daphniphyllum alkaloid (-)-calyciphylline N has been achieved. Highlights of the synthesis include a Et2AlCl-promoted, highly stereoselective, susbtrate-controlled intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, a transannular enolate alkylation, an effective Stille carbonylation/Nazarov cyclization sequence, and a high-risk diastereoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted conjugated diene ester. PMID:24319987

Shvartsbart, Artem; Smith, Amos B

2014-01-22

277

Gestural control of sound synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a review of gestural control of sound synthesis in the context of the design and evaluation of digital musical instruments. It discusses research in various areas related to this field and equally focuses on four main topics: analysis of music performers' gestures, gestural capture technologies, real-time sound synthesis methods, and strategies for mapping gesture variables to sound

MARCELO M. WANDERLEY; PHILIPPE DEPALLE

2004-01-01

278

The SPOT-synthesis technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented first in 1990 at the 21st European Peptide Symposium in Barcelona, Spain [Frank, R., Güler, S., Krause, S., Lindenmaier, W., 1991. Facile and rapid ‘spot synthesis’ of large numbers of peptides on membrane sheets. In: Giralt, E., Andreu, D. (Eds.) Peptides 1990, Proc. 21st Eur. Peptide Symp. ESCOM, Leiden, p. 151.], the SPOT-synthesis method opened up countless opportunities to

Ronald Frank

2002-01-01

279

Collagen synthesis in generalized morphea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of collagen and non-collagenous proteins was measured in fibroblast cultures derived from different layers of the dermis from a patient with an early stage of localized scleroderma. Increased synthesis of collagen was found in fibroblasts grown from the subcutaneous fat of this patient, whereas cells obtained from the papillary dermis revealed normal metabolism. These data agree with the results

Th. Krieg; O. Braun-Falco; J. S. Perlish; R. Fleischmajer

1983-01-01

280

Cultural Voucher Program; Program Abstract.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the Museums Collaborative Voucher Program, a system through which cultural institutions conduct programs with large, heterogeneous, adult populations in New York City is provided in this paper. The program began with two goals: to broaden the audience served by New York City's cultural institutions and to provide the institutions…

Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, NY.

281

Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

Massoud, LindaLee

282

Studies in Chemical Process Design and Synthesis  

E-print Network

Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks An algorithmic-evolutionary approach to the systematic synthesis the pre- vious studies on the systematic synthesis of heat exchanger networks. In the majority of published studies on the synthesis of heat exchanger networks, there has been very little theoretical

Liu, Y. A.

283

Approximating Border Length for DNA Microarray Synthesis  

E-print Network

Approximating Border Length for DNA Microarray Synthesis Cindy Y. Li1 Prudence W.H. Wong1 Qin Xin2. The borders between the masked and unmasked regions are represented by bold lines. DNA microarray synthesis arises in microarray synthesis to place and embed probes in the array. The synthesis is based on a light

Wong, Prudence W.H.

284

Lung epinephrine synthesis  

SciTech Connect

We studied in vitro and in vivo epinephrine (E) synthesis by rat lung. Nine days after removal of the adrenal medullas, circulating E was reduced to 7% of levels found in sham-operated rats but 30% of lung E remained. Treatment of demedullated rats with 6 hydroxydopamine plus reserpine did not further reduce lung E. In the presence of S-(3H)adenosylmethionine lung homogenates readily N-methylated norepinephrine (NE) to form (3H)E. The rate of E synthesis by lung homogenates was progressively more rapid with increasing NE up to a concentration of 3 mM, above which it declined. The rate of E formation was optimal at an incubation pH of 8 and at temperatures of approximately 55 degrees C. We compared the E-forming enzyme(s) of lung homogenates with those of adrenal and cardiac ventricle. The adrenal contains mainly phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which is readily inhibited by SKF 29661 and methylates dopamine (DA) very poorly. Cardiac ventricles contain mainly nonspecific N-methyltransferase (NMT), which is poorly inhibited by SKF 29661 and readily methylates both DA and NE. Lung homogenates were inhibited by SKF 29661 about half as well as adrenal but more than ventricle. We used the rate of E formation from NE as an index of PNMT-like activity and deoxyepinephrine synthesis from DA as an index of NMT-like activity. PNMT and NMT activity in rat lung homogenates were not correlated with each other, displayed different responses to change in temperature, and were affected differently by glucocorticoids.

Kennedy, B.; Elayan, H.; Ziegler, M.G. (Univ. of California Medical Center, San Diego (USA))

1990-04-01

285

2008 Academic Program Review Graduate Programs  

E-print Network

2008 Academic Program Review of Graduate Programs November 2008 Texas A&M University College ........................................................................................................12 III. Graduate Program.....................................................................................................14 B. Educational Programs

286

Synthesis of castanospermine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diastereoselective synthesis of castanospermine is described in 11 synthetic steps from l-xylose. The borono-Mannich reaction between l-xylose, allylamine, and (E)-styrene boronic acid gives a tetrahydroxy amine with the desired configurations for C-6, C-7, C-8, and C-8a in the target molecule. A novel pyrrolo[1,2-c]oxazol-3-one precursor was employed to allow for the control of ?-facial diastereoselectivity in an osmium(VIII)-catalyzed syn-dihydroxylation (DH)

Theeraphan Machan; Andrew S. Davis; Boonsom Liawruangrath; Stephen G. Pyne

2008-01-01

287

Total synthesis of absinthin.  

PubMed

(+)-Absinthin, a structurally unique triterpene, has been efficiently constructed in nine reaction steps and in 18.6% overall yield from O-acetylisophotosantonic lactone. The synthesis features Mitsunobu arylselenylation, oxidative elimination of allylic arylselenides, biomimetic dimerization via regio- and stereospecific Diels-Alder reaction, and a four-step stereochemical inversion of a highly sterically congested tertiary alcohol. This approach has not only tackled the formidable synthetic challenges in assembling structurally complex (+)-absinthin but also paved an efficient synthetic route to a series of medicinally attractive absinthin analogues. PMID:15631427

Zhang, Weihe; Luo, Shengjun; Fang, Fang; Chen, Qingshou; Hu, Hanwei; Jia, Xueshun; Zhai, Hongbin

2005-01-12

288

SEASAT B orbit synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition were made to Battelle's Interactive Graphics Orbit Selection (IGOS) program; IGOS was exercised via telephone lines from JPL, and candidate SEASAT orbits were analyzed by Battelle. The additions to the program enable clear understanding of the implications of a specific orbit to the diverse desires of the SEASAT user community.

Rea, F. G.; Warmke, J. M.

1976-01-01

289

Fourier Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fourier program displays the Fourier transform of a user-defined complex spatial function of position. The default spatial function is a complex Gaussian. Additional parameters can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. Fourier is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of mathematical methods in the sciences. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the math_fourier.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other mathematical methods programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Math.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-14

290

Wait Program!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After completing the associated lesson, students test their understanding in two programming tasks that utilize LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots and sound/touch sensors. In the first challenge, students become acquainted with wait blocks by designing programs to simply make robots move forward until "hearing" a noise, and then turn left. The second, more challenging activity pushes students to fully understand the potential of wait blocks. They create programs that make the robots change speed several times when a touch sensor is pressed. Students gain practice in the iterative design-program-test-redesign process. A PowerPoint® presentation, pre/post quizzes and worksheet are provided.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

291

SAVEnergy Program  

SciTech Connect

This program overview describes elements of the U.S. Department of Energy's SAVEnergy Program, which is managed by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program. The SAVEnergy Program helps agencies meet Federal goals for greater energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of renewable energy by contracting with expert engineering firms to conduct energy and water use audits at Federal facilities. To qualify for this assistance, agencies or facilities must request audits from FEMP and assure FEMP that they will implement some of the energy and water efficiency measures recommended in the auditor's report.

Not Available

2002-05-01

292

Orbit Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Orbit program displays the dynamics of multiple massive objects interacting gravitationally. The default scenario shows the figure-eight orbit of three particles first discovered by Montgomery. Additional particles and their initial positions and velocities can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. Orbit is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of classical orbits. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the mech_orbit.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other classical mechanics programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or mechanics.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-20

293

Synthesis of (±)-7-hydroxylycopodine.  

PubMed

A seven-step synthesis of (±)-7-hydroxylycopodine that proceeds in 5% overall yield has been achieved. The key step is a Prins reaction in 60% sulfuric acid that gave the key tricyclic intermediate with complete control of the ring fusion stereochemistry. A one-pot procedure orthogonally protected the primary alcohol as an acetate and the tertiary alcohol as a methylthiomethyl ether. The resulting product was converted to 7-hydroxydehydrolycopodine by heating with KO-t-Bu and benzophenone in benzene followed by acidic workup. During unsuccessful attempts to make optically pure starting material, we observed the selective Pt-catalyzed hydrogenation of the 5-phenyl group of a 4,5-diphenyloxazolidine under acidic conditions and the Pt-catalyzed isomerization of the oxazolidine to an amide under neutral conditions. In attempts to hydroxylate the starting material so that we could adapt this synthesis to the preparation of (±)-7,8-dihydroxylycopodine (sauroine) we observed the novel oxidation of a bicyclic vinylogous amide to a keto pyridine with Mn(OAc)(3) and to an amino phenol with KHMDS and oxygen. PMID:22443298

Lin, Hong-Yu; Causey, Robert; Garcia, Gregory E; Snider, Barry B

2012-09-01

294

Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double-bed system that provides the feedstock for the synthesis of high octane and high cetane ethers, where the isobutanol productivity was as high as 139 g/kg cat/hr. Higher alcohol synthesis has been investigated over a Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at temperatures higher (up to 703K) than those previously utilized, and no sintering of the catalyst was observed during the short-term testing. However, the higher reaction temperatures led to lower CO conversion levels and lower yield of alcohols, especially of methanol, because of equilibrium limitations. With the double catalyst bed configuration, the effect of pressure in the range of 7.6--12.4 MPa on catalyst activity and selectivity was studied. The upper bed was composed of the copper-based catalyst at 598K, and the lower bed consisted of a copper-free Cs-ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at a high temperature of 678K. High pressure was found to increase CO conversion to oxygenated products, although the increase in isobutanol productivity did not keep pace with that of methanol. It was also shown that the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst could be utilized to advantage as the second-bed catalyst at 613--643K instead of the previously used copper-free Cs-ZnO/ Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at higher temperature, With double Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, high space time yields of up to 202 g/kg cat/hr, with high selectivity to isobutanol, were achieved.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

1999-04-01

295

Organic Synthesis in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will review our current understanding of the synthesis of organic molecules in space, with particular emphasis on the synthesis of those compounds that may be of prebiotic interest. The talk will address the possibility that molecules created in the interstellar medium may play a role in the origin and evolution of life on planetary surfaces. The various organic and volatile compounds that are now known or suspected to exist in a variety of space environments (stellar outflows, the diffuse interstellar medium, dense molecular clouds, protostellar nebulae, and planetesimal parent bodies in planetary systems) will be reviewed. This information comes largely from the combined applications of observational infrared and radio spectroscopy, laboratory astrophysical simulations, and theoretical astrochemistry. This will be followed by a discussion of the evidence, largely gathered from the laboratory isotopic study of extraterrestrial materials (meteorites and cosmic dust), that interstellar materials, including organics, can and do survive the transition from the interstellar space into forming stellar systems. Once there, some of this material can be delivered largely unaltered to planetary surfaces where it can play key roles in the origin and subsequent evolution of life.

Sandford, Scott A.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

296

3-amino thioacridone inhibits DNA synthesis and induces DNA damage in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in a p16-dependent manner  

E-print Network

National Cancer Institute for making available the drugsNational Cancer Institute. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2:1149-Drug Synthesis and Chemistry Branch, Developmental Therapeutics Program, Division of Cancer

2005-01-01

297

Users manual for flight control design programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs for the design of analog and digital flight control systems are documented. The program DIGADAPT uses linear-quadratic-gaussian synthesis algorithms in the design of command response controllers and state estimators, and it applies covariance propagation analysis to the selection of sampling intervals for digital systems. Program SCHED executes correlation and regression analyses for the development of gain and trim schedules to be used in open-loop explicit-adaptive control laws. A linear-time-varying simulation of aircraft motions is provided by the program TVHIS, which includes guidance and control logic, as well as models for control actuator dynamics. The programs are coded in FORTRAN and are compiled and executed on both IBM and CDC computers.

Nalbandian, J. Y.

1975-01-01

298

The prebiotic synthesis of oligonucleotides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper is primarily a review of recent developments in the abiotic synthesis of nucleotides, short chain oligonucleotides, and their mode of replication in solution. It also presents preliminary results from this laboratory on the prebiotic synthesis of thymidine oligodeoxynucleotides. A discussion, based on the physicochemical properties of RNA and DNA oligomers, relevant to the molecular evolution of these compounds leads to the tentative hypothesis that oligodeoxyribonucleotides of about 12 units may have been of sufficient length to initiate a self replicating coding system. Two models are suggested to account for the synthesis of high molecular weight oligomers using short chain templates and primers.

Oro, J.; Stephen-Sherwood, E.

1974-01-01

299

Hypericin: chemical synthesis and biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Hypericin is one of the most important phenanthoperylene quinones extracted mainly from plants of the genus Hypericum belonging to the sections Euhypericum and Campylosporus of Keller's classification. Widespread attention to the antiviral and anti-tumor properties of hypericin has spurred investigations of the chemical synthesis and biosynthesis of this unique compound. However, the synthetic strategies are challenging for organic and biological chemists. In this review, specific significant advances in total synthesis, semi-synthesis, and biosynthesis in the past decades are summarized. PMID:24636057

Huang, Lin-Fang; Wang, Zeng-Hui; Chen, Shi-Lin

2014-02-01

300

Protein Synthesis: at the ribosome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief animation demonstrates the process by which messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into protein. RNA is present in several formsmessenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Each of these RNA forms is involved in different steps of protein synthesis. mRNA is generated from DNA and is the template for protein synthesis. tRNA is critical to the translation of the mRNA sequence into protein sequence. rRNA are components of the ribosomes, which are the sites of protein synthesis.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)

2003-04-30

301

Adventure Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adventure programming is the deliberate use of adventurous experiences to create learning in individuals or groups, often with the goal of improving society or communities. Adventure programming may focus on recreation, education, individual or group development, or therapy, or on a combination of these. This second edition contains 61 chapters by…

Miles, John C., Ed.; Priest, Simon, Ed.

302

Gifted Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptions of four gifted programs are offered in articles titled "Career Education for Gifted Students in Illinois" (J. Ellis and B. Ford); "Interage Program for Critical Thinking" (H. Masterson); "Talcott Mountain Science Center" (D. LaSalle); and "Project L.O.G.I.C.--Nurturing the Mathematically Gifted" (W. Foley and B. Spack). (SBH)

Roeper Review, 1979

1979-01-01

303

Programs & Resources  

Cancer.gov

Small Animal Imaging Resource Program (SAIRP) The Interagency Council on Biomedical Imaging in Oncology (ICBIO) was developed as a means for developers of new imaging techniques to seek advice on the best way to proceed to commercialize their ideas, and Development of Preclinical Drugs and Enhancers (DCIDE) program.

304

Logic programming  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of the 1989 North American Conference on Logic Programming. Included are the following papers: Expanding query power in constrain logic programming languages, Investigating the linguistics of DNA with definite clause grammars, An intermediate language to support prolog's unification.

Lusk, E.L.; Overbeek, R.A.

1989-01-01

305

PROGRAM OVERVIEW  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Cancer Centers Program Program Overview – St. Joseph’s / Candler 1 A. Hospital: St. Joseph’s/Candler (SJ/C) health system is comprised of two hospitals, Candler Hospital and St. Joseph’s. Candler Hospital is centrally

306

Computer Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

Anderson, Tiffoni

307

Program Listings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complete listing of a projectile motion program for the Apple II microcomputer is provided. A discussion of this computer simulation and a table with variables used in the program (as well as their meanings) can be found in SE 533 596. (JN)

Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1983

1983-01-01

308

Wellness programs.  

PubMed

Befitting the economic principles underlying much of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, there is a concerted push toward preventive care and personal responsibility to be as healthy as one can. This is in the form of wellness programs. The authors discuss the history and scope of wellness programs, drawing particular attention to implementation and regulatory challenges. PMID:23206647

Tjoa, Aaron; Ling, Vincent; Bender, Chris; Brittenham, Marissa; Jha, Saurabh

2012-12-01

309

Synthesis of isobutene from synthesis gas over nanosize zirconia catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performances of nanosize zirconium oxides prepared by precipitation, supercritical fluid drying (SCFD) and freeze-drying (FD) methods were evaluated for the selective synthesis of isobutene from synthesis gas (syn-gas). The crystal structure, particle size and specific surface area were measured by XRD, TEM and BET. The acidic and basic properties of the catalysts were studied by NH3- and CO2-TPD, respectively. The

Caili Su; Junrong Li; Dehua He; Zhengxing Cheng; Qiming Zhu

2000-01-01

310

Evolution of alcohol synthesis catalysts under syngas  

SciTech Connect

Methanol-higher alcohols mixtures can be synthesized from natural gas via CO/CO[sub 2]/H[sub 2] mixtures and constitute potential octane boosters for unleaded gasoline. Catalytic formulations have been developed around the world, which allow rather high alcohol selectivities to be reached, but these performances are generally attained after an aging period which is necessary for the in situ preparation of the active phase. For this reason, the evolution of copper-cobalt-based model catalysts has been studied in different test equipment and operating conditions, such as fixed bed, slurry phase, and Berty reactors, as well as autoclaves and differential scanning calorimeters (DSC). The evolution of metallic cobalt dispersion was followed by magnetic measurements, and carbon deposits were visualized by temperature-programmed hydrogenation experiments. The interest of a slurry reactor for alcohols synthesis is demonstrated at lab scale. Acetaldehyde thermodesorption and CO disproportionation allow the performances of cobalt-based active phases to be predicted.

Chaumette, P.; Courty, P. (Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)); Kiennemann, A. (E.H.I.C.S., Strasbourg (France)) (and others)

1994-06-01

311

Shock compression synthesis of hard materials  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to adapt the high explosives technology that was developed in conjunction with nuclear weapons programs to subjecting materials to ultra-high pressures and to explore the utility of this technique for the synthesis of hard materials. The research was conducted in collaboration with researchers at the University of Texas, Texas Tech University and Pantex (Mason and Hanger Corp.). The group designed, modeled, built, and tested a new device that allows quantitative recovery of grams of material that have been subjected to unprecedented pressures. The modeling work was done at Texas Tech and Pantex. The metal parts and material samples were made at the University of Texas, and Pantex machined the explosives, assembled the devices and conducted the detonations. Sample characterization was carried out at the University of Texas and Texas Tech.

Willson, C.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-03-01

312

Application of optimality criteria in structural synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rational use of optimality criteria was investigated for a class of structural synthesis problems where materials, configuration and applied load conditions are specified, and the minimum weight design is to be determined. The potential of hybrid methods of structural optimization for dealing with relatively large design problems involving practical complexity was explored. The reduced basis concept in design space was used to decrease the number of generalized design variables dealt with by the mathematical programming algorithm. Optimality criteria methods for obtaining design vectors associated with displacement, system buckling and natural frequency constraints are presented. A stress ratio method was used to generate a basis design vector representing the stress constraints. The finite element displacement method was used as the basic structural analysis tool. Results for several examples of truss systems subject to stress, displacement and minimum size constraints are presented. An assessment of these results indicates the effectiveness of the hybrid method developed.

Terai, K.

1974-01-01

313

Dynamic programming.  

PubMed

Independent scoring of the aligned sections to determine the quality of biological sequence alignments enables recursive definitions of the overall alignment score. This property is not only biologically meaningful but it also provides the opportunity to find the optimal alignments using dynamic programming-based algorithms. Dynamic programming is an efficient problem solving technique for a class of problems that can be solved by dividing into overlapping subproblems. Pairwise sequence alignment techniques such as Needleman-Wunsch and Smith-Waterman algorithms are applications of dynamic programming on pairwise sequence alignment problems. These algorithms offer polynomial time and space solutions. In this chapter, we introduce the basic dynamic programming solutions for global, semi-global, and local alignment problems. Algorithmic improvements offering quadratic-time and linear-space programs and approximate solutions with space-reduction and seeding heuristics are discussed. We finally introduce the application of these techniques on multiple sequence alignment briefly. PMID:24170392

Nalbanto?lu, Ö Ufuk

2014-01-01

314

Optimization of microfluidic PET tracer synthesis with Cerenkov imaging.  

PubMed

Microfluidic technologies provide an attractive platform for the synthesis of radiolabeled compounds. Visualization of radioisotopes on chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. With Cerenkov imaging, beta particle emitting isotopes can be localized with a sensitive CCD camera. In order for Cerenkov imaging to also serve as a quantitative tool, it is necessary to understand how material properties relevant to Cerenkov emission, namely, index of refraction and beta particle stopping power, affect Cerenkov light output. In this report, we investigate the fundamental physical characteristics of Cerenkov photon yield at different stages of [(18)F]FDG synthesis on the electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) microfluidic platform. We also demonstrate how Cerenkov imaging has enabled synthesis optimization. Geant4, a Monte Carlo program applied extensively in high energy physics, is used to simulate Cerenkov photon yield from (18)F beta particles traversing materials of interest during [(18)F]FDG synthesis on chip. Our simulations show that the majority (approximately two-thirds) of the (18)F beta particle energy available to produce Cerenkov photons is deposited on the glass plates of the EWOD chip. This result suggests the possibility of using a single calibration factor to convert Cerenkov signal to radioactivity, independent of droplet composition. We validate our simulations with a controlled measurement examining varying ratios of [(18)O]H2O, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and acetonitrile (MeCN), and find a consistent calibration independent of solvent composition. However, the calibration factor may underestimate the radioactivity in actual synthesis due to discoloration of the droplet during certain steps of probe synthesis. In addition to the attractive quantitative potential of Cerenkov imaging, this imaging strategy provides indispensable qualitative data to guide synthesis optimization. We are able to use this imaging technique to optimize the mixing protocol as well as identify and correct for loss of radioactivity due to the migration of radioactive vapor outside of the EWOD heater, enabling an overall increase in the crude radiochemical yield from 50 ± 3% (n = 3) to 72 ± 13% (n = 5). PMID:23928799

Dooraghi, Alex A; Keng, Pei Y; Chen, Supin; Javed, Muhammad R; Kim, Chang-Jin C J; Chatziioannou, Arion F; van Dam, R Michael

2013-10-01

315

Optimization of microfluidic PET tracer synthesis with Cerenkov imaging†  

PubMed Central

Microfluidic technologies provide an attractive platform for the synthesis of radiolabeled compounds. Visualization of radioisotopes on chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. With Cerenkov imaging, beta particle emitting isotopes can be localized with a sensitive CCD camera. In order for Cerenkov imaging to also serve as a quantitative tool, it is necessary to understand how material properties relevant to Cerenkov emission, namely, index of refraction and beta particle stopping power, affect Cerenkov light output. In this report, we investigate the fundamental physical characteristics of Cerenkov photon yield at different stages of [18F]FDG synthesis on the electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) microfluidic platform. We also demonstrate how Cerenkov imaging has enabled synthesis optimization. Geant4, a Monte Carlo program applied extensively in high energy physics, is used to simulate Cerenkov photon yield from 18F beta particles traversing materials of interest during [18F]FDG synthesis on chip. Our simulations show that the majority (approximately two-thirds) of the 18F beta particle energy available to produce Cerenkov photons is deposited on the glass plates of the EWOD chip. This result suggests the possibility of using a single calibration factor to convert Cerenkov signal to radioactivity, independent of droplet composition. We validate our simulations with a controlled measurement examining varying ratios of [18O]H2O, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and acetonitrile (MeCN), and find a consistent calibration independent of solvent composition. However, the calibration factor may underestimate the radioactivity in actual synthesis due to discoloration of the droplet during certain steps of probe synthesis. In addition to the attractive quantitative potential of Cerenkov imaging, this imaging strategy provides indispensable qualitative data to guide synthesis optimization. We are able to use this imaging technique to optimize the mixing protocol as well as identify and correct for loss of radioactivity due to the migration of radioactive vapor outside of the EWOD heater, enabling an overall increase in the crude radiochemical yield from 50±3% (n=3) to 72±13% (n=5). PMID:23928799

Dooraghi, Alex A.; Keng, Pei Y.; Chen, Supin; Javed, Muhammad R.; Kim, Chang-Jin "CJ"; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; van Dam, R. Michael

2013-01-01

316

CLEAN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Newer green chemistry approach to accomplish chemical synthesis in water is summarized. Recent global developments pertaining to C-C bond forming reactions using metallic reagents and direct use of the renewable materials such as carbohydrates without derivatization are described...

317

Total synthesis of solanoeclepin A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyst nematodes are troublesome parasites that live on, and destroy, a range of important host vegetable plants. Damage caused by the potato cyst nematode has now been reported in over 50 countries. One approach to eliminating the problem is to stimulate early hatching of the nematodes, but key hatching stimuli are not naturally available in sufficient quantities to do so. Here, we report the first chemical synthesis of solanoeclepin A, the key hatch-stimulating substance for potato cyst nematode. The crucial steps in our synthesis are an intramolecular cyclization reaction for construction of the highly strained tricyclo[5.2.1.01,6]decane skeleton (DEF ring system) and an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of a furan derivative for the synthesis of the ABC carbon framework. The present synthesis has the potential to contribute to addressing one of the critical food issues of the twenty-first century.

Tanino, Keiji; Takahashi, Motomasa; Tomata, Yoshihide; Tokura, Hiroshi; Uehara, Taketo; Narabu, Takashi; Miyashita, Masaaki

2011-06-01

318

Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics addressed in this viewgraph presentation include information on 1) Historic instruments at Goddard; 2) Integrated Design Capability at Goddard; 3) The Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL).

Wood, H. John

2004-01-01

319

Total synthesis of paracaseolide A.  

PubMed

The total synthesis of paracaseolide A, a valuable cell-cycle progression inhibitor, was accomplished in 8 steps from known compounds, with 6.6% overall yield. The synthetic strategy creates strong potential for diversification. PMID:23324067

Guney, Tezcan; Kraus, George A

2013-02-01

320

Synthesis of Quaternary Heterocyclic Salts  

PubMed Central

The microwave synthesis of twenty quaternary ammonium salts is described. The syntheses feature comparable yields to conventional synthetic methods reported in the current literature with reduced reaction times and the absence of solvent or minimal solvent. PMID:24256924

Winstead, Angela J.; Nyambura, Grace; Matthews, Rachael; Toney, Deveine; Oyaghire, Stanley

2014-01-01

321

Total synthesis of (+)-chloriolide.  

PubMed

(+)-Chloriolide, a metabolite of the ascomycete Chloridium virescens var. chlamydosporum, was synthesized in 16 linear steps from cellulose as a source of a levoglucosenone that contributed the (Z)-alkene and the R stereocenter. The attachment of a spacer derived from l-lactate gave an ?-hydroxyacetal which was added to the phosphorus ylide Ph3PCCO. The resulting ester ylide was treated with hydrochloric acid to liberate the hemiacetal shown. Addition of sodium hydroxide regenerated the corresponding ylide, which underwent a spontaneous intramolecular Wittig olefination to afford (+)-chloriolide in 65% yield without the necessity of high-dilution conditions. This is the third synthesis of (+)-chloriolide and the first one ever of a macrolide by a ring-closing Wittig olefination of a stabilized phosphorus ylide bearing an ?-hemiacetal. Our synthetic sample exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against cancer cells but no antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24708255

Ostermeier, Michael; Schobert, Rainer

2014-05-01

322

Fiber draw synthesis  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid state are arranged in proximate domains within a fiber preform. The preform is fluidized at elevated temperatures and drawn into fiber, reducing the lateral dimensions and bringing the domains into intimate contact to enable chemical reaction. A polymer preform containing a thin layer of selenium contacted by tin–zinc wires is drawn to yield electrically contacted crystalline ZnSe domains of sub-100-nm scales. The in situ synthesized compound semiconductor becomes the basis for an electronic heterostructure diode of arbitrary length in the fiber. The ability to synthesize materials within fibers while precisely controlling their geometry and electrical connectivity at submicron scales presents new opportunities for increasing the complexity and functionality of fiber structures.

Orf, Nicholas D.; Shapira, Ofer; Sorin, Fabien; Danto, Sylvain; Baldo, Marc A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

2011-01-01

323

SCIENCE Program early science program  

E-print Network

SCIENCE Program early science program Early at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility CONTACT Argonne Leadership Computing Facility | www.alcf.anl.gov | (877) 737-8615 Climate-Weather Modeling Studies Using a Prototype Global Cloud-System Resolving Model PI: Venkatramani Balaji Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

Kemner, Ken

324

A concise synthesis of carolacton.  

PubMed

A synthesis of carolacton, a myxobacterial natural product that has profound effects on Streptococcus mutans biofilms, is reported. The synthesis proceeds via a longest linear sequence of 14 steps from an Evans ?-ketoimide and enabled preliminary evaluations of the effects of late-stage intermediates on S. mutans biofilms. These studies suggest that further investigations into carolacton's structure-function relationships are warranted. PMID:24483250

Hallside, Michal S; Brzozowski, Richard S; Wuest, William M; Phillips, Andrew J

2014-02-21

325

Agent problem solving by inductive and deductive program synthesis  

E-print Network

How do people learn abstract concepts unsupervised? Psychologists broadly recognize two types of concepts, declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge: know-what and know-how. While much work has focused on unsupervised ...

Fox, Harold, 1979-

2008-01-01

326

ALPS: a logic for program synthesis (motivated by fuzzy logic)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article proposes a logic to enable one to work out how to find values of some final quantities from values of some initial quantities (if it be possible), when what is known is relationships involving the initial and final variables and also some auxiliary variables

D. E. Cooke; V. Kreinovich; S. A. Starks

1998-01-01

327

Effective Programs for Elementary Science: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a systematic review of research on the achievement outcomes of all types of approaches to teaching science in elementary schools. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or matched control groups, a study duration of at least 4 weeks, and use of achievement measures independent of the experimental treatment. A…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Hanley, Pam; Thurston, Allen

2012-01-01

328

Synthesis of FaultTolerant Concurrent Programs (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

Science Florida International University attie@fiu.edu E. Allen EMERSON 3 Department of Computer Sciences The University of Texas at Austin emerson@cs.utexas.edu Abstract Methods for mechanically synthesizing concurrent­ dure for testing temporal satisfiability have been proposed by Emerson and Clarke [EC82] and Manna

Emerson, E. Allen

329

Automated Synthesis of Mechanical Vibration Absorbers Using Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

, 48824 Abstract Conceptual innovation in mechanical engineering design has been extremely chal- lenging known that innovation in conceptual design in mechanical engineering is extremely difficult, 48824 Ronald Rosenberg Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

Hu, Jianjun

330

GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 5: Weight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subroutines for determining the weights of propulsion system related components and the airframe components of an aircraft configuration are presented. Subroutines that deal with design load conditions, aircraft balance, and tail sizing are included. Options for turbine and internal combustion engines are provided.

Hague, D.

1978-01-01

331

ICD programming  

PubMed Central

Background Appropriate ICD programming is the key to prevent inappropriate shock delivery, that is closely associated to a negative patients' outcome. Methods Review of the literature on ICD therapy to generate ICD programmings that can be applied to the broad population of ICD and CRT-D carriers. Results Arrhythmia detection should occur with a detection time ranging 9?–12? in the VF zone, and 15?–60? in the VT zone. Discriminator should be applied at least up to 200 bpm. ATP therapy is applied to all VTs up to 250 bpm, with a success rate of 70%. Inappropriate shocks should occur in <3.6% of patients. Conclusion Tailored ICD programming can be achieved following evidence from large ICD trials. Pre-defined settings that are saved on the programmer and that can be uploaded at device implantation help to ensure optimal programming and to avoid random errors. PMID:24568835

Biffi, Mauro

2014-01-01

332

Polarizer Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Polarizer program displays the effect of a plane polarizer on an incident electromagnetic wave. The default electromagnetic wave is plane polarized but this polarization can be changed by specifying the components of the waveâs Jones vector using the input fields. The slider can be used to rotate the polarizer to change its orientation. Polarizer is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of optics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the optics_polarizer.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other optics programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Optics.

Simov, Kiril; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-20

333

SECO Programs  

E-print Network

Renewable Energy Technology Grants ? Grants to Public ISDs, local governments, and state agencies ? Grants for demonstration of small-scale solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass technologies ? Competitive program ? Up to 16 grants/contracts at a... Renewable Energy Technology Grants ? Grants to Public ISDs, local governments, and state agencies ? Grants for demonstration of small-scale solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass technologies ? Competitive program ? Up to 16 grants/contracts at a...

Trevino, E.

2011-01-01

334

RERTR program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program was established in 1978 at the Argonne National Laboratory by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which continues to fund the program and to manage it in coordination with the U.S. Department of State, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The primary objective of

Travelli

1997-01-01

335

Program It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is about robotic programming. Learners will simulate the experience of operating a rover on Mars, by giving specific commands to construct a Lego model with their partners. This will introduce students to the fundamental communication skills necessary for successful robotic programming. This is lesson 11 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module. This lesson is adapted from the Write It, Do It event, which is part of Science Olympiad.

336

MARGINS Program  

NSF Publications Database

Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that deviates from the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Website at http://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=gpm. Any changes in NSF's fiscal year programs occurring after press time for the Guide to Programs will be ...

337

SPOT Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

2010-01-01

338

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth with Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-synthesis of empirical and nonempirical literature analyzed 24 journal articles and book chapters that addressed the intersection of disability, [homo]sexuality, and gender identity/expression in P-12 schools, colleges and universities, supported living programs, and other educational and social contexts in Australia, Belgium, Canada,…

Duke, Thomas Scott

2011-01-01

339

MULTI-DIMENSIONAL EVOLUTIONARY FEATURE SYNTHESIS FOR CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL  

E-print Network

to synthesize new features. For both approaches evolutionary algorithms (EAs) [1] such as Genetic Algorithm (GA content: the features. Features are the fundamental elements in a CBIR system. They are the information) [2] and Genetic Programming (GP) [3] were mainly used. Evolutionary feature synthesis (EFS) is still

Gabbouj, Moncef

340

On-screen synthesis and analysis of harmonics: a student-oriented package  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of an interactive approach to the display and manipulation of power system harmonics is described. The resulting microcomputer program, which was developed primarily for educational use within the electrical engineering curriculum, allows both synthesis of waves from harmonic (sinusoidal) components and analysis of specified periodic waveforms in terms of their harmonic content. Data may be interactively modified, and

Howard A. Smolleck; Dane S. Dwyer; Laura M. Rust

1995-01-01

341

A formal software synthesis approach for embedded hard real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software synthesis is defined as the task of translating a specification into a software program, in a general purpose language, in such a way that this software can be compiled by conventional compilers. In general, complex real-time systems rely on specialized operating system kernels. However, the operating system usage may introduce significant overheads as in execution time as in memory

Raimundo Barreto; Marilia Neves; Meuse Oliveira Jr; Paulo Maciel; Eduardo Tavares; Ricardo Lima

2004-01-01

342

A formal software synthesis approach for embedded hard real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software synthesis is defined as the task of translating a specification into a software program in a general purpose language, in such a way that this software can be compiled by conventional compilers. In general, complex real-time systems rely on specialized operating system kernels. However, the operating system usage may introduce significant overheads as in execution time as in memory

M Neves; M Oliveira Jr; P Maciel

2004-01-01

343

The Educational Role of Zoos: A Synthesis of the Literature (1928-1987) with Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Zoos generally claim their four purposes to be conservation, research, entertainment, and education. This paper is intended to synthesize the literature relevant to the educational function and provide an annotated bibliography of that literature. The first section of the synthesis, "Audiences," addresses staff, volunteers, outreach programs, and…

Churchman, David

344

Synthesis and characterization of Sant-75 derivatives as Hedgehog-pathway inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Summary Sant-75 is a newly identified potent inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway. We designed a diversity-oriented synthesis program, and synthesized a series of Sant-75 analogues, which lays the foundation for further investigation of the structure–activity relationship of this important class of hedgehog-pathway inhibitors. PMID:23015832

Che, Chao; Li, Song; Yang, Bo; Xin, Shengchang; Yu, Zhixiong; Shao, Taofeng; Tao, Chuanye

2012-01-01

345

Synthesis of calculational methods for design and analysis of radiation shields for nuclear rocket systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight computer programs make up a nine volume synthesis containing two design methods for nuclear rocket radiation shields. The first design method is appropriate for parametric and preliminary studies, while the second accomplishes the verification of a final nuclear rocket reactor design.

Capo, M. A.; Disney, R. K.; Jordan, T. A.; Soltesz, R. G.; Woodsum, H. C.

1969-01-01

346

Symbolic integration of logic in MILP branch and bound methods for the synthesis of process networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the branch and bound solution of process synthesis problems that are modelled as mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problems. The symbolic integration of logic relations between potential units in a process network is proposed in the LP based branch and bound method to expedite the search for the optimal solution. The objective of this integration is to

Ramesh Raman; Ignacio E. Grossmann

1993-01-01

347

L2 Earth atmosphere observatory : formation guidance, metrology, and control synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the results of research sponsored by the NASA Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) program, and includes the synthesis and analysis of the guidance, metrology and control for a two-spacecraft formation in a unique continuously powered orbit near the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point observing the illuminated atmosphere of the Earth while it is continuously occulting the Sun.

Acikmese, Behcet A.; Mettler, Edward; Breckenridge, William G.; Macenka, Steven A.; Tubbs, Eldred F.

2004-01-01

348

A CONCATENATIVE SPEECH SYNTHESIS METHOD USING CONTEXT DEPENDENT PHONEME SEQUENCES WITH VARIABLE LENGTH AS SEARCH UNITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new concatenative speech synthesis method using context dependent phoneme sequences with variable length as search units. Using Japanese broadcast news programs as a speech database, we synthesize Japanese news sentences that are not included in that speech database and perform subjective evaluations of the synthesized speech. As a result, (1) 77% of speech synthesized by the

Hiroyuki Segi; Tohru Takagi; Takayuki Ito

349

Improving Evaluations of Value-Based Purchasing Programs  

PubMed Central

Although value-based purchasing (VBP) holds promise for encouraging quality improvement and addressing rising costs, currently there is limited evidence about how best to structure and implement VBP programs. In this commentary, we highlight several issues for improving evaluations of VBP programs. Implementation research can be enhanced through early and continuous assessment and greater variation in program designs. Impact research can be improved by creating better outcome measures, increasing the availability of linked patient-level data, and advancing synthesis research. We offer several recommendations for improving the foundation to conduct evaluations of VBP programs to better inform policy and practice. PMID:21054372

McHugh, Megan; Joshi, Maulik

2010-01-01

350

Synthesis of nanostructured polyaniline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organization of my thesis is as follows: (a) Chapter III describes the synthesis of bulk quantities of polyaniline nanofibers in one step using a simple and versatile high ionic strength aqueous system (HCl/NaCl) that permits the use of pure H2O2 as a mild oxidant without any added metal or enzyme catalyst. Polyaniline nanofibers obtained are highly conducting, sigma˜1--5 S/cm, and spectroscopically similar to conventional polyaniline synthesized using stronger oxidants. The synthesis method is further extended to the synthesis of oligoanilines of controlled molecular weight, e.g., aniline tetramer, octamer, and hexadecamer. Microns long tetramer nanofibers are synthesized using this method. (b) Chapter IV describes the mechanism of nanofiber formation in polyaniline. It is proposed that the surfaces such as the walls of the reaction vessel and/or intentionally added surfaces play a dramatic role in the evolution of nanofibrillar morphology. Nucleation sites on surfaces promote the accumulation of aniline dimer that reacts further to yield aniline tetramer, which (surprisingly) is entirely in form of nanofibers and whose morphology is transcribed to the bulk by a double heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. This unexpected phenomenon could form the basis of nanofiber formation in all classes of precipitation polymerization systems. (c) Chapter V is the mechanistic study on the formation of oligoanilines during the chemical oxidation of aniline in weakly acidic, neutral or basic media using peroxydisulfate oxidant. It is proposed that the reaction proceeds via the intermediacy of benzoquinone monoimine that is formed as a result of a Boyland-Sims rearrangement of aniline. The initial role of peroxydisulfate is to provide a pathway for the formation of benzoquinone monoimine intermediate that is followed by a conjugate Michael-type addition reaction with aniline or sulfated anilines. The products isolated in pH 2.5--10.0 buffers are intermediate species at various stages of hydrolysis. Confirmatory evidence is obtained when a spectroscopically similar product is formed when solid 1,4-benzoquinone is added to an aqueous solution of aniline at room temperature in the absence of peroxydisulfate. These findings also offer a rationale for the residual sulfur and the high C/N ratios frequently observed in the product. (d) Chapter VI describes a flexible, lightweight, reversible NO2 vapor sensor based on resistance changes of a thin film of a doped aniline oligomers and poly-o-toluidine deposited on plastic substrates. Unlike the irreversible signals typically observed in organic films, signal reversibility in the concentration range 100--5 ppm is readily achieved using a short burst of UV irradiation at room temperature in ambient air without the aid of heating or pump down cycles. In case of poly-o-toluidine based sensor, it is observed that the signal response is dependent on the organic solvent used to cast the polymer film with dipolar aprotic solvents yielding films showing a strong response. There are also striking differences in electrical and electronic properties including morphology of films cast from different solvents. This phenomenon is traced to polymer chain conformation in solution that is preserved in the solid state (cast film) which opens a new structural vector to tailor sensor response and selectivity. This study also expands the use of conducting polymers for the detection of vapors that were previously believed to be chemically too aggressive. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Surwade, Sumedh P.

351

The versatility of using explanations within constraint programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraint programming is a research topic benefiting from many other areas: discrete math- ematics, numerical analysis, artificial intelligence, operations research, and formal calculus. It has proven its interest and its efficiency in various domains: combinatorial optimization, scheduling, finance, simulation and synthesis, diagnosis, molecular biology, or geometrical problems. How- ever, some limitations and difficulties remain: designing stable and generic algorithms, handling

Narendra JUSSIEN

352

Automated synthesis of analog to digital conversion.  

E-print Network

??This thesis describes circuit architectures and techniques that facilitate the automatic synthesis and fabrication of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Since automated synthesis already exists for digital… (more)

Weaver, Skyler

2010-01-01

353

Microfluidic reactors for the synthesis of nanocrystals  

E-print Network

Several microfluidic reactors were designed and applied to the synthesis of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). Initially, a simple single-phase capillary reactor was used for the synthesis of CdSe NCs. Precursors ...

Yen, Brian K. H

2007-01-01

354

Total synthesis and study of myrmicarin alkaloids  

E-print Network

I. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tricyclic Myrmicarin Alkaloids An enantioselective gram-scale synthesis of a key dihydroindolizine intermediate for the preparation of myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Key transformations ...

Ondrus, Alison Evelynn, 1981-

2009-01-01

355

The collaborative program of research in engineering sciences  

SciTech Connect

Research programs in the following areas are briefly described: High-Temperature Gas-Particle Reactions; Mathematical Modelling of Plasma Systems; Metal Transfer in Gas Metal-Arc Welding; Multivariable Control of Gas Metal-Arc Welding; Synthesis of Heat and Work Integration Systems for Chemical Process Plants; Parity Simulation of Dynamic Processes; Fundamentals of Elastic-Plastic Fracture: Three-Dimensional and Mechanistic Modelling; and Comminution of Energy Materials. Publications from each program are listed.

White, D.C.

1989-08-01

356

HPC Productivity Model Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DARPA High Productivity Computing System (HPCS) program is developing systems that deliver increased value to users at a rate commensurate with the rate of improvement in the underlying technologies. For example, if the relevant technology was silicon, the goal of such a system would be to double in productivity (or value) every 18 months, following Moore's Law. The key

Jeremy Kepner

2004-01-01

357

Glycoprotein Synthesis in Plants  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the purification and structural determination of the mannolipid shown previously (Ericson and Delmer 1977 Plant Physiol 59: 341-347) to serve as an intermediate in glycoprotein synthesis in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris. The mannolipid was purified by chromatography in organic solvents on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, followed by repeated steps of deacylation and rechromatography on Sephadex LH-20. Binding and elution behavior on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose was consistent with the presence of a monophosphate residue. Lability of the mannolipid to mild acid treatment as well as its resistance to hot phenol treatment or catalytic hydrogenation are consistent with the structure of a polyprenol having a saturated ?-residue. After methanolysis, the chloroform-methanol-soluble portion of the mannolipid was analyzed by mass spectrometry. The fragmentation pattern obtained was nearly identical to that obtained from standard dolichol-phosphate. An intense ion at m/e 69 represented the ?-terminal isoprenoid residue, and repeating fragments separated by 68 mass units were observed up to m/e of > 1,200. All evidence supports the conclusion that the mannolipid is dolichol-monophosphate-mannose and thus provides further support for the concept that the processes involved in the glycosylation of protein in higher plants are similar to those known to occur in the animal kingdom. PMID:16660230

Delmer, Deborah P.; Kulow, Carl; Ericson, Mary C.

1978-01-01

358

Translesion DNA synthesis  

PubMed Central

All living organisms are continually exposed to agents that damage their DNA, which threatens the integrity of their genome. As a consequence, cells are equipped with a plethora of DNA repair enzymes to remove the damaged DNA. Unfortunately, situations nevertheless arise where lesions persist, and these lesions block the progression of the cell’s replicase. Under these situations, cells are forced to choose between recombination-mediated “damage avoidance” pathways, or use a specialized DNA polymerase (pol) to traverse the blocking lesion. The latter process is referred to as Translesion DNA Synthesis (TLS). As inferred by its name, TLS not only results in bases being (mis)incorporated opposite DNA lesions, but also downstream of the replicase-blocking lesion, so as to ensure continued genome duplication and cell survival. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium possess five DNA polymerases, and while all have been shown to facilitate TLS under certain experimental conditions, it is clear that the LexA-regulated and damage-inducible pols II, IV and V perform the vast majority of TLS under physiological conditions. Pol V can traverse a wide range of DNA lesions and performs the bulk of mutagenic TLS, whereas pol II and pol IV appear to be more specialized TLS polymerases. PMID:25401115

Vaisman, Alexandra; McDonald, John P.; Woodgate, Roger

2014-01-01

359

Stellar population synthesis diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative method is presented to compare observed and synthetic colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The method is based on a chi (2) merit function for a point (c_i,m_i) in the observed CMD, which has a corresponding point in the simulated CMD within nsigma (c_i,m_i) of the error ellipse. The chi (2) merit function is then combined with the Poisson merit function of the points for which no corresponding point was found within the nsigma (c_i,m_i) error ellipse boundary. Monte-Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the diagnostics obtained from the combined (chi (2) , Poisson) merit function through variation of different parameters in the stellar population synthesis tool. The simulations indicate that the merit function can potentially be used to reveal information about the initial mass function. Information about the star formation history of single stellar aggregates, such as open or globular clusters and possibly dwarf galaxies with a dominating stellar population, might not be reliable if one is dealing with a relatively small age range.

Ng, Y. K.

1998-10-01

360

Synthesis of PNA hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of PNA hydrocarbons usually includes ring construction, aromatization, removal of oxygen or other heteroatoms and in some cases specific placement of alkyl or aryl groups. These topics are of current interest in our laboratory. We have examined the regioselectivity of the Haworth sequence (Scheme I, Table I) and chromic acid oxidation at the benzylic position (Scheme II) as routes to 1-tetralones which in turn can become parent aromatic hydrocarbons or alkyl substituted ones (Scheme III). Simultaneous aromatization and deoxygenation can be accomplished in a single step by heating 1-tetralones in the presence of alkali (Scheme IV, Table VI). The deoxidative coupling of substituted acetophenones to stilbene types using active titanium species as coupling agents and subsequent photocyclization (Scheme IX) has provided a convenient route to polymethylphenathrenes. The maleic anhydride (Diels-Alder) route to ring construction (Scheme X) can be improved through use of Pd/C or PbO/sub 2/ as a reagent for bis-decarboxylation of vicinal anhydrides.

Eisenbraun, E.J.; Premasagar, V.; Holba, A.G.; Keen, G.W.

1980-08-01

361

Control Augmented Structural Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

1988-01-01

362

DECISION DIAGRAMS AND PASS TRANSISTOR LOGIC SYNTHESIS  

E-print Network

DECISION DIAGRAMS AND PASS TRANSISTOR LOGIC SYNTHESIS V. Bertacco S. Minato P. Verplaetse L. Benini by ARPA, under grant No. DABT63-95-C-0049. #12;Decision Diagrams and Pass Transistor Logic Synthesis V transistors and domino logic. The synthesis of these cells is based on BDD and ZBDD representations

De Micheli, Giovanni

363

Automatic labeling schemes for concatenative speech synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses problems and solutions related to the labeling of the speech which is further used in speech synthesis. Although there are several synthesis methods, here we put focus on the concatenative speech synthesis, which is especially sensitive to labeling errors. As it uses huge amount of data it must be processed automatically. It is well accepted that the

J. Kacur; J. Cepko; Andrej Páleník

2008-01-01

364

Solvent-free synthesis of metal complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avoiding the use of solvents in synthesis can reduce environmental contamination and even be more convenient than using solvent-based synthesis. In this tutorial review we focus on recent research into the use of mechanochemistry (grinding) to synthesise metal complexes in the absence of solvent. We include synthesis of mononuclear complexes, coordination clusters, spacious coordination cages, and 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional

Ana Lazuen Garay; Anne Pichon; Stuart L. James

2007-01-01

365

Concepts in Biochemistry: Chemical Synthesis of DNA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the chemistry of the rapid synthesis of relatively large DNA fragments (100-200 monomers each) with yields exceeding 99 percent per coupling. DNA synthesis methodologies are outlined and a polymer-supported synthesis of DNA using deoxynucleoside phosphoramidites is described with structural formulas. (YP)

Caruthers, Marvin H.

1989-01-01

366

Mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleotides, Pool Sizes, Synthesis, and Regulation*  

E-print Network

the phosphorylation of thymidine by the mt thy- midine kinase. The synthesis of DNA requires a supply with nuclear DNA rep- lication (1). In resting cells the de novo synthesis of deoxyribo- nucleotides is shut in mitochon- dria not in equilibrium with cytosolic dNTP pools serve the synthesis of mt DNA. Seminal reports

Bianchi, Vera

367

Gene synthesis by circular assembly amplification  

E-print Network

error-containing DNA10. We developed a one-cycle gene synthesis method that substan- tially improvesGene synthesis by circular assembly amplification Duhee Bang & George M Church Here we report the development of a gene-synthesis technology, circular assembly amplification. In this approach, we first

Church, George M.

368

Hippocampal Synapses Depend on Hippocampal Estrogen Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estrogens have been described to induce synaptogenesis in principal neurons of the hippocampus and have been shown to be synthesized and released by exactly these neurons. Here, we have focused on the significance of local estrogen synthesis on spine synapse formation and the synthesis of synaptic proteins. To this end, we reduced hippocampal estrogen synthesis in vitro with letrozole, a

Oliver Kretz; Lars Fester; Uwe Wehrenberg; Lepu Zhou; Silke Brauckmann; Shanting Zhao; Janine Prange-Kiel; Thomas Naumann; Hubertus Jarry; Michael Frotscher; Gabriele M. Rune

2004-01-01

369

Glycerol Nucleoside Triphosphates: Synthesis and Polymerase Substrate  

E-print Network

Glycerol Nucleoside Triphosphates: Synthesis and Polymerase Substrate Activities Allen T. Horhota September 8, 2006 ABSTRACT The synthesis of (S)-glycerol nucleoside triphosphates (gNTPs) and the analysis the shortened r-threofuranosyl backbone. Here we describe the synthesis of (S)-glycerol NTPs and initial

Heller, Eric

370

CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT CANCER PROGRAM  

E-print Network

CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT CANCER PROGRAM 2010 ANNUAL REPORT WITH STATISTICAL DATA FROM 2009 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS MEDICAL CENTER #12;2 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT 2 #12;3 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT 3 UIMC CANCER PROGRAM CHANGING MULTIDISCIPLINARY CARE. FOR GOOD. #12;4 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT

Illinois at Chicago, University of

371

DIVERSITY PROGRAM PROPOSAL OFFICE OF MULTICULTRURAL PROGRAMS  

E-print Network

DIVERSITY PROGRAM PROPOSAL OFFICE OF MULTICULTRURAL PROGRAMS Section 1- General Organization in Organization Email & Phone Number Section 2 ­ Program/ Event Information Program/Event Title: _________________________________________________________ Proposed/Program Date of Event: ______-______- 20___ Month Day Year Proposed/Program Time of Event

Polz, Martin

372

Total Synthesis of (+)-Papulacandin D  

PubMed Central

A total synthesis of (+)-papulacandin D has been achieved in 31 steps, in a 9.2% overall yield from commercially available materials. The synthetic strategy divided the molecule into two nearly equal sized subunits, the spirocyclic C-arylglycopyranoside and the polyunsaturated fatty acid side chain. The C-arylglycopyranoside was prepared in 11 steps in a 30% overall yield from triacetoxyglucal. The fatty acid side chain was also prepared in 11 steps in a 30% overall yield from geraniol. The key strategic transformations in the synthesis are: (1) a palladium-catalyzed, organosilanolate-based cross-coupling reaction of a dimethylglucal-silanol with an electron rich and sterically hindered aromatic iodide and (2) a Lewis base-catalyzed, enantioselective allylation reaction of a dienal and allyltrichlorosilane. A critical element in the successful execution of the synthesis was the development of a suitable protecting group strategy that satisfied a number of stringent criteria. PMID:20711516

Denmark, Scott E.; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Regens, Christopher S.

2010-01-01

373

Summer Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An intensive 6-week summer readiness program held in the Beaver Area School District, Beaver, Pennsylvania, developed linguistic facility among 15 preschool children. Daily activities included discussion, picture study, creative arts, field trips, developing experience charts, and other nonlanguage arts activities. A combined experiential,…

Toussaint, Isabella H.

374

Reentry Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special counseling and guidance, financial assistance, and flexible course scheduling are the most pressing concerns of women who want to resume their education. Brief summaries are given of nine different women's programs around the country, which demonstrate the ways in which institutions and organizations are solving the problem trilogy.…

Howard, Toni A.

1975-01-01

375

International programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief summaries are given of NASA's participation in international space programs. This participation can be categorized in five principal areas: manned space flight, space sciences, space applications, ground support of space operations, and cooperative international aeronautics research. All projects are carried out on a cooperative or reimbursable basis.

1973-01-01

376

Programming techniques.  

E-print Network

program, determine recursive cliques. . translate a given Datalog rule into relational algebra and SQL ; (5) Inew := T P (I); (6) od; (7) print I[ [answer] ]; . The immediate consequence operator T P has? It would be better to update only single relations. . The relations for the EDB­predicates are given and do

Brass, Stefan

377

Alternative fuel and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

Development of a reliable and cost-effective method of wax/catalyst separation is a key step toward a commercially viable slurry reactor process with iron oxide-based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbon transportation fuels. Although a variety of suitable catalysts (including, for example, cobalt-based catalysts) are available, iron oxide-based catalysts are preferred for coal-derived, CO-rich syngas because, in addition to catalyzing the F-T reaction, they simultaneously catalyze the reaction stifling CO to H{sub 2}, obviating a separate shift process block and associated costs. Because of the importance of development of this wax/catalyst separation, a study was initiated in February 1991. P. Z. Zhou of Burns and Roe reviewed the status of F-T wax/catalyst separation techniques. This led to the selection of a filtration system for the separation. Pilot tests were conducted by Mott Porous Metal Products in 1992 to develop this system. Initial results were good, but problems were encountered in follow-up testing. As a result of the testing, a filter was selected for use on the pilot plant. In LaPorte, Texas, APCI has been operating a pilot plant for the development of various synthesis gas technologies with DOE and industry support. The APCI F-T program builds on the DOE-sponsored laboratory-scale work by Mobil, reported in the mid-1980s, which used an iron oxide catalyst to produce high-quality F-T liquids in relatively compact reactors. Separation of the catalyst solids from the wax still represents a challenge. In the summer of 1992, testing of the selected filter was begun as part of the pilot plant testing. The filter performed poorly. Separation of the catalyst was primarily by sedimentation. It was recommended that the wax/catalyst separation be developed further.

NONE

1996-05-01

378

Tandem Reactions for Streamlining Synthesis  

PubMed Central

CONSPECTUS In 1980 Sharpless and Katsuki introduced the asymmetric epoxidation of prochiral allylic alcohols (the Sharpless-Katsuki Asymmetric Epoxidation), which enabled the rapid synthesis of highly enantioenriched epoxy alcohols. This reaction was a milestone in the development of asymmetric catalysis because it was the first highly enantioselective oxidation reaction. Furthermore, it provided access to enantioenriched allylic alcohols that are now standard starting materials in natural product synthesis. In 1981 Sharpless and coworkers made another seminal contribution by describing the kinetic resolution (KR) of racemic allylic alcohols. This work demonstrated that small-molecule catalysts could compete with enzymatic catalysts in KRs. For these pioneering works, Sharpless was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize with Knowles and Noyori. Despite these achievements, the Sharpless KR is not an efficient method to prepare epoxy alcohols with high enantiomeric excess (ee). First, the racemic allylic alcohol must be prepared and purified. KR of the racemic allylic alcohol must be stopped at low conversion, because the ee of the product epoxy alcohol decreases as the KR progresses. Thus, better methods to prepare epoxy alcohols containing stereogenic carbinol carbons are needed. This Account summarizes our efforts to develop one-pot methods for the synthesis of various epoxy alcohols and allylic epoxy alcohols with high enantio-, diastereo-, and chemoselectivity. Our laboratory developed titanium-based catalysts for use in the synthesis of epoxy alcohols with tertiary carbinols. The catalysts are involved in the first step, which is an asymmetric alkyl or allyl addition to enones. The resulting intermediates are then subjected to a titanium-directed diastereoselective epoxidation to provide tertiary epoxy alcohols. Similarly, the synthesis of acyclic epoxy alcohols begins with asymmetric additions to enals and subsequent epoxidation. The methods described here enable the synthesis of skeletally diverse epoxy alcohols. PMID:18710197

HUSSAIN, MAHMUD M.; WALSH, PATRICK J.

2009-01-01

379

A sustainable catalytic pyrrole synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pyrrole heterocycle is a prominent chemical motif and is found widely in natural products, drugs, catalysts and advanced materials. Here we introduce a sustainable iridium-catalysed pyrrole synthesis in which secondary alcohols and amino alcohols are deoxygenated and linked selectively via the formation of C-N and C-C bonds. Two equivalents of hydrogen gas are eliminated in the course of the reaction, and alcohols based entirely on renewable resources can be used as starting materials. The catalytic synthesis protocol tolerates a large variety of functional groups, which includes olefins, chlorides, bromides, organometallic moieties, amines and hydroxyl groups. We have developed a catalyst that operates efficiently under mild conditions.

Michlik, Stefan; Kempe, Rhett

2013-02-01

380

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

1993-03-30

381

Substructuring decomposition and controller synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A decentralized design procedure is proposed for the control design for flexible structures. The structure to be controlled is decomposed into several substructures by using a natural decomposition called substructuring decomposition. For each substructure, a subcontroller is designed by using the linear quadratic optimal control theory. Then, a controller synthesis scheme called Substructural Controller Synthesis (SCS) is used to assemble the subcontrollers into a system controller, which is to be used to control the whole structure. A plane truss example is used to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

Su, Tzu-Jeng; Craig, Roy R., Jr.

1990-01-01

382

Enzyme Catalysis in Organic Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state of enzyme catalysis and the prospects for its introduction in organic synthesis are examined. The physicochemical approaches whereby the yield of the desired product can be increased under conditions favourable for biocatalysis (at the optimum of the catalytic activity and stability of the enzyme) are analysed. Together with classical equilibrium and kinetic preparative methods, the thermodynamic features and general methodological aspects of a new approach — enzymatic synthesis in two-phase systems comprising water and a water-immiscible organic solvent — are discussed in detail. The bibliography includes 170 references.

Martinek, K.; Semenov, A. N.

1981-08-01

383

Reaction synthesis of heat-resistant materials  

SciTech Connect

Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides can be utilized to obtain aluminides of transition metals. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain dense intermetallics and their composites. Composites were analyzed by X- ray diffraction and microscopy techniques, and tensile properties were measured on button-head and sheet specimens of intermetallics and their composites. Mechanical properties of intermetallics obtained by reaction synthesis and densification compare well with conventionally processed materials. Reaction-synthesis principles were also extended to weld overlays. Possible approaches to obtaining dense products by reaction synthesis and densification are summarized in a schematic illustration. 19 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

1995-12-31

384

Organic synthesis on graphene.  

PubMed

Graphene is a two-dimensional crystalline carbon allotrope that has fascinated researchers worldwide and has extended the interest in carbon structures such as fullerenes and nanotubes. In this Account, we use electrical characterization tools to study chemistry on supported graphene. These experiments elucidate the way covalently bound phenyl units can change graphene's physical properties. Can we use chemistry to control electronic properties of graphene? What can we learn from well-known carbon allotropes like fullerenes? The surfaces of fullerenes and graphene show distinct differences in reactivity because of the high strain of sp² carbon in fullerenes compared with the complete lack of strain in graphene. Diazonium chemistry provides a versatile tool for attaching phenyl units covalently to carbon to produce advanced materials and electronic components, but diazonium-based carbon chemistry is strongly influenced by strain. Although fullerenes are highly reactive, graphite (stacks of graphene) remains relatively inert. We chemically introduce n- and p-like doping patterns in two-dimensional graphene using photolithography and extend the ability to chemically control doping to the chemical design of conducting and insulating areas. Thereby we can shape graphene surfaces into functional electronic devices. This Account also describes multistep synthesis on graphene-coated nanoparticles and the introduction of various functional groups on graphene surfaces. Only few functional groups can be produced directly via diazonium chemistry. To overcome this issue, we used these functional groups as starting points for more demanding organic reactions. We covalently attached chelating agents, catalysts, or polymers on the carbon surface. These more complex reactions facilitate the design of electronic modifications, intergraphene connections, and anchors for polymer incorporation. Diazonium chemistry forms strong covalent bridges between graphene and other areas of chemistry. PMID:23210633

Koehler, Fabian M; Stark, Wendelin J

2013-10-15

385

Synthesis and NMR studies of novel chromone-2-carboxamide derivatives.  

PubMed

Chromones are heterocyclic compounds of natural or synthetic origin that possess relevant pharmacological activities. Versatile functionalization of the chromone nucleus allows attaining of a chemical diversity suitable to perform structure-activity relationships in drug discovery and development programs. Accordingly, the synthesis and identification of novel chromone carboxamide derivatives with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents in different positions of the exocyclic ring are reported in this work. Their complete structural characterization was performed using one-dimensional and two-dimensional resonance techniques. The data acquired are useful for a prompt analysis of related compounds that encompass our integrated medicinal chemistry sketch. PMID:23408556

Gaspar, Alexandra; Cagide, Fernando; Quezada, Elias; Reis, Joana; Uriarte, Eugenio; Borges, Fernanda

2013-04-01

386

Reduced complexity structural modeling for automated airframe synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure is developed for the optimum sizing of wing structures based on representing the built-up finite element assembly of the structure by equivalent beam models. The reduced-order beam models are computationally less demanding in an optimum design environment which dictates repetitive analysis of several trial designs. The design procedure is implemented in a computer program requiring geometry and loading information to create the wing finite element model and its equivalent beam model, and providing a rapid estimate of the optimum weight obtained from a fully stressed design approach applied to the beam. The synthesis procedure is demonstrated for representative conventional-cantilever and joined wing configurations.

Hajela, Prabhat

1987-01-01

387

Cyclobutane-Containing Alkaloids: Origin, Synthesis, and Biological Activities  

PubMed Central

Present review describes research on novel natural cyclobutane-containing alkaloids isolated from terrestrial and marine species. More than 60 biological active compounds have been confirmed to have antimicrobial, antibacterial, antitumor, and other activities. The structures, synthesis, origins, and biological activities of a selection of cyclobutane-containing alkaloids are reviewed. With the computer program PASS some additional biological activities are also predicted, which point toward new possible applications of these compounds. This review emphasizes the role of cyclobutane-containing alkaloids as an important source of leads for drug discovery. PMID:19696873

Sergeiko, Anastasia; Poroikov, Vladimir V; Hanus, Lumir O; Dembitsky, Valery M

2008-01-01

388

Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of ``green'' in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis.

Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

2013-10-01

389

Libraries program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.

2011-01-01

390

Understanding the novolak synthesis reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe new tools for the characterization of novolac resins, for the understanding of the novolac synthesis reaction, and for the prediction of resin structures. These tools have been used to optimize the performance of photoresists for microlithography. The current state-of- the-art describes novolac copolymer compositions as the ratio of monomers charged in the reaction, even though it is well

Leonard E. Bogan

1993-01-01

391

Synthesis of Coenzyme Q10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: CoQ 10 is a key compound in ATP synthesis having wide number of health application especially for treating humans s uffering from pathophysiological condition. The CoQ 10 presently available in the market is solely derived from fermentation process. A commercially viable synthetic process is yet to be realized. Approach: The researchers described a new synthetic route for the

Suryachandra Rao Ravada; Lakshma Reddy Emani; Machi Raju Garaga; Bharani Meka; Trimurtulu Golakoti

2009-01-01

392

Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report  

E-print Network

of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change This summary, approved in detail at IPCC Plenary XXVII (Valencia, Spain out by the three Working Groups of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It providesClimate Change 2007: Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers An Assessment

Pasternack, Gregory B.

393

Large area graphene layer synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large area graphene layer is synthesized by a conventional metal melting method (MMM). And we use the mechanism of diamond synthesis in liquid phase and produced graphene of about 5 ?? 7 cm2. This promising process appears scalable for making device-sized graphene in the near future. This paper also presented many intriguing aspects related to the growth of large

Kuen-Liang Chang; Kai-Hung Hsu; Chien-Min Sung; Ting-Ying Wu

2010-01-01

394

IN SEARCH OF A SYNTHESIS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION SHOULD BE A SYNTHESIS OF THE BEST OF ALL METHODS. NO METHODOLOGY OR COMBINATION OF METHODOLOGIES WILL CHANGE THE FACT THAT LEARNING ANOTHER LANGUAGE IS THE ACQUISITION OF A COMPLEX AND DIFFICULT SKILL AND CAN BE ACCOMPLISHED ONLY WITH A GREAT DEAL OF TIME AND WORK ON THE PART OF BOTH TEACHER AND STUDENT. HOWEVER, IF, WITH THE…

HAWLEY, D.C.

395

Insolubilized enzymes for food synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellulose matrix with numerous enzyme-coated silica particles of colloidal size permanently bound at various sites within matrix was produced that has high activity and possesses requisite physical characteristics for filtration or column operations. Product also allows coupling step in synthesis of edible food to proceed under mild conditions.

Marshall, D. L.

1972-01-01

396

Green chemistry for chemical synthesis.  

PubMed

Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M

2008-09-01

397

Green chemistry for chemical synthesis  

PubMed Central

Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

2008-01-01

398

CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS & TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES  

EPA Science Inventory

A historical account of the utility of microwaves in a variety of chemical synthesis applications will be presented, including a solvent-free strategy that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such...

399

Total synthesis of spirobacillene A.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of spirobacillene A, an indole alkaloid isolated from Lysinibacillus fusiformis, is reported. A Lewis acid mediated spirocyclization of an anisole derivative onto a tethered ynone was used as a key step, drawing inspiration from a potential biosynthesis of the natural product. PMID:23786419

Unsworth, William P; Cuthbertson, James D; Taylor, Richard J K

2013-07-01

400

Catalysis and prebiotic RNA synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The essential role of catalysis for the origins of life is discussed. The status of the prebiotic synthesis of 2',5'- and 3'5'-linked oligomers of RNA is reviewed. Examples of the role of metal ion and mineral catalysis in RNA oligomer formation are discussed.

Ferris, James P.

1993-01-01

401

Synthesis of (+)- and (?)-Phaselic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of both enantiomers of phaselic acid (2-O-caffeoylmalate) is described. The previously unreported acetate protected caffeic acid anhydride was used with appropriately protected malic acid derivatives as coupling partners to provide fully protected phaselic acid. Sequential unmasking of the protecting groups afforded phaselic acid in an acceptable overall yield.

Wayne E. Zeller

2012-01-01

402

The synthesis of cloth objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In image synthesis, cloth objects such as clothes are most often modelled as textures mapped onto rigid surfaces. However, in order to represent such objects more realistically, their physical properties must be examined. This paper describes a method for modelling cloth material hanging in three dimensions when supported by any number of constraint points. The cloth synthesized with this model

Jerry Weil

1986-01-01

403

Phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells  

SciTech Connect

Tomato cells that are exposed to cadmium and other heavy metals synthesize phytochelatins (PCs), a family of peptides that bind heavy metals and are structurally related to glutathione (GSH). PCs have the structure (..gamma..-glutamyl-cysteinyl) glycine; for PCs, n=2-10; GSH, n=1. GSH levels decline rapidly in tomato cells exposed to Cd/sup 2 +/. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, prevents sustained synthesis of PC. However the addition of GSH to the medium of BSO-treated cells restores PC production. In vivo labeling studies indicate that /sup 35/(S)-cysteine is incorporated into PC via GSH, rather than being added directly to GSH or pre-formed PC. Initial synthesis of PCs is not inhibited by cycloheximide. Tomato cell cultures that are tolerant of high levels of Cd/sup 2 +/ contain large amounts of PCs. However, when sensitive and tolerant cells that have been grown in the absence of Cd/sup 2 +/ are exposed to relatively low concentrations of Cd/sup 2 +/, they synthesize PCs at similar rates. These and other results suggest that, although PCs are necessary, increased PC synthesis is not sufficient for expression of the Cd/sup 2 +/ tolerant phenotype.

Goldsbrough, P.; Gupta, S.; Huang, B.; Scheller, H.

1987-04-01

404

Synthesis of new nitrotriazole derivatives  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of 5,5'(1,1')-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole (DNAT) and 1(4),3-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole-5-one (DNTO) and their BKW performance calculations are discussed, as are various related compounds. (DLC)

Lee, K.Y.

1984-01-01

405

Synthesis of the Pierce gun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthesis procedure is derived for the design of Pierce guns whereby the gun convergence angle, cathode spherical radius, anode-cathode spacing, and throw are calculated by iterations that typically converge in four cycles to 0.1 deg. The validity of the method is demonstrated for guns of medium perveance.

Rodney, J.; Vaughan, M.

1981-01-01

406

Total Synthesis of (+)-Scholarisine A  

PubMed Central

An effective total synthesis and assignment of the absolute configuration of the architecturally challenging (+)-scholarisine A has been achieved via a 20-step sequence. Highlights include a reductive cyclization, involving a nitrile and an epoxide; a modified Fischer indole protocol; a late stage oxidative-lactonization; and an intramolecular cyclization leading to the indolenine ring system of (+)-scholarisine A. PMID:22280070

Adams, Gregory L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Smith, Amos B.

2012-01-01

407

Synthesis of fullerenes from coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fullerenes have been synthesized from a low ash Illinois coal (IBC 108) and the yields are comparable to that obtained using graphite under similar conditions. The purpose of this work was to identify inexpensive sources of carbon to substitute graphite used commonly for fullerene synthesis. The as-obtained coal was demineralized, compacted into electrodes and carbonized at 850°C in an inert

Alan Weston; Mahesh Murthy; Shashi Lalvani

1995-01-01

408

Formal Verification of Hardware Synthesis  

E-print Network

We report on the implementation of a certified compiler for a high-level hardware description language (HDL) called Fe-Si (FEatherweight SynthesIs). Fe-Si is a simplified version of Bluespec, an HDL based on a notion of ...

Braibant, Thomas

409

Fast Analog Circuit Synthesis Using Sensitivity Based Near Neighbor Searches  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient analog synthesis algorithm employing regression models of circuit matrices. Circuit matrix models achieve accurate and speedy synthesis of analog circuits. In this paper, synthesis is accelerated by eliminating numerous computations of the matrix elements during a synthesis run. Computations are avoided by reusing exact or nearby design points visited during previous synthesis iterations. Hashing and multidimensional

Almitra Pradhan; Ranga Vemuri

2008-01-01

410

The Industrial Electrification Program  

E-print Network

Pumps ? Mechanical Vapor Recompression ? Electrochemical Synthesis ? Laser-based Synthesis ? Variable Speed Drives ? Plasma Processing of Chemicals ? Microwave Heating and Drying ? Infrared Heating and Drying To carry out... processes ? Adjustable speed drives for pumping ? Evaluation of mechanical vapor recompression in distillation ? Applications of plasma and electric beam processing ? Industrial applications of robots ? Industrial heat pump assessment...

Harry, I. L.

1982-01-01

411

Proposed New Program: Planning New Programs  

E-print Network

Proposed New Program: Planning New Programs Planning Program As outlined in the attached document, the Human Geography group is bringing forward a proposal for a new undergraduate program in Planning. The Curriculum Committee has discussed this program both last year, and in our Friday the 13th

Machel, Hans

412

Verification of logic programs and imperative programs  

E-print Network

Verification of logic programs and imperative programs Lee Naish Technical Report 90/6 (Revised May@cs.mu.OZ.AU Abstract This paper explores the relationship between verification of logic programs and imperative programs with the aim of uncovering the kinds of reasoning used to construct logic programs. We discuss

Naish, Lee

413

Joint MPP/JD Program Program Description  

E-print Network

Joint MPP/JD Program Program Description The combined JD/ MPP program levers the considerable and associated intellectual discourses than would be possible in either degree program on its own. The importance of these degree programs will provide students with an opportunity to integrate public policy considerations

Sokolowski, Marla

414

Synthesis and catalytic applications of novel mesoporous aluminosilicate molecular sieves  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the synthesis of 4 series of mesoporous aluminosilicate molecular sieves (Al-MCM-41) and their catalytic applications. Four different Al compounds were examined as Al source in the hydrothermal synthesis, including pseudo boehmite (alumina), Al sulfate, Al isopropoxide, and Na aluminate. Each Al source was examined at 3 different feed Si/Al ratios in the synthesis. XRD results show that there are differences in the d{sub 100}-spacings for the samples prepared with different Al sources: Na aluminate > Al isopropoxide < Na aluminate. XRD also indicates that the synthesized Al-MCM-41 samples have different crystallinity. {sup 27}Al NMR and {sub 29}Si NMR reveal that most of the Al species in the samples prepared with pseudo boehmite were present in octahedral coordination, whereas in other samples nearly all the Al species are tetrahedral (in the framework). The acid characteristics of the synthesized molecular sieves were characterized by temperature-programmed desorption of n-butylamine, and by using 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene hydrocracking as probe reaction. The results of TPD and probe reaction clearly indicate that the Al source used for synthesis has a major impact on the acidic and catalytic properties of Al-MCM-41. The samples prepared with Al isopropoxide and Na aluminate are better as catalysts than those with Al sulfate and pseudo boehmite. They also explored the potential of mesoporous molecular sieves as support for noble metal hydrogenation catalysts and metal sulfide-based hydrotreating catalysts. Pd and Pt-loaded mesoporous molecular sieves were prepared and applied for hydrogenation of naphthalene and phenanthrene. The results show that mesoporous molecular sieve-supported catalysts are much more active than alumina- and titania-supported catalysts. The data for dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurization suggest that Al-MCM-41 supported Co-Mo may be effective for deep desulfurization of distillate fuels.

Reddy, K.M.; Song, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1997-12-31

415

A Program Certification Assistant Based on Fully Automated Theorem Provers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a certification assistant to support formal safety proofs for programs. It is based on a graphical user interface that hides the low-level details of first-order automated theorem provers while supporting limited interactivity: it allows users to customize and control the proof process on a high level, manages the auxiliary artifacts produced during this process, and provides traceability between the proof obligations and the relevant parts of the program. The certification assistant is part of a larger program synthesis system and is intended to support the deployment of automatically generated code in safety-critical applications.

Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

2005-01-01

416

Java Network ProgrammingProgramming  

E-print Network

Packages · java.net TCP/IP networking · java.io I/O streams & utilities · java.rmi Remote Method Invocation ­ TCP · TCP/IP Stack Application (http,ftp,telnet,...) Transport­ TCP ­ UDP ­ Programming Interface: · Sockets · Network Layer ­ IP · Link Layer ­ Device drivers Transport (TCP, UDP,..) Network (IP,..) Link

Brylow, Dennis

417

Morphologically controlled synthesis of colloidal upconversion nanophosphors and their shape-directed self-assembly  

PubMed Central

We report a one-pot chemical approach for the synthesis of highly monodisperse colloidal nanophosphors displaying bright upconversion luminescence under 980 nm excitation. This general method optimizes the synthesis with initial heating rates up to 100 °C/minute generating a rich family of nanoscale building blocks with distinct morphologies (spheres, rods, hexagonal prisms, and plates) and upconversion emission tunable through the choice of rare earth dopants. Furthermore, we employ an interfacial assembly strategy to organize these nanocrystals (NCs) into superlattices over multiple length scales facilitating the NC characterization and enabling systematic studies of shape-directed assembly. The global and local ordering of these superstructures is programmed by the precise engineering of individual NC’s size and shape. This dramatically improved nanophosphor synthesis together with insights from shape-directed assembly will advance the investigation of an array of emerging biological and energy-related nanophosphor applications. PMID:21148771

Ye, Xingchen; Collins, Joshua E.; Kang, Yijin; Chen, Jun; Chen, Daniel T. N.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Murray, Christopher B.

2010-01-01

418

Using Decision Procedures to Build Domain-Specific Deductive Synthesis Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a class of decision procedures that we have found useful for efficient, domain-specific deductive synthesis. These procedures are called closure-based ground literal satisfiability procedures. We argue that this is a large and interesting class of procedures and show how to interface these procedures to a theorem prover for efficient deductive synthesis. Finally, we describe some results we have observed from our implementation. Amphion/NAIF is a domain-specific, high-assurance software synthesis system. It takes an abstract specification of a problem in solar system mechanics, such as 'when will a signal sent from the Cassini spacecraft to Earth be blocked by the planet Saturn?', and automatically synthesizes a FORTRAN program to solve it.

VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Roach, Steven; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

419

NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

2004-12-01

420

Design, Synthesis and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals  

SciTech Connect

This project extends previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rates and selectivities for synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic results previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During the third and fourth reporting periods, we improved the catalysts preparation method, which led to Fe-based materials with the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported, a finding that allowed their operation at lower temperatures and pressures with high selectivity to desired products (C{sub 5+}, olefins). During the fifth and sixth reporting period, we studied the effects of different promoters on catalytic performance, specifically how their sequence of addition dramatically influenced the performance of these materials in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. We also continued our studies of the kinetic behavior of these materials during the sixth reporting period. Specifically, the effects of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} on the rates and selectivities of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis reactions led us to propose a new sequence of elementary steps on Fe and Co Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Finally, we also started a study of the use of colloidal precipitation methods for the synthesis small Co clusters using recently developed methods to explore possible further improvements in FTS rates and selectivities. We found that colloidal synthesis makes possible the preparation of small cobalt particles, although large amount of cobalt silicate species, which are difficult to reduce, were formed. During this seventh reporting period, we have explored several methods to modify the silanol groups on SiO{sub 2} by using either a homogeneous deposition-precipitation method or surface titration of Si-OH on SiO{sub 2} with zirconium (IV) ethoxide to prevent the formation of unreducible and unreactive CoO{sub x} species during synthesis and FTS catalysis. We have synthesized monometallic Co/ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts with different Co loadings (11-20 wt%) by incipient wetness impregnation methods and characterized the prepared Co supported catalysts by H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR) and H{sub 2}-chemisorption. We have measured the catalytic performance in FTS reactions and shown that although the hydroxyl groups on the SiO{sub 2} surface are difficult to be fully titrated by ZrO{sub 2}, modification of ZrO{sub 2} on SiO{sub 2} surface can improve the Co clusters dispersion and lead to a larger number of exposed Co surface atoms after reduction and during FTS reactions. During this seventh reporting period, we have also advanced our development of the reaction mechanism proposed in the previous reporting period. Specifically, we have shown that our novel proposal for the pathways involved in CO activation on Fe and Co catalysts is consistent with state-of-the-art theoretical calculations carried out in collaboration with Prof. Manos Mavrikakis (University of Wisconsin-Madison). Finally, we have also worked on the preparation of several manuscripts describing our findings about the preparation, activation and mechanism of the FTS with Fe-based catalysts and we have started redacting the final report for this project.

Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Nan Yao; Enrique Iglesia

2007-03-31

421

Assoc. Director for Programs  

E-print Network

Coordinator of Parents Programs Graduate Assistant Web Developer Assessment Coordinator Director of Campus Assistant Program Advisor, Leadership Graduate Assistant Program Advisor, CP & Carolina After Dark Graduate

Almor, Amit

422

DNA-based programing of quantum dot properties.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid molecules can serve as robust ligands for aqueous synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots (QDs). QD properties including size, morphology, dispersity, emission maximum, and quantum yield are highly dependent on the sequences and structures of nucleic acids used for the synthesis. This synthetic strategy provides a novel facile means of constructing compact, stable, and biofunctionalized QDs in one step, which is of particular interest for a variety of applications such as biosensing, bioimaging, and self-assembly. This article summarizes recent advances in nucleic acid-templated QD synthesis with an emphasis on the nucleic acids-based programing of quantum dots properties. A variety of applications based on DNA-passivated QDs are also discussed. PMID:22965762

Ma, Nan; Kelley, Shana O

2013-01-01

423

English Language Summer Program -Custom Program -  

E-print Network

English Language Summer Program - Custom Program - Application Form General Information: _________________________________ Date: ________________________ (required if applicant's age is under 19 years) Applicant's Signature

Hitchcock, Adam P.

424

Identifying and managing inappropriate hospital utilization: a policy synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Utilization review, the assessment of the appropriateness and efficiency of hospital care through review of the medical record, and utilization management, deliberate action by payers or hospital administrators to influence providers of hospital services to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which services are provided, are valuable but relatively unfamiliar strategies for containing hospital costs. The purpose of this synthesis is to increase awareness of the scope of and potential for these approaches among health services managers and administrators, third-party payers, policy analysts, and health services researchers. The synthesis will assist the reader to trace the conceptual context and the historical development of utilization review from unstructured methods using individual physicians' professional judgment to structured methods using explicit criteria; to establish the context of utilization review and clarify its uses; to understand the concepts and tools used in assessing the efficiency of hospital use; and to select, design, and evaluate utilization review and utilization management programs. The extent of inappropriate (medical unnecessary) hospital utilization and the factors associated with it are described. Implications for managers, providers, and third-party payers in targeting utilization review and in designing and evaluating utilization management programs are discussed. PMID:3121538

Payne, S M

1987-01-01

425

Synthesis of crystals with a programmable kinetic barrier to nucleation  

PubMed Central

A central goal of chemistry is to fabricate supramolecular structures of defined function and composition. In biology, control of supramolecular synthesis is often achieved through precise control over nucleation and growth processes: A seed molecule initiates growth of a structure, but this growth is kinetically inhibited in the seed's absence. Here we show how such control can be systematically designed into self-assembling structures made of DNA tiles. These structures, “zig-zag ribbons,” are designed to have a fixed width but can grow arbitrarily long. Under slightly supersaturated conditions, theory predicts that elongation is always favorable but that nucleation rates decrease exponentially with increasing width. We confirm experimentally that although ribbons of different widths have similar thermodynamics, nucleation rates decrease for wider ribbons. It is therefore possible to program the nucleation rate by choosing a ribbon width. The presence of a seed molecule, a stabilized version of the presumed critical nucleus, removes the kinetic barrier to nucleation of a ribbon. Thus, we demonstrate the ability to grow supramolecular structures from rationally designed seeds, while suppressing spurious nucleation. Control over DNA tile nucleation allows for proper initiation of algorithmic crystal growth, which could lead to the high-yield synthesis of micrometer-scale structures with complex programmed features. More generally, this work shows how a self-assembly subroutine can be initiated. PMID:17881584

Schulman, Rebecca; Winfree, Erik

2007-01-01

426

Techniques for the synthesis of wideband, series-fed arrays of microstrip patch radiators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two principal aspects of the design of microstrip radiator arrays are investigated: new broadband pattern synthesis techniques, and individual radiators or subarrays having increased bandwidth. One new pattern synthesis technique allows the power pattern to be optimized in a least mean square error sense over the desired operating band of the array. Another synthesis approach is a numerical optimization whereby the sum of the pattern errors at several discrete frequencies is minimized. This allows different limits on pattern error to be imposed on different regions, thus optimally tailoring the pattern to a given application. Computer program listings for these synthesis and optimization methods are included. A technique for synthesis of broadband radiating elements is also presented. This approach requires that a radiating element or subarray be broken up into multiple electrically coupled resonators allowing the quality factor and resonant frequency of each to be specified for the desired bandpass characteristic. A second approach focuses on making the elements non-resonant by periodically loading the high-impedance sections such that their characteristic impedance matches that of the low-impedance sections. Alternatively, the substrate thickness may be varied along the array such that the characteristic impedance remains constant.

Strickland, Peter C.

1989-08-01

427

Aesthetic – Aided Intelligent 3D Scene Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of 3D scenes is a very complicated task in computer graphics. In general, there is a lack of systems that would\\u000a enable users to utilise aesthetic aspects during the early stages of scene synthesis. The synthesis of aesthetic character\\u000a of a scene is a complex and intrinsic problem in many design domains. In this chapter, we report a

Dimitrios Makris

428

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

429

A Concise Synthesis of ent-Cholesterol  

PubMed Central

ent-Cholesterol was synthesized in 16 steps from commercially available (S)-citronellol. The overall yield for the synthesis was 2.0%. This route is amenable to gram scale preparation of ent-cholesterol. Isotopic incorporation near the end of the synthesis was achieved using labeled methyl iodide. This synthesis is the most practical to date, and it will make ent-cholesterol more readily available to use as a probe of the function and metabolism of cholesterol. PMID:18336043

Belani, Jitendra D.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.

2009-01-01

430

Ethyl diazoacetate synthesis in flow  

PubMed Central

Summary Ethyl diazoacetate is a versatile compound in organic chemistry and frequently used on lab scale. Its highly explosive nature, however, severely limits its use in industrial processes. The in-line coupling of microreactor synthesis and separation technology enables the synthesis of this compound in an inherently safe manner, thereby making it available on demand in sufficient quantities. Ethyl diazoacetate was prepared in a biphasic mixture comprising an aqueous solution of glycine ethyl ester, sodium nitrite and dichloromethane. Optimization of the reaction was focused on decreasing the residence time with the smallest amount of sodium nitrite possible. With these boundary conditions, a production yield of 20 g EDA day?1 was achieved using a microreactor with an internal volume of 100 ?L. Straightforward scale-up or scale-out of microreactor technology renders this method viable for industrial application. PMID:24062847

Delville, Marielle M E; van Hest, Jan C M

2013-01-01

431

Applications of Bartoli indole synthesis.  

PubMed

In 1989, the reaction of vinyl magnesium halides with ortho-substituted nitroarenes leading to indoles was discovered. This reaction is now frequently reported as the "Bartoli reaction" or the "Bartoli indole synthesis" (BIS). It has rapidly become the shortest and most flexible route to 7-substituted indoles, because the classical indole syntheses generally fail in their preparation. The flexibility of the Bartoli reaction is great as it can be extended to heteroaromatic nitro derivatives and can be run on solid support. This review will focus on the use of the Bartoli indole synthesis as the key step in preparations of complex indoles, which appeared in the literature in the last few years. PMID:24718836

Bartoli, Giuseppe; Dalpozzo, Renato; Nardi, Monica

2014-07-01

432

Orbit synthesis for target satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study is to illustrate the orbit synthesis process for a hypothetical test of a direct-ascent-based kinetic energy weapon (KEW) against an instrumented test vehicle. Test arena and communications considerations for a ground-based directed energy weapon and a direct-ascent-based KEW are outlined, along with launch vehicle constraints, algorithms for off-nominal orbits, and thermal-control and orbit lifetime considerations. Focus is placed on altitude and illumination cycles, general-test and detailed-test constraints, and methodologies for assessing orbit performance. The orbit synthesis is demonstratedd, with emphasis on the test opportunity influence on orbit inclination, test window concept, selection of apogee altitude, orbit inclination, perigee altitude, launch window, and the effect of the launch date.

Wilkinson, Charles K.

433

Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products  

SciTech Connect

With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

Tuan Hoang Nguyen

2003-05-31

434

Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

1998-01-01

435

Cellulose Synthesis and Its Regulation  

PubMed Central

Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer synthesized on land, is made of linear chains of ß (1–4) linked D-glucose. As a major structural component of the cell wall, cellulose is important not only for industrial use but also for plant growth and development. Cellulose microfibrils are tethered by other cell wall polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized rosette cellulose synthase complexes. Despite the recent advances using a combination of molecular genetics, live cell imaging, and spectroscopic tools, many aspects of the cellulose synthesis remain a mystery. In this chapter, we highlight recent research progress towards understanding the mechanism of cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:24465174

Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Lei, Lei; Gu, Ying

2014-01-01

436

was used to determine phospholipid synthesis. DNA synthesis closely precided mitosis in these fractions and stromal synthesis was significantly different in the pregnant and pseudopregnant  

E-print Network

was used to determine phospholipid synthesis. DNA synthesis closely precided mitosis in these fractions and stromal synthesis was significantly different in the pregnant and pseudopregnant horns. DNA and phospholipid synthesis will be discussed in relation to the state of the stromal cells at the onset

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

437

Total synthesis of Class II and Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids  

E-print Network

I. Total Synthesis of All Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids We describe the total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-galbulimima alkaloid 13, (-)-himgaline anad (-)-himbadine. The absolute stereochemistry of natural (-)-galbulimima ...

Tjandra, Meiliana

2010-01-01

438

Rate in template-directed polymer synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the temporal efficiency of template-directed polymer synthesis, such as DNA replication and transcription, under a given template string. To weigh the synthesis speed and accuracy on the same scale, we propose a template-directed synthesis (TDS) rate, which contains an expression analogous to that for the Shannon entropy. Increasing the synthesis speed accelerates the TDS rate, but the TDS rate is lowered if the produced sequences are diversified. We apply the TDS rate to some production system models and investigate how the balance between the speed and the accuracy is affected by changes in the system conditions.

Saito, Takuya

2014-06-01

439

The first total synthesis of (+/-)-ingenol.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of (+/-)-ingenol has been achieved. The key features of the synthesis include the use of a highly diastereoselective Michael reaction to fix the C-11 methyl stereochemistry and the incorporation of the dimethylcyclopropane via diastereoselective carbene addition to the Delta13,14 olefin. The intramolecular dioxenone photoaddition-fragmentation sequence leads to the establishment of the critical C-8/C-10 trans intrabridgehead stereochemistry, a central challenge in the synthesis of ingenanes. The completion of the synthesis proceeds using the C-6alpha hydroxymethyl group as the sole handle for oxidation of seven contiguous carbon centers. PMID:12175229

Winkler, Jeffrey D; Rouse, Meagan B; Greaney, Michael F; Harrison, Sean J; Jeon, Yoon T

2002-08-21

440

Total Synthesis of Mycolactones A and B  

PubMed Central

First and second generation total syntheses of mycolactones A and B are reported. The first generation total synthesis unambiguously confirmed our earlier assignment of the relative and absolute stereochemistry of mycolactones A and B. Knowledge of the chemical properties of the mycolactones accumulated through the first generation total synthesis allowed us to implement several major improvements to the original synthesis, including: (1) optimizing the choice of protecting groups, (2) eliminating the unnecessary adjustment of protecting groups, and (3) improving the overall stereoselectivity and synthetic efficiency. The second generation total synthesis consists of 21 longest linear steps, with 8.8% overall yield. PMID:17940589

Song, Fengbin; Fidanze, Steve; Benowitz, Andrew B.; Kishi, Yoshito

2007-01-01

441

Telemedicine Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the 1970s, NASA has been involved in the research and demonstration of telemedicine for its potential in the care of astronauts in flight and Earth-bound applications. A combination of NASA funding, expertise and off-the-shelf computer and networking systems made telemedicine possible for a medically underserved hospital in Texas. Through two-way audio/video relay, the program links pediatric oncology specialists at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio to South Texas Hospital in Harlingen, providing easier access and better care to children with cancer. Additionally, the hospital is receiving teleclinics on pediatric oncology nursing, family counseling and tuberculosis treatment. VTEL Corporation, Sprint, and the Healthcare Open Systems and Trials Consortium also contributed staff and hardware.

1996-01-01

442

Stop smoking support programs  

MedlinePLUS

Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

443

Human Reliability Program Overview  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

Bodin, Michael

2012-09-25

444

Testimony of Program Manager  

E-print Network

interoperability-related programs, including the SAFECOM Program within the Office of Emergency Communications (OECTestimony of Dereck Orr Program Manager Public Safety Communications Research (PSCR) Program of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Communications and Technology Hearing

445

Citrate Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The experiment allows students to view the formation of gold nanoparticles that can be detected by the reflection of a laser beam. This is a fairly inexpensive activity as it involves stock solutions, and equipment present in any science laboratory. Overall, students will enjoy this basic, but still challenging, experiment.

2009-01-22

446

Column: Polymer Supports in Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-phase synthesis, most commonly using polymer supports, is a major subdiscipline within the chemical synthetic realm, particularly in organic and biomolecular synthetic areas. This topic can be divided into such subclasses as (1) use of polymer-bound reagents and scavengers, (2) use of polymer-bound catalysts, and (3) building polymer-supported target molecules (organic molecular diversity, peptides, oligonucleotides, carbohydrates) followed by cleavage of

Charles Pittman Jr.

2004-01-01

447

Fluorous synthesis of disubstituted pyrimidines  

PubMed Central

The fluorous synthesis of disubstituted pyrimidines is carried out by attaching 2,4-dichloro-6-methylpyrimidine with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol. The tagged substrate is substituted with 3-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazole followed by thioether oxidation and tag displacement with amines and thiols. The fluorous ponytail serves as a phase tag for intermediate and product purification over FluoroFlash™ SPE cartridges. PMID:12659561

Zhang, Wei

2007-01-01

448

Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Reserpine  

PubMed Central

A catalytic, enantioselective synthesis of (+)-reserpine is reported. The route features a highly diastereoselective, chiral catalyst-controlled formal aza-Diels–Alder reaction between a 6-methoxytryptamine-derived dihydro-?-carboline and an enantioenriched ?-substituted enone to form a key tetracyclic intermediate. This approach addresses the challenge of setting the C3 stereogenic center by using catalyst control. Elaboration of the tetracycle to (+)-reserpine includes an intramolecular aldol cyclization and a highly diastereoselective hydrogenation of a sterically hindered enoate. PMID:23331099

Rajapaksa, Naomi S.; McGowan, Meredeth A.; Rienzo, Matthew

2013-01-01

449

Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-reserpine.  

PubMed

A catalytic, enantioselective synthesis of (+)-reserpine is reported. The route features a highly diastereoselective, chiral catalyst-controlled formal aza-Diels-Alder reaction between a 6-methoxytryptamine-derived dihydro-?-carboline and an enantioenriched ?-substituted enone to form a key tetracyclic intermediate. This approach addresses the challenge of setting the C3 stereogenic center by using catalyst control. Elaboration of the tetracycle to (+)-reserpine includes an intramolecular aldol cyclization and a highly diastereoselective hydrogenation of a sterically hindered enoate. PMID:23331099

Rajapaksa, Naomi S; McGowan, Meredeth A; Rienzo, Matthew; Jacobsen, Eric N

2013-02-01

450

Total synthesis of herbimycin A.  

PubMed

Benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic herbimycin A was synthesized in 19 linear steps and 4.2% yield. Highlighted is the design of a chiral ?-lactone as the C11-C15 synthon that enabled a facile catalytic asymmetric synthesis of the challenging C8-C20 fragment of the target molecule. The easy access to the stereogenic centers and high overall yield made the strategy applicable in the molecular editing of benzoquinone ansamycins. PMID:24911938

Yan, Rui; Bian, Chuancai; Yu, Xiaoming

2014-06-20

451

Orbit synthesis for target satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to illustrate the orbit synthesis process for a hypothetical test of a direct-ascent-based kinetic energy weapon (KEW) against an instrumented test vehicle. Test arena and communications considerations for a ground-based directed energy weapon and a direct-ascent-based KEW are outlined, along with launch vehicle constraints, algorithms for off-nominal orbits, and thermal-control and orbit lifetime considerations.

Charles K. Wilkinson

1990-01-01

452

Microbial Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the most important aspects in researching nanotechnology is the synthesis of metal nanoparticles of well-defined sizes,\\u000a shapes and controlled monodispersity. The most common methods of preparation are based on harsh chemicals, such as strong\\u000a reducing agents, surfactants, polymer capping agents and, occasionally, organic solvent systems, to achieve better results.\\u000a Therefore, there is a necessity to develop an environment

Irena Maliszewska

453

Extrahepatic synthesis of apolipoprotein E  

SciTech Connect

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) synthesis has been examined in rat and guinea pig tissues using in vitro translation and (/sup 35/S)methionine labeling of tissue slices. A number of tissues not involved in lipoprotein synthesis synthesize a protein very similar to apoE, including the spleen, adrenal, kidney, testis, ovary, heart, and lung. Although the intestine is involved in lipoprotein synthesis, apoE synthesis could not be detected in intestinal mucosa. The protein synthesized by the extrahepatic tissues was identified as apoE by its electrophoretic mobility, its immunologic reactivity with a monospecific antibody and by limited proteolysis mapping with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. ApoE represented between 0.02 and 0.7% of the total protein synthesized in the extrahepatic tissues, indicating that apoE mRNA is a fairly abundant mRNA in these tissues. ApoE mRNA was also detected by hybridization with a rat apoE cDNA clone, which hybridized to a single mRNA 1250 nucleotides in length in rat liver and in extrahepatic tissues. Hybridization of the apoE clone to rat genomic DNA demonstrated that the apoE gene was more heavily methylated in intestinal mucosa, which did not synthesize apoE, than in liver, testis, or kidney. /sup 35/S labeling of peritoneal macrophages revealed that both rat and guinea pig macrophages synthesized and secreted apoE in vitro. Rhesus aortic smooth muscle cells also synthesized and secreted apoE. The possible functions of apoE synthesized in the peripheral tissues are considered.

Driscoll, D.M.; Getz, G.S.

1984-12-01

454

Synthesis of Columnar Liquid Crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The columnar phases of discotic liquid crystals (DLCs) have been well recognized as one-dimensional organic semiconductors due to their unique self-organising supramolecular architecture. Though more than 3,000 DLCs from about 60 different cores have been synthesized, only a few DLCs derived from discotic cores such as, triphenylene, hexaazatriphenylene, pyrene, perylene, tricycloquinazoline, porphyrin, phthalocyanine and hexabenzocoronene are experimentally studied for their electrical and photoconducting properties. This chapter presents the synthesis of these DLCs and related materials.

Kumar, Sandeep

455

Total Synthesis of (?)-Bisabosqual A  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of the novel squalene synthase inhibitor, bisabosqual A, was completed in 14 steps (longest linear sequence) from commercially available starting materials. The doubly convergent route employs a tandem 5-exo, 6-exo radical cyclization as the key step. This reaction assembles the fully functionalized tetracyclic core and introduces three stereogenic centers. Other effective transformations are the regioselective deoxygenation of an advanced enone intermediate and the chemo- and diastereoselective addition of trimethylaluminum to a ketone in the presence of esters. PMID:23268693

am Ende, Christopher W.; Zhou, Zhou; Parker, Kathlyn A.

2014-01-01

456

Developing Understanding of Innovative Strategies of Teaching Science through Action Research: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis from Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a meta-synthesis of 20 action research studies undertaken in the classroom by teachers to develop their understanding of an innovative strategy for teaching science. The studies were undertaken as part of the requirements for their 2-year M.Ed. program from the Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED),…

Halai, Nelofer

2012-01-01

457

Efficient Dense Stereo and Novel-view Synthesis for Gaze Manipulation in One-to-one Teleconferencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm is proposed for novel-view synthesis, with particular application to teleconferencing. Given the video streams acquired by two cameras placed on either side of a computer monitor, the proposed algorithm synthesises images from a virtual camera in arbitrary position (typically located within the monitor area) to facilitate eye contact. The new technique is based on an improved, dynamic-programming,

Antonio Criminisi; Jamie Shotton; Andrew Blake; Carsten Rother; Philip H. S. Torr

2003-01-01

458

Accelerating Statistical LOR Estimation for a High-Resolution PET Scanner using FPGA Devices and a High Level Synthesis Tool  

E-print Network

Accelerating Statistical LOR Estimation for a High-Resolution PET Scanner using FPGA Devices an FPGA platform and a high level synthesis tool, called Impulse C, to speedup a statistical Line to be practical for clinic applications. Impulse C allows us to rapidly map a C program into a platform

Hauck, Scott

459

Chloroplast ribosomes and protein synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Consistent with their postulated origin from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of plants and algae have ribosomes whose component RNAs and proteins are strikingly similar to those of eubacteria. Comparison of the secondary structures of 16S rRNAs of chloroplasts and bacteria has been particularly useful in identifying highly conserved regions likely to have essential functions. Comparative analysis of ribosomal protein sequences may likewise prove valuable in determining their roles in protein synthesis. This review is concerned primarily with the RNAs and proteins that constitute the chloroplast ribosome, the genes that encode these components, and their expression. It begins with an overview of chloroplast genome structure in land plants and algae and then presents a brief comparison of chloroplast and prokaryotic protein-synthesizing systems and a more detailed analysis of chloroplast rRNAs and ribosomal proteins. A description of the synthesis and assembly of chloroplast ribosomes follows. The review concludes with discussion of whether chloroplast protein synthesis is essential for cell survival. PMID:7854253

Harris, E H; Boynton, J E; Gillham, N W

1994-01-01

460

Video-based crowd synthesis.  

PubMed

As a controllable medium, video-realistic crowds are important for creating the illusion of a populated reality in special effects, games, and architectural visualization. While recent progress in simulation and motion captured-based techniques for crowd synthesis has focused on natural macroscale behavior, this paper addresses the complementary problem of synthesizing crowds with realistic microscale behavior and appearance. Example-based synthesis methods such as video textures are an appealing alternative to conventional model-based methods, but current techniques are unable to represent and satisfy constraints between video sprites and the scene. This paper describes how to synthesize crowds by segmenting pedestrians from input videos of natural crowds and optimally placing them into an output video while satisfying environmental constraints imposed by the scene. We introduce crowd tubes, a representation of video objects designed to compose a crowd of video billboards while avoiding collisions between static and dynamic obstacles. The approach consists of representing crowd tube samples and constraint violations with a conflict graph. The maximal independent set yields a dense constraint-satisfying crowd composition. We present a prototype system for the capture, analysis, synthesis, and control of video-based crowds. Several results demonstrate the system's ability to generate videos of crowds which exhibit a variety of natural behaviors. PMID:24029912

Flagg, Matthew; Rehg, James M

2013-11-01

461

Tagetitoxin inhibits chloroplast RNA synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Tagetitoxin is a non-host specific phytotoxin which inhibits chloroplast development. Chloroplast encoded gene products as well as their transcripts are conspicuously depleted in toxin-treated tissue. Intact chloroplasts from 8-9 day old peas were incubated for 60 min. in the presence of tagetitoxin. This treatment reduced RNA synthesis but did not affect protein synthesis as measured by the incorporation of radiolabeled uridine or methionine, respectively. Tagetitoxin also inhibited chloroplast RNA synthesis in vitro. Total UTP incorporation was reduced 50% by 0.5..mu..M tagetitoxin in transcriptionally active chloroplast extracts containing 5mg/ml protein. In vitro transcription with purified E. coli RNA polymerase was also inhibited by tagetitoxin, yet wheat germ RNA polymerase II and several bacteriophage RNA polymerase enzymes were unaffected. Recent evidence suggests that RNA polymerase from chloroplasts and prokaryotes may share extensive homology. In light of this evidence and the authors own data, they propose that tagetitoxin directly inhibits chloroplast RNA polymerase.

Mathews, D.E.; Durbin, R.D.

1987-04-01

462

Photoelectrochemical synthesis of DNA microarrays  

PubMed Central

Optical addressing of semiconductor electrodes represents a powerful technology that enables the independent and parallel control of a very large number of electrical phenomena at the solid-electrolyte interface. To date, it has been used in a wide range of applications including electrophoretic manipulation, biomolecule sensing, and stimulating networks of neurons. Here, we have adapted this approach for the parallel addressing of redox reactions, and report the construction of a DNA microarray synthesis platform based on semiconductor photoelectrochemistry (PEC). An amorphous silicon photoconductor is activated by an optical projection system to create virtual electrodes capable of electrochemically generating protons; these PEC-generated protons then cleave the acid-labile dimethoxytrityl protecting groups of DNA phosphoramidite synthesis reagents with the requisite spatial selectivity to generate DNA microarrays. Furthermore, a thin-film porous glass dramatically increases the amount of DNA synthesized per chip by over an order of magnitude versus uncoated glass. This platform demonstrates that PEC can be used toward combinatorial bio-polymer and small molecule synthesis. PMID:19706433

Chow, Brian Y.; Emig, Christopher J.; Jacobson, Joseph M.

2009-01-01

463

ARRA Program Summary: Energy Smart Jobs Program  

E-print Network

ARRA Program Summary: Energy Smart Jobs Program Statewide Program (Initially targeting urban Description: The Program focuses on both job creation and energy efficiency. Just over one third of the contract funding will focus on job creation. The contractor will train approximately 60 California

464

SUNY Programs: Australia and  

E-print Network

SUNY Programs: Australia and New Zealand Semester, Academic Year and Short Term #12;1 Table of Contents How to Use this Booklet 1 Choosing a Program in Australia and New Zealand 2 Exchange vs. Study Abroad 3 Programs Outside Sydney and Melbourne 4 Programs in Melbourne 10 Programs in Sydney 12 Programs

Suzuki, Masatsugu

465

A computer program incorporating fatigue and fracture criteria in the preliminary design of transport aircraft: An evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The APAS program a multistation structural synthesis procedure developed to evaluate material, geometry, and configuration with various design criteria usually considered for the primary structure of transport aircraft is described and evaluated. Recommendations to improve accuracy and extend the capabilities of the APAS program are given. Flow diagrams are included.

Berger, P. E.; Thornton, E. A.

1976-01-01

466

*****Please share these highlights with your staff or other colleagues***** Welcome to the USGS NAWQA Program Quarterly Highlights, October -  

E-print Network

NAWQA Program Quarterly Highlights, October - December 2011 Highlights are from the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), which has assessed the physical, chemical and biological characteristics ­ Access the USGS Fact Sheet 2011-3112 online. Learn about other NAWQA ecological national synthesis

467

*****Please share these highlights with your staff or other colleagues***** Welcome to the USGS NAWQA Program Highlights, April -September 2011  

E-print Network

NAWQA Program Highlights, April - September 2011 Highlights are from the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), which has assessed the physical, chemical and biological characteristics the USGS Open-File Report 2011-1126 online. Learn about other NAWQA ecological national synthesis studies

468

A Comprehensive Program for the Training of Elementary School Teachers at Shaw University. Final Report, Part I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains a description of the current elementary teacher education program at Shaw University; a brief summary of each of the nine U.S. Office of Education models for elementary teacher education programs; review and synthesis of concepts in the three models (Florida State, Georgia, and Massachusetts) most applicable in redeveloping…

Shaw Univ., Raleigh, NC.

469

Zeolite catalysis in the synthesis of isobutylene from hydrous ethanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the synthesis of isobutylene from a hydrous ethanol feedstock over zeolites. The synthesis is accomplished in three steps: (1) low-temperature direct ethanol conversion to ethylene on H-ZSM-5 zeolite, (2) ethylene conversion to butene products over metal-exchanged zeolites, and (3) butene skeletal rearrangement to isobutylene over FER zeolites. The key to understanding and optimizing each synthesis step lies in the ability to control and regulate the zeolite acidity (Bronsted and Lewis)---both strength and number. Therefore, the continuous temperature programmed amine desorption (CTPAD) technique was further developed to simultaneously count the Bronsted acid sites and quantitatively characterize their strength. The adsorption of ethanol, reaction products, amines, coke and ethanol-derived residue (EDR) were monitored gravimetrically using the highly sensitive, novel Tapered Element Oscillating Microreactor (TEOM) apparatus. The TEOM was also used also in conjunction with CTPAD to characterize Bronsted acidity which is a new application for the instrument. For the first synthesis step, a parallel reaction exists which simultaneously produces diethyl ether and ethylene directly over H-ZSM-5. The reaction rates for each pathway were measured directly using a differential reactor operating at low temperatures (<473 K). Water in the ethanol feed enhances the rate of ethylene formation. A mechanism and kinetic expression are proposed for this reaction over H-ZSM-5, with diethyl-ether desorption and ethylene formation as the rate limiting steps. Heat of adsorption values measured from the independent microcalorimetry work reported in the literature are incorporated into the kinetic analysis which reduces the number of regressed parameters. For the remaining synthesis steps, several zeolite structures (ZSM-5, Y, FER) partially exchanged with Pd, Ti, Ni and Au were prepared and tested. It was determined from this screening study that the zeolites containing Pd are the most efficient catalysts for the dimerization reaction. Characterization results from x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and CTPAD suggest a stable, Pd species with a low oxidation state as part of the active site in Pd-exchanged zeolites. Isobutylene was present in the C4 fraction at reasonable quantities for most of the catalyst candidates, especially those containing an alkali metal co-cation.

Phillips, Cory Bernard

1999-11-01

470

Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program  

SciTech Connect

This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program ('the Program'). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC (PERI), in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE). This requires both computational development (i.e., creating a spreadsheet-based analysis tool) and a synthesis of judgments by a panel of researchers and experts of the expected results of the Program's R&D.

McVeigh, J.; Cohen, J.; Vorum, M.; Porro, G.; Nix, G.

2007-03-01

471

Synthesis of regional networks for the supply of energy and bioproducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a method for the synthesis of regional renewable energy supply chains, based on Mixed-Integer Linear\\u000a Programming (MILP). This method addresses the challenges presented by biomass resources. The main challenges are the distributive\\u000a and varied availabilities regarding both location and time. This work also aims to maximise the economically viable utilisation\\u000a of resources, accounting for the competition between

Lidija ?u?ek; Hon Loong Lam; Ji?í J. Klemeš; Petar S. Varbanov; Zdravko Kravanja

2010-01-01

472

Starch Synthesis in Arabidopsis. Granule Synthesis, Composition, and Structure1  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to characterize starch synthesis, composition, and granule structure in Arabidopsis leaves. First, the potential role of starch-degrading enzymes during starch accumulation was investigated. To discover whether simultaneous synthesis and degradation of starch occurred during net accumulation, starch was labeled by supplying 14CO2 to intact, photosynthesizing plants. Release of this label from starch was monitored during a chase period in air, using different light intensities to vary the net rate of starch synthesis. No release of label was detected unless there was net degradation of starch during the chase. Similar experiments were performed on a mutant line (dbe1) that accumulates the soluble polysaccharide, phytoglycogen. Label was not released from phytoglycogen during the chase indicating that, even when in a soluble form, glucan is not appreciably degraded during accumulation. Second, the effect on starch composition of growth conditions and mutations causing starch accumulation was studied. An increase in starch content correlated with an increased amylose content of the starch and with an increase in the ratio of granule-bound starch synthase to soluble starch synthase activity. Third, the structural organization and morphology of Arabidopsis starch granules was studied. The starch granules were birefringent, indicating a radial organization of the polymers, and x-ray scatter analyses revealed that granules contained alternating crystalline and amorphous lamellae with a periodicity of 9 nm. Granules from the wild type and the high-starch mutant sex1 were flattened and discoid, whereas those of the high-starch mutant sex4 were larger and more rounded. These larger granules contained “growth rings” with a periodicity of 200 to 300 nm. We conclude that leaf starch is synthesized without appreciable turnover and comprises similar polymers and contains similar levels of molecular organization to storage starches, making Arabidopsis an excellent model system for studying granule biosynthesis. PMID:12068097

Zeeman, Samuel C.; Tiessen, Axel; Pilling, Emma; Kato, K. Lisa; Donald, Athene M.; Smith, Alison M.

2002-01-01

473

A concise and stereoselective synthesis of squalamine.  

PubMed

[reaction: see text] A short and highly stereoselective synthesis of the novel steroid squalamine (1) was accomplished in nine steps from easily available methyl chenodeoxylcholanate 2. Our synthesis featured improved dehydrogenation of 4 followed by conjugate reduction to construct the trans AB-ring system and efficient asymmetric isopropylation of aldehyde 6 to introduce the C-24R-hydroxyl group. PMID:12943401

Zhang, Dong-Hui; Cai, Feng; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Wei-Shan

2003-09-01

474

Solid-phase synthesis of solanesol.  

PubMed

An efficient and convergent solid-phase strategy for the total synthesis of All- E solanesol is described. This method features avoidance of iterative and difficult purifications comparing with solution-phase synthesis and is suitable for the preparation of other oligoprenols. PMID:18558751

Yu, Xiongjie; Wang, Suxi; Chen, Fener

2008-01-01

475

Total synthesis of monosporascone and dihydromonosporascone.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of monosporascone is presented. The five-step synthesis developed includes a silver acetylide-acid chloride coupling, domino Diels-Alder-retro-Diels-Alder reaction, and an intramolecular Friedel-Crafts acylation, and provides the natural product in 57% yield overall. Selective reduction of monosporascone also afforded the related metabolite dihydromonosporascone. PMID:24668447

Punch, Kathryn A; Piggott, Matthew J

2014-05-01

476

Enantiospecific total synthesis of macrolactone Sch 725674.  

PubMed

The enantiospecific total synthesis of 14-membered macrolactone Sch 725674 was accomplished from tartaric acid. Key reactions in the synthesis include the Ley's dithiaketalization of an alkynone derived from the bis-Weinreb amide of tartaric acid, Boord olefination, and ring-closing metathesis of an acrylate ester. PMID:25033232

Bali, Amit K; Sunnam, Sunil K; Prasad, Kavirayani R

2014-08-01

477

Multiscale CLEAN Deconvolution of Radio Synthesis Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio synthesis imaging is dependent upon deconvolution algorithms to counteract the sparse sampling of the Fourier plane. These deconvolution algorithms find an estimate of the true sky brightness from the necessarily incomplete sampled visibility data. The most widely used radio synthesis deconvolution method is the CLEAN algorithm of Hogbom. This algorithm works extremely well for collections of point sources and

Tim J. Cornwell

2008-01-01

478

Enantioselective formal synthesis of palmerolide A.  

PubMed

Enantioselective formal synthesis of macrolactone palmerolide A, a polyketide marine natural product, is described. Key strategies in the synthesis include the oxidative furan ring-opening of a chiral furyl carbinol for the installation of the 1,4-dienol core and a Jung nonaldol-aldol reaction for the dienamide core. PMID:21793548

Prasad, Kavirayani R; Pawar, Amit B

2011-08-19

479

SYNTHESIS AND SIMULATION OF FRACTIONAL ORTHONORMAL BASES  

E-print Network

allows to write the fractional differ- ential equation (1), provided all signals u(t) and ySYNTHESIS AND SIMULATION OF FRACTIONAL ORTHONORMAL BASES Mohamed Aoun Rachid Malti Alain for synthesis and simulation of fractional Laguerre, Kautz, and GOB functions. As compared to classical

Boyer, Edmond

480

Synthesis of Glue Logic, Transactors, Multiplexors  

E-print Network

Synthesis of Glue Logic, Transactors, Multiplexors and Serialisors from Protocol Specifications. DJ. In this paper, we present a new automata- based algorithm that automatically synthesizes glue logic for So that can be used both for automatic synthesis of glue logic between IP blocks in SoC design, between TLM

Greaves, David J.

481

Applying simulated evolution to high level synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general optimization algorithm known as simulated evolution (SE) is applied to the tasks of scheduling and allocation in high level synthesis. Basically, SE-based synthesis explores the design space by repeatedly ripping up parts of a design in a probabilistic manner and reconstructing them using application-specific heuristics that combine rapid design iterations and probabilistic hill climbing to achieve effective design

Tai A. Ly; Jack T. Mowchenko

1993-01-01

482

Power Optimization With Power Islands Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the migration to deep sub-micron process technologies, the power consumption of a circuit has come to the forefront of concerns, and as a result, the power has become a critical design parameter. This paper presents a novel high-level synthesis methodology, called Power Islands Synthesis, that eliminates the spurious switching activity and the leakage in a great portion of the

Deniz Dal; Nazanin Mansouri

2009-01-01

483

DIGITAL SOUND SYNTHESIS FOR MULTIMEDIA INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

D DIGITAL SOUND SYNTHESIS FOR MULTIMEDIA AUDIO INTRODUCTION Techniques for generating audio manipulation and software synthesis, respectively. The most common approach to adding sounds to multi- media applications is to use recorded sounds. Indeed, var- ious sound libraries and repositories are available, both

Miranda, Eduardo Reck

484

COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

. Gasless Combustion SynthesisFrom Elements B. Combustion Synthesis in Gas-Solid Systems C. Products Density for Gasless Systems D. Green Mixture Density and Initial Gas Pressure for Gas-Solid Systems E). This review article summarizes the state of the art in combustion syn- thesis,from both the scientijc

Mukasyan, Alexander

485

Germanium nanocrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to demonstrate a simple synthesis route of Ge nanostructures (nanoparticles and nanowires), to characterize the physical and optical properties of Ge nanocrystal, and to demonstrate their biological and optoelectronics applications. The appropriate organometallic Ge 2+ precursors for the synthesis of Ge nanocrystals were identified. These precursors were used to develop a simple route that

Henry Gerung

2006-01-01

486

SYNTHESIS OF ALUMINA USING THE SOLVOTHERMAL METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes work done on synthesis of a- and ?-alumina by using the solvothermal technique. Synthesis of both these aluminas involves the transition reactions of the aluminium hydroxide into alumina by a dehydroxylation process. As there are many forms of transition aluminas produced during this process, x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to identify a-alumina and ?-alumina. After establishing

Masliana Muslimin

2007-01-01

487

Tolerance synthesis: quantifier notion and virtual boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of functional tolerancing process is to define the geometrical specifications of parts ensuring functional requirements. For automotive and aircraft industries, the tolerance synthesis has become an important issue in product design process. Indeed, designers need methods and rules to determine the tolerances. To define rules, a mathematical formulation of tolerance synthesis is detailed. This mathematical formulation of tolerance

Jean-yves Dantan; Luc Mathieu; Alex Ballu; Patrick Martin

2005-01-01

488

Evolutionary approach to quantum symbolic logic synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an evolutionary approach to the quantum symbolic logic synthesis. We use a genetic algorithm to synthesize quantum circuits from examples, allowing to synthesize functions that are both completely and incompletely specified. The symbolic synthesis is implemented in the GA so as to verify our approach. The Occam Razor principle, fundamental to inductive learning as well

Martin Lukac; Marek A. Perkowski

2008-01-01

489

Minimum Energy Pulse Synthesis Inverse Scattering Transform  

E-print Network

Minimum Energy Pulse Synthesis via the Inverse Scattering Transform Charles L. Epstein LSNI profile and certain auxiliary parameters used in the inverse scattering transform (IST) approach to RF-pulse of nuclear magnetic resonance. The oldest method of pulse synthesis is the Fourier transform method

490

Sustainable Synthesis of Nanomaterials Using Microwave irradiation  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation summarizes our recent activity in MW-assisted synthesis of nanomaterials under benign conditions. Shape-controlled aqueous synthesis of noble nanostructures via MW-assisted spontaneous reduction of noble metal salts using ¿-D-glucose, sucrose, and maltose will be...

491

Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Lithospermic Acid  

PubMed Central

An enantioselective synthesis of (+)-lithospermic acid, a potent anti-HIV agent, has been accomplished in a convergent manner in 9 steps. The synthesis features an enantioselective intramolecular oxa-Michael addition catalyzed by a quinidine derivative, a hypervalent iodine-mediated rearrangement of chromanone to dihydrobenzofuran, an enantioselective ?-oxyamination, and an intermolecular C-H olefination. PMID:22978790

Cheng, Xu; Zhou, Bing

2012-01-01

492

Phosphate Tethers in Synthesis: The Total Synthesis of Dolabelide C.  

E-print Network

of alcohol 1.39 to chlorodiisopropylsilane; this species was then converted to a bromosilane using NBS, and final addition of alcohol 1.40 generated silane 1.41 in 68% yield. Cyclization of triyne 1.41 was promoted by a cobalt catalyst and light... the regioselectivity for the Pauson- Khand reaction was vital to the total synthesis of 15-deoxy-! 12,14 -prostaglandin J 2 . 1.2.2 Temporary Silicon Tethers: Olefin Metathesis Over the past decade new olefin metathesis catalysts have emerged that posses increased...

Waetzig, Joshua David

2008-07-18

493

Behavioral synthesis methodology for HDL-based specification and validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a HDL synthesis based design methodology that supports user adoption of behavioral-level synthesis into normal design practices. The use of these techniques increases understanding of the HDL descriptions before synthesis, and makes the comparison of pre- and post-synthesis design behavior through simulation much more direct. This increases user confidence that the specification does what the user wants,

David Knapp; Tai Ly; Don MacMillen; Ron Miller

1995-01-01

494

Synthesis of Na-zeolites from fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on the synthesis of zeolites after fly ash activation, the major objectives being: (a) to study the activation processes; (b) to elucidate the activation conditions for maximum synthesis efficiency; (c) to optimize the conditions for the monomineral synthesis; and (d) to test synthesis efficiencies for different fly ash types. Fly ash was activated by NaOH and

Xavier Querol; Felicià Plana; Andrés Alastuey; Angel López-Soler

1997-01-01

495

Molecular Model of Creatine Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The featured molecules for this month come from the paper Creatine Synthesis: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Experiment by Andri Smith and Paula Tan on the synthesis of creatine in introductory organic chemistry. This synthesis is sufficiently straightforward to be used in non-majors and general chemistry courses. The structures illustrate some of the limitations associated with the computation of molecular structure. The two adenosine phosphates ADP and ATP exhibit a large number of conformations due to rotation of the adenine system around the bond to the ribose ring, multiple rotational conformations in the phosphate groups, the ionic state of the compound, and the interaction with the solvent or another species such as creatine. The structures that are given for ADP and ATP are derived from PM3MM calculations and are very similar to those derived using the UFF force field. Sarcosine, creatine, and creatine phosphate were treated using the model chemistry B3LYP/6-31+G(d). Perhaps the most interesting structural feature is found in the small molecule cyanamide. Observant students might notice in the Web-based structure that the NCN grouping in cyanamide is non-linear, with an angle of about 177°. This is found for essentially all levels of theory we examined up through the G2 combined model. For students who do notice this deviation from linearity it is useful to ask them whether they are surprised, ask them to defend their answer, send them to the literature to see whether such behavior is seen for cyanamide in other phases (it is), and finally to speculate on possible explanations for the observed non-linearity.

496

Synthesis of New Polyphosphonic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method for the synthesis of new polyphosphonic acids is described. The hexaisopropyl alkane-1,1,n-triphosphonates (n = 4-5) are formed by the reaction of the salt of tetraisopropyl methylenediphosphonate with diisopropyl n-bromoalkanephosphonates (n = 3-4) while the hexaisopropyl alkane-2,2,n-triphosphonates (n = 5-6) are formed by the reaction of the salt of tetraisopropyl ethane-1,1-diphosphonate with diisopropyl n-bromoalkanephosphonates (n = 3-4). The

Carine Viornery; Péter Péchy; Mickaël Boegli; Björn-O. Aronsson; Pierre Descouts; Michael Grätzel

2002-01-01

497

Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

SciTech Connect

We have cloned the celC gene and its homologue from E. coli, yhjM, in an expression vector and expressed the both genes in E. coli; we have determined that the YhjM protein is able to complement in vitro cellulose synthesis by extracts of A. tumefaciens celC mutants, we have purified the YhjM protein product and are currently examining its enzymatic activity; we have examined whole cell extracts of CelC and various other cellulose mutants and wild type bacteria for the presence of cellulose oligomers and cellulose; we have examined the ability of extracts of wild type and cellulose mutants including CelC to incorporate UDP-14C-glucose into cellulose and into water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble oligosaccharides; we have made mutants which synthesize greater amounts of cellulose than the wild type; and we have examined the role of cellulose in the formation of biofilms by A. tumefaciens. In addition we have examined the ability of a putative cellulose synthase gene from the tunicate Ciona savignyi to complement an A. tumefaciens celA mutant. The greatest difference between our knowledge of bacterial cellulose synthesis when we started this project and current knowledge is that in 1999 when we wrote the original grant very few bacteria were known to synthesize cellulose and genes involved in this synthesis were sequenced only from Acetobacter species, A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Currently many bacteria are known to synthesize cellulose and genes that may be involved have been sequenced from more than 10 species of bacteria. This additional information has raised the possibility of attempting to use genes from one bacterium to complement mutants in another bacterium. This will enable us to examine the question of which genes are responsible for the three dimensional structure of cellulose (since this differs among bacterial species) and also to examine the interactions between the various proteins required for cellulose synthesis. We have carried out one preliminary experiment of this type and have successfully complemented an A. tumefaciens CelC mutant with the homologous gene (yhjM) from E. coli.

Alan R. White; Ann G. Matthysse

2004-07-31

498

Total Synthesis of (+)-Sieboldine A  

PubMed Central

The first total synthesis of (+)-sieboldine A was completed in 20 steps from readily available (3aS,6aR)-3,3a,4,6-atetrahydro-2H-cyclopenta[b]furan-2-one (5). Key steps are: (a) a pinacol-terminated 1,6-enyne cyclization reaction to form the cis-hydrindanone core (11 ? 12), (b) formation of the spiro tetrahydrofuran ring by stereoselective DMDO oxidation of tricyclic dihydropyran intermediate 15, and (c) formation of the unprecedented N-hydroxyazacyclononane ring by cyclization of a thioglycoside precursor (18 ? 19). PMID:20527933

Canham, Stephen M.; France, David J.

2010-01-01

499

Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.  

PubMed

We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M? for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23030150

Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

2012-07-13

500

Tryptathionine bridges in peptide synthesis.  

PubMed

The tryptathionine linkage is a crosslink formed between tryptophan and cysteine. This feature is characteristic of the bicyclic peptides: the phallotoxins and the amatoxins. These peptides both bind to protein folds of their respective targets (F-actin and RNA pol II, respectively) with extremely high affinities. Studies on these peptides have shown that the tryptathionine crosslink is essential for this binding affinity. Tryptathionines have been investigated for many years and several syntheses exist for their formation. In this review, we report on the various methodologies employed in tryptathionine synthesis, and discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with each of them. PMID:17626299

May, Jonathan P; Perrin, David M

2007-01-01