Note: This page contains sample records for the topic schema-based program synthesis from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

A Survey of Schema-Based Matching Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schema and ontology matching is a critical problem in many appli- cation domains, such as semantic web, schema\\/ontology integration, data ware- houses, e-commerce, etc. Many different matching solutions have been proposed so far. In this paper we present a new classification of schema-based matching techniques that builds on the top of state of the art in both schema and ontology

Pavel Shvaiko; Jérôme Euzenat

2005-01-01

2

Design issues and challenges for RDF and schema-based peer-to-peer systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Databases have employed a schema-based approach to store and retrieve structured data for decades. For peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, similar approaches are just beginning to emerge. While quite a few database techniques can be re-used in this new context, a P2P data management infrastructure poses additional challenges which have to be solved before schema-based P2P networks become as common as schema-based

Wolfgang Nejdl; Wolf Siberski; Michael Sintek

2003-01-01

3

Enhancing Mathematical Problem Solving Among Third-Grade Students With Schema-Based Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to assess the effects of schema-based instruction (SBI) in promoting mathematical problem solving and to investigate schema induction as a mechanism in the development of mathematical problem solving. Twenty-four 3rd-grade teachers, with 366 students, were assigned randomly to conditions that provided instruction on…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Prentice, Karin; Hamlett, Carol L.; Finelli, Robin; Courey, Susan J.

2004-01-01

4

Distributed Queries and Query Optimization in Schema-Based P2P-Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Databases have employed a schema-based approach to store and retrieve structured data for decades. For peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, similar approaches are just beginning to emerge, also motivated by the fact, that sending (atomic) queries to the appropriate peers clearly fails for queries which need data from more than one peer to be executed. While quite a few database techniques can

Ingo Brunkhorst; Hadhami Dhraief; Alfons Kemper; Wolfgang Nejdl; Christian Wiesner

2003-01-01

5

Schema-based learning of adaptable and flexible prey- catching in anurans II. Learning after lesioning.  

PubMed

The previous companion paper describes the initial (seed) schema architecture that gives rise to the observed prey-catching behavior. In this second paper in the series we describe the fundamental adaptive processes required during learning after lesioning. Following bilateral transections of the hypoglossal nerve, anurans lunge toward mealworms with no accompanying tongue or jaw movement. Nevertheless anurans with permanent hypoglossal transections eventually learn to catch their prey by first learning to open their mouth again and then lunging their body further and increasing their head angle. In this paper we present a new learning framework, called schema-based learning (SBL). SBL emphasizes the importance of the current existent structure (schemas), that defines a functioning system, for the incremental and autonomous construction of ever more complex structure to achieve ever more complex levels of functioning. We may rephrase this statement into the language of Schema Theory (Arbib 1992, for a comprehensive review) as the learning of new schemas based on the stock of current schemas. SBL emphasizes a fundamental principle of organization called coherence maximization, that deals with the maximization of congruence between the results of an interaction (external or internal) and the expectations generated for that interaction. A central hypothesis consists of the existence of a hierarchy of predictive internal models (predictive schemas) all over the control center-brain-of the agent. Hence, we will include predictive models in the perceptual, sensorimotor, and motor components of the autonomous agent architecture. We will then show that predictive models are fundamental for structural learning. In particular we will show how a system can learn a new structural component (augment the overall network topology) after being lesioned in order to recover (or even improve) its original functionality. Learning after lesioning is a special case of structural learning but clearly shows that solutions cannot be known/hardwired a priori since it cannot be known, in advance, which substructure is going to break down. PMID:16320080

Corbacho, Fernando; Nishikawa, Kiisa C; Weerasuriya, Ananda; Liaw, Jim-Shih; Arbib, Michael A

2005-11-23

6

Meeting the Needs of Students With Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Mathematics Classrooms: The Role of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Problem-Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses schema-based instruction (SBI) as an alternative to traditional instruction for enhancing the mathematical problem solving performance of students with learning disabilities (LD). In the authors' most recent research and developmental efforts, they designed SBI to meet the needs of middle school students with LD in inclusive mathematics classrooms by addressing the research literatures in special education, cognitive

Asha K. Jitendra; Jon R. Star

2011-01-01

7

Using Psychometric Technology in Educational Assessment: The Case of a Schema-Based Isomorphic Approach to the Automatic Generation of Quantitative Reasoning Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article deals with the investigation of the psychometric quality and constructs validity of algebra word problems generated by means of a schema-based version of the automatic min-max approach. Based on review of the research literature in algebra word problem solving and automatic item generation this new approach is introduced as a…

Arendasy, Martin; Sommer, Markus

2007-01-01

8

Meeting the Needs of Students with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Mathematics Classrooms: The Role of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses schema-based instruction (SBI) as an alternative to traditional instruction for enhancing the mathematical problem solving performance of students with learning disabilities (LD). In the authors' most recent research and developmental efforts, they designed SBI to meet the needs of middle school students with LD in…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.

2011-01-01

9

Glue Code Synthesis for Distributed Software Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a method for synthesizing the glue code for distributed programming. The goal of this method is\\u000a to completely automate the synthesis of code for handling distributed computing issues, such as remote method calls and message\\u000a passing. By using this method, the software for migrating the objects, synchronizing the communication, and supporting remote\\u000a method calls can

Jian Liu; Farokh B. Bastani; I-Ling Yen

10

Defining the XML Schema Matching Problem for a Personal Schema Based Query Answering System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we analyze the problem of personal schema matching. We define the ingredients of the XML schema matching problem using constraint logic programming. This allows us to thourougly investigate specific matching problems. We do not have the ambition to provide for a formalism that covers all kinds of schema matching problems. The target is specifically personal schema matching

Marko Smiljanic; Keulen van Maurice; Willem Jonker

2004-01-01

11

A Summary of the PSI Program Synthesis System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the current status of the PSI program synthesis system. It alloius program specification dialogues using natural language, traces and examples from which a high-level program model is acquired. This model is then refined into an efficient implementation of the program. PSI consists of several modules including a parser-interpreter, trace and examples inference expert, dialogue moderator, program model

C. Green

1977-01-01

12

The design of the PSI program synthesis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the current state of the PSI automatic program synthesis system and discusses the design considerations. The PSI system allows a user to specify a desired program in a dialogue using natural language and traces. PSI then synthesizes a program meeting these specifications. The target programs are simple symbolic computation programs in LISP. PSI may

C. Cordell Green

1976-01-01

13

A Synthesis of Research on Teacher Induction Programs and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper identifies and synthesizes findings from data-based research on teacher induction programs and practices. In order to be included in the synthesis the studies must have been: (1) data-based; (2) conducted on beginning teachers in an induction program; and (3) reported since 1977. A total of 17 studies were included in the synthesis.…

Huling-Austin, Leslie

14

The Development of an Interactive Videodisc Program on Protein Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An interactive videodisk (IVD) program was developed to reinforce learning of the biological concept of protein synthesis for high school students. The laser videodisc "The Living Textbook Life Science" was the source of frames, and the authoring system of G. Smith was used to create the disc. The interactive program was designed to make the…

Hazan, Charlene Corey

15

Health and Wellness Programs for Commercial Drivers. A Synthesis of Safety Practice. Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis 15.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis will be useful to federal and state agencies, commercial truck and bus operators, and others interested in improving commercial vehicle safety. The synthesis provides a state of the practice of commercial driver health and wellness programs...

G. P. Krueger R. M. Brewster V. R. Dick R. E. Inderbitzen L. Staplin

2007-01-01

16

AutoBayes Program Synthesis System: System Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AUTOBAYES is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the statistical data analysis domain. Its input is a concise description of a data analysis problem in the form of a statistical model; its output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code whi...

B. Fischer T. Pressburger G. Rosu J. Schumann

2001-01-01

17

Utilization of Forward Error Correction (FEC) Techniques With Extensible Markup Language (XML) Schema-Based Binary Compression (XSBC) Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to plug-in current open sourced, open standard Java programming technology into the building blocks of the US Navy's ForceNet, first, stove-piped systems need to be made extensible to other pertinent applications and then a new paradigm of adopti...

T. D. Norbraten

2004-01-01

18

Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program: A Status Report. Research Results Digest 8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) is a cooperative research program sponsored by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) and administered by the Transportation Research Board. The program began in 2002 in suppo...

2011-01-01

19

Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program: A Status Report. Research Results Digest 9.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) is a cooperative research program sponsored by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) and administered by the Transportation Research Board. The program began in 2002 in suppo...

2012-01-01

20

A light synthesis program for binary stars. I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new light synthesis program is described which provides a smooth transition from detached to semidetached to contact systems as well as facilities for intermediate data examination and interfaces to external data bases for model atmosphere values of normal intensity and nonlinear limb darkening. The program attaches a separate model atmosphere to each surface element and can accommodate input observational data of indefinite length and with up to 90 spectral bands in the color system. It provides means of error evaluation which allow confidence that the representation of the physical model is in error by less than observational noise. It evaluates irradiation effects by numerical integration rather than analytic approximation, it fully allows for partial visibility of the companion in penumbral zones, and it allows for the modified visibility of the companion resulting from local tilting of the horizon.

Linnell, A. P.

1984-01-01

21

COMPOS: A Computer Program for the Property Synthesis and Hygrothermal Stress Analysis of Laminated Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A FORTRAN computer program for the property synthesis and hygrothermal stress analysis of composite laminates is described. Its basis is the mathematics and assumptions of classical laminated plate theory. The program synthesizes laminate properties by us...

A. M. Lindrose

1978-01-01

22

Observations on the interaction between coding and efficiency knowledge in the PSI Program Synthesis System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how the synthesis phase of the PSI system constructs programs from high level program models by using coding knowledge and efficiency knowledge. In our preliminary implementation, these knowledge bases are separated into distinct modules, the coding expert and the efficiency expert. We describe how the coding expert uses rule-based programming knowledge to produce alternative algorithm and data

David R. Barstow; Elaine Kant

1976-01-01

23

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative  

SciTech Connect

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new tools for developing advanced materials. Concentrated sunlight from solar furnaces can produce intensities that approach those on the surface of the sun and can generate temperatures well over 2000{degrees}C. Very thin layers of illuminated surfaces can be driven to remarkably high temperatures in a fraction of a second. Concentrated solar energy can be delivered over large areas, allowing for rapid processing and high production rates. By using this technology, researchers are transforming low-cost raw materials into high-performance products. Solar synthesis of advanced materials uses bulk materials and energy more efficiently, lowers processing costs, and reduces the need for strategic materials -- all with a technology that does not harm the environment. The Solar Industrial Program has built a unique, world class solar furnace at NREL to help meet the growing need for applied research in advanced materials. Many new advanced materials processes have been successfully demonstrated in this facility, including the following: Metalorganic deposition, ceramic powders, diamond-like carbon materials, rapid heat treating, and cladding (hard coating).

Lewandowski, A.

1992-06-01

24

National Irrigation Water Quality Program data-synthesis data base  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Under the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) of the U.S. Department of the Interior, researchers investigated contamination caused by irrigation drainage in 26 areas in the Western United States from 1986 to 1993. From 1992 to 1995, a comprehensive relational data base was built to organize data collected during the 26-area investigations. The data base provided the basis for analysis and synthesis of these data to identify common features of contaminated areas and hence dominant biologic, geologic, climatic, chemical, and physiographic factors that have resulted in contamination of water and biota in irrigated areas in the Western United States. Included in the data base are geologic, hydrologic, climatological, chemical, and cultural data that describe the 26 study areas in 14 Western States. The data base contains information on 1,264 sites from which water and bottom sediment were collected. It also contains chemical data from 6,903 analyses of surface water, 914 analyses of ground water, 707 analyses of inorganic constituents in bottom sediments, 223 analyses of organochlorine pesticides in bottom sediments, 8,217 analyses of inorganic constituents in biota, and 1,088 analyses for organic constituents in biota. The data base is available to the public and can be obtained at the NIWQP homepage http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp as dBase III tables for personal-computer systems or as American Standard Code for Information Exchange structured query language (SQL) command and data files for SQL data bases.

Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.

2001-01-01

25

Airport Revenue Diversification, A Synthesis of Airport Practice. Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 19.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year TRB sponsors a series of synthesis reports on current knowledge and practice in the airport industry. The intention of the synthesis is to develop a compendium of best available knowledge on addressing or resolving specific airport problems. Oft...

L. S. Kramer

2010-01-01

26

Synthesis of concurrent programs for an atomic read\\/write model of computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for mechanically synthesizing concurrent programs for temporal logic specifications have been proposed by Emerson and Clarke and by Manna and Wolper. An important advantage of these synthesis methods is that they obviate the need to manually compose a program and manually construct a proof of its correctness. A serious drawback of these methods in practice, however, is that they

Paul C. Attie; E. Allen Emerson

2001-01-01

27

Temperature-programmed microwave-assisted synthesis of SBA-15 ordered mesoporous silica.  

PubMed

The currently available microwave technology permits the development and implementation of a temperature-programmed microwave-assisted synthesis (TPMS) of ordered mesoporous silicas (OMSs). Unlike in previously reported syntheses of OMSs, in which only the final hydrothermal treatment was carried out under microwave irradiation, this work takes advantage of the existing capabilities of modern microwave systems to program the temperature and time for the entire synthesis of these materials. To demonstrate the flexibility of the proposed microwave-assisted synthesis, besides programming two consecutive steps involving initial stirring of the gel at a lower temperature and static hydrothermal treatment at a higher temperature, we explored the possibility of temperature programming of the latter step. A major advantage of microwave technology is the feasibility of temperature and time programming, which has been demonstrated by the synthesis of one of the most popular OMSs, SBA-15, over an unprecedented range of temperatures from 40 to 200 degrees C. Since the synthesis of OMSs has not yet been explored and reported at temperatures exceeding 150 degrees C, this work is focused on the SBA-15 samples prepared at higher temperatures (such as 160, 180, and even 200 degrees C). These SBA-15 samples show better thermal stability than those synthesized at commonly used temperatures either under conventional or microwave conditions. Moreover, a partial decomposition of the template during high-temperature microwave-assisted syntheses does not compromise the formation of well-ordered SBA-15 materials. This study shows that the simplicity and capability of temperature and time programming in TPMS allows one not only to tune the adsorption and structural properties of OMSs but also to easily screen a wide range of conditions in order to optimize and scale-up their preparation as well as to significantly reduce the time of synthesis from days to hours. PMID:17076515

Celer, Ewa B; Jaroniec, Mietek

2006-11-01

28

Synthesis of Eureka Predicates for Developing Logic Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of inventing new predicates when developing logic programs by transformation. Those predicates, often called eureka predicates, improve program efficiency by eliminating redundant computations and avoiding multiple visits of data structures. It can be shown that no general method exists for inventing the required eureka predicates for a given initial program. We introduce here two strategies, the

Maurizio Proietti; Alberto Pettorossi

1990-01-01

29

Blended Teacher Professional Development: A Synthesis of Three Program Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study synthesized the findings of three program evaluations of teacher blended professional development programs from the perspective of situated design and implementation, development of community, changes in teacher practice, and impact on students. We found that the blended programs were effective in providing teachers with an opportunity…

Owston, Ron; Wideman, Herb; Murphy, Janet; Lupshenyuk, Denys

2008-01-01

30

Synthesis Gas Demonstration Plant Program, Phase I. Pilot Plant Test Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section I in Appendix A to Subcontract No. 3 between Ebasco Services Inc. and Texaco Inc. for the Synthesis Gas Demonstration Plant Program provides for pilot plant testing to be performed at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory. The Type Ia test consi...

1979-01-01

31

On an Application of Dynamic Programming to the Synthesis of Logical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we wish to initiate the study of the application of dynamic programming to the domain of problems arising in the synthesis of logical systems.In a number of fields one encounters the problem of converting a system in one state into another state in a most efficient fashion—in mathematical economics, in the theory of control processes, in network

Richard Bellman; John H. Holland; Robert Kalaba

1959-01-01

32

An MSG-method for inductive logic program synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNAPSE2 is an upgraded version of SYNAPSE (developed by Flener [1995]),\\u000awhich is an implementation of an inductive synthesis mechanism that\\u000asemi-automatically synthesizes divide-and-conquer logic algorithms in a\\u000aschema-guided way, from non-incrementally given examples and properties of\\u000aan intended relation. SYNAPSE2 goes through six steps, instantiating the\\u000aplace-holders of a chosen divide-and-conquer logic algorithm schema. At\\u000aStep 5, the MSG-Method

Esra Erdem

1996-01-01

33

National Irrigation Water Quality Program Data-Synthesis Data Base.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) of the U.S. Department of the Interior, researchers investigated contamination caused by irrigation drainage in 26 areas in the Western United States from 1986 to 1993. From 1992 to 1995, a compr...

R. L. Seiler J. P. Skorupa

2001-01-01

34

Effective Beginning Reading Programs: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article systematically reviews research on the achievement outcomes of four types of approaches to improving the beginning reading success of children in kindergarten and first grade: Reading curricula, instructional technology, instructional process programs, and combinations of curricula and instructional process. Study inclusion criteria…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Davis, Susan

2009-01-01

35

Effective Beginning Reading Programs: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article systematically reviews research on the achievement outcomes of four types of approaches to improving the beginning reading success of children in kindergarten and first grade: Reading curricula, instructional technology, instructional process programs, and combinations of curricula and instructional process. Study inclusion criteria…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Davis, Susan

2009-01-01

36

Flexible programming of cell-free protein synthesis using magnetic bead-immobilized plasmids.  

PubMed

The use of magnetic bead-immobilized DNA as movable template for cell-free protein synthesis has been investigated. Magnetic microbeads containing chemically conjugated plasmids were used to direct cell-free protein synthesis, so that protein generation could be readily programmed, reset and reprogrammed. Protein synthesis by using this approach could be ON/OFF-controlled through repeated addition and removal of the microbead-conjugated DNA and employed in sequential expression of different genes in a same reaction mixture. Since the incubation periods of individual template plasmids are freely controllable, relative expression levels of multiple proteins can be tuned to desired levels. We expect that the presented results will find wide application to the flexible design and execution of synthetic pathways in cell-free chassis. PMID:22470570

Lee, Ka-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Park, Ji-Woong; Kim, Dong-Myung

2012-03-28

37

Flexible Programming of Cell-Free Protein Synthesis Using Magnetic Bead-Immobilized Plasmids  

PubMed Central

The use of magnetic bead-immobilized DNA as movable template for cell-free protein synthesis has been investigated. Magnetic microbeads containing chemically conjugated plasmids were used to direct cell-free protein synthesis, so that protein generation could be readily programmed, reset and reprogrammed. Protein synthesis by using this approach could be ON/OFF-controlled through repeated addition and removal of the microbead-conjugated DNA and employed in sequential expression of different genes in a same reaction mixture. Since the incubation periods of individual template plasmids are freely controllable, relative expression levels of multiple proteins can be tuned to desired levels. We expect that the presented results will find wide application to the flexible design and execution of synthetic pathways in cell-free chassis.

Lee, Ka-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Park, Ji-Woong; Kim, Dong-Myung

2012-01-01

38

Mammographic texture synthesis using genetic programming and clustered lumpy background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we investigated the digital synthesis of images which mimic real textures observed in mammograms. Such images could be produced in an unlimited number with tunable statistical properties in order to study human performance and model observer performance in perception experiments. We used the previously developed clustered lumpy background (CLB) technique and optimized its parameters with a genetic algorithm (GA). In order to maximize the realism of the textures, we combined the GA objective approach with psychophysical experiments involving the judgments of radiologists. Thirty-six statistical features were computed and averaged, over 1000 real mammograms regions of interest. The same features were measured for the synthetic textures, and the Mahalanobis distance was used to quantify the similarity of the features between the real and synthetic textures. The similarity, as measured by the Mahalanobis distance, was used as GA fitness function for evolving the free CLB parameters. In the psychophysical approach, experienced radiologists were asked to qualify the realism of synthetic images by considering typical structures that are expected to be found on real mammograms: glandular and fatty areas, and fiber crossings. Results show that CLB images found via optimization with GA are significantly closer to real mammograms than previously published images. Moreover, the psychophysical experiments confirm that all the above mentioned structures are reproduced well on the generated images. This means that we can generate an arbitrary large database of textures mimicking mammograms with traceable statistical properties.

Castella, Cyril; Kinkel, Karen; Descombes, François; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Verdun, Francis R.; Bochud, François O.

2006-03-01

39

DURIP/ARO Program on Time-Resolved Pressure-Measurement Instrumentation for High-Strain Rate Materials Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this program, advanced diagnostic instrumentation was developed for time-resolved pressure measurements for experimentation involving materials synthesis by shock-compression of powders and their mixtures. The instrumentation has been developed with th...

K. Vandersall N. N. Thadhani R. Russell

1996-01-01

40

Optimal register sharing for high-level synthesis of SSA form programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Register sharing for high-level synthesis of programs represented in static single assignment (SSA) form is proven to have a polynomial-time solution. Register sharing is modeled as a graph-coloring problem. Although graph coloring is NP-Complete in the general case, an interference graph constructed for a pro- gram in SSA form probably belongs to the class of chordal graphs that have an

Philip Brisk; Foad Dabiri; Roozbeh Jafari; Majid Sarrafzadeh

2006-01-01

41

Schema Based XML Security: RBAC Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a platform-independent solution, XML is going to be used in many environments such as applica- tion integration and Web Services. Security of XML instance is a basic problem, especially in enterprise with large number of users and XML objects as well as complex authorizations administration. In this paper, a role-based access control (RBAC) model based on XML Schema is

Xinwen Zhang; Jaehong Park; Ravi S. Sandhu

2003-01-01

42

Integrated programs for women with substance use issues and their children: a qualitative meta-synthesis of processes and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a need for services that effectively and comprehensively address the complex needs of women with substance use issues and their children. A growing body of literature supports the relevance of integrated treatment programs that offer a wide range of services in centralized settings. Quantitative studies suggest that these programs are associated with positive outcomes. A qualitative meta-synthesis

Wendy Sword; Susan Jack; Alison Niccols; Karen Milligan; Joanna Henderson; Lehana Thabane

2009-01-01

43

A Methodology of Collaborative Synthesis by Artificial Intelligence -- JSPS Research for the Future Program: Science of Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project aims at establishing basic theories and fundamental methodologies for synthesis through knowledge systematization by exploiting the artificial intelligence technology, especially Ontological Engineering. The concrete objectives of the project include development several kinds of ontologies for knowledge systematization and development of a multi-agent collaborative synthesis framework. The formers mainly concerned with the domain-independent design object knowledge and the latter

Riichiro Mizoguchi; Yoshinobu Kitamura; Masahiko Onosato

44

An Implementation of the Berlekamp-Massey Linear Feedback Shift-Register Synthesis Algorithm in the C Programming Language  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an implementation of the Berlekamp-Massey linear feedback shift-register (LFSR) synthesis algorithm in the C programming language. Two pseudo-code versions of the code are given, the operation of LFSRs is explained, C-version of the pseudo-code versions is presented, and the output of the code, when run on two input samples, is shown.

CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.

1999-08-01

45

North American Carbon Program (NACP) Interim Synthesis Project: Regional Forward Model Intercomparision (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of how carbon is exchanged between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is gained from direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to larger regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle research is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities (http://nacp.ornl.gov/ int_synthesis.shtml) to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the time period of 2000 through 2005. Here, we present the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare 19 TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations and data currently available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. Bringing model estimates (and available data) together that incorporate a wide range of modeling approaches provides a valuable assessment of the current state of understanding of regional carbon flux across North America. The TBM flux estimates are evaluated over different land cover regions of North America, and with respect to photosynthetic formulation, soil carbon dynamics, environmental driving variables, and temporal resolution. Model estimates are also compared to spatially explicit inventory-based estimates of cropland productivity. There is significant disagreement among the models in their estimates of gross primary production (GPP), with estimates during the peak growing season differing by over 300 gC/(m2 month) in mixed deciduous and broadleaf forests, and over cultivated and managed lands. When totaled over the growing season and annually, most models estimate 1.2 to 2 times greater GPP than that predicted by the MODIS product. In addition, the TBMs estimate much greater net primary productivity in agricultural regions compared to inventory-based estimates. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including how the model represents photosynthesis, the source of environmental driver data, temporal resolution, and whether nutrient limitation is considered in soil carbon decomposition. The results of this study highlight the disagreement in current estimates of carbon flux across North America, and the need for further analysis through the use of formal model intercomparisons including a detailed model simulation protocol in order to isolate the influence of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimations.

Post, M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Cook, R. B.; Regional-Interim Synthesis Participants, N.; Regional/Continental Interim-Synthesis Team

2010-12-01

46

Automated synthesis of analog electrical circuits by means of genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design (synthesis) of analog electrical circuits starts with a high- level statement of the circuit's desired behavior and requires creating a circuit that satisfies the specified design goals. Analog circuit synthesis entails the creation of both the topology and the sizing (numerical values) of all of the circuit's components. The difficulty of the problem of analog circuit synthesis is

John R. Koza; Forrest H. Bennett III; David Andre; Martin A. Keane; Frank Dunlap

1997-01-01

47

Synthesis and Characterization of Oxide Feedstock Powders for the Fuel Cycle R&D Program  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel feedstock properties, such as physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics, have a significant impact on the fuel fabrication process and, by extension, the in-reactor fuel performance. This has been demonstrated through studies with UO{sub 2} spanning greater than 50 years. The Fuel Cycle R&D Program with The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy has initiated an effort to develop a better understanding of the relationships between oxide feedstock, fresh fuel properties, and in-reactor fuel performance for advanced mixed oxide compositions. Powder conditioning studies to enable the use of less than ideal powders for ceramic fuel pellet processing are ongoing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and an understanding of methods to increase the green density and homogeneity of pressed pellets has been gained for certain powders. Furthermore, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing methods for the co-conversion of mixed oxides along with techniques to analyze the degree of mixing. Experience with the fabrication of fuel pellets using co-synthesized multi-constituent materials is limited. In instances where atomically mixed solid solutions of two or more species are needed, traditional ceramic processing methods have been employed. Solution-based processes may be considered viable synthesis options, including co-precipitation (AUPuC), direct precipitation, direct-conversion (Modified Direct Denitration or MDD) and internal/external gelation (sol-gel). Each of these techniques has various advantages and disadvantages. The Fiscal Year 2010 feedstock development work at ORNL focused on the synthesis and characterization of one batch of UO{sub x} and one batch of U{sub 80}Ce{sub 20}O{sub x}. Oxide material synthesized at ORNL is being shipped to LANL for fuel fabrication process development studies. The feedstock preparation was performed using the MDD process which utilizes a rotary kiln to continuously thermally denitrate double salts of ammonium and metals to produce free-flowing powders that have good ceramic properties for fuel fabrication. Feedstock powder properties of interest include: particle size and distribution, surface area, phase purity, morphology, tap and bulk density, and flow characteristics.

Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL; Johnson, Jared A [ORNL

2010-09-01

48

North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision  

SciTech Connect

Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as whether nutrient limitation is considered in soil carbon decomposition. The disagreement in current estimates of carbon flux across North America, including whether North America is a net biospheric carbon source or sink, highlights the need for further analysis through the use of model runs following a common simulation protocol, in order to isolate the influences of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimates.

Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Michalak, Anna [University of Michigan; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Chen, Jing M. [University of Toronto; Davis, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State University; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Liu, Shuguang [United States Geological Survey, Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS); Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Neilson, Ronald [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Poulter, Ben [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Tomelleri, Enrico [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Viovy, Nicolas [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

2012-01-01

49

Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program: A Status Report. Research Results Digest 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis series reports on various practices in specific technical areas. Each document is a compendium of the best knowledge available on measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive ...

2006-01-01

50

Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program: A Status Report. Research Results Digest 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis series reports on various practices in specific technical areas. Each document is a compendium of the best knowledge available on measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive ...

2007-01-01

51

Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program: A Status Report. Research Results Digest 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis series reports on various practices in specific technical areas. Each document is a compendium of the best knowledge available on measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive ...

2004-01-01

52

Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program: A Status Report. Research Results Digest 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis series reports on various practices in specific technical areas. Each document is a compendium of the best knowledge available on measures found to be successful in resolving specific problems. To develop these syntheses in a comprehensive ...

2005-01-01

53

Integrated programs for women with substance use issues and their children: a qualitative meta-synthesis of processes and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background There is a need for services that effectively and comprehensively address the complex needs of women with substance use issues and their children. A growing body of literature supports the relevance of integrated treatment programs that offer a wide range of services in centralized settings. Quantitative studies suggest that these programs are associated with positive outcomes. A qualitative meta-synthesis was conducted to provide insight into the processes that contribute to recovery in integrated programs and women's perceptions of benefits for themselves and their children. Methods A comprehensive search of published and unpublished literature to August 2009 was carried out for narrative reports of women's experiences and perceptions of integrated treatment programs. Eligibility for inclusion in the meta-synthesis was determined using defined criteria. Quality assessment was then conducted. Qualitative data and interpretations were extracted from studies of adequate quality, and were synthesized using a systematic and iterative process to create themes and overarching concepts. Results A total of 15 documents were included in the meta-synthesis. Women experienced a number of psychosocial processes during treatment that played a role in their recovery and contributed to favourable outcomes. These included: development of a sense of self; development of personal agency; giving and receiving of social support; engagement with program staff; self-disclosure of challenges, feelings, and past experiences; recognizing patterns of destructive behaviour; and goal setting. A final process, the motivating presence of children, sustained women in their recovery journeys. Perceived outcomes included benefits for maternal and child well-being, and enhanced parenting capacity. Conclusion A number of distinct but interconnected processes emerged as being important to women's addiction recovery. Women experienced individual growth and transformative learning that led to a higher quality of life and improved interactions with their children. The findings support the need for programs to adopt practices that focus on improving maternal health and social functioning in an environment characterized by empowerment, safety, and connections. Women's relationships with their children require particular attention as positive parenting practices and family relationships can alter predispositions toward substance use later in life, thereby impacting favourably on the cycle of addiction and dysfunctional parenting.

2009-01-01

54

Effective Programs for Elementary Science: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Which science programs have been proven to help elementary students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the science achievement of students in grades K-6: (1) Inquiry-oriented programs without science kits, such as Increasing Conceptual Challenge, Science IDEAS, and Collaborative…

Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

2012-01-01

55

Effective Programs for Elementary Science: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which science programs have been proven to help elementary students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the science achievement of students in grades K-6: (1) Inquiry-oriented programs without science kits, such as Increasing Conceptual Challenge, Science IDEAS, and Collaborative…

Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

2012-01-01

56

Multibeam synthesis with minimum SLL through linear programming from the GSM-analysis of an array  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of all sort of optimization techniques to different array pattern synthesis problems has been widely studied since the early days of antenna array design. Most of these works (generally having constraints on the array configuration) take for granted several assumptions, among which one can highlight considering isotropic sources and not taking into account coupling between array elements. Great

J. Corcoles; M. A. Gonzalez

2009-01-01

57

Synthesis of Optimal Control Systems: a Comparison Between Model Checking and Dynamic Programming Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years, the use of sophisticated controllers, i.e., components that control larger systems, has become very common.\\u000a In previous papers, we introduced a general, automatic methodology for the synthesis of optimal controllers which exploits\\u000a explicit model checking to generate controllers for very complex systems. However, to completely validate the usefulness of our methodology we still\\u000a need to compare

Giuseppe Della Penna; Daniele Magazzeni; Benedetto Intrigila

58

Automatic synthesis using genetic programming of both the topology and sizing for five post-2000 patented analog and mixed analog-digital circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work has demonstrated that genetic programming can automatically create both the topology (graphical structure) and sizing (numerical component values) for analog electrical circuits merely by specifying the circuit's high level behavior (e.g., its desired or observed output, given its input). This automatic synthesis of analog circuits is accomplished using only tools for the analysis of circuits (e.g., a circuit

Matthew J. Streeter; Martin A. Keane; John R. Koza

2003-01-01

59

Preschool Programs: A Synthesis of Current Policy Issues. A Center Policy & Practice Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Once again, early education has emerged as a major policy and program topic. And, while the importance of early education is undisputed, the increasing calls for "Universal Preschool" and full-day kindergartens have yielded considerable controversy. Our specific interest in public policy for preschool programs stems from our concerns about…

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2006

2006-01-01

60

Effective Reading Programs for Middle and High Schools: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What reading programs have been proven to help middle and high school students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on four types of programs designed to improve the reading achievement of students in grades 6-12: (1) Reading Curricula (Curr), such as "LANGUAGE!," "McDougal Littel," and other standard and alternative…

Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2008

2008-01-01

61

The Effectiveness of Whole-School Antibullying Programs: A Synthesis of Evaluation Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bullying is a serious problem in schools, and school authorities need effective solutions to resolve this problem. There is growing interest in the whole- school approach to bullying. Whole-school programs have multiple components that operate simultaneously at different levels in the school community. This ar- ticle synthesizes the existing evaluation research on whole-school programs to determine the overall effectiveness of

J. David Smith; Barry H. Schneider; Peter K. Smith; Katerina Ananiadou

2004-01-01

62

Using Computer Algebra techniques for the specification, verification and synthesis of recursive programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an innovative method for proving total correctness of tail recursive programs having a specific structure, namely programs in which an auxiliary tail recursive function is driven by a main nonrecursive function, and only the specification of the main function is provided. The specification of the auxiliary function is obtained almost fully automatically by solving coupled linear recursive sequences

Nikolaj Popov; Tudor Jebelean

2009-01-01

63

EFFECTIVE READING PROGRAMS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This article reviews experimental studies of reading programs for English language learners, focusing both on comparisons ofbiling ual and English-only programsand on specific, replicable models that have been evaluated with English language learners. The

Robert E. Slavin; Alan Cheung

64

Implementation of the State Children's Health Insurance Program: Synthesis of State Evaluations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) provides funds to states to expand health insurance coverage for low-income children who are uninsured. States have a great deal of flexibility to design and implement SCHIP, resulting in considerable ...

B. Quinn C. Irvin C. Young M. Ellwood M. Kell M. Rosenbach W. Conroy

2003-01-01

65

Experiential Learning Programs: Synthesis of Findings and Proposed Framework for Future Evaluations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study reviews evaluation reports of high school experiential learning programs to determine the nature of their findings, the essential elements that produced effective learning experiences in the community, and to assess the approaches used in these ...

T. R. Owens S. K. Owen G. Druian

1979-01-01

66

Motor Schema-Based Formation Control for Multiagent Robot Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

New reactive behaviors that implement formations in multi-robot teams are presented and evaluated. These motor schemas, or primitive behaviors, for relative positional maintenance are integrated with existing navigational behaviors to help robots complete nav- igational tasks while in formation. Four formations, based on existing military doctrine (Army 1986), and three methods for determining correct vehicle posi- tion are investigated. The

Tucker R. Balch; Ronald C. Arkin

1995-01-01

67

A neural network model for schemas based on pattern completion.  

PubMed

Abstract Recent developments in neuroscience have provided us with a wealth of the basic knowledge and tools which are required for neurobiological understanding of the psychological concepts. This advantage enables contemporary scientists to suggest and test brain models for psychological concepts, theories, and methods. Considering the current dominance of biological ideas in psychiatry and psychology, such models are essential in confirmation of the psychological theories of mind. In this article a brain model for schemas as essential to cognitive theory is proposed. Schemas are seen as patterns which are recognized and memorized through the training phase of an autoassociative neural network. Then, these patterns are used to complete ambiguous aspects of future experiences through thalamo and hippocampal-cortical pathways. In relation to the self or the outside world when a pattern with unknown, noisy, or vague aspects is encountered, those aspects are completed by the principal components of previously learned patterns (schema). This process is to help the observer acquire a better understanding of the environment or the self. However, the patterns which are used to complete the uncertainties about the self or the environment are sometimes not good estimates of the reality and lead the person/patient to an illusionary perception of the self/environment. In this article, the role of the mirror neuron system in pattern recognition is also explained. Psychological and biological therapeutic implications of this model are discussed and the importance of a link between dynamic and cognitive therapies is rationalized. PMID:21699351

Javanbakht, Arash

2011-01-01

68

15-Deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) interferes inducible synthesis of prostaglandins E(2) and F(2?) that suppress subsequent adipogenesis program in cultured preadipocytes.  

PubMed

Cultured preadipocytes enhance the synthesis of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and PGF(2?) involving the induction of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 during the growth phase upon stimulation with a mixture of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a mitogenic factor, and calcium ionophore A23187. Here, we studied the interactive effect of 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) on the inducible synthesis of the endogenous PGs in cultured preadipocytes and its implication in adipogenesis program. 15d-PGJ(2) interfered significantly the endogenous synthesis of those PGs in response to cell stimuli by suppressing the induction of COX-2 following the attenuation of NF-?B activation. In contrast, ?(12)-PGJ(2) and troglitazone had almost no inhibitory effects, indicating a mechanism independent of the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? for the action of 15-PGJ(2). Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC), an NF-?B inhibitor, effectively inhibited on the inducible synthesis of those PGs in preadipocytes. Endogenous PGs generated by preadipocytes only during the growth phase in response to the cell stimuli autonomously attenuated the subsequent adipogenesis program leading to the differentiation and maturation of adipocytes. These effects were prevented by additional co-incubation of preadipocytes with either 15d-PGJ(2) or PDTC although 15d-PGJ(2) alone has no stimulatory effect. Moreover, 15d-PGJ(2) did not block the inhibitory effects of exogenous PGE(2) and PGF(2?) on the adipogenesis program in preadipocytes. Taken together, 15d-PGJ(2) can interfere the COX pathway leading to the induced synthesis of endogenous PGs that contribute to negative regulation of adipogenesis program in preadipocytes. PMID:21699992

Chowdhury, Abu Asad; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Nishimura, Kohji; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Nagaya, Tsutomu; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shono, Fumiaki; Yokota, Kazushige

2011-06-12

69

AN INTEGRATED SYNTHESIS OF KEY AND POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides an overview and initial insights into the findings based on results from EPA's PM Supersites Program and related studies. Many key atmospheric sciences findings have been identified through the research conducted during the last five years as part of t...

70

The Effectiveness of Whole-School Antibullying Programs: A Synthesis of Evaluation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bullying is a serious problem in schools, and school authorities need effective solutions to resolve this problem. There is a growing interest in the whole-school approach to bullying. Whole-school programs have multiple components that operate simultaneously at different levels in the school community. This article synthesizes the existing…

Smith, J. David; Schneider, Barry H.; Smith, Peter K.; Ananiadou, Katerina

2004-01-01

71

The uses of tracking in operations management: Synthesis of a research program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of tracking in operations management has been overshadowed, theoretically by the concept of supply chain visibility, and practically by the attention grabbing radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This paper describes how uses of tracking for operations management, specifically, to improve the management of project and service supply chains, were explored and developed in a ten-year research program. Key

Jan Holmström; Kary Främling; Timo Ala-Risku

2010-01-01

72

Effective Reading Programs for the Elementary Grades: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article systematically reviews research on the achievement outcomes of four types of approaches to improving the reading success of children in the elementary grades: reading curricula, instructional technology, instructional process programs, and combinations of curricula and instructional process. Study inclusion criteria included use of…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Davis, Susan

2009-01-01

73

Effective Reading Programs for the Elementary Grades: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article systematically reviews research on the achievement outcomes of four types of approaches to improving the reading success of children in the elementary grades: reading curricula, instructional technology, instructional process programs, and combinations of curricula and instructional process. Study inclusion criteria included use of…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Davis, Susan

2010-01-01

74

Effective Reading Programs for the Elementary Grades: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article systematically reviews research on the achievement outcomes of four types of approaches to improving the reading success of children in the elementary grades: reading curricula, instructional technology, instructional process programs, and combinations of curricula and instructional process. Study inclusion criteria included use of…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Davis, Susan

2010-01-01

75

Effective Reading Programs for the Elementary Grades: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article systematically reviews research on the achievement outcomes of four types of approaches to improving the reading success of children in the elementary grades: reading curricula, instructional technology, instructional process programs, and combinations of curricula and instructional process. Study inclusion criteria included use of…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Chambers, Bette; Cheung, Alan; Davis, Susan

2009-01-01

76

The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 1: Overview and experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A. M.; Schaefer, K.; King, A. W.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A.; Liu, S.; Cook, R. B.; Post, W. M.; Berthier, G.; Hayes, D.; Huang, M.; Ito, A.; Lei, H.; Lu, C.; Mao, J.; Peng, C. H.; Peng, S.; Poulter, B.; Riccuito, D.; Shi, X.; Tian, H.; Wang, W.; Zeng, N.; Zhao, F.; Zhu, Q.

2013-07-01

77

Verified Synthesis of Knowledge-Based Programs in Finite Synchronous Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Knowledge-based programs (KBPs) are a formalism for directly relating agents’ knowledge and behaviour. Here we present a general\\u000a scheme for compiling KBPs to executable automata with a proof of correctness in Isabelle\\/HOL. We develop the algorithm top-down,\\u000a using Isabelle’s locale mechanism to structure these proofs, and show that two classic examples can be synthesised using Isabelle’s\\u000a code generator.

Peter Gammie; ICT Australia

78

Lessons Learned from Airport Safety Management Systems Pilot Studies. Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 37. A Synthesis of Airport Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Synthesis studys objective is to provide airport operators with data and experience from SMS pilot study airports through survey results, lessons learned, and general findings and trends. The proposed audience is U.S. Part 139 certificated airport op...

J. Landry

2012-01-01

79

Environmental studies data base development and data synthesis activities of the US Subseabed Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

The US Subseabed Disposal Program is assessing the scientific feasibility of subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Studies of disposal methods and of the barriers to radionuclide migration (canister, waste form, and sediment) suggest that environmental information will be needed to address the impact of accidental release of radionuclides in the deep sea. Biological, physical, and geochemical data are being collected from field and laboratory studies as well as from literature searches. These data are being analyzed using a multicompartmental radionuclide transport model and appropriate physical oceanographic models. The data integrated into this framework will help answer two questions - what are the environmental effects of radionuclides that may be released in the deep sea, and what are the effects of such a release upon man.

Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Hessler, R.R.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Yayanos, A.A.; Jackson, D.W.

1981-05-01

80

Environmental studies data base: development and data synthesis activities of the US Subseabed Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

The US Subseabed Disposal Program is assessing the scientific feasibility of subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Studies of disposal methods and of the barriers to radionuclide migration (canister, waste form and sediment) suggest that environmental information will be needed to address the impact of accidental release of radionuclides in the deep sea. Biological, physical, and geochemical data are being collected from field and laboratory studies as well as from literature searches. These data are being analyzed using a multicompartmental radionuclide transport model and appropriate physical oceanographic models. The data integrated into this framework will help answer two questions: what are the environmental effects of radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea, and what are the effects of such a release upon man.

Gomez, L.S.; Hesssler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Yayanos, A.A.

1980-01-01

81

North American Carbon Balance: Results from the Regional Synthesis Project of the North America Carbon Program (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past studies have documented continental scale carbon balances for North America but there are large differences among the results. Recent improvements in the amount and quality of available observation-based data, and application of comparative analyses among approach methods, may allow us to reduce disagreement and resolve sources of discrepancies among flux estimates. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) regional interim synthesis project has brought together a large number of spatial data sets, and terrestrial biogeochemistry model (TBM) and atmospheric inversion simulation results to construct a holistic assessment of North America carbon fluxes for the years 2000 to 2005. One of the goals of the interim synthesis project has been to investigate the magnitude and potential causes of the large differences in estimated component and net fluxes over regional scales. Although the results to date have not resolved the disparity in estimates of NA carbon fluxes, they have lead to insights into the ability of various types of data and analysis approaches to understand some of the flux discrepancies among the different estimation approaches. Regional TBM results were compared with inversion and inventory-based estimates, as well as modeled and observed flux estimates from eddy covariance sites. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimates range from -2.9 to 0.68 PgC/yr (inversions) and -1.64 to 0.52 PgC/yr (TBMs) for temperate NA. In boreal NA, TBMs, on average, estimate slightly greater uptake than inversions (-0.12 PgC/yr versus -0.07 PgC/yr), but both methods have similar range in estimates. In Temperate NA, inversions, on average, estimate twice the uptake of TBMs (-0.96 PgC/yr versus -0.41 PgC/yr) and have a greater range in estimates. A comparison of NEE estimates for TBMs with both regional drivers and site-specific data indicates that a component for TBM uncertainty is the quality of reanalysis data used as weather forcing in the regional simulations. Nevertheless, additional descrepencies remain that can be attributed to different model formulations of photosynthesis, and decomposition, as well as the temporal resolution of the simulations. Comparison of annual NPP with agricultural and forestry inventories provide additional information for evaluating the performance of TBMs. Results indicate that TBMs may overestimate gross carbon exchanges, but not net exchanges. There are, however, many difficult assumptions in using inventory data to estimate net exchanges.

Post, M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Davis, K. J.; Raczka, B. M.; Hayes, D. J.; Michalak, A. M.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Cook, R. B.; Nacp Regional-Interim Synthesis Participants

2010-12-01

82

Probabilistic developmental program evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Probabilistic Model Building Genetic Programming technique for automatic program synthesis is introduced. The approach, called Probabilistic Developmental Program Evolution (PDPE), draws on the Probabilistic Incremental Program Evolution (PIPE) learning algorithm, but employs the Developmental Genetic Programming representations of Gene Expression Programming (GEP). PDPE induces a population of programs, encoded as fixed-length GEP chromosomes, by iteratively refining and randomly sampling

Elmira Ghoulbeigi; Marcus Vinicius dos Santos

2010-01-01

83

Summary of the 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report is a summary of the 2006 synthesis report prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

84

Organ-Specific Alterations in Fatty Acid De Novo Synthesis and Desaturation in a Rat Model of Programmed Obesity  

PubMed Central

Background Small for gestational age (SGA) leads to increased risk of adult obesity and metabolic syndrome. Offspring exposed to 50% maternal food restriction in utero are born smaller than Controls (FR), catch-up in growth by the end of the nursing period, and become obese adults. The objective of the study was to determine stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (SCD1) and rates of de novo fatty acid synthesis in young FR and Control offspring tissues at the end of the nursing period, as possible contributors to catch-up growth. Methods From gestational day 10 to term, dams fed ad libitum (Control) or were 50% food-restricted to produce small FR pups. Control dams nursed all pups. At postnatal day 1 (p1) and p21, offspring body tissues were analyzed by GC/MS, and desaturation indices of palmitoleate/palmitate and oleate/stearate were calculated. SCD1 gene expression was determined by real-time PCR on adipose and liver. Offspring were enriched with deuterium that was given to dams in drinking water during lactation and de novo synthesis of offspring body tissues was determined at p21. Primary adipocyte cell cultures were established at p21 and exposed to U13C-glucose. Results FR offspring exhibited higher desaturation index in p1 and p21 adipose tissue, but decreased desaturation index in liver at p21. SCD1 gene expression at p21 was correspondingly increased in adipose and decreased in liver. FR subcutaneous fat demonstrated increased de novo synthesis at p21. Primary cell cultures exhibited increased de novo synthesis in FR. Conclusions Adipose tissue is the first site to exhibit increased de novo synthesis and desaturase activity in FR. Therefore, abnormal lipogenesis is already present prior to onset of obesity during the period of catch-up growth. These abnormalities may contribute to future obesity development.

2011-01-01

85

Are workplace health promotion programs effective at improving presenteeism in workers? a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Presenteeism is highly prevalent and costly to employers. It is defined as being present at work, but limited in some aspect of job performance by a health problem. Workplace health promotion (WHP) is a common strategy used to enhance on-the-job productivity. The primary objective is to determine if WHP programs are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objectives are to identify characteristics of successful programs and potential risk factors for presenteeism. Methods The Cochrane Library, Medline, and other electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2010. Reference lists were examined, key journals were hand-searched and experts were contacted. Included studies were original research that contained data on at least 20 participants (? 18 years of age), and examined the impacts of WHP programs implemented at the workplace. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to rate studies. 'Strong' and 'moderate' studies were abstracted into evidence tables, and a best evidence synthesis was performed. Interventions were deemed successful if they improved the outcome of interest. Their program components were identified, as were possible risk factors contributing to presenteeism. Results After 2,032 titles and abstracts were screened, 47 articles were reviewed, and 14 were accepted (4 strong and 10 moderate studies). These studies contained preliminary evidence for a positive effect of some WHP programs. Successful programs offered organizational leadership, health risk screening, individually tailored programs, and a supportive workplace culture. Potential risk factors contributing to presenteeism included being overweight, a poor diet, a lack of exercise, high stress, and poor relations with co-workers and management. Limitations: This review is limited to English publications. A large number of reviewed studies (70%) were inadmissible due to issues of bias, thus limiting the amount of primary evidence. The uncertainties surrounding presenteeism measurement is of significant concern as a source of bias. Conclusions The presenteeism literature is young and heterogeneous. There is preliminary evidence that some WHP programs can positively affect presenteeism and that certain risk factors are of importance. Future research would benefit from standard presenteeism metrics and studies conducted across a broad range of workplace settings.

2011-01-01

86

2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

87

2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

88

[The mechanism of phenoptosis: I. Age-dependent decrease of the overall rate of protein synthesis is caused by the programmed attenuation of bio-energetics].  

PubMed

The age-dependent degradation of all vital processes of an organism can be result of influences of destructive factors (the stochastic mechanism of aging), or effect of realizations of the genetic program (phenoptosis). The stochastic free-radical theory of aging dominating now contradicts the set of empirical data, and the semicentenial attempts to create the means to slow down aging did not give any practical results. It makes obvious that the stochastic mechanism of aging is incorrect. At the same time, the alternative mechanism of the programmed aging is not developed yet but preconditions for it development have already been created. It is shown that the genes controlling process of aging exist (contrary to the customary opinion) and the increase in the level of damaged macromolecules (basic postulate of the free-radical theory) can be explained by programmed attenuation of bio-energetics. As the bio-energetics is a driving force of all vital processes, decrease of its level is capable to cause degradation of all functions of an organism. However to transform this postulate into a basis of the theory of phenoptosis it is necessary to show, that attenuation of bio-energetics predetermines such fundamental processes accompanying aging as decrease of the overall rate of protein biosynthesis, restriction of cellular proliferations (Hayflick limit), loss of telomeres etc. This article is the first step in this direction: the natural mechanism of interaction of overall rate of protein synthesis with a level of cellular bio-energetics is shown. This is built-in into the translation machine and based on dependence of recirculation rate of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (elF2) from ATP/ADP value that is created by mitochondrial bio-energetic machine. PMID:19947384

Trubitsyn, A G

2009-01-01

89

Effective Reading Programs for Spanish-Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant English language learners (ELLs) in elementary schools. It is divided into two major sections. One focuses on studies of language of instruction and one on reading approaches for ELLs holding constant language of instruction. A total of 13…

Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

2012-01-01

90

Multiyear Synthesis of the Fish Component from 1993 to 2002 for the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fisheries data are collected in the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS) under the Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP). From 1993 to 2002, monitoring activities were conducted at six primary study areas in the UMRS, Navigation Pools 4, 8, 13, 2...

A. D. Baretls B. S. Ickes D. J. Kirby J. H. Chick K. S. Irons M. A. Pegg M. C. Bowler S. DeLain V. A. Barko

2005-01-01

91

The Evidence Base for Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Research Synthesis Addressing Staff and Program Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: One strategy to support early childhood providers' work with children exhibiting challenging behavior is offering mental health consultation services in order to build staff skills and confidence and reduce staff stress and turnover. Through systematic search procedures, 26 recent studies were identified that addressed the effectiveness of early childhood mental health consultation with respect to staff- and program-level

Eileen M. Brennan; Jennifer R. Bradley; Mary Dallas Allen; Deborah F. Perry

2008-01-01

92

Effective Reading Programs for Spanish Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research. Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant ELLs in elementary school. It is divided into two major sections: the effect of language of instruction on achievement (i.e., bilingual vs. English-only instruction) and effective reading approaches for ELLs other than the use of native…

Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

2012-01-01

93

Synthesis of alcohols from carbon oxides and hydrogen. VIII. A temperature-programmed reaction study of n-butanal on a Zn-Cr-O catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of n-butanal with a Zn-Cr-O catalyst has been studied by temperature-programmed reaction. Using combined GC, GC-FTIR, and GC-MS techniques, a large number of desorption products have been identified, including 1-butanol, C/sub 8/ and C/sub 12/ aldehydes, C/sub 7/ and C/sub 8/ ketones, and C/sub 3/, C/sub 4/, and C/sub 7/ olefins, as well as CO/sub 2/, dienes, trienes, aromatics, and light hydrocarbons. The formation of most products is explained by assuming surface reactions of two classes of intermediate species originating from the adsorption of n-butanal and from the surface aldol-like condensation of two molecules of n-butanal. Results indicate that the Zn-Cr oxide catalyst is active in performing aldehyde condensation, hydrogenation, hydrolysis, dehydrogenation, decarboxylation, and dehydration, along with isomerization and cracking reactions. Different functionalities are associated with different temperature ranges. The detected chemical functionalities are discussed with respect to their relevance to the direct synthesis of methanol and higher alcohols from CO and H/sub 2/.

Lietti, L.; Botta, D.; Forzatti, P.; Mantica, E.; Tronconi, E.; Pasquon, I.

1988-06-01

94

Synthesis of Safety Research Pedestrians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The synthesis provides information from past research on pedestrians, with a primary emphasis on pedestrian safety. The topics include characteristics of pedestrian accidents, conflict analyses and hazard formulas, pedestrian safety programs, and counterm...

C. V. Zegeer

1991-01-01

95

Key scientific findings and policy- and health-relevant insights from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies: an integration and synthesis of results.  

PubMed

In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a major air quality program known as the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program. The Supersites Program was a multiyear, $27 million air quality monitoring program consisting of eight regional air quality projects located throughout the United States, each with differing atmospheric pollution conditions resulting from variations in source emissions and meteorology. The overall goal of the program was to elucidate source-receptor relationships and atmospheric processes leading to PM accumulation on urban and regional scales; thus providing the scientific underpinning for modeling and data analysis efforts to support State Implementation Plans and more effective risk management approaches for PM. The program had three main objectives: (1) conduct methods development and evaluation, (2) characterize ambient PM, and (3) support health effects and exposure research. This paper provides a synthesis of key scientific findings from the Supersites Program and related studies. EPA developed 16 science/policy-relevant questions in conjunction with state and other federal agencies, Regional Planning Organizations, and the private sector. These questions were addressed to the extent possible, even given the vast amount of new information available from the Supersites Program, in a series of papers published as a special issue of the Journal of Air & Waste Management Association (February 2008). This synthesis also includes discussions of: (1) initial Supersites Program support for air quality management efforts in specific locations throughout the United States; (2) selected policy-relevant insights, based on atmospheric sciences findings, useful to air quality managers and decision makers planning emissions management strategies to address current and future PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and network planning and implementation; (3) selected health-relevant insights interpreted from atmospheric sciences findings in light of future directions for health and exposure scientists planning studies of the effects of PM on human health; and (4) selected knowledge gaps to guide future research. Finally, given the scope and depth of research and findings from the Supersites Program, this paper provides a reference source so readers can glean a general understanding of the overall research conducted and its policy-relevant insights. Supporting details for the results presented are available through the cited references. An annotated table of contents allows readers to easily find specific subject matter within the text. PMID:19202993

Solomon, Paul A; Hopke, Philip K; Froines, John; Scheffe, Richard

2008-01-01

96

Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Data collected by the NIWQP studies indicated that, in surface water, filtered and unfiltered samples had nearly the same concentrations of arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and selenium for concentrations greater than about 10 micrograms per liter. Therefore, in this concentration range, filtered concentrations can be directly compared to biological-effect levels developed for unfiltered samples. In the range of 1 to 10 micrograms per liter there may be a tendency for unfiltered arsenic concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. For selenium, however, the data suggest differences from equality in that range result from analytical imprecision and not a general tendency for unfiltered concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. This relation may not be true in lentic, nutrient-rich waters because in such settings algae can bioaccumulate large amounts of selenium and other trace elements. Selenium was the trace element in surface water that most commonly exceeded chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life; more than 40 percent of the selenium concentrations in surface-water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) aquatic-life chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). In 12 of the 26 areas at least 25 percent of the surface water-samples had selenium concentrations that either equaled or exceeded the chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). More than 28 percent of boron concentrations and almost 17 percent of the molybdenum concentrations exceeded the aquatic life criteria established by the State of California (550 and 19 micrograms per liter, respectively). In ground water, more than 22 percent of the arsenic concentrations and more than 35 percent of the selenium concentrations exceeded the MCL (10 and 50 micrograms per liter, respectively). Few samples of uranium in surface water exceeded a criterion for the protection of aquatic life (300 micrograms per liter), but 44 percent

Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

2003-01-01

97

Synthesis of Tungsten Carbides by Temperature-Programmed Reaction with CH4-H2 Mixtures. Influence of the CH4 and Hydrogen Content in the Carburizing Mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the composition of a carburizing CH4-H2 gas mixture on the process of reduction-carburization over WO3 has been studied. Bulk tungsten carbide synthesis has been carried out from WO3 in different CH4-H2 mixtures (CH4-H2=1/1-3/1 CH4-N2=1/1 pure CH4) at atmospheric pressure by temperature-programmed reduction-carburization (TPRC). The composition of the reaction products has been monitored and quantified by gas chromatography analysis (GCA) and the results have been compared to those obtained for a reference sample WC20 (CH4-H2=1/4). The solids have been characterized by elemental analysis, XRD, XPS, and BET surface area measurements. The overall process is complex. Considering first the reduction, both H2 and CH4 act as oxides reducing agents and are converted respectively into H2O, CO, and to a less extent CO2. If the reduction steps follow the same sequence observed under pure H2, WO3-->W20O58-->WO2-- >W, with the strong difference that W metal is detected only at the surface to be rapidly carburized, the overall reduction process can be accomplished under CH4-H2 mixtures at temperatures all the lower than PCH_4/PH_2 increases. Prereduction of WO3 into bulk WO2 allows an easier reduction in practically pure CH4 (95% (v/v) CH4-H2) as reduction with CH4 increases the rate of the WO2-->W transformation. Studies of the carburization suggest that CH4 decomposes on a metallic surface into C (or CHx) species before bulk WO2 reduction followed by surface carburization. Then carbon diffuses into the bulk of the solid to give first ?-W2C whose formation occurs rapidly. ?-W2C transformation into WC is slower and seems to be very much influenced by the ratio PCH_4/PH_2 which controls the rate of carbon deposit at the surface of the solid. The best surface area carbide of 27 m2.g-1 consisting of a core of ?-W2C covered with ?-WC has been obtained by using WO2 as starting material.

Giraudon, J.-M.; Devassine, P.; Lamonier, J.-F.; Delannoy, L.; Leclercq, L.; Leclercq, G.

2000-11-01

98

Temperature-programmed reaction of C sub 4 oxygenates on unpromoted and K-promoted ZnCr oxide in relation to the mechanism of the higher alcohol synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The reaction mechanisms operating in the chain growth to C{sub 3+}primary alcohols and in the formation of ketones, secondary alcohols, methyl esters, ethers, and hydrocarbons during higher alcohol synthesis (HAS) over high-temperature modified methanol catalysts have been investigated by the temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) technique. Experiments with linear and branched C{sub 4} alcohols, aldehydes, and acids over an unpromoted ZnCr oxide sample have indicated a series of major catalyst functions, namely aldol-like condensation (also with oxygen retention reversal), decarboxylation and decarboxylative condensations, hydrogenation-dehydrogenation, dehydration and hydrolysis, along with isomerization and cracking. TPSR experiments with linear C{sub 4} molecules over K-promoted ZnCr oxide have demonstrated the effects of alkali addition on the catalyst functions. The results are supportive of a mechanism of chain growth to C{sub 3+} primary alcohols based on a sequence of aldolic condensations of aldehydes, which do not operate over 2-methyl species. Formation of ketones under TPSR conditions is explained by decarboxylative condensation reactions of aldehydic and carboxylate species, as well as by aldol-like condensation reactions with oxygen retention reversal. Secondary alcohols detected in the products of the synthesis are formed by hydrogenation of ketones. Methyl esters and ethers are produced in the synthesis by alcoholysis of carboxylate and alkoxide species, respectively. Decarboxylation of carboxylate species, along with dehydration, may also play a role in the formation hydrocarbons during HAS.

Lietti, L.; Forzatti, P.; Tronconi, E.; Pasquon, I. (Dipartimento di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria Chimica G. Natta del Politecnico, Milano (Italy))

1990-12-01

99

Formal Methods for Automated Program Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

systems supporting the manipulation of non-trivial program code are complex and are at best semi-automatic. However, formal methods, and in particular theorem proving, are providing a growing foundation of techniques for automatic program development (synthesis, improvement, transformation and verification). In this paper we report on novel research concerning: (1) the exploitation of synthesis proofs for the purposes of automatic program

Peter Madden

1994-01-01

100

Mimetics of beta-galactosylceramide with simple ceramide substitutes: Synthesis and binding togp 120 of HIV-1, and, Enactment of chemistry knowledge by a high school student at a summer program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is the account of two research works. The first part reports the synthesis of O- and C- and aza-C-glycosides of beta-Galactosylceramide (GalCer) that contain simple ceramide substitutes, and the initial results of their binding with gp120 of HIV-1. The O-glycosides were prepared via an established procedure. The C- and aza-C-glycosides originated from a central C1-substituted galactal precursor, and their synthesis is illustrative of a potentially general method for pairs of C- and aza-C-beta-galactosides. They aza-C-glycoside with a simple C-17 hydrocarbon chain exhibited significant higher affinity than GalCer, whereas the corresponding C-glycoside was as active as GalCer. The second part describes the ethnographic study of the enactment of the chemistry knowledge of a high school student at a summer program and the influence of a cultural practice, othermothering, on her ability to perform well on her chemistry Regents Exams. Kelly, an 11th grade student exhibited very good understanding of the chemistry curriculum in the classroom, the laboratory period and the tutoring sessions where she plays a caring role for her peers. The same level of understanding was not reflected on the paper pencil exams taken during the summer program.

Augustin, Line A.

101

Telemakus: A Schema-Based Information System to Promote Scientific Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid expansion of scientific research, the ability to effectively find or integrate new domain knowledge in the sciences is proving increasingly difficult. While development of information systems to promote scientific discovery is being explored on a number of fronts, much of this work is based on traditional search and retrieval approaches and the bibliographic citation format remains unchanged.

Sherrilynne Fuller; George M. Martin

102

An Indexing Scheme for RDF and RDF Schema based on Suffix Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semantic Web is a candidate for the next generation of the World Wide Web. It is anticipated that the number of metadata written in RDF (Resource Description Framework) and RDF Schema will increase as the Semantic Web be- comes popular. In such a situation, demand for querying metadata described with RDF and RDF Schema will also increase, and therefore

Akiyoshi Matono; Toshiyuki Amagasa; Masatoshi Yoshikawa; Shunsuke Uemura

2003-01-01

103

From Boolean to quantitative synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by improvements in constraint-solving technology and by the increase of routinely available computational power, partial-program synthesis is emerging as an eective approach for increasing programmer productivity. The goal of the approach is to allow the programmer to specify a part of her intent imperatively (that is, give a partial program) and a part of her intent declaratively, by specifying

Pavol Cerny; Thomas A. Henzinger

2011-01-01

104

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-04-01

105

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

none

1998-07-01

106

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-08-01

107

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2001-12-31

108

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2000-10-01

109

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-07-01

110

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter Tijrn

2003-02-03

111

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2001-09-30

112

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter J. Tijrn

2000-06-30

113

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-01-01

114

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

NONE

1999-10-01

115

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter Tijrn

2003-01-02

116

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter J. Tijrn

2000-09-30

117

Speech compression and synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report concludes our work for the past two years on speech compression and synthesis. A real-time variable-frame-rate LPC vocoder was implemented operating at an average rate of 2000 bits/s. We also tested our mixed-source model as part of the vocoder. To improve the reliability of the extraction of LPC parameters, we implemented and tested a range of adaptive lattice and autocorrelation algoritms. For data rates above 5000 bits/s, we developed and tested a new high-frequency regeneration technique, spectral duplication, which reduces the roughness in the synthesized speech. As the first part of our effort towards a very-low-rate (VLR) vocoder, we implemented a phonetic synthesis program that would be compatible with our initial design for a phonetic recognition program. We also recorded and partially labeled a large data base of diphone templates. During the second year we continued our work toward a VLR vocoder and also developed a multirate embedded-coding speech compression program that could transmit speech at rates varying from 9600 to 2400 b/s. The phonetic synthesis program and the labeling of the diphone template network were completed. There are currently 2845 diphone templates. We also implemented an initial version of a phonetic recognizer based on a network representation of diphone templates. The recognizer allows for incremental training of the network by modification of existing templates or addition of new templates.

Berouti, M.; Makoul, J.; Schwartz, R.; Sorenson, J.

1980-10-01

118

Synthesis of a Brain-Specific Protein (S100 Protein) in a Homologous Cell-Free System Programmed with Cerebral Polysomal Messenger RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyribosomes, carrying nascent polypeptide chains, were prepared from whole brain, cortex, and hindbrain-medullary white matter of young adult rats. In a homologous cell-free system, a brain-specific protein (S100 protein) was identified in the mixture of polypeptides released from the polyribosomes during incubation for 1 hr at 37 degrees. De novo synthesis of the S100 protein was achieved in a reconstituted

Claire Zomzely-Neurath; Curtis York; Blake W. Moore

1972-01-01

119

Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

Chang, Young-Soo [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Liebich, R.E. [Raytheon Environmental Services Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-07-01

120

Design Conference for the Evaluation of the Talent Search Program: Synthesis of Major Themes and Commissioned Papers Prepared for the Conference (Washington, D.C., September 30, 1992).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report gathers papers prepared for a design conference for the evaluation of the Federal Talent Search Program, an early intervention program to identify gifted and talented financially needy students and connect them with discretionary grants for higher education. An introductory paper synthesizes major conference themes. These include: (1)…

Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

121

Superconducting Technology Program: Sandia 1993 annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia's STP program is a four-part high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, thallium-based HTS film development, wire and tape fabrication, and HTS motor des...

E. P. Roth

1994-01-01

122

Superconducting Technology Program Sandia 1994 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia's STP program is a four-part high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, thallium-based HTS film development, wire and tape fabrication, and HTS motor des...

E. P. Roth

1995-01-01

123

A Synthesis and Reflection on the Research Findings from a Statewide Undergraduate Program To Prepare Specialist Mathematics and Science Teachers (The Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is considerable interest in preparing science teachers who can implement reform-based practices in schools. However, there are relatively few research programs that have systematically studied the implementation of this teaching innovation over extended time (i.e., the entire undergraduate experience and the first few years of full time teaching practice). One extended research program since 1993 that has examined this critical issue in teacher preparation has been carried out in a National Science Foundation funded project in the Collaboratives for the Excellence in Teacher Preparation Program (CETP), the Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation (MCTP). This session synthesizes and reflects on the key research insights coming from over twenty separate studies conducted within the MCTP Research Program over nine years. A significant finding is that the MCTP new teachers maintain their reform-based orientation over time even as they report that they find many school environments resistant to reform-based practices.

Preparation, The M.

2009-12-04

124

In vitro Synthesis of Bacteriophage Lysozyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active lysozyme of bacteriophage T4 has been synthesized in a cell free system programmed by RNA from cells infected with the phage. The appearance of this lysozyme activity has the characteristics of de novo synthesis.

W. Salser; R. F. Gesteland; A. Bolle

1967-01-01

125

Dimensional Synthesis of Plane Linkages (MAKU).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report includes a description of the computer program 'MAKU' (Masssynthese ebener Kurbelgetriebe), which resulted from the project CAD. An account is given of the methods used for solutions for the basic kinematic tasks in the dimensional synthesis o...

G. Dittrich A. Becker W. Goetting A. Erich M. Preutenborbeck

1983-01-01

126

Enhancements to the ELF Hardware Synthesis System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes extensions to the Elf verifiable high level synthesis system. The original Elf system was capable of generating circuits to implement algorithms described in a subset of the Euclid Version 2 (EV2) programming language. Several major e...

E. F. Girczyc W. L. Elwood T. A. Ly J. B. Hammerlindl

1989-01-01

127

Deductive Glue Code Synthesis for Embedded Software Systems Based on Code Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated code synthesis is a constructive process that can be used to generate programs from specifications. It can, thus, greatly reduce the software development cost and time. The use of formal code synthesis approach for software generation further increases the dependability of the system. Though code synthesis has many potential benefits, the synthesis techniques are still limited. Meanwhile, components are

Jian Liu; Jicheng Fu; Yansheng Zhang; Farokh B. Bastani; I-ling Yen; Ann T. Tai; Savio N. Chau

2006-01-01

128

trntegration of Loss Function in Two Dimensional Deterministic Tolerance Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of deterministic tolerance synthesis are generally solved using a combinatorial optimization problem, for instance, an integer programming approach, a design of experiments, and the Taguchi method. Researchers generally consider one-dimensional deterministic tolerance synthesis; however, the problems of two or three-dimensional deterministic tolerance synthesis sometimes happen. This paper deals with two-dimensional deterministic tolerance synthesis. Since the objectives of designing

Jirarat Teeravaraprug

129

A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO2 exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and

Christopher R. Schwalm; Christopher A. Williams; Kevin Schaefer; Ryan Anderson; M. Altaf Arain; Ian Baker; Alan Barr; T. Andrew Black; Guangsheng Chen; Jing Ming Chen; Philippe Ciais; Kenneth J. Davis; Ankur R. Desai; Michael Dietze; Danilo Dragoni; Marc L. Fischer; Lawrence B. Flanagan; Robert Grant; Lianghong Gu; David Hollinger; Roberto C. Izaurralde; Chris Kucharik; Peter Lafleur; Beverly E. Law; Longhui Li; Zhengpeng Li; Shuguang Liu; Erandathie Lokupitiya; Yiqi Luo; Siyan Ma; Hank Margolis; Roser Matamala; Harry McCaughey; Russell K. Monson; Walter C. Oechel; Changhui Peng; Benjamin Poulter; David T. Price; Dan M. Riciutto; William Riley; Alok Kumar Sahoo; Michael Sprintsin; Jianfeng Sun; Hanqin Tian; Christina Tonitto; Hans Verbeeck; Shashi B. Verma

2010-01-01

130

Robot programming system for assembly: Conceptual graph-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work develops a method for robot program synthesis. Currently, the programming task is one of the major hurdles of robotic application. Progress towards automatic synthesis of robot programs will ease industrial robot application. The proposed system provides a means towards automated (guided by knowledge) conversion of a user's request, expressed in natural language, to the appropriate conceptual model of

A. Kapitanovsky; O. Maimon

1993-01-01

131

Temperature-Programmed Reduction and XRD Studies of the Interactions in Supported Rhodium Catalysts and Their Effect on Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, comprehensive temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray diffraction studies were conducted, with particular emphasis on the effect of calcination temperature on the interactions between rhodium oxide and support. The formation of a compound between rhodium and support oxide is strongly dependent on the nature of the support and the calcination temperature. No such compounds were formed over ?-Al2O3

E. Ruckenstein; H. Y. Wang

2000-01-01

132

Global optimization approach for architectural synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relaxed linear programming model which simultaneously schedules and allocates functional units and registers is presented for synthesizing cost-constrained globally optimal architectures. This approach is important for industrial applications, because it provides exploration of optimal synthesized architectures and early architectural decisions have the greatest impact on the final design. An integer programming formulation of the architectural synthesis problem is transformed

Catherine H. Gebotys; Mohamed I. Elmasry

1993-01-01

133

Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 1. Cationic plastoquinone derivatives: synthesis and in vitro studies.  

PubMed

Synthesis of cationic plastoquinone derivatives (SkQs) containing positively charged phosphonium or rhodamine moieties connected to plastoquinone by decane or pentane linkers is described. It is shown that SkQs (i) easily penetrate through planar, mitochondrial, and outer cell membranes, (ii) at low (nanomolar) concentrations, posses strong antioxidant activity in aqueous solution, BLM, lipid micelles, liposomes, isolated mitochondria, and cells, (iii) at higher (micromolar) concentrations, show pronounced prooxidant activity, the "window" between anti- and prooxidant concentrations being very much larger than for MitoQ, a cationic ubiquinone derivative showing very much lower antioxidant activity and higher prooxidant activity, (iv) are reduced by the respiratory chain to SkQH2, the rate of oxidation of SkQH2 being lower than the rate of SkQ reduction, and (v) prevent oxidation of mitochondrial cardiolipin by OH*. In HeLa cells and human fibroblasts, SkQs operate as powerful inhibitors of the ROS-induced apoptosis and necrosis. For the two most active SkQs, namely SkQ1 and SkQR1, C(1/2) values for inhibition of the H2O2-induced apoptosis in fibroblasts appear to be as low as 1x10(-11) and 8x10(-13) M, respectively. SkQR1, a fluorescent representative of the SkQ family, specifically stains a single type of organelles in the living cell, i.e. energized mitochondria. Such specificity is explained by the fact that it is the mitochondrial matrix that is the only negatively-charged compartment inside the cell. Assuming that the Deltapsi values on the outer cell and inner mitochondrial membranes are about 60 and 180 mV, respectively, and taking into account distribution coefficient of SkQ1 between lipid and water (about 13,000 : 1), the SkQ1 concentration in the inner leaflet of the inner mitochondrial membrane should be 1.3x10(8) times higher than in the extracellular space. This explains the very high efficiency of such compounds in experiments on cell cultures. It is concluded that SkQs are rechargeable, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants of very high efficiency and specificity. Therefore, they might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo. PMID:19120014

Antonenko, Y N; Avetisyan, A V; Bakeeva, L E; Chernyak, B V; Chertkov, V A; Domnina, L V; Ivanova, O Yu; Izyumov, D S; Khailova, L S; Klishin, S S; Korshunova, G A; Lyamzaev, K G; Muntyan, M S; Nepryakhina, O K; Pashkovskaya, A A; Pletjushkina, O Yu; Pustovidko, A V; Roginsky, V A; Rokitskaya, T I; Ruuge, E K; Saprunova, V B; Severina, I I; Simonyan, R A; Skulachev, I V; Skulachev, M V; Sumbatyan, N V; Sviryaeva, I V; Tashlitsky, V N; Vassiliev, J M; Vyssokikh, M Yu; Yaguzhinsky, L S; Zamyatnin, A A; Skulachev, V P

2008-12-01

134

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE?s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

None

1998-12-02

135

Maitotoxin: An Inspiration for Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Maitotoxin holds a special place in the annals of natural products chemistry as the largest and most toxic secondary metabolite known to date. Its fascinating, ladder-like, polyether molecular structure and diverse spectrum of biological activities elicited keen interest from chemists and biologists who recognized its uniqueness and potential as a probe and inspiration for research in chemistry and biology. Synthetic studies in the area benefited from methodologies and strategies that were developed as part of chemical synthesis programs directed toward the total synthesis of some of the less complex members of the polyether marine biotoxin class, of which maitotoxin is the flagship. This account focuses on progress made in the authors’ laboratories in the synthesis of large maitotoxin domains with emphasis on methodology development, strategy design, and structural comparisons of the synthesized molecules with the corresponding regions of the natural product. The article concludes with an overview of maitotoxin’s biological profile and future perspectives.

Aversa, Robert J.

2011-01-01

136

Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: A spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem models are important tools for diagnosing the carbon cycle and projecting its behavior across space and time. Despite the fact that ecosystems respond to drivers at multiple time scales, most assessments of model performance do not discriminate different time scales. Spectral methods, such as wavelet analyses, present an alternative approach that enables the identification of the dominant time scales contributing to model performance in the frequency domain. In this study we used wavelet analyses to synthesize the performance of 21 ecosystem models at 9 eddy covariance towers as part of the North American Carbon Program's site-level intercomparison. This study expands upon previous single-site and single-model analyses to determine what patterns of model error are consistent across a diverse range of models and sites. To assess the significance of model error at different time scales, a novel Monte Carlo approach was developed to incorporate flux observation error. Failing to account for observation error leads to a misidentification of the time scales that dominate model error. These analyses show that model error (1) is largest at the annual and 20-120 day scales, (2) has a clear peak at the diurnal scale, and (3) shows large variability among models in the 2-20 day scales. Errors at the annual scale were consistent across time, diurnal errors were predominantly during the growing season, and intermediate-scale errors were largely event driven. Breaking spectra into discrete temporal bands revealed a significant model-by-band effect but also a nonsignificant model-by-site effect, which together suggest that individual models show consistency in their error patterns. Differences among models were related to model time step, soil hydrology, and the representation of photosynthesis and phenology but not the soil carbon or nitrogen cycles. These factors had the greatest impact on diurnal errors, were less important at annual scales, and had the least impact at intermediate time scales.

Dietze, Michael C.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Richardson, Andrew D.; Stoy, Paul C.; Barr, Alan G.; Anderson, Ryan S.; Arain, M. Altaf; Baker, Ian T.; Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Jing M.; Ciais, Philippe; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Gough, Christopher M.; Grant, Robert F.; Hollinger, David; Izaurralde, R. Cesar; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Lafleur, Peter; Liu, Shugang; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Luo, Yiqi; Munger, J. William; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David T.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Riley, William J.; Sahoo, Alok Kumar; Schaefer, Kevin; Suyker, Andrew E.; Tian, Hanqin; Tonitto, Christina; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, Shashi B.; Wang, Weifeng; Weng, Ensheng

2011-12-01

137

A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO{sub 2} exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans {approx}220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was {approx}10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

Schwalm, C.R.; Williams, C.A.; Schaefer, K.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.; Black, T.A.; Chen, G.; Ciais, P.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dietze, M.; Dragoni, D.; Fischer, M.L.; Flanagan, L.B.; Grant, R.F.; Gu, L.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Kucharik, C.; Lafleur, P.M.; Law, B.E.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Ma, S.; Margolis, H.; Matamala, R.; McCaughey, H.; Monson, R. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.T.; Riciutto, D.M.; Riley, W.J.; Sahoo, A.K.; Sprintsin, M.; Sun, J.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Verbeeck, H.; Verma, S.B.

2011-06-01

138

Transit Operator Health and Wellness Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This synthesis will be of interest to transit staff concerned with proactively addressing operator health and wellness issues at their agencies. The report documents current information on prevention and intervention strategies and resources that can be used by transit agencies. It offers survey information obtained from individuals with the responsibility for managing health and wellness programs. This synthesis covers the

M. J. Davis

2004-01-01

139

Tectonics and geology of spreading ridge subduction at the Chile Triple Junction: a synthesis of results from Leg 141 of the Ocean Drilling Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An active oceanic spreading ridge is being subducted beneath the South American continent at the Chile Triple Junction. This process has played a major part in the evolution of most of the continental margins that border the Pacific Ocean basin. A combination of high resolution swath bathymetric maps, seismic reflection profiles and drillhole and core data from five sites drilled during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 141 provide important data that define the tectonic, structural and stratigraphic effects of this modern example of spreading ridge subduction. A change from subduction accretion to subduction erosion occurs along-strike of the South American forearc. This change is prominently expressed by normal faulting, forearc subsidence, oversteepening of topographic slopes and intensive sedimentary mass wasting, overprinted on older signatures of sediment accretion, overthrusting and uplift processes in the forearc. Data from drill sites north of the triple junction (Sites 859-861) show that after an important phase of forearc building in the early to late Pliocene, subduction accretion had ceased in the late Pliocene. Since that time sediment on the downgoing oceanic Nazca plate has been subducted. Site 863 was drilled into the forearc in the immediate vicinity of the triple junction above the subducted spreading ridge axis. Here, thick and intensely folded and faulted trench slope sediments of Pleistocene age are currently involved in the frontal deformation of the forearc. Early faults with thrust and reverse kinematics are overprinted by later normal faults. The Chile Triple Junction is also the site of apparent ophiolite emplacement into the South American forearc. Drilling at Site 862 on the Taitao Ridge revealed an offshore volcanic sequence of Plio-Pleistocene age associated with the Taitao Fracture Zone, adjacent to exposures of the Pliocene-aged Taitao ophiolite onshore. Despite the large-scale loss of material from the forearc at the triple junction, ophiolite emplacement produces a large topographic promontory in the forearc immediately after ridge subduction, and represents the first stage of forearc rebuilding. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

Behrmann, J. H.; Lewis, S. D.; Cande, S. C.

1994-01-01

140

Transit Operator Health and Wellness Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis provides a glimpse into the health and wellness issues faced by this group of employees, the impact of these issues on operators' ability to be productive employees, and programs that transit agencies have implemented to improve the health ...

2004-01-01

141

Responsive Program. Program Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is the fourth in a series of 12 early childhood program descriptions compiled by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. The program described here is the Responsive Program developed by Glen Nimnicht at the Far West Lab in Berkeley, California. The Responsive Model is a preschool through third grade…

Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, Berkeley, CA.

142

Some aspects of HMM speech synthesis optimization on mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porting speech synthesis to mobile platforms is a challenging task. In this paper the application of HMM based speech synthesis on mobile devices is investigated. Several optimization steps (e.g., changing HMM parameters, applying performance specific programming methods) are analyzed in terms of speed, footprint size and MOS scores on three different smartphones. Our goal is to approach real-time functionality with

Balint Toth; Geza Nemeth

2011-01-01

143

Mechanistic aspects of the higher alcohol synthesis over K[sub 2]O-promoted ZnCr oxide: Temperature-programmed reaction and flow experiments of C[sub 3], C[sub 4], and C[sub 5] oxygenates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanistic aspects of the higher alcohol synthesis (HAS) over a K[sub 2]O-promoted ZnCrO catalyst are investigated by temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) of C[sub 3] oxygenates (1-propanol, n-propanal, and n-propanoic acid) and by flow microreactor experiments of 1-propanol, 3-pentanone, and 2-butanone. A number of chemical functions are identified by the TPSR study and those prevailing under steady-state conditions. TPSR and continuous-flow

L. Lietti; E. Tronconi; P. Forzatti

1992-01-01

144

Computer aided design program for brush-less DC motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the synthesis design program for brush-less DC motor with the aim to replace the traditional manual design. Some useful features and techniques in the program are presented. Finally, the comparison between the program design and the prototyped motor is performed, and the results of the comparison validate the reasonability of the program

Qiang Gao; Hongmin Jing; Zhigan Wu; Jianping Ying

2004-01-01

145

A knowledge base organization for rules about programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

PECOS is a knowledge-based system for automatic program synthesis. Programs are specified as abstract algorithms in a high-level language for symbolic computation. Through the successive application of programming rules, the specification is gradually refined into a concrete implementation in the target language. The existence of several rules for the same task permits the construction of a variety of distinct programs

David Barstow; Peter E. Hart; Ntis J. Nilsson

1977-01-01

146

Induction of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Synthesis in Potato Tuber Slices  

PubMed Central

Timing of protein synthesis which is a prerequisite to DNA synthesis induced in potato tuber tissue (Solanum tuberosum L.) by cut injury has been studied using cycloheximide. The induction of DNA synthesis which was measured by incorporation of 3H-thymidine was completely inhibited when the inhibitor was applied to the tuber discs immediately after slicing. When the application of cycloheximide was delayed for 6 hours or more after slicing, DNA synthesis was observed but its rate was reduced to 20% of control. The inhibitory effect of cycloheximide, however, rapidly decreased when the inhibitor was applied at 6 or less hours immediately prior to determination of DNA synthesis. The effect of cycloheximide on the incorporation of 14C-leucine suggests that the change in the effect of cycloheximide on the induction of DNA synthesis is not due to incomplete inhibition of protein synthesis. Cycloheximide did not have significant effects on either uptake or phosphorylation of 3H-thymidine in the discs. Inhibition of both protein and DNA synthesis by cycloheximide was reversed by washing and further incubation of the discs. Almost no qualitative difference was detected by buoyant density analysis between DNA formed under inhibition of protein synthesis of the later stage and DNA synthesized under normal conditions. These results suggest that DNA synthesis induced in potato tuber tissue by cut injury requires continuous synthesis of new protein molecules in a characteristically programmed sequence.

Watanabe, Akira; Imaseki, Hidemasa

1976-01-01

147

Multivoxel patterns in face-sensitive temporal regions reveal an encoding schema based on detecting life in a face.  

PubMed

More than a decade of research has demonstrated that faces evoke prioritized processing in a 'core face network' of three brain regions. However, whether these regions prioritize the detection of global facial form (shared by humans and mannequins) or the detection of life in a face has remained unclear. Here, we dissociate form-based and animacy-based encoding of faces by using animate and inanimate faces with human form (humans, mannequins) and dog form (real dogs, toy dogs). We used multivariate pattern analysis of BOLD responses to uncover the representational similarity space for each area in the core face network. Here, we show that only responses in the inferior occipital gyrus are organized by global facial form alone (human vs dog) while animacy becomes an additional organizational priority in later face-processing regions: the lateral fusiform gyri (latFG) and right superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, patterns evoked by human faces were maximally distinct from all other face categories in the latFG and parts of the extended face perception system. These results suggest that once a face configuration is perceived, faces are further scrutinized for whether the face is alive and worthy of social cognitive resources. PMID:22798395

Looser, Christine E; Guntupalli, Jyothi S; Wheatley, Thalia

2012-07-13

148

Synthesis of cubane based energetic molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to pack more power with less weight into less space in tomorrow's weapons drove this program for the synthesis of super energetic materials. Our original impetus was a program based solely on the energetic properties of cubane. However, in the course of our studies here and in a parallel ONR sponsored program, we discovered and developed an alternative oxidizer to cubyl based systems, the dinitramide salts. We will report on our developments in the synthesis of new oxidizers based on cubane and dinitramide. In this research, we developed new methods for the functionalization of the cubane nucleus and synthesized new energetic cubanes. We developed several new routes for the synthesis of the dinitramino group. Our work on the preparation of the dinitramide group led to the synthesis of the dinitramide ion, and as a consequence ammonium dinitramide. We have in turn used this synthesis to prepare cubane ammonium dinitramide salts. We synthesized cubane-1,4bis-(ammonium dinitramide) and cubane1,2,4,7-tetrakis(ammonium dinitramide) as well as several other dinitramide salts.

Schmitt, Robert J.; Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Penwell, Paul E.

1993-02-01

149

Program Slicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program slicing is a method used by experienced computer programmers for abstracting from programs. Starting from a subset of a program's behavior, slicing reduces that program to a minimal form which still produces that behavior. The reduced program, called a “slice”, is an independent program guaranteed to faithfully represent the original program within the domain of the specified subset of

Mark Weiser

1981-01-01

150

Program Slicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program slicing is a method used by experienced computer programmers for abstracting from programs. Starting from a subset of a program's behavior, slicing reduces that program to a minimal form which still produces that behavior. The reduced program, called a “slice”, is an independent program guaranteed to faithfully represent the original program within the domain of the specified subset of

Mark Weiser

1984-01-01

151

Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is…

Bilchik, Shay

152

[New synthesis empathogenic agents].  

PubMed

The use of synthesis drugs is the object of numerous written articles and TV programs in the last, decade. These synthesis drugs or "designer drugs", are well known for their ability to enhance, reinforce or appease social difficulties and relationships. In the research for empathetic and entactogenic relations one discover an obvious lack of communication and "warmth" in personal or professional relationship. An image of chemical "well being" has become a frequent stereotype of a society with an atrophying of performance and values while supposedly dedicating itself to individual performance. The youths are the first victims of these new drugs, the economical and social environment are the main reinforcing factors of this behaviour. The main characteristic of these drugs, is the non-recognition of their danger, some users go so far as to describe this category of substances as "drugs which are not drugs". As a characteristic, the use of a these synthesis drugs is almost recreative, during the week-end and holiday. The drug addiction is different than that of opiates or cocaine. One can observe some cases of real dependence--corresponding to the DSW IV criterion--when the personality of the users is the main characteristic (narcissic failure, immature personality, family and school problems). Many adverse effects--hypertension, kidney failure, psychoses--were declared. The mass-media has presented many articles concerning Ecstasy (MDMA). This is the most used drug during the rave parties. Its adverse effects are well known and proven. The authors would like to present other more recent synthesis drugs, also known as "analogs". These drugs, a kind of mixture between amphetamine-like (MDMA, MBDB, MDA) and misused medicines (ketamine, gamma OH, atropine) represent a real danger. GHB, 2 CB, HMB, are some of these recent substances. The possibility to procure them on the Web, or to produce them by oneself, add to their danger because of the lack of controls on toxicity and quality. The original danger signs were revealed by the FDA and currently a major preoccupation within french specialised services. The major problem for the practitionner is to inform the users, in order to prevent addiction and analyse the solutions. PMID:10598316

Velea, D; Hautefeuille, M; Vazeille, G; Lantran-Davoux, C

153

BUS RAPID TRANSIT: SYNTHESIS OF CASE STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bus rapid transit systems have grown in popularity in recent years. Spurred by federal initiatives, the spiraling cost of rail transit, and market realities, a growing number of cities have installed or are planning bus rapid transit (BRT). There is a synthesis of current experience, drawing on ongoing research conducted in a project for the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP).

Herbert S Levinson; Samuel Zimmerman; Jennifer Clinger; James Gast

2003-01-01

154

A Global Optimization Approach for Architectural Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relaxed LP model, which simultaneously schedules and allocates functional units and registers, is presented for synthesizing cost-constrained globally optimal architectures. A mathematical integer programming formulation of the architectural synthesis problem was transformed into the node packing problem. Some integral facets of this polytope were extracted and generalized to produce integral solutions using the simplex algorithm without the need to

Catherine H. Gebotys; Mohamed I. Elmasry

1990-01-01

155

Chemicals from coal: ERDA's programs and plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

ERDA's current and planned programs have the objective of evaluating the potential of producing chemicals from coal, coal liquids, and from synthesis gas derived from coal. The Dow Chemical program is aimed at estimating preliminary capital investment and operating costs for a commercial plant which would utilize coal liquefaction products for the production of useful aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Laboratory

Harney

1976-01-01

156

Sonochemical Synthesis of Maleated Rosin * * Supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi Province (0448020), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars of State Education Ministry (2005-383), and the Guangxi Talent Highland Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cycloaddition reaction of rosin and maleic anhydride under ultrasonic irradiation has been investigated. The results show that both isomerization and Diels-Alder cycloaddition reactions were accelerated remarkably. The sonochemical reaction reached equilibrium in 5–10 min at 110°C, comparing with regular synthesis of 4–5 h over 180°C.

Yuanmei NIE; Xingdong YAO; Fuhou LEI

2008-01-01

157

Membrane enhanced peptide synthesis.  

PubMed

This communication reports a new technology platform that advantageously combines organic solvent nanofiltration (a newly emerging technology capable of molecular separations in organic solvents) with solution phase peptide synthesis-Membrane Enhanced Peptide Synthesis (MEPS). PMID:20369190

So, Sheung; Peeva, Ludmila G; Tate, Edward W; Leatherbarrow, Robin J; Livingston, Andrew G

2010-03-02

158

On the Synthesis of Strategies in Infinite Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Infinite two-person games are a natural framework for the study of reactive nonterminating programs. The effective construction of winning strategies in such games is an approach to the synthesis of reactive programs. We describe the automata theoretic setting of infinite games (given by "game graphs"), outline a new construction of winning strategies in finite-state games, and formulate some questions

Wolfgang Thomas; Praktische Mathematik; Christian-Albrechts-Universits Kiel

1995-01-01

159

Fourier analysis and synthesis with a pocket calculator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in design of small programmable calculators have brought some important but previously impractical problems within range of such instruments. Procedures are described for doing Fourier analysis and synthesis with a Hewlett-Packard HP-25 calculator. Only one program is required for each operation. Both programs should be suitable for instructional use by physics, engineering, and mathematics students at a wide

Stanley A. Schmidt

1977-01-01

160

Teaching Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis Using Interactive Microcomputer Graphics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis (HENS) program used at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Massachusetts) as an aid to teaching the energy integration step in process design. Focuses on the benefits of the computer graphics used in the program to increase the speed of generating and changing networks. (TW)|

Dixon, Anthony G.

1987-01-01

161

Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis  

PubMed Central

The methylation steps in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine by tissue culture preparations of carrot (Daucus carota L.) and soybean (Glycine max), and by soybean leaf discs, have been studied. Preparations were incubated with tracer concentrations of l-[3H3C]methionine and the kinetics of appearance of radioactivity in phosphomethylethanolamine, phosphodimethylethanolamine, phosphocholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, methylethanolamine, dimethylethanolamine, and choline followed at short incubation times. With soybean (tissue culture or leaves), an initial methylation utilizes phosphoethanolamine as substrate, forming phosphomethylethanolamine. The latter is converted to phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, which is successively methylated to phosphatidyldimethyethanolamine and to phosphatidylcholine. With carrot, again, an initial methylation is of phosphoethanolamine. Subsequent methylations occur at both the phospho-base and phosphatidyl-base levels. Both of these patterns differ qualitatively from that previously demonstrated in Lemna (SH Mudd, AH Datko 1986 Plant Physiol 82: 126-135) in which all three methylations occur at the phospho-base level. For soybean and carrot, some added contribution from initial methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine has not been excluded. These results, together with those from similar experiments carried out with water-stressed barley leaves (WD Hitz, D Rhodes, AD Hanson 1981 Plant Physiol 68: 814-822) and salinized sugarbeet leaves (AD Hanson, D Rhodes 1983 Plant Physiol 71: 692-700) suggest that in higher plants some, perhaps all, phosphatidylcholine synthesis occurs via a common committing step (conversion of phosphoethanolamine to phosphomethylethanolamine) followed by a methylation pattern which differs from plant to plant.

Datko, Anne H.; Mudd, S. Harvey

1988-01-01

162

The economies of synthesis  

PubMed Central

In this tutorial review the economies of synthesis are analysed from both detailed and macroscopic perspectives, using case-studies from complex molecule synthesis. Atom, step, and redox economy are more than philosophical constructs, but rather guidelines, which enable the synthetic chemist to design and execute an efficient synthesis. Students entering the field of synthesis might find this tutorial helpful for understanding the subtle differences between these economic principles and also see real-world situations where such principles are put into practice.

Newhouse, Timothy

2010-01-01

163

Recent advances in the synthesis of tubulysins.  

PubMed

Tubulysins are a family of natural tetrapeptides in clinical development as a consequence of their potent anticancer activity, even for multi-drug resistant carcinoma. Tubulysins inhibit tubulin polymerization by binding to the peptide binding site located near the vinca alkaloid binding site of tubulin. The limited availability and pharmacological profile of the tubulysins attracted synthetic and medicinal chemists to initiate programs towards their total synthesis. This paper reviews efforts toward the total synthesis of tubulysins and selected structure-activity relationship studies of tubulysin analogs. PMID:23746060

Xiangming, Xu; Friestad, Gregory K; Lei, Yao

2013-10-01

164

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

None

1998-11-01

165

Graduate Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This directory describes graduate programs in instructional technology, educational media and communications, school library media, and closely allied programs in the United States. Entries are listed alphabetically by state, following a classified list of programs. (AEF)|

Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 1999

1999-01-01

166

Key scientific findings and policy- and health-relevant insights from the US. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies: an integration and synthesis of results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 400 peer-reviewed journal articles and likely more than 1000 presentations resulted from the research conducted through EPA's PM Supersites Program. From the start, the program was developed with a policy focus - providing new information on the accumulation and sources of PM in air on urban and regional scales that might allow for the development of more effective approaches

Paul A. Solomon; Philip K. Hopke; John Froines; Richard Scheffe; Edward Staples; Shekar Viswanathan; Ve´ronique Francois; Guy Matejka; Nathalie Skhiri; Thomas Lagier; Wei-Yea Chen; Jehng-Jung Kao; Hongwei Lu; Guohe Huang; Zhenfang Liu; Li He; Zhenxing Shen; Richard Arimoto; Junji Cao; Renjian Zhang; Xuxiang Li; Na Du; Tomoaki Okuda; Shunsuke Nakao; Shigeru Tanaka; Gang Sun; Steven Hoff; Brian Zelle; Minda Nelson; Yi-Chyun Hsu; Mei-Hsiu Lai; Wei-Chi Wang; Hung-Lung Chiang; Zhu-Xin Shieh; Ming-Shean Chou; Yu-Feng Chang; Hsiao-Ting Perng; Charles Blanchard; Shelley Tanenbaum; Douglas Lawson; Mindong Bai; Zhitao Zhang; Mindi Bai; Xiyao Bai; Honghui Gao

2008-01-01

167

Automated synthesis of distillation sequences using fuzzy logic and simulation  

SciTech Connect

An automated distillation sequencing system (DSEQSYS) is presented, which consists of three components: a control program, a fuzzy heuristic synthesis program, and a process simulator. DSEQSYS, when applied to problems previously reported in the literature, overcomes some of the disadvantages of using heuristics or mathematical programming alone. DSEQSYS can address problems involving nonsharp separations, nonideal chemical behavior, and conflicting heuristics. A simple approach for converting the traditional separation heuristics into corresponding fuzzy heuristics is also demonstrated.

Flowers, T.L.; Harrison, B.K.; Niccolai, M.J. (Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States))

1994-08-01

168

Cycle-time aware architecture synthesis of custom hardware accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the cycle-time aware architecture synthesis methodology used in PICO-NPA that automatically synthesizes minimal cost RT-level designs from high-level specifications to meet a given cycle-time. This allows subsequent physical synthesis to succeed on first pass with predictable performance. The core of the methodology is a static timing analysis engine that is used at multiple levels - program-level, architecture-level and

Mukund Sivaraman; Shail Aditya

2002-01-01

169

Sustainable LCA-based MIP Synthesis of Biogas Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution presents the development of sustainable life-cycle assessment (LCA)-based mixed-integer programming (MIP) synthesis of processes. The approach was applied to the synthesis of biogas processes from different raw materials under different anaerobic conditions by considering different water supplies, wastewater treatment technologies, and the option of a rendering plant for the utilization of slaughterhouse waste. The developed aggregated model by

Lidija ?u?ek; Rozalija Drobež; Bojan Pahor; Zdravko Kravanja

2011-01-01

170

RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The RIDGE Program is a National Science Foundation initiative that promotes interdisciplinary study, scientific communication, and outreach related to all aspects of the globe-encircling, mid-ocean ridge system. The RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis Project site provides free access to downloadable multibeam bathymetric images and datasets of suboceanic ridges and vents. From either a hotlinked world map or a drop-down menu, users can specify the feature of interest - from the Reykjanes Ridge to the Shona Hotspot to the Galapagos Spreading Center - then progressively zoom to finer grid scales. The bathymetric images are depicted at different node spacings (100 m to 1500m) and grids are supported by the appropriate metadata. The images are also accompanied by ping data (including ship tracks) and other related data, which may include coaxial segment perspective images or isochron interpretation maps. Also, for many of the grids the user can specify subsample regions or retrieve contour areas of subregions. Links throughout the site include those to the main RIDGE page, a gallery of coaxial images, information on Served Data Formats, and the Principal Investigators involved with the Project.

171

REACH Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document describes the REACH Program, an alternative school program for students who have been suspended for drug or alcohol related offenses, which includes a short-term (7-day) suspension program designed to provide education and assessment and a long-term suspension program which provides 3 to 4 hours of counseling and education per day…

Johnson, Teresa M.; And Others

172

Genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents essays on genetic programming which involve topics such as: the artificial evolution of computer code, human-competitive machine intelligence by means of genetic programming, GP as automatic programming, GP application, the evolution of arbitrary computational processes and the art of genetic programming

Wolfgang Banzhaf; J. R. Koza; C. Ryan; L. Spector; C. Jacob

2000-01-01

173

Fuel oxygenates: Organic carbonate synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Owing to the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, two major programs, namely the oxygenated fuels program and the reformulated gasoline program have been mandated. Currently, ethers (MTBE, ETBE, and TAME) and alcohols (mainly ethanol) are employed as fuel oxygenates. However, several dialkyl carbonates exhibit attractive fuel properties and might emerge as future fuel oxygenates. This paper consists of an overview of related literature and highlight of some of our work on the synthesis of organic carbonates from C, feedstocks. Dialkyl carbonates such as dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) exhibit excellent gasoline blending properties such as high blending octane numbers and low blending Reid vapor pressures (RVP). Owing to their significantly higher oxygen content compared with alcohol (e.g., ethanol) and ether (e.g., MTBE, ETBE, and TAME) oxygenates, lower volume percent of the carbonate blending components will be needed to satisfy the 2.7 and 2.0 wt% oxygen requirements of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs, respectively.

Bhattacharya, A.K. [Texaco Inc., Beacon, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

174

Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. Specifically, the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- uptake were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

2008-02-01

175

Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. The synthesis of one class of membrane lipids, the phospholipids, also creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- incorporation were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

2007-08-01

176

Emphatic Visual Speech Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of talking heads has been a flourishing research area over the last few years. Since human beings have an uncanny ability to read people's faces, most related applica- tions (e.g., advertising, video-teleconferencing) require absolutely realistic photometric and behavioral synthesis of faces. This paper proposes a person-specific facial synthesis framework that allows high realism and includes a novel way

Javier Melenchon; Elisa Martinez; Fernando De La Torre; José A. Montero

2009-01-01

177

GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 from the ``best available'' observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the

J. Roads; R. Lawford; E. Bainto; E. Berbery; S. Chen; B. Fekete; K. Gallo; A. Grundstein; W. Higgins; M. Kanamitsu; W. Krajewski; V. Lakshmi; D. Leathers; D. Lettenmaier; L. Luo; E. Maurer; T. Meyers; D. Miller; K. Mitchell; T. Mote; R. Pinker; T. Reichler; D. Robinson; A. Robock; J. Smith; G. Srinivasan; K. Verdin; K. Vinnikov; T. Vonder Haar; C. Vörösmarty; S. Williams; E. Yarosh

2003-01-01

178

Panregional Synthesis of Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Third Annual U.S. GLOBEC Pan-Regional Synthesis Workshop; Boulder, Colorado, 17-20 February 2009; U.S. Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) is a research program organized by oceanographers and fisheries scientists to address the question of how climate variability, including global climate change, may affect the structure and function of marine ecosystems. Initiated in 1990, U.S. GLOBEC has until now comprised three regional

Dale B. Haidvogel

2009-01-01

179

Robot programming  

SciTech Connect

The industrial robot's principal advantage over traditional automation is programmability. Robots can perform arbitrary sequences of pre-stored motions or of motions computed as functions of sensory input. This paper reviews requirements for and developments in robot programming systems. The key requirements for robot programming systems examined in the paper are in the areas of sensing, world modeling, motion specification, flow of control, and programming support. Existing and proposed robot programming systems fall into three broad categories: guiding systems in which the user leads a robot through the motions to be performed, robot-level programming systems in which the user writes a computer program specifying motion and sensing, and task-level programming systems in which the user writes a computer program specifying motion and sensing, and task-level programming systems in which the user specifies operations by their desired effect on objects. A representative sample of systems in each of these categories is surveyed in the paper.

Lozano-Perez, T.

1982-12-01

180

Organocatalytic synthesis of carbohydrates.  

PubMed

The key role of carbohydrates in biological processes and their visible existence in our everyday life have stimulated the interest of leading research groups on the smart and simple synthesis of common and rare sugar molecules. Now, more than 120 years after Fischer's first synthesis of (D)-glucose (1890), we are witnessing important development in this field of total synthesis. Using modern methods of direct activation of carbonyl compounds chemists can prepare sugars in an elegant and efficient way similar to that of Nature. This tutorial review presents recent impressive progress in the area of de novo synthesis of carbohydrates by using organocatalytic direct aldol reaction as a key step. PMID:21796310

Mlynarski, Jacek; Gut, Bartosz

2011-07-28

181

From Inductive Logic Programming to Relational Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated at the intersection of machine learning and logic programming, inductive logic programming (ILP) has been concerned\\u000a with finding patterns expressed as logic programs. While ILP initially focussed on automated program synthesis from examples,\\u000a it has recently expanded its scope to cover a whole range of data analysis tasks (classification, regression, clustering,\\u000a association analysis). ILP algorithms can this be used

Sašo Džeroski

182

Synthesis Courses of project-based and Knowledge based in Engineering Programms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we will introduce a reformation in engineering programs in Nanjing University of aeronautics & astronautics. For enhance students' competences and abilities to solve problems in an engineering project, we had developed a kind of synthesis courses by combined knowledge-based lectures with a problem-based project. In synthesis courses, there are two learning paths. One is the regular knowledge

Chen Xu; Ang Haisong; Tong Mingbo

183

Space Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activities are reported in the following categories: SAS-C preliminary thermal design; environmental tests of a small astronomy satellite; Triad dual-channel demodulators; Geoceiver buffer; NAVOCEANO Geoceiver navigation program; AN/SRN-9 program support;...

1971-01-01

184

Study of Detection and Estimation Techniques Applied to Attitude Measurements of Satellites. Volume 4: Computer Programs Documentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer programs related to the application of matched filters to star mappers and IR earth sensors are detailed. The following programs are listed: time domain synthesis, impulse response of the matched filter, signal to noise ratio evaluation, integrat...

A. Santinelli D. Sciacovelli

1974-01-01

185

Graduate Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes graduate programs in Instructional Technology, Educational Media and Communications, School Library Media, and closely allied programs in the United States. Entries provide name and address, chairperson, types of degrees offered, special features of the program, admission requirements, degree requirements, number of faculty, number of…

Branch, Oratile Maribe, Ed.

2001-01-01

186

Graduate Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes graduate programs in instructional technology, educational media and communications, school library media, and closely allied programs in the United States. Entries provide name and address, chairperson, types of degrees offered, special features of the program, admission requirements, degree requirements, number of faculty, number of…

Burdett, Anna E.

2003-01-01

187

Program Slicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program slicing is a technique for reducing the amount of information that needs to be absorbed by a programmer. Given a point of “interest” in a program, described by a variable and a statement, a program slice gives all the statements that contributed to the value of the variable at the point, and elides unnecessary statements. This chapter surveys techniques

David W. Binkley; Keith Brian Gallagher

1996-01-01

188

MEXUS Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The MEXUS program, a transnational, undergraduate, dual-degree program in the United States and Mexico, addresses the problem of how universities can better prepare students to manage business in an interdependent global marketplace. The program was initiated as a consortium of four institutions (San Diego State University and Southwestern…

Branan, Alvord; Hergert, Michael

189

Automated synthesis of a human-competitive solution to the challenge problem of the 2002 international optical design conference by means of genetic programming and a multi-dimensional mutation operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has two aspects. First, it describes the use of genetic programming to automatically synthesize a solution to the challenge problem posed at an international competition held every four years in the field of optical design. In 2002, the competition at the International Optical Design Conference attracted 42 entries from 39 well-known optical designers, commercial consultants, and patent holders

Lee W. Jones; Sameer H. Al-sakran; John R. Koza

2006-01-01

190

Triclosan targets lipid synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal agent,, which acts by previously undetermined mechanisms, that is used in products such as antiseptic soaps, toothpastes, fabrics and plastics. Here we show that triclosan blocks lipid synthesis in Escherichia coli, and that mutations in, or overexpression of, the gene fabI (which encodes enoyl reductase, involved in fatty acid synthesis) prevents this blockage.

Laura M. McMurry; Margret Oethinger; Stuart B. Levy

1998-01-01

191

Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have been an era of rapid progress in peptide research. This era was begun by the work of Sanger on the amino acid sequence determination of insulin and by du Vigneaud on the structure determination and synthesis of oxytocin. This period has seen impressive progress in the structure elucidation and synthesis of many peptides of natural

John Morrow Stewart

1976-01-01

192

Total synthesis of (-)-histrionicotoxin.  

PubMed

A total synthesis of (-)-histrionicotoxin was achieved. Our synthesis features preparation of a pseudosymmetrical dienyne through chirality transfer from an allenylsilane, a dienyne metathesis to produce the bicyclo [5.4.0] system in optically active form, selective functionalization of a diene via a 5-exo-trig iodoetherification, and an asymmetric propargylation. PMID:21793562

Adachi, Yohei; Kamei, Noriyuki; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

2011-07-27

193

Using Machine Learning to Synthesize Search Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how machine learning techniques are used in the MULTI-TAC system to specialize generic algorithm schemas for particular problem classes. MULTI-TAC is a program synthesis system that generates Lisp code to solve combinatorial integer constraint satisfaction problems. The use of algorithm schemas enables machine learning techniques to be applied in a very focused manner. These learning techniques enable

Steven Minton; Shawn R. Wolfe

1994-01-01

194

Automatic programming technologies for avionics software (APTAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The APTAS software development environment, which provides automatic programming support for both rapid prototyping and target software system development in Ada, is described. APTAS utilizes domain-specific knowledge base support for automatic code synthesis from high-level system specifications. Each domain knowledge base includes both generic system architectures, in the form of templates, and design rules which capture carefully developed implementation strategies

James S. Williamson; Paul S. Jensen; Lori Ogata; W. Henson Graves

1990-01-01

195

Cell-free protein synthesis: the state of the art.  

PubMed

Cell-free protein synthesis harnesses the synthetic power of biology, programming the ribosomal translational machinery of the cell to create macromolecular products. Like PCR, which uses cellular replication machinery to create a DNA amplifier, cell-free protein synthesis is emerging as a transformative technology with broad applications in protein engineering, biopharmaceutical development, and post-genomic research. By breaking free from the constraints of cell-based systems, it takes the next step towards synthetic biology. Recent advances in reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis (Protein synthesis Using Recombinant Elements expression systems) are creating new opportunities to tailor the reactions for specialized applications including in vitro protein evolution, printing protein microarrays, isotopic labeling, and incorporating nonnatural amino acids. PMID:23086573

Whittaker, James W

2012-10-21

196

A Unified View of Program Schemas and Proof Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both proof planning and schema-guided program synthesis can be seen as a recursive problem decomposition process followed by a recursive solu- tion composition process, with problems being either conjectures or specifica- tions, and solutions being either tactics or programs. We th us develop a unified view of these two activities. This approach reveals an opportunity for identifying and integrating useful

Pierre Flener; Julian Richardson

197

Occupational Safety and Health Programs in Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide was developed in response to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and is intended to assist teachers in implementing courses in occupational safety and health as part of a career education program. The material is a synthesis of films, programed instruction, slides and narration, case studies, safety pamphlets,…

DiCarlo, Robert D.; And Others

198

Writing Programs in Washington State. Oral and Written Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After providing a synthesis of research on the teaching of writing, this booklet offers summaries of writing programs in Washington State. Included are descriptions of (1) the Kettle Falls Secondary Language Arts Project, (2) the Kettle Falls rating scale for student writing, (3) Project WRITE, (4) the Puget Sound Writing Program, (5) the Edmonds…

Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

199

Optimal array pattern synthesis for broadband arrays.  

PubMed

Broadband beamformers with constant mainlobe response over the frequency of interest are desirable in many applications including underwater acoustics, ultrasonics, acoustic imaging and communications, and so on. Solutions to this problem have been presented for specific array geometry often requiring a larger number of sensors. And the array pattern synthesis error minimization is employed for the whole field of view, which leads to suboptimal designs. In this paper, a broadband array pattern synthesis approach to designing time-domain constant mainlobe response beamformer is proposed. By imposing constraints both on the mainlobe spatial response variation over frequency and on the sidelobes of the beamformer, several optimization criteria are presented and the corresponding convex second-order cone programming implementations are given. In this approach, no preliminary desired beampattern is required and the beam responses variation minimization is employed only in the mainlobe region and not in the sidelobe regions, which improves the beamformer mainlobe synthesis accuracy. Equally, one can obtain lower sidelobes at the same mainlobe synthesis accuracy. This approach is applicable to arrays with arbitrary geometry. Simulation and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach. Performance comparisons of the proposed beamformers and the existing beamformer are also provided. PMID:18189561

Yan, Shefeng; Ma, Yuanliang; Hou, Chaohuan

2007-11-01

200

UV Spectral Synthesis of Sirius A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV Spectral Synthesis of Sirius A We report the first results from a study of the fundamental physical properties of the A1 V star Sirius A. Using archival spectrophotometric data from the Hubble Space Telescope's STIS spectrograph, we have produced a synthetic UV spectrum of the star. The data were obtained at medium resolution with the G160M, G200M, and G270M gratings (FWHM 15 km/s) and cover the wavelength range 1265-3200 Angstroms. The synthetic spectrum was constructed using Kurucz's ATLAS9 LTE stellar atmospheric models and Hubeny's SYNSPEC spectral synthesis program and is a function of the star's effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulence velocity, rotational velocity, radial velocity, and chemical composition. A chi2-minimization program was used to find the values of these parameters which produce the best match of the synthetic spectrum with the observed spectrum. In addition to determining the stellar properties, this program can illuminate - and help rectify - deficiencies in the spectral line database used to construct the synthetic spectra. In this poster, we illustrate the first results from this program, including the quality of the match between the observed and computed spectra and the elemental abundance profile of Sirius A, including CNO, the light metals (e.g., Si and Al), and the Fe group.

McClain, Timothy; Fitzpatrick, E.

2010-01-01

201

Radiation chemical synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The authors consider processes in radiation chemical synthesis which are being developed in various scientific-research organizations. The important advantages of radiation chlorination, viz. the lower temperature compared with the thermal method and the absence of dehydrochlorination products are discussed. The authors examine the liquid-phase chlorination of trifluorochloroethyltrichloromethyl ether to obtain the pentachloro-contining ether, trifluorodichloroethyltrichloromethyl ether. The authors discuss radiation synthesis processes that have be used formulated kinetic equations on which models have been based. It is concluded that the possibilities of preparative (micro- and low-tonnage) radiation synthesis are promising.

Zagoretz, P.A.; Poluetkov, V.A.; Shostenko, A.G.

1986-03-01

202

Synthesis of cruentaren A.  

PubMed

Cruentaren A, an antifungal benzolactone produced by the myxobacterium Byssovorax cruenta, is highly cytotoxic against various human cancer cell lines and a highly selective inhibitor of mitochondrial F-ATPase. A convergent and efficient synthesis of cruentaren A is reported, based upon a diastereoselective alkylation, a series of stereoselective aldol reactions utilizing Myers' pseudoephedrine propionamide, an acyl bromide mediated esterification, and a ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as the key steps. The RCM reaction was applied for the first time toward the total synthesis of cruentaren A, which led to a convergent and efficient synthesis of the natural product. PMID:23205851

Kusuma, Bhaskar Reddy; Brandt, Gary E L; Blagg, Brian S J

2012-12-03

203

Synthesis of amino acids  

DOEpatents

A method is described for synthesizing amino acids preceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(OSOC1)CN, R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(C1)CN and (R/sub 1/R/sub 2/C(CN)O)/sub 2/SO wherein R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are each selected from hydrogen and monovalent hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

Davis, J.W. Jr.

1979-09-21

204

Total Synthesis of (-)-Aplaminal  

PubMed Central

The total synthesis and assignment of absolute configuration of (?)-aplaminal (1), a cytotoxic metabolite from a sea hare possessing a triazobicyclo[3.2.1]octane skeleton, has been achieved. The synthesis entailed condensation of a monoprotected diamine (3) with dimethyl 2-oxomalonate (4) to generate the imidazolidine core (2). Introduction of the third nitrogen via Mitsunobu activation and azide displacement, followed by reduction and lactam formation (AlMe3) furnished (?)-aplaminal (1). Overall, the synthesis entailed 9 steps and proceeded in 17% overall yield.

Smith, Amos B.; Liu, Zhuqing

2009-01-01

205

Stochastic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the requirement of considering randomness, different types of stochastic programming have been developed to suit the\\u000a different purposes of management. The first type of stochastic programming is the expected value model, which optimizes the expected objective functions subject to some expected constraints. The second, chance-constrained programming, was pioneered by Charnes and Cooper [37] as a means of handling uncertainty

Baoding Liu

206

Outreach programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As AGU members have become increasingly concerned about the role of the geosciences in society, programs have been created to bring those concerns to the attention of policymakers, educators, and the media. The Public Information program seeks to educate the public about geophysical research through accurate reporting in the press. AGU has also initiated several activities through its Education and Human Resources program to enhance the teaching of geophysics at both the precollege and university levels. As part of its Public Affairs program, the Union also regularly adopts positions on policy issues that impact the conduct of the geophysical sciences or that can benefit from a scientific perspective.

207

SAVEnergy Program  

SciTech Connect

This program overview describes elements of the U.S. Department of Energy's SAVEnergy Program, which is managed by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program. The SAVEnergy Program helps agencies meet Federal goals for greater energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of renewable energy by contracting with expert engineering firms to conduct energy and water use audits at Federal facilities. To qualify for this assistance, agencies or facilities must request audits from FEMP and assure FEMP that they will implement some of the energy and water efficiency measures recommended in the auditor's report.

Not Available

2002-05-01

208

Toward a new synthesis: population genetics and evolutionary developmental biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the recent synthesis of developmental genetics and evolutionary biology, current theories of adaptation are still strictly phenomenological and do not yet consider the implications of how phenotypes are constructed from genotypes. Given the ubiquity of regulatory genetic pathways in developmental processes, we contend that study of the population genetics of these pathways should become a major research program. We

Norman A. Johnson; Adam H. Porter

2001-01-01

209

A synthesis course in hardware architecture, compilers, and software engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a synthesis course that provides a hands-on treatment of many hardware and software topics learned in computer science (CS) programs. Using a modular series of twelve projects, we walk the students through the gradual construction of a simple hardware platform and a modern software hierarchy, yielding a basic yet powerful computer system. In the process of building the

Shimon Schocken; Noam Nisan; Michal Armoni

2009-01-01

210

Synthesis of schedulers for planned shutdowns of power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the synthesis of efficient schedulers for planned shutdowns of power plants for refueling and maintenance (outages), using an automated programming tool, KIDS. Currently, the utility industry has no automated tools to generate schedules that are both safe and resource-efficient. We focused on safety constraints since they are critical in this application. There are several aspects of this project

Carla P. Gomes; Douglas Smith; Stephen Westfold

1996-01-01

211

DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING A CAPSTONE GERONTOLOGY SEMINAR: SYNTHESIS AND ACTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the design and implementation of Gerontology: Synthesis and Action, the capstone seminar for the undergraduate and graduate certificate in gerontology program at Marylhurst University, a small, private liberal arts university in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. The institutional and programmatic context in which this course is located is discussed along with the collaborative, adult-centered learning principles

Jennifer R. Sasser

2005-01-01

212

Computer-aided Synthesis of Fault-trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented for the synthesis of fault-trees. The fault-tree is deduced directly from a digraph (directed graph) model of the system being analyzed. The digraph describes the normal, failed, and conditional relationships which exist between variables and events in the system. A computer program which uses this algorithm is illustrated for a chemical processing system.

Steven A. Lapp; Gary J. Powers

1977-01-01

213

Synthesis of (±)-7-hydroxylycopodine.  

PubMed

A six step synthesis of (±)-7-hydroxylycopodine has been achieved in 5% overall yield. In the key step, a Prins cyclization of a bicyclic keto alkyne in 60% H(2)SO(4) forms a tricyclic dihydroxy amino ketone. PMID:21271726

Lin, Hong-Yu; Snider, Barry B

2011-01-27

214

Synthesis of (?)-7-Hydroxylycopodine  

PubMed Central

A 6 step synthesis of (±)-7-hydroxylycopodine has been achieved in 5% overall yield. In the key step, a Prins cyclization of a bicyclic keto alkyne in 60% H2SO4 forms a tricyclic dihydroxy amino ketone.

Lin, Hong-Yu

2011-01-01

215

Enantioselective synthesis of levomilnacipran.  

PubMed

A novel approach for the asymmetric synthesis of the active (1S,2R)-enantiomer of the antidepressant milnacipran is reported. The two stereogenic centers borne by the cyclopropane ring were sequentially installed starting from phenylacetic acid. PMID:22767143

Alliot, Julien; Gravel, Edmond; Pillon, Florence; Buisson, David-Alexandre; Nicolas, Marc; Doris, Eric

2012-07-06

216

Regulation of RNA Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Messenger RNA synthesis can take place during amino acid starvation and is thus not regulated by the stringent control. Transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA are coordinately controlled by the stringent control. Transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA vary independently ...

R. Lavalle

1968-01-01

217

Verdazyls: synthesis, properties, application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis, structure, properties and reactivity of stable heterocyclic radicals, verdazyls, are considered. Special attention is focused on metal verdazyl complexes. Major areas of application of such radicals are discussed. The bibliography includes 164 references.

Lipunova, G. N.; Fedorchenko, T. G.; Chupakhin, O. N.

2013-08-01

218

Instrument Modeling and Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

219

Programming Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)|

Tesler, Lawrence G.

1984-01-01

220

HEIGHTS PROGRAM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE "HEIGHTS" PROGRAM, AS PART OF THE GREAT CITIES SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM, IS BASED ON THE BELIEF THAT MUCH CAN BE DONE TO CHANGE THE PATTERNS OF ASPIRATION, ACHIEVEMENT, AND ADJUSTMENT WHICH CULTURALLY DEPRIVED YOUTH TEND TO FOLLOW. TRADITIONAL GOALS OF EDUCATION WILL BE FOLLOWED, BUT THE TEACHERS AND STAFF WILL HAVE AT THEIR DISPOSAL A…

POTTER, LOUIS A.

221

BASIC Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use by both secondary- and postsecondary-level business teachers, this curriculum guide consists of 10 units of instructional materials dealing with Beginners All-Purpose Symbol Instruction Code (BASIC) programing. Topics of the individual lessons are numbering BASIC programs and using the PRINT, END, and REM statements; system…

Jennings, Carol Ann

222

Computer Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

Anderson, Tiffoni

223

Program Listings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A complete listing of a projectile motion program for the Apple II microcomputer is provided. A discussion of this computer simulation and a table with variables used in the program (as well as their meanings) can be found in SE 533 596. (JN)

Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 1983

1983-01-01

224

Adventure Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adventure programming is the deliberate use of adventurous experiences to create learning in individuals or groups, often with the goal of improving society or communities. Adventure programming may focus on recreation, education, individual or group development, or therapy, or on a combination of these. This second edition contains 61 chapters by…

Miles, John C., Ed.; Priest, Simon, Ed.

225

Graduate Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This section of "Educational Media and Technology Yearbook" is a directory that describes graduate programs in Instructional Technology, Educational Media and Communications, School Library Media, and closely allied programs in the United States. Master's, specialist, and doctoral degrees are combined into one list. Information can be considered…

Cole, Leslie.

2002-01-01

226

Adventure Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adventure programming is the deliberate use of adventurous experiences to create learning in individuals or groups, often with the goal of improving society or communities. Adventure programming may focus on recreation, education, individual or group development, or therapy, or on a combination of these. This second edition contains 61 chapters…

Miles, John C., Ed.; Priest, Simon, Ed.

227

Dynamic programming.  

PubMed

Independent scoring of the aligned sections to determine the quality of biological sequence alignments enables recursive definitions of the overall alignment score. This property is not only biologically meaningful but it also provides the opportunity to find the optimal alignments using dynamic programming-based algorithms. Dynamic programming is an efficient problem solving technique for a class of problems that can be solved by dividing into overlapping subproblems. Pairwise sequence alignment techniques such as Needleman-Wunsch and Smith-Waterman algorithms are applications of dynamic programming on pairwise sequence alignment problems. These algorithms offer polynomial time and space solutions. In this chapter, we introduce the basic dynamic programming solutions for global, semi-global, and local alignment problems. Algorithmic improvements offering quadratic-time and linear-space programs and approximate solutions with space-reduction and seeding heuristics are discussed. We finally introduce the application of these techniques on multiple sequence alignment briefly. PMID:24170392

Nalbanto?lu, O Ufuk

2014-01-01

228

Alcohol Medical Scholars Program--A Mentorship Program for Improving Medical Education regarding Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Alcohol Medical Scholars Program (AMSP) is designed to improve medical education related to substance use disorders (SUDs) through mentorship of junior, full-time academic faculty from medical schools across the United States. Scholarship focuses on literature review and synthesis, lecture development and delivery, increasing SUD education in…

Neufeld, Karin J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

229

Panregional Synthesis of Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Third Annual U.S. GLOBEC Pan-Regional Synthesis Workshop; Boulder, Colorado, 17-20 February 2009; U.S. Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) is a research program organized by oceanographers and fisheries scientists to address the question of how climate variability, including global climate change, may affect the structure and function of marine ecosystems. Initiated in 1990, U.S. GLOBEC has until now comprised three regional programs—Northwest Atlantic/Georges Bank, Northeast Pacific, and Southern Ocean—and a series of technology and modeling development projects. The U.S. GLOBEC program has now entered its final panregional synthesis phase, which focuses on comparing and contrasting results from the different regions in the prior phases of U.S. GLOBEC and on extending these results to other comparable ecosystems worldwide. Ten panregional projects have been funded through the U.S. National Science Foundation. These projects address three synthetic themes: the influence of climate change on physical and biological processes, population dynamics and recruitment of target species, and ecosystem structure and function. The titles and abstracts of the ten funded projects can be viewed at http://www.usglobec.org/funded.php.

Haidvogel, Dale B.

2009-06-01

230

Program ROGMAP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a CDC 6500 FORTRAN program ROGMAP and its associated subroutines which provide CALCOMP contour plots of water height or concentration fields generated by the EPRF Hydrodrodynamic Numerical (HN) Model. ROGMAP is a modification of progr...

R. Bauer B. van der Bijl

1974-01-01

231

Museum Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Designed for media specialists and educators, this issue includes five articles exploring the contributions of children's films to museum programs. Following a brief editorial encouraging the use of films in museums, the first article outlines a picture s...

M. Gaffney

1980-01-01

232

Programming models  

SciTech Connect

A programming model is a set of software technologies that support the expression of algorithms and provide applications with an abstract representation of the capabilities of the underlying hardware architecture. The primary goals are productivity, portability and performance.

Daniel, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Pherson, Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thorp, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barrett, Richard [SNL; Clay, Robert [SNL; De Supinski, Bronis [LLNL; Dube, Evi [LLNL; Heroux, Mike [SNL; Janssen, Curtis [SNL; Langer, Steve [LLNL; Laros, Jim [SNL

2011-01-14

233

Programs & Activities  

Cancer.gov

Programs & Activities Cancer Registration in Developing Countries Ireland-Northern Ireland-NCI Cancer Consortium United States-Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN) Cancer Prevention &  Control Middle East Cancer Consortium (MECC) Center for

234

Programmed Piaget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author presents a series of programmed exercises designed to help teachers develop the skills necessary to incorporate Piaget's concepts of child intellectual development into effective classroom use. (MB)|

Dyrli, Odvard Egil

1976-01-01

235

Sonochemical synthesis of MOF-5.  

PubMed

High quality MOF-5 crystals of 5-25 mum in size were prepared for the first time using a sonochemical method in substantially reduced synthesis time (ca. 30 min) compared with conventional solvothermal synthesis (24 h). PMID:19048147

Son, Won-Jin; Kim, Jun; Kim, Jaheon; Ahn, Wha-Seung

2008-10-28

236

Synthesis of Catenated Polynitrogen Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presentation includes overview of synthesis of novel compounds consisting of highly endothermic polynitrogen allotropes; use techniques developed in synthesis of other energetic materials to pursue catenated rather than polycyclic polynitrogen compounds; ...

K. O. Christe W. W. Wilson J. A. Boatz J. A. Sheehy

1999-01-01

237

Synthesis of New High Energy Density Matter (HEDM): Extra High Energy Oxidizers and Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program focused on the discovery and synthesis of new, extra- high energy oxidizers and fuels for the High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) program. The goals included the preparation of new compounds having unusual bonding to yield high energy, dense ma...

R. J. Schmitt J. C. Bottaro M. Petrie P. E. Penwell

2000-01-01

238

Integer Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 20 years, the combination of faster computers, more reliable data, and improved algorithms has resulted in the\\u000a near-routine solution of many integer programs of practical interest. Integer programming models are used in a wide variety\\u000a of applications, including scheduling, resource assignment, planning, supply chain design, auction design, and many, many\\u000a others. In this tutorial, we outline some

Robert Bosch; Michael Trick

239

Continuous Synthesis of Runoff from the Kawishiwi River Basin in Northeastern Minnesota by the Rivall Hydrologic Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

RIVALL is a deterministic continuous-synthesis, generalized river forecasting program developed by the National Weather Service, River Forecast Center. It normally accepts runoff in inches over the watersheds from ROAPI and ROMELT and uses unit hydrograph...

C. E. Bowers J. K. Bogart

1984-01-01

240

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Fourth quarterly report, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

NONE

1997-10-01

241

Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program, Phase 1. Appendix D: Sensitivity Analysis Resport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parametric analyses, using a hybrid vehicle synthesis and economics program (HYVELD) are described investigating the sensitivity of hybrid vehicle cost, fuel usage, utility, and marketability to changes in travel statistics, energy costs, vehicle lifetime...

1979-01-01

242

Synthesis of VHDL concurrent processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two methoals for synthesis of VHDL siecijications containing concurrent processes. Our main objective is to preserve simulation\\/synthesis correspondence during high-level synthesis and to produce hardware that operates with a high degree of parallelism. The first method supports an unrestricted use of signals and wait statements and synthesizes synchronous hardware with global control of process synchronization for signal

Petru Eles; Marius Minea; Krzysztof Kuchcinski; Zebo Peng

1994-01-01

243

Teachers' Tools: Adult Program  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Teachers' Tools: Adult Program. Medicines in My Home. -. ... Program Description and Objectives: Adult Program; Teachers' Kit - Adult Program. -. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

244

Total synthesis of methymycin.  

PubMed

Methynolide and 10-epi-methynolide were synthesized from the necessary segments, which were prepared by the addition of Grignard reagents to the corresponding alpha-alkoxyketones utilizing 1,2-stereochemical selection based on Cram chelation control. Ring-closing metathesis, as the key reaction, was carried out to combine the segments for the synthesis of methynolide and 10-epi-methynolide. The total synthesis of methymycin was also achieved by the glycosylation of methynolide with the trichloroimidate derivative of D-desosamine. PMID:19830295

Oh, Hong-Se; Xuan, Richeng; Kang, Han-Young

2009-08-18

245

Supercritical synthesis of biodiesel.  

PubMed

The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats) has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs) for biodiesel synthesis. PMID:22825622

Bernal, Juana M; Lozano, Pedro; García-Verdugo, Eduardo; Burguete, M Isabel; Sánchez-Gómez, Gregorio; López-López, Gregorio; Pucheault, Mathieu; Vaultier, Michel; Luis, Santiago V

2012-07-23

246

Total synthesis of (+)-crotogoudin.  

PubMed

Fellowship of the ring: The first total synthesis of (+)-crotogoudin, a 3,4-seco-atisane diterpenoid natural product, is reported. Asymmetric access to the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane core is achieved through a desymmetrization of a meso-diketone with baker's yeast (LG=leaving group, PG=protecting group). A SmI2 -induced radical cyclopropane-opening/annulation/elimination cascade affords the suitably decorated tetracyclic structure of (+)-crotogoudin. The synthesis led to revision of the reported optical rotation of the natural product and to assignment of its absolute configuration as an ent-atisane (5R,10R). PMID:24039092

Breitler, Simon; Carreira, Erick M

2013-08-26

247

Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in techniques and instrumentation for radio synthesis imaging in astronomy are discussed in a collection of review essays. Topics addressed include coherence in radio astronomy, the interferometer in practice, primary antenna elements, cross correlators, calibration and editing, sensitivity, deconvolution, self-calibration, error recognition, and image analysis. Consideration is given to wide-field imaging (bandwidth and time-average smearing, noncoplanar arrays, and mosaicking), high-dynamic-range imaging, spectral-line imaging, VLBI, solar imaging with a synthesis telescope, synthesis imaging of spatially coherent objects, noise in images of very bright sources, synthesis observing strategies, and the design of aperture-synthesis arrays.

Perley, Richard A.; Schwab, Frederic R.; Bridle, Alan H.

248

Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.|

Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2004-01-01

249

Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL;

G. F. Schiefelbein; D. J. Stevens; M. A. Gerber

1984-01-01

250

Synthesis of Indigogenic Substrates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The synthesis of the following compounds were attempted: 5-Iodo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside; 5-Iodo-4-Bromo-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside; 5-Bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-deoxy glucoside; 5-Iodo-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactoside; 5-Iodo-3-indoleamin...

S. Higa

1971-01-01

251

Challenges in Speech Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Similar to other speech- and language-processing disciplines such as speech recognition or machine translation, speech synthesis,\\u000a the artificial production of human-like speech, has become very powerful over the last 10 years.

David Suendermann; Harald Höge; Alan Black

252

Synthesis in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses various techniques that scientists and other professionals can use to keep current in their field despite the large amount of available information, such as consulting abstracts, indexes, reviews, and catalogues. It also examines specific language patterns that are used in the sciences to produce synthesis and abridgement,…

Horsella, Maria

253

Synthesis of steroid hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods have been developed for preparing steroid hormones (including estrogens, anabolics, contraceptives, and provitamins of the D group), which are important in medicine and veterinary practice, and also insect ecdysis hormones, which are promising materials for use in combating insects that are harmful to crops. A scheme of total synthesis has been developed into a process flow plan and has

I. V. Torgov

1982-01-01

254

Asymmetric Synthesis of Ageliferin  

PubMed Central

We describe herein an asymmetric synthesis of ageliferin. A Mn(III)-mediated oxidative radical cyclization reaction was used as the key step to construct the core skeleton of this pyrrole-imidazole dimer. This approach resembles the bio-genic [4+2] dimerization in an intramolecular fashion.

Wang, Xiao; Ma, Zhiqiang; Lu, Jianming; Tan, Xianghui; Chen, Chuo

2011-01-01

255

MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

256

Synthesis of supported catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research reports on the synthesis of supported catalysts during the review period (1997-1998) have shown the use of carbon nanotubes and new hetropolyanions as examples of novel supports and of novel precursors of active components, respectively. Studies of absorption and precipitation chemistry reveal new molecular details of the extensive interactions between precursors and supports in an aqueous environment. Progress is

Krijn P. de Jong

1999-01-01

257

Bulk Synthesis of Fluorochemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The synthesis of twenty pounds of each of four fluoroexplosives was carried out following general procedures supplied in R + D Exhibit No. ASQW 62-29. Modifications to these procedures were made to improve yields of products or handling procedures at the ...

D. N. Thatcher G. A. Noddin

1964-01-01

258

Enantioselective synthesis of (-)-pentalenene.  

PubMed

A short, enantioselective synthesis of (-)-pentalenene is described. Catalytic enantioselective cyclopropenation with (R,R)-Rh2(OAc)(DPTI)3 was used to set the absolute stereochemistry, and an intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction of the resulting cyclopropenyne was used to establish the quaternary center. PMID:18031057

Pallerla, Mahesh K; Fox, Joseph M

2007-11-22

259

Combustion synthesis and nanomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent developments and trends in combustion science towards the synthesis of nanomaterials are discussed. Different modifications made to conventional combustion approaches for preparation of nanomaterials are critically analyzed. Special attention is paid to various applications of combustion synthesized nanosized products.

Singanahally T. Aruna; Alexander S. Mukasyan

2008-01-01

260

Lymphocyte DNA Synthesis Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specific endogenous inhibitor for lymphocyte DNA synthesis that can be isolated from the lymphoid system and which is probably cell specific is described. The inhibitor is thermolabile, is destroyed by trypsin, and has a mass of about 30,000 to 50,000 daltons.

John C. Houck; Hiltje Irausquin; Sanford Leikin

1971-01-01

261

Physical Modeling Synthesis Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in physical modeling of musical instruments for purposes of sound synthesis is reviewed. Recent references, results, and outstanding problems are highlighted for models of strings, winds, brasses, percussion, and acoustic spaces. Emphasis is placed on digital waveguide models and the musical acoustics research on which they are based.

Julius O. Smith

1996-01-01

262

Synthesis of address generators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach is described for addressing generation hardware synthesis. The authors present algorithms and tools that describe the hardware between a binary counter and the address port of a block of memory, which is accessed in some repetitive pattern. These tools match results produced manually for examples taken from a VLSI image processing application

D. Grant; P. B. Denyer; I. Finlay

1989-01-01

263

Synthesis from VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VHDL Synthesis System (VSS) uses VHDL dataflow or behavioral descriptions as input and outputs a structural description of generic components. This structural description is converted into a schematic and captured by the microarchitecture and logic optimization system for technology mapping and constraint-driven optimization. VSS allows a designer to modify the compiled design by changing the input description, selecting optimization

Joseph S. Lis; Daniel D. Gajski

1988-01-01

264

Program Transferability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of program transferability is discussed from a technical point of view. The paper begins by attempting a general characterization of the problem and of the nature and limitations of possible approaches to its solution. An effort is made to iso...

K. Sattley R. E. Millstein S. Marshall

1970-01-01

265

Program Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

Baskas, Richard S.

2012-01-01

266

Interterm Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interim programs at nine colleges are described. An introductory essay by Lee M. Swan, "The Interim: Potential for Quality Learning," emphasizes the potential for unique learning through the interim approach. At Augustana College (South Dakota), interim experiences are required, including core courses, internships, travel experiences, and…

Levy-Reiner, Sherry, Ed.

1986-01-01

267

Concurrent programming  

SciTech Connect

This book presents an overview of concurrent programming, including some of the basic concurrency problems. Low level mutual exclusion algorithms are discussed. Other topics covered include: Synchronization in the Unix kernel; Semaphore; Buffering techniques; Mascot real-time design; and Parallel processing of sets of data.

Axford, T.

1989-01-01

268

Knowledge-based synthesis of custom VLSI router software. [Very Large Scale Integration  

SciTech Connect

This thesis describes a synthesis architecture for automatic generation of technology-sensitive VLSI physical design tools from high-level specifications. Physical design refers to the process of reducing a structural description of a piece of hardwater down to the geometric layout of an integrated circuit. Successful physical design tools must cope with shifting technology and application environments. The author argues that the appropriate place for technology-dependent information is not in the run-time environment of such tools, but in a generator for these tools. They describe a synthesis architecture and its prototype implementation - called ELF - that integrates knowledge of the application domain with knowledge of generic programming mechanics. ELF strives to meet the demands of the target technology by automatically generating an implementation of the tool to match the application requirements. The ELF synthesis architecture has three key features. First, a very high level language, lacking data structure implementation specifications, is used to describe algorithm design styles. Second, application domain knowledge and generic program synthesis knowledge are used to guide search among candidate design styles for all necessary component algorithms, and to deduce compatible data structure implementations for these components. Third, code generation is used to transform the resulting abstract descriptions of selected algorithms and data structures into final, executable code. Code generation is an incremental, stepwise refinement process, and also relies on application domain knowledge, as well as generic program synthesis knowledge. A wide variety of fully-functional routers has been synthesized by ELF, and verified on both synthetic and industrial routing benchmarks. ELF demonstrates a synthesis architecture that efficiently generates router software using router domain-specific and generic program synthesis knowledge as a synthesis guide.

Setliff, D.E.

1989-01-01

269

Industrial scale gene synthesis.  

PubMed

The most recent developments in the area of deep DNA sequencing and downstream quantitative and functional analysis are rapidly adding a new dimension to understanding biochemical pathways and metabolic interdependencies. These increasing insights pave the way to designing new strategies that address public needs, including environmental applications and therapeutic inventions, or novel cell factories for sustainable and reconcilable energy or chemicals sources. Adding yet another level is building upon nonnaturally occurring networks and pathways. Recent developments in synthetic biology have created economic and reliable options for designing and synthesizing genes, operons, and eventually complete genomes. Meanwhile, high-throughput design and synthesis of extremely comprehensive DNA sequences have evolved into an enabling technology already indispensable in various life science sectors today. Here, we describe the industrial perspective of modern gene synthesis and its relationship with synthetic biology. Gene synthesis contributed significantly to the emergence of synthetic biology by not only providing the genetic material in high quality and quantity but also enabling its assembly, according to engineering design principles, in a standardized format. Synthetic biology on the other hand, added the need for assembling complex circuits and large complexes, thus fostering the development of appropriate methods and expanding the scope of applications. Synthetic biology has also stimulated interdisciplinary collaboration as well as integration of the broader public by addressing socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, political, and legal opportunities and concerns. The demand-driven technological achievements of gene synthesis and the implemented processes are exemplified by an industrial setting of large-scale gene synthesis, describing production from order to delivery. PMID:21601681

Notka, Frank; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf

2011-01-01

270

Materials sciences programs fiscal year 1996  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

NONE

1997-06-01

271

Materials sciences programs: Fiscal year 1995  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Science Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

NONE

1996-05-01

272

Inhibitors of cytoplasmic protein synthesis purified from rat liver mitochondria.  

PubMed

Purified mitochondria from rat liver were found to contain protein synthesis inhibitors, that could be extracted by disruption of mitochondrial membranes and fractionated by gel filtration into two fractions of low and high molecular weight. Small size inhibitors were also released from the latter peak by high ionic strength followed by gel filtration. Both types of factors inhibit incorporation of radioactive amino acids into protein by liver cytoplasmic polysomes programmed with endogenous mRNA or poly U, and by rabbit reticulocyte lysates programmed with added globin mRNA and by incubations of Walker carcinoma cells. They decrease to the same level the cytoplasmic synthesis of proteins for the mitochondrial and extra-mitochondrial compartments in intact cells, but do not appear to inhibit substantially endogenous mitochondrial protein synthesis. Inhibitors were purified by paper chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography into fractions which block with the same kinetics the incorporation of [14]leucine and [35]methionine into protein in systems able to initiate protein synthesis, such as reticulocyte lysates or intact cells, but differ in this respect in incubations of liver ribosomes where re-binding of mRNA is a limiting step. Some of these factors behave as oligopeptides that are assumed to inhibit in vitro primarily the initiation stage but whose function in vivo is still undetermined. PMID:6749130

Pérez, J L; Dorta, B; González-Cadavid, N

1984-06-01

273

Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development  

SciTech Connect

Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. ({sup 32}P) labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development.

Kelso, L.C.

1989-01-01

274

Kinetics and modelling of dimethyl ether synthesis from synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the dual catalytic methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis process over a commercial CuO\\/ZnO\\/Al2O3 (methanol forming) and a ?-alumina (dehydration) catalyst have been investigated at 250°C and 5 MPa using a gradientless, internal-recycle-type reactor. A kinetic model for the combined methanol+DME synthesis based on a methanol synthesis model proposed by Vanden Bussche and Froment (1996) J. Catal.,

K. L. Ng; D. Chadwick; B. A. Toseland

1999-01-01

275

Libraries program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.

2011-01-01

276

Program Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous chapters, we described key characteristics of a CDIO program. First, we addressed what we should teach: learning outcomes that address disciplinary content, as well as personal and interpersonal skills, and process,\\u000a product, and system building skills.We went on to discuss how we should teach: an integrated curriculum; a sequence of design-implement experiences in workspaces specifically designed\\u000a to support

P. Gray

277

Ada concurrent programming  

SciTech Connect

In this book, Narain Gehani explains the concurrent programming facilities in Ada and shows how to use them effectively in writing concurrent programs. He also surveys concurrent programming facilities in other languages, discusses issues specific to concurrent programming, and examines the limitations of the concurrent programming facilities in Ada. Topics considered include an introduction to concurrent programming, the concurrent programming model in Ada, and a survey of other concurrent programming models; tasking, i.e., concurrent programming facilities in Ada; task types; exceptions and tasking; device drivers; real-time programming; topics related to concurrent programming; more examples of concurrent programming; and synopsis of sequential programming in Ada.

Gehani, N.

1984-01-01

278

Program Logics for Homogeneous Meta-programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A meta-program is a program that generates or manipulates another program; in homogeneous meta-programming, a program may\\u000a generate new parts of, or manipulate, itself. Meta-programming has been used extensively since macros were introduced to Lisp,\\u000a yet we have little idea how formally to reason about meta-programs. This paper provides the first program logics for homogeneous\\u000a meta-programming – using a variant

Martin Berger; Laurence Tratt

2010-01-01

279

Hypertargets: a Conceptual Programming approach for the optimisation of industrial heat exchanger networks—I. Grassroots design and network complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes a new design approach for the optimal synthesis of heat exchanger networks. The approach combines thermodynamics, engineering knowledge, and mathematical programming and leads to Conceptual Programming methodology with a clear potential to address industrial applications from a systematic and rigorous perspective. The methodology employs a Conceptual Programming model, the Area Target Model, to screen and scope the

V. Briones; A. C. Kokossis

1999-01-01

280

Implementing successful intimate partner violence screening programs in health care settings: Evidence generated from a realist-informed systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a synthesis of existing studies to re-evaluate the evidence on program mechanisms of intimate partner violence (IPV) universal screening and disclosure within a health care context by addressing how, for whom, and in what circumstances these programs work. Our review is informed by a realist review approach, which focuses on program mechanisms. Systematic, realist reviews can help reveal

Patricia O’Campo; Maritt Kirst; Charoula Tsamis; Catharine Chambers; Farah Ahmad

2011-01-01

281

Parent Infant Program: Program Manager's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document consists of a program manager's manual for the Parent Infant Program (PIP), an early intervention program designed to foster effective parenting of infants with developmental disabilities and delays. Section 1 provides a program overview. Three program goals are: to build parental confidence as primary teachers/facilitators of their…

Wnek, Linda; And Others

282

The collaborative program of research in engineering sciences  

SciTech Connect

Research programs in the following areas are briefly described: High-Temperature Gas-Particle Reactions; Mathematical Modelling of Plasma Systems; Metal Transfer in Gas Metal-Arc Welding; Multivariable Control of Gas Metal-Arc Welding; Synthesis of Heat and Work Integration Systems for Chemical Process Plants; Parity Simulation of Dynamic Processes; Fundamentals of Elastic-Plastic Fracture: Three-Dimensional and Mechanistic Modelling; and Comminution of Energy Materials. Publications from each program are listed.

White, D.C.

1989-08-01

283

Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-malbrancheamide B.  

PubMed

The asymmetric total synthesis of the chlorinated [2.2.2]-diazabicyclic indole alkaloid (+)-malbrancheamide B is reported. Key to the synthesis is a domino reaction sequence that employs an aldol condensation, alkene isomerization, and intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Diastereofacial selection between the azadiene stereofaces is enforced with a chiral aminal auxiliary. A formal 7-step (longest linear route) synthesis of (±)-malbrancheamide B is also reported. PMID:23360221

Laws, Stephen W; Scheerer, Jonathan R

2013-02-08

284

Toward a new synthesis: Population genetics and evolutionary developmental biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite the recent synthesis of developmental genetics and evolutionary biology, current theories of adaptation are still\\u000a strictly phenomenological and do not yet consider the implications of how phenotypes are constructed from genotypes. Given\\u000a the ubiquity of regulatory genetic pathways in developmental processes, we contend that study of the population genetics of\\u000a these pathways should become a major research program. We

Norman A. Johnson; Adam H. Porter

285

Mississippi/Alabama Pinnacle Trend Ecosystem Monitoring Final Synthesis Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Final Synthesis Report summarizes a four-year program to characterize and monitor carbonate mounds on the Mississippi/Alabama outer continental shelf (OCS). The study area is shown in Fig.ES.1. The study was conducted by Continental Shelf Associates, Inc. and the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) of Texas A&M University (TAMU), for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Biological Resources Division.

Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.; Texas A&M University, Geochemical and Environmental Research Group

2001-01-01

286

Total synthesis of alternariol.  

PubMed

Total synthesis of alternariol, a toxic secondary metabolite of various Alternaria fungi, was achieved in seven steps starting with orcinol and 3,5-dimethoxybromobenzene. The longest linear sequence consists of six steps. Key reaction is a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-type coupling of an orcinol-derived boronic acid with a brominated resorcylic aldehyde. The final demethylation furnished alternariol in 73% yield containing a smaller fraction of alternariol 9-methyl ether (approximately 20%). PMID:15822993

Koch, Karen; Podlech, Joachim; Pfeiffer, Erika; Metzler, Manfred

2005-04-15

287

Chemical Synthesis Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on thousands of chemical compounds, including synthesis references and physical properties. The database is searchable by keyword and browseable by journal title. For each compound, the information includes molecular formula and weight, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, International Chemical Identifier (InChIKey), and Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry System (SMILES) notation. There is also information on synonyms, physical properties (boiling and melting points, density), an illustration of chemical structure, spectral data, and links to additional data.

288

Synthesis of nucleoside phosphosulfates.  

PubMed

We describe an efficient and scalable procedure for the chemical synthesis of nucleoside 5'-phosphosulfates (NPS) from nucleoside 5'-phosphorimidazolides and sulfate bis(tributylammonium) salt. Using this method we obtained various NPS with yields ranging from 70-90%, including adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) and 2',3'-cyclic precursor of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), which are the key intermediates in the assimilation and metabolism of sulfur in all living organisms. PMID:22572581

Kowalska, Joanna; Osowniak, Agnieszka; Zuberek, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek

2012-04-20

289

Synthesis of trimecaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to improve the technological processes of the trimecaine synthesis have been undertaken. Thus, Hach [3] prepared ~-diethylaminoac etmesidide (II) without isolating ~-chloroacetmesi dide (I)using mesidine to take up the hydrogen chloride. In 1964, Katsnel'son and co-workers [9] prepared chloroacetylchloride from chloroacetic acid and phosphorous oxychloride, and introduced mesidine into it without isolating it from the reaction mixture. The ~-chloroacetmesi

E. A. Kuznetsova; S. V. Zhuravlev; N. T. Pryanishnikova

1969-01-01

290

Synthesis of silsesquioxane nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the effect of presence of well defined nano-sized inorganic particles on the molecular mobility a\\u000a conformation statistics of polymer chains, well defined polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) macromolecules\\u000a containing polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes nanoparticles (POSS) were synthesized by copper-mediated atom transfer radical\\u000a polymerization (ATRP). Two approaches were used for the synthesis — the first involves POSS

Ond?ej Smrtka; Josef Jan?á?

2008-01-01

291

Isothiocyanates in Heterocyclic Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief introduction of the chemical structure and physico-chemical properties of various synthetic and naturally occurring isothiocyanates is presented. The different methods used to prepare alkyl, aryl, l-alkenyl, carbonyl, thiocarbonyl, l-aminoalkyl, aminophosphoryl and silyl isothiocyanates are systematically described. The use of the above isothiocyanates in the synthesis of thiazetidines, thiophenes, imidazoles, thiazoles, oxazoles, isothiazoles, oxathiolanes, dithiolanes, dioxolanes, triazoles, thiadiazoles, oxadiazoles,

Satyavan Sharma

1989-01-01

292

Formal synthesis of (±)-morphine.  

PubMed

The pain ends here: A novel synthetic strategy for the construction of (±)-morphine rings?B and E was developed, in which SmI2 -promoted reductive coupling/desulfurization and tandem alcoholysis/oxa-Michael addition featured as the key steps for the assembly of the C9-C14 and C5-O bonds, respectively. Asymmetric tandem alcoholysis/oxa-Michael addition was also feasible for the enantiocontrolled synthesis of morphine. PMID:23509056

Li, Jing; Liu, Guo-Liang; Zhao, Xian-He; Du, Ji-Yuan; Qu, Hu; Chu, Wen-Dao; Ding, Ming; Jin, Cong-Yang; Wei, Meng-Xue; Fan, Chun-An

2013-03-18

293

Total synthesis of (-)-teucvidin.  

PubMed

A concise enantioselective synthesis of (-)-teucvidin has been achieved. Our synthetic strategy involved the diastereoselective Michael/Conia-ene cascade cyclization reaction for rapid establishment of the cis-decalin skeleton with three new stereogenic centers in one pot (72%, single diastereomer), the epoxidation/dealkoxycarbonylation protocol for construction of the fused furanone moiety, and the O-allylation/Claisen rearrangement protocol for construction of the all-carbon quaternary center at C9 of the clerodane skeleton. PMID:22594711

Liu, Xiaozu; Lee, Chi-Sing

2012-05-17

294

Continuous organic electrochemical synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and reduction of glucose to sorbitol has been successfully paired in an undivided packed bed electrode flow cell. The use of a Raney nickel powder catalytic cathode significantly improved the current efficiency for sorbitol production, as compared to a high hydrogen overpotential Zn(Hg) cathode. The optimum operating conditions for the paired synthesis are: activity W-2 Raney nickel powder cathode, graphite chip anode, a 1.6 M glucose and 0.4 M CaBr/sub 2/ initial solution composition, pH 6-7, 60/sup 0/C solution temperature, a current density of 250 to 500 mA and a solution volumetric flow rate of 100 ml min/sup -1/. Under these conditions the sorbitol current efficiencies are at least 80%, the glucose acid current efficiencies are 100% and the product yields are quantitative. A separation scheme for the paired synthesis has also been devised. It consists of the precipitation of the oxidation product (calcium gluconate) and the ethanol extraction of glucose and CaBr/sub 2/ from sorbitol. Based on a preliminary economic analysis of the cost of raw materials, energy and the electrochemical cell and separation equipment the cost of producing 1 lb calcium gluconate and 0.68 lb sorbitol in a paired synthesis was estimated to be $0.896. The cost of producing the same amount of sorbitol and calcium gluconate in separate electrochemical cells was calculated to be $1.20. Thus, the paired synthesis appears to be an economically viable process.

Nobe, K.; Baizer, M.; Pintauro, P.; Park, K.; Gilbert, S.

1984-07-01

295

Total synthesis of ochnaflavone  

PubMed Central

Summary The first total syntheses of ochnaflavone, an asymmetric biflavone consisting of apigenin and luteolin moieties, and the permethyl ether of 2,3,2'',3''-tetrahydroochnaflavone have been achieved. The key steps in the synthesis of ochnaflavone were the formation of a diaryl ether and ring cyclization of an ether-linked dimeric chalcone to assemble the two flavone nuclei. Optimal experimental conditions for the oxidative cyclization to form ochnaflavone were established.

Ndoile, Monica M

2013-01-01

296

A new synthesis of enaminoketones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and efficient synthesis of enaminoketones is described. E,Z ?-chloroacroleine derivatives react with secondary amines to produce enaminoketones. The reaction was essentially studied with ?-trifluoromethylacroleines.

Romuald Bartnik; Abdelkader Bensadat; Dariusz Cal; Zofia Cebulska; André Laurent; Eliane Laurent; Caroline Rizzon

1996-01-01

297

Educational Programs and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Listed are over 1,000 programs for the deaf including preschool through secondary schools and classes in the U.S. and Canada, postsecondary programs, teacher training programs, programs for professional specialists, programs for training interpreters for the deaf, programs for the deaf-blind, the Helen Keller National Center, and programs for…

American Annals of the Deaf, 1989

1989-01-01

298

Aircraft noise synthesis system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

McCurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

1987-02-01

299

Genetic Programming Evolution of Controllers for 3-D Character Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant paradigm for 3-D character animation requires an animator to specify the values for all degrees of f reedom of an articulated figure at key frames. Specifying motion that is physically believable and biologically plausible is a tedious practice requiring great skill. We use evolutionary techniques (specifically Genetic Programming) as a means of controller synthesis for character animation. Controllers

Larry Gritz; James K. Hahn

1997-01-01

300

Intensive Case Management for Persons Who Are Homeless and Mentally Ill: A Review of Community Support Program and Human Resource Development Program Efforts. Executive Summary; Volume 1. General Findings; Volume 2. State and Local Project Summaries; Volume 3. Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cosmos Corporation conducted a synthesis of information on current case management practices for the homeless mentally ill population, operated by NIMH State Community Support Programs. The contractors also assessed the efficacy of case management trainin...

D. J. Rog G. D. Andranovich S. Rosenblum

1987-01-01

301

Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of alternative approaches for struggling readers in grades K-5: One-to-one tutoring, small group tutorials, classroom instructional process approaches, and computer-assisted instruction. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or well-matched control groups, study duration of at…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Davis, Susan; Madden, Nancy A.

2009-01-01

302

FPGA Circuit Synthesis of Accelerator Data-Parallel Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the techniques used to describe and synthesize FPGA circuits expressed in a data-parallel domain specific language (DSL) called Accelerator. We identify the subset of data-parallel descriptions that are supported by our system and explain how we track memory access patterns which allow us to generate efficient FPGA circuits.

Barry Bond; Kerry Hammil; Lubomir Litchev; Satnam Singh

2010-01-01

303

Effective Programs for Elementary Science: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a systematic review of research on the achievement outcomes of all types of approaches to teaching science in elementary schools. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or matched control groups, a study duration of at least 4 weeks, and use of achievement measures independent of the experimental treatment. A…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Hanley, Pam; Thurston, Allen

2012-01-01

304

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry ...

A. Lewandowski

1992-01-01

305

Civic Engagement Programs and Youth Development: A Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Civic engagement that is, community service, political activism, environmentalism, and other volunteer activities provide needed services to community residents and psychological, social, and intellectual benefits to participants. A small but growing body of research suggests the likelihood that active involvement leads to healthy, active…

Michelsen, Erik; Zaff, Jonathan F.; Hair, Elizabeth C.

306

Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of alternative approaches for struggling readers in grades K-5: One-to-one tutoring, small group tutorials, classroom instructional process approaches, and computer-assisted instruction. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or well-matched control groups, study duration of…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Davis, Susan; Madden, Nancy A.

2009-01-01

307

Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of alternative approaches for struggling readers ages 5-10 (US grades K-5): One-to-one tutoring, small-group tutorials, classroom instructional process approaches, and computer-assisted instruction. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or well-matched control groups, study…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Davis, Susan; Madden, Nancy A.

2011-01-01

308

FWP executive summaries. Basic Energy Sciences/Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)  

SciTech Connect

This report is divided into: budget, capital equipment requests, general programmatic overview and institutional issues, DOE center of excellence for synthesis and processing of advanced materials, industrial interactions and technology transfer, and research program summaries (new proposals, existing programs). Ceramics, semiconductors, superconductors, interfaces, CVD, tailored surfaces, adhesion, growth and epitaxy, boron-rich solids, nanoclusters, etc. are covered.

Samara, G.A.

1994-01-01

309

Superconducting Technology Program Sandia 1994 Annual Report  

SciTech Connect

Sandia`s STP program is a four-part high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, thallium-based HTS film development, wire and tape fabrication, and HTS motor design. The objective of this work is to develop high-temperature superconducting conductors (wire and tape) capable of meeting requirements for high-power electrical devices of interest to industry. The four research efforts currently underway are: (1) Process research on the material synthesis of high-temperature superconductors, (2) Investigation of the synthesis and processing of thallium-based high-temperature superconducting thick films, (3) Process development and characterization of high-temperature superconducting wire and tape, and (4) Cryogenic design of a high-temperature superconducting motor. This report outlines the research that has been performed during FY94 in each of these four areas. Major areas of research are described, although no attempt has been made to exhaustively include all work performed in each of these areas.

Roth, E.P.

1995-10-01

310

Improved synthesis of several methoxynitronaphthalenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved procedure for the synthesis of several isomeric methoxynitronaphthalenes is described. The key intermediates in the synthesis are the respective nitronaphthylamines and nitronaphthols. The syntheses of 1-methoxy-3-nitronaphthalene (1), 1-methoxy-5-nitronaphthalene (2), and 2-methoxy-5-nitronaphthalene (3) are reported.

Cyril Pfirkfinyi; Hui Liang Yuan; Annette Sappok-Stang; Adolfo Ruiz Gutiérrez; San Ardi Lee

1992-01-01

311

Toffoli network synthesis with templates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversible logic functions can be realized as net- works of Toffoli gates. The synthesis of Toffoli networks can be divided into two steps. First, find a network that realizes the desired function. Second, transform the network such that it uses fewer gates, while realizing the same function. This paper addresses the above synthesis approach. We present a basic method and,

Dmitri Maslov; Gerhard W. Dueck; D. Michael Miller

2005-01-01

312

Lactobacillusassisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

An eco-friendlylactobacillussp. (microbe) assisted synthesis of titanium nanoparticles is reported. The synthesis is performed at room temperature. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of Ti nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles as well as a number of aggregates almost spherical in shape having a size of 40–60 nm are found.

2007-01-01

313

Axonal protein synthesis and transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence has challenged our ideas about the nature of axonal protein synthesis and transport. Previous metabolic labeling evidence supported the idea that all axonal proteins were synthesized in the cell body and then transported as formed cytoplasmic structures into the axon. Recent evidence suggests that neither the synthesis nor the transport of axonal proteins is that simple. Though most

P. E. Gallant

2000-01-01

314

Gestural control of sound synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a review of gestural control of sound synthesis in the context of the design and evaluation of digital musical instruments. It discusses research in various areas related to this field and equally focuses on four main topics: analysis of music performers' gestures, gestural capture technologies, real-time sound synthesis methods, and strategies for mapping gesture variables to sound

MARCELO M. WANDERLEY; PHILIPPE DEPALLE

2004-01-01

315

Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Cassiol  

PubMed Central

An enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-cassiol is reported. The complex derived from Pd2(pmdba)3 and enantiopure t-BuPHOX ligand catalyzes enantioconvergent decarboxylative alkylation to generate the quaternary carbon stereocenter at an early stage. The overall synthetic strategy involves a convergent late-stage coupling of two fragments. The synthesis features a longest linear sequence of eight steps.

Petrova, Krastina V.; Mohr, Justin T.; Stoltz, Brian M.

2009-01-01

316

VHDL synthesis using structured modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of VHDL in a behavioral synthesis system. A structured modeling methodology is presented which suggests standard practices for writing VHDL descriptions which span a variety of design models. The VHDL Synthesis System (VSS) processes each of these input descriptions and produces a structural description of generic components.

Joseph S. Li; Daniel D. Gajski

1989-01-01

317

Biota of North America Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Biota of North America Program (BONAP) is to develop a unified digital system for assessing the North American biota. BONAP's database now includes assessment for all vascular plants and vertebrate animals (native, naturalized, and adventive) of North America north of Mexico, and it maintains the most current taxonomy, nomenclature, and biogeographic data for all members of the biota. The Synthesis of the North American Flora, published in 1999, is available for purchase as a CD-ROM (ordering information is provided); a 1mb demonstration version for Windows is available through the BONAP site. The Synthesis includes taxonomic, nomenclatural, and biogeographic data and images, enabling users to produce species checklists, distribution summaries, and species assessments for morphology, rarity, endemism, nativity, and other biological attributes. It consists of three parts: the "Lexicon," which provides the underlying nomenclature and taxonomy; the "Atlas," which displays distribution maps for each of the accepted taxa; and the "Biological Attributes," which provides summaries of morphological and other specialized data (rarity and endemism, nativity, weediness, habit, habitat, and others).

318

Program Profiling in Cedar,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of program profiling is to provide an accurate characterization of a program's behavior and performance. Program profiling can have several different meanings depending on the measurements of interest and the programming environment. Generally, p...

A. Malony

1987-01-01

319

Template Converter Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computer program represents one of three FORTRAN IV programs necessary to generate perspective views of highways from design data. The Template Converter Program performs essentially a bookkeeping function for the Perspective Plot Program. It accepts ...

J. P. Penzien

1971-01-01

320

Phosphatidylinositol synthesis in mycobacteria.  

PubMed

The metabolism and synthesis of an important mycobacterial lipid component, phosphatidylinositol (PI), and its metabolites, was studied in Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. smegmatis subcellular fractions. Little is known about the synthesis of PI in prokaryotic cells. Only a cell wall fraction (P60) in M. smegmatis was shown to possess PI synthase activity. Product was identified as PI by migration on TLC, treatment with phospholipase C and ion exchange chromatography. PI was the only major product (92.3%) when both cells and P60 fraction were labeled with [3H]inositol. Also, a neutral lipid inositol-containing product (4.1% of the total label) was identified in the P60 preparations. Strangely, PI synthase substrates, CDP-dipalmitoyl-DAG and CDP-NBD-DAG, added to the assay did not stimulate [3H]PI and NBD-PI yield by M. smegmatis. At the same time, addition of both substrates to rat liver and Saccharomyces cerevisiae PI synthase assays resulted in an increase in the product yield. Upon addition of CHAPS to the mycobacterial PI synthase assay, both substrates were utilized in a dose-dependent manner for the synthesis of NBD-PI and [3H]PI. These results demonstrate a strict substrate specificity of mycobacterial PI synthase toward endogenous substrates. K(m) of the enzyme toward inositol was shown to be 25 microM; Mg2+ stimulated the enzyme to a greater degree than Mn2+. Structural analogs of myo-inositol, epi-inositol and scyllo-inositol and Zn2+ were shown to be more potent inhibitors of mycobacterial PI synthase than of mammalian analogs. Lack of sequence homology with mammalian PI synthases, different kinetic characteristics, existence of selective inhibitors and an important physiological role in mycobacteria, suggest that PI synthase may be a good potential target for antituberculosis therapy. PMID:9989274

Salman, M; Lonsdale, J T; Besra, G S; Brennan, P J

1999-01-01

321

Apparatus for ammonia synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is described for the synthesis of ammonia, comprising: a first vertical synthesis reactor comprising a first reactor shell and a first catalyst bed contained in a first catalyst holder positioned within and spaced apart from the first reactor shell to provide a first annulus between the first catalyst holder and the first reactor shell to allow feed gas to enter the first catalyst bed; a second vertical synthesis reactor comprising a second reactor shell and a second catalyst bed contained in a second catalyst holder positioned within and spaced apart from the second reactor shell to provide a second annulus between the second catalyst holder and second reactor shell to allow feed gas to enter the second catalyst bed; a gas-gas heat exchanger; a first coupling means for coupling the bottom end of the first reactor to the gas-gas heat exchanger, the first coupling means having a first conduit between the fist annulus and the gas-gas heat exchanger for passage of feed to the first catalyst bed and a second conduit to pass effluent from the first catalyst bed to the gas-gas heat exchanger; a second heat exchanger comprising an exchanger shell having disposed therein a first tube bundle and a second tube bundle disposed in an interior portion of the exchanger shell inside of the first tube bundle; a second coupling means for coupling the bottom end of the second reactor to the second heat exchanger, the second coupling means having a third conduit between the second annulus and the outlet of the first tube bundle for passage of feed to the second catalyst bed and a fourth conduit to pass effluent from the second catalyst bed to the second tube bundle; and a fifth conduit to pass effluent from the gas-gas heat exchanger to the inlet of the first tube bundle.

Grotz, B.J.

1993-08-17

322

Stereoselective synthesis of (+)-flutriafol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stereoselective synthesis of (+)-flutriafol, a triazole fungicide, has been accomplished in seven linear steps from (1S)-[(4R)-2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]-dioxolan-4-yl]-(4-methoxyphenyl)methanol in 15% overall yield. Diastereoselective nucleophilic 1,2-addition was employed as a key step for constructing the requisite chiral 1,2-diol for flutriafol. A high degree of 1,4-asymmetric induction could be realized via a chelation-controlled mechanism during the key alkylation step.

Minsun Chang; Tae Hyun Kim; Hee-Doo Kim

2008-01-01

323

Total synthesis of lodopyridone.  

PubMed

A convergent total synthesis of the structurally unprecedented alkaloid lodopyridone was achieved using a cross-coupling of an iodopyridone fragment with a quinolinethiazolylstannane. Key features of the syntheses of the pentasubstituted 4-pyridone were a regioselective bromination of a 4-pyridone derived from kojic acid, a subsequent Cu-mediated introduction of the thioether, and a directed lithiation/iodination step. A chemoselective Negishi cross-coupling of a dibromothiazole and a quinolinylzinc reagent was used to assemble the chloroquinolinethiazol moiety. PMID:22909023

Burckhardt, Tobias; Harms, Klaus; Koert, Ulrich

2012-08-21

324

Production of synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis gas prepared from ash-containing carbonaceous fuel is passed to a water-containing contace zone wherein the ash is collected in a lower settling portion of the contact zone prior to passage through a valved passageway and thence to a lock hopper during a valve-open period, flow of said ash being augmented by intermittent positive flow of water during the time said valve is open, through said valve from said settling zone to said lock hopper whereby more positive flow of ash is obtained (when compared to that obtained by use of continuous flow of water from the lock hopper) with substantially decreased heat loss.

Jahnke, F. C.; Crouch, W. B.

1985-08-06

325

Facile synthesis of troilite.  

PubMed

Low-temperature synthetic pathways can result in crystallization of metastable materials. These methods have been widely explored for the preparation of metal oxides. Adaptation of nonhydrolytic sol-gel chemistry to non-oxide systems offers an elegant route to transition-metal sulfides. The method can be exploited for the facile and reproducible synthesis of iron sulfide crystallizing in the troilite structure. This phase is only found in meteorites and planets and has previously been obtained by high-temperature or high-energy ball-milling methods. "Nonhydrolytic" sol-gel processing results in direct crystallization of troilite with no need for further calcination. PMID:18154329

Pedoussaut, Nathalie M; Lind, Cora

2007-12-23

326

Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

2012-01-01

327

Protein synthesis and memory: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews studies that have used protein synthesis inhibitors to test the hypothesis that memory in part depends on brain protein synthesis. Evidence from learning curves, examination of short-term retention, and posttraining drug injection indicate that initial acquisition is not dependent on such synthesis, but it appears that protein synthesis, during or shortly after training, is an essential step in the

Hasker P. Davis; Larry R. Squire

1984-01-01

328

GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 from the "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets.

Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, K.; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder Haar, T.; VöRöSmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

2003-08-01

329

Electroconductive hydrogels: synthesis, characterization and biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Electroconductive hydrogels (ECHs) are composite biomaterials that bring together the redox switching and electrical properties of inherently conductive electroactive polymers (CEPs) with the facile small molecule transport, high hydration levels and biocompatibility of cross-linked hydrogels. General methods for the synthesis of electroconductive hydrogels as polymer blends and as polymer co-networks via chemical oxidative, electrochemical and/or a combination of chemical oxidation followed by electrochemical polymerization techniques are reviewed. Specific examples are introduced to illustrate the preparation of electroconductive hydrogels that were synthesized from poly(HEMA)-based hydrogels with polyaniline and from poly(HEMA)-based hydrogels with polypyrrole. The key applications of electroconductive hydrogels; as biorecognition membranes for implantable biosensors, as electro-stimulated drug release devices for programmed delivery, and as the low interfacial impedance layers on neuronal prostheses are highlighted. These applications provide great new horizons for these stimuli responsive, biomimetic polymeric materials. PMID:20060580

Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

2010-01-08

330

Evolution of alcohol synthesis catalysts under syngas  

SciTech Connect

Methanol-higher alcohols mixtures can be synthesized from natural gas via CO/CO[sub 2]/H[sub 2] mixtures and constitute potential octane boosters for unleaded gasoline. Catalytic formulations have been developed around the world, which allow rather high alcohol selectivities to be reached, but these performances are generally attained after an aging period which is necessary for the in situ preparation of the active phase. For this reason, the evolution of copper-cobalt-based model catalysts has been studied in different test equipment and operating conditions, such as fixed bed, slurry phase, and Berty reactors, as well as autoclaves and differential scanning calorimeters (DSC). The evolution of metallic cobalt dispersion was followed by magnetic measurements, and carbon deposits were visualized by temperature-programmed hydrogenation experiments. The interest of a slurry reactor for alcohols synthesis is demonstrated at lab scale. Acetaldehyde thermodesorption and CO disproportionation allow the performances of cobalt-based active phases to be predicted.

Chaumette, P.; Courty, P. (Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)); Kiennemann, A. (E.H.I.C.S., Strasbourg (France)) (and others)

1994-06-01

331

Application of lean manufacturing concepts to drug discovery: rapid analogue library synthesis.  

PubMed

The application of parallel synthesis to lead optimization programs in drug discovery has been an ongoing challenge since the first reports of library synthesis. A number of approaches to the application of parallel array synthesis to lead optimization have been attempted over the years, ranging from widespread deployment by (and support of) individual medicinal chemists to centralization as a service by an expert core team. This manuscript describes our experience with the latter approach, which was undertaken as part of a larger initiative to optimize drug discovery. In particular, we highlight how concepts taken from the manufacturing sector can be applied to drug discovery and parallel synthesis to improve the timeliness and thus the impact of arrays on drug discovery. PMID:16961404

Weller, Harold N; Nirschl, David S; Petrillo, Edward W; Poss, Michael A; Andres, Charles J; Cavallaro, Cullen L; Echols, Martin M; Grant-Young, Katherine A; Houston, John G; Miller, Arthur V; Swann, R Thomas

332

Natural Products Synthesis: Enabling Tools to Penetrate Nature's Secrets of Biogenesis and Biomechanism†  

PubMed Central

Selected examples from our laboratory of how synthetic technology platforms developed for the total synthesis of several disparate families of natural products was harnessed to penetrate biomechanistic and/or biosynthetic queries is discussed. Unexpected discoveries of biomechanistic reactivity and/or penetrating the biogenesis of naturally occurring substances were made possible through access to substances available only through chemical synthesis. Hypothesis-driven total synthesis programs are emerging as very useful conceptual templates for penetrating and exploiting the inherent reactivity of biologically active natural substances. In many instances, new enabling synthetic technologies were required to be developed. The examples demonstrate the often un-tapped richness of complex molecule synthesis to provide powerful tools to understand, manipulate and exploit Nature’s vast and creative palette of secondary metabolites.

Williams, Robert M.

2011-01-01

333

Yeast protein synthesis. Preparation and analysis of a highly active cell-free system  

PubMed Central

A detailed description is given of the techniques for preparing, handling and assaying a cell-free protein-synthesizing system from yeast, analogous to crude (S-30) Escherichia coli extracts. Its basic characteristics are described. The rate of poly(U)-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis was at least fivefold higher than in previously reported yeast cell-free systems, approaching that of crude mammalian cell-free systems. Fractionation of the S-30 extracts lowered activity. Organelles and their fragments present in the S-30 extract neither contributed to nor inhibited cytoplasmic protein synthesis. There was a component localized in the high-speed supernatant that caused an inhibition of polyphenylalanine synthesis. Poly(U) programmed the synthesis of long-chain polyphenylalanine, in contrast with the only other yeast system in which this has been examined (Bretthauer & Golichowski, 1968). Preincubation techniques inactivated the system and probably a small proportion only of the ribosomes was active.

Sissons, Christopher H.

1974-01-01

334

Synthesis of (±)-7-hydroxylycopodine.  

PubMed

A seven-step synthesis of (±)-7-hydroxylycopodine that proceeds in 5% overall yield has been achieved. The key step is a Prins reaction in 60% sulfuric acid that gave the key tricyclic intermediate with complete control of the ring fusion stereochemistry. A one-pot procedure orthogonally protected the primary alcohol as an acetate and the tertiary alcohol as a methylthiomethyl ether. The resulting product was converted to 7-hydroxydehydrolycopodine by heating with KO-t-Bu and benzophenone in benzene followed by acidic workup. During unsuccessful attempts to make optically pure starting material, we observed the selective Pt-catalyzed hydrogenation of the 5-phenyl group of a 4,5-diphenyloxazolidine under acidic conditions and the Pt-catalyzed isomerization of the oxazolidine to an amide under neutral conditions. In attempts to hydroxylate the starting material so that we could adapt this synthesis to the preparation of (±)-7,8-dihydroxylycopodine (sauroine) we observed the novel oxidation of a bicyclic vinylogous amide to a keto pyridine with Mn(OAc)(3) and to an amino phenol with KHMDS and oxygen. PMID:22443298

Lin, Hong-Yu; Causey, Robert; Garcia, Gregory E; Snider, Barry B

2012-03-30

335

Synthesis of lysophospholipids.  

PubMed

New synthetic methods for the preparation of biologically active phospholipids and lysophospholipids (LPLs) are very important in solving problems of membrane-chemistry and biochemistry. Traditionally considered just as second-messenger molecules regulating intracellular signalling pathways, LPLs have recently shown to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes such as inflammation, reproduction, angiogenesis, tumorogenesis, atherosclerosis and nervous system regulation. Elucidation of the mechanistic details involved in the enzymological, cell-biological and membrane-biophysical roles of LPLs relies obviously on the availability of structurally diverse compounds. A variety of chemical and enzymatic routes have been reported in the literature for the synthesis of LPLs: the enzymatic transformation of natural glycerophospholipids (GPLs) using regiospecific enzymes such as phospholipases A1 (PLA1), A2 (PLA2) phospholipase D (PLD) and different lipases, the coupling of enzymatic processes with chemical transformations, the complete chemical synthesis of LPLs starting from glycerol or derivatives. In this review, chemo-enzymatic procedures leading to 1- and 2-LPLs will be described. PMID:20335986

D'Arrigo, Paola; Servi, Stefano

2010-03-08

336

Synthesis of (?)-7-Hydroxylycopodine  

PubMed Central

A seven-step synthesis of (±)-7-hydroxylycopodine that proceeds in 5% overall yield has been achieved. The key step is a Prins reaction in 60% sulfuric acid that gave the key tricyclic intermediate with complete control of the ring fusion stereochemistry. A one-pot procedure orthogonally protected the primary alcohol as an acetate and the tertiary alcohol as a methylthiomethyl ether. The resulting product was converted to 7-hydroxydehydrolycopodine by heating with KO-t-Bu and benzophenone in benzene followed by acidic workup. During unsuccessful attempts to make optically pure starting material, we observed the selective Pt-catalyzed hydrogenation of the 5-phenyl group of a 4,5-diphenyloxazolidine under acidic conditions and the Pt-catalyzed isomerization of the oxazolidine to an amide under neutral conditions. In attempts to hydroxylate the starting material so that we could adapt this synthesis to the preparation of (±)-7,8-dihydroxylycopodine (sauroine) we observed the novel oxidation of a bicyclic vinylogous amide to a keto pyridine with Mn(OAc)3 and to an amino phenol with KHMDS and oxygen.

Lin, Hong-Yu; Causey, Robert; Garcia, Gregory E.

2012-01-01

337

Study on constraint-based texture synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texture synthesis has been an active research topic of computer graphics,vision,and image processing ,it has been well studied in recent years. while the constraint-based texture synthesis texture is the more meaningful direction of the synthesis technologies. Constraint synthesis refers to fix a number of points or some textures around the target area and carry out texture synthesis to the target

Wei Xin; Jiang Huawei; Yang Teng fei

2010-01-01

338

Programmed Death in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) in bacteria plays an important role in developmental processes, such as lysis of the mother cell during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis and lysis of vegetative cells in fruiting body formation of Myxococcus xanthus. The signal transduction pathway leading to autolysis of the mother cell includes the terminal sporulation sigma factor E?K, which induces the synthesis of autolysins CwlC and CwlH. An activator of autolysin in this and other PCD processes is yet to be identified. Autolysis plays a role in genetic exchange in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the gene for the major autolysin, lytA, is located in the same operon with recA. DNA from lysed cells is picked up by their neighbors and recombined into the chromosome by RecA. LytA requires an unknown activator controlled by a sensory kinase, VncS. Deletion of vncS inhibits autolysis and also decreases killing by unrelated antibiotics. This observation suggests that PCD in bacteria serves to eliminate damaged cells, similar to apoptosis of defective cells in metazoa. The presence of genes affecting survival without changing growth sensitivity to antibiotics (vncS, lytA, hipAB, sulA, and mar) indicates that bacteria are able to control their fate. Elimination of defective cells could limit the spread of a viral infection and donate nutrients to healthy kin cells. An altruistic suicide would be challenged by the appearance of asocial mutants without PCD and by the possibility of maladaptive total suicide in response to a uniformly present lethal factor or nutrient depletion. It is proposed that a low rate of mutation serves to decrease the probability that asocial mutants without PCD will take over the population. It is suggested that PCD is disabled in persistors, rare cells that are resistant to killing, to ensure population survival. It is suggested that lack of nutrients leads to the stringent response that suppresses PCD, producing a state of tolerance to antibiotics, allowing cells to discriminate between nutrient deprivation and unrepairable damage. High levels of persistors are apparently responsible for the extraordinary survival properties of bacterial biofilms, and genes affecting persistence appear to be promising targets for development of drugs aimed at eradicating recalcitrant infections. PCD in unicellular eukaryotes is also considered, including aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Apoptosis-like elimination of defective cells in S. cerevisiae and protozoa suggests that all unicellular life forms evolved altruistic programmed death that serves a variety of useful functions.

Lewis, Kim

2000-01-01

339

Plant Desiccation and Protein Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Rehydration of Tortula ruralis in 2,4-dinitrophenol inhibits protein synthesis, polysome formation, and ATP production. Polysomes are conserved intact and are active in vitro in hydrated Tortula placed in this chemical, although in vivo protein synthesis is inhibited. Hydrated moss placed under nitrogen in the dark shows a reduced capacity for ATP and protein synthesis, but polysomes are conserved. During anaerobiosis in light, ATP and protein synthesis are unaffected. Rehydration of slow-dried Tortula in nitrogen in the dark results in reduced in vivo protein synthesis, but not polysome formation; this reduction is much less in the light. Slow-dried moss, but not fast-dried, has a greatly reduced ATP content in the dry state, but this rapidly returns to normal levels on rehydration. The prolonged burst in respiration observed previously on rehydration of Tortula is not paralleled by ATP accumulation. Changes in energy charge in all treatments tested follow the changes in ATP. The aquatic moss, Hygrohypnum luridum, which is intolerant to drought, loses ATP during fast drying and this is not replenished on subsequent rehydration. We consider that the relationship between levels of ATP and protein synthesis is more meaningful during rehydration of mosses (the time when repair to desiccation-induced cellular damage can occur) than during desiccation, and that drought-induced cessation of protein synthesis may not be mediated directly through ATP availability.

Bewley, J. Derek; Gwozdz, Edward A.

1975-01-01

340

Synthesis of concurrent systems for an atomic read\\/atomic write model of computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paul C. ATTIEySchool of Computer ScienceFlorida International Universityattie@fiu.eduE. Allen EMERSONzDepartment of Computer SciencesThe University of Texas at Austinemerson@cs.utexas.eduAbstractMethods for mechanically synthesizing concurrent programs from temporal logic specifications have been proposed(cf. [EC82, MW84, PR89, PR89b, AM94]). An important advantage of these synthesis methods is that they obviatethe need to manually construct a program and compose a proof ...

Paul C. Attie; E. Allen Emerson

1996-01-01

341

Optimization of microfluidic PET tracer synthesis with Cerenkov imaging.  

PubMed

Microfluidic technologies provide an attractive platform for the synthesis of radiolabeled compounds. Visualization of radioisotopes on chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. With Cerenkov imaging, beta particle emitting isotopes can be localized with a sensitive CCD camera. In order for Cerenkov imaging to also serve as a quantitative tool, it is necessary to understand how material properties relevant to Cerenkov emission, namely, index of refraction and beta particle stopping power, affect Cerenkov light output. In this report, we investigate the fundamental physical characteristics of Cerenkov photon yield at different stages of [(18)F]FDG synthesis on the electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) microfluidic platform. We also demonstrate how Cerenkov imaging has enabled synthesis optimization. Geant4, a Monte Carlo program applied extensively in high energy physics, is used to simulate Cerenkov photon yield from (18)F beta particles traversing materials of interest during [(18)F]FDG synthesis on chip. Our simulations show that the majority (approximately two-thirds) of the (18)F beta particle energy available to produce Cerenkov photons is deposited on the glass plates of the EWOD chip. This result suggests the possibility of using a single calibration factor to convert Cerenkov signal to radioactivity, independent of droplet composition. We validate our simulations with a controlled measurement examining varying ratios of [(18)O]H2O, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and acetonitrile (MeCN), and find a consistent calibration independent of solvent composition. However, the calibration factor may underestimate the radioactivity in actual synthesis due to discoloration of the droplet during certain steps of probe synthesis. In addition to the attractive quantitative potential of Cerenkov imaging, this imaging strategy provides indispensable qualitative data to guide synthesis optimization. We are able to use this imaging technique to optimize the mixing protocol as well as identify and correct for loss of radioactivity due to the migration of radioactive vapor outside of the EWOD heater, enabling an overall increase in the crude radiochemical yield from 50 ± 3% (n = 3) to 72 ± 13% (n = 5). PMID:23928799

Dooraghi, Alex A; Keng, Pei Y; Chen, Supin; Javed, Muhammad R; Kim, Chang-Jin C J; Chatziioannou, Arion F; van Dam, R Michael

2013-10-01

342

Transcriptional profiling in response to inhibition of cellulose synthesis by thaxtomin A and isoxaben in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant cell wall determines cell shape and is the main barrier against environmental challenges. Perturbations in the cellulose\\u000a content of the wall lead to global modifications in cellular homeostasis, as seen in cellulose synthase mutants or after inhibiting\\u000a cellulose synthesis. In particular, application of inhibitors of cellulose synthesis such as thaxtomin A (TA) and isoxaben\\u000a (IXB) initiates a programmed

Isabelle Duval; Nathalie Beaudoin

2009-01-01

343

Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure Anthracyclinones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthracycline antibiotics are among the most important clinical drugs used in the treatment of human cancer. The search for new agents with improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced cardiotoxicity stimulated considerable efforts in the synthesis of new analogues. Since the biological activity of anthracyclines depends on their natural absolute configuration, various strategies for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones (aglycones) have been developed. They comprise: resolution of racemic intermediate, incorporation of a chiral fragment derived from natural and non-natural chiral pools, asymmetric synthesis with the use of a chiral auxiliary or a chiral reagent, and enantioselective catalysis. Synthetic advances towards enantiopure anthracyclinones reported over the last 17 years are reviewed.

Achmatowicz, Osman; Szechner, Barbara

344

Graphene synthesis by ion implantation  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate an ion implantation method for large-scale synthesis of high quality graphene films with controllable thickness. Thermally annealing polycrystalline nickel substrates that have been ion implanted with carbon atoms results in the surface growth of graphene films whose average thickness is controlled by implantation dose. The graphene film quality, as probed with Raman and electrical measurements, is comparable to previously reported synthesis methods. The implantation synthesis method can be generalized to a variety of metallic substrates and growth temperatures, since it does not require a decomposition of chemical precursors or a solvation of carbon into the substrate.

Garaj, Slaven; Hubbard, William; Golovchenko, J. A.

2010-01-01

345

Optimization of process synthesis and design problems: A modified differential evolution approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of process synthesis and design problems in chemical engineering can be modeled as mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problems. They involve continuous (floating point) and integer variables. A common feature of this class of mathematical problems is the potential existence of non-convexities due to the particular form of the objective function and\\/or the set of constraints. Due

Rakesh Angira; B. V. Babu

2006-01-01

346

ANALYSIS OF THE FIELD SYNTHESIS ALGORITHM, VARIABLE FIELD GENERATION, USING MAGNETOSTATIC FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND OPTIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the magnetostatic field synthesis method, Variable Field Generation (VFG), and results from applying it to a test case to design magneto-plasma-aerodynamic (MPAD) devices to observe algorithm performance in the MATLAB programming environment are presented in this paper. The algorithm applied to this test case included integrating the Magnetostatic module of the finite element software package, Maxwell 3D

N. BROOKS; F. GROSS; T. BALDWIN

347

Design and synthesis of chiral ligands for use in stereoselective atropisomeric biaryl coupling reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new chiral ligand design program was initiated for the stereoselective synthesis of sterically hindered systems, such as atropisomeric biaryls. The concept of helical-sense discrimination was investigated, for use in the Pd-based Suzuki coupling reaction. A new set of design principles was established for chiral ligands for use in these reactions; 1) the ligand must contain a defined helical twist

Mary J Gresser

2007-01-01

348

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth with Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-synthesis of empirical and nonempirical literature analyzed 24 journal articles and book chapters that addressed the intersection of disability, [homo]sexuality, and gender identity/expression in P-12 schools, colleges and universities, supported living programs, and other educational and social contexts in Australia, Belgium, Canada,…

Duke, Thomas Scott

2011-01-01

349

Automated test pattern generation for the Cathedral-II\\/2nd architectural synthesis environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CAD implementation of a testability strategy for chips as designed with the Cathedral-II\\/2nd silicon compilation environment is presented. Emphasis will be on the software tools accomplishing the test assembly. These tools are fully integrated with synthesis, place and route and module generation programs. The hierarchy present in the design has been exploited to assemble the test patterns in an

Jos van Sas; Francky Catthoor; Peter Vandeput; Frank Rossaert; Hugo De Man

1991-01-01

350

Symbolic integration of logic in MILP branch and bound methods for the synthesis of process networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the branch and bound solution of process synthesis problems that are modelled as mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) problems. The symbolic integration of logic relations between potential units in a process network is proposed in the LP based branch and bound method to expedite the search for the optimal solution. The objective of this integration is to

Ramesh Raman; Ignacio E. Grossmann

1993-01-01

351

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth with Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This meta-synthesis of empirical and nonempirical literature analyzed 24 journal articles and book chapters that addressed the intersection of disability, [homo]sexuality, and gender identity/expression in P-12 schools, colleges and universities, supported living programs, and other educational and social contexts in Australia, Belgium, Canada,…

Duke, Thomas Scott

2011-01-01

352

A formal software synthesis approach for embedded hard real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software synthesis is defined as the task of translating a specification into a software program, in a general purpose language, in such a way that this software can be compiled by conventional compilers. In general, complex real-time systems rely on specialized operating system kernels. However, the operating system usage may introduce significant overheads as in execution time as in memory

Raimundo Barreto; Marilia Neves; Meuse Oliveira Jr; Paulo Maciel; Eduardo Tavares; Ricardo Lima

2004-01-01

353

A formal software synthesis approach for embedded hard real-time systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software synthesis is defined as the task of translating a specification into a software program in a general purpose language, in such a way that this software can be compiled by conventional compilers. In general, complex real-time systems rely on specialized operating system kernels. However, the operating system usage may introduce significant overheads as in execution time as in memory

M Neves; M Oliveira Jr; P Maciel

2004-01-01

354

Basic Autonomy as a Fundamental Step in the Synthesis of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the search for the primary roots of autonomy (a pivotal concept in Varela's comprehensive understanding of living beings), the theory of autopoiesis provided an explicit criterion to define minimal life in universal terms, and was taken as a guideline in the research program for the artificial synthesis of biological systems. Acknowledging the invaluable contribution of the autopoietic school to

Kepa Ruiz-mirazo; Alvaro Moreno

2004-01-01

355

Optimally Profilingand Tracing Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes algorithms for inserting monitoring code to profileand trace programs. These algorithms greatly reduce the cost of measuring programs with respect to the commonly-used technique of placing code in each basic block. Program profiling counts the number of times each basic block in a program executes. Instruction tracing records the sequence of basic blocks traversed in a program

THOMAS BALL; JAMES R. LARUS

356

University minority engineering programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agenda for a university minority program is examined. The purposes of the program are to recruit minority students into the engineering\\/science field, conduct a pre-college program for junior high students, and provide support for minority engineering students currently enrolled in the university. The focus will be on how a minority engineering program functions in a university setting. Programs such

M. Dakich

1993-01-01

357

Lippincott Basic Reading Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding process that…

Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

358

Enzymatic synthesis of alkyds.  

PubMed

Lipases were used as catalysts in the synthesis of "all-trans" polyester oligomers in organic solvents. Esters of fumaric acid and 1,4-butane diol served as the substrates in the enzyme-catalyzed polytransesterification. No isomerization of the double bond was found under the mild conditions of enzymatic catalysis used by us, as opposed to the extensive isomerization found during chemical polycondensation. The alkoxy leaving group of the ester fumarate was found to be responsible for the rate of transesterification. Low (M(w) approximately 600-800) and high (M(w) = 1250) molecular weight alkyds were synthesized depending on whether tetrahedrofuran or acetonitrile, respectively, was used as the solvent. PMID:18595078

Geresh, S; Giiboa, Y

1990-07-01

359

Fiber draw synthesis  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid state are arranged in proximate domains within a fiber preform. The preform is fluidized at elevated temperatures and drawn into fiber, reducing the lateral dimensions and bringing the domains into intimate contact to enable chemical reaction. A polymer preform containing a thin layer of selenium contacted by tin–zinc wires is drawn to yield electrically contacted crystalline ZnSe domains of sub-100-nm scales. The in situ synthesized compound semiconductor becomes the basis for an electronic heterostructure diode of arbitrary length in the fiber. The ability to synthesize materials within fibers while precisely controlling their geometry and electrical connectivity at submicron scales presents new opportunities for increasing the complexity and functionality of fiber structures.

Orf, Nicholas D.; Shapira, Ofer; Sorin, Fabien; Danto, Sylvain; Baldo, Marc A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

2011-01-01

360

Industrially scalable nucleoside synthesis  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An industrially scalable two-step process for preparing a .beta.-L-2'-deoxy-nucleoside that results in a predominance of the .beta.- over the .alpha.-anomeric form of the compound is described. An optional third step may be used to prepare 3'-prodrugs of desirable .beta.-L-2'-deoxy-nucleosides for the delivery of these pharmaceuticals effective for treating viral diseases. The synthetic process is applicable in particular to the formation of .beta.-L-2'-deoxy-cytidine, a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or prodrug thereof. The process can provide a relatively uncontaminated product that may require no further isolation or purification, thereby making the synthesis easily scalable for industrial manufacture.

2009-09-29

361

Combustion synthesis of fullerenes  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the isolation of C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} from combustion soot that is produced in high-temperature, low-pressure premixed flat flames. A critical parameter for high fullerene yields in combustion appears to be a very high flame temperature. Equilibrium calculations indicate that low pressures are important, but the experimental evidence is not clear at this time. Combustion synthesis yields fullerenes with a C{sub 70}/C{sub 60} ratio of about 40%, as compared with the 12% reported for electric-arc-generated fullerenes. The overall yields from carbon are very low (ca. 0.03%) but the soot studied had been produced in flames that were in no way optimized for fullerene production.

Mckinnon, J.T.; Bell, W.L. (TDA Research, Inc., Wheat Ridge, CO (US)); Barkley, R.M. (Cooperative Inst. for Research on Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (US))

1992-01-01

362

Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the basic principles and applications of laser-based synthesis of nanomaterials. Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of a bulk solid leads to the formation of nanoparticles having essentially the target composition.When performed in vacuum or in a gas, the ejected clusters may accumulate on a subtrate, thus producing a nanostructured thin film. In liquids, it produces a colloidal solution. Laser interaction with micro/nanomaterials that are embedded in a solid or suspended in either a liquid or a gas is capable to melt and/or fragment the materials and/or induce the formation of new nanostructures and alloys. For these approaches, a detailed description of the mechanisms of laser ablation and nanoparticles growth is given.

Besner, Sébastien; Meunier, Michel

363

Chimie synthese organique. (Organic synthesis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new ...

J. Y. Lallemand M. Fetizon

1988-01-01

364

Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of these discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activit...

T. H. Nguyen

2003-01-01

365

Synthesis of High Purity Hexanitrostilbene.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of a continuous process and the apparatus for the synthesis of high purity hexanitrostilbene type I (HNS I) are described. Optimum solution concentrations and ratios were investigated, and product washing and slurrying procedures were deve...

T. W. Stull

1975-01-01

366

CLEAN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Newer green chemistry approach to accomplish chemical synthesis in water is summarized. Recent global developments pertaining to C-C bond forming reactions using metallic reagents and direct use of the renewable materials such as carbohydrates without derivatization are described...

367

Enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-dibromophakellstatin.  

PubMed

The first enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-phakellstatin and (+)-dibromophakellstatin was achieved. Key steps in the synthesis were a desymmetrization of the diketopiperazine (S,S)-cyclo (Pro, Pro) via a diastereoselective acylation, an intramolecular Mitsunobu reaction to introduce the C6 aminal, and a tandem Hofmann rearrangement/cyclization to simultaneously introduce the C10 quaternary aminal center and deliver the cyclic urea. The synthesis also demonstrates the unusual stability of pyrrolo aminals. Importantly, this strategy has the potential for producing phakellstatin derivatives, derived from (R,R)-cyclo (Pro, Pro), necessary for biological studies. A similar annulation protocol is also expected to be applicable to the synthesis of palau'amine. PMID:12785755

Poullennec, Karine G; Romo, Daniel

2003-05-28

368

Protein synthesis in the dendrite.  

PubMed Central

In neurons, many proteins that are involved in the transduction of synaptic activity and the expression of neural plasticity are specifically localized at synapses. How these proteins are targeted is not clearly understood. One mechanism is synaptic protein synthesis. According to this idea, messenger RNA (mRNA) translation from the polyribosomes that are observed at the synaptic regions provides a local source of synaptic proteins. Although an increasing number of mRNA species has been detected in the dendrite, information about the synaptic synthesis of specific proteins in a physiological context is still limited. The physiological function of synaptic synthesis of specific proteins in synaptogenesis and neural plasticity expression remains to be shown. Experiments aimed at understanding the mechanisms and functions f synaptic protein synthesis might provide important information about the molecular nature of neural plasticity.

Tang, Shao Jun; Schuman, Erin M

2002-01-01

369

Papers on Integrated Circuit Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ten papers that constitute this report were presented as term papers by graduate students at Stanford University for the electrical engineering course EE 292Y, 'Active Integrated Network Synthesis,' Spring Quarter, 1966. The majority of papers contain...

R. W. Newcomb T. N. Rao

1966-01-01

370

Analysis and Synthesis of Mechanisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This collection of articles deals with the analysis and synthesis of plane, and spatial mechanisms. Various theoretical and practical problems associated with the design of plane mechanisms as well as of adjustable lever and cam-lever mechanisms are consi...

N. I. Levitskii

1975-01-01

371

COLAS Program Generator and Program Generator Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual describes the use of two tools for the development of software: the COLAS Program Generator (CPG), which generates the complete control part of programs for interactive use from a specification of the user interaction. In addition the specifica...

J. J. P. van Hulzen

1988-01-01

372

Stochastic Integer Programming by Dynamic Programming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optimization models in stochastic programming are considered. The dynamic programming algorithms for two-stage scheduling, bin packing and multiknapsack problems are studied. The numerical results are compared with results obtained by heuristics for the s...

B. J. Lageweg J. K. Lenstra A. H. G. Rinnooykan L. Stougie

1985-01-01

373

Research-tested Intervention Programs: Program Ratings  

Cancer.gov

Dissemination Capability The readiness of program materials for use by others as well program's capability to offer services/resources to facilitate dissemination. This is measured through (a) the quality of implementation materials; (b) training and

374

Bimetallic Janus nanostructures via programmed shell growth.  

PubMed

We report the synthesis of compositionally asymmetric, core-Janus shell plasmonic nanostructures comprised of Au and Ag. Kinetic control was employed to achieve asymmetric shell growth on Au nanoparticles acting as cores. Subsequent differential surface functionalization of these nanostructures enabled programmed shell growth resulting in core-Janus shell nanostructures. UV/vis extinction spectra reveal that the localized surface plasmon resonance of the nanostructures depends on the composition and distribution of the components, providing additional handles to tune the optical properties of metal nanostructures. The core-Janus shell nanostructures demonstrated here are highly Raman-active making them attractive candidates for Raman-based biosensing and bioimaging applications. PMID:23386141

Gandra, Naveen; Portz, Christopher; Singamaneni, Srikanth

2013-02-06

375

The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

Chuang, S.S.C.

1988-11-14

376

Total synthesis of ecteinascidin 743.  

PubMed

A straightforward synthesis of ecteinascidin 743 was accomplished from readily available l-glutamic acid as a single chiral source. Our novel synthesis features a concise and convergent approach for construction of the B-ring, consisting of a sequence involving a stereoselective Heck reaction between a diazonium salt and an enamide, oxidative cleavage of the resulting alkene, and intramolecular ortho substitution of the phenol by an aldehyde. PMID:24001124

Kawagishi, Fumiki; Toma, Tatsuya; Inui, Tomohiko; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

2013-09-06

377

Total Synthesis of Aplyronine C  

PubMed Central

A highly stereocontrolled total synthesis of the cytotoxic marine macrolide aplyronine C is described. The route exploits aldol methodology to install the requisite stereochemistry and features a crucial boron-mediated aldol coupling of an N-vinylformamide-bearing methyl ketone with a macrocyclic aldehyde to introduce the full side chain. The synthesis of two novel C21–C34 side chain analogs is also reported.

2013-01-01

378

Synthesis of a hydrophilic naphthalimidedioxime.  

PubMed

Imidedioximes are formed in hydroxylamine-treated polyacrylonitrile adsorbents used in the extraction of uranium from seawater. Although known to be a good uranophile, the glutarimidedioxime model compound 1 is rapidly hydrolyzed under acidic conditions used to elute metals from the adsorbent. This work reports the synthesis of a hydrophilic naphthalimidedioxime derivative 14, which is stable under acidic elution conditions. The synthesis starts from simple acenaphthenequinone 7 and converts it to a functional group dense imidedioxime 14 in 7 steps. PMID:23786218

Grant, Christopher D; Kang, Sung Ok; Hay, Benjamin P

2013-07-15

379

Selective isoparaffin synthesis from naphtha  

SciTech Connect

A process combination is described for selectively upgrading a naphtha feedstock to obtain lower-boiling hydrocarbons having an increased content of branched-chain paraffins comprising the steps of: (a) contacting the naphtha feedstock in a hydrogenation zone with a hydrogenation catalyst comprising a platinum-group metal component and a refractory inorganic oxide in the presence of hydrogen at a pressure of from about 10 to 100 atmospheres, a temperature of at least 30 C, and a liquid hourly space velocity of from about 1 to 8 to produce a saturated intermediate; (b) contacting the saturated intermediate without heating in a selective-isoparaffin-synthesis zone at a pressure of from about 10 to 100 atmospheres, a temperature of between about 50 and 350 C, and a liquid hourly space velocity of between about 0.5 and 20 with a solid acid selective isoparaffin-synthesis catalyst comprising a combination of a platinum-group metal component on a chlorided inorganic-oxide support with a Friedel-Crafts metal halide in the presence of hydrogen, recovering synthesis product containing butanes and pentanes, and separating the synthesis product to obtain an isobutane concentrate, a light synthesis product comprising pentanes and a heavy synthesis product comprising C[sub 7] and C[sub 8] hydrocarbons; (c) dehydrogenating at least a portion of the isobutane concentrate in a dehydrogenation zone at dehydrogenation conditions using a dehydrogenation catalyst and recovering an isobutene-containing stream; (d) contacting at least a portion of the isobutene-containing stream with an alcohol in an etherification zone at etherification conditions to obtain an ether and a hydrocarbon raffinate; (e) contacting the heavy synthesis product in a reforming zone at reforming conditions using a reforming catalyst to obtain a reformate; and, (f) blending a gasoline component comprising at least a portion of each of the light synthesis product, ether and reformate.

Bogdan, P.L.; Lawson, R.J.; Sachtler, J.W.A.

1993-08-10

380

Levulinic acid in organic synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data concerning the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and application of levulinic acid are analysed and generalised. The wide synthetic potential of levulinic acid, particularly as a key compound in the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems, saturated and unsaturated ketones and diketones, difficultly accessible acids and other compounds is demonstrated. The accessibility of levulinic acid from hexose-containing wood-processing and agricultural wastes is noted. The bibliography includes 260 references.

Timokhin, Boris V.; Baransky, V. A.; Eliseeva, G. D.

1999-01-01

381

Medical surveillance program evaluation. Successful program.  

PubMed

1. This program evaluation case example describes changes made to a medical/health surveillance program that resulted in cost savings while increasing services to employees. 2. An integrated computerized recordkeeping system provided immediate feedback to nurse and employee when testing was conducted at distant locations. 3. By offering voluntary health promotion activities simultaneously with a regulatory mandated health/medical surveillance program, employees were able to do "one stop shopping" for programs that had previously been offered separately. PMID:10025250

Lukes, E

1998-12-01

382

Cryptomorphic Programming: A Random Program Concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a theoretical notion of white-box security for protecting the integrity and privacy of mobile programs. We assume that protecting the program's semantic privacy will improve the integrity protection of a program, thereby improving tamper resistance and the protection of secret algorithms. We introduce this notion using a Random Oracle Model and describe our important concept of a random

W. Thompson

383

FLOWTRACE, a computer program for flowcharting programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FLOWTRACE system produces flowcharts of programs written in “almost any” programming language. One must describe the syntax of the control statements in his language; for this purpose a metalanguage is available. The resultant object deck is used to flowchart any programs in the language described.Several examples of FAP and SNOBOL flowcharts are given. However, it is not necessary to

Philip M. Sherman

1966-01-01

384

NCCCP Program Governance Plan  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Cancer Centers Program Pilot Launch and Orientation June 25-26, 2007 Natcher Conference Center National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland Launch Agenda Pilot Program Summary Pilot Program Governance Pilot Organizations:

385

NASA's Educational Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and s...

R. W. Brown

1990-01-01

386

Program Memorandum: Social Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Program Memorandum covers Social Problems, the sixth of the eleven major programs in the statewide program structure. Article VIII, Sections 3 and 4, of the Hawaii State Constitution, authorizes the State government to provide public assistance for p...

1977-01-01

387

Technical Japanese Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

University of Washington, Technical Japanese Program. Services related to the teaching of Technical Japanese, and a good selection of Japan-related resources. Programs offered: Inter-Engineering MSE in Technical Japanese (IMTJ) and Japanese Program for Professionals (JPP).

388

Masonry Program Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains statewide standards for the masonry program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program structure…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

389

Program Memorandum: Economic Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Program Memorandum discusses the major program, Economic Development. The overall objective of the program is to assist in maintaining the state's economy in a strong and competitive condition by providing policies, operations, facilities, services, a...

1977-01-01

390

Proofs as programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significant intellectual cost of programming is for problem solving and explaining, not for coding. Yet programming systems offer mechanical assistance for the coding process exclusively. We illustrate the use of an implemented program development system, called PRL (\\

Joseph L. Bates; Robert L. Constable

1985-01-01

391

HPC Productivity Model Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DARPA High Productivity Computing System (HPCS) program is developing systems that deliver increased value to users at a rate commensurate with the rate of improvement in the underlying technologies. For example, if the relevant technology was silicon, the goal of such a system would be to double in productivity (or value) every 18 months, following Moore's Law. The key

Jeremy Kepner

2004-01-01

392

Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program  

SciTech Connect

This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program ('the Program'). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC (PERI), in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE). This requires both computational development (i.e., creating a spreadsheet-based analysis tool) and a synthesis of judgments by a panel of researchers and experts of the expected results of the Program's R&D.

McVeigh, J.; Cohen, J.; Vorum, M.; Porro, G.; Nix, G.

2007-03-01

393

Modeling the Cost Effectiveness of Etanercept, Adalimumab and Anakinra Compared to Infliximab in the Treatment of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Medicare Program, Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Appendices to a cost effectiveness analysis of infliximab versus etanercept, adalimumab and anakinra has been performed from the viewpoint of Medicare as part of the Medicare Replacement Drug Demonstration Program. The model draws on synthesis of randomiz...

2006-01-01

394

Modeling the Cost Effectiveness of Etanercept, Adalimumab and Anakinra Compared to Infliximab in the Treatment of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in the Medicare Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cost effectiveness analysis of infliximab versus etanercept, adalimumab and anakinra has been performed from the viewpoint of Medicare as part of the Medicare Replacement Drug Demonstration Program. The model draws on synthesis of randomized controlled ...

2006-01-01

395

WHO Vaccine Prequalification Program  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... vaccination programs they administer. The WHO does so through its vaccine prequalification program. An important part ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

396

Directory of marine monitoring programs in Massachusetts  

SciTech Connect

The need for the project was recognized when scientists began to develop the research program for the Massachusetts Bays Program. A compilation of ongoing research and monitoring efforts has a fourfold purpose: to increase our understanding of marine systems; to enhance communication among researchers and minimize duplication of effort; to periodically review ongoing efforts; and to permit synthesis of what the authors are studying. The line between monitoring and research is often vague; nonetheless, the authors applied criteria that allowed them to distinguish between monitoring and research studies. By the authors' definition, monitoring studies measure ambient conditions, are generally long-term, are more descriptive of the status and permit trend analysis. In contrast, research studies are process-oriented and focus on understanding the dynamics of the system. Consistent with these criteria, the monitoring programs reviewed in the document can be described as surveillance studies, describing current status and, if continued, trends as opposed to research which attempts to understand dynamic interactions in the marine ecosystem. There are a total of 48 programs included in the document, 13 of which are citizen monitoring activities and nine of which are national programs. The remainder have been designed and instituted by investigators from state agencies and authorities or academic and scientific institutions.

Ayuso, A.; Pederson, J.; McInerney, T.; Abramson, H.

1992-01-01

397

Synthesis of nanostructured polyaniline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organization of my thesis is as follows: (a) Chapter III describes the synthesis of bulk quantities of polyaniline nanofibers in one step using a simple and versatile high ionic strength aqueous system (HCl/NaCl) that permits the use of pure H2O2 as a mild oxidant without any added metal or enzyme catalyst. Polyaniline nanofibers obtained are highly conducting, sigma˜1--5 S/cm, and spectroscopically similar to conventional polyaniline synthesized using stronger oxidants. The synthesis method is further extended to the synthesis of oligoanilines of controlled molecular weight, e.g., aniline tetramer, octamer, and hexadecamer. Microns long tetramer nanofibers are synthesized using this method. (b) Chapter IV describes the mechanism of nanofiber formation in polyaniline. It is proposed that the surfaces such as the walls of the reaction vessel and/or intentionally added surfaces play a dramatic role in the evolution of nanofibrillar morphology. Nucleation sites on surfaces promote the accumulation of aniline dimer that reacts further to yield aniline tetramer, which (surprisingly) is entirely in form of nanofibers and whose morphology is transcribed to the bulk by a double heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. This unexpected phenomenon could form the basis of nanofiber formation in all classes of precipitation polymerization systems. (c) Chapter V is the mechanistic study on the formation of oligoanilines during the chemical oxidation of aniline in weakly acidic, neutral or basic media using peroxydisulfate oxidant. It is proposed that the reaction proceeds via the intermediacy of benzoquinone monoimine that is formed as a result of a Boyland-Sims rearrangement of aniline. The initial role of peroxydisulfate is to provide a pathway for the formation of benzoquinone monoimine intermediate that is followed by a conjugate Michael-type addition reaction with aniline or sulfated anilines. The products isolated in pH 2.5--10.0 buffers are intermediate species at various stages of hydrolysis. Confirmatory evidence is obtained when a spectroscopically similar product is formed when solid 1,4-benzoquinone is added to an aqueous solution of aniline at room temperature in the absence of peroxydisulfate. These findings also offer a rationale for the residual sulfur and the high C/N ratios frequently observed in the product. (d) Chapter VI describes a flexible, lightweight, reversible NO2 vapor sensor based on resistance changes of a thin film of a doped aniline oligomers and poly-o-toluidine deposited on plastic substrates. Unlike the irreversible signals typically observed in organic films, signal reversibility in the concentration range 100--5 ppm is readily achieved using a short burst of UV irradiation at room temperature in ambient air without the aid of heating or pump down cycles. In case of poly-o-toluidine based sensor, it is observed that the signal response is dependent on the organic solvent used to cast the polymer film with dipolar aprotic solvents yielding films showing a strong response. There are also striking differences in electrical and electronic properties including morphology of films cast from different solvents. This phenomenon is traced to polymer chain conformation in solution that is preserved in the solid state (cast film) which opens a new structural vector to tailor sensor response and selectivity. This study also expands the use of conducting polymers for the detection of vapors that were previously believed to be chemically too aggressive. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Surwade, Sumedh P.

398

Computer-aided design of power transmission shafts subject to size, strength, and deflection constraints using a nonlinear programming technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of synthesis of power transmission shafts supported on two bearings, subject to dimensional, strength and deflection constraints is posed as a nonlinear programming (NP) problem. The formulation of the design problem and its solution using the gradient projection (GP) algorithm are presented. A computer program for shaft design against a user-definable weight\\/cost criterion, based on the formulation and

G. Umasankar; C. R. Mischke

1985-01-01

399

Study of Impurities in Combustion Synthesis Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This investigation is directed toward a detailed understanding of the nature of the evolution of solid and gaseous impurities during the Combustion Synthesis (Self-Propagating High Temperature Synthesis) of ceramic materials. The identities and amounts of...

L. J. Kecskes A. Niiler

1988-01-01

400

[The alternative androgen synthesis pathway in humans].  

PubMed

During the last year, alternative androgen synthesis pathways have been discovered in humans. This review article highlights these new concepts of androgen synthesis.We performed a selective literature research using PubMed.After the discovery of a new androgen synthesis pathway in marsupials, this new path-way of androgen synthesis could be established in humans during the last year from two independent studies. One of them could demonstrate that two pathways of androgen synthesis are needed for male sexual differentiation in humans; the other study established that the new pathway is an important source of androgen synthesis in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Additionally, it has been shown that an alternative androgen synthesis pathway that bypasses testosterone drives castration resistant prostate cancer.New and alternative androgen path-ways occur in humans. Importantly, these path-ways remain cryptic for the clinician, because the androgen synthesis circumvents classical intermediates like dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione and testosterone. PMID:23329621

Kamrath, C; Hartmann, M F; Wudy, S

2013-01-17

401

Research on Synthesis of Unsaturated Fluorocarbon Compounds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Synthesis of a variety of fluorine-containing compounds was studied. A convenient synthesis of perfluoroallyl halides was developed. Lewis acid catalyzed addition of haloalkanes to olefins resulted in new fluoroolefins. A series of fluorine monomers were ...

P. Tarrant O. J. Stewart F. G. Drakesmith D. Sayers J. Heyes

1967-01-01

402

Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration - Treesearch  

Treesearch

Title: Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration ... The Fuels Planning: Science Synthesis and Integration project was launched to compile ... collaboration between managers and scientists can improve the utility of scientific findings.

403

Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Gliocladin C  

PubMed Central

The first total synthesis of gliocladin C, a fungal-derived marine alkaloid containing a rare trioxopiperazine fragment, is reported. This asymmetric synthesis establishes the absolute configuration of this structurally novel natural product.

Overman, Larry E.; Shin, Youseung

2008-01-01

404

DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND MECHANISTIC EVALUATION OF IRON-BASED CATALYSIS FOR SYNTHESIS GAS CONVERSION TO FUELS AND CHEMICALS  

SciTech Connect

This project explores the extension of previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have previously shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity with synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic performance previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During this third reporting period, we have prepared a large number of Fe-based catalyst compositions using precipitation and impregnations methods with both supercritical and subcritical drying and with the systematic use of surface active agents to prevent pore collapse during drying steps required in synthetic protocols. These samples were characterized during this period using X-ray diffraction, surface area, and temperature-programmed reduction measurements. These studies have shown that these synthesis methods lead to even higher surface areas than in our previous studies and confirm the crystalline structures of these materials and their reactivity in both oxide-carbide interconversions and in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction rates and selectivities with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio feeds (H{sub 2}/CO = 1) were the highest reported in the literature at the low-temperature and relatively low pressure in our measurements. Current studies are exploring the optimization of the sequence of impregnation of Cu, K, and Ru promoters, of the activation and reaction conditions, and of the co-addition of light hydrocarbons to increase diffusion rates of primary olefin products so as to increase the selectivity to unsaturated products. Finally, we are also addressing the detailed kinetic response of optimized catalysts to reaction conditions (temperature, partial pressures of H{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, olefins) in an effort to further increase rates and olefin and C{sub 5+} selectivities.

Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Enrique Iglesia

2005-03-31

405

Glycoprotein Synthesis in Plants  

PubMed Central

This paper reports the purification and structural determination of the mannolipid shown previously (Ericson and Delmer 1977 Plant Physiol 59: 341-347) to serve as an intermediate in glycoprotein synthesis in cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris. The mannolipid was purified by chromatography in organic solvents on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, followed by repeated steps of deacylation and rechromatography on Sephadex LH-20. Binding and elution behavior on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose was consistent with the presence of a monophosphate residue. Lability of the mannolipid to mild acid treatment as well as its resistance to hot phenol treatment or catalytic hydrogenation are consistent with the structure of a polyprenol having a saturated ?-residue. After methanolysis, the chloroform-methanol-soluble portion of the mannolipid was analyzed by mass spectrometry. The fragmentation pattern obtained was nearly identical to that obtained from standard dolichol-phosphate. An intense ion at m/e 69 represented the ?-terminal isoprenoid residue, and repeating fragments separated by 68 mass units were observed up to m/e of > 1,200. All evidence supports the conclusion that the mannolipid is dolichol-monophosphate-mannose and thus provides further support for the concept that the processes involved in the glycosylation of protein in higher plants are similar to those known to occur in the animal kingdom.

Delmer, Deborah P.; Kulow, Carl; Ericson, Mary C.

1978-01-01

406

Stellar population synthesis diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative method is presented to compare observed and synthetic colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The method is based on a chi (2) merit function for a point (c_i,m_i) in the observed CMD, which has a corresponding point in the simulated CMD within nsigma (c_i,m_i) of the error ellipse. The chi (2) merit function is then combined with the Poisson merit function of the points for which no corresponding point was found within the nsigma (c_i,m_i) error ellipse boundary. Monte-Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the diagnostics obtained from the combined (chi (2) , Poisson) merit function through variation of different parameters in the stellar population synthesis tool. The simulations indicate that the merit function can potentially be used to reveal information about the initial mass function. Information about the star formation history of single stellar aggregates, such as open or globular clusters and possibly dwarf galaxies with a dominating stellar population, might not be reliable if one is dealing with a relatively small age range.

Ng, Y. K.

1998-10-01

407

Human cytomegalovirus stimulates host cell RNA synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Human cytomegalovirus infection of human fibroblast cells (WI-38) induced cellular RNA synthesis. The RNA synthesis in infected cultures preceded the synthesis of viral DNA and progeny virus by approximately 24 h. RNA species synthesized in infected cells included ribosomal 28S and 18S; and 4S transfer RNA; all were markedly increased in comparison to uninfected cells. This induction of host cell RNA synthesis was dependent upon a protein(s) that was synthesized during the early stages of infection.

Tanaka, S; Furukawa, T; Plotkin, S A

1975-01-01

408

Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in yeast  

PubMed Central

Phospholipid synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a complex process that involves regulation by both genetic and biochemical mechanisms. The activity levels of phospholipid synthesis enzymes are controlled by gene expression (e.g., transcription) and by factors (lipids, water-soluble phospholipid precursors and products, and covalent modification of phosphorylation) that modulate catalysis. Phosphatidic acid, whose levels are controlled by the biochemical regulation of key phospholipid synthesis enzymes, plays a central role in the regulation of phospholipid synthesis gene expression.

Carman, George M.; Han, Gil-Soo

2009-01-01

409

Alternative fuel and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

Development of a reliable and cost-effective method of wax/catalyst separation is a key step toward a commercially viable slurry reactor process with iron oxide-based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbon transportation fuels. Although a variety of suitable catalysts (including, for example, cobalt-based catalysts) are available, iron oxide-based catalysts are preferred for coal-derived, CO-rich syngas because, in addition to catalyzing the F-T reaction, they simultaneously catalyze the reaction stifling CO to H{sub 2}, obviating a separate shift process block and associated costs. Because of the importance of development of this wax/catalyst separation, a study was initiated in February 1991. P. Z. Zhou of Burns and Roe reviewed the status of F-T wax/catalyst separation techniques. This led to the selection of a filtration system for the separation. Pilot tests were conducted by Mott Porous Metal Products in 1992 to develop this system. Initial results were good, but problems were encountered in follow-up testing. As a result of the testing, a filter was selected for use on the pilot plant. In LaPorte, Texas, APCI has been operating a pilot plant for the development of various synthesis gas technologies with DOE and industry support. The APCI F-T program builds on the DOE-sponsored laboratory-scale work by Mobil, reported in the mid-1980s, which used an iron oxide catalyst to produce high-quality F-T liquids in relatively compact reactors. Separation of the catalyst solids from the wax still represents a challenge. In the summer of 1992, testing of the selected filter was begun as part of the pilot plant testing. The filter performed poorly. Separation of the catalyst was primarily by sedimentation. It was recommended that the wax/catalyst separation be developed further.

NONE

1996-05-01

410

Stellar Spectral Synthesis with OpenGL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given an appropriate model atmosphere, synthesizing the spectrum of a star is a relatively straightforward task -- *if* the star is spherical and homogeneous across its surface. Many astronomically interesting objects do not, however, fall into this category. Examples include single stars that are spotted, rapidly rotating or pulsating, and binary stars in eclipsing or ellipsoidal-variable configurations. To synthesize a spectrum in such cases, it is necessary to construct a 3-D model of the stellar surface; determine which regions of the surface are visible to an external observer; and then calculate the observer-directed radiation from these regions. The Open Graphics Library (OpenGL), a cross-platform application programming interface for creation of 2-D and 3-D graphics, already includes much of the functionality required to implement these steps. We describe a new approach to stellar spectral synthesis that leverages this functionality. A 3-D mesh is constructed to represent the (possibly non-spherical) geometry of the stellar surface (or surfaces, in the case of binary or multiple systems). Textures are laid over this mesh to represent the run of physical attributes such as temperature, gravity, velocity, etc. The textured mesh is then rendered by OpenGL into a framebuffer, a step which naturally takes care of projection and occultation effects. The attributes of each framebuffer pixel are used to look up an appropriate spectrum in pre-calculated tables of specific intensities; and finally, summing the spectra from all pixels gives the disk-integrated synthetic flux spectrum of the star. The advantage of this approach lies in its efficiency (many OpenGL features are hardware-implemented), flexibility and manifest simplicity. Possible applications include binary light-curve modeling, mode identification in pulsating stars, and stellar population synthesis.

Hill, Nicholas R.; Townsend, R.

2011-01-01

411

Exposing the Programming Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue - probably because the textbook medium is static and therefore ill suited to expose the process of programming.

Jens Bennedsen; Michael E. Caspersen

2008-01-01

412

Revealing the programming process  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have

Jens Bennedsen; Michael E. Caspersen

2005-01-01

413

Analogical Representations of Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to enhance the process of discovering and understanding unknown programs, we developed Zeugma: a programming environment for the construction, development and experimentation of analogical representations of programs. We consider an analogical representation of programs as a representation where the different parts, for example houses in a city or spiders on a web, illustrate, in an analogical manner, particular

D. Ploix

2002-01-01

414

Teaching parallel programming early  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this position paper, we point out the importance of teaching a basic understanding of parallel computations and parallel programming early in computer science education, in order to give students the necessary expertise to cope with future computer architectures that will exhibit an explicitly parallel programming model. We elaborate on a programming model, namely shared- memory bulk-synchronous parallel programming with

Christoph W. Kessler

2006-01-01

415

Notes on Postmodern Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

0 Manifesto The ultimate goal of all computer science is the program. The performance of programs was once the noblest function of computer science, and computer science was indispensable to great programs. Today, programming and com- puter science exist in complacent isolation, and can only be rescued by the conscious co-operation and collaboration of all programmers. The universities were unable

James Noble; Robert Biddle

416

SSCL Quality Program overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quality Program for the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) was developed for a number of reasons. The need for a quality program not only is a contractual requirement, but it also makes good economic sense to implement such a program. The quality program is the device used to coordinate the activities of different Laboratory organizations, such as Engineering and

R. V. Hedderick; D. C. Threatt

1992-01-01

417

DOE Small Hydropower Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of work and activities of the Department of Energy's National Small Hydropower Program are discussed. Each portion of the program is discussed to provide an overall view of the program's depth. The three major subprograms are the Demonstration Projects subprogram, the Engineering Development subprogram, and the Loan subprogram. Program results are presented by graphic illustrations where applicable.

W. W. Hickman; T. B. McLaughlin

1980-01-01

418

The Cybernetic Writing Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the role of a Writing Program Administrator, and applies the idea of a cybernetic system to the administration of the program. In this cybernetic model, the Writing Program Administrator (WPA) works as both a problem solver and problem causer, with the responsibility of keeping the program in proper balance. A cybernetic…

Lowe, Kelly Fisher

419

Constraint logic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of designing programming systems to reason with and about constraints. Taking a logic programming approach, we define a class of programming languages, the CLP languages, all of which share the same essential semantic properties. From a conceptual point of view, CLP programs are highly declarative and are soundly based within a unified framework of formal semantics.

Joxan Jaffart; Jean-Louis Lassez

1987-01-01

420

Program Approval Procedures Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed to provide guidance for Illinois community college districts in preparing program proposals, applications for approval of courses or units of public service, or applications for reasonable and moderate extensions of approved programs. After an overview of the program approval and program review processes, the next five…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

421

National Transuranic Program Charter  

SciTech Connect

The National Transuranic Program Plan and Charter describes the functional elements of the National TRU Program, organizational relationships, programmatic responsibilities, division of work scope among the various DOE organizations that comprise the program, and program baselines against which overall progress will be measured. The charter defines the authorities and responsibilities of various organizations involved in the management of TRU waste throughout the DOE complex.

Not Available

1994-10-01

422

Synthesis of model compounds for coal liquefaction research  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to develop feasible synthetic routes to produce (1) 4(4{prime}- hydroxy- 5{prime},6{prime},7{prime},8{prime}- tetrahydro-1{prime}- naphthylmethyl)- 6-methyl dibenzothiophene, and (2) a 1-hydroxy naphthalene- dibenzothiophene polymer. These compounds are thought to be representative of sulfur containing molecules in coal. The program is divided into three tasks, the first of which is a project work plan that we have already submitted. Our experimental work during this quarter concentrated on Task 2: Synthesis of 4(4{prime}- hydroxy- 5{prime},6{prime},7{prime},8{prime}- tetrahydro-1{prime}- naphthylmethyl)- 6-methyldibenzothiophene. 11 refs.

Hirschon, A.S.; Asaro, M.; Bottaro, J.

1990-11-02

423

QM Superposition Program Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The materials distributed in this directory are in support of the QM Superposition program. The QM Superposition program is one of 18 Open Source Physics programs that model time-dependent quantum mechanics using an energy eigenstate expansion. The program displays the time evolution of the position-space wave function. The qm_superposition.jar file contains a compiled (read-to-use) version of the QM Superposition program which can be run by double-clicking on the jar file if Java is installed. This distribution contains the QM Superposition program, documentation and exercises, and additional parameter sets for use with the QM Superposition program.

Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-04-15

424

Bimetallic Janus nanostructures via programmed shell growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the synthesis of compositionally asymmetric, core-Janus shell plasmonic nanostructures comprised of Au and Ag. Kinetic control was employed to achieve asymmetric shell growth on Au nanoparticles acting as cores. Subsequent differential surface functionalization of these nanostructures enabled programmed shell growth resulting in core-Janus shell nanostructures. UV/vis extinction spectra reveal that the localized surface plasmon resonance of the nanostructures depends on the composition and distribution of the components, providing additional handles to tune the optical properties of metal nanostructures. The core-Janus shell nanostructures demonstrated here are highly Raman-active making them attractive candidates for Raman-based biosensing and bioimaging applications.We report the synthesis of compositionally asymmetric, core-Janus shell plasmonic nanostructures comprised of Au and Ag. Kinetic control was employed to achieve asymmetric shell growth on Au nanoparticles acting as cores. Subsequent differential surface functionalization of these nanostructures enabled programmed shell growth resulting in core-Janus shell nanostructures. UV/vis extinction spectra reveal that the localized surface plasmon resonance of the nanostructures depends on the composition and distribution of the components, providing additional handles to tune the optical properties of metal nanostructures. The core-Janus shell nanostructures demonstrated here are highly Raman-active making them attractive candidates for Raman-based biosensing and bioimaging applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34321a

Gandra, Naveen; Portz, Christopher; Singamaneni, Srikanth

2013-02-01

425

Stereocontrolled synthesis of (?)-5,11-dideoxytetrodotoxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymmetric synthesis of (?)-5,11-dideoxytetrodotoxin, an analog of puffer fish toxin, was accomplished from a common key intermediate through a novel hydroxylation at the C-8 position with neighboring group participation of trichloroacetamide, a highly stereoselective addition of acetylide as an equivalent of carboxylic acid, and a new guanidine synthesis from trichloroacetamide as key steps. This study presents the first asymmetric synthesis

Masanori Asai; Toshio Nishikawa; Norio Ohyabu; Noboru Yamamoto; Minoru Isobe

2001-01-01

426

Collaboration and Productivity in Scientific Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific synthesis has transformed ecological research and presents opportunities for advancements across the sciences; to date, however, little is known about the antecedents of success in synthesis. Building on findings from 10 years of detailed research on social interactions in synthesis groups at the National Center for Ecological Analysis…

Hampton, Stephanie E.; Parker, John N.

2011-01-01

427

Microwave activated combustion synthesis of titanium aluminides  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiAl and Ti3Al titanium aluminide intermetallic compounds were synthesized using a microwave activated combustion synthesis (MACS) method and compared to thermal activation (TACS) and conventional combustion (CS) methods. MACS represents an example of our “synergistic processing” philosophy, wherein the useful attributes of microwave processing and combustion synthesis are used synergistically. Thermodynamic calculations indicated activation was required for combustion synthesis to

J. R. Jokisaari; S. Bhaduri

2005-01-01

428

The modern synthesis, Ronald Fisher and creationism.  

PubMed

The 'modern evolutionary synthesis' convinced most biologists that natural selection was the only directive influence on adaptive evolution. Today, however, dissatisfaction with the synthesis is widespread, and creationists and antidarwinians are multiplying. The central problem with the synthesis is its failure to show (or to provide distinct signs) that natural selection of random mutations could account for observed levels of adaptation. PMID:10542462

Leigh

1999-12-01

429

Croatian HMM-based Speech Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the development of a trainable speech synthesis system, based on hidden Markov models. An approach to speech signal generation using a source-filter model is presented. Inputs into the synthesis system are speech utterances and their phone level transcriptions. A method using context dependent acoustic models and Croatian phonetic rules for speech synthesis is proposed. Croatian HMM based

Sanda Martincic-Ipsic; Ivo Ipsic

2006-01-01

430

Speech synthesis using artificial neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical parametric synthesis becoming more popular in recent years due to its adaptability and size of the synthesis. Mel cepstral coefficients, fundamental frequency (f0) and duration are the main components for synthesizing speech in statistical parametric synthesis. The current study mainly concentrates on mel cesptral coefficients. Durations and f0 are taken from the original data. In this paper, we are

E. Veera Raghavendra; P. Vijayaditya; Kishore Prahallad

2010-01-01

431

Formal synthesis of dictyostatin and synthesis of two dictyostatin analogues.  

PubMed

A formal convergent synthesis of dictyostatin from (R)-Roche ester is described. Synthetic highlights include a Ni-catalyzed Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi coupling between an aldehyde and a Z vinyl iodide to assemble the two main fragments, a diastereoselective Myers alkylation, a stereoselective Evans aldolization, two asymmetric Duthaler crotyltitanations, and a stereoselective Pd-catalyzed Marshall allenylindium addition to install the stereogenic centers of dictyostatin. The synthesis of (9R)-epi-dictyostatin and a new ring-contracted dictyostatin isomer were also achieved. PMID:22865684

Gallon, Julien; Esteban, Jorge; Bouzbouz, Samir; Campbell, Matthew; Reymond, Sébastien; Cossy, Janine

2012-08-02

432

Environmental Technology Programs Listing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) aims to "identify and maintain an online listing of environmental and energy technology programs in the nation's two-year colleges, high schools, and workforce training organizations." The list for 2012 may be found here and includes associate's degree programs, certificate programs, workforce training programs and secondary school programs.Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2012-10-15

433

Deactivation of methanol synthesis catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A novel methanol synthesis process, the liquid-phase methanol (LPMEOH) process, has been developed and scaled up to a nominal 380 kg/h (10 ton/day) pilot plant. The process is based on a gas-sparged slurry reactor instead of a conventional, fixed-bed reactor. The use of slurry reactors, which are essentially gradientless, greatly facilitated the interpretation and quantification of catalyst deactivation phenomena. With a poison-free, CO-rich feedstream, the rate of deactivation of the Cu/ZnO catalyst increased rapidly with temperature. At constant temperature, in the absence of poisons, the decline with time in the rate constant for methanol synthesis correlated with the loss of BET surface area. Iron carbonyl, nickel carbonyl, and carbonyl sulfide are severe and highly specific poisons for methanol-synthesis catalyst. There was a linear relationship between the catalyst activity loss and the concentration of metal or sulfur on the catalyst.

Roberts, G.W.; Brown, D.M.; Hsiung, T.H.; Lewnard, J.J. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

1993-08-01

434

Total synthesis of nhatrangin a.  

PubMed

A concise and stereoselective approach for the synthesis of key intermediates for aplysiatoxins, oscillatoxins, and nhatrangins and their utility for the total synthesis of nhatrangin A has been demonstrated. The advanced intermediates aromatic aldehyde 11 and dihydroxy acid 12 were synthesized in eight steps (44% overall yield) and three steps (55% overall yield), respectively. An asymmetric Michael addition, CBS reduction, and proline-catalyzed crossed-aldol reactions were utilized as key steps for the generation of all the chirality of main chain hydroxyaldehyde, while the appended side-chain-protected 3,4-dihydroxypentanoic acid was achieved in a shortest route, using Sharpless dihydroxylation, diol protection, and RuO4-catalyzed aromatic over-oxidation reactions. Synthesis of nhatrangin A was accomplished by coupling of dihydroxy acid 12 with ?-hydroxyallyl ester (obtained from 11) under Yamaguchi reaction conditions followed by a one-pot deprotection of all protecting groups. PMID:23927003

Yadav, Jhillu Singh; Rajendar, Goreti; Rao, Ramisetti Srinivasa; Pabbaraja, Srihari

2013-08-21

435

Total Synthesis of Iejimalide B§  

PubMed Central

Iejimalide B, a structurally unique 24-membered polyene macrolide having a previously underutilized mode of anticancer activity, was synthesized according to a strategy employing Julia-Kocienski olefinations, a palladium-catalyzed Heck reaction, a palladium-catalyzed Marshall propargylation, a Keck-type esterification, and a palladium-catalyzed macrolide-forming, intramolecular Stille coupling of a highly complex cyclization substrate. The overall synthesis is efficient (19.5% overall yield for 15 linear steps) and allows for more practical scaled-up synthesis than previously reported strategies that differed in the order of assembly of key subunits and in the method of macrocyclization. The present synthesis paves the way for efficient preparation of analogues for drug development efforts.

Chen, Qingshou; Schweitzer, Dirk; Kane, John; Jo Davisson, V.; Helquist, Paul

2011-01-01

436

Genetic defects in pregnenolone synthesis.  

PubMed

The pregnenolone synthesis is the first step in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones. The disruption of this step is known to result in congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH), a most severe form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. CLAH was first demonstrated to be caused by mutations in the STAR gene encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Now genetic and phenotypic variations have been elucidated in pregnenolone synthesis defects; mutations in the CYP11A1 gene encoding cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (SCC) also cause disordered pregnenolone synthesis, and STAR mutations do not necessarily results in typical CLAH. To define these conditions precisely, pathophysiological diagnoses, such as StAR deficiency and SCC deficiency, are more likely to be appropriate than the histopathological diagnosis like CLAH. PMID:23330251

Katsumata, Noriyuki

2012-10-01

437

Laser Interactions in Nanomaterials Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Laser interactions with materials have unique advantages to explore the rapid synthesis, processing, and in situ characterization of high quality and novel nanoparticles, nanotubes and nanowires. For example, laser vaporization of solids into background gases provides a wide range of processing conditions for the formation of nanomaterials by both catalyst-free and catalyst-assisted growth processes. Laser interactions with the growing nanomaterials provide remote in situ characterization of their size, structure, and composition with unprecedented temporal resolution. In this article, laser interactions involved in the synthesis of primarily carbon nanostructures are reviewed, including the catalyst-free synthesis of single-walled carbon nanohorns and quantum dots, to the catalyst-assisted growth of single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

Geohegan, David B [ORNL; Puretzky, Alexander A [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Jackson, Jeremy Joseph [ORNL; Eres, Gyula [ORNL; Xiao, Kai [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

2010-01-01

438

Temperature controlled ammonia synthesis process  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the synthesis of ammonia carried out at a pressure greater than 100 atmospheres which process comprises passing a mixture of gases in continuous flow through apparatus so as to carry out the following steps: (a) passing at least a portion of an ammonia feed syngas through a heat exchanger to increase its temperature; (b) passing the feed syngas from (a) through a first ammonia synthesis catalyst bed to obtain an effluent; (c) passing at least a portion of the effluent from (b) through the heat exchanger of (a) to decrease the temperature of the effluent; (d) passing the effluent from (c) through a series of at least two additional ammonia synthesis catalysts beds and then subsequent to each bed through a high temperature heat sink to decrease the temperature of the effluent and to obtain a final product effluent; and (c) recovering ammonia from the final product effluent of the series in (d).

Grotz, B.J. Jr.

1986-11-25

439

Ascorbate Synthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

Using mouse gene knock-out models, we identify aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.2, Akr1a4 (GR)) and aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21, Akr1b3 (AR)) as the enzymes responsible for conversion of d-glucuronate to l-gulonate, a key step in the ascorbate (ASC) synthesis pathway in mice. The gene knock-out (KO) mice show that the two enzymes, GR and AR, provide ?85 and ?15% of l-gulonate, respectively. GRKO/ARKO double knock-out mice are unable to synthesize ASC (>95% ASC deficit) and develop scurvy. The GRKO mice (?85% ASC deficit) develop and grow normally when fed regular mouse chow (ASC content = 0) but suffer severe osteopenia and spontaneous fractures with stresses that increase ASC requirements, such as pregnancy or castration. Castration greatly increases osteoclast numbers and activity in GRKO mice and promotes increased bone loss as compared with wild-type controls and additionally induces proliferation of immature dysplastic osteoblasts likely because of an ASC-sensitive block(s) in early differentiation. ASC and the antioxidants pycnogenol and resveratrol block osteoclast proliferation and bone loss, but only ASC feeding restores osteoblast differentiation and prevents their dysplastic proliferation. This is the first in vivo demonstration of two independent roles for ASC as an antioxidant suppressing osteoclast activity and number as well as a cofactor promoting osteoblast differentiation. Although humans have lost the ability to synthesize ASC, our mouse models suggest the mechanisms by which suboptimal ASC availability facilitates the development of osteoporosis, which has important implications for human osteoporosis.

Gabbay, Kenneth H.; Bohren, Kurt M.; Morello, Roy; Bertin, Terry; Liu, Jeff; Vogel, Peter

2010-01-01

440

First Results from TYPHOON: A Spectrophotometric Data Cube Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TYPHOON is a program for producing and analyzing spectrophotometric data cubes with unprecedented resolution and coverage. This program has wavelength coverage spanning 3727 to 7000 Angstroms, has a 2-6 Angstrom spectral resolution, a 15 arcmin spatial field, is seeing limited to < 1 arcsec, and is being employed on the 100" duPont telescope in Las Campanas. TYPHOON uses instruments already active on the telescope and thus is well underway. Using TYPHOON, we can analyze kinetic structure, view 3D representations of galaxies in wavelength space, create integrated spectra of bars, nuclei, rings, etc, and analyze galactic population synthesis. TYPHOON is a powerful tool for extragalactic science with many applications.

Sturch, Laura; Madore, B.

2012-01-01

441

Total synthesis of (+)-superstolide A.  

PubMed

A convergent and highly stereocontrolled total synthesis of the cytotoxic macrolide (+)-superstolide A is described. Key features of this synthesis include the use of bimetallic linchpin 36b for uniting the C(1)-C(15) (43) and the C(20)-C(27) (38) fragments of the natural product, a late-stage Suzuki macrocyclization of 49, and a highly diastereoselective transannular Diels-Alder reaction of macrocyclic octaene 4. In contrast, the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of pentaenal 5 provided the desired cycloadduct with lower stereoselectivity (6:1:1). PMID:18956845

Tortosa, Mariola; Yakelis, Neal A; Roush, William R

2008-12-19

442

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J. Birch (San Jose, CA); Kelly, Michael (West Alexandria, OH)

1993-01-01

443

Total Synthesis of (+)-Superstolide A  

PubMed Central

A convergent and highly stereocontrolled total synthesis of the cytotoxic macrolide (+)-superstolide A is described. Key features of this synthesis include the use of bimetallic linchpin 36b for uniting the C(1)-C(15) (43) and the C(20)-C(27) (38) fragments of the natural product, a late-stage Suzuki macrocyclization of 49, and a highly diastereoselective transannular Diels-Alder reaction of macrocyclic octanene 4. In contrast, the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of pentaenal 5 provided the desired cycloadduct with lower stereoselectivity (6:1:1).

Tortosa, Mariola; Yakelis, Neal A.; Roush, William R.

2009-01-01

444

Concise total synthesis of spirocurcasone.  

PubMed

A concise total synthesis of spirocurcasone was accomplished. Key features of the synthesis involved a vinylogous Mukaiyama aldol reaction, a Carroll rearrangement of ?-keto allyl ester derivative, an intramolecular aldol condensation, and a spiro ring formation by ring-closing metathesis of the pentaene compound. This synthetic work was complete in nine steps from (S)- or (R)-perillaldehyde without the use of protecting groups. Interestingly, the optical rotation of the synthetic spirocurcasone was different from the reported value of the natural product. PMID:23448402

Abe, Hideki; Sato, Akimi; Kobayashi, Toyoharu; Ito, Hisanaka

2013-02-28

445

Microscale Synthesis of Tributyl Arsenite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most common ways to prepare arsenite esters make use of the reaction of arsenic trichloride with either sodium alkoxides, or alcohols in the presence of tertiary amines. Arsenic trichloride is a moisture-sensitive product for which the recently reported synthesis - direct reaction of arsenic(III) oxide with excess thionyl chloride - is not as simple as it appears, because the excess thionyl chloride is difficult to remove. Here we describe a simple synthesis for tributyl arsenite that makes use of the reaction of arsenic(III) oxide with butanol.

Arnáiz, Francisco J.; Miranda, Mariano J.

1999-09-01

446

Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-diversonol.  

PubMed

For the synthesis of (-)-diversonol (ent-1), an enantioselective domino-Wacker/carbonylation/methoxylation reaction and an enantioselective Wacker oxidation were used to give the chroman in high yield and 96% and 93% ee, respectively. Dihydroxylation at the vinyl moiety using the Sharpless procedure and a Wittig-Horner reaction followed by hydrogenation, benzylic oxidation, and an intramolecular acylation provided the tetrahydroxanthenone, from which ent-1 is accessible in a few steps. Furthermore, the synthesis of the diastereomeric diversonol rac-1,9a-epi-diversonol (rac-41) is also described. PMID:23417866

Tietze, Lutz F; Jackenkroll, Stefan; Raith, Christian; Spiegl, Dirk A; Reiner, Johannes R; Ochoa Campos, Maria Claudia

2013-02-18

447

Reframing developmental biology and building evolutionary theory's new synthesis.  

PubMed

Gilbert and Epel present a new approach to developmental biology: embryogenesis must be understood within the full context of the organism's environment. Instead of an insular embryo following a genetic blueprint, this revised program maintains that embryogenesis is subject to inputs from the environment that generate novel genetic variation with dynamic consequences for development. Beyond allelic variation of structural genes and of regulatory loci, plasticity-derived epigenetic variation completes the triad of the major types of variation required for evolution. Developmental biology and ecology, disciplines that have previously been regarded as distinct, are presented here as fully integrated under the rubric of "eco-devo," and from this perspective, which highlights how the environment not only selects variation, it helps construct it, another synthesis with evolutionary biology must also be made, "eco-evo-devo." This second integration has enormous implications for expanding evolution theory, inasmuch as the Modern Synthesis (Provine 1971), which combined classical genetics and Darwinism in the mid-20th century, did not account for the role of development in evolution. The eco-evo-devo synthesis thus portends a major theoretical inflection in evolutionary biology. Following a description of these scientific developments, comment is offered as to how this new integrated approach might be understood within the larger shifts in contemporary biology. PMID:20495262

Tauber, Alfred I

2010-01-01

448

Optica aperture synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical long baseline stellar interferometry is an observational technique in astronomy that already exists for over a century, but is truly blooming during the last decades. The undoubted value of stellar interferometry as a technique to measure stellar parameters beyond the classical resolution limit is more and more spreading to the regime of synthesis imaging. With optical aperture synthesis imaging, the measurement of parameters is extended to the reconstruction of high resolution stellar images. A number of optical telescope arrays for synthesis imaging are operational on Earth, while space-based telescope arrays are being designed. For all imaging arrays, the combination of the light collected by the telescopes in the array can be performed in a number of ways. In this thesis, methods are introduced to model these methods of beam combination and compare their effectiveness in the generation of data to be used to reconstruct the image of a stellar object. One of these methods of beam combination is to be applied in a future space telescope. The European Space Agency is developing a mission that can valuably be extended with an imaging beam combiner. This mission is labeled Darwin, as its main goal is to provide information on the origin of life. The primary objective is the detection of planets around nearby stars - called exoplanets- and more precisely, Earth-like exoplanets. This detection is based on a signal, rather than an image. With an imaging mode, designed as described in this thesis, Darwin can make images of, for example, the planetary system to which the detected exoplanet belongs or, as another example, of the dust disk around a star out of which planets form. Such images will greatly contribute to the understanding of the formation of our own planetary system and of how and when life became possible on Earth. The comparison of beam combination methods for interferometric imaging occupies most of the pages of this thesis. Additional chapters will treat related subjects, being experimental work on beam combination optics, a description of a novel formalism for aberration retrieval and experimental work on nulling interferometry. The Chapters on interferometric imaging are organized in such a way that not only the physical principles behind a stellar interferometer are clear, but these chapters also form a basis for the method of analysis applied to the interferometers - -or rather beam combination methods- under consideration. The imaging process in a stellar interferometer will be treated as the inversion of a linear system of equations. The definition of interferometric imaging in this thesis can be stated to be the reconstruction of a luminosity distribution function on the sky, that is, in angular measure, larger than the angular diffraction limited spot size -or Point-Spread Function (PSF)- of a single telescope in the array and that contains, again in angular measure, spatial structure that is much smaller than the PSF of a single telescope. This reconstruction has to be based on knowledge of the dimensions of the telescope array and the detector. The detector collects intensity data that is formed by observation of the polychromatic luminosity distribution on the sky and is deteriorated by the quantum-nature of light and an imperfect electronic detection process. Therefore, the imaging study presented in this thesis can be regarded to be a study on the signal characteristics of various interferometers while imaging a polychromatic wide-field stellar source. The collection of beam combination methods under consideration consists of four types. Among these are two well-known types, having either co-axially combined beams as in the Michelson-Morley experiment to demonstrate the existence of ether, or beams that follow optical paths as if an aperture mask were placed in front of a telescope, making the beams combine in the focus of that telescope, as suggested by Fizeau. For separated apertures rather than an aperture mask, these optical paths are stated to be homothetic. In short, these two types wi

van der Avoort, Casper

2006-05-01

449

Bromides in zeolite synthesis \\/ zeolites in bromide synthesis and conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quaternary ammonium bromides and hydroxides (quats) are applied as templates in the synthesis of zeolites with relatively high Si\\/Al ratio. Examples will be given of the use of mon-, di-, poly- and associated quats as templates in zeolite growth. Templated zeolites of the MFI-type can be grown in a lateral or in an axial way onto metal supports, providing promising

H. Van Bekkum

1995-01-01

450

TFE Verification Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the semiannual progress report is to summarize the technical results obtained during the latest reporting period. The information presented herein will include evaluated test data, design evaluations, the results of analyses and the significance of results. The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW(e) range, and a full-power life of 7 years. The TF Verification Program builds directly on the technology and data base developed in the 1960s and 1970s in an AEC/NASA program, and in the SP-100 program conducted in 1983, 1984 and 1985. In the SP-100 program, the attractive but concern was expressed over the lack of fast reactor irradiation data. The TFE Verification Program addresses this concern. The general logic and strategy of the program to achieve its objectives is shown on Fig. 1-1. Five prior programs form the basis for the TFE Verification Program: (1) AEC/NASA program of the 1960s and early 1970; (2) SP-100 concept development program;(3) SP-100 thermionic technology program; (4) Thermionic irradiations program in TRIGA in FY-86; (5) and Thermionic Technology Program in 1986 and 1987. 18 refs., 64 figs., 43 tabs.

Not Available

1990-03-01

451

Teaching program design through program structure maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that college and university level programs in thecomputing sciences continue to turn out graduates who are schooledin topics such as compiler writing, automata theory and numericalanalysis, while the vast majority of potential employers of thesegraduates are seeking people knowledgeable in administrativesystems and application programming. This point was brought homeduring a recent visit I made to a

Stuart A. Varden

1979-01-01

452

Scientific Programs | Cancer Diagnosis Program (CDP)  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Triche's program focuses on refining and validating molecular signatures that provide a more accurate diagnosis of the common childhood sarcomas and signatures that more accurately predict clinical behavior of these tumors. The project will build on signatures developed during the Director's Challenge program.

453

Two Feathers Endowment Scholarship Program: Program Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Saint Paul Foundation contracted with the Wilder Research Center to conduct an evaluation of their Two Feathers Scholarship Program. The Two Feathers Scholarship Program is funded through the Two Feathers Endowment, which is one part of the Foundation's SpectrumTrust. SpectrumTrust is a unique partnership between communities of color and The…

Pierce, Alexandra

2004-01-01

454

1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1983-01-01

455

Practice-based small group learning programs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To identify the format, content, and effects of practice-based small group learning (PBSGL) programs involving FPs. Data sources The Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ERIC databases were searched from inception to the second week of November 2011, yielding 99 articles. Study selection Articles were included in the analysis if they described the format or content of or evaluated PBSGL programs among FPs. Thirteen articles were included in the analysis. Synthesis Two main PBSGL formats exist. The first is self-directed learning, which includes review and discussion of troubling or challenging patient cases. The contents of such programs vary with different teaching styles. The second format targets specific problems from practice to improve certain knowledge or skills or implement new guidelines by using patient cases to stimulate discussion of the selected topic. Both formats are similar in their ultimate goal, equally important, and well accepted by learners and facilitators. Evaluations of learners’ perceptions and learning outcomes indicate that PBSGL constitutes a feasible and effective method of professional development. Conclusion Current evidence suggests that PBSGL is a promising method of continuing professional development for FPs. Such programs can be adapted according to learning needs. Future studies that focus on the changes in practice effected by PBSGL will strengthen the evidence for this form of learning and motivate physicians and institutions to adopt it.

Zaher, Eman; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

2012-01-01

456

Materials sciences programs, Fiscal year 1997  

SciTech Connect

The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in materials science topics important to the mission of the Department of Energy. The programmatic divisions under the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geosciences, and Energy Biosciences. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship among synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences subfields include: physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 517 research programs including 255 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 262 research grants (233 of which are at universities), and 29 Small Business Innovation Research Grants. Five cross-cutting indices located at the rear of this book identify all 517 programs according to principal investigator(s), materials, techniques, phenomena, and environment.

NONE

1998-10-01

457

Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of ``green'' in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis.

Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

2013-10-01

458

Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches.  

PubMed

Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of "green" in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis. PMID:24056951

Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

2013-09-16

459

Lead inhibition of enzyme synthesis in soil.  

PubMed Central

Addition of 2 mg of Pb2+/g of soil concident with or after amendment with starch or maltose resulted in 75 and 50% decreases in net synthesis of amylase and alpha-glucosidase, respectively. Invertase synthesis in sucrose-amended soil was transiently reduced after Pb2+ addition. Amylase activity was several times less sensitive to Pb2+ inhibition than was enzyme synthesis. In most cases, the rate of enzyme synthesis returned to control (Pb2+) values 24 to 48 h after the addition of Pb. The decrease in amylase synthesis was paralleled by a decrease in the number of Pb-sensitive, amylase-producing bacteria, whereas recovery of synthesis was associated with an increase in the number of amylase-producing bacteria. The degree of inhibition of enzyme synthesis was related to the quantity of Pb added and to the specific form of lead. PbSO4 decreased amylase synthesis at concentrations of 10.2 mg of Pb2+/g of soil or more, whereas PbO did not inhibit amylase synthesis at 13 mg of Pb2+/g of soil. Lead acetate, PbCl2, and PbS reduced amylase synthesis at total Pb2+ concentrations of 0.45 mg of Pb2+/g of soil or higher. The results indicated that lead is a potent but somewhat selective inhibitor of enzyme synthesis in soil, and that highly insoluble lead compounds, such as PbS, may be potent modifiers of soil biological activity.

Cole, M A

1977-01-01

460

Advanced Lasers Program. Program/contracting plan  

SciTech Connect

To assess the scalability of the short wavelength laser driver in the FY85-86 time frame, a program has been developed to critically assess promising advanced laser candidates for use as a potential driver in the HGFT. The elements of this activity are the baseline rare-gas-halogen pulse compressor and advanced laser concepts programs. The major goal of the baseline activity is the construction, test and evaluation of a subscale fully integrated System Test Bed (STB) at a nominal energy of 10 kJ. In addition the advanced laser concepts program is structured to develop new concepts that are technically superior to the baseline activity. This program plan could be completed in five years at a resource expenditure of approximately $15M per year with the majority of these funds being spent in industry. Most resources are committed to the baseline-pulse compressor program.

Not Available

1980-12-01

461

The collaborative program of research in engineering science  

SciTech Connect

MIT and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are continuing the program of collaborative research on energy-related engineering. The program involves research in the following areas: (1) mathematical modeling of thermal plasma systems, (2) high-temperature gas-particle reactions, (3) metal transfer in gas-metal arc welding, (4) multivariate control of gas-metal arc welding, (5) fundamentals of elastic-plastic fracture, (6) comminution of energy materials, and (7) synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes. A key objective of this collaborative program is to serve as a prototype for other university/laboratory collaborative programs. Another important goal is to enhance the transfer of new technology to the industrial sector.

Not Available

1990-12-01

462

Using abstraction in explicity parallel programs. Doctoral thesis  

SciTech Connect

It is well-known that writing parallel programs that are both fast and correct is significantly harder than writing sequential ones. In this thesis we introduce a transition-based approach to the design and implementation of parallel programs. This approach is aimed at applications whose complex data and control structures make them hard to parallelize by conventional means. It is based on a programming model with explicit parallelism, and it incorporates data and process parallelism within a uniform framework. The transition-based approach addresses the problem of program synthesis by breaking the development process into four distinct phases, each with explicit correctness and performance requirements. Module interfaces are well-defined so that rigorous correctness arguments can be made when desired. Application-specific scheduling is used to enhance performance, and significant performance tuning of the scheduler can be done in the last phase of development.

Yelick, K.A.

1991-07-01

463

Sandia`s photonic program and its changing national role  

SciTech Connect

Photonics activities at Sandia National Laboratories are founded on an extensive materials research program. In 1988, the Compound Semiconductor Research Laboratory (CSRL) was established at Sandia to bring together device and materials research and development, in support of Sandia`s role in weapons technologies. Recently, industrial competitiveness has been added as a major mission for the national laboratories. As a result, present photonics programs are not only directed towards internal applications-driven projects, but are increasingly tied to the Department Of Energy`s (DOE`s) Technology Transfer Initiatives (TTIs), Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs), and participation in partnerships and consortia. This evolution yields a full range of photonics programs, ranging from materials synthesis and device fabrication to packaging, test, and subsystem development. This paper presents an overview of Sandia`s photonics-program directions, using three applications as examples.

Carson, R.F.; Meyer, W.J.

1994-03-01

464

NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

2004-12-01

465

Design Features Of Microfluidic Reactor For [18F]FDG Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microfluidic reactor exhibits advantages for radiopharmaceutical synthesis. Microfluidic chips can reduce the time for radiosynthesis using tiny quantities of chemical compounds. It also has a good heat transfer, performance and provides an integrated system including synthesis, separation, and purification. These advantages make FDG production. So we have designed a microreactor chip which included the whole chemical processing; water evaporation, solvent exchange, radiofluorination and so on. It was designed by using a commercial 3D CAD modeling program CATIA V5, heat transfer performance was analyzed by ANSYS, and CFX was used for analyzing fluid performance. This paper described the design of FDG synthesis system on a microchip, the relevant locations of its parts, both heat and fluid performance efficiency analysis.

Oh, J. H.; Lee, B. N.; Nam, K. R.; Attla, G. A.; Lee, K. C.; Cjai, J. S.

2011-06-01

466

Morphologically controlled synthesis of colloidal upconversion nanophosphors and their shape-directed self-assembly  

PubMed Central

We report a one-pot chemical approach for the synthesis of highly monodisperse colloidal nanophosphors displaying bright upconversion luminescence under 980 nm excitation. This general method optimizes the synthesis with initial heating rates up to 100 °C/minute generating a rich family of nanoscale building blocks with distinct morphologies (spheres, rods, hexagonal prisms, and plates) and upconversion emission tunable through the choice of rare earth dopants. Furthermore, we employ an interfacial assembly strategy to organize these nanocrystals (NCs) into superlattices over multiple length scales facilitating the NC characterization and enabling systematic studies of shape-directed assembly. The global and local ordering of these superstructures is programmed by the precise engineering of individual NC’s size and shape. This dramatically improved nanophosphor synthesis together with insights from shape-directed assembly will advance the investigation of an array of emerging biological and energy-related nanophosphor applications.

Ye, Xingchen; Collins, Joshua E.; Kang, Yijin; Chen, Jun; Chen, Daniel T. N.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Murray, Christopher B.

2010-01-01

467

Physical vapor deposition synthesis of tungsten monocarbide (WC) thin films on different carbon substrates  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of tungsten monocarbide (WC) thin films has been performed by physical vapor deposition on various substrates including glassy carbon, carbon fiber sheet, carbon foam, and carbon cloth. The WC and W{sub 2}C phase contents of these films have been evaluated with bulk and surface analysis techniques such as x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. These characterization techniques were also used to determine the effects of synthesis by nonreactive and reactive sputtering. The synthesis of WC particles supported on the carbon fiber substrate has also been accomplished using the temperature programmed reaction method. Overall, the results demonstrate that the phase purity of tungsten carbides can be controlled by the deposition environment and annealing temperatures.

Weigert, E. C.; Humbert, M. P.; Mellinger, Z. J.; Ren, Q.; Beebe, T. P. Jr.; Bao, L.; Chen, J. G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2008-01-15

468

Perfluorophenyl Azides: New Applications in Surface Functionalization and Nanomaterial Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Conspectus A major challenge in materials science is the ongoing search for coupling agents that are readily synthesized, capable of versatile chemistry, able to easily functionalize materials and surfaces, and efficient in covalently linking organic and inorganic entities. A decade ago, we began a research program investigating perfluorophenylazides (PFPAs) as the coupling agents in surface functionalization and nanomaterial synthesis. The p-substituted PFPAs are attractive heterobifunctional coupling agents because of their two distinct and synthetically distinguishable reactive centers: (i) the fluorinated phenylazide, which is capable of forming stable covalent adducts, and (ii) the functional group R, which can be tailored through synthesis. Two approaches have been undertaken for material synthesis and surface functionalization. The first method involves synthesizing PFPA bearing the first molecule or material with a functional linker R, and then attaching the resulting PFPA to the second material by activating the azido group. In the second approach, the material surface is first functionalized with PFPA via functional center R, and coupling of the second molecule or material is achieved with the surface azido groups. In this Account, we review the design and protocols of the two approaches, providing examples in which PFPA derivatives were successfully used in material surface functionalization, ligand conjugation, and the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials. The methods developed have proved to be general and versatile, and they are applicable to a wide range of materials (especially those that lack reactive functional groups or are difficult to derivatize) and to various substrates of polymers, oxides, carbon materials, and metal films. The coupling chemistry can be initiated by light, heat, and electrons. Patterned structures can be generated by selectively activating the areas of interest. Furthermore, the process is easy to perform, and light activation occurs in minutes, greatly facilitating the efficiency of the reaction. PFPAs indeed demonstrate many benefits as versatile surface coupling agents and offer opportunities for further exploration.

Liu, Li-Hong; Yan, Mingdi

2010-01-01

469

Perfluorophenyl azides: new applications in surface functionalization and nanomaterial synthesis.  

PubMed

A major challenge in materials science is the ongoing search for coupling agents that are readily synthesized, capable of versatile chemistry, able to easily functionalize materials and surfaces, and efficient in covalently linking organic and inorganic entities. A decade ago, we began a research program investigating perfluorophenylazides (PFPA) as the coupling agents in surface functionalization and nanomaterial synthesis. The p-substituted PFPAs are attractive heterobifunctional coupling agents because of their two distinct and synthetically distinguishable reactive centers: (i) the fluorinated phenylazide, which is capable of forming stable covalent adducts, and (ii) the functional group R, which can be tailored through synthesis. Two approaches have been undertaken for material synthesis and surface functionalization. The first method involves synthesizing PFPA bearing the first molecule or material with a functional linker R and then attaching the resulting PFPA to the second material by activating the azido group. In the second approach, the material surface is first functionalized with PFPA via functional center R, and coupling of the second molecule or material is achieved with the surface azido groups. In this Account, we review the design and protocols of the two approaches, providing examples in which PFPA derivatives were successfully used in material surface functionalization, ligand conjugation, and the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials. The methods developed have proved to be general and versatile, and they are applicable to a wide range of materials (especially those that lack reactive functional groups or are difficult to derivatize) and to various substrates of polymers, oxides, carbon materials, and metal films. The coupling chemistry can be initiated by light, heat, and electrons. Patterned structures can be generated by selectively activating the areas of interest. Furthermore, the process is easy to perform, and light activation occurs in minutes, greatly facilitating the efficiency of the reaction. PFPAs indeed demonstrate many benefits as versatile surface coupling agents and offer opportunities for further exploration. PMID:20690606

Liu, Li-Hong; Yan, Mingdi

2010-08-06

470

Motor Development: A New Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the acquisition of motor skills, long moribund in developmental psychology, has seen a renaissance in the last decade. Inspired by contemporary work in movement science, perceptual psychology, neuroscience, and dynamic systems theory, multidisciplinary approaches are affording new insights into the processes by which infants and children learn to control their bodies. In particular, the new synthesis emphasizes

Esther Thelen

1995-01-01

471

Module locking in biochemical synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a framework for computation with biochemical reactions with a focus on synthesizing specific logical functionality, a task analogous to technology-independent logic synthesis. Our method synthesizes biochemical reactions that compute output quantities of molecular types as a function of input quantities, either deterministically or probabilistically. An important constraint is the timing, captured in the relative rates of the

Brian Fett; Marc D. Riedel

2008-01-01

472

Synthesis of ?-Methylene-?-Butyrolactones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of natural product synthesis is synonomous with the chemistry of unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Central to numerous steroid, terpene and alkaloid syntheses has been the construction of carbocyclic systems using the conjugated enone functional group (e.g. Robinson annelations, Michael additions and similar reactions). In addition the unsaturated carbonyl group, which is often used for reductive alkylations, extended enolate alkylations

R. B. Gammill; C. A. Wilson; T. A. Bryson

1975-01-01

473

An Asymmetric Synthesis of Prozac  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total enantioselective synthesis of the SSRI (-)-Fluoxetine (Prozac?) is presented. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) work to prevent the reabsorption of serotonin, thus increasing the extracellular concentration of this important neurotransmitter. Low concentrations of serotonin are responsible for a variety of mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, and personality disorders. While Prozac is sold as a racemic drug, it has

Anders Eliasen

2010-01-01

474

Stereoselective synthesis of coordination compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

After an introduction, where the general aspects of stereoselective synthesis of coordination species are shortly reviewed, an account of the use of pyridine and bipyridine ligands that are made chiral through incorporation of structural elements taken from terpenes, which occur naturally as enantiopure or at least non-racemic compounds, is given. It is shown that this ligand family, which presently comprises

Alex von Zelewsky

1999-01-01

475

Synthesis of Coenzyme Q10  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: CoQ 10 is a key compound in ATP synthesis having wide number of health application especially for treating humans s uffering from pathophysiological condition. The CoQ 10 presently available in the market is solely derived from fermentation process. A commercially viable synthetic process is yet to be realized. Approach: The researchers described a new synthetic route for the

Suryachandra Rao Ravada; Lakshma Reddy Emani; Machi Raju Garaga; Bharani Meka; Trimurtulu Golakoti

2009-01-01

476

Toxic proteins inhibiting protein synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins which destroy various organisms are widely distributed in nature. Some of these proteins exert their toxic effect by inhibiting protein synthesis in a specific manner. Thus, Colicin E 3 kills susceptible bacteria by inhibiting ribosome function. It does this by splitting off a small fragment from the t6S ribosomal RNA thus inactivating the 30S ribosomal subunit. Diphtheria toxin inhibits

Sjur Olsnes; Norsk Hydro

1972-01-01

477

Total synthesis of (+)-scholarisine A.  

PubMed

An effective total synthesis and assignment of the absolute configuration of the architecturally challenging compound (+)-scholarisine A has been achieved via a 20-step sequence. Highlights include a reductive cyclization involving a nitrile and an epoxide, a modified Fischer indole protocol, a late-stage oxidative lactonization, and an intramolecular cyclization leading to the indolenine ring system of (+)-scholarisine A. PMID:22280070

Adams, Gregory L; Carroll, Patrick J; Smith, Amos B

2012-01-25

478

Towards Practical Automated Motion Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We extend an earlier motion-synthesis algorithm for physically realistic articulatedfigures in several ways. First, we summarize several incremental improvementsto the original algorithm that improve its efficiency significantly and providethe user with some ability to influence what motions are generated. Thesetechniques can be used by an animator to achieve a desired movement style, orthey can be used to guarantee variety in

A. Fukunaga; A. Shuman; H. Partovi; J. Ausl; J. Christensen; J. Marks; J. T. Ngo; L. Hsu; P. Reiss

1995-01-01

479

Total Synthesis of (?)-Dragmacidin E  

PubMed Central

The bis indole sponge alkaloid dragmacidin E was synthesized in racemic form over 25 steps starting from 7-benzhydroxyindole. Key steps include (a) a Witkop cyclization to facilitate construction of the indole-spanning 7-membered ring and (b) a cyclodehydrative pyrazinone synthesis that unites the two indole-containing sectors.

Feldman, Ken S.; Ngernmeesri, Paiboon

2011-01-01

480

Synthesis and Structure of Polyphosphazenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of this work was the design and synthesis of new polymers for membrane applications. Specific uses are anticipated in high oxygen transmission films with the exclusion of organic liquids or vapors; in membranes for the capture of toxic or radioact...

H. R. Allcock

1998-01-01

481

CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS & TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES  

EPA Science Inventory

A historical account of the utility of microwaves in a variety of chemical synthesis applications will be presented, including a solvent-free strategy that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such...

482

Total synthesis of laetevirenol A.  

PubMed

The first complete synthesis of laetevirenol A was performed in nine steps via intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation in a trans-selective manner. The key phenanthrene intermediate was synthesized by a one-pot Suzuki-Miyaura coupling and an aldol condensation cascade reaction. PMID:22946550

Choi, Young Lok; Kim, Bum Tae; Heo, Jung-Nyoung

2012-09-17

483

Frequency shaped sliding mode synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A sliding mode design method based on frequency shaped quadratic optimal control formulation is proposed in this paper. This method is applied to the design of a VSC controller for a flexible link robot arm. Simulation results show that the excitation of the link deformations can be minimized by introducing frequency-shaping in the synthesis of sliding mode. 7 refs., 19 figs.

Young, K.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Oezguener, U. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1990-03-01

484

Chronology of a Difficult Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a short synthesis and many of the difficulties experienced while carrying it out (e.g., low yields, impurities, racemization, nonrepeatable literature preps, etc.). As such, students will be educated in aspects of synthetic organic chemistry that are often down-played, or even not mentioned, in published syntheses.…

Menger, Fredric M.; Sorrells, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01

485

Mechanochemical synthesis: How grinding evolves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental set-up has been devised to monitor mechanochemical processes in situ, yielding direct insights into mechanistic and kinetic aspects of solid-state reactions that are promoted by grinding, such as the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks.

Harris, Kenneth D. M.

2013-01-01

486

Texture synthesis for digital painting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of digital painting is considered from a signal processing viewpoint, and is reconsidered as a problem of directed texture synthesis. It is an important characteristic of natural texture that detail may be evident at many scales, and the detail at each scale may have distinct characteristics. A “sparse convolution” procedure for generating random textures with arbitrary spectral content

John-Peter Lewis

1984-01-01

487

Particle transport and image synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rendering equation is similar to the linear Boltzmann equation which has been widely studied in physics and nuclear engineering. Consequently, many of the powerful techniques which have been developed in these fields can be applied to problems in image synthesis. In this paper we adapt several statistical techniques commonly used in neutron transport to stochastic ray tracing and, more

James Arvo; David Kirk

1990-01-01

488

The Gabriel Synthesis of Benzylamine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment which utilizes the Gabriel Synthesis to demonstrate the acidity of imides and to provide an example of nucleophilic substitution reactions. The experiment also demonstrates the laboratory techniques involved in simple and steam distillation, filtration, extraction, and…

Nigh, W. G.

1975-01-01

489

Carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the importance and implications of regulating carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis, the characteristics of cells that serve as major sinks for cellulose deposition, and enzymes that participate in the conversion of supplied carbon to cellulose. Cotton fibers, which deposit almost pure cellulose into their secondary cell walls, are referred to as a primary model system. For sucrose

Candace H. Haigler; Milka Ivanova-Datcheva; Patrick S. Hogan; Vadim V. Salnikov; Sangjoon Hwang; Kirt Martin; Deborah P. Delmer

2001-01-01

490

Total synthesis of pyoverdin D.  

PubMed

Pyoverdin D is an important siderophore that is used by the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to import iron and gain a competitive advantage. This unique partially cyclic octapeptide bears four nonproteinogenic amino acids, including (?)N-formyl-(?)N-hydroxy-l-ornithine, and a catechol containing chiral chromophore. Here, we report the first total synthesis of pyoverdin D. PMID:23530778

Mashiach, Roi; Meijler, Michael M

2013-03-26

491

Anodic synthesis of heterocyclic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the anodic synthesis of heterocyclic compounds that have appeared during the last decade. The mechanistic aspects involving intramolecular, intermolecular cyclizations and the homogeneous vs heterogeneous anodic oxidations were considered. This review deals with the recent advances in anodic oxidations in which heterocyclic compounds were synthesized through carbon-heteroatom and heteroatom-heteroatom bond formation.

Ibro Tabakovi?

492

Reaction synthesis of titanium aluminides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of titanium aluminides from the elemental powders has been investigated. A traditional powder metallurgy route of compaction (by cold isostatic pressing, hot pressing or hot extrusion) followed by heat treatment was compared with the novel technique of hot extrusion reaction synthesis (HERS). The products from these different production methods were characterised by x-ray diffraction and microscopy (light and

E. K. Y. Fu; R. D. Rawlings; H. B. McShane

2001-01-01

493

Acyltransferases in bacterial glycerophospholipid synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phospholipid biosynthesis is a vital facet of bac- terial physiology that begins with the synthesis of the fatty acids by a soluble type II fatty acid synthase. The bacterial glycerol-phosphate acyltransferases utilize the completed fatty acid chains to form the first membrane phospholipid and thus play a critical role in the regulation of membrane biogenesis. The first bacterial acyltransferase described

Yong-Mei Zhang; Charles O. Rock

494

Algorithms for synchronous logic synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach is presented to logic synthesis of digital synchronous sequential circuits. The authors describe algorithms for minimizing (i) the area of synchronous combinational and\\/or sequential circuits under cycle time constraints, and (ii) the cycle time under area constraints. Previous approaches attacked this problem by separating the combinational logic from the registers and by applying circuit transformations to the

G. De Micheli; T. Klein

1989-01-01

495

Parametric emotional singing voice synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an algorithm to control the expressed emotion of a synthesized song. Based on the database of various melodies sung neutrally with restricted set of words, hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs) of notes ranging from E3 to G5 are constructed for synthesizing singing voice. Three steps are taken in the synthesis: (1) Pitch and duration are determined according to

Sungrack Yun; Chang Dong Yoo

2010-01-01

496

Template Synthesis of Metal Microtubules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have recently described a template method for the synthesis of organic microtubules. This method entails the use of the pores in a microporous membrane as templates for tubule formation. The key to the tubule-formation process in the presence of molecu...

C. J. Brumlik C. R. Martin

1991-01-01

497

Total Synthesis of (+)-Scholarisine A  

PubMed Central

An effective total synthesis and assignment of the absolute configuration of the architecturally challenging (+)-scholarisine A has been achieved via a 20-step sequence. Highlights include a reductive cyclization, involving a nitrile and an epoxide; a modified Fischer indole protocol; a late stage oxidative-lactonization; and an intramolecular cyclization leading to the indolenine ring system of (+)-scholarisine A.

Adams, Gregory L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Smith, Amos B.

2012-01-01

498

Total synthesis of cladoniamide G.  

PubMed

The total synthesis of cladoniamide G, a cytotoxic compound against MCF-7 breast cancer cells (10 ?g/mL), was accomplished. Key steps in the sequence include oxidative dimerization of 3-acetoxy-5-chloroindole and a tandem process incorporating three steps: bimolecular carbonyl addition, lactam formation, and carbamate removal. PMID:23413919

Loosley, Benjamin C; Andersen, Raymond J; Dake, Gregory R

2013-02-15

499

Two methods for spirothiohydantoin synthesis.  

PubMed

Two methods for spirothiohydantoin synthesis are presented. The title compounds were prepared with reaction of the corresponding 1-aminocycloalkanecarboxylic acids and thiourea. These compounds were also prepared by a hydrolysis of the relevant spirodithiohydantoins with barium hydroxide. The structures of the compounds obtained were verified by comparison of 1H, and 13C NMR, IR and MS spectral data. PMID:24061326

Stoyanov, Neyko; Marinov, Marin

2012-09-01

500

Effect of manganese on an iron-based Fischer–Tropsch synthesis catalyst prepared from ferrous sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of manganese on the textural properties, bulk and surface phase compositions, reduction\\/carburization behaviors and surface basicity of an Fe–Mn–K\\/SiO2 catalyst prepared from ferrous sulfate were investigated by N2 physisorption, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 (or CO) temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). The Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) performance of the catalysts with different contents of

Tingzhen Li; Yong Yang; Chenghua Zhang; Xia An; Haijun Wan; Zhichao Tao; Hongwei Xiang; Yongwang Li; Fan Yi; Binfu Xu

2007-01-01