Sample records for schema-based program synthesis

  1. The Role of Ontologies in Schema-based Program Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bures, Tomas; Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Nistor, Eugen C.

    2004-01-01

    Program synthesis is the process of automatically deriving executable code from (non-executable) high-level specifications. It is more flexible and powerful than conventional code generation techniques that simply translate algorithmic specifications into lower-level code or only create code skeletons from structural specifications (such as UML class diagrams). Key to building a successful synthesis system is specializing to an appropriate application domain. The AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER systems, under development at NASA Ames, operate in the two domains of data analysis and state estimation, respectively. The central concept of both systems is the schema, a representation of reusable computational knowledge. This can take various forms, including high-level algorithm templates, code optimizations, datatype refinements, or architectural information. A schema also contains applicability conditions that are used to determine when it can be applied safely. These conditions can refer to the initial specification, to intermediate results, or to elements of the partially-instantiated code. Schema-based synthesis uses AI technology to recursively apply schemas to gradually refine a specification into executable code. This process proceeds in two main phases. A front-end gradually transforms the problem specification into a program represented in an abstract intermediate code. A backend then compiles this further down into a concrete target programming language of choice. A core engine applies schemas on the initial problem specification, then uses the output of those schemas as the input for other schemas, until the full implementation is generated. Since there might be different schemas that implement different solutions to the same problem this process can generate an entire solution tree. AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER have reached the level of maturity where they enable users to solve interesting application problems, e.g., the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images. They are large (in total around 100kLoC Prolog), knowledge intensive systems that employ complex symbolic reasoning to generate a wide range of non-trivial programs for complex application do- mains. Their schemas can have complex interactions, which make it hard to change them in isolation or even understand what an existing schema actually does. Adding more capabilities by increasing the number of schemas will only worsen this situation, ultimately leading to the entropy death of the synthesis system. The root came of this problem is that the domain knowledge is scattered throughout the entire system and only represented implicitly in the schema implementations. In our current work, we are addressing this problem by making explicit the knowledge from Merent parts of the synthesis system. Here; we discuss how Gruber's definition of an ontology as an explicit specification of a conceptualization matches our efforts in identifying and explicating the domain-specific concepts. We outline the dual role ontologies play in schema-based synthesis and argue that they address different audiences and serve different purposes. Their first role is descriptive: they serve as explicit documentation, and help to understand the internal structure of the system. Their second role is prescriptive: they provide the formal basis against which the other parts of the system (e.g., schemas) can be checked. Their final role is referential: ontologies also provide semantically meaningful "hooks" which allow schemas and tools to access the internal state of the program derivation process (e.g., fragments of the generated code) in domain-specific rather than language-specific terms, and thus to modify it in a controlled fashion. For discussion purposes we use AUTOLINEAR, a small synthesis system we are currently experimenting with, which can generate code for solving a system of linear equations, Az = b.

  2. Three-dimensional motor schema based navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, Ronald C.

    1989-01-01

    Reactive schema-based navigation is possible in space domains by extending the methods developed for ground-based navigation found within the Autonomous Robot Architecture (AuRA). Reformulation of two dimensional motor schemas for three dimensional applications is a straightforward process. The manifold advantages of schema-based control persist, including modular development, amenability to distributed processing, and responsiveness to environmental sensing. Simulation results show the feasibility of this methodology for space docking operations in a cluttered work area.

  3. AutoBayes Program Synthesis System System Internals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann Martin

    2011-01-01

    This lecture combines the theoretical background of schema based program synthesis with the hands-on study of a powerful, open-source program synthesis system (Auto-Bayes). Schema-based program synthesis is a popular approach toward program synthesis. The lecture will provide an introduction into this topic and discuss how this technology can be used to generate customized algorithms. The synthesis of advanced numerical algorithms requires the availability of a powerful symbolic (algebra) system. Its task is to symbolically solve equations, simplify expressions, or to symbolically calculate derivatives (among others) such that the synthesized algorithms become as efficient as possible. We will discuss the use and importance of the symbolic system for synthesis. Any synthesis system is a large and complex piece of code. In this lecture, we will study Autobayes in detail. AutoBayes has been developed at NASA Ames and has been made open source. It takes a compact statistical specification and generates a customized data analysis algorithm (in C/C++) from it. AutoBayes is written in SWI Prolog and many concepts from rewriting, logic, functional, and symbolic programming. We will discuss the system architecture, the schema libary and the extensive support infra-structure. Practical hands-on experiments and exercises will enable the student to get insight into a realistic program synthesis system and provides knowledge to use, modify, and extend Autobayes.

  4. SCHEMA-BASED LOGIC PROGRAM TRANSFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Flener, Pierre

    and in quality, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science. Ass't Prof. Pierre Flener (Advisor) I certify, as a thesis for the degree of Master of Science. Ass't Prof. Nihan Kesim Cicekli I certify that I have read of Master of Science. Ass't Prof. _Ilyas Cicekli Approved for the Institute of Engineering and Science: Prof

  5. Accessible programming using program synthesis

    E-print Network

    Singh, Rishabh

    2014-01-01

    New computing platforms have greatly increased the demand for programmers, but learning to program remains a big challenge. Program synthesis techniques have the potential to revolutionize programming by making it more ...

  6. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  7. Design issues and challenges for RDF and schema-based peer-to-peer systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Nejdl; Wolf Siberski; Michael Sintek

    2003-01-01

    Databases have employed a schema-based approach to store and retrieve structured data for decades. For peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, similar approaches are just beginning to emerge. While quite a few database techniques can be re-used in this new context, a P2P data management infrastructure poses additional challenges which have to be solved before schema-based P2P networks become as common as schema-based

  8. Synthesis: Dreams - Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zohar Manna; Richard J. Waldinger

    1979-01-01

    Deductive techniques arepresented forderiving programs systematically fromgiven specifications. Thespecifications express the purpose ofthedesired program without giving anyhintofthealgo- rithm tobeemployed. Thebasic approach istotransform thespecifi- cations repeatedly according tocertain rules, until asatisfactory pro- gramisproduced. Therules areguided byanumberofstrategic controls. Thesetechniques havebeenincorporated inarunning pro- -gram-synthesis system, called DEDALUS. Manyofthetransformation rules represent knowledge aboutthe program's subject domain(e.g., nu,mbers, lists, sets); somerepresent thet meaning oftheconstructs ofthespecification

  9. Improving seventh grade students’ learning of ratio and proportion: The role of schema-based instruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asha K. Jitendra; Jon R. Star; Kristin Starosta; Jayne M. Leh; Sheetal Sood; Grace Caskie; Cheyenne L. Hughes; Toshi R. Mack

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an instructional intervention (schema-based instruction, SBI) that was designed to meet the diverse needs of middle school students by addressing the research literatures from both special education and mathematics education. Specifically, SBI emphasizes the role of the mathematical structure of problems and also provides students with a heuristic to aid and self-monitor problem

  10. Retrofitting the AutoBayes Program Synthesis System with Concrete Syntax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    AutoBayes is a fully automatic, schema-based program synthesis system for statistical data analysis applications. Its core component is a schema library. i.e., a collection of generic code templates with associated applicability constraints which are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis. Currently, AutoBayes is implemented in Prolog; the schemas thus use abstract syntax (i.e., Prolog terms) to formulate the templates. However, the conceptual distance between this abstract representation and the concrete syntax of the generated programs makes the schemas hard to create and maintain. In this paper we describe how AutoBayes is retrofitted with concrete syntax. We show how it is integrated into Prolog and describe how the seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with AutoBayes's remaining legacy meta-programming kernel based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually mitigate individual schemas without forcing a disruptive migration of the entire system to a different First experiences show that a smooth migration can be achieved. Moreover, it can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments.

  11. Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falzon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

  12. The Effect of Schema-Based Instruction in Solving Mathematics Word Problems: An Emphasis on Prealgebraic Conceptualization of Multiplicative Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Yan Ping

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a schema-based instructional strategy that emphasizes prealgebraic conceptualization of multiplicative relations on solving arithmetic word problems with elementary students with learning disabilities or problems (LP). Introducing symbolic representation and algebraic thinking in earlier…

  13. Effectiveness of Schema-Based Instruction for Improving Seventh-Grade Students' Proportional Reasoning: A Randomized Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Rodriguez, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of schema-based instruction (SBI) on 7th-grade students' mathematical problem-solving performance. SBI is an instructional intervention that emphasizes the role of mathematical structure in word problems and also provides students with a heuristic to self-monitor and aid problem solving. Using a…

  14. Sehwa: a program for synthesis of pipelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice C. Parker

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a set of techniques for the synthesis of pipelined data paths, and presents Sehwa, a program which performs such synthesis. The task includes the generation of data paths from a data flow graph along with a clocking scheme which overlaps execution of multiple tasks. Some examples which Sehwa has designed are given. Sehwa can find the minimum

  15. A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products. Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

  16. A split-path schema-based RFID data storage model in supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

  17. A Computer Program for Organic Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Alan K.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The current organic synthesis program at Harvard University is called the Logic and Heuristics Applied to Synthetic Analysis (LHASA). Discusses this program in detail, focusing on retrosynthetic analysis approach, LHASA hardware, graphical input/perception, strategy control, transform evaluation, and LHASA enhancement. (JN)

  18. VASP- VARIABLE DIMENSION AUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    VASP is a variable dimension Fortran version of the Automatic Synthesis Program, ASP. The program is used to implement Kalman filtering and control theory. Basically, it consists of 31 subprograms for solving most modern control problems in linear, time-variant (or time-invariant) control systems. These subprograms include operations of matrix algebra, computation of the exponential of a matrix and its convolution integral, and the solution of the matrix Riccati equation. The user calls these subprograms by means of a FORTRAN main program, and so can easily obtain solutions to most general problems of extremization of a quadratic functional of the state of the linear dynamical system. Particularly, these problems include the synthesis of the Kalman filter gains and the optimal feedback gains for minimization of a quadratic performance index. VASP, as an outgrowth of the Automatic Synthesis Program, has the following improvements: more versatile programming language; more convenient input/output format; some new subprograms which consolidate certain groups of statements that are often repeated; and variable dimensioning. The pertinent difference between the two programs is that VASP has variable dimensioning and more efficient storage. The documentation for the VASP program contains a VASP dictionary and example problems. The dictionary contains a description of each subroutine and instructions on its use. The example problems include dynamic response, optimal control gain, solution of the sampled data matrix Riccati equation, matrix decomposition, and a pseudo-inverse of a matrix. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on the IBM 360. The VASP program was developed in 1971.

  19. Meeting the Needs of Students With Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Mathematics Classrooms: The Role of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Problem-Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asha K. Jitendra; Jon R. Star

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses schema-based instruction (SBI) as an alternative to traditional instruction for enhancing the mathematical problem solving performance of students with learning disabilities (LD). In the authors' most recent research and developmental efforts, they designed SBI to meet the needs of middle school students with LD in inclusive mathematics classrooms by addressing the research literatures in special education, cognitive

  20. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Outcomes for Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Slater, Susan; Cozine-Corroy, Kelly; Church, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the effects of delivering a supplemental, small-group tutoring intervention on the mathematics outcomes of third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MD) who were randomly assigned to either a schema-based instruction (SBI) or control group. SBI emphasized the underlying mathematical structure of additive…

  1. System Level Synthesis Of Dataflow Programs: HEVC Decoder Case Study

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -based code. Afterward, a Xilinx HLS tool called Vivado is used for an automatic generation of synthesizableSystem Level Synthesis Of Dataflow Programs: HEVC Decoder Case Study Mariem Abid*, Khaled Jerbi- opment of High-Level Synthesis (HLS) tools for the automatic generation of Register Transfer Level (RTL

  2. Kiwi: Synthesis of FPGA Circuits from Parallel Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Greaves; Satnam Singh

    2008-01-01

    We describe the Kiwi parallel programming library and its associated synthesis system which is used to transform C# parallel programs into circuits for realization on FP- GAs. The Kiwi system is targeted at making reconfig- urable computing technology accessible to software en- gineers that are willing to express their computations as parallel programs. Although there has been much work on

  3. Challenges in automated verification and synthesis for molecular programming

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Challenges in automated verification and synthesis for molecular programming Marta Kwiatkowska, debugging and synthesising programmable molecular devices, and outlines the challenges in achieving is envisaged in health- care applications, where safety is paramount. The fast-growing field of molecular

  4. An implementation of the distributed programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for implementing a flexible software system that combines large, complex programs with small, user-supplied, problem-dependent programs and that distributes their execution between a mainframe and a minicomputer. The Programming Structural Synthesis System (PROSSS) was the specific software system considered. The results of such distributed implementation are flexibility of the optimization procedure organization and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables.

  5. Data synthesis and display programs for wave distribution function analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storey, L. R. O.; Yeh, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    At the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) software was written to synthesize and display artificial data for use in developing the methodology of wave distribution analysis. The software comprises two separate interactive programs, one for data synthesis and the other for data display.

  6. Program Synthesis _ Past, Present and Future A Tutorial

    E-print Network

    Hagiya, Masami

    programming, has bee* *n one of the most attractive fields in computer science and artificial intelligence synthesis by referring t* *o some recent works in artificial intelligence. I first introduce of compute* *r science or artificial intelligence but also a paradigm for guiding and promoting their res

  7. Program Synthesis by Sketching Armando Solar-Lezama

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Daniel

    A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor in Philosophy-level implementation details. Deriving the low-level details is a natural job for a computer, but the synthesizer can to an o-the-shelf validation procedure. The resulting synthesis system scales to real programming problems

  8. An implementation of the programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Bhat, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    A particular implementation of the programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS) is described. This software system combines a state of the art optimization program, a production level structural analysis program, and user supplied, problem dependent interface programs. These programs are combined using standard command language features existing in modern computer operating systems. PROSSS is explained in general with respect to this implementation along with the steps for the preparation of the programs and input data. Each component of the system is described in detail with annotated listings for clarification. The components include options, procedures, programs and subroutines, and data files as they pertain to this implementation. An example exercising each option in this implementation to allow the user to anticipate the type of results that might be expected is presented.

  9. Alternative mathematical programming formulations for FSS synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, C. H.; Mount-Campbell, C. A.; Gonsalvez, D. J. A.; Levis, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of mathematical programming models and two solution strategies are suggested for the problem of allocating orbital positions to (synthesizing) satellites in the Fixed Satellite Service. Mixed integer programming and almost linear programming formulations are presented in detail for each of two objectives: (1) positioning satellites as closely as possible to specified desired locations, and (2) minimizing the total length of the geostationary arc allocated to the satellites whose positions are to be determined. Computational results for mixed integer and almost linear programming models, with the objective of positioning satellites as closely as possible to their desired locations, are reported for three six-administration test problems and a thirteen-administration test problem.

  10. Mathematics Word Problem Solving: An Investigation into Schema-Based Instruction in a Computer-Mediated Setting and a Teacher-Mediated Setting with Mathematically Low-Performing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leh, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that teacher-delivered schema-based instruction (SBI) facilitates significant increases in mathematics word problem solving (WPS) skills for diverse students; however research is unclear whether technology affordances facilitate superior gains in computer-mediated (CM) instruction in mathematics WPS when compared to…

  11. Users manual for the Variable dimension Automatic Synthesis Program (VASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. S.; Lee, H. Q.

    1971-01-01

    A dictionary and some problems for the Variable Automatic Synthesis Program VASP are submitted. The dictionary contains a description of each subroutine and instructions on its use. The example problems give the user a better perspective on the use of VASP for solving problems in modern control theory. These example problems include dynamic response, optimal control gain, solution of the sampled data matrix Ricatti equation, matrix decomposition, and pseudo inverse of a matrix. Listings of all subroutines are also included. The VASP program has been adapted to run in the conversational mode on the Ames 360/67 computer.

  12. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program has a two-fold purpose. It can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general-purpose branched trajectory optimization program. In the former use, it has the Space Shuttle Synthesis Program as well as a simplified stage weight module for optimally sizing manned recoverable launch vehicles. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent; the second employs the method of quasilinearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

  13. AutoBayes Program Synthesis System Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Jafari, Hamed; Pressburger, Tom; Denney, Ewen; Buntine, Wray; Fischer, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Program synthesis is the systematic, automatic construction of efficient executable code from high-level declarative specifications. AutoBayes is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the statistical data analysis domain; in particular, it solves parameter estimation problems. It has seen many successful applications at NASA and is currently being used, for example, to analyze simulation results for Orion. The input to AutoBayes is a concise description of a data analysis problem composed of a parameterized statistical model and a goal that is a probability term involving parameters and input data. The output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code computing the values for those parameters that maximize the probability term. AutoBayes can solve many subproblems symbolically rather than having to rely on numeric approximation algorithms, thus yielding effective, efficient, and compact code. Statistical analysis is faster and more reliable, because effort can be focused on model development and validation rather than manual development of solution algorithms and code.

  14. Integration of Major Computer Program Packages into Experimental Courses: Organic Synthesis Design and the Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Bonnie Burns; Solomon, Robert W.

    1981-01-01

    Presents discussion on: (1) computer assisted synthesis in industry and academia; (2) computer applications to teaching organic synthesis; (3) a computer program (ORGSYN) incorporating reactions to synthesize aliphatic compounds; and (4) the design of a computer program as a heuristic device in an introductory organic course. (SK)

  15. Development of a weight/sizing design synthesis computer program. Volume 1: Program formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a weight/sizing design synthesis methodology for use in support of the main line space shuttle program is discussed. The methodology has a minimum number of data inputs and quick turn around capabilities. The methodology makes it possible to: (1) make weight comparisons between current shuttle configurations and proposed changes, (2) determine the effects of various subsystems trades on total systems weight, and (3) determine the effects of weight on performance and performance on weight.

  16. IMAGES: A digital computer program for interactive modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive digital computer program for modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis was written. Both mathematical and operation considerations are described; however, the mathematical presentation is limited to those concepts essential to the operational capability of the program. The program is capable of both modal and spectral synthesis of multi-input control systems. It is user friendly, has scratchpad capability and dynamic memory, and can be used to design either state or output feedback systems.

  17. ACCESS 1: Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis program documentation and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The program documentation and user's guide for the ACCESS-1 computer program is presented. ACCESS-1 is a research oriented program which implements a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and general mathematical programming algorithms are applied in the design optimization procedure. Implementation of the computer program, preparation of input data and basic program structure are described, and three illustrative examples are given.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of hexaarylbenzenes with five or six different substituents enabled by programmed synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shin; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Junichiro

    2015-03-01

    Since its discovery in 1825, benzene has served as one of the most used and indispensable building blocks of chemical compounds, ranging from pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals to plastics and those used in organic electronic devices. Benzene has six hydrogen atoms that can each be replaced by different substituents, which means that the structural diversity of benzene derivatives is intrinsically extraordinary. The number of possible substituted benzenes from n different substituents is (2n?+?2n2?+?4n3?+?3n4?+?n6)/12. However, owing to a lack of general synthetic methods for making multisubstituted benzenes, this potentially huge structural diversity has not been fully exploited. Here, we describe a programmed synthesis of hexaarylbenzenes using C–H activation, cross-coupling and [4+2] cycloaddition reactions. The present method allows for the isolation and structure–property characterization of hexaarylbenzenes with distinctive aryl substituents at all positions for the first time. Moreover, the established protocol can be applied to the synthesis of tetraarylnaphthalenes and pentaarylpyridines.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of hexaarylbenzenes with five or six different substituents enabled by programmed synthesis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shin; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro; Yamaguchi, Junichiro

    2015-03-01

    Since its discovery in 1825, benzene has served as one of the most used and indispensable building blocks of chemical compounds, ranging from pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals to plastics and those used in organic electronic devices. Benzene has six hydrogen atoms that can each be replaced by different substituents, which means that the structural diversity of benzene derivatives is intrinsically extraordinary. The number of possible substituted benzenes from n different substituents is (2n?+?2n(2)?+?4n(3)?+?3n(4)?+?n(6))/12. However, owing to a lack of general synthetic methods for making multisubstituted benzenes, this potentially huge structural diversity has not been fully exploited. Here, we describe a programmed synthesis of hexaarylbenzenes using C-H activation, cross-coupling and [4+2] cycloaddition reactions. The present method allows for the isolation and structure-property characterization of hexaarylbenzenes with distinctive aryl substituents at all positions for the first time. Moreover, the established protocol can be applied to the synthesis of tetraarylnaphthalenes and pentaarylpyridines. PMID:25698332

  20. Application of ASP for Automatic Synthesis of Flexible Multiprocessor Systems from Parallel Programs

    E-print Network

    Schaub, Torsten

    Application of ASP for Automatic Synthesis of Flexible Multiprocessor Systems from Parallel. However, as the synthesis problem usually exhibits structure, Answer Set Programming (ASP), for which be effectively employed. This pa- per presents a design flow based on ASP that uses the solver clasp as back

  1. Synthesis of Selftimed Circuits by Program Transformation \\Lambda Steven M. Burns and Alain J. Martin

    E-print Network

    Martin, Alain

    Synthesis of Self­timed Circuits by Program Transformation \\Lambda Steven M. Burns and Alain J con­ structs of the source language. The remainder of the synthesis procedure consists of compiling in The Fusion of Hardware Design and Verification, G.J. Milne, ed., North­Holland (1988) 1 #12; 1. hprocessi

  2. AUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS OF TTA PROCESSOR NETWORKS FROM RVC-CAL DATAFLOW PROGRAMS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    languages can offer. At the same time, processing hard- ware designers try to come up with processing systems to write a program in the RVC- CAL dataflow language and automatically generate a multi- processorAUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS OF TTA PROCESSOR NETWORKS FROM RVC-CAL DATAFLOW PROGRAMS J. Boutellier, O. Silv

  3. Automated Synthesis of Target-Dependent Programs for Polynomial Evaluation in Fixed-Point Arithmetic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of polynomial evaluation. For performance purposes, this tool produces programs using exclusively unsigned. Hence tools and heuristics are needed to automate the synthesis of polynomial evaluation programs of polynomial evaluation, [7] proposes an approach based exclusively on Horner's rule. This method is well-known

  4. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The QL module of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is described. Execution of this module is initiated when and if subroutine PADSI calls subroutine GROPE. Subroutine GROPE controls the high level logical flow of the QL module. The purpose of the module is to determine a trajectory that satisfies the necessary variational conditions for optimal performance. The module achieves this by solving a nonlinear multi-point boundary value problem. The numerical method employed is described. It is an iterative technique that converges quadratically when it does converge. The three basic steps of the module are: (1) initialization, (2) iteration, and (3) culmination. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

  5. Applying Aspect-Oriented Programming to Intelligent Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    I discuss a component-centered, aspect-oriented system, the Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), NASA's initiative on Intelligent Synthesis Environments (ISE), and the application of OIF to the architecture of ISE.

  6. Automatic Program Repair with Condition Synthesis and Compound Mutations

    E-print Network

    Long, Fan

    2015-02-12

    We present PCR, a new automatic patch generation system. PCR uses a new condition synthesis technique to efficiently discover logical expressions that generate desired control- flow transfer patterns. Presented with a set ...

  7. Optimized FPGA implementations of demanding PLC programs based on hardware high-level synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoforos Economakos; George Economakos

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of a previous work by the same authors concerning the use of automated high-level synthesis tools for obtaining high-performance FPGA implementations of industrial automation and control algorithms coded as PLC programs. The proposed method is mainly targeting demanding applications requiring lots of numerical computations. High-level synthesis is based on powerful, commercial tools. Since most of

  8. Development of weight/sizing design synthesis computer program. Volume 3: User Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The user manual for the weight/sizing design synthesis program is presented. The program is applied to an analysis of the basic weight relationships for the space shuttle which contribute significant portions of the inert weight. The relationships measure the parameters of load, geometry, material, and environment. A verbal description of the processes simulated, data input procedures, output data, and values present in the program is included.

  9. Symbol IC-Evaluation as an Aid to Program Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Yonezawa, Akinori

    Symbolic-evaluation is the process which abstractly evaluates an actor program and checks to see whether the program fulfills its contract (specification). In this paper, a formalism based on the conceptual representation ...

  10. Fas-induced programmed cell death is mediated by a Ras-regulated O2- synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Gulbins, E; Brenner, B; Schlottmann, K; Welsch, J; Heinle, H; Koppenhoefer, U; Linderkamp, O; Coggeshall, K M; Lang, F

    1996-01-01

    Fas induces apoptosis in lymphocytes via a poorly defined intracellular signalling cascade. Previously, we have demonstrated the involvement and significance of a signalling cascade from the Fas receptor via sphingomyelinases and ceramide to Ras in Fas-induced apoptosis. Here we demonstrate rapid and transient synthesis of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) via activation of Ras after Fas. Genetic inhibition of Ras by transfection of transdominant inhibitory N17Ras blocked Fas-mediated ROI synthesis and programmed cell death. Likewise, the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and N-t-butyl-phenylnitrone abolished Fas-induced cell death, pointing to an important role for Ras-triggered ROI synthesis in Fas-mediated programmed cell death. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8943716

  11. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 1: Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program formulation for PADS computer program is presented. It can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general-purpose branched trajectory optimization program. In the former use, it has the Space Shuttle Synthesis Program as well as a simplified stage weight module for optimally sizing manned recoverable launch vehicles. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent; the second employs the method of quasilinearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module.

  12. A new integer linear programming formulation for the scheduling problem in data path synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiahn-Hung Lee; Yu-Chin Hsu; Youn-long Steve Lin

    1989-01-01

    A novel approach is presented to the operation scheduling problem in a data path synthesis. After obtaining the start time and the require time of each operation by the ASAP (as soon as possible) and ALAP (as late as possible) methods, respectively, an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation is formed to solve the scheduling problem. The objective is to fully

  13. Development of a Constraint-Based Airlift Scheduler by Program Synthesis from Formal Specifications

    E-print Network

    search with constraint propagation) to produce provably correct and highly efficient code been synthesized from formal specifications us- ing the Kestrel Interactive Development System (KIDS), a knowledge-based program synthesis tool. KIDS has been successfully applied to a wide range of problems

  14. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Single-chain Nanoparticles: Synthesis of Nano-scale

    E-print Network

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Single-chain Nanoparticles: Synthesis of Nano-scale Architectures:00 AM, IMS Room 20 Recent efforts by our lab to fold single polymer chains into nano as a reliable method to measure the change in solution conformation of polymer chains when folded via intra

  15. Synthesis of software programs for embedded control applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felice Balarin; Massimiliano Chiodo; Paolo Giusto; Harry Hsieh; Attila Jurecska; Luciano Lavagno; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli; Ellen M. Sentovich; Kei Suzuki

    1999-01-01

    Software components for embedded reactive real-time applications must satisfy tight code size and run- time constraints. Cooperating finite state machines provide a convenient intermediate format for embedded system co-synthesis, between high-level specification languages and software or hardware implementations. We propose a software generation methodology that takes advantage of a restricted class of specifications and allows for tight control over the

  16. An MSG-method for inductive logic program synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esra Erdem

    1996-01-01

    SYNAPSE2 is an upgraded version of SYNAPSE (developed by Flener [1995]),\\u000awhich is an implementation of an inductive synthesis mechanism that\\u000asemi-automatically synthesizes divide-and-conquer logic algorithms in a\\u000aschema-guided way, from non-incrementally given examples and properties of\\u000aan intended relation. SYNAPSE2 goes through six steps, instantiating the\\u000aplace-holders of a chosen divide-and-conquer logic algorithm schema. At\\u000aStep 5, the MSG-Method

  17. Conjunctive programming: An interactive approach to software system synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    This report introduces a technique of software documentation called conjunctive programming and discusses its role in the development and maintenance of software systems. The report also describes the conjoin tool, an adjunct to assist practitioners. Aimed at supporting software reuse while conforming with conventional development practices, conjunctive programming is defined as the extraction, integration, and embellishment of pertinent information obtained directly from an existing database of software artifacts, such as specifications, source code, configuration data, link-edit scripts, utility files, and other relevant information, into a product that achieves desired levels of detail, content, and production quality. Conjunctive programs typically include automatically generated tables of contents, indexes, cross references, bibliographic citations, tables, and figures (including graphics and illustrations). This report presents an example of conjunctive programming by documenting the use and implementation of the conjoin program.

  18. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 3: User manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The two-fold purpose of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is discussed. The program can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general purpose branched trajectory optimization program. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent. The second module uses the method of quasi-linearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module.

  19. Analysis of Air Traffic Track Data with the AutoBayes Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann Martin Philip; Cate, Karen; Lee, Alan G.

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS) is aiming to provide substantial computer support for the air traffic controllers. Algorithms for the accurate prediction of aircraft movements are of central importance for such software systems but trajectory prediction has to work reliably in the presence of unknown parameters and uncertainties. We are using the AutoBayes program synthesis system to generate customized data analysis algorithms that process large sets of aircraft radar track data in order to estimate parameters and uncertainties. In this paper, we present, how the tasks of finding structure in track data, estimation of important parameters in climb trajectories, and the detection of continuous descent approaches can be accomplished with compact task-specific AutoBayes specifications. We present an overview of the AutoBayes architecture and describe, how its schema-based approach generates customized analysis algorithms, documented C/C++ code, and detailed mathematical derivations. Results of experiments with actual air traffic control data are discussed.

  20. ADS: A FORTRAN program for automated design synthesis: Version 1.10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1985-01-01

    A new general-purpose optimization program for engineering design is described. ADS (Automated Design Synthesis - Version 1.10) is a FORTRAN program for solution of nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The program is segmented into three levels: strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search. At each level, several options are available so that a total of over 100 possible combinations can be created. Examples of available strategies are sequential unconstrained minimization, the Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method, and Sequential Linear Programming. Available optimizers include variable metric methods and the Method of Feasible Directions as examples, and one-dimensional search options include polynomial interpolation and the Golden Section method as examples. Emphasis is placed on ease of use of the program. All information is transferred via a single parameter list. Default values are provided for all internal program parameters such as convergence criteria, and the user is given a simple means to over-ride these, if desired.

  1. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 7: Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The economic analysis includes: manufacturing costs; labor costs; parts costs; operating costs; markups and consumer price. A user's manual for a computer program to calculate the final consumer price is included.

  2. Exception handling and object-oriented programming: towards a synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Dony; Marie Curie

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents a discussion and a specification of an exception handling system dedicated to object-oriented programming. We show how a full object-oriented representation of exceptions and of protocols to handle them, using meta-classes, makes the system powerful as well as extendible and solves many classical exception handling issues. We explain the interest for object-oriented programming of handlers attached to

  3. A Program for the Synthesis of Mass Spectral Isotopic Abundances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownawell, Marilyn L.; Filippo, Joseph San, Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A Fortran IV program is described which calculates relative peak intensities of any molecular or fragment ion and displays them graphically as a bar graph resembling a mass spectrum. Documentation, including listing, sample usage, and sample execution is available free of charge. (Author/JN)

  4. Schema-Guided Synthesis of Constraint Logic Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Flener; Hamza Zidoum; Brahim Hnich

    1998-01-01

    By focusing on the families of assignment and permutation problems (such as graph colouring and -Queens), we show how to adapt D.R. Smith's KIDS approach for the synthe- sis of constraint programs (with implicit constraint satis- faction code thus), rather than applicativeRefineprograms with explicit constraint propagation and pruning code. Syn - thesis is guided by a global search schema and

  5. Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to improving elementary mathematics: mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and instructional process programs. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of at least 12 weeks, and…

  6. Pattern synthesis for waveguide slotted array antenna by linear programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Y.; Goto, N.

    1983-07-01

    The locations of slots derived by the sampling method are the initial values. Linear programming is used to correct the current amplitude and the location of each slot so that the antenna efficiency is improved. It is pointed out that whereas the problem of finding the correct amplitude in each slot is a linear problem, that of correcting the slot location is nonlinear. Linear programming is therefore applied to the latter by linear approximation. A successive method in which the amplitude and location of the slot are alternately and repeatedly modified is investigated. An antenna efficiency of -3 dB is imporved to -1 dB. The influence of fabrication inaccuracy on an optimally designed antenna is compared with that based on the traditional design. It is found that the degradation of radiation characteristics of an optimally designed antenna due to fabrication errors is approximately the same as for the one with the conventional design.

  7. Development of a weight/sizing design synthesis computer program. Volume 2: Program Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The program for the computerized analysis of weight estimation relationships for those elements of the space shuttle vehicle which contribute a significant portion of the inert weight is discussed. A listing of each module and subroutine of the program is presented. Included are a generalized flow chart describing the subroutine linkage of the complete program and detailed flow charts for each subprogram.

  8. Syntax-guided synthesis

    E-print Network

    Alur, Rajeev

    The classical formulation of the program-synthesis problem is to find a program that meets a correctness specification given as a logical formula. Recent work on program synthesis and program optimization illustrates many ...

  9. Integrated programs for women with substance use issues and their children: a qualitative meta-synthesis of processes and outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Sword; Susan Jack; Alison Niccols; Karen Milligan; Joanna Henderson; Lehana Thabane

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a need for services that effectively and comprehensively address the complex needs of women with substance use issues and their children. A growing body of literature supports the relevance of integrated treatment programs that offer a wide range of services in centralized settings. Quantitative studies suggest that these programs are associated with positive outcomes. A qualitative meta-synthesis

  10. ADS: A FORTRAN program for automated design synthesis, version 1.00

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1984-01-01

    A new general-purpose optimization program for engineering design is described. ADS-1 (Automated Design Synthesis - Version 1) is a FORTRAN program for solution of nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The program is segmented into three levels, being strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search. At each level, several options are available so that a total of over 100 possible combinations can be created. Examples of available strategies are sequential unconstrained minimization, the Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method, and Sequential Linear Programming. Available optimizers include variable metric methods and the Method of Feasible Directions as examples and one-dimensional search options include polynomial interpolation and the Golden Section method as examples. Emphasis is placed on ease of use of the program. All information is transferred via a single parameter list. Default values are provided for all internal program parameters such as convergence criteria, and the user is given a simple means to over-ride these, if desired. The program is demonstrated with a simple structural design example.

  11. Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2003-01-01

    Program generation and transformation systems manipulate large, pa- rameterized object language fragments. Support for user-definable concrete syntax makes this easier but is typically restricted to certain object and meta languages. We show how Prolog can be retrofitted with concrete syntax and describe how a seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with an existing legacy meta-programming system based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually migrate the schemas of the AUTOBAYES program synthesis system to concrete syntax. Fit experiences show that this can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and an improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments and improves the locality in the schemas.

  12. Hypoxic neuronal necrosis: Protein synthesis-independent activation of a cell death program

    PubMed Central

    Niquet, Jerome; Baldwin, Roger A.; Allen, Suni G.; Fujikawa, Denson G.; Wasterlain, Claude G.

    2003-01-01

    Hypoxic necrosis of dentate gyrus neurons in primary culture required the activation of an orderly cell death program independent of protein synthesis. Early mitochondrial swelling and loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential were accompanied by release of cytochrome c and followed by caspase-9-dependent activation of caspase-3. Caspase-3 and -9 inhibitors reduced neuronal necrosis. Calcium directly induced cytochrome c release from isolated mitochondria. Hypoxic neuronal necrosis may be an active process in which the direct effect of hypoxia on mitochondria may lead to the final common pathway of caspase-3-mediated neuronal death. PMID:12606726

  13. Trajectory module of the NASA Ames Research Center aircraft synthesis program ACSYNT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.; Paterson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A program was developed to calculate trajectories for both military and commercial aircraft for use in the aircraft synthesis program, ACSYNT. The function of the trajectory module was to calculate the changes in the vehicle's flight conditions and weight, as fuel is consumed, during the flying of one or more missions. The trajectory calculations started with a takeoff, followed by up to 12 phases chosen from among the following: climb, cruise, acceleration, combat, loiter, descent, and paths. In addition, a balanced field length was computed. The emphasis was on relatively simple formulations and analytic expressions suitable for rapid computation since a prescribed trajectory had to be calculated many times in the process of converging an aircraft design, or finding an optimum configuration. The trajectory module consists of about 2500 cards and operational on a CDC 7600 computer.

  14. Motor Schema-Based Mobile Robot Navigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald C. Arkin

    1989-01-01

    Motor schemas serve as the basic unit of behavior specifica tion for the navigation of a mobile robot. They are multiple concurrent processes that operate in conjunction with asso ciated perceptual schemas and contribute independently to the overall concerted action of the vehicle. The motivation be hind the use of schemas for this domain is drawn from neuro- scientific, psychological,

  15. An Implementation of the Berlekamp-Massey Linear Feedback Shift-Register Synthesis Algorithm in the C Programming Language

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.

    1999-08-01

    This report presents an implementation of the Berlekamp-Massey linear feedback shift-register (LFSR) synthesis algorithm in the C programming language. Two pseudo-code versions of the code are given, the operation of LFSRs is explained, C-version of the pseudo-code versions is presented, and the output of the code, when run on two input samples, is shown.

  16. Acceleration of Genetic Programming by Hierarchical Structure Learning: A Case Study on Image Recognition Program Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watchareeruetai, Ukrit; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Ohnishi, Noboru; Kudo, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Yoshinori

    We propose a learning strategy for acceleration in learning speed of genetic programming (GP), named hierarchical structure GP (HSGP). The HSGP exploits multiple learning nodes (LNs) which are connected in a hierarchical structure, e.g., a binary tree. Each LN runs conventional evolutionary process to evolve its own population, and sends the evolved population into the connected higher-level LN. The lower-level LN evolves the population with a smaller subset of training data. The higher-level LN then integrates the evolved population from the connected lower-level LNs together, and evolves the integrated population further by using a larger subset of training data. In HSGP, evolutionary processes are sequentially executed from the bottom-level LNs to the top-level LN which evolves with the entire training data. In the experiments, we adopt conventional GPs and the HSGPs to evolve image recognition programs for given training images. The results show that the use of hierarchical structure learning can significantly improve learning speed of GPs. To achieve the same performance, the HSGPs need only 30-40% of the computation cost needed by conventional GPs.

  17. Automated synthesis of analog electrical circuits by means of genetic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Koza; Forrest H. Bennett III; David Andre; Martin A. Keane; Frank Dunlap

    1997-01-01

    The design (synthesis) of analog electrical circuits starts with a high- level statement of the circuit's desired behavior and requires creating a circuit that satisfies the specified design goals. Analog circuit synthesis entails the creation of both the topology and the sizing (numerical values) of all of the circuit's components. The difficulty of the problem of analog circuit synthesis is

  18. Study of the temperature-programmed reaction synthesis of early transition metal carbide and nitride catalyst materials from oxide precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Claridge; Andrew P. E. York; Attila J. Brungs; Malcolm L. H. Green

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of high surface area carbide and nitride materials from binary and ternary oxides of vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten, suitable for use as catalysts for a wide range of reactions, has been investigated via the temperature-programmed reaction (TPRe) method, in various gas mixtures. TPRe of oxides in CHâ\\/Hâ, CâHâ\\/Hâ, or NHâ yield materials with surface areas >

  19. Indirect synthesis of multi-degree of freedom transient systems. [linear programming for a kinematically linear system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilkey, W. D.; Chen, Y. H.

    1974-01-01

    An indirect synthesis method is used in the efficient optimal design of multi-degree of freedom, multi-design element, nonlinear, transient systems. A limiting performance analysis which requires linear programming for a kinematically linear system is presented. The system is selected using system identification methods such that the designed system responds as closely as possible to the limiting performance. The efficiency is a result of the method avoiding the repetitive systems analyses accompanying other numerical optimization methods.

  20. North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision

    SciTech Connect

    Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Michalak, Anna [University of Michigan; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Chen, Jing M. [University of Toronto; Davis, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State University; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Liu, Shuguang [United States Geological Survey, Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS); Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Neilson, Ronald [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Poulter, Ben [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Tomelleri, Enrico [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Viovy, Nicolas [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as whether nutrient limitation is considered in soil carbon decomposition. The disagreement in current estimates of carbon flux across North America, including whether North America is a net biospheric carbon source or sink, highlights the need for further analysis through the use of model runs following a common simulation protocol, in order to isolate the influences of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimates.

  1. Bourbaki's structure theory in the problem of complex systems simulation models synthesis and model-oriented programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, Yu. I.

    2015-01-01

    The work is devoted to the application of Bourbaki's structure theory to substantiate the synthesis of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems, where every component may be a complex system itself. An application of the Bourbaki's structure theory offers a new approach to the design and computer implementation of simulation models of complex multicomponent systems—model synthesis and model-oriented programming. It differs from the traditional object-oriented approach. The central concept of this new approach and at the same time, the basic building block for the construction of more complex structures is the concept of models-components. A model-component endowed with a more complicated structure than, for example, the object in the object-oriented analysis. This structure provides to the model-component an independent behavior-the ability of standard responds to standard requests of its internal and external environment. At the same time, the computer implementation of model-component's behavior is invariant under the integration of models-components into complexes. This fact allows one firstly to construct fractal models of any complexity, and secondly to implement a computational process of such constructions uniformly-by a single universal program. In addition, the proposed paradigm allows one to exclude imperative programming and to generate computer code with a high degree of parallelism.

  2. Automated synthesis of both the topology and numerical parameters for seven patented optical lens systems using genetic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Lee W.; Al-Sakran, Sameer H.; Koza, John R.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes how genetic programming was used as an automated invention machine to synthesize both the topology and numerical parameters for seven previously patented optical lens systems, including one aspherical system and one issued in the 21st-century. Two of the evolved optical lens systems infringe the claims of the patents and the others are novel solutions that satisfy the design goals stated in the patent. The automatic synthesis was done "from scratch"--that is, without starting from a pre-existing good design and without pre-specifying the number of lenses, the topological layout of the lenses, or the numerical parameters of the lenses. Genetic programming is a form of evolutionary computation used to automatically solve problems. It starts from a high-level statement of what needs to be done and progressively breeds a population of candidate individuals over many generations using the principle of Darwinian natural selection and genetic recombination. The paper describes how genetic programming created eyepieces that duplicated the functionality of seven previously patented lens systems. The seven designs were created in a substantially similar and routine way, suggesting that the use of genetic programming in the automated design of both the topology and numerical parameters for optical lens systems may have widespread utility.

  3. Effective Programs for Elementary Science: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Which science programs have been proven to help elementary students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the science achievement of students in grades K-6: (1) Inquiry-oriented programs without science kits, such as Increasing Conceptual Challenge, Science IDEAS, and Collaborative…

  4. The Programming System PRIZ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grigori Mints; Enn Tyugu

    1991-01-01

    The programming system PRIZ combines conventional programming technique with automatic synthesis of programs from specifications. It enables one to build specifications from descriptions of application domains. They are automatically encoded into propositional calculus and used by the system for the program synthesis. PRIZ is not bound to any particular problem domain, but applicable for synthesis of programs solving problems of

  5. Effective Reading Programs for Middle and High Schools: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    What reading programs have been proven to help middle and high school students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on four types of programs designed to improve the reading achievement of students in grades 6-12: (1) Reading Curricula (Curr), such as "LANGUAGE!," "McDougal Littel," and other standard and alternative textbooks;…

  6. F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. Computer Implementation of the F100 Multivariable Control Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    As turbofan engines become more complex, the development of controls necessitate the use of multivariable control techniques. A control developed for the F100-PW-100(3) turbofan engine by using linear quadratic regulator theory and other modern multivariable control synthesis techniques is described. The assembly language implementation of this control on an SEL 810B minicomputer is described. This implementation was then evaluated by using a real-time hybrid simulation of the engine. The control software was modified to run with a real engine. These modifications, in the form of sensor and actuator failure checks and control executive sequencing, are discussed. Finally recommendations for control software implementations are presented.

  7. Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    Program generation and transformation systems work on two language levels, the object-level (i e., the language of the manipulated programs), and the meta-level (i.e., the implementation language of the system itself). The meta-level representations of object-level program fragments are usually built in an essentially syntax-free fashion using the operations provided by the meta-language. However, syntax matters and a large conceptual distance between the two languages makes it difficult to maintain and extend such systems. Here we describe how an existing Prolog-based system can gradually be retrofitted with concrete object-level syntax, thus shrinking this distance.

  8. Interior point algorithm for linear programming used in transmission network synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G. Sánchez; R. Romero; J. R. S. Mantovani; A. Garcia

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a well-known interior point method (IPM) used to solve problems of linear programming that appear as sub-problems in the solution of the long-term transmission network expansion planning problem. The linear programming problem appears when the transportation model is used, and when there is the intention to solve the planning problem using a constructive heuristic algorithm (CHA), or

  9. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project Part 1: Overview and experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Huntzinger, D.N. [Northern Arizona University] [Northern Arizona University; Schwalm, C. [Northern Arizona University] [Northern Arizona University; Michalak, A.M [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford] [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford; Schaefer, K. [National Snow and Ice Data Center] [National Snow and Ice Data Center; King, A.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wei, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Jacobson, A. [National Snow and Ice Data Center] [National Snow and Ice Data Center; Liu, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Cook, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Post, W.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Berthier, G. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Hayes, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Huang, M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ito, A. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan] [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; Lei, H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lu, C. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.] [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Mao, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Peng, C.H. [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences] [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences; Peng, S. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Poulter, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Riccuito, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shi, X. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tian, H. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.] [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Wang, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field] [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field; Zeng, N. [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Zhao, F. [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Zhu, Q. [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University] [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

  10. Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

  11. The Effectiveness of Whole-School Antibullying Programs: A Synthesis of Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David; Schneider, Barry H.; Smith, Peter K.; Ananiadou, Katerina

    2004-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem in schools, and school authorities need effective solutions to resolve this problem. There is a growing interest in the whole-school approach to bullying. Whole-school programs have multiple components that operate simultaneously at different levels in the school community. This article synthesizes the existing…

  12. Financial Asset-Pricing Theory and Stochastic Programming Models for Asset\\/Liability Management: A Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Klaassen

    1998-01-01

    Practical portfolio investment problems under uncertainty can be modeled well as multiperiod stochastic programs. However, the numerical optimization methods that need to be used to solve such models seriously limit the level of detail in the uncertainty about future asset prices and returns that can be incorporated. Somewhat surprisingly, the question how this necessarily approximate description of the uncertainty should

  13. Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Version 1.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to improving elementary mathematics: Mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and instructional process programs. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of 12 weeks, and achievement…

  14. Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. [Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Which elementary reading approaches have been proven to help struggling readers to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on six types of programs designed to improve the reading achievement of children having difficulty in learning to read: (1) One-to-One Tutoring by Teachers (TT) such as "Reading Recovery," "Auditory…

  15. A synthesis of long-term research by the Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Childers

    2006-01-01

    This paper synthesizes research conducted dusring the first 5–6 years of the Florida Coastal Everglades Long-Term Ecological\\u000a Research Program (FCE LTER). My objectives are to review our research to date, and to present a new central theme and conceptual\\u000a approach for future research. Our research has focused on understanding how dissolved organic matter (DOM) from upstream oligotrophic\\u000a marshes interacted with a

  16. AutoBayes/CC: Combining Program Synthesis with Automatic Code Certification: System Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to formally demonstrate software quality. It concentrates on aspects of software quality that can be defined and formalized via properties, e.g., operator safety or memory safety. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies these quality properties. The proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently, by the code consumer or by certification authorities, e.g., the FAA. It is the idea underlying such approaches as proof-carrying code [6]. Code certification can be viewed as a more practical version of traditional Hoare-style program verification. The properties to be verified are fairly simple and regular so that it is often possible to use an automated theorem prover to automatically discharge all emerging proof obligations. Usually, however, the programmer must still splice auxiliary annotations (e.g., loop invariants) into the program to facilitate the proofs. For complex properties or larger programs this quickly becomes the limiting factor for the applicability of current certification approaches.

  17. Family caregivers' support needs after brain injury: a synthesis of perspectives from caregivers, programs, and researchers.

    PubMed

    Gan, Caron; Gargaro, Judith; Brandys, Clare; Gerber, Gary; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    There is a dearth of support for family members who assume caregiving responsibilities following acquired brain injury (ABI). This qualitative study broadens the understanding of ABI caregiver support needs through data triangulation from multiple interview sources across different settings. Thirty-nine caregivers across urban and rural settings in Ontario participated in focus groups. Interviews focused on ABI support services received, their utility, access barriers, needed supports, and suggestions for service delivery. Key informant interviews were also held with four US researchers funded through the TBI Model Systems, one Canadian provincial government health official, and representatives from 11 Ontario ABI programs including two brain injury associations. Interviews focused on existing or proposed caregiver programs and gaps in services. A coding framework was developed through content analysis, centring on five themes: coping, supports that worked, supports needed, barriers, and ideal world recommendations. Perspectives from those involved in receiving, providing and researching caregiver interventions following ABI were synthesized to provide a thorough, detailed depiction of the ongoing support needs of caregivers. This convergence of evidence underscores that caregiver support needs transcend geographical boundaries and must be comprehensive, accessible, long-term, and encompass education, emotional, and instrumental support. Recommendations for ABI caregiver support services are offered. PMID:20634597

  18. Environmental studies data base: development and data synthesis activities of the US Subseabed Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L.S.; Hesssler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Yayanos, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program is assessing the scientific feasibility of subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Studies of disposal methods and of the barriers to radionuclide migration (canister, waste form and sediment) suggest that environmental information will be needed to address the impact of accidental release of radionuclides in the deep sea. Biological, physical, and geochemical data are being collected from field and laboratory studies as well as from literature searches. These data are being analyzed using a multicompartmental radionuclide transport model and appropriate physical oceanographic models. The data integrated into this framework will help answer two questions: what are the environmental effects of radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea, and what are the effects of such a release upon man.

  19. Environmental studies data base development and data synthesis activities of the US Subseabed Disposal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, L S; Marietta, M G; Hessler, R R; Smith, Jr, K L; Yayanos, A A; Jackson, D W

    1981-05-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program is assessing the scientific feasibility of subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Studies of disposal methods and of the barriers to radionuclide migration (canister, waste form, and sediment) suggest that environmental information will be needed to address the impact of accidental release of radionuclides in the deep sea. Biological, physical, and geochemical data are being collected from field and laboratory studies as well as from literature searches. These data are being analyzed using a multicompartmental radionuclide transport model and appropriate physical oceanographic models. The data integrated into this framework will help answer two questions - what are the environmental effects of radionuclides that may be released in the deep sea, and what are the effects of such a release upon man.

  20. Summary of the 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report is a summary of the 2006 synthesis report prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  1. Programmed chemo-enzymatic synthesis of the oligosaccharide component of a carbohydrate-based antibacterial vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Stéphane; Guerreiro, Catherine; Cambon, Emmanuelle; André, Isabelle; Remaud-Siméon, Magali; Mulard, Laurence A

    2015-02-14

    The powerful chemo-enzymatic synthesis of the pentadecasaccharide hapten involved in the first synthetic carbohydrate-based vaccine candidate against endemic shigellosis is reported. The high yielding site-selective ?-D-glucosylation of a lightly protected disaccharide by an engineered transglucosylase-sucrose system gave a trisaccharide, which was chemically elongated by an efficient [5+5] process. PMID:25569152

  2. Key Ingredients of Anti-Stigma Programs for Health Care Providers: A Data Synthesis of Evaluative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Knaak, Stephanie; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B

    2014-01-01

    Objective: As part of its ongoing effort to combat stigma against mental illness among health care providers, the Mental Health Commission of Canada partnered with organizations conducting anti-stigma interventions. Our objective was to evaluate program effectiveness and to better understand what makes some programs more effective than others. Our paper reports the elements of these programs found to be most strongly associated with favourable outcomes. Methods: Our study employed a multi-phased, mixed-methods design. First, a grounded theory qualitative study was undertaken to identify key program elements. Next, each program (n = 22) was coded according to the presence or absence of the identified key program ingredients. Then, random-effects, meta-regression modelling was used to examine the association between program outcomes and the key ingredients. Results: The qualitative analysis led to a 6-ingredient model of key program elements. Results of the quantitative analysis showed that programs that included all 6 of these ingredients performed significantly better than those that did not. Individual analyses of each of the 6 ingredients showed that including multiple forms of social contact and emphasizing recovery were characteristics of the most effective programs. Conclusions: The results provide a validation of a 6-ingredient model of key program elements for anti-stigma programming for health care providers. Emphasizing recovery and including multiple types of social contact are of particular importance for maximizing the effectiveness of anti-stigma programs for health care providers. PMID:25565698

  3. A new approach to built-in self-testable datapath synthesis based on integer linear programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Bin Kim; Dong Sam Ha; Takeshi Takahashi; Takahiro J. Yamaguchi

    2000-01-01

    The focus of high-level built-in self-test (BIST) syn- thesis is register assignment, which involves system register assign- ment, BIST register assignment, and interconnection assignment. To reduce the complexity involved in the assignment process, ex- isting high-level BIST synthesis methods decouple the three tasks and perform the tasks sequentially at the cost of global optimality. They also try to achieve only

  4. Synthesis: Intertwining product and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, David M.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis is a proposed systematic process for rapidly creating different members of a program family. Family members are described by variations in their requirements. Requirements variations are mapped to variations on a standard design to generate production quality code and documentation. The approach is made feasible by using principles underlying design for change. Synthesis incorporates ideas from rapid prototyping, application generators, and domain analysis. The goals of Synthesis and the Synthesis process are discussed. The technology needed and the feasibility of the approach are also briefly discussed. The status of current efforts to implement Synthesis methodologies is presented.

  5. Hardware-software-co-design of parallel and distributed systems using a behavioural programming and multi-process model with high-level synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    A new design methodology for parallel and distributed embedded systems is presented using the behavioural hardware compiler ConPro providing an imperative programming model based on concurrently communicating sequential processes (CSP) with an extensive set of interprocess-communication primitives and guarded atomic actions. The programming language and the compiler-based synthesis process enables the design of constrained power- and resourceaware embedded systems with pure Register-Transfer-Logic (RTL) efficiently mapped to FPGA and ASIC technologies. Concurrency is modelled explicitly on control- and datapath level. Additionally, concurrency on data-path level can be automatically explored and optimized by different schedulers. The CSP programming model can be synthesized to hardware (SoC) and software (C,ML) models and targets. A common source for both hardware and software implementation with identical functional behaviour is used. Processes and objects of the entire design can be distributed on different hardware and software platforms, for example, several FPGA components and software executed on several microprocessors, providing a parallel and distributed system. Intersystem-, interprocess-, and object communication is automatically implemented with serial links, not visible on programming level. The presented design methodology has the benefit of high modularity, freedom of choice of target technologies, and system architecture. Algorithms can be well matched to and distributed on different suitable execution platforms and implementation technologies, using a unique programming model, providing a balance of concurrency and resource complexity. An extended case study of a communication protocol used in high-density sensor-actuator networks should demonstrate and compare the design of a hardware and software target. The communication protocol is suited for high-density intra-and interchip networks.

  6. Synthesis gas demonstration plant program, Phase I. Deliverable No. 7F: Phases II and III environmental monitoring plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The baseline monitoring program established existing conditions at the site from which construction and operational impacts were predicted in the Environmental Report. The purpose of construction and operational programs is to identify and quantify impacts and monitor the effectiveness of selected mitigation measures. The construction and operational programs are a refinement of the baseline monitoring program. The goal is to avoid redundance by monitoring specific activities and areas where impacts could occcur. This includes utilizing data required for permit compliance (air and water discharges and solid waste disposal). A review of the baseline monitoring program was also conducted to determine if data gaps or voids existed in the baseline program which could be filled with a preconstruction monitoring program. The review was conducted in light of the potential impacts from construction and operational activities identified in the Environmental Report. Review of the baseline monitoring program and the Environmental Report indicated the need for some additional data. Therefore, a preconstruction monitoring program has been designed to fill in the data gaps and strengthen the data base for subsequent impact and mitigative measure assessments.

  7. Are workplace health promotion programs effective at improving presenteeism in workers? a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Presenteeism is highly prevalent and costly to employers. It is defined as being present at work, but limited in some aspect of job performance by a health problem. Workplace health promotion (WHP) is a common strategy used to enhance on-the-job productivity. The primary objective is to determine if WHP programs are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objectives are to identify characteristics of successful programs and potential risk factors for presenteeism. Methods The Cochrane Library, Medline, and other electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2010. Reference lists were examined, key journals were hand-searched and experts were contacted. Included studies were original research that contained data on at least 20 participants (? 18 years of age), and examined the impacts of WHP programs implemented at the workplace. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to rate studies. 'Strong' and 'moderate' studies were abstracted into evidence tables, and a best evidence synthesis was performed. Interventions were deemed successful if they improved the outcome of interest. Their program components were identified, as were possible risk factors contributing to presenteeism. Results After 2,032 titles and abstracts were screened, 47 articles were reviewed, and 14 were accepted (4 strong and 10 moderate studies). These studies contained preliminary evidence for a positive effect of some WHP programs. Successful programs offered organizational leadership, health risk screening, individually tailored programs, and a supportive workplace culture. Potential risk factors contributing to presenteeism included being overweight, a poor diet, a lack of exercise, high stress, and poor relations with co-workers and management. Limitations: This review is limited to English publications. A large number of reviewed studies (70%) were inadmissible due to issues of bias, thus limiting the amount of primary evidence. The uncertainties surrounding presenteeism measurement is of significant concern as a source of bias. Conclusions The presenteeism literature is young and heterogeneous. There is preliminary evidence that some WHP programs can positively affect presenteeism and that certain risk factors are of importance. Future research would benefit from standard presenteeism metrics and studies conducted across a broad range of workplace settings. PMID:21615940

  8. Teenage Parent ProgramsA Synthesis of the Long-Term Effects of the New Chance Demonstration, Ohio's Learning, Earning, and Parenting Program, and the Teenage Parent Demonstration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Granger; Rachel Cytron

    1999-01-01

    This article synthesizes the long-term findings from three major evaluations of programs that began in the late 1980s and were designed to improve the self-sufficiency of teenage mothers on welfare. Although each of the programs emphasized a different approach, an important story emerges. Economic outcomes for the mothers improved over time, and the interventions had some positive effects, particularly for

  9. Programs

    Cancer.gov

    The Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch is responsible for the direction and management of several programs. These include the Biospecimen Research Network, the NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources, the Cancer Human Biobank (caHUB) and the Biospecimen Pre-Analytical Variables Program. Each program has specific goals and targeted outcomes which lend themselves to supporting the mission and vision of the Branch as well as the other NCI and NIH initiatives. More information about each program can be found on their respective pages.

  10. 2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  11. Programs

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) works with the Small Business Innovation Research Program to help small business to develop and commercialize novel proteomic technologies and products to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer.

  12. Effective Reading Programs for Spanish Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research. Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant ELLs in elementary school. It is divided into two major sections: the effect of language of instruction on achievement (i.e., bilingual vs. English-only instruction) and effective reading approaches for ELLs other than the use of native…

  13. Effective Reading Programs for Spanish Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant ELLs in elementary schools. It is divided into two major sections. One focuses on studies of language of instruction, and one on reading approaches for ELLs other than bilingual education. A total of 14 qualifying studies met the inclusion…

  14. Program

    Cancer.gov

    Through the DCIDE program, the developer of a promising diagnostic agent or probe will be given access to the pre-clinical development resources of the National Cancer Institute in a manner that is intended to remove the most common barriers between laboratory discoveries and IND status.

  15. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 2: Environmental driver data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Liu, S.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Viovy, N.; Post, W. M.; Schwalm, C. R.; Schaefer, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Cook, R. B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model-model and model-observation comparisons. This paper describes the global and North American environmental driver data sets prepared for the MsTMIP activity to both support their use in MsTMIP and make these data, along with the processes used in selecting/processing these data, accessible to a broader audience. Based on project needs and lessons learned from past model intercomparison activities, we compiled climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover change (LULCC), C3 / C4 grasses fractions, major crops, phenology and soil data into a standard format for global (0.5° × 0.5° resolution) and regional (North American: 0.25° × 0.25° resolution) simulations. In order to meet the needs of MsTMIP, improvements were made to several of the original environmental data sets, by improving the quality, and/or changing their spatial and temporal coverage, and resolution. The resulting standardized model driver data sets are being used by over 20 different models participating in MsTMIP. The data are archived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC, http://daac.ornl.gov) to provide long-term data management and distribution.

  16. Land-use conversion and changing soil carbon stocks in China's 'Grain-for-Green' Program: a synthesis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lei; Liu, Guo-Bin; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of either forest or grassland on degraded cropland has been proposed as an effective method for climate change mitigation because these land use types can increase soil carbon (C) stocks. This paper synthesized 135 recent publications (844 observations at 181 sites) focused on the conversion from cropland to grassland, shrubland or forest in China, better known as the 'Grain-for-Green' Program to determine which factors were driving changes to soil organic carbon (SOC). The results strongly indicate a positive impact of cropland conversion on soil C stocks. The temporal pattern for soil C stock changes in the 0-100 cm soil layer showed an initial decrease in soil C during the early stage (<5 years), and then an increase to net C gains (>5 years) coincident with vegetation restoration. The rates of soil C change were higher in the surface profile (0-20 cm) than in deeper soil (20-100 cm). Cropland converted to forest (arbor) had the additional benefit of a slower but more persistent C sequestration capacity than shrubland or grassland. Tree species played a significant role in determining the rate of change in soil C stocks (conifer < broadleaf, evergreen < deciduous forests). Restoration age was the main factor, not temperature and precipitation, affecting soil C stock change after cropland conversion with higher initial soil C stock sites having a negative effect on soil C accumulation. Soil C sequestration significantly increased with restoration age over the long-term, and therefore, the large scale of land-use change under the 'Grain-for-Green' Program will significantly increase China's C stocks. PMID:24357470

  17. Derivation of sorting programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Joseph; Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1990-01-01

    Program synthesis for critical applications has become a viable alternative to program verification. Nested resolution and its extension are used to synthesize a set of sorting programs from their first order logic specifications. A set of sorting programs, such as, naive sort, merge sort, and insertion sort, were successfully synthesized starting from the same set of specifications.

  18. RIP140 Represses the “Brown-in-White” Adipocyte Program Including a Futile Cycle of Triacyclglycerol Breakdown and Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kiskinis, Evangelos; Chatzeli, Lemonia; Curry, Edward; Kaforou, Myrsini; Frontini, Andrea; Cinti, Saverio; Montana, Giovanni; Parker, Malcolm G.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a corepressor of nuclear receptors that is highly expressed in adipose tissues. We investigated the role of RIP140 in conditionally immortal preadipocyte cell lines prepared from white or brown fat depots. In white adipocytes, a large set of brown fat-associated genes was up-regulated in the absence of RIP140. In contrast, a relatively minor role can be ascribed to RIP140 in the control of basal gene expression in differentiated brown adipocytes because significant changes were observed only in Ptgds and Fabp3. The minor role of RIP140 in brown adipocytes correlates with the similar histology and uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA staining in knockout compared with wild-type brown adipose tissue (BAT). In contrast, RIP140 knockout sc white adipose tissue (WAT) shows increased numbers of multilocular adipocytes with elevated staining for uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA. Furthermore in a white adipocyte cell line, the markers of BRITE adipocytes, Tbx1, CD137, Tmem26, Cited1, and Epsti1 were repressed in the presence of RIP140 as was Prdm16. Microarray analysis of wild-type and RIP140-knockout white fat revealed elevated expression of genes associated with cold-induced expression or high expression in BAT. A set of genes associated with a futile cycle of triacylglycerol breakdown and resynthesis and functional assays revealed that glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity as well as [3H]glycerol incorporation were elevated in the absence of RIP140. Thus, RIP140 blocks the BRITE program in WAT, preventing the expression of brown fat genes and inhibiting a triacylglycerol futile cycle, with important implications for energy homeostasis. PMID:24479876

  19. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-08-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  20. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  1. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  2. Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect

    none

    1998-07-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. Key scientific findings and policy- and health-relevant insights from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies: an integration and synthesis of results.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Paul A; Hopke, Philip K; Froines, John; Scheffe, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a major air quality program known as the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program. The Supersites Program was a multiyear, $27 million air quality monitoring program consisting of eight regional air quality projects located throughout the United States, each with differing atmospheric pollution conditions resulting from variations in source emissions and meteorology. The overall goal of the program was to elucidate source-receptor relationships and atmospheric processes leading to PM accumulation on urban and regional scales; thus providing the scientific underpinning for modeling and data analysis efforts to support State Implementation Plans and more effective risk management approaches for PM. The program had three main objectives: (1) conduct methods development and evaluation, (2) characterize ambient PM, and (3) support health effects and exposure research. This paper provides a synthesis of key scientific findings from the Supersites Program and related studies. EPA developed 16 science/policy-relevant questions in conjunction with state and other federal agencies, Regional Planning Organizations, and the private sector. These questions were addressed to the extent possible, even given the vast amount of new information available from the Supersites Program, in a series of papers published as a special issue of the Journal of Air & Waste Management Association (February 2008). This synthesis also includes discussions of: (1) initial Supersites Program support for air quality management efforts in specific locations throughout the United States; (2) selected policy-relevant insights, based on atmospheric sciences findings, useful to air quality managers and decision makers planning emissions management strategies to address current and future PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and network planning and implementation; (3) selected health-relevant insights interpreted from atmospheric sciences findings in light of future directions for health and exposure scientists planning studies of the effects of PM on human health; and (4) selected knowledge gaps to guide future research. Finally, given the scope and depth of research and findings from the Supersites Program, this paper provides a reference source so readers can glean a general understanding of the overall research conducted and its policy-relevant insights. Supporting details for the results presented are available through the cited references. An annotated table of contents allows readers to easily find specific subject matter within the text. PMID:19202993

  4. Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Data collected by the NIWQP studies indicated that, in surface water, filtered and unfiltered samples had nearly the same concentrations of arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and selenium for concentrations greater than about 10 micrograms per liter. Therefore, in this concentration range, filtered concentrations can be directly compared to biological-effect levels developed for unfiltered samples. In the range of 1 to 10 micrograms per liter there may be a tendency for unfiltered arsenic concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. For selenium, however, the data suggest differences from equality in that range result from analytical imprecision and not a general tendency for unfiltered concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. This relation may not be true in lentic, nutrient-rich waters because in such settings algae can bioaccumulate large amounts of selenium and other trace elements. Selenium was the trace element in surface water that most commonly exceeded chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life; more than 40 percent of the selenium concentrations in surface-water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) aquatic-life chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). In 12 of the 26 areas at least 25 percent of the surface water-samples had selenium concentrations that either equaled or exceeded the chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). More than 28 percent of boron concentrations and almost 17 percent of the molybdenum concentrations exceeded the aquatic life criteria established by the State of California (550 and 19 micrograms per liter, respectively). In ground water, more than 22 percent of the arsenic concentrations and more than 35 percent of the selenium concentrations exceeded the MCL (10 and 50 micrograms per liter, respectively). Few samples of uranium in surface water exceeded a criterion for the protection of aquatic life (300 micrograms per liter), but 44 percent

  5. Molecular Programming: Evolving Genetic Programs in a Test Tube

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    programming range from controller design, multi-agent programming [13] and modelling biological sys- tems [4- cisions by the "molecular" genetic programs evolved within a single population. We evaluate the potentials Descriptors I.2.2 [Artificial Intelligence]: Automatic Programming-- program synthesis; I.2.6 [Artificial

  6. Entrepreneurship Program Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, M. Catherine; Guzman, Geannina

    This publication contains a synthesis of information collected by the National Entrepreneurship Education Consortium on the efforts of local vocational education programs in the area of entrepreneurship education. The programs described represent all instructional levels and all areas of the country. A directory of programs listed by state is…

  7. Key Scientific and Policy- and Health-Relevant Findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies: An Integration and Synthesis of Results.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1998, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a major air quality program, known as the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program. The Supersites Program was a multi year, $27 million air quality monitoring program consisting of eight regional air quality projects...

  8. Deductive Glue Code Synthesis for Embedded Software Systems Based on Code Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Liu; Jicheng Fu; Yansheng Zhang; Farokh B. Bastani; I-ling Yen; Ann T. Tai; Savio N. Chau

    2006-01-01

    Automated code synthesis is a constructive process that can be used to generate programs from specifications. It can, thus, greatly reduce the software development cost and time. The use of formal code synthesis approach for software generation further increases the dependability of the system. Though code synthesis has many potential benefits, the synthesis techniques are still limited. Meanwhile, components are

  9. Accelerate Synthesis in Ecology and Environmental Sciences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stephen Carpenter (University of Wisconsin; Center for Limnology)

    2009-09-01

    Ecology is a leading discipline in the synthesis of diverse knowledge. Ecologists have had considerable experience in bringing together diverse, multinational data sets, disciplines, and cultural perspectives to address a wide range of issues in basic and applied science. Now is the time to build on this foundation and invest in ecological synthesis through new national or international programs. While synthesis takes place through many mechanisms, including individual efforts, working groups, and research networks, centers are extraordinarily effective institutional settings for advancing synthesis projects.

  10. Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Soo [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Liebich, R.E. [Raytheon Environmental Services Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

  11. Ben's Model: A Multivocal Synthesis for an Evidence-Based, Family-Centered Program Planning Model for Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music, Amber D.

    2013-01-01

    Every year, the prevalence of children with autism increases, and community programs should be prepared to address the needs of this population. Comprehensive Treatment Models (CTMs) are in place to help serve children with autism, but the components of these programs are diverse. Furthermore, recommendations from prominent organizations such as…

  12. Extracting result schema based on query instances in the Deep Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiezheng Nie; Ge Yu; Derong Shen; Yue Kou; Wei Liu

    2007-01-01

    Deep Web sources contain a large of high-quality and query-related structured date. One of the challenges in the Deep Web\\u000a is extracting result schemas of Deep Web sources. To address this challenge, this paper describes a novel approach that extracts\\u000a both result data and the result schema of a Web database. The approach first models the query interface of a

  13. Creating a Mediated Schema Based on Initial Correspondences Rachel A. Pottinger

    E-print Network

    Pottinger, Rachel

    with FirstName and LastName as children), or some other way? The answer affects the behavior of Merge-oriented databases [LNE89, BC86]. Our goal here is to show how to abstract out the data-model-independent part as a separate subsequent step. Section 2 describes how to merge two source schemas to create a mediated schema

  14. Integrating Schema-Based Instruction and Response Cards for Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, James Raymond; Tucci, Stacey; Jolivette, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of No Child Left Behind (2002), the academic expectations of students with disabilities have changed. Students with disabilities are now held to the same academic standards as their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, the 2004 provisions in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act state that students with…

  15. SECAD-- a Schema-based Environment for Configuring, Analyzing and Documenting Integrated Fusion Simulations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shasharina, Svetlana

    2012-05-23

    SECAD is a project that developed a GUI for running integrated fusion simulations as implemented in FACETS and SWIM SciDAC projects. Using the GUI users can submit simulations locally and remotely and visualize the simulation results.

  16. A conceptual schema-based temporal meta database schemas generation technique for 3D objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vo Thi Ngoc Chau; Suphamit Chittayasothorn

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a temporal meta database for three-dimensional (3D) objects whose properties and relationships are supported\\u000a by valid time is introduced. Based on our proposed temporal object-oriented conceptual schema model, a conceptual schema of\\u000a the temporal meta database can be generated from a 3D graphical data source and other particular application requirements.\\u000a Based on our proposed temporal object relational

  17. A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fracker, Martin L.

    1988-01-01

    Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

  18. Fleurs synthesis telescope observations of galactic SNRs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Milne

    1979-01-01

    A program of galactic SNR observations is underway in the southern hemisphere using the Fleurs synthesis telescope (FST) which has an angular resolution better than 1 arcmin and a synthesized beamwidth of 50 arcsec. Many of the SNRs mapped in the current program have moderately flat spectral indices, small angular sizes, and no discernible structure at the lower resolutions. These

  19. Network synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion, with numerous examples, on the application of state variable methods to network analysis and synthesis is reported. The state variable point of view is useful in the design of control circuits for regulators because, unlike frequency domain methods, it is applicable to linear and nonlinear problems. The reported are intended as an introduction to this theory.

  20. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  1. GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shelly C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Glutathione (GSH) is present in all mammalian tissues as the most abundant non-protein thiol that defends against oxidative stress. GSH is also a key determinant of redox signaling, vital in detoxification of xenobiotics, regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune function, and fibrogenesis. Biosynthesis of GSH occurs in the cytosol in a tightly regulated manner. Key determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of the sulfur amino acid precursor, cysteine, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), which is composed of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis is GSH synthetase (GS). SCOPE OF REVIEW This review summarizes key functions of GSH and focuses on factors that regulate the biosynthesis of GSH, including pathological conditions where GSH synthesis is dysregulated. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS GCL subunits and GS are regulated at multiple levels and often in a coordinated manner. Key transcription factors that regulate the expression of these genes include NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) via the antioxidant response element (ARE), AP-1, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B). There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of GSH synthesis contributes to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary and liver fibrosis, alcoholic liver disease, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE GSH is a key antioxidant that also modulates diverse cellular processes. A better understanding of how its synthesis is regulated and dysregulated in disease states may lead to improvement in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:22995213

  2. Maitotoxin: An Inspiration for Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Aversa, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Maitotoxin holds a special place in the annals of natural products chemistry as the largest and most toxic secondary metabolite known to date. Its fascinating, ladder-like, polyether molecular structure and diverse spectrum of biological activities elicited keen interest from chemists and biologists who recognized its uniqueness and potential as a probe and inspiration for research in chemistry and biology. Synthetic studies in the area benefited from methodologies and strategies that were developed as part of chemical synthesis programs directed toward the total synthesis of some of the less complex members of the polyether marine biotoxin class, of which maitotoxin is the flagship. This account focuses on progress made in the authors’ laboratories in the synthesis of large maitotoxin domains with emphasis on methodology development, strategy design, and structural comparisons of the synthesized molecules with the corresponding regions of the natural product. The article concludes with an overview of maitotoxin’s biological profile and future perspectives. PMID:21709816

  3. Macromitophagy, neutral lipids synthesis, and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation protect yeast from "liponecrosis", a previously unknown form of programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Sara; Richard, Vincent R; Beach, Adam; Leonov, Anna; Feldman, Rachel; Mattie, Sevan; Khelghatybana, Leila; Piano, Amanda; Greenwood, Michael; Vali, Hojatollah; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    We identified a form of cell death called "liponecrosis." It can be elicited by an exposure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to exogenous palmitoleic acid (POA). Our data imply that liponecrosis is: (1) a programmed, regulated form of cell death rather than an accidental, unregulated cellular process and (2) an age-related form of cell death. Cells committed to liponecrotic death: (1) do not exhibit features characteristic of apoptotic cell death; (2) do not display plasma membrane rupture, a hallmark of programmed necrotic cell death; (3) akin to cells committed to necrotic cell death, exhibit an increased permeability of the plasma membrane for propidium iodide; (4) do not display excessive cytoplasmic vacuolization, a hallmark of autophagic cell death; (5) akin to cells committed to autophagic death, exhibit a non-selective en masse degradation of cellular organelles and require the cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinase Atg1p for executing the death program; and (6) display a hallmark feature that has not been reported for any of the currently known cell death modalities-namely, an excessive accumulation of lipid droplets where non-esterified fatty acids (including POA) are deposited in the form of neutral lipids. We therefore concluded that liponecrotic cell death subroutine differs from the currently known subroutines of programmed cell death. Our data suggest a hypothesis that liponecrosis is a cell death module dynamically integrated into a so-called programmed cell death network, which also includes the apoptotic, necrotic, and autophagic modules of programmed cell death. Based on our findings, we propose a mechanism underlying liponecrosis. PMID:24196447

  4. Linear systems analysis program, L224(QR). Volume 2: Supplemental system design and maintenance document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidergott, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    The computer program known as QR is described. Classical control systems analysis and synthesis (root locus, time response, and frequency response) can be performed using this program. Programming details of the QR program are presented.

  5. Macrolide Synthesis Total Synthesis of Phorboxazole A**

    E-print Network

    Williams, David R.

    Macrolide Synthesis Total Synthesis of Phorboxazole A** David R. Williams,* Andre A. Kiryanov­5 for the convergent assembly of the target macrolide (Scheme 1). Stereoselective formation of the C22­C26

  6. Automated synthesis for asynchronous FPGAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song Peng; David Fang; John Teifel; Rajit Manohar

    2005-01-01

    We present an automatic logic synthesis method targeted for high-performance asynchronous FPGA (AFPGA) architectures. Our method transforms sequential programs as well as high-level descriptions of asynchronous circuits into fine-grain asynchronous process netlists suitable for an AFPGA. The resulting circuits are inherently pipelined, and can be physically mapped onto our AFPGA with standard partitioning and place-and-route algorithms. For a wide variety

  7. Approximation concepts for efficient structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Miura, H.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that efficient structural synthesis capabilities can be created by using approximation concepts to mesh finite element structural analysis methods with nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The history of the application of mathematical programming techniques to structural design optimization problems is reviewed. Several rather general approximation concepts are described along with the technical foundations of the ACCESS 1 computer program, which implements several approximation concepts. A substantial collection of structural design problems involving truss and idealized wing structures is presented. It is concluded that since the basic ideas employed in creating the ACCESS 1 program are rather general, its successful development supports the contention that the introduction of approximation concepts will lead to the emergence of a new generation of practical and efficient, large scale, structural synthesis capabilities in which finite element analysis methods and mathematical programming algorithms will play a central role.

  8. Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the ‘Top End’ of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. Methods A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of ‘out of hospital’ or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Results Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations and staff numbers with the required skills for providing care for infants, and an ‘outpatient’ model of care. Services were also characterised by absent Aboriginal leadership and inadequate coordination between remote and tertiary services that is essential to improve quality of care and reduce ‘system-introduced’ risk. Conclusion Evidence-informed redesign of maternity services and delivery of care has improved clinical effectiveness and quality for women. However, more work is needed to address substandard care provided for infants and their parents. PMID:24890910

  9. Translating Nature's Library: The Bryostatins and Function-Oriented Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wender, Paul A.; Loy, Brian A.; Schrier, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    We review in part our computational, design, synthesis, and biological studies on a remarkable class of compounds and their designed analogs that have led to preclinical candidates for the treatment of cancer, a first-in-class approach to Alzheimer's disease, and a promising strategy to eradicate HIV/AIDS. Because these leads target, in part, protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, they have therapeutic potential even beyond this striking set of therapeutic indications. This program has given rise to new synthetic methodology and represents an increasingly important direction of synthesis focused on achieving function through synthesis-informed design (function-oriented synthesis). PMID:22661768

  10. Automatic programming for critical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loganantharaj, Raj L.

    1988-01-01

    The important phases of a software life cycle include verification and maintenance. Usually, the execution performance is an expected requirement in a software development process. Unfortunately, the verification and the maintenance of programs are the time consuming and the frustrating aspects of software engineering. The verification cannot be waived for the programs used for critical applications such as, military, space, and nuclear plants. As a consequence, synthesis of programs from specifications, an alternative way of developing correct programs, is becoming popular. The definition, or what is understood by automatic programming, has been changed with our expectations. At present, the goal of automatic programming is the automation of programming process. Specifically, it means the application of artificial intelligence to software engineering in order to define techniques and create environments that help in the creation of high level programs. The automatic programming process may be divided into two phases: the problem acquisition phase and the program synthesis phase. In the problem acquisition phase, an informal specification of the problem is transformed into an unambiguous specification while in the program synthesis phase such a specification is further transformed into a concrete, executable program.

  11. Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: A spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dietze, Michael; Vargas, Rodrigo; Richardson, Andrew D.; Stoy, Paul C.; Barr, Alan; Anderson, Ryan; Arain, M. A.; Baker, Ian; Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Jing Ming; Ciais, Philippe; Flanagan, Lawrence; Gough, Christopher; Grant, R. F.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kucharik, Chris; Lafleur, Peter; Liu, Shuguang; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Luo, Yiqi; Munger, J. W.; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David T.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Riley, William; Sahoo, Alok Kumar; Schaefer, Kevin; Suyker, Andrew E.; Tian, Hanqin; Tonitto, Christine; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, Shashi B.; Wang, Weifeng; Weng, Ensheng

    2011-12-20

    Ecosystem models are important tools for diagnosing the carbon cycle and projecting its behavior across space and time. Most assessments of model performance occur at individual temporal scales, but ecosystems respond to drivers at multiple time scales. Spectral methods, such as wavelet analyses, present an alternative approach that enables the identification of the dominant time scales contributing to model performance in the frequency domain. In this study we used wavelet analyses to synthesize the performance of twenty-one ecosystem models at nine eddy-covariance towers as part of the North American Carbon Program's site-level inter-comparison. This study expands upon previous single-site and single-model analyses to determine what patterns of model failure are consistent across a diverse range of models and sites.

  12. [New synthesis empathogenic agents].

    PubMed

    Velea, D; Hautefeuille, M; Vazeille, G; Lantran-Davoux, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of synthesis drugs is the object of numerous written articles and TV programs in the last, decade. These synthesis drugs or "designer drugs", are well known for their ability to enhance, reinforce or appease social difficulties and relationships. In the research for empathetic and entactogenic relations one discover an obvious lack of communication and "warmth" in personal or professional relationship. An image of chemical "well being" has become a frequent stereotype of a society with an atrophying of performance and values while supposedly dedicating itself to individual performance. The youths are the first victims of these new drugs, the economical and social environment are the main reinforcing factors of this behaviour. The main characteristic of these drugs, is the non-recognition of their danger, some users go so far as to describe this category of substances as "drugs which are not drugs". As a characteristic, the use of a these synthesis drugs is almost recreative, during the week-end and holiday. The drug addiction is different than that of opiates or cocaine. One can observe some cases of real dependence--corresponding to the DSW IV criterion--when the personality of the users is the main characteristic (narcissic failure, immature personality, family and school problems). Many adverse effects--hypertension, kidney failure, psychoses--were declared. The mass-media has presented many articles concerning Ecstasy (MDMA). This is the most used drug during the rave parties. Its adverse effects are well known and proven. The authors would like to present other more recent synthesis drugs, also known as "analogs". These drugs, a kind of mixture between amphetamine-like (MDMA, MBDB, MDA) and misused medicines (ketamine, gamma OH, atropine) represent a real danger. GHB, 2 CB, HMB, are some of these recent substances. The possibility to procure them on the Web, or to produce them by oneself, add to their danger because of the lack of controls on toxicity and quality. The original danger signs were revealed by the FDA and currently a major preoccupation within french specialised services. The major problem for the practitionner is to inform the users, in order to prevent addiction and analyse the solutions. PMID:10598316

  13. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, Christopher R. [Clark University; Williams, Christopher A. [Clark University; Schaefer, Kevin [University of Colorado, Boulder; Anderson, Ryan [University of Montana, Missoula; Arain, A. [McMaster University; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Lokupitiya, Erandathie [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Barr, Alan [Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate, Saskatoo, SK, Canada; Black, T. A. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Riciutto, Dan M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2010-12-01

    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO2 exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO2 exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans 220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO2 exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was 10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  14. Silica-templated synthesis of ordered mesoporous tungsten carbide/graphitic carbon composites with nanocrystalline walls and high surface areas via a temperature-programmed carburization route.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhangxiong; Yang, Yunxia; Gu, Dong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Dan; Chen, Zhenxia; Tu, Bo; Webley, Paul A; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2009-12-01

    Ordered mesostructured tungsten carbide and graphitic carbon composites (WC/C) with nanocrystalline walls are fabricated for the first time by a temperature-programmed carburization approach with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) as a precursor and mesoporous silica materials as hard templates. The mesostructure, crystal phase, and amount of deposited graphitic carbon can be conveniently tuned by controlling the silica template (SBA-15 or KIT-6), carburizing temperature (700-1000 degrees C), the PTA-loading amount, and the carburizing atmosphere (CH(4) or a CH(4)/H(2) mixture). A high level of deposited carbon is favorable for connecting and stabilizing the WC nanocrystallites to achieve high mesostructural regularity, as well as promoting the carburization reaction. Meanwhile, large pore sizes and high mesoporosity of the silica templates can promote WC-phase formation. These novel, ordered, mesoporous WC/C nanocomposites with high surface areas (74-169 m(2) g(-1)), large pore volumes (0.14-0.17 cm(3) g(-1)), narrow pore-size distributions (centered at about 3 nm), and very good oxidation resistance (up to 750 degrees C) have potential applications in fuel-cell catalysts and nanodevices. PMID:19743431

  15. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Organic Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snieckus, V.

    Using the Corey approach, retrosynthetic/synthetic schemes for six organic molecules of increasing complexity were programmed and tested in a module designed for a fourth year undergraduate course. A portion of a simple synthesis is presented and analyzed. Problems encountered were discussed and potential solutions are proposed. The module was…

  16. Gate complexity using Dynamic Programming

    E-print Network

    Sridharan, Srinivas; James, Matthew R

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between efficient quantum gate synthesis and control theory has been a topic of interest in the quantum control literature. Motivated by this work, we describe in the present article how the dynamic programming technique from optimal control may be used for the optimal synthesis of quantum circuits. We demonstrate simulation results on an example system on SU(2), to obtain plots related to the gate complexity and sample paths for different logic gates.

  17. Gate complexity using Dynamic Programming

    E-print Network

    Srinivas Sridharan; Mile Gu; Matthew R. James

    2008-07-03

    The relationship between efficient quantum gate synthesis and control theory has been a topic of interest in the quantum control literature. Motivated by this work, we describe in the present article how the dynamic programming technique from optimal control may be used for the optimal synthesis of quantum circuits. We demonstrate simulation results on an example system on SU(2), to obtain plots related to the gate complexity and sample paths for different logic gates.

  18. Evaluating the agreement between measurements and models of net ecosystem exchange at different times and timescales using wavelet coherence: an example using data from the North American Carbon Program Site-Level Interim Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoy, P. C.; Dietze, M. C.; Richardson, A. D.; Vargas, R.; Barr, A. G.; Anderson, R. S.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I. T.; Black, T. A.; Chen, J. M.; Cook, R. B.; Gough, C. M.; Grant, R. F.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Kucharik, C. J.; Lafleur, P.; Law, B. E.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Munger, J. W.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D. T.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Riley, W. J.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Schwalm, C. R.; Tian, H.; Verbeeck, H.; Weng, E.

    2013-11-01

    Earth system processes exhibit complex patterns across time, as do the models that seek to replicate these processes. Model output may or may not be significantly related to observations at different times and on different frequencies. Conventional model diagnostics provide an aggregate view of model-data agreement, but usually do not identify the time and frequency patterns of model-data disagreement, leaving unclear the steps required to improve model response to environmental drivers that vary on characteristic frequencies. Wavelet coherence can quantify the times and timescales at which two time series, for example time series of models and measurements, are significantly different. We applied wavelet coherence to interpret the predictions of 20 ecosystem models from the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Site-Level Interim Synthesis when confronted with eddy-covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from 10 ecosystems with multiple years of available data. Models were grouped into classes with similar approaches for incorporating phenology, the calculation of NEE, the inclusion of foliar nitrogen (N), and the use of model-data fusion. Models with prescribed, rather than prognostic, phenology often fit NEE observations better on annual to interannual timescales in grassland, wetland and agricultural ecosystems. Models that calculated NEE as net primary productivity (NPP) minus heterotrophic respiration (HR) rather than gross ecosystem productivity (GPP) minus ecosystem respiration (ER) fit better on annual timescales in grassland and wetland ecosystems, but models that calculated NEE as GPP minus ER were superior on monthly to seasonal timescales in two coniferous forests. Models that incorporated foliar nitrogen (N) data were successful at capturing NEE variability on interannual (multiple year) timescales at Howland Forest, Maine. The model that employed a model-data fusion approach often, but not always, resulted in improved fit to data, suggesting that improving model parameterization is important but not the only step for improving model performance. Combined with previous findings, our results suggest that the mechanisms driving daily and annual NEE variability tend to be correctly simulated, but the magnitude of these fluxes is often erroneous, suggesting that model parameterization must be improved. Few NACP models correctly predicted fluxes on seasonal and interannual timescales where spectral energy in NEE observations tends to be low, but where phenological events, multi-year oscillations in climatological drivers, and ecosystem succession are known to be important for determining ecosystem function. Mechanistic improvements to models must be made to replicate observed NEE variability on seasonal and interannual timescales.

  19. Automatic Synthesis of Safety-Related Software — Short Paper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johann Schumann

    For specific domains (e.g., data analysis, planning and scheduling, or state estimation), automated program synthe- sis systems have been developed which are capable of pro- ducing hundreds of lines of non-trivial code. However, the potential applicability of an automatic program synthesis sys- tem does not only depend on size and quality of the generated code, but also its ability to

  20. Teaching Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis Using Interactive Microcomputer Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Anthony G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis (HENS) program used at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Massachusetts) as an aid to teaching the energy integration step in process design. Focuses on the benefits of the computer graphics used in the program to increase the speed of generating and changing networks. (TW)

  1. Object-oriented concurrent programming

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

  2. New frontiers in design synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldin, D. S.; Venneri, S. L.; Noor, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering Systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed.

  3. Minimum weight aerospace structural synthesis program

    E-print Network

    Walker, John Michael

    1975-01-01

    (in) maximum height (in) moment of inertia (in ) 4 1 + y+ EXC(n -1) c EXC I 2 1 + y+ EXC(n -2) c EXC J 0 J2 dc' N E xyw w 3/7 n (. 577 a' ) w J3 n -1 n + J2&7 w w 2 w J4 1 + J u w n -1 2 w K s k e buckling coefficient thin walled... column shape factor effective depth factor k 0 N a x 'c4 k 2 3/7n n -1 . 7c k 7 E~j(N-1) L = representative length (in) structural chord length (in) N = bending moment (in-?) N number of spars, number of increments N = applied crushing load...

  4. INDUCTIVE SYNTHESIS OF RECURSIVE LOGIC PROGRAMS

    E-print Network

    Flener, Pierre

    . -------------------------------------------------------------- Ass't Prof. Pierre Flener (Principal Advisor) I certify that I have read this thesis and that in my. -------------------------------------------------------------- Ass't Prof. Ilyas �içekli I certify that I have read this thesis and that in my opinion it is fully. -------------------------------------------------------------- Ass't Prof. Ays¸e Göker Approved for the Institute of Engineering and Science

  5. Programmed synthesis of freestanding graphene nanomembrane arrays.

    PubMed

    Waduge, Pradeep; Larkin, Joseph; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Kar, Swastik; Wanunu, Meni

    2015-02-01

    Freestanding graphene membranes are unique materials. The combination of atomically thin dimensions, remarkable mechanical robustness, and chemical stability make porous and non-porous graphene membranes attractive for water purification and various sensing applications. Nanopores in graphene and other 2D materials have been identified as promising devices for next-generation DNA sequencing based on readout of either transverse DNA base-gated current or through-pore ion current. While several ground breaking studies of graphene-based nanopores for DNA analysis have been reported, all methods to date require a physical transfer of the graphene from its source of production onto an aperture support. The transfer process is slow and often leads to tears in the graphene that render many devices useless for nanopore measurements. In this work, we report a novel scalable approach for site-directed fabrication of pinhole-free graphene nanomembranes. Our approach yields high quality few-layer graphene nanomembranes produced in less than a day using a few steps that do not involve transfer. We highlight the functionality of these graphene devices by measuring DNA translocation through electron-beam fabricated nanopores in such membranes. PMID:25236988

  6. Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel

    E-print Network

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel Methodology Engineering University of Notre Dame University of Notre Dame #12;Outline: Overview of combustion synthesis Reaction system Combustion front analaysis Theoretical model results Conclusions Acknowledgements #12

  7. Velocimetry signal synthesis with fringen.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H., III

    2011-02-01

    An important part of velocimetry analysis is the recovery of a known velocity history from simulated data signals. The fringen program synthesizes VISAR and PDV signals, given a specified velocity history, using exact formulations for the optical signal. Time-dependent light conditions, non-ideal measurement conditions, and various diagnostic limitations (noise, etc.) may be incorporated into the simulated signals. This report describes the fringen program, which performs forward VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) and PDV (Photonic Doppler Velocimetry, also known as heterodyne velocimetry) analysis. Nearly all effects that might occur in VISAR/PDV measurement of a single velocity can be modeled by fringen. The program operates in MATLAB, either within a graphical interface or as a user-callable function. The current stable version of fringen is 0.3, which was released in October 2010. The following sections describe the operation and use of fringen. Section 2 gives a brief overview of VISAR and PDV synthesis. Section 3 illustrates the graphical and console interface of fringen. Section 4 presents several example uses of the program. Section 5 summarizes program capabilities and discusses potential future work.

  8. Feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Takamizawa, K.; Werntz, P.; Lapean, J.; Barts, R.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: General Reflector Antenna Systems Program version 7(GRASP7); Multiple Reflector Analysis Program for Cylindrical Antennas (MRAPCA); Tri-Reflector 2D Synthesis Code (TRTDS); a geometrical optics and a physical optics synthesis techniques; beam scanning reflector, the type 2 and 6 reflectors, spherical reflector, and multiple reflector imaging systems; and radiometric array design.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-01-01

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily

  10. Selected Programs College Program

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    Nursing Dietetics Public Health Social Work Lehman College Nutrition Exercise Science Health ServicesSelected Programs College Program City College Sophie Davis BS/MD Program Physician Assistant Mental Health Counseling Baruch College Mental Health Counseling Hunter College Mental Health

  11. RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The RIDGE Program is a National Science Foundation initiative that promotes interdisciplinary study, scientific communication, and outreach related to all aspects of the globe-encircling, mid-ocean ridge system. The RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis Project site provides free access to downloadable multibeam bathymetric images and datasets of suboceanic ridges and vents. From either a hotlinked world map or a drop-down menu, users can specify the feature of interest - from the Reykjanes Ridge to the Shona Hotspot to the Galapagos Spreading Center - then progressively zoom to finer grid scales. The bathymetric images are depicted at different node spacings (100 m to 1500m) and grids are supported by the appropriate metadata. The images are also accompanied by ping data (including ship tracks) and other related data, which may include coaxial segment perspective images or isochron interpretation maps. Also, for many of the grids the user can specify subsample regions or retrieve contour areas of subregions. Links throughout the site include those to the main RIDGE page, a gallery of coaxial images, information on Served Data Formats, and the Principal Investigators involved with the Project.

  12. Synthesis of multiple shaped beam antenna patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Coffey, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of research into the problem of finding an excitation of a given antenna such that the desired radiation pattern is approximated to within acceptable limits. This is to be done in such a fashion that boundary conditions involving hardware limitations may be inserted into the problem. The intended application is synthesis of multiple shaped beam antennas. Since this is perhaps the most difficult synthesis problem an antenna engineer is likely to encounter, the approach taken was to include as a by-product capability for synthesizing simpler patterns. The synthesis technique has been almost totally computerized. The class of antennas which may be synthesized with the computer program are those which may be represented as planar (continuous or discrete) current distributions. The technique is not limited in this sense and could indeed by extended to include, for example, the synthesis of conformal arrays or current distributions on the surface of reflectors. The antenna types which the program is set up to synthesize are: line source, rectangular aperture, circular aperture, linear array, rectangular array, and arbitrary planar array.

  13. An Explicit Solution for Thermal Calculation and Synthesis of Superstructure Heat Exchanger Networks * * Supported by Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (No.T0503), Shanghai Pujiang Program (No.05PJ14078), and Jiangsu Cuilong Copper Industry Co., Ltd

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dezhen CHEN; Shanshan YANG; Xing LUO; Qingyun WEN; Hugen MA

    2007-01-01

    For the optimal design of a heat exchanger network, the inlet and outlet stream temperatures of each heat exchanger in the network should be known. An explicit analytical solution of stream temperatures of an arbitrary connected heat exchanger network was introduced, which is suitable for the thermal calculation of heat exchanger networks. For the heat exchanger network synthesis, this solution

  14. Program Aids Analysis And Optimization Of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Lamarsh, William J., II

    1994-01-01

    NETS/ PROSSS (NETS Coupled With Programming System for Structural Synthesis) computer program developed to provide system for combining NETS (MSC-21588), neural-network application program and CONMIN (Constrained Function Minimization, ARC-10836), optimization program. Enables user to reach nearly optimal design. Design then used as starting point in normal optimization process, possibly enabling user to converge to optimal solution in significantly fewer iterations. NEWT/PROSSS written in C language and FORTRAN 77.

  15. Responsive Program. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, Berkeley, CA.

    This document is the fourth in a series of 12 early childhood program descriptions compiled by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. The program described here is the Responsive Program developed by Glen Nimnicht at the Far West Lab in Berkeley, California. The Responsive Model is a preschool through third grade program

  16. SIS: A System for Sequential Circuit Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen M. Sentovich; Kanwar Jit Singh

    1992-01-01

    SIS is an interactive tool for synthesis and optimization of sequential circuits. Given a state transition table, a signal transition graph, or a logic-level description of a sequential circuit, it produces an optimized net-list in the target technology while preserving the sequential input-output behavior. Many different programs and algorithms have been integrated into SIS, allowing the user to choose among

  17. Sequential Circuit Design Using Synthesis and Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen M. Sentovich; Kanwar Jit Singh Gill; Cho W. Moon; Hamid Savoj; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of SIS, an interactive tool for synthesis and optimization of sequential circuits. Given a state transition table or a logic-level description of a sequential circuit, SIS produces an optimized net-list in the target technology while preserving the sequential input-output behavior. Many different programs and algorithms have been integrated into SIS, allowing the user to choose among

  18. Chemical Biology Coop Program (New for January 2011) Students from the Chemical Biology Coop Program will be prepared to conduct work terms in areas such as

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Chemical Biology Coop Program (New for January 2011) Students from the Chemical Biology Coop of the Chemical Biology Coop Program: Bioanalytical Chemistry Organic Chemistry & synthesis Cellular & molecular biology Nucleic acid structure & function Metabolism and regulation Modern physics Genetics Biomolecular

  19. DCTD — Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP)

    Cancer.gov

    DTP’s Pharmaceutical Resources Branch bears the responsibility of acquiring bulk materials for formulation and synthesis, formulating drugs and testing them, producing clinical dosage forms, and stability testing of clinical dosage forms. This branch provides clinical researchers, both academic and institutional, with top-quality drugs for clinical trials and formulates drug compounds that are under development by the NExT program.

  20. Sehwa: a software package for synthesis of pipelines from behavioral specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice C. Parker

    1988-01-01

    A set of techniques for the synthesis of pipelined data paths is described, and Sehwa, a program that performs such synthesis, is presented. The task includes the generation of data paths from a data-flow graph along with a clocking scheme that overlaps execution of multiple tasks. Some design examples are given. Sehwa can find the minimum-cost design, the highest performance

  1. Evolutionary Image Synthesis Using a Model of Aesthetics Brian J. Ross, William Ralph, and Hai Zong

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Evolutionary Image Synthesis Using a Model of Aesthetics Brian J. Ross, William Ralph, and Hai Zong Abstract-- The automatic synthesis of aesthetically pleas- ing images is investigated. Genetic programming of aesthetics. This aesthetic model is based on empirical analyses of fine art, in which analyzed art work

  2. Total synthesis of (-)-dolastatrienol.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lai To; Chiu, Pauline

    2015-04-01

    The first asymmetric total synthesis of the tricyclic diterpenoid natural product (-)-dolastatrienol has been accomplished using a rhodium(II)-catalyzed carbene cyclization cycloaddition cascade reaction as the key step to construct the [5.4.0]carbobicyclic core. An intramolecular Heck reaction furnished the tricyclic skeleton and a challenging methylenation completed the synthesis of the target. PMID:25556852

  3. Reaction synthesis of intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1994-12-31

    Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides was utilized to obtain nickel, iron, and cobalt aluminides. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain intermetallics and their composites. Extrusion conditions, reduction ratios, and hot-pressing conditions of the intermetallics and their composites are discussed.

  4. Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Morrow Stewart

    1976-01-01

    The last two decades have been an era of rapid progress in peptide research. This era was begun by the work of Sanger on the amino acid sequence determination of insulin and by du Vigneaud on the structure determination and synthesis of oxytocin. This period has seen impressive progress in the structure elucidation and synthesis of many peptides of natural

  5. Total synthesis of gracilamine.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingbo; Yang, Baochao; Cai, Shujun; Gao, Shuanhu

    2014-09-01

    The total synthesis of gracilamine, a pentacyclic Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, was achieved from simple building blocks. The synthesis features a mild photo-Nazarov reaction, intramolecular 1,4-addition, and an intramolecular Mannich reaction. This approach not only confirms the C6 stereochemistry of natural gracilamine, and also provides a novel solution to prepare its derivatives and structurally related natural products. PMID:25044967

  6. Strategic Partnering to Evaluate Cancer Signatures (SPECS) | Scientific Programs

    Cancer.gov

    This proposal will define a molecular classification schema for organ-confined prostate cancer. The schema will be based on patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation found within prostate tumors and the surrounding stroma. The aim of the project is to create a method for classifying such tumors based on tumor biology rather than simply on histology. The development of a classification schema based on molecular profiles would improve our ability to treat and manage organ-confined prostate cancer.

  7. Multivoxel patterns in face-sensitive temporal regions reveal an encoding schema based on detecting life in a face

    PubMed Central

    Looser, Christine E.; Guntupalli, Jyothi S.

    2013-01-01

    More than a decade of research has demonstrated that faces evoke prioritized processing in a ‘core face network’ of three brain regions. However, whether these regions prioritize the detection of global facial form (shared by humans and mannequins) or the detection of life in a face has remained unclear. Here, we dissociate form-based and animacy-based encoding of faces by using animate and inanimate faces with human form (humans, mannequins) and dog form (real dogs, toy dogs). We used multivariate pattern analysis of BOLD responses to uncover the representational similarity space for each area in the core face network. Here, we show that only responses in the inferior occipital gyrus are organized by global facial form alone (human vs dog) while animacy becomes an additional organizational priority in later face-processing regions: the lateral fusiform gyri (latFG) and right superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, patterns evoked by human faces were maximally distinct from all other face categories in the latFG and parts of the extended face perception system. These results suggest that once a face configuration is perceived, faces are further scrutinized for whether the face is alive and worthy of social cognitive resources. PMID:22798395

  8. General aviation design synthesis utilizing interactive computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.; Smith, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Interactive computer graphics is a fast growing area of computer application, due to such factors as substantial cost reductions in hardware, general availability of software, and expanded data communication networks. In addition to allowing faster and more meaningful input/output, computer graphics permits the use of data in graphic form to carry out parametric studies for configuration selection and for assessing the impact of advanced technologies on general aviation designs. The incorporation of interactive computer graphics into a NASA developed general aviation synthesis program is described, and the potential uses of the synthesis program in preliminary design are demonstrated.

  9. Dynamic Programming for Partially Observable Stochastic Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric A. Hansen; Daniel S. Bernstein; Shlomo Zilberstein

    2004-01-01

    We develop an exact dynamic programming algorithm for partially observable stochastic games (POSGs). The algo- rithm is a synthesis of dynamic programming for partially ob- servable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) and iterated elimination of dominated strategies in normal form games. We prove that when applied to finite-horizon POSGs, the al- gorithm iteratively eliminates very weakly dominated strate- gies without first

  10. Robinson's landmark synthesis of tropinone.

    PubMed

    Medley, Jonathan William; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2013-11-28

    The 1917 total synthesis of tropinone by Sir Robert Robinson represents a landmark achievement in organic synthesis. Decades ahead of its time in terms of its retrosynthetic logic and biomimetic approach, the elegant combination of these two elements in this synthesis continues to serve as an inspiration for the development of new and efficient strategies for complex molecule synthesis. PMID:24116374

  11. ACCESS-2: Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis, user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A user's guide is presented for the ACCESS-2 computer program. ACCESS-2 is a research oriented program which implements a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and general mathematical programming algorithms are applied in the design optimization procedure.

  12. Assessment of protein synthesis in highly aerobic canine species at the onset and during exercise training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin F; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Drake, Joshua C; Peelor, Frederick F; Biela, Laurie M; Pratt-Phillips, Shannon; Davis, Michael; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2015-04-01

    Canis lupus familiaris, the domesticated dog, is capable of extreme endurance performance. The ability to perform sustained aerobic exercise is dependent on a well-developed mitochondrial reticulum. In this study we examined the cumulative muscle protein and DNA synthesis in groups of athletic dogs at the onset of an exercise training program and following a strenuous exercise training program. We hypothesized that both at the onset and during an exercise training program there would be greater mitochondrial protein synthesis rates compared with sedentary control with no difference in mixed or cytoplasmic protein synthesis rates. Protein synthetic rates of three protein fractions and DNA synthesis were determined over 1 wk using (2)H2O in competitive Alaskan Huskies and Labrador Retrievers trained for explosive device detection. Both groups of dogs had very high rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the sedentary state [Alaskan Huskies: Mixed = 2.28 ± 0.12, cytoplasmic (Cyto) = 2.91 ± 0.10, and mitochondrial (Mito) = 2.62 ± 0.07; Labrador Retrievers: Mixed = 3.88 ± 0.37, Cyto = 3.85 ± 0.06, and Mito = 2.92 ± 0.20%/day]. Mitochondrial (Mito) protein synthesis rates did not increase at the onset of an exercise training program. Exercise-trained dogs maintained Mito protein synthesis during exercise training when mixed (Mixed) and cytosolic (Cyto) fractions decreased, and this coincided with a decrease in p-RpS6 but also a decrease in p-ACC signaling. Contrary to our hypothesis, canines did not have large increases in mitochondrial protein synthesis at the onset or during an exercise training program. However, dogs have a high rate of protein synthesis compared with humans that perhaps does not necessitate an extra increase in protein synthesis at the onset of aerobic exercise training. PMID:25614602

  13. Sorghum Program BIOENERGY PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Sorghum Program BIOENERGY PROGRAM Sorghums are important nongrain lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuel production. Texas AgriLife Research has a very active sorghum program that boasts about 40 and exhibit extensive molecular and trait diversity. Sorghum has an excellent genome plat- form. Nongrain

  14. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  15. Method of sound synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Miner, Nadine E.; Caudell, Thomas P.

    2004-06-08

    A sound synthesis method for modeling and synthesizing dynamic, parameterized sounds. The sound synthesis method yields perceptually convincing sounds and provides flexibility through model parameterization. By manipulating model parameters, a variety of related, but perceptually different sounds can be generated. The result is subtle changes in sounds, in addition to synthesis of a variety of sounds, all from a small set of models. The sound models can change dynamically according to changes in the simulation environment. The method is applicable to both stochastic (impulse-based) and non-stochastic (pitched) sounds.

  16. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which heat is useful in organic synthesis experiments are described, and experiments on the hydrothermal destruction and synthesis of organic compounds are discussed. It is pointed out that, if heat can overcome kinetic barriers to the formation of metastable states from reduced or oxidized starting materials, abiotic synthesis under hydrothermal conditions is a distinct possibility. However, carefully controlled experiments which replicate the descriptive variables of natural hydrothermal systems have not yet been conducted with the aim of testing the hypothesis of hydrothermal organic systems.

  17. SUMMARY OF EMISSIONS MANAGEMENT STRATEGY POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S PM SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an integrated synthesis of key scientific and policy-relevant findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program. This presentation provides a summary of the program and the integrated synthesis. Since there are many examples of such findings, ranging f...

  18. Learning Programs from Traces using Version Space Algebra

    E-print Network

    Dalang, Robert C.

    , induction; I.2.2 [Artificial Intelligence]: Automatic programming--Program synthesis General Terms. Categories and Subject Descriptors I.2.6 [Artificial Intelligence]: Learning--Knowledge acquisitionLearning Programs from Traces using Version Space Algebra Tessa Lau IBM TJ Watson Research P.O. Box

  19. Fiber draw synthesis

    E-print Network

    Orf, Nicholas D.

    The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid ...

  20. Modern Evolutionary Synthesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wikipedia

    This site from Wickipedia describes the modern evolutionary synthesis. This theory brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. Essentially, the modern synthesis (or neo-Darwinism) introduces the connection between two important discoveries; the units of evolution (genes) with the mechanism of evolution (selection). The site features links to any of the topics discussed.

  1. ODIN - Optimal Design Integration system for synthesis of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rau, T. R.; Decker, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ODIN system is a new design synthesis procedure for solving multiple discipline design problems. In ODIN an unlimited number of independent technology codes can be linked together in the computer in any desired sequence. This paper describes the ODIN system, the executive program DIALOG, the data management technique, and the program library. The use of ODIN is illustrated with an application drawn from space system studies.

  2. Dynamic substructuring for shock spectrum analysis using component mode synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpheeters, Barton W.; Lev, Avivi; Bogert, Philip B.; Scavuzzo, Rudolph J.

    1988-01-01

    Component mode synthesis was used to analyze different types of structures with MSC NASTRAN. The theory and technique of using Multipoint Constraint Equations (MPCs) to connect substructures to each other or to a common foundation is presented. Computation of the dynamic response of the system from shack spectrum inputs was automated using the DMAP programming language of the MSC NASTRAN finite element code.

  3. SIS: A System for Sequential Circuit Synthesis Electronics Research Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Kalla, Priyank

    SIS: A System for Sequential Circuit Synthesis Electronics Research Laboratory Memorandum No. UCB Engineering and Computer Science University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 4 May 1992 Abstract SIS programs and algorithms have been integrated into SIS, allowing the user to choose among a variety

  4. Automatic Synthesis of Fine-Motion Strategies for Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomás Lozano-Pérez; Matthew T. Mason; Russell H. Taylor

    1984-01-01

    Active compliance enables robots to carry out tasks in the presence of significant sensing and control errors. Compliant motions are quite difficult for humans to specify, however. Furthermore, robot programs are quite sensitive to details of geometry and to error characteristics and must, therefore, be constructed anew for each task. These factors motivate the search for automatic synthesis tools for

  5. The Teaching of Protein Synthesis--A Microcomputer Based Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodridge, Frank

    1983-01-01

    Describes two computer programs (BASIC for 32K Commodore PET) for teaching protein synthesis. The first is an interactive test of base-pairing knowledge, and the second generates random DNA nucleotide sequences, with instructions for substitution, insertion, and deletion printed out for each student. (JN)

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of conversational characteristics in speech synthesis 

    E-print Network

    Andersson, Johan Sebastian

    2013-11-28

    that can partake in a conversation and express, e.g. agreement, disagreement, hesitation, in a natural and believable manner. In speech synthesis there are currently two dominating frameworks: unit selection and HMM-based speech synthesis. Both frameworks...

  7. Review article Melatonin synthesis pathway

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Review article Melatonin synthesis pathway: circadian regulation of the genes encoding the key three enzymes of the melatonin synthesis pathway (tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), arylalkylamine) their tissue-specific expression in the pineal gland and the retina. © Inra/ Elsevier, Paris melatonin

  8. The Synthesis of Lepidoptera Pheromones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, Elena D.; Kurts, A. L.; Bundel', Yurii G.

    1986-07-01

    The review surveys the data in numerous publications of the synthesis of the pheromones of scale-winged insects (Lepidoptera). Attention is concentrated on problems of the sterospecific synthesis of pheromones. The bibliography includes 217 references.

  9. Microfluidic synthesis of colloidal nanomaterials

    E-print Network

    Khan, Saif A

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on microfluidics based approaches for synthesis and surface-engineering of colloidal particles. Bottom-up assembly through colloidal nucleation and growth is a popular route to the controlled synthesis ...

  10. Ridge 2000 Data Integration and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, D. J.; Ferrini, V.; Carbotte, S.; Blackman, D.

    2008-12-01

    The Ridge 2000 (R2K) program is transitioning toward an increased emphasis on integration and synthesis of data acquired on multi-disciplinary expeditions focused on understanding the geo-biological processes associated with hydrothermal systems on mid-ocean ridges (MORs). This phase of the program will focus not only on the compilation of existing data, but also on integration of results across disciplines, and development of models that examine the linkages between spreading, hydrothermal, and ecosystem processes. During this phase of the program, data from throughout the global mid-ocean ridge system will be important to achieve a more holistic understanding of MOR processes and how they relate to the Ridge 2000 data sets from each Integrated Study Site (ISS). A series of workshops were held in Fall 2008 to bring together researchers from each ISS to help coordinate the integration and synthesis phase of the program. While most cruises conducted during the R2K program have been cataloged and basic metadata made available through R2K Data Portal (http://www.marine- geo.org/ridge2000), additional data, including derived and interpreted data sets from R2K-funded expeditions and other ridge-related expeditions are important to make available during this phase in the program. Once data are available, a variety of data access and visualization tools including GeoMapApp, Google Earth, and IVS-Fledermaus can be used to help coordinate analysis and integration efforts. We focus on highlighting potential scientific applications made possible with currently available software tools, and report on the R2K community feedback and utilization of data bases and visualization tools brought to light during the Fall 2008 workshops. geo.org/ridge2000

  11. Synthesis of Feedback Controller for Chaotic Systems by Means of Evolutionary Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Zelinka, Ivan; Davendra, Donald; Jasek, Roman

    2011-06-01

    This research deals with a synthesis of control law for three selected discrete chaotic systems by means of analytic programming. The novality of the approach is that a tool for symbolic regression—analytic programming—is used for such kind of difficult problem. The paper consists of the descriptions of analytic programming as well as chaotic systems and used cost function. For experimentation, Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) with analytic programming was used.

  12. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLES

    E-print Network

    Ding, Yu

    Microscope Current Research 2 #12; Top-down processes: - Used to manufacture conventional products - Newly Engineering September 11th, 2009 #12;OVERVIEW Synthesis Techniques: Top-down and Bottom-up Synthesis Processes: i. Gold synthesis in laboratory ii. Inert gas condensation iii. Laser ablation process

  13. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

  14. Glycals in enantiospecific synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikov, Alexander G.; Tolstikov, Genrikh A.

    1993-06-01

    The reactions of 1,2-unsaturated sugars (glycals) are considered in this review in relation to problems of the enantiospecific synthesis of natural products, their fragments, and their analogues. The reactions occurring both with retention of the heterocycle and those carried out with the aim of obtaining open chain chiral units are discussed. It is shown that the use of glycals as a stock of chiral substances which determine the configuration of the asymmetric centres in the target products of multistage synthesis is promising. Schemes for the synthesis of natural products of different types are considered: O- and C-glycosides, nucleosides, oligosaccharides, pheromones, antibiotics, toxins, glycosphingolipids, etc. The bibliography includes 161 references.

  15. Synthesis of organosilicon compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, G.

    1996-12-31

    Silicon-containing polymers have been a focus of synthesis and study in Dr. Barton`s group because of their chemistry and properties which are not offered by other systems or materials. For example, the polymer -[-SiMe{sub 2}C{triple_bond}C-]{sub n}-can be easily processed to films or fibers from melt or solution, and thermally converted to a SiC-containing ceramic in high yield at high temperature. In recent years, carbosilane dendritic polymers have been of great interests in many research groups. However, no synthesis of carbosilane dendrimers with functionalties both inside and outside the dendrimer has been reported. Functionality is very important in the synthesis of preceramic polymers. This thesis will be devoted to exploring several new organosilicon polymer systems.

  16. A satellite system synthesis model for orbital arc allotment optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, Charles H.

    1987-01-01

    A mixed integer programming formulation of a satellite system synthesis problem if presented, which is referred to as the arc allotment problem (AAP). Each satellite administration is to be allotted a weighted-length segment of the geostationary orbital arc within which its satellites may be positioned at any longitudes. The objective function maximizes the length of the unweighted arc segment allotted to every administration, subject to single-entry co-channel interference restrictions and constraints imposed by the visible arc for each administration. Useful relationships between special cases of AAP and another satellite synthesis problem are established. Solutions to two example problems are presented.

  17. Synthesis of stiffened shells of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Computer programs for the synthesis of shells of various configurations were developed. The conditions considered are: (1) uniform shells (mainly cones) using a membrane buckling analysis, (2) completely uniform shells (cones, spheres, toroidal segments) using linear bending prebuckling analysis, and (3) revision of second design process to reduce the number of design variables to about 30 by considering piecewise uniform designs. A perturbation formula was derived and this allows exact derivatives of the general buckling load to be computed with little additional computer time.

  18. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszewski, Rados?aw; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  19. Distributed aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rabb, David; Jameson, Douglas; Stokes, Andrew; Stafford, Jason

    2010-05-10

    Distributed aperture synthesis is an exciting technique for recovering high-resolution images from an array of small telescopes. Such a system requires optical field values measured at individual apertures to be phased together so that a single, high-resolution image can be synthesized. This paper describes the application of sharpness metrics to the process of phasing multiple coherent imaging systems into a single high-resolution system. Furthermore, this paper will discuss hardware and present the results of simulations and experiments which will illustrate how aperture synthesis is performed. PMID:20588888

  20. Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, R.A.; Schwab, F.R.; Bridle, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques and instrumentation for radio synthesis imaging in astronomy are discussed in a collection of review essays. Topics addressed include coherence in radio astronomy, the interferometer in practice, primary antenna elements, cross correlators, calibration and editing, sensitivity, deconvolution, self-calibration, error recognition, and image analysis. Consideration is given to wide-field imaging (bandwidth and time-average smearing, noncoplanar arrays, and mosaicking), high-dynamic-range imaging, spectral-line imaging, VLBI, solar imaging with a synthesis telescope, synthesis imaging of spatially coherent objects, noise in images of very bright sources, synthesis observing strategies, and the design of aperture-synthesis arrays.

  1. Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2004-01-01

    A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

  2. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Fourth quarterly report, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  3. Synthesis of acrylates. Quarterly report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Over the last quarter, Eastman has completed its experimental program on propionyl generation portion of the process. An improved olefin carbonylation process has been developed as the basis of the propionate synthesis portion of the project (Task 1). Bechtel has also completed a production cost estimate for the synthesis of propionic anhydride from ethylene, carbon monoxide, and recycled propionic acid based on the yields demonstrated for the Eastman carbonylation process. The results show a cost of $0.43/lb, which we judge to be competitive as a basis for MMA, which sells for about $0. 75/lb. RTI has tested (Task 2) over 71 acid-base catalysts for the condensation of propionic anhydride/acid with formaldehyde. Other catalysts are being tested to minimize the deactivation observed on these materials. These catalysts are more likely than the V-Si-P catalysts as potential candidates for a commercial process. RTI has also completed the assembly and operation of a HTHP slurry reactor system for demonstration of liquid phase synthesis (Task 3). NCSU has tested slurry fluids including decalin and tetralin for hydrothermal, oxidative, and reductive stability. The results of their effort will be directly applicable to bench-scale testing in the RTI HTHP slurry reactor.

  4. Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes Program Career: Descripton College School;Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes Program Career: Descripton College School/ College 1

  5. Formal Synthesis of (±)-Roseophilin

    PubMed Central

    Bitar, Abdallah Y.; Frontier, Alison J.

    2009-01-01

    A formal synthesis of (±)-roseophilin is described. Scandium(III)-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of 2,5-disubstituted N-tosylpyrrole 19 gives a 5,5’-fused ketopyrrole, and ansa-bridge formation via ?-allyl palladium macrocyclization gives 21. PMID:19053717

  6. Chemical synthesis of saponins.

    PubMed

    Yang, You; Laval, Stephane; Yu, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Saponins are a large family of amphiphilic glycosides of steroids and triterpenes found in plants and some marine organisms. By expressing a large diversity of structures on both sugar chains and aglycones, saponins exhibit a wide range of biological and pharmacological properties and serve as major active principles in folk medicines, especially in traditional Chinese medicines. Isolation of saponins from natural sources is usually a formidable task due to the microheterogeneity of saponins in Nature. Chemical synthesis can provide access to large amounts of natural saponins as well as congeners for understanding their structure-activity relationships and mechanisms of action. This article presents a comprehensive account on chemical synthesis of saponins. First highlighted are general considerations on saponin synthesis, including preparation of aglycones and carbohydrate building blocks, assembly strategies, and protecting-group strategies. Next described is the state of the art in the synthesis of each type of saponins, with an emphasis on those representative saponins having sophisticated structures and potent biological activities. PMID:25480505

  7. Pesticide National Synthesis Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pesticide National Synthesis Project homepage offers a number of publications and reports on pesticides in the Hydrologic System. The site also features data sets, national maps of pesticide use, and some special topic reports, as well as information on the Project and its staff.

  8. Total Synthesis of (?)-Mucocin

    PubMed Central

    Crimmins, Michael T.; Zhang, Yan; Diaz, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    An enantioselective total synthesis of (?)-mucocin has been completed. A combination of asymmetric glycolate aldol additions and ring closing metathesis reactions were exploited to construct the C18-C34 and C7-C17 fragments. A selective cross metathesis reaction was employed as the key step to couple two complex fragments. PMID:16706528

  9. Total synthesis of (-)-mucocin.

    PubMed

    Crimmins, Michael T; Zhang, Yan; Diaz, Frank A

    2006-05-25

    [reaction: see text] An enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-mucocin has been completed. A combination of asymmetric glycolate aldol additions and ring closing metathesis reactions were exploited to construct the C18-C34 and C7-C17 fragments. A selective cross-metathesis reaction was employed as the key step to couple two complex fragments. PMID:16706528

  10. Total Synthesis of Kopsinine

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jian; Wolfe, Amanda L.; Boger, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of a powerful intramolecular [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloaddition cascade of an 1,3,4-oxadiazole in the divergent total synthesis of kopsinine (1), featuring an additional unique SmI2-promoted transannular cyclization reaction for formation of the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane central to its hexacyclic ring system, is detailed. PMID:23391149

  11. Total synthesis of kopsinine.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jian; Wolfe, Amanda L; Boger, Dale L

    2013-02-15

    The use of a powerful intramolecular [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloaddition cascade of an 1,3,4-oxadiazole in the divergent total synthesis of kopsinine (1), featuring an additional unique SmI(2)-promoted transannular cyclization reaction for formation of the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane central to its hexacyclic ring system, is detailed. PMID:23391149

  12. Total Synthesis of Jiadifenolide**

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

  13. MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

  14. Synthesis of (+)-Coronafacic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Douglass F.; Sheth, Ritesh B.; Tian, Weiwei

    2009-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of (+)-coronafacic acid has been achieved. Rhodium catalyzed cyclization of an ?-diazoester provided the intermediate cyclopentanone in high enantiomeric purity. Subsequent Fe-mediated cyclocarbonylation of a derived alkenyl cyclopropane gave a bicyclic enone, that then was hydrogenated and carried on to the natural product. PMID:19231870

  15. SYNTHESIS & INTEGRATION Earth Stewardship

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    SYNTHESIS & INTEGRATION Earth Stewardship: science for action to sustain the human-earth system F, A. G. Power, and A. Bartuska. 2011. Earth Stewardship: science for action to sustain the human-earth system. Ecosphere 2(8):art89. doi:10.1890/ES11-00166.1 Abstract. Human activities affect Earth's life

  16. Synthesis and Summary

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Imaging Informatics:Synthesis, Summary and DiscussionRonald M. Summers, M.D., Ph.D.Clinical CenterDiagnostic Radiology DepartmentNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MDwww.cc.nih.gov/drd/summers.html Overview Review of the Meeting Perspective

  17. Total synthesis of fentanyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Ger Suh; Kyung-Ho Cho; Dong-Yoon Shin

    1998-01-01

    Fentanyl of a potent anilidopiperidine analgesic has been synthesized from a simple phenyle-thylamine by four step sequence.\\u000a The key part of this synthesis involves an efficient construction of phenylethylpiperidone skeleton via aminomethano desilyation-cyclization\\u000a followed by Swern oxidation.

  18. Interactive systems design and synthesis of future spacecraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze and conduct parametric studies and modify Earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  19. Studies on inducers of nerve growth factor: synthesis of the cyathin core.

    PubMed

    Wright, D L; Whitehead, C R; Sessions, E H; Ghiviriga, I; Frey, D A

    1999-11-18

    [formula: see text] Compounds that induce the synthesis of nerve growth factor (NGF) are of interest as alternatives to the administration of the native peptide. We have initiated a program to study the NGF synthesis stimulating activity of the erinacine and scabronine diterpenes. Herein, we report an approach to the core cyathin system by sequential application of an oxidative coupling and [4 + 3] cycloaddition. PMID:10836021

  20. Occupational Safety and Health Programs in Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Robert D.; And Others

    This resource guide was developed in response to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and is intended to assist teachers in implementing courses in occupational safety and health as part of a career education program. The material is a synthesis of films, programed instruction, slides and narration, case studies, safety pamphlets,…

  1. Exemplary Career Guidance Programs 1995: Secondary and Postsecondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunanan, Esmeralda S.; Maddy-Bernstein, Carolyn

    This document presents nine exemplary career guidance and counseling programs identified by the National Center for Research in Vocational Education's Office of Student Services. Chapter 1 presents a synthesis of the nationally recognized career guidance programs successful in assisting students in their career development. It provides a…

  2. Computer Synthesis Approaches of Hyperboloid Gear Drives with Linear Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadjiev, Valentin; Kawasaki, Haruhisa

    2014-09-01

    The computer design has improved forming different type software for scientific researches in the field of gearing theory as well as performing an adequate scientific support of the gear drives manufacture. Here are attached computer programs that are based on mathematical models as a result of scientific researches. The modern gear transmissions require the construction of new mathematical approaches to their geometric, technological and strength analysis. The process of optimization, synthesis and design is based on adequate iteration procedures to find out an optimal solution by varying definite parameters. The study is dedicated to accepted methodology in the creation of soft- ware for the synthesis of a class high reduction hyperboloid gears - Spiroid and Helicon ones (Spiroid and Helicon are trademarks registered by the Illinois Tool Works, Chicago, Ill). The developed basic computer products belong to software, based on original mathematical models. They are based on the two mathematical models for the synthesis: "upon a pitch contact point" and "upon a mesh region". Computer programs are worked out on the basis of the described mathematical models, and the relations between them are shown. The application of the shown approaches to the synthesis of commented gear drives is illustrated.

  3. Deductive Glue Code Synthesis for Embedded Software Systems Based on Code Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jian; Fu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yansheng; Bastani, Farokh; Yen, I-Ling; Tai, Ann; Chau, Savio N.

    2006-01-01

    Automated code synthesis is a constructive process that can be used to generate programs from specifications. It can, thus, greatly reduce the software development cost and time. The use of formal code synthesis approach for software generation further increases the dependability of the system. Though code synthesis has many potential benefits, the synthesis techniques are still limited. Meanwhile, components are widely used in embedded system development. Applying code synthesis to component based software development (CBSD) process can greatly enhance the capability of code synthesis while reducing the component composition efforts. In this paper, we discuss the issues and techniques for applying deductive code synthesis techniques to CBSD. For deductive synthesis in CBSD, a rule base is the key for inferring appropriate component composition. We use the code patterns to guide the development of rules. Code patterns have been proposed to capture the typical usages of the components. Several general composition operations have been identified to facilitate systematic composition. We present the technique for rule development and automated generation of new patterns from existing code patterns. A case study of using this method in building a real-time control system is also presented.

  4. Total synthesis of clostrubin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Clostrubin is a potent antibiotic against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria that was isolated from a strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii in 2014. This polyphenol possesses a fully substituted arene moiety on its pentacyclic scaffold, which poses a considerable challenge for chemical synthesis. Here we report the first total synthesis of clostrubin in nine steps (the longest linear sequence). A desymmetrization strategy is exploited based on the inherent structural feature of the natural product. Barton–Kellogg olefination forges the two segments together to form a tetrasubstituted alkene. A photo-induced 6? electrocyclization followed by spontaneous aromatization constructs the hexasubstituted B ring at a late stage. In total, 200?mg of clostrubin are delivered through this approach. PMID:25759087

  5. Prebiotic synthesis of histidine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, C.; Yang, L.; Miller, S. L.; Oro, J.

    1990-01-01

    The prebiotic formation of histidine (His) has been accomplished experimentally by the reaction of erythrose with formamidine followed by a Strecker synthesis. In the first step of this reaction sequence, the formation of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde took place by the condensation of erythrose and formamidine, two compounds that are known to be formed under prebiotic conditions. In a second step, the imidazole-4-acetaldehyde was converted to His, without isolation of the reaction products by adding HCN and ammonia to the reaction mixture. LC, HPLC, thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the product, which was obtained in a yield of 3.5% based on the ratio of His/erythrose. This is a new chemical synthesis of one of the basic amino acids which had not been synthesized prebiotically until now.

  6. Hyaluronan Synthesis and Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Liam C.; Gorman, Chris; Kintakas, Christopher; McCulloch, Daniel R.; Mackie, Eleanor J.; White, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous hyaluronan is known to alter muscle precursor cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, ultimately inhibiting myogenesis in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of endogenous hyaluronan synthesis during myogenesis. In quantitative PCR studies, the genes responsible for synthesizing hyaluronan were found to be differentially regulated during muscle growth, repair, and pathology. Although all Has genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3) were differentially regulated in these models, only Has2 gene expression consistently associated with myogenic differentiation. During myogenic differentiation in vitro, Has2 was the most highly expressed of the synthases and increased after induction of differentiation. To test whether this association between Has2 expression and myogenesis relates to a role for Has2 in myoblast differentiation and fusion, C2C12 myoblasts were depleted of Has2 by siRNA and induced to differentiate. Depletion of Has2 inhibited differentiation and caused a loss of cell-associated hyaluronan and the hyaluronan-dependent pericellular matrix. The inhibition of differentiation caused by loss of hyaluronan was confirmed with the hyaluronan synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone. In hyaluronan synthesis-blocked cultures, restoration of the pericellular matrix could be achieved through the addition of exogenous hyaluronan and the proteoglycan versican, but this was not sufficient to restore differentiation to control levels. These data indicate that intrinsic hyaluronan synthesis is necessary for myoblasts to differentiate and form syncytial muscle cells, but the hyaluronan-dependent pericellular matrix is not sufficient to support differentiation alone; additional hyaluronan-dependent cell functions that are yet unknown may be required for myogenic differentiation. PMID:23493399

  7. Total synthesis of (-)-borrelidin.

    PubMed

    Nagamitsu, Tohru; Takano, Daisuke; Fukuda, Takeo; Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Kuwajima, Isao; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Omura, Satoshi

    2004-05-27

    The total synthesis of borrelidin has been achieved. The best feature of our synthetic route is SmI(2)-mediated intramolecular Reformatsky-type reaction for macrocyclization after esterification between two segments. The two key segments were synthesized through chelation-controlled carbotitanation, chelation-controlled hydrogenation, stereoselective Reformatsky reaction, and MgBr(2).Et(2)O-mediated chelation-controlled allylation. [reaction: see text] PMID:15151434

  8. Voice synthesis application

    SciTech Connect

    Lightstone, P.C.; Davidson, W.M.

    1982-01-27

    Selection of a speech synthesis system as an augmentation for a perimeter security device is described. Criteria used in selection of a system are discussed. The final system is a speech 1000 speech synthesizer board that has a 2000 word speech lexicon, a first time charge of $75 for a 32 K EPROM of custom words, and extra features such as an alternate command to adjust desired listening level.

  9. Topological network synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawel Winter

    We consider several families of deterministic network optimization problems (NOPs) of particular importance for the design\\u000a (synthesis) of real-life transportation, communication, and distribution networks. These families of NOPs include determination\\u000a of optimal spanning and Steiner trees, multiconnected networks, distance bounded networks. and capacitated networks. Problems\\u000a belonging to these families are formulated in an unified manner, and exact algorithms, heuristics, as

  10. Extended cooperative control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on research for extending the Cooperative Control Synthesis methodology to include a more accurate modeling of the pilot's controller dynamics. Cooperative Control Synthesis (CCS) is a methodology that addresses the problem of how to design control laws for piloted, high-order, multivariate systems and/or non-conventional dynamic configurations in the absence of flying qualities specifications. This is accomplished by emphasizing the parallel structure inherent in any pilot-controlled, augmented vehicle. The original CCS methodology is extended to include the Modified Optimal Control Model (MOCM), which is based upon the optimal control model of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison in 1970. This model provides a modeling of the pilot's compensation dynamics that is more accurate than the simplified pilot dynamic representation currently in the CCS methodology. Inclusion of the MOCM into the CCS also enables the modeling of pilot-observation perception thresholds and pilot-observation attention allocation affects. This Extended Cooperative Control Synthesis (ECCS) allows for the direct calculation of pilot and system open- and closed-loop transfer functions in pole/zero form and is readily implemented in current software capable of analysis and design for dynamic systems. Example results based upon synthesizing an augmentation control law for an acceleration command system in a compensatory tracking task using the ECCS are compared with a similar synthesis performed by using the original CCS methodology. The ECCS is shown to provide augmentation control laws that yield more favorable, predicted closed-loop flying qualities and tracking performance than those synthesized using the original CCS methodology.

  11. Synthesis of linoleoyl ethanolamide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosan; Chen, Yan; Jin, Qingzhe; Huang, Jianhua; Wang, Xingguo

    2013-01-01

    Linoleoyl ethanolamide has been showed to serve as a new and additional class of endogenous signaling molecule and exhibited a variety of biological activities in cells and tissues. Herein, we reported an effective method for the synthesis of linoleoyl ethanolamide. Enzymatic and chemical syntheses of linoleoyl ethanolamide were first compared and then reaction conditions were optimized. When the reaction was conducted at 30°C for 1 h by reacting 0.5 mmol methyl linoleate with 5 mmol ethanolamine in the presence of 15 ?L, 5.4 mol/L sodium methoxide in methanol as catalyst, 97.2% linoleoyl ethanolamide was produced in the crude reaction mixture without further purification after the removal of excess ethanolamine. Additionally, the reaction can be conducted on a large scale, which resulted in the formation of 95.9% linoleoyl ethanolamide. Compared to previous studies, the amidation reaction between methyl linoleate and ethanolamine with sodium methoxide as catalyst for the synthesis of linoleoyl ethanolamide is more effective and faster. In addition, the reaction is scalable and reaction conditions are mild. This is the first time to use methyl linoleate to synthesize linoleoyl ethanolamide. Commercial linoleoyl ethanolamide is very expensive. However, the scalability and ease for such synthesis make it possible to study the biological and nutritional functions of the cannabinoid-like linoleoyl ethanolamide in animal or human subjects. PMID:23728334

  12. Functional Programming Functional Programming

    E-print Network

    Hehner, Eric C.R.

    program + inputs = function + arguments 7/76 #12;example specification L: [*rat] L 8/76 #12;example specification L: [*rat] L L = 9/76 #12;example specification L: [*rat] L L = n: 0,..#L+1 L [n;..#L] 0 10/76 #12;example specification L: [*rat] L L = n: 0,..#L+1 L [n;..#L] 0 n: 0,..#L+1 L [n;..#L] = 11

  13. Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts. The paper reports the progress on the following tasks: engineering and modifications: AFDU shakedown, operations, deactivation and disposal; and research and development on new processes for DME, chemistry and catalyst development, and oxygenates via synthesis gas.

  14. Analysis and synthesis of abstract data types through generalization from examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, Christian

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of general patterns of behavior from a set of input/output examples can be a useful technique in the automated analysis and synthesis of software systems. These generalized descriptions of the behavior form a set of assertions which can be used for validation, program synthesis, program testing, and run-time monitoring. Describing the behavior is characterized as a learning process in which the set of inputs is mapped into an appropriate transform space such that general patterns can be easily characterized. The learning algorithm must chose a transform function and define a subset of the transform space which is related to equivalence classes of behavior in the original domain. An algorithm for analyzing the behavior of abstract data types is presented and several examples are given. The use of the analysis for purposes of program synthesis is also discussed.

  15. Analysis and synthesis of abstract data types through generalization from examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, Christian

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of general patterns of behavior from a set of input/output examples can be a useful technique in the automated analysis and synthesis of software systems. These generalized descriptions of the behavior form a set of assertions which can be used for validation, program synthesis, program testing and run-time monitoring. Describing the behavior is characterized as a learning process in which general patterns can be easily characterized. The learning algorithm must choose a transform function and define a subset of the transform space which is related to equivalence classes of behavior in the original domain. An algorithm for analyzing the behavior of abstract data types is presented and several examples are given. The use of the analysis for purposes of program synthesis is also discussed.

  16. Programming Languages

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr David Berman

    CSC 434. Programming Languages (3) Prerequisites: CSC 332 and CSC 360. Comparative study of programming languages from both theoretical and applied viewpoints. Typical issues include syntax and semantics, scope and binding times, storage allocation, parameter-passing techniques, control structures, run-time representation of programs and data. Detailed examples from the imperative, functional, parallel, object-oriented and logical programming paradigms.

  17. Invisible Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad A. Myers

    1990-01-01

    A user interface in which the user gives an example of the desired operation and the system generalizes to construct a general-purpose procedure is discussed. The user sees the results of the program execution and the data the program is operating on, but the program itself is not shown. The program is specified by demonstrating the operations that should be

  18. Genetic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Banzhaf; J. R. Koza; C. Ryan; L. Spector; C. Jacob

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents essays on genetic programming which involve topics such as: the artificial evolution of computer code, human-competitive machine intelligence by means of genetic programming, GP as automatic programming, GP application, the evolution of arbitrary computational processes and the art of genetic programming

  19. Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

  20. A novel catalyst for DME synthesis from CO hydrogenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gong-Xin Qi; Xiao-Ming Zheng; Jin-Hua Fei; Zhao-Yin Hou

    2001-01-01

    The effect of manganese on the dispersion, reduction behavior and active states of surfaces of ?-Al2O3 supported copper catalysts was investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and XPS technologies. The relationship between the area of metallic copper and the activity of dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis from CO\\/H2 was also investigated. The catalytic activity over Cu-MnOx\\/?-Al2O3 catalyst for

  1. Mississippi/Alabama Pinnacle Trend Ecosystem Monitoring Final Synthesis Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Continental Shelf Associates Inc.; Texas A&M University, Geochemical and Environmental Research Group

    2001-01-01

    This Final Synthesis Report summarizes a four-year program to characterize and monitor carbonate mounds on the Mississippi/Alabama outer continental shelf (OCS). The study area is shown in Fig.ES.1. The study was conducted by Continental Shelf Associates, Inc. and the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) of Texas A&M University (TAMU), for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Biological Resources Division.

  2. Synthesis of (+)-spirolaxine methyl ether.

    PubMed

    Nannei, Raffaella; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Merlini, Lucio; Bava, Adriana; Nasini, Gianluca

    2006-08-01

    A short and efficient synthesis of (+)-spirolaxine methyl ether, a metabolite of the fungus Sporotrichum laxum with inhibitory activity against Helicobacter pylori, is described. The synthesis has been carried out by a Prins cyclization, to obtain the [6,5]-spiroketal system, and a Wadsworth-Emmons condensation, applied for the installation of the polymethylene chain on the phthalide moiety. PMID:16872220

  3. Project Synthesis and Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Trudi L.

    1984-01-01

    Briefly describes Project Synthesis, a major recommendation which resulted from the effort, and a picture of K-12 science education that recommendation portends. Compares similarities between environmental education goal levels and Project Synthesis science education goal clusters, considering future directions for both science and environmental…

  4. Synthesis Can Take Many Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis can take many forms at the high school level and from a Big6 perspective. Synthesis means purposeful, valuable and interesting assignments. It is very important for a classroom teacher to recognize that students can synthesize information several times during a project and that there are many different ways to present information.

  5. Total Synthesis of Bryostatin 9

    PubMed Central

    Wender, Paul A.; Schrier, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    The total synthesis of bryostatin 9 was accomplished using a uniquely step economical and convergent Prins-driven macrocyclization strategy. At 25 linear and 42 total steps, this is currently the most concise and convergent (5 steps post fragment coupling) synthesis of a potent bryostatin. PMID:21618969

  6. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (?)-Jiadifenolide**

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Trzoss, Lynnie; Chang, Weng K.; Theodorakis, Emmanuel. A.

    2011-01-01

    The first total synthesis of jiadifenolide (1), a potent neurotrophic modulator, has been reported. Highlights of the synthesis include: construction of the B ring via an asymmetric Robinson annulation; assembly of the E ring lactone via a novel acid-induced cascade reaction; and Pd(0)-mediated carbomethoxylation and methylation reactions for the construction of the C and A rings respectively. PMID:21400650

  7. Organising time: contraction, synthesis, contemplation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Lilley

    2009-01-01

    In his exploration of ‘repetition for itself’, Deleuze (2004a), beginning with Hume, invites us to see imagination, prior to understanding, as site of contraction of instants and place of synthesis of time, through contemplation. But synthesis and contemplation here are not the deliberative work of the mind. Rather, they occur ‘in the mind… prior to all memory and all reflection’

  8. Formal total synthesis of (-)-saliniketals.

    PubMed

    Yadav, J S; Hossain, Sk Samad; Madhu, Madasu; Mohapatra, Debendra K

    2009-11-20

    A highly stereoselective formal total synthesis of the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitors (-)-saliniketals A and B is described. The salient features of the synthesis are the utilization of a desymmetrization technique to create six contiguous chiral centers from a single bicyclic precursor as well as substrate-controlled Grignard reaction, intramolecular Wacker-type oxidation, and antialdol reaction following Pirrung-Heathcock conditions. PMID:19873991

  9. Total synthesis of (-)-calyciphylline N.

    PubMed

    Shvartsbart, Artem; Smith, Amos B

    2014-01-22

    The total synthesis of the architecturally complex Daphniphyllum alkaloid (-)-calyciphylline N has been achieved. Highlights of the synthesis include a Et2AlCl-promoted, highly stereoselective, susbtrate-controlled intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, a transannular enolate alkylation, an effective Stille carbonylation/Nazarov cyclization sequence, and a high-risk diastereoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted conjugated diene ester. PMID:24319987

  10. Total Synthesis of (?)-Calyciphylline N

    PubMed Central

    Shvartsbart, Artem; Smith, Amos B.

    2014-01-01

    The total synthesis of the architecturally complex Daphniphyllum alkaloid (?)-calyciphylline N has been achieved. Highlights of the synthesis include a Et2AlCl promoted, highly stereoselective susbtrate controlled intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, a transannular enolate alkylation, an effective Stille carbonylation/Nazarov cyclization sequence, and a high risk dia-stereoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted conjugated diene ester. PMID:24319987

  11. Discrete Control of Computing Systems Administration: a Programming Language supported Approach

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Discrete Control of Computing Systems Administration: a Programming Language supported Approach the problem of using Discrete Con- troller Synthesis for the administration of Computing Systems, following an approach supported by a programming language. We present a mixed imperative/declarative programming lan

  12. Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide

    E-print Network

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 X Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide Alexander S. Mukasyan University of Notre Dame USA 1. Introduction Combustion synthesis (CS) is an effective technique by which combustion synthesis can occur: self - propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and volume

  13. [Progress in gene synthesis technology].

    PubMed

    Feng, Miao; Wang, Lu; Tian, Jingdong

    2013-08-01

    Gene synthesis is the most fundamental and widely used technique in biological research. The synthesis of DNA encoding regulatory elements, genes, pathways and entire genomes provides powerful ways to both test biological hypotheses and harness biology for our use. The emerging field of synthetic biology is generating insatiable demands for synthetic genes. And the past couple of years witnessed exciting new developments in microchip-based gene synthesis technologies. This review discusses the current methods of chemical DNA synthesis and gene assembly, as well as the latest engineering tools, technologies and trends which could potentially lead to breakthroughs in the development of accurate, low-cost and high-throughput gene synthesis technology. These new technologies are leading the field of synthetic biology to a higher level. PMID:24364345

  14. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE OR REPLACE THE USE OF ANIMALS IN THE ENDOCRINE SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone synthesis and androgen (AR...

  15. Robot programming

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano-Perez, T.

    1982-12-01

    The industrial robot's principal advantage over traditional automation is programmability. Robots can perform arbitrary sequences of pre-stored motions or of motions computed as functions of sensory input. This paper reviews requirements for and developments in robot programming systems. The key requirements for robot programming systems examined in the paper are in the areas of sensing, world modeling, motion specification, flow of control, and programming support. Existing and proposed robot programming systems fall into three broad categories: guiding systems in which the user leads a robot through the motions to be performed, robot-level programming systems in which the user writes a computer program specifying motion and sensing, and task-level programming systems in which the user writes a computer program specifying motion and sensing, and task-level programming systems in which the user specifies operations by their desired effect on objects. A representative sample of systems in each of these categories is surveyed in the paper.

  16. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  17. Protein synthesis and memory: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasker P. Davis; Larry R. Squire

    1984-01-01

    Reviews studies that have used protein synthesis inhibitors to test the hypothesis that memory in part depends on brain protein synthesis. Evidence from learning curves, examination of short-term retention, and posttraining drug injection indicate that initial acquisition is not dependent on such synthesis, but it appears that protein synthesis, during or shortly after training, is an essential step in the

  18. Lung epinephrine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.; Elayan, H.; Ziegler, M.G. (Univ. of California Medical Center, San Diego (USA))

    1990-04-01

    We studied in vitro and in vivo epinephrine (E) synthesis by rat lung. Nine days after removal of the adrenal medullas, circulating E was reduced to 7% of levels found in sham-operated rats but 30% of lung E remained. Treatment of demedullated rats with 6 hydroxydopamine plus reserpine did not further reduce lung E. In the presence of S-(3H)adenosylmethionine lung homogenates readily N-methylated norepinephrine (NE) to form (3H)E. The rate of E synthesis by lung homogenates was progressively more rapid with increasing NE up to a concentration of 3 mM, above which it declined. The rate of E formation was optimal at an incubation pH of 8 and at temperatures of approximately 55 degrees C. We compared the E-forming enzyme(s) of lung homogenates with those of adrenal and cardiac ventricle. The adrenal contains mainly phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which is readily inhibited by SKF 29661 and methylates dopamine (DA) very poorly. Cardiac ventricles contain mainly nonspecific N-methyltransferase (NMT), which is poorly inhibited by SKF 29661 and readily methylates both DA and NE. Lung homogenates were inhibited by SKF 29661 about half as well as adrenal but more than ventricle. We used the rate of E formation from NE as an index of PNMT-like activity and deoxyepinephrine synthesis from DA as an index of NMT-like activity. PNMT and NMT activity in rat lung homogenates were not correlated with each other, displayed different responses to change in temperature, and were affected differently by glucocorticoids.

  19. Synthesis and Summary

    Cancer.gov

    R. Summers, NIH CC DRD 25-27 September 2002 Biomed ical Imaging Program 20 CT Colonography CAD R. Summers, D. J o hns on et al. Radiology 2001 Three polyps in the sigmoid colon of a 68 year old male (1.0, 1.5, 1.0 cm) 25-27 September 2002 Biomed ical Imaging Program 21 R.

  20. SEASAT B orbit synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, F. G.; Warmke, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Addition were made to Battelle's Interactive Graphics Orbit Selection (IGOS) program; IGOS was exercised via telephone lines from JPL, and candidate SEASAT orbits were analyzed by Battelle. The additions to the program enable clear understanding of the implications of a specific orbit to the diverse desires of the SEASAT user community.

  1. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Chris

    This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The experiment allows students to view the formation of silver nanoparticles that can be detected by the reflection of a laser beam. Silver nanoparticles are used in the creation of yellow stained glass in churches around the country, an interesting, but little known fact. This is a fairly inexpensive activity as it involves stock solutions, and equipment present in any science laboratory. Overall, students will enjoy this basic, but still challenging, experiment.

  2. Total synthesis of borrelidin.

    PubMed

    Nagamitsu, Tohru; Takano, Daisuke; Marumoto, Kaori; Fukuda, Takeo; Furuya, Kentaro; Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Kuwajima, Isao; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Omura, Satoshi

    2007-04-13

    The total synthesis of borrelidin has been achieved. The best feature of our synthetic route is macrocyclization at C11-C12 for the construction of an 18-membered ring after esterification between two segments. A detailed examination of the macrocyclization led us to the samarium(II) iodide-mediated intramolecular Reformatsky-type reaction as the most efficient synthetic approach. The two key segments were synthesized through regioselective methylation, directed hydrogenation, stereoselective Reformatsky-type reaction, and MgBr2.Et2O-mediated chelation-controlled allylation. PMID:17355148

  3. Total synthesis of absinthin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihe; Luo, Shengjun; Fang, Fang; Chen, Qingshou; Hu, Hanwei; Jia, Xueshun; Zhai, Hongbin

    2005-01-12

    (+)-Absinthin, a structurally unique triterpene, has been efficiently constructed in nine reaction steps and in 18.6% overall yield from O-acetylisophotosantonic lactone. The synthesis features Mitsunobu arylselenylation, oxidative elimination of allylic arylselenides, biomimetic dimerization via regio- and stereospecific Diels-Alder reaction, and a four-step stereochemical inversion of a highly sterically congested tertiary alcohol. This approach has not only tackled the formidable synthetic challenges in assembling structurally complex (+)-absinthin but also paved an efficient synthetic route to a series of medicinally attractive absinthin analogues. PMID:15631427

  4. Electrical and Mechanical Passive Network Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Chen; Malcolm Smith

    The context of this paper is the application of electrical circuit synthesis to problems of mechanical control. The use of\\u000a the electrical-mechanical analogy and the inerter mechanical element is briefly reviewed. Classical results from passive network\\u000a synthesis are surveyed including Brune’s synthesis, Bott-Duffin’s procedure, Darlington’s synthesis, minimum reactance extraction\\u000a and the synthesis of biquadratic functions. New results are presented on

  5. Initiatives Programs

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site Initiatives / Programs National

  6. Globin synthesis in uraemia.

    PubMed

    Leber, H W; Baumgarten, C; Goubeaud, G; Matthias, R; Schütterle, G

    1976-01-01

    Globin synthesis was measured by incubating washed packed red cells with a balanced amino acid mixture and 14C-Histidine. After globin had been isolated from the haemolysate the 14C-incorporation rate per 10 mg globin per min was estimated. With regard to globin synthesis no differences existed between patients on chronic intermittent haemodialysis therapy (n equals 41), patitents suffering from secondary anaemia due to chronic infection, rheumatism or malignant diseases (n equals 21) and healthy subjects (n equals 37). Patients with acute bleeding on the other hand, had significant higher 14C-incorporation rates caused by an increase of the reticulocyte count mu1 blood (n equals 13). When substances retained in renal failure were added to the incubation mixture a marked inhibition took place with guanidinosuccinic acid, methylguanidine and fraction containing peptides with a molecular weight between 1200-1400 present in uraemic serum and normal urine, but not in serum from patients without renal failure. PMID:935126

  7. Synthesis of (±)-7-Hydroxylycopodine

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong-Yu; Causey, Robert; Garcia, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    A seven-step synthesis of (±)-7-hydroxylycopodine that proceeds in 5% overall yield has been achieved. The key step is a Prins reaction in 60% sulfuric acid that gave the key tricyclic intermediate with complete control of the ring fusion stereochemistry. A one-pot procedure orthogonally protected the primary alcohol as an acetate and the tertiary alcohol as a methylthiomethyl ether. The resulting product was converted to 7-hydroxydehydrolycopodine by heating with KO-t-Bu and benzophenone in benzene followed by acidic workup. During unsuccessful attempts to make optically pure starting material, we observed the selective Pt-catalyzed hydrogenation of the 5-phenyl group of a 4,5-diphenyloxazolidine under acidic conditions and the Pt-catalyzed isomerization of the oxazolidine to an amide under neutral conditions. In attempts to hydroxylate the starting material so that we could adapt this synthesis to the preparation of (±)-7,8-dihydroxylycopodine (sauroine) we observed the novel oxidation of a bicyclic vinylogous amide to a keto pyridine with Mn(OAc)3 and to an amino phenol with KHMDS and oxygen. PMID:22443298

  8. Sonoelectrochemical synthesis of magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, L.; Gutiérrez, S.; Herrasti, P.; Reyman, D.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of ultrasound (US) on the direct electrosynthesis of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles are investigated. The electrochemical system consists of two electrodes; anode and cathode, both of iron, and 99.5% purity. The anode is a sacrificial electrode, which when oxidized generates the desired Fe3O4. Cationic surfactants are used in the synthetic system as supporting electrolytes and as a protective layer which covers the obtained nanoparticles in order to avoid aggregation. In order to study the influence of ultrasound in the synthesis of Fe3O4, the experiments were compared to the same systems without the application of ultrasound. Physical properties of the reaction product, such as morphology and particle size, were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Size distribution studies in function of the application and variation of the US parameters are shown. The effect of US on the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 was studied by means of hysteresis loops. The experimental results were compared to those obtained during the synthesis of Fe3O4 without the US presence.

  9. Organic Synthesis in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will review our current understanding of the synthesis of organic molecules in space, with particular emphasis on the synthesis of those compounds that may be of prebiotic interest. The talk will address the possibility that molecules created in the interstellar medium may play a role in the origin and evolution of life on planetary surfaces. The various organic and volatile compounds that are now known or suspected to exist in a variety of space environments (stellar outflows, the diffuse interstellar medium, dense molecular clouds, protostellar nebulae, and planetesimal parent bodies in planetary systems) will be reviewed. This information comes largely from the combined applications of observational infrared and radio spectroscopy, laboratory astrophysical simulations, and theoretical astrochemistry. This will be followed by a discussion of the evidence, largely gathered from the laboratory isotopic study of extraterrestrial materials (meteorites and cosmic dust), that interstellar materials, including organics, can and do survive the transition from the interstellar space into forming stellar systems. Once there, some of this material can be delivered largely unaltered to planetary surfaces where it can play key roles in the origin and subsequent evolution of life.

  10. Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

    1999-04-01

    Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double-bed system that provides the feedstock for the synthesis of high octane and high cetane ethers, where the isobutanol productivity was as high as 139 g/kg cat/hr. Higher alcohol synthesis has been investigated over a Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at temperatures higher (up to 703K) than those previously utilized, and no sintering of the catalyst was observed during the short-term testing. However, the higher reaction temperatures led to lower CO conversion levels and lower yield of alcohols, especially of methanol, because of equilibrium limitations. With the double catalyst bed configuration, the effect of pressure in the range of 7.6--12.4 MPa on catalyst activity and selectivity was studied. The upper bed was composed of the copper-based catalyst at 598K, and the lower bed consisted of a copper-free Cs-ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at a high temperature of 678K. High pressure was found to increase CO conversion to oxygenated products, although the increase in isobutanol productivity did not keep pace with that of methanol. It was also shown that the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst could be utilized to advantage as the second-bed catalyst at 613--643K instead of the previously used copper-free Cs-ZnO/ Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at higher temperature, With double Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, high space time yields of up to 202 g/kg cat/hr, with high selectivity to isobutanol, were achieved.

  11. Synthesis of perfluoroalkylene dianilines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Ito, T. I.; Harris, D. H.; Beechan, C. M.; Nakaham, J. H.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this contrast was to optimize and scale-up the synthesis of 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)-hexafluoropropane and 1,3-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, as well as to explore avenues to other perfluoroalkyl-bridged dianilines. Routes other than Friedel-Crafts reaction leading to 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane were investigated. The processes utilizing bisphenol-AF were all unsuccessful; reactions aimed at the production of 4-(hexafluoro-2-halo-isopropyl)aniline from the hydroxyl intermediate failed to yield the desired products. Tailoring the conditions of the Friedel-Crafts reaction of 4-(hexafluoro-2-hydroxyisopropyl)aniline, aniline, and aluminum chloride by using hydrochloride salts and selecting optimum reagent ratios, reaction times, and temperature resulted in approx. 20% yield of pure crystallized 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane in 0.2 mole reaction batches. Yields up to approx. 40% were realized in small, approx. 0.01 mole, batches. The synthesis of 1,3-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane starting with perfluoroglutarimidine was reinvestigated. The yield of the 4-step reaction sequence giving 1,3-bis(4-acetamidophenyl)hexafluoropropane was raised to 44%. The yield of the subsequent hydrolysis process was improved by a factor of approx. 2. Approaches to prepare other perfluoroalkyl-bridged dianilines were unsuccessful. Reactions reported to proceed readily with trifluoromethyl substituents failed when longer chain perfluoroalkyl groups were employed.

  12. Plant Desiccation and Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Bewley, J. Derek; Gwó?d?, Edward A.

    1975-01-01

    Rehydration of Tortula ruralis in 2,4-dinitrophenol inhibits protein synthesis, polysome formation, and ATP production. Polysomes are conserved intact and are active in vitro in hydrated Tortula placed in this chemical, although in vivo protein synthesis is inhibited. Hydrated moss placed under nitrogen in the dark shows a reduced capacity for ATP and protein synthesis, but polysomes are conserved. During anaerobiosis in light, ATP and protein synthesis are unaffected. Rehydration of slow-dried Tortula in nitrogen in the dark results in reduced in vivo protein synthesis, but not polysome formation; this reduction is much less in the light. Slow-dried moss, but not fast-dried, has a greatly reduced ATP content in the dry state, but this rapidly returns to normal levels on rehydration. The prolonged burst in respiration observed previously on rehydration of Tortula is not paralleled by ATP accumulation. Changes in energy charge in all treatments tested follow the changes in ATP. The aquatic moss, Hygrohypnum luridum, which is intolerant to drought, loses ATP during fast drying and this is not replenished on subsequent rehydration. We consider that the relationship between levels of ATP and protein synthesis is more meaningful during rehydration of mosses (the time when repair to desiccation-induced cellular damage can occur) than during desiccation, and that drought-induced cessation of protein synthesis may not be mediated directly through ATP availability. PMID:16659221

  13. Sponsored Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and University Business Administration, 1980

    1980-01-01

    General administrative principles and procedures applicable to any type of program sponsored by external funds, including the federal government, are examined. Contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements are the devices for authorizing sponsored programs. Since the institutions assume full legal responsibility for the programs and for fulfilling…

  14. Gifted Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luehning, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Describes programs for the gifted: visual and performing arts for secondary students, enrichment for rural elementary students, and a learning center elementary enrichment program. NOTE: includes "INTERARTS: The High School Program for the Talented in the Arts" by Barbara Luehning, "Spice" by Jane V. Salisbury, and "Learning Center Enrichment…

  15. Flexibility Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

  16. Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    Triton College's proposed method of conducting periodic comprehensive evaluations of the quality and potential of its academic programs has five components. First, a self-study is conducted by the faculty and administrators of the program being reviewed, in a year-long comprehensive examination of the program. Second, an external consultant, with…

  17. Application of lean manufacturing concepts to drug discovery: rapid analogue library synthesis.

    PubMed

    Weller, Harold N; Nirschl, David S; Petrillo, Edward W; Poss, Michael A; Andres, Charles J; Cavallaro, Cullen L; Echols, Martin M; Grant-Young, Katherine A; Houston, John G; Miller, Arthur V; Swann, R Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The application of parallel synthesis to lead optimization programs in drug discovery has been an ongoing challenge since the first reports of library synthesis. A number of approaches to the application of parallel array synthesis to lead optimization have been attempted over the years, ranging from widespread deployment by (and support of) individual medicinal chemists to centralization as a service by an expert core team. This manuscript describes our experience with the latter approach, which was undertaken as part of a larger initiative to optimize drug discovery. In particular, we highlight how concepts taken from the manufacturing sector can be applied to drug discovery and parallel synthesis to improve the timeliness and thus the impact of arrays on drug discovery. PMID:16961404

  18. Natural Products Synthesis: Enabling Tools to Penetrate Nature’s Secrets of Biogenesis and Biomechanism†

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Selected examples from our laboratory of how synthetic technology platforms developed for the total synthesis of several disparate families of natural products was harnessed to penetrate biomechanistic and/or biosynthetic queries is discussed. Unexpected discoveries of biomechanistic reactivity and/or penetrating the biogenesis of naturally occurring substances were made possible through access to substances available only through chemical synthesis. Hypothesis-driven total synthesis programs are emerging as very useful conceptual templates for penetrating and exploiting the inherent reactivity of biologically active natural substances. In many instances, new enabling synthetic technologies were required to be developed. The examples demonstrate the often un-tapped richness of complex molecule synthesis to provide powerful tools to understand, manipulate and exploit Nature’s vast and creative palette of secondary metabolites. PMID:21438619

  19. Graphene synthesis by ion implantation

    PubMed Central

    Garaj, Slaven; Hubbard, William; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an ion implantation method for large-scale synthesis of high quality graphene films with controllable thickness. Thermally annealing polycrystalline nickel substrates that have been ion implanted with carbon atoms results in the surface growth of graphene films whose average thickness is controlled by implantation dose. The graphene film quality, as probed with Raman and electrical measurements, is comparable to previously reported synthesis methods. The implantation synthesis method can be generalized to a variety of metallic substrates and growth temperatures, since it does not require a decomposition of chemical precursors or a solvation of carbon into the substrate. PMID:21124725

  20. Hypericin: chemical synthesis and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin-Fang; Wang, Zeng-Hui; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2014-02-01

    Hypericin is one of the most important phenanthoperylene quinones extracted mainly from plants of the genus Hypericum belonging to the sections Euhypericum and Campylosporus of Keller's classification. Widespread attention to the antiviral and anti-tumor properties of hypericin has spurred investigations of the chemical synthesis and biosynthesis of this unique compound. However, the synthetic strategies are challenging for organic and biological chemists. In this review, specific significant advances in total synthesis, semi-synthesis, and biosynthesis in the past decades are summarized. PMID:24636057

  1. Protein Synthesis: at the ribosome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science NetLinks (AAAS; )

    2003-04-30

    This brief animation demonstrates the process by which messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into protein. RNA is present in several formsmessenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Each of these RNA forms is involved in different steps of protein synthesis. mRNA is generated from DNA and is the template for protein synthesis. tRNA is critical to the translation of the mRNA sequence into protein sequence. rRNA are components of the ribosomes, which are the sites of protein synthesis.

  2. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of spinosyn A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Joong; Choi, Sei-hyun; Jeon, Byung-sun; Kim, Namho; Pongdee, Rongson; Wu, Qingquan; Liu, Hung-wen

    2014-12-01

    Following the biosynthesis of polyketide backbones by polyketide synthases (PKSs), post-PKS modifications result in a significantly elevated level of structural complexity that renders the chemical synthesis of these natural products challenging. We report herein a total synthesis of the widely used polyketide insecticide spinosyn?A by exploiting the prowess of both chemical and enzymatic methods. As more polyketide biosynthetic pathways are characterized, this chemoenzymatic approach is expected to become readily adaptable to streamlining the synthesis of other complex polyketides with more elaborate post-PKS modifications. PMID:25287333

  3. Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure Anthracyclinones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achmatowicz, Osman; Szechner, Barbara

    The anthracycline antibiotics are among the most important clinical drugs used in the treatment of human cancer. The search for new agents with improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced cardiotoxicity stimulated considerable efforts in the synthesis of new analogues. Since the biological activity of anthracyclines depends on their natural absolute configuration, various strategies for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones (aglycones) have been developed. They comprise: resolution of racemic intermediate, incorporation of a chiral fragment derived from natural and non-natural chiral pools, asymmetric synthesis with the use of a chiral auxiliary or a chiral reagent, and enantioselective catalysis. Synthetic advances towards enantiopure anthracyclinones reported over the last 17 years are reviewed.

  4. Automated optimization techniques for aircraft synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    Application of numerical optimization techniques to automated conceptual aircraft design is examined. These methods are shown to be a general and efficient way to obtain quantitative information for evaluating alternative new vehicle projects. Fully automated design is compared with traditional point design methods and time and resource requirements for automated design are given. The NASA Ames Research Center aircraft synthesis program (ACSYNT) is described with special attention to calculation of the weight of a vehicle to fly a specified mission. The ACSYNT procedures for automatically obtaining sensitivity of the design (aircraft weight, performance and cost) to various vehicle, mission, and material technology parameters are presented. Examples are used to demonstrate the efficient application of these techniques.

  5. Application of optimality criteria in structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terai, K.

    1974-01-01

    The rational use of optimality criteria was investigated for a class of structural synthesis problems where materials, configuration and applied load conditions are specified, and the minimum weight design is to be determined. The potential of hybrid methods of structural optimization for dealing with relatively large design problems involving practical complexity was explored. The reduced basis concept in design space was used to decrease the number of generalized design variables dealt with by the mathematical programming algorithm. Optimality criteria methods for obtaining design vectors associated with displacement, system buckling and natural frequency constraints are presented. A stress ratio method was used to generate a basis design vector representing the stress constraints. The finite element displacement method was used as the basic structural analysis tool. Results for several examples of truss systems subject to stress, displacement and minimum size constraints are presented. An assessment of these results indicates the effectiveness of the hybrid method developed.

  6. Electroconductive hydrogels: synthesis, characterization and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2010-04-01

    Electroconductive hydrogels (ECHs) are composite biomaterials that bring together the redox switching and electrical properties of inherently conductive electroactive polymers (CEPs) with the facile small molecule transport, high hydration levels and biocompatibility of cross-linked hydrogels. General methods for the synthesis of electroconductive hydrogels as polymer blends and as polymer co-networks via chemical oxidative, electrochemical and/or a combination of chemical oxidation followed by electrochemical polymerization techniques are reviewed. Specific examples are introduced to illustrate the preparation of electroconductive hydrogels that were synthesized from poly(HEMA)-based hydrogels with polyaniline and from poly(HEMA)-based hydrogels with polypyrrole. The key applications of electroconductive hydrogels; as biorecognition membranes for implantable biosensors, as electro-stimulated drug release devices for programmed delivery, and as the low interfacial impedance layers on neuronal prostheses are highlighted. These applications provide great new horizons for these stimuli responsive, biomimetic polymeric materials. PMID:20060580

  7. Phosphate Tethers in Synthesis: The Total Synthesis of Dolabelide C.

    E-print Network

    Waetzig, Joshua David

    2008-07-18

    The utilization of phosphate tethers in synthesis is the focus of the dissertation research described herein. Specifically, cross metathesis of various olefin partners with a phosphate tether has been demonstrated. These ...

  8. Optimization of microfluidic PET tracer synthesis with Cerenkov imaging†

    PubMed Central

    Dooraghi, Alex A.; Keng, Pei Y.; Chen, Supin; Javed, Muhammad R.; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; van Dam, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic technologies provide an attractive platform for the synthesis of radiolabeled compounds. Visualization of radioisotopes on chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. With Cerenkov imaging, beta particle emitting isotopes can be localized with a sensitive CCD camera. In order for Cerenkov imaging to also serve as a quantitative tool, it is necessary to understand how material properties relevant to Cerenkov emission, namely, index of refraction and beta particle stopping power, affect Cerenkov light output. In this report, we investigate the fundamental physical characteristics of Cerenkov photon yield at different stages of [18F]FDG synthesis on the electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) microfluidic platform. We also demonstrate how Cerenkov imaging has enabled synthesis optimization. Geant4, a Monte Carlo program applied extensively in high energy physics, is used to simulate Cerenkov photon yield from 18F beta particles traversing materials of interest during [18F]FDG synthesis on chip. Our simulations show that the majority (approximately two-thirds) of the 18F beta particle energy available to produce Cerenkov photons is deposited on the glass plates of the EWOD chip. This result suggests the possibility of using a single calibration factor to convert Cerenkov signal to radioactivity, independent of droplet composition. We validate our simulations with a controlled measurement examining varying ratios of [18O]H2O, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and acetonitrile (MeCN), and find a consistent calibration independent of solvent composition. However, the calibration factor may underestimate the radioactivity in actual synthesis due to discoloration of the droplet during certain steps of probe synthesis. In addition to the attractive quantitative potential of Cerenkov imaging, this imaging strategy provides indispensable qualitative data to guide synthesis optimization. We are able to use this imaging technique to optimize the mixing protocol as well as identify and correct for loss of radioactivity due to the migration of radioactive vapor outside of the EWOD heater, enabling an overall increase in the crude radiochemical yield from 50±3% (n=3) to 72±13% (n=5). PMID:23928799

  9. Synthesizing a synthesis tool

    E-print Network

    Rohit Singh

    2013-01-01

    SMT/SAT solvers are used by many tools for program verification and analysis. Most of these tools have an optimization layer which applies transformations (or "rewrite rules") to simplify the internal representation of the ...

  10. Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoud, LindaLee

    This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

  11. Vanillin Synthesis from 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Patel, Shweta; Hambleton, Travis M.; Winkel, Emma E.

    2007-01-01

    A regioselective, safe and efficient method for the synthesis of vanillin from 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde is being described. The vanillin derived from the process is cheap and can be used as a flavor or in the paper industry.

  12. Large Scale Speech Synthesis Evaluation 

    E-print Network

    Podsiadlo, Monika

    2007-11-11

    In speech synthesis evaluation, it is critical that we know what exactly affects the results of the evaluation rather than employing as vague notions as, say, "good quality speech". As so far we have only been able to ...

  13. Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in this viewgraph presentation include information on 1) Historic instruments at Goddard; 2) Integrated Design Capability at Goddard; 3) The Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL).

  14. CLEAN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newer green chemistry approach to accomplish chemical synthesis in water is summarized. Recent global developments pertaining to C-C bond forming reactions using metallic reagents and direct use of the renewable materials such as carbohydrates without derivatization are described...

  15. Users manual for flight control design programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalbandian, J. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Computer programs for the design of analog and digital flight control systems are documented. The program DIGADAPT uses linear-quadratic-gaussian synthesis algorithms in the design of command response controllers and state estimators, and it applies covariance propagation analysis to the selection of sampling intervals for digital systems. Program SCHED executes correlation and regression analyses for the development of gain and trim schedules to be used in open-loop explicit-adaptive control laws. A linear-time-varying simulation of aircraft motions is provided by the program TVHIS, which includes guidance and control logic, as well as models for control actuator dynamics. The programs are coded in FORTRAN and are compiled and executed on both IBM and CDC computers.

  16. Transcriptional profiling in response to inhibition of cellulose synthesis by thaxtomin A and isoxaben in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Duval; Nathalie Beaudoin

    2009-01-01

    The plant cell wall determines cell shape and is the main barrier against environmental challenges. Perturbations in the cellulose\\u000a content of the wall lead to global modifications in cellular homeostasis, as seen in cellulose synthase mutants or after inhibiting\\u000a cellulose synthesis. In particular, application of inhibitors of cellulose synthesis such as thaxtomin A (TA) and isoxaben\\u000a (IXB) initiates a programmed

  17. Azafluorenes. Synthesis and conversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prostakov, Nikolai S.; Soldatenkov, Anatoly T.; Kolyadina, Nadezhda M.; Obynochnyi, Arnol'd. A.

    1997-02-01

    Data on the chemistry of azafluorenes (indenopyridines) for the last two decades are summarised. Methods of synthesis of all isomeric (as regards the position of the nitrogen atom) azafluorenes are considered. The main reactions of azafluorenes are analysed, their reactivity is determined by the presence and mutual influence of two different conjugated fused rings (benzene and pyridine) and the mode of fusion of the indene and pyridine fragments. The principal conversions of substituents at different positions of the azafluorene system are considered. Evidence is presented on the natural occurrence of azafluorenes, the biological activity of their synthetic derivatives, and on the structure and physicochemical properties of azafluorenes and their derivatives. The bibliography includes 204 references.

  18. Fiber draw synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Orf, Nicholas D.; Shapira, Ofer; Sorin, Fabien; Danto, Sylvain; Baldo, Marc A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid state are arranged in proximate domains within a fiber preform. The preform is fluidized at elevated temperatures and drawn into fiber, reducing the lateral dimensions and bringing the domains into intimate contact to enable chemical reaction. A polymer preform containing a thin layer of selenium contacted by tin–zinc wires is drawn to yield electrically contacted crystalline ZnSe domains of sub-100-nm scales. The in situ synthesized compound semiconductor becomes the basis for an electronic heterostructure diode of arbitrary length in the fiber. The ability to synthesize materials within fibers while precisely controlling their geometry and electrical connectivity at submicron scales presents new opportunities for increasing the complexity and functionality of fiber structures.

  19. Total synthesis of (+)-vibsanin A.

    PubMed

    Takao, Ken-ichi; Tsunoda, Kohei; Kurisu, Takuya; Sakama, Akihiro; Nishimura, Yoshiyasu; Yoshida, Keisuke; Tadano, Kin-ichi

    2015-02-01

    The first total synthesis of (+)-vibsanin A, an 11-membered vibsane diterpenoid, was achieved, unambiguously establishing its relative and absolute stereochemistry. Highlights of the synthesis include the stereoselective formation of an all-carbon quaternary stereocenter by a zinc-mediated Barbier-type allylation in an aqueous medium, and the efficient construction of an 11-membered ring skeleton by a combination of an intramolecular Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi (NHK) reaction and a Mitsunobu reaction. PMID:25622000

  20. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  1. The essence of total synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Snyder, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    For the past century, the total synthesis of natural products has served as the flagship of chemical synthesis and the principal driving force for discovering new chemical reactivity, evaluating physical organic theories, testing the power of existing synthetic methods, and enabling biology and medicine. This perspective article seeks to examine this time-honored and highly demanding art, distilling its essence in an effort to ascertain its power and future potential. PMID:15302925

  2. Synthesis of separation system flowsheets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Douglas

    1995-01-01

    A hierarchical decision procedure for the synthesis of separation system flowsheets for vapor-organic liquid-aqueous liquid-solid mixtures is proposed. An expanded set of synthesis rules that can be used to obtain a first design is discussed, but the final goal of the procedure is to generate a complete list of separation alternatives (by changing the decisions) that when coupled with short-cut

  3. Regulation of bacterial glycogen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Preiss, J; Yung, S G; Baecker, P A

    1983-01-01

    The formation of the alpha 1,4 glucosidic linkages of bacterial glycogen occurs first by synthesis of ADPglucose from ATP and alpha glucose 1-P and then transfer of the glucose moiety from the formed sugar nucleotide to a pre-existing glucan primer. Unlike mammalian glycogen synthesis, regulation occurs at the synthesis of the sugar nucleotide. Generally glycolytic intermediates activate ADPglucose synthesis while AMP, ADP and/or Pi inhibit ADPglucose synthesis. A variation of activator specificity is is seen when the enzyme is isolated from different bacteria and is thought to be related to the predominant type of carbon assimilation or dissimilation pathways present in the particular organism. Evidence indicating that the allosteric activation effects observed in vitro are physiologically pertinent for the regulation of glycogen synthesis is reviewed. The recent experiments in identifying the allosteric activator site of the Escherichia coli ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase as well as other chemical modification studies identifying amino acid residues essential for allosteric activation and for catalytic activity are discussed. Evidence is also presented for the covalent modification of the Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase by bromopyruvate at its allosteric activator site. Regulation of the biosynthesis of glycogen also occurs at the genetic level and the current evidence for the existence of a glycogen operon is presented. In addition the current studies concerning the cloning of the DNA region containing the Escherichia coli structural genes coding for the glycogen biosynthetic enzymes as well as the nucleotide sequence of the E. coli ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase are presented. PMID:6316123

  4. Superconducting technology program: Sandia 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Superconductivity Materials and Technology Dept.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia`s STP program is a thallium-based high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, open-system thick film conductor development, wire and tape fabrication, and HTS motor design. The objective of this work is to develop high-temperature superconducting conductors (wire and tape) capable of meeting requirements for high-power electrical devices of interest to industry. The research efforts currently underway are: (1) process development and characterization of thallium-based high-temperature superconducting closed system wire and tape; (2) investigation of the synthesis and processing of thallium-based thick films using two-zone processing; and (3) cryogenic design of a 30K superconducting motor. This report outlines the research that has been performed during FY95 in each of these areas.

  5. Superconducting technology program Sandia 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.P.

    1997-02-01

    Sandia`s Superconductivity Technology Program is a thallium-based high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, open-system thick film conductor development, wire and tape fabrication, and HTS motor design. The objective of this work is to develop high-temperature superconducting conductors (wire and tape) capable of meeting requirements for high-power electrical devices of interest to industry. The research efforts currently underway are: (1) Process development and characterization of thallium-based high-temperature superconducting closed system wire and tape, (2) Investigation of the synthesis and processing of thallium-based thick films using two-zone processing, and (3) Cryogenic design of a 30K superconducting motor. This report outlines the research that has been performed during FY96 in each of these areas.

  6. Effects of afforestation on water yield: a global synthesis with implications for policy

    E-print Network

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Effects of afforestation on water yield: a global synthesis with implications for policy K AT H L E sequestration programs, including afforestation and reforestation, are gaining attention globally and will alter and water yield, while the effects of afforestation on water yield have been considered for some regions

  7. Synthesis of calculational methods for design and analysis of radiation shields for nuclear rocket systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capo, M. A.; Disney, R. K.; Jordan, T. A.; Soltesz, R. G.; Woodsum, H. C.

    1969-01-01

    Eight computer programs make up a nine volume synthesis containing two design methods for nuclear rocket radiation shields. The first design method is appropriate for parametric and preliminary studies, while the second accomplishes the verification of a final nuclear rocket reactor design.

  8. ExPO Document XE-92-003 ANALYSIS OF THE SYNTHESIS GROUP'S

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    PO/Bret Drake Mission Design - Mars ExPOlJohn Soldner Science ExPO/Nancy Ann Budden Human Support Ex AND MARS ARCHITECTURE March, 1992 #12;ANALYSIS OFTHE SYNTHESIS GROUP'S SCIENCE EMPHASIS FOR THE MOON AND MARS ARCHITECTURE March 25, 1992 Douglas K.' ooke Manager Exploration Programs Office Dwa

  9. L2 Earth atmosphere observatory : formation guidance, metrology, and control synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Behcet A.; Mettler, Edward; Breckenridge, William G.; Macenka, Steven A.; Tubbs, Eldred F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of research sponsored by the NASA Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) program, and includes the synthesis and analysis of the guidance, metrology and control for a two-spacecraft formation in a unique continuously powered orbit near the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point observing the illuminated atmosphere of the Earth while it is continuously occulting the Sun.

  10. Aircraft interior noise prediction using a structural-acoustic analogy in NASTRAN modal synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Marulo, Francesco

    1988-01-01

    The noise induced inside a cylindrical fuselage model by shaker excitation is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The NASTRAN modal-synthesis program is used in the theoretical analysis, and the predictions are compared with experimental measurements in extensive graphs. Good general agreement is obtained, but the need for further refinements to account for acoustic-cavity damping and structural-acoustic interaction is indicated.

  11. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth with Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Thomas Scott

    2011-01-01

    This meta-synthesis of empirical and nonempirical literature analyzed 24 journal articles and book chapters that addressed the intersection of disability, [homo]sexuality, and gender identity/expression in P-12 schools, colleges and universities, supported living programs, and other educational and social contexts in Australia, Belgium, Canada,…

  12. A hybrid methodology for detailed heat exchanger design in the optimal synthesis of heat exchanger networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. García; J. M. Ponce; M. Serna

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid method for the synthesis and optimization of heat exchanger networks, which includes detailed design of heat exchangers. This task is achieved by combining the pinch design method with mathematical programming techniques, together with an optimal design algorithm of shell and tube heat exchangers based on the rigorous Bell-Delaware method. As result, the stream pressure drops

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Sant-75 derivatives as Hedgehog-pathway inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Che, Chao; Li, Song; Yang, Bo; Xin, Shengchang; Yu, Zhixiong; Shao, Taofeng; Tao, Chuanye

    2012-01-01

    Summary Sant-75 is a newly identified potent inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway. We designed a diversity-oriented synthesis program, and synthesized a series of Sant-75 analogues, which lays the foundation for further investigation of the structure–activity relationship of this important class of hedgehog-pathway inhibitors. PMID:23015832

  14. ASPIRE: Analysis and Synthesis for Planning, Implementation, Redesign, and Evaluation. A Model for Instructional Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millcreek Township School District, Erie, PA.

    One result of the increased size and complexity of instructional programs is a decrease in the ability of instructional managers to effectively evaluate them. The analysis and synthesis for planning, implementation, redesign, and evaluation (ASPIRE) model for instructional management provides a conceptual framework for obtaining a comprehensive…

  15. SAVEnergy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-05-01

    This program overview describes elements of the U.S. Department of Energy's SAVEnergy Program, which is managed by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program. The SAVEnergy Program helps agencies meet Federal goals for greater energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of renewable energy by contracting with expert engineering firms to conduct energy and water use audits at Federal facilities. To qualify for this assistance, agencies or facilities must request audits from FEMP and assure FEMP that they will implement some of the energy and water efficiency measures recommended in the auditor's report.

  16. Wait Program!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

    After completing the associated lesson, students test their understanding in two programming tasks that utilize LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots and sound/touch sensors. In the first challenge, students become acquainted with wait blocks by designing programs to simply make robots move forward until "hearing" a noise, and then turn left. The second, more challenging activity pushes students to fully understand the potential of wait blocks. They create programs that make the robots change speed several times when a touch sensor is pressed. Students gain practice in the iterative design-program-test-redesign process. A PowerPoint® presentation, pre/post quizzes and worksheet are provided.

  17. Discrete Dynamic Programming and Capital Allocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Nemhauser; Z. Ullmann

    1969-01-01

    Dynamic programming algorithms are developed for optimal capital allocation subject to budget constraints. We extend the work of Weingartner [Weingartner, H. M. 1966. Capital budgeting of interrelated projects: Survey and synthesis. Management Sci. 12(7, March) 485-516.] and Weingartner and Ness [Weingartner, H. M., D. N. Ness. 1967. Methods for the solution of the multi-dimensional 0\\/1 knapsack problem. Oper. Res. 15(1,

  18. EXADS - EXPERT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN SYNTHESIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The expert system called EXADS was developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. Because of the general purpose nature of ADS, it is difficult for a nonexpert to select the best choice of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from the one hundred or so combinations that are available. EXADS aids engineers in determining the best combination based on their knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge previously stored by experts who developed ADS. EXADS is a customized application of the AESOP artificial intelligence program (the general version of AESOP is available separately from COSMIC. The ADS program is also available from COSMIC.) The expert system consists of two main components. The knowledge base contains about 200 rules and is divided into three categories: constrained, unconstrained, and constrained treated as unconstrained. The EXADS inference engine is rule-based and makes decisions about a particular situation using hypotheses (potential solutions), rules, and answers to questions drawn from the rule base. EXADS is backward-chaining, that is, it works from hypothesis to facts. The rule base was compiled from sources such as literature searches, ADS documentation, and engineer surveys. EXADS will accept answers such as yes, no, maybe, likely, and don't know, or a certainty factor ranging from 0 to 10. When any hypothesis reaches a confidence level of 90% or more, it is deemed as the best choice and displayed to the user. If no hypothesis is confirmed, the user can examine explanations of why the hypotheses failed to reach the 90% level. The IBM PC version of EXADS is written in IQ-LISP for execution under DOS 2.0 or higher with a central memory requirement of approximately 512K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

  19. Hypertargets: a Conceptual Programming approach for the optimisation of industrial heat exchanger networks—I. Grassroots design and network complexity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Briones; A. C. Kokossis

    1999-01-01

    The paper proposes a new design approach for the optimal synthesis of heat exchanger networks. The approach combines thermodynamics, engineering knowledge, and mathematical programming and leads to Conceptual Programming methodology with a clear potential to address industrial applications from a systematic and rigorous perspective. The methodology employs a Conceptual Programming model, the Area Target Model, to screen and scope the

  20. Out-of-School-Time Programs: A Meta-Analysis of Effects for At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Patricia A.; Akiba, Motoko; Wilkerson, Stephanie B.; Apthorp, Helen S.; Snow, David; Martin-Glenn, Mya L.

    2006-01-01

    Schools and districts are adopting out-of-school-time (OST) programs such as after-school programs and summer schools to supplement the education of low-achieving students. However, research has painted a mixed picture of their effectiveness. To clarify OST impacts, this synthesis examined research on OST programs for assisting at-risk students in…

  1. Manual and automated synthesis Manual synthesis of a resin-bound pentapeptide library 6

    E-print Network

    Yao, Shao Q

    construction of an organic library using split synthesis: 3-amino-5-hydroxybenzoic acid as a core structure 10 Preparation of the amino acid solutions for a heptapeptide library synthesis 35 Synthesis of a linear peptide library with 19 eukaryotic amino acids (cysteine excluded) 36 Synthesis of the disulfide cyclic peptide

  2. Community Leadership Certificate Program Program Overview

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Community Leadership Certificate Program Program Overview The undergraduate Community Leadership Certificate Program is an interdisciplinary program where students from any major can explore leadership in community engagement and leadership. The program is based on a social justice model of leadership

  3. Total synthesis and study of myrmicarin alkaloids

    E-print Network

    Ondrus, Alison Evelynn, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    I. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tricyclic Myrmicarin Alkaloids An enantioselective gram-scale synthesis of a key dihydroindolizine intermediate for the preparation of myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Key transformations ...

  4. Microfluidic reactors for the synthesis of nanocrystals

    E-print Network

    Yen, Brian K. H

    2007-01-01

    Several microfluidic reactors were designed and applied to the synthesis of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). Initially, a simple single-phase capillary reactor was used for the synthesis of CdSe NCs. Precursors ...

  5. Macromolecular synthesis by yeasts under frozen conditions

    E-print Network

    Christner, Brent C.

    by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Experi- ments at -5°C under frozen and liquid conditionsMacromolecular synthesis by yeasts under frozen conditions Pierre Amato,* Shawn Doyle and Brent C

  6. Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching. 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...

  7. SSML: A speech synthesis markup language. 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Paul A; Isard, Amy

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the Speech Synthesis Markup Language, SSML, which has been designed as a platform independent interface standard for speech synthesis systems. The paper discusses the need for standardisation in speech ...

  8. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  9. Programming Introduction

    E-print Network

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    Memory Hierarchy for Fermi GPU (HokieSpeed) · Local storage (on chip) · register memory associatedGPU Programming in CUDA James E. McClure Introduction Preliminaries CUDA Kernels Memory Management Streams and Events Shared Memory Toolkit Overview GPU Programming in CUDA James E. McClure Advanced

  10. Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, John C., Ed.; Priest, Simon, Ed.

    Adventure programming is the deliberate use of adventurous experiences to create learning in individuals or groups, often with the goal of improving society or communities. Adventure programming may focus on recreation, education, individual or group development, or therapy, or on a combination of these. This second edition contains 61 chapters by…

  11. Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information on U.S. postsecondary schools specifically for people who are deaf and other postsecondary programs with supportive services for students with deafness. Schools and programs are listed by state and information is provided on the number of students with deafness enrolled, degrees offered, and special…

  12. Program Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Tribes Educational Technical Center, Bismarck, ND.

    The program management guide to Title IV Indian Education projects acquaints participants with program management concepts relative to application forms and encourages the development of management plans and objectives. Sections provide discussions, charts, and examples for the following: regulatory authorities, administrative organizational…

  13. Logic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, E.L.; Overbeek, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1989 North American Conference on Logic Programming. Included are the following papers: Expanding query power in constrain logic programming languages, Investigating the linguistics of DNA with definite clause grammars, An intermediate language to support prolog's unification.

  14. Programs & Resources

    Cancer.gov

    Small Animal Imaging Resource Program (SAIRP) The Interagency Council on Biomedical Imaging in Oncology (ICBIO) was developed as a means for developers of new imaging techniques to seek advice on the best way to proceed to commercialize their ideas, and Development of Preclinical Drugs and Enhancers (DCIDE) program.

  15. Dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Nalbanto?lu, Ö Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    Independent scoring of the aligned sections to determine the quality of biological sequence alignments enables recursive definitions of the overall alignment score. This property is not only biologically meaningful but it also provides the opportunity to find the optimal alignments using dynamic programming-based algorithms. Dynamic programming is an efficient problem solving technique for a class of problems that can be solved by dividing into overlapping subproblems. Pairwise sequence alignment techniques such as Needleman-Wunsch and Smith-Waterman algorithms are applications of dynamic programming on pairwise sequence alignment problems. These algorithms offer polynomial time and space solutions. In this chapter, we introduce the basic dynamic programming solutions for global, semi-global, and local alignment problems. Algorithmic improvements offering quadratic-time and linear-space programs and approximate solutions with space-reduction and seeding heuristics are discussed. We finally introduce the application of these techniques on multiple sequence alignment briefly. PMID:24170392

  16. Materials sciences programs fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

  17. Materials sciences programs: Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Science Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

  18. Improving evaluations of value-based purchasing programs.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Megan; Joshi, Maulik

    2010-10-01

    Although value-based purchasing (VBP) holds promise for encouraging quality improvement and addressing rising costs, currently there is limited evidence about how best to structure and implement VBP programs. In this commentary, we highlight several issues for improving evaluations of VBP programs. Implementation research can be enhanced through early and continuous assessment and greater variation in program designs. Impact research can be improved by creating better outcome measures, increasing the availability of linked patient-level data, and advancing synthesis research. We offer several recommendations for improving the foundation to conduct evaluations of VBP programs to better inform policy and practice. PMID:21054372

  19. Communication synthesis for distributed embedded systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ti-Yen Yen; Wayne Wolf

    1995-01-01

    Abstract: Communication synthesis is an essential step in hardware-software co-synthesis: many embedded systems use custom communication topologies and the communication links are often a significant part of the system cost. This paper describes new techniques for the analysis and synthesis of the communication requirements of embedded systems during co-synthesis. Our analysis algorithm derives delay bounds on communication in the system

  20. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 5: Weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    Subroutines for determining the weights of propulsion system related components and the airframe components of an aircraft configuration are presented. Subroutines that deal with design load conditions, aircraft balance, and tail sizing are included. Options for turbine and internal combustion engines are provided.

  1. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 6: Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft performance modeling requires consideration of propulsion, aerodynamics, and weight characteristics. Eleven subroutines used in modeling aircraft performance are presented and their interactions considered. Manuals for performance model users and programmers are included.

  2. Carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis.

    PubMed

    Haigler, C H; Ivanova-Datcheva, M; Hogan, P S; Salnikov, V V; Hwang, S; Martin, K; Delmer, D P

    2001-09-01

    This article discusses the importance and implications of regulating carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis, the characteristics of cells that serve as major sinks for cellulose deposition, and enzymes that participate in the conversion of supplied carbon to cellulose. Cotton fibers, which deposit almost pure cellulose into their secondary cell walls, are referred to as a primary model system. For sucrose synthase, we discuss its proposed role in channeling UDP-Glc to cellulose synthase during secondary wall deposition, its gene family, its manipulation in transgenic plants, and mechanisms that may regulate its association with sites of polysaccharide synthesis. For cellulose synthase, we discuss the organization of the gene family and how protein diversity could relate to control of carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis. Other enzymes emphasized include UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase and sucrose phosphate synthase. New data are included on phosphorylation of cotton fiber sucrose synthase, possible regulation by Ca2+ of sucrose synthase localization, electron microscopic immunolocalization of sucrose synthase in cotton fibers, and phylogenetic relationships between cellulose synthase proteins, including three new ones identified in differentiating tracheary elements of Zinnia elegans. We develop a model for metabolism related to cellulose synthesis that implicates the changing intracellular localization of sucrose synthase as a molecular switch between survival metabolism and growth and/or differentiation processes involving cellulose synthesis. PMID:11554477

  3. Control Augmented Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1988-01-01

    A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

  4. Element Synthesis in Stars

    E-print Network

    F. -K. Thielemann; F. Brachwitz; C. Freiburghaus; E. Kolbe; G. Martinez-Pinedo; T. Rauscher; F. Rembges; W. R. Hix; M. Liebendoerfer; A. Mezzacappa; K. -L. Kratz; B. Pfeiffer; K. Langanke; K. Nomoto; S. Rosswog; H. Schatz; M. Wiescher

    2001-02-12

    Except for 1H, 2H, 3He, 4He, and 7Li, originating from the Big Bang, all heavier elements are made in stellar evolution and stellar explosions. Nuclear physics, and in many cases nuclear structure far from stability, enters in a crucial way. Therefore, we examine in this review the role of nuclear physics in astrophysics in general and in particular how it affects stellar events and the resulting nucleosynthesis. Stellar modeling addresses four major aspects: 1. energy generation and nucleosynthesis, 2. energy transport via conduction, radiation or possibly convection, 3. hydrodynamics/hydrostatics, and finally 4. thermodynamic properties of the matter involved. Nuclear Physics enters via nuclear reaction cross sections and nuclear structure (affecting the composition changes and nuclear energy generation), neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-nucleus cross sections (affecting neutrino opacities and transport), and e.g. the equation of state at and beyond nuclear densities which creates a relation between the nuclear many-body problem and the hydrodynamic response like pressure and entropy. In the following we review these four topics by highlighting the role and impact of nuclear physics in each of these aspects of stellar modeling. The main emphasis is put on the connection to element synthesis.

  5. Rotation measure synthesis revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Lee, K. J.

    2015-02-01

    We reformulate rotation measure (RM) synthesis for data sets with discrete frequency channels and an arbitrary channel response function. The most commonly used version of the formalism by Brentjens & De Bruyn assumes a top-hat response function in wavelength squared, while real data sets can often be approximated better with a top-hat in frequency. We simulate mock data sets for various source geometries, using a top-hat response function in frequency, and we compare the quality of the RM spectra that are found with both formalisms. We include the response function of the simulated data to calculate exact RM spectra using our formalism. We show that the formalism by Brentjens & De Bruyn produces accurate results even if depolarization at the lowest frequencies in the observing band is severe. If RMs are large, our formalism reconstructs the emitted signal more accurately, with a higher amplitude and (in most cases) a narrower RM spread function. Our formalism can also detect sources with larger (absolute) RMs for a given sensitivity level of the observations.

  6. Stellar population synthesis diagnostics

    E-print Network

    Y. K. Ng

    1998-03-30

    A quantitative method is presented to compare observed and synthetic colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The method is based on a chi^2 merit function for a point (c_i,m_i) in the observed CMD, which has a corresponding point in the simulated CMD within n*sigma(c_i,m_i) of the error ellipse. The chi^2 merit function is then combined with the Poisson merit function of the points for which no corresponding point was found within the n*sigma(c_i,m_i) error ellipse boundary. Monte-Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the diagnostics obtained from the combined (chi^2, Poisson) merit function through variation of different parameters in the stellar population synthesis tool. The simulations indicate that the merit function can potentially be used to reveal information about the initial mass function. Information about the star formation history of single stellar aggregates, such as open or globular clusters and possibly dwarf galaxies with a dominating stellar population, might not be reliable if one is dealing with a relatively small age range.

  7. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND MECHANISTIC EVALUATION OF IRON-BASED CATALYSIS FOR SYNTHESIS GAS CONVERSION TO FUELS AND CHEMICALS

    SciTech Connect

    Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Enrique Iglesia

    2005-03-31

    This project explores the extension of previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have previously shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity with synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic performance previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During this third reporting period, we have prepared a large number of Fe-based catalyst compositions using precipitation and impregnations methods with both supercritical and subcritical drying and with the systematic use of surface active agents to prevent pore collapse during drying steps required in synthetic protocols. These samples were characterized during this period using X-ray diffraction, surface area, and temperature-programmed reduction measurements. These studies have shown that these synthesis methods lead to even higher surface areas than in our previous studies and confirm the crystalline structures of these materials and their reactivity in both oxide-carbide interconversions and in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction rates and selectivities with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio feeds (H{sub 2}/CO = 1) were the highest reported in the literature at the low-temperature and relatively low pressure in our measurements. Current studies are exploring the optimization of the sequence of impregnation of Cu, K, and Ru promoters, of the activation and reaction conditions, and of the co-addition of light hydrocarbons to increase diffusion rates of primary olefin products so as to increase the selectivity to unsaturated products. Finally, we are also addressing the detailed kinetic response of optimized catalysts to reaction conditions (temperature, partial pressures of H{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, olefins) in an effort to further increase rates and olefin and C{sub 5+} selectivities.

  8. Concatenative sound synthesis: The early years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diemo Schwarz

    2006-01-01

    Concatenative sound synthesis is a promising method of musical sound synthesis with a steady stream of work and publications for over five years now. This article offers a comparative survey and taxonomy of the many different approaches to concatenative synthesis throughout the history of electronic music, starting in the 1950s, even if they weren't known as such at their time,

  9. DECISION DIAGRAMS AND PASS TRANSISTOR LOGIC SYNTHESIS

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    DECISION DIAGRAMS AND PASS TRANSISTOR LOGIC SYNTHESIS V. Bertacco S. Minato P. Verplaetse L. Benini by ARPA, under grant No. DABT63-95-C-0049. #12;Decision Diagrams and Pass Transistor Logic Synthesis V transistors and domino logic. The synthesis of these cells is based on BDD and ZBDD representations

  10. Simulation based Population Synthesis Bilal Farooq

    E-print Network

    Bierlaire, Michel

    Simulation based Population Synthesis Bilal Farooq Departement des Genies Civil, Geologique et des with the standard IPF. The standard root mean square error statistics indicated that even the worst case simulation based synthesis (SRMSE = 0.35) outperformed the best case IPF synthesis (SRMSE=0.64). We also used

  11. Conceptual process synthesis: past and current trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoning Li; Andrzej Kraslawski

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual process synthesis (CPS) is a very important issue in chemical process industries. During the last several decades, process synthesis has undergone major changes with respect to research issues as well as to the application domains. However, despite the publication of several excellent papers on process synthesis, such as Nishida et al. [AIChE J. 27 (3) (1981) 321], Westerberg [Comput.

  12. COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS Arvind Varma, Alexander S. Gasless Combustion SynthesisFrom Elements B. Combustion Synthesis in Gas-Solid Systems C. Products of Thermite-vpe SHS D. Commercial Aspects IV. Theoretical Considerations A. Combustion Wave Propagation Theory

  13. Text-to-Picture Synthesis Xiaojin Zhu

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

    (LTI seminar) Text-to-Picture Synthesis 7 / 46 #12;Prior work 1: "Writing with Symbols" Rebus symbols (www.widgit.com) Writing with Symbols (www.mayer-johnson.com) (LTI seminar) Text-to-Picture Synthesis 8Text-to-Picture Synthesis Xiaojin Zhu Department of Computer Sciences University of Wisconsin

  14. Gene synthesis by circular assembly amplification

    E-print Network

    Church, George M.

    Gene synthesis by circular assembly amplification Duhee Bang & George M Church Here we report the development of a gene-synthesis technology, circular assembly amplification. In this approach, we first error-rich products, thereby substantially improving gene-synthesis quality. We used this method

  15. Wheat Improvement Programs WHEAT PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Wheat Improvement Programs WHEAT PROGRAM The small grains improvement effort at Texas Agri techniques. The College Station center focuses on wheat and oats for the South Texas and Blacklands regions of Texas, while the Amarillo center develops wheat and triticale lines for the Texas High Plains

  16. MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING (MSN) PROGRAM SAMPLE MATRICULATION PLAN

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Pei

    Education 1 N596 Clinical Pharmacology for Advanced Nursing Practice 3 N736 ­ Test Construction & Item Curriculum Development in Nursing 2 N738­ Role of the Nurse Educator: Issues and Challenges 1 N735­ Educational Program Evaluation & Accreditation 1 N745 ­ Synthesis: Implementing the Nurse Educator Role (168

  17. A Developmental Model of Neural Computation Using Cartesian Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    evaluated the learning potential of this system in the con- text of solving a well known agent based I.2.2 [ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE]: Automatic Pro- gramming--Program synthesis; I.2.6 [ARTIFICIAL IN- TELLIGENCE]: Learning--Connectionism and neural nets General Terms Algorithms, Design, Performance Keywords

  18. ENHANCEMENTS OF NONPOINT-SOURCE MONITORING PROGRAMS TO ASSESS VOLATILE

    E-print Network

    . National Synthesis studies of nutrients and pesticides began in 1991, a study of volatile organic compoundsENHANCEMENTS OF NONPOINT-SOURCE MONITORING PROGRAMS TO ASSESS VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN GROUND.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled a national retrospective data set of analyses of volatile organic

  19. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, K.; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS OF GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL ANCHORS

    PubMed Central

    Swarts, Benjamin M.; Guo, Zhongwu

    2013-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cell-surface proteins and glycoproteins are anchored to the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs), a family of glycolipids that are post-translationally attached to proteins at their C-termini. GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins play important roles in many biological and pathological events, such as cell recognition and adhesion, signal transduction, host defense, and acting as receptors for viruses and toxins. Chemical synthesis of structurally defined GPI anchors and GPI derivatives is a necessary step toward understanding the properties and functions of these molecules in biological systems and exploring their potential therapeutic applications. In the first part of this comprehensive article on the chemical synthesis of GPIs, classic syntheses of naturally occurring GPI anchors from protozoan parasites, yeast, and mammals are covered. The second part of the article focuses on recent diversity-oriented strategies for the synthesis of GPI anchors containing unsaturated lipids, “click chemistry” tags, and highly branched and modified structures. PMID:22794184

  1. Total Synthesis of Iejimalide B§

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingshou; Schweitzer, Dirk; Kane, John; Jo Davisson, V.; Helquist, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Iejimalide B, a structurally unique 24-membered polyene macrolide having a previously underutilized mode of anticancer activity, was synthesized according to a strategy employing Julia-Kocienski olefinations, a palladium-catalyzed Heck reaction, a palladium-catalyzed Marshall propargylation, a Keck-type esterification, and a palladium-catalyzed macrolide-forming, intramolecular Stille coupling of a highly complex cyclization substrate. The overall synthesis is efficient (19.5% overall yield for 15 linear steps) and allows for more practical scaled-up synthesis than previously reported strategies that differed in the order of assembly of key subunits and in the method of macrocyclization. The present synthesis paves the way for efficient preparation of analogues for drug development efforts. PMID:21488673

  2. Total Synthesis of (+)-Papulacandin D

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Regens, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    A total synthesis of (+)-papulacandin D has been achieved in 31 steps, in a 9.2% overall yield from commercially available materials. The synthetic strategy divided the molecule into two nearly equal sized subunits, the spirocyclic C-arylglycopyranoside and the polyunsaturated fatty acid side chain. The C-arylglycopyranoside was prepared in 11 steps in a 30% overall yield from triacetoxyglucal. The fatty acid side chain was also prepared in 11 steps in a 30% overall yield from geraniol. The key strategic transformations in the synthesis are: (1) a palladium-catalyzed, organosilanolate-based cross-coupling reaction of a dimethylglucal-silanol with an electron rich and sterically hindered aromatic iodide and (2) a Lewis base-catalyzed, enantioselective allylation reaction of a dienal and allyltrichlorosilane. A critical element in the successful execution of the synthesis was the development of a suitable protecting group strategy that satisfied a number of stringent criteria. PMID:20711516

  3. Glycothermal synthesis of metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masashi

    2004-04-01

    The author has been exploring the synthesis of inorganic materials in organic solvents at temperatures (200-300 °C) higher than their boiling points (solvothermal reaction), and has developed various reaction methods for the synthesis of ultrafine particles of metal oxides. In this paper, the reactions of aluminium compounds (aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3; gibbsite), aluminium alkoxides, and aluminium salts) in various organic solvents (alcohols, glycols, aminoalcohols, and inert organic solvents) are first reviewed, and reaction mechanisms and effects of the starting materials and solvents on the products are discussed. Then, the specificity of the use of glycols, especially 1,4-butanediol (glycothermal reaction), is clarified, and glycothermal synthesis of crystalline mixed oxides such as yttrium aluminium garnet is described. Finally, the use of the solvothermally prepared products as the catalyst materials is described.

  4. FWP executive summaries. Basic Energy Sciences/Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report is divided into: budget, capital equipment requests, general programmatic overview and institutional issues, DOE center of excellence for synthesis and processing of advanced materials, industrial interactions and technology transfer, and research program summaries (new proposals, existing programs). Ceramics, semiconductors, superconductors, interfaces, CVD, tailored surfaces, adhesion, growth and epitaxy, boron-rich solids, nanoclusters, etc. are covered.

  5. Doctoral Programs in Educational Leadership: A Duality Framework of Commonality and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, doctoral programs in education leadership have been subject to notable criticism and proposals for reform. Starting with a synthesis of this criticism, this article focuses on the two primary constituencies--university faculty members who teach in such programs, and school superintendents, who are the leading practitioners such…

  6. Automated Discovery of Loop Invariants for High-Assurance Programs Synthesized Using AI Planning Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jicheng Fu; Farokh B. Bastani; I-ling Yen

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of loop invariants is a great challenge for the independent verification of automatically synthesized programs. This verification is needed to achieve high confidence in the correctness of the synthesized code, i.e., assurance that no latent defects in the synthesizer itself could have led to the synthesis of an incorrect program. To address this problem, we present an automated

  7. Cyclobutane-Containing Alkaloids: Origin, Synthesis, and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sergeiko, Anastasia; Poroikov, Vladimir V; Hanuš, Lumir O; Dembitsky, Valery M

    2008-01-01

    Present review describes research on novel natural cyclobutane-containing alkaloids isolated from terrestrial and marine species. More than 60 biological active compounds have been confirmed to have antimicrobial, antibacterial, antitumor, and other activities. The structures, synthesis, origins, and biological activities of a selection of cyclobutane-containing alkaloids are reviewed. With the computer program PASS some additional biological activities are also predicted, which point toward new possible applications of these compounds. This review emphasizes the role of cyclobutane-containing alkaloids as an important source of leads for drug discovery. PMID:19696873

  8. Programming models

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Pherson, Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thorp, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barrett, Richard [SNL; Clay, Robert [SNL; De Supinski, Bronis [LLNL; Dube, Evi [LLNL; Heroux, Mike [SNL; Janssen, Curtis [SNL; Langer, Steve [LLNL; Laros, Jim [SNL

    2011-01-14

    A programming model is a set of software technologies that support the expression of algorithms and provide applications with an abstract representation of the capabilities of the underlying hardware architecture. The primary goals are productivity, portability and performance.

  9. ICD programming

    PubMed Central

    Biffi, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Background Appropriate ICD programming is the key to prevent inappropriate shock delivery, that is closely associated to a negative patients' outcome. Methods Review of the literature on ICD therapy to generate ICD programmings that can be applied to the broad population of ICD and CRT-D carriers. Results Arrhythmia detection should occur with a detection time ranging 9?–12? in the VF zone, and 15?–60? in the VT zone. Discriminator should be applied at least up to 200 bpm. ATP therapy is applied to all VTs up to 250 bpm, with a success rate of 70%. Inappropriate shocks should occur in <3.6% of patients. Conclusion Tailored ICD programming can be achieved following evidence from large ICD trials. Pre-defined settings that are saved on the programmer and that can be uploaded at device implantation help to ensure optimal programming and to avoid random errors. PMID:24568835

  10. MATLAB Programming

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MATLAB provides matrix manipulation, plotting, and general purpose scientific programming capability, as well as functionality through specialized "toolboxes" such as the Optimization toolbox, the Statistics toolbox, the Signal Processing toolbox, the Image Processing Toolbox, etc.

  11. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

    1993-03-30

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  12. Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reaction, Ultrasound-promoted reaction and Phase-transfer catalysis reaction. The biological activities of the synthesized quinazoline derivatives also are discussed. PMID:23731671

  13. Enzymatic transglycosylation for glycoconjugate synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai-Xi; Huang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Summary Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in exploiting the transglycosylation activity of glycosidases and glycosynthase mutants for oligosaccharide and glycoconjugate synthesis. New glycosynthases were generated from retaining glycosidases, inverting glycosidases, and those that proceed in a mechanism of substrate-assisted catalysis. Directed evolution coupled with elegant screening methods has led to the discovery of an expanding number of glycosynthase mutants that show improved catalytic activity and/or altered substrate specificity. In particular, enzymatic transglycosylation strategy has been recently extended to the synthesis of complex glycoconjugates, including glycosphingolipids, N-glycoproteins, and other glycosylated natural products. PMID:19766528

  14. Multi-transmitter aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rabb, David J; Jameson, Douglas F; Stafford, Jason W; Stokes, Andrew J

    2010-11-22

    Multi-transmitter aperture synthesis is a method in which multiple transmitters can be used to improve resolution and contrast of distributed aperture systems. Such a system utilizes multiple transmitter locations to interrogate a target from multiple look angles thus increasing the angular spectrum content captured by the receiver aperture array. Furthermore, such a system can improve the contrast of sparsely populated receiver arrays by capturing field data in the region between sub-apertures by utilizing multiple transmitter locations. This paper discusses the theory behind multi-transmitter aperture synthesis and provides experimental verification that imagery captured using multiple transmitters will provide increased resolution. PMID:21164838

  15. Enzymatic synthesis using glycoside phosphorylases

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Ellis C.; Field, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate phosphorylases are readily accessible but under-explored catalysts for glycoside synthesis. Their use of accessible and relatively stable sugar phosphates as donor substrates underlies their potential. A wide range of these enzymes has been reported of late, displaying a range of preferences for sugar donors, acceptors and glycosidic linkages. This has allowed this class of enzymes to be used in the synthesis of diverse carbohydrate structures, including at the industrial scale. As more phosphorylase enzymes are discovered, access to further difficult to synthesise glycosides will be enabled. Herein we review reported phosphorylase enzymes and the glycoside products that they have been used to synthesise. PMID:25060838

  16. Total Synthesis of (+)-Superstolide A

    PubMed Central

    Tortosa, Mariola; Yakelis, Neal A.; Roush, William R.

    2009-01-01

    A convergent and highly stereocontrolled total synthesis of the cytotoxic macrolide (+)-superstolide A is described. Key features of this synthesis include the use of bimetallic linchpin 36b for uniting the C(1)-C(15) (43) and the C(20)-C(27) (38) fragments of the natural product, a late-stage Suzuki macrocyclization of 49, and a highly diastereoselective transannular Diels-Alder reaction of macrocyclic octanene 4. In contrast, the intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of pentaenal 5 provided the desired cycloadduct with lower stereoselectivity (6:1:1). PMID:18956845

  17. Enzyme Catalysis in Organic Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinek, K.; Semenov, A. N.

    1981-08-01

    The present state of enzyme catalysis and the prospects for its introduction in organic synthesis are examined. The physicochemical approaches whereby the yield of the desired product can be increased under conditions favourable for biocatalysis (at the optimum of the catalytic activity and stability of the enzyme) are analysed. Together with classical equilibrium and kinetic preparative methods, the thermodynamic features and general methodological aspects of a new approach — enzymatic synthesis in two-phase systems comprising water and a water-immiscible organic solvent — are discussed in detail. The bibliography includes 170 references.

  18. Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paula P. Meachen (New Canaan High School REV)

    1994-07-30

    Students learn the concepts associated with protein synthesis despite its abstract nature because the activities are playful and simple. They cut out the nucleotide models, they have an opportunity to relax and chat with each other and even listen to a little music in the background. Mixing solutions, smelling the chemicals and watching the DNA strand "magically" spool around the glass rod makes this macromolecule a tangible and real object. Using imagination as students pretend to be molecules acting out protein synthesis and whole body movement is as important a part of learning for high school students as it is for young children.

  19. Reaction synthesis of heat-resistant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides can be utilized to obtain aluminides of transition metals. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain dense intermetallics and their composites. Composites were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and microscopy techniques, and tensile properties were measured on button-head and sheet specimens of intermetallics and their composites. Mechanical properties of intermetallics obtained by reaction synthesis and densification compare well with conventionally processed materials. Reaction-synthesis principles were also extended to weld overlays. Possible approaches to obtaining dense products by reaction synthesis and densification are summarized in a schematic illustration.

  20. Reaction synthesis of heat-resistant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides can be utilized to obtain aluminides of transition metals. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain dense intermetallics and their composites. Composites were analyzed by X- ray diffraction and microscopy techniques, and tensile properties were measured on button-head and sheet specimens of intermetallics and their composites. Mechanical properties of intermetallics obtained by reaction synthesis and densification compare well with conventionally processed materials. Reaction-synthesis principles were also extended to weld overlays. Possible approaches to obtaining dense products by reaction synthesis and densification are summarized in a schematic illustration. 19 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Synthesis metal nanoparticle

    DOEpatents

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-08-16

    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for Cu.degree., (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm Ag.degree. spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for Au.degree..

  2. SECO Programs

    E-print Network

    Trevino, E.

    2011-01-01

    this web page address! ASSISTANCE AND FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES Energy Efficiency Technical Assistance Energy Efficiency Grants Renewable Energy Technology Grants Alternative Fuel Grants The LoanSTAR Revolving Loan Program Energy Efficiency... maximum of $50,000 per grant ? Funded on a reimbursement basis Renewable Energy Technology Grants ? Fort Worth ISD ? South Sills High School ? 5KW Wind Turbine Alternative Fuel Grants ? Grant program to convert city/county and ISD vehicle...

  3. SPOT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  4. Program It!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson is about robotic programming. Learners will simulate the experience of operating a rover on Mars, by giving specific commands to construct a Lego model with their partners. This will introduce students to the fundamental communication skills necessary for successful robotic programming. This is lesson 11 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module. This lesson is adapted from the Write It, Do It event, which is part of Science Olympiad.

  5. An Integrated Programming and Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Optimization

    E-print Network

    Travis S. Humble; Alex J. McCaskey; Ryan S. Bennink; Jay J. Billings; Ed F. D'Azevedo; Blair D. Sullivan; Christine F. Klymko; Hadayat Seddiqi

    2014-04-21

    Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware has raised challenging questions about how to evaluate adiabatic quantum optimization programs. Processor behavior depends on multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program, which are each highly tunable. We present an integrated programming and development environment for adiabatic quantum optimization called JADE that provides control over all the steps taken during program synthesis. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously specify the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm while allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its potential use for benchmarking adiabatic quantum optimization programs by the quantum computer science community.

  6. An integrated programming and development environment for adiabatic quantum optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humble, T. S.; McCaskey, A. J.; Bennink, R. S.; Billings, J. J.; D?Azevedo, E. F.; Sullivan, B. D.; Klymko, C. F.; Seddiqi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware has raised challenging questions about how to evaluate adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) programs. Processor behavior depends on multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program, which are each highly tunable. We present an integrated programming and development environment for AQO called Jade Adiabatic Development Environment (JADE) that provides control over all the steps taken during program synthesis. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously specify the AQO algorithm while allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its potential use for benchmarking AQO programs by the quantum computer science community.

  7. Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of ``green'' in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis.

  8. PROGRAM QUESTIONS FORM Program Location

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Friend Professor/Advisor Classroom presentation CSU Brochure Dorm presentation Program posters Department be a faculty member you have studied with. (Do not list friends or family members) Name: Professor of: Phone: E

  9. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  10. Enzymatic Synthesis of Glycosaminoglycan Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Linhardt, Robert J.; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Deangelis, Paul L.; Liu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Heparin and its low molecular weight heparin derivatives, widely used as clinical anticoagulants, are acidic polysaccharide members of a family of biomacromolecules called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Heparin and the related heparan sulfate are biosynthesized in the Golgi apparatus of eukaryotic cells. Heparin is a polycomponent drug that currently is prepared for clinical use by extraction from animal tissues. A heparin pentasaccharide, fondaparinux, has also been prepared through chemical synthesis for use as a homogenous anticoagulant drug. Recent enabling technologies suggest that it may now be possible to synthesize heparin and its derivatives enzymatically. Moreover, new technologies including advances in synthetic carbohydrate synthesis, enzyme-based GAG synthesis, micro- and nano-display of GAGs, rapid on-line structural analysis, and microarray/microfluidic technologies might be applied to the enzymatic synthesis of heparins with defined structures and exhibiting selected activities. The advent of these new technologies also makes it possible to consider the construction of an artificial Golgi to increase our understanding of the cellular control of GAG biosyntheses in this organelle. PMID:17629842

  11. A highly enantioselective benzothiepine synthesis

    PubMed

    Wang; Li; Huang; Lee; Reitz

    2000-05-01

    A highly enantioselective synthesis of benzothiepine 1a has been accomplished via an enantioenriched sulfoxide intermediate obtained by asymmetric oxidation with a chiral oxaziridine in 89:11 er. The key step is a thermodynamically controlled asymmetric cyclization reaction that produces two new stereogenic centers. The (4R,5R) isomer 1a was obtained in 98:2 er. PMID:10808444

  12. Insolubilized enzymes for food synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Cellulose matrix with numerous enzyme-coated silica particles of colloidal size permanently bound at various sites within matrix was produced that has high activity and possesses requisite physical characteristics for filtration or column operations. Product also allows coupling step in synthesis of edible food to proceed under mild conditions.

  13. Enantiocontrolled total synthesis of (-)-mersicarpine.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Yusuke; Okano, Kentaro; Sugimoto, Kenji; Tokuyama, Hidetoshi

    2013-07-01

    A racemic synthesis of mersicarpine (1) was achieved by the Mizoroki-Heck reaction and a DIBALH-mediated reductive ring-expansion reaction. Based on a first-generation synthesis, a second-generation enantiocontrolled total synthesis of (-)-mersicarpine (1) was achieved by an 8-pot/11-step sequence in 21% overall yield from commercially available 2-ethylcyclohexanone. Subjection of a ketoester, which was prepared by an asymmetric Michael addition (according to the protocol by d'Angelo and Desmaële), and phenylhydrazine to modified Fischer indole conditions provided a six-membered tricyclic indole. Benzylic oxidation and subsequent oxime formation provided a ketoxime, which was treated with diisobutylaluminum hydride (DIBALH) to construct the characteristic azepinoindole skeleton in good yield. In the DIBALH-mediated reductive ring-expansion reaction, gradually increasing the reaction temperature and in situ-protection of the nitrogen in an oxygen-sensitive azepinoindole with a benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz) group were crucial for the high-yielding process. With these methodologies, the short-step and efficient synthesis of (-)-mersicarpine was accomplished. Several synthetic efforts are also described. PMID:23729297

  14. Liquid phase methanol synthesis catalyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Mabuse; K Hagihara; T Watanabe; M Saito

    1997-01-01

    This work focuses on the investigation of the stability of catalyst activity in the liquid phase methanol synthesis process. The effects of various kinds of metfhods to inhibit the deactivation of catalyst have been experimentally examined. The activity of catalyst was stabilized without lowering of activity by a suitable hydrothermal treatment, although the activity of the untreated catalyst decreased gradually

  15. The Gabriel Synthesis of Benzylamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigh, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment which utilizes the Gabriel Synthesis to demonstrate the acidity of imides and to provide an example of nucleophilic substitution reactions. The experiment also demonstrates the laboratory techniques involved in simple and steam distillation, filtration, extraction, and…

  16. Catalysis and prebiotic RNA synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.

    1993-01-01

    The essential role of catalysis for the origins of life is discussed. The status of the prebiotic synthesis of 2',5'- and 3'5'-linked oligomers of RNA is reviewed. Examples of the role of metal ion and mineral catalysis in RNA oligomer formation are discussed.

  17. Synthesis of a symmetrical dithiirane

    SciTech Connect

    Allakverdiev, M.A.; Farzaliev, V.M.; Mamedov, C.I.

    1986-04-01

    The reaction of p-xylene with epichlorohydrin in the presence of aluminum chloride gave 1,4-dimethyl-2,5-bis(1-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) benzene, which serves as the starting compound for the synthesis of the corresponding symmetrical dithiirane.

  18. Synthesis of (+)-Luzofuran and (?)-Ancistrofuran

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The first synthesis of the furan-containing snyderane, (+)-luzofuran, is reported. The key step in this approach was an electrophilic brominative cyclization, which was accomplished using a nucleophilic N-heterocycle-flanked phosphoramidite catalyst in combination with the common laboratory reagent N-bromosuccinimide. PMID:24437567

  19. 3-Ketoesters by Malonic Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollet, Patrick L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the acylation version of malonic synthesis of three-ketoesters. Includes advantages of this method over other methodologies including a final selective removal of the "activating" ester function in such mild conditions that most of the organic functions may survive. (JN)

  20. Carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candace H. Haigler; Milka Ivanova-Datcheva; Patrick S. Hogan; Vadim V. Salnikov; Sangjoon Hwang; Kirt Martin; Deborah P. Delmer

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the importance and implications of regulating carbon partitioning to cellulose synthesis, the characteristics of cells that serve as major sinks for cellulose deposition, and enzymes that participate in the conversion of supplied carbon to cellulose. Cotton fibers, which deposit almost pure cellulose into their secondary cell walls, are referred to as a primary model system. For sucrose

  1. Chronology of a Difficult Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Fredric M.; Sorrells, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a short synthesis and many of the difficulties experienced while carrying it out (e.g., low yields, impurities, racemization, nonrepeatable literature preps, etc.). As such, students will be educated in aspects of synthetic organic chemistry that are often down-played, or even not mentioned, in published syntheses. (Contains…

  2. Enzyme Catalysis in Organic Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Martinek; A. N. Semenov

    1981-01-01

    The present state of enzyme catalysis and the prospects for its introduction in organic synthesis are examined. The physicochemical approaches whereby the yield of the desired product can be increased under conditions favourable for biocatalysis (at the optimum of the catalytic activity and stability of the enzyme) are analysed. Together with classical equilibrium and kinetic preparative methods, the thermodynamic features

  3. Large area graphene layer synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuen-Liang Chang; Kai-Hung Hsu; Chien-Min Sung; Ting-Ying Wu

    2010-01-01

    The large area graphene layer is synthesized by a conventional metal melting method (MMM). And we use the mechanism of diamond synthesis in liquid phase and produced graphene of about 5 ?? 7 cm2. This promising process appears scalable for making device-sized graphene in the near future. This paper also presented many intriguing aspects related to the growth of large

  4. Texture synthesis for digital painting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John-Peter Lewis

    1984-01-01

    The problem of digital painting is considered from a signal processing viewpoint, and is reconsidered as a problem of directed texture synthesis. It is an important characteristic of natural texture that detail may be evident at many scales, and the detail at each scale may have distinct characteristics. A “sparse convolution” procedure for generating random textures with arbitrary spectral content

  5. Synthesis of memory-efficient \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishnendu Chatterjee; Vinayak S. Prabhu

    2011-01-01

    We study synthesis of controllers for real-time systems, where the objective is to stay in a given safe set. The problem is solved by obtaining winning strategies in the setting of concurrent two-player timed automaton games with safety objectives. To prevent a player from winning by blocking time, we restrict each player to strategies that ensure that the player cannot

  6. Total synthesis of alotaketal A.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Mengyang; Paterson, Ian; Dalby, Stephen M

    2012-11-01

    The total synthesis of the cAMP signaling pathway activator (-)-alotaketal A is reported. A convergent approach to the unusual alotane sesterterpenoid skeleton was employed, exploiting a remarkable LiDBB-mediated coupling of an (R)-carvone-derived ?-lactone with an allyl bromide side chain, followed by spiroacetalization. PMID:23094646

  7. CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS & TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical account of the utility of microwaves in a variety of chemical synthesis applications will be presented, including a solvent-free strategy that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such...

  8. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao-Jun Li; Barry M. Trost

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign.

  9. SYNTHESIS OF IRON-GERMANIUM

    E-print Network

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    SYNTHESIS OF IRON-GERMANIUM Summer Research 2010 Rohan Isaac Advisor: Dr. Amer Lahamer #12;What the escape of a percentage of germanium by starting initially with more germanium than necessary, and anticipating that the same percent of germanium will escape under the same conditions. Cook for 6 hours at 850

  10. Superconducting Technology Program Sandia 1994 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.P.

    1995-10-01

    Sandia`s STP program is a four-part high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, thallium-based HTS film development, wire and tape fabrication, and HTS motor design. The objective of this work is to develop high-temperature superconducting conductors (wire and tape) capable of meeting requirements for high-power electrical devices of interest to industry. The four research efforts currently underway are: (1) Process research on the material synthesis of high-temperature superconductors, (2) Investigation of the synthesis and processing of thallium-based high-temperature superconducting thick films, (3) Process development and characterization of high-temperature superconducting wire and tape, and (4) Cryogenic design of a high-temperature superconducting motor. This report outlines the research that has been performed during FY94 in each of these four areas. Major areas of research are described, although no attempt has been made to exhaustively include all work performed in each of these areas.

  11. Superconducting Technology Program: Sandia 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Superconductivity Materials and Optical Properties Dept.

    1994-05-01

    Sandia`s STP program is a four-part high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, thallium-based HTS film development, wire and tape fabrication, and HTS motor design. The objective of this work is to develop high-temperature superconducting conductors (wire and tape) capable of meeting requirements for high-power electrical devices of interest to industry. The four research efforts currently underway are: (1) process research on the material synthesis of high-temperature superconductors; (2) investigation of the synthesis and processing of thallium-based high-temperature superconducting thick films; (3) process development and characterization of high-temperature superconducting wire and tape, and (4) cryogenic design of a high-temperature superconducting motor. This report outlines the research that has been performed during FY93 in each of these four areas. A brief background of each project is included to provide historical context and perspective. Major areas of research are described, although no attempt has been made to exhaustively include all work performed in each of these areas.

  12. CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT CANCER PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT CANCER PROGRAM 2010 ANNUAL REPORT WITH STATISTICAL DATA FROM 2009 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS MEDICAL CENTER #12;2 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT 2 #12;3 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT 3 UIMC CANCER PROGRAM CHANGING MULTIDISCIPLINARY CARE. FOR GOOD. #12;4 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT

  13. Reverse Micelle Based Synthesis of Microporous Materials in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    2001-01-01

    Microporous materials include a large group of solids of varying chemical composition as well as porosity. These materials are characterized by channels and cavities of molecular dimensions. The framework structure is made up of interconnecting T-O-T' bonds, where T and T' can be Si, Al, P, Ga, Fe, Co, Zn, B and a host of other elements. Materials with Si-O-Al bonding in the framework are called zeolites and are extensively used in many applications. Ion-exchange properties of these materials are exploited in the consumer and environmental industries. Chemical and petroleum industries use zeolites as catalysts in hydrocarbon transform ations. Synthesis of new microporous frameworks has led to the development of new technologies, and thus considerable effort worldwide is expended in their discovery. Microporous materials are typically made under hydrothermal conditions. Influence of nature of starting reactants, structure directing agents, pH, temperature, and aging all have profound influence on the synthesis process. This is primarily because the most interesting open frameworks are not necessarily the stable structures in the reaction medium. Thus, the discovery of new frameworks is often tied to finding the right composition and synthesis conditions that allow for kinetic stabilization of the structure. This complexity of the synthesis process and limited understanding of it has made it difficult to develop directed is of microporous materials and most advances in this field have been made by trial and error. The basic issues in crystal growth of these materials include: (1) Nature of the nucleation process; (2) Molecular structure and assembly of nuclei; (3) Growth of nuclei into crystals; (4) Morphology control; and (5) Transformation of frameworks into other structures. The NASA-funded research described in this paper focuses on all the above issues and has been described in several publications. We present the highlights of our program, especially with the focus on possible experiments in microgravity.

  14. Perfluorophenyl Azides: New Applications in Surface Functionalization and Nanomaterial Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Hong; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    Conspectus A major challenge in materials science is the ongoing search for coupling agents that are readily synthesized, capable of versatile chemistry, able to easily functionalize materials and surfaces, and efficient in covalently linking organic and inorganic entities. A decade ago, we began a research program investigating perfluorophenylazides (PFPAs) as the coupling agents in surface functionalization and nanomaterial synthesis. The p-substituted PFPAs are attractive heterobifunctional coupling agents because of their two distinct and synthetically distinguishable reactive centers: (i) the fluorinated phenylazide, which is capable of forming stable covalent adducts, and (ii) the functional group R, which can be tailored through synthesis. Two approaches have been undertaken for material synthesis and surface functionalization. The first method involves synthesizing PFPA bearing the first molecule or material with a functional linker R, and then attaching the resulting PFPA to the second material by activating the azido group. In the second approach, the material surface is first functionalized with PFPA via functional center R, and coupling of the second molecule or material is achieved with the surface azido groups. In this Account, we review the design and protocols of the two approaches, providing examples in which PFPA derivatives were successfully used in material surface functionalization, ligand conjugation, and the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials. The methods developed have proved to be general and versatile, and they are applicable to a wide range of materials (especially those that lack reactive functional groups or are difficult to derivatize) and to various substrates of polymers, oxides, carbon materials, and metal films. The coupling chemistry can be initiated by light, heat, and electrons. Patterned structures can be generated by selectively activating the areas of interest. Furthermore, the process is easy to perform, and light activation occurs in minutes, greatly facilitating the efficiency of the reaction. PFPAs indeed demonstrate many benefits as versatile surface coupling agents and offer opportunities for further exploration. PMID:20690606

  15. An oxygen-regulated switch in the protein synthesis machinery.

    PubMed

    Uniacke, James; Holterman, Chet E; Lachance, Gabriel; Franovic, Aleksandra; Jacob, Mathieu D; Fabian, Marc R; Payette, Josianne; Holcik, Martin; Pause, Arnim; Lee, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Protein synthesis involves the translation of ribonucleic acid information into proteins, the building blocks of life. The initial step of protein synthesis is the binding of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) to the 7-methylguanosine (m(7)-GpppG) 5'?cap of messenger RNAs. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) represses cap-mediated translation by sequestering eIF4E through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent mechanisms. Although the internal ribosome entry site is an alternative translation initiation mechanism, this pathway alone cannot account for the translational capacity of hypoxic cells. This raises a fundamental question in biology as to how proteins are synthesized in periods of oxygen scarcity and eIF4E inhibition. Here we describe an oxygen-regulated translation initiation complex that mediates selective cap-dependent protein synthesis. We show that hypoxia stimulates the formation of a complex that includes the oxygen-regulated hypoxia-inducible factor 2? (HIF-2?), the RNA-binding protein RBM4 and the cap-binding eIF4E2, an eIF4E homologue. Photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) analysis identified an RNA hypoxia response element (rHRE) that recruits this complex to a wide array of mRNAs, including that encoding the epidermal growth factor receptor. Once assembled at the rHRE, the HIF-2?-RBM4-eIF4E2 complex captures the 5'?cap and targets mRNAs to polysomes for active translation, thereby evading hypoxia-induced repression of protein synthesis. These findings demonstrate that cells have evolved a program by which oxygen tension switches the basic translation initiation machinery. PMID:22678294

  16. Morphologically controlled synthesis of colloidal upconversion nanophosphors and their shape-directed self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xingchen; Collins, Joshua E.; Kang, Yijin; Chen, Jun; Chen, Daniel T. N.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Murray, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    We report a one-pot chemical approach for the synthesis of highly monodisperse colloidal nanophosphors displaying bright upconversion luminescence under 980 nm excitation. This general method optimizes the synthesis with initial heating rates up to 100 °C/minute generating a rich family of nanoscale building blocks with distinct morphologies (spheres, rods, hexagonal prisms, and plates) and upconversion emission tunable through the choice of rare earth dopants. Furthermore, we employ an interfacial assembly strategy to organize these nanocrystals (NCs) into superlattices over multiple length scales facilitating the NC characterization and enabling systematic studies of shape-directed assembly. The global and local ordering of these superstructures is programmed by the precise engineering of individual NC’s size and shape. This dramatically improved nanophosphor synthesis together with insights from shape-directed assembly will advance the investigation of an array of emerging biological and energy-related nanophosphor applications. PMID:21148771

  17. Using Decision Procedures to Build Domain-Specific Deductive Synthesis Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Roach, Steven; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a class of decision procedures that we have found useful for efficient, domain-specific deductive synthesis. These procedures are called closure-based ground literal satisfiability procedures. We argue that this is a large and interesting class of procedures and show how to interface these procedures to a theorem prover for efficient deductive synthesis. Finally, we describe some results we have observed from our implementation. Amphion/NAIF is a domain-specific, high-assurance software synthesis system. It takes an abstract specification of a problem in solar system mechanics, such as 'when will a signal sent from the Cassini spacecraft to Earth be blocked by the planet Saturn?', and automatically synthesizes a FORTRAN program to solve it.

  18. Program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Waltz, C F

    1989-05-01

    In this chapter, evaluation was defined as a decision-making process that leads to suggestions for action to maintain and/or improve effectiveness and efficiency of programs and participants. Purposes for evaluating nursing programs in education and service were explained. The principles that govern evaluation in nursing, which are the same as those that govern the evaluation of any programmatic endeavor, were presented. The unique and specific character of nursing and its settings, which must be taken into account when strategies and techniques for implementing these principles are designed and/or selected, were discussed. Of major concern was the selection of an approach to evaluating nursing programs. Models for evaluating programs that have served as prototypes for evaluation in a variety of settings and fields were presented. More specifically, the views addressed included: Tyler's Objective-Based Evaluation, Accreditation/Certification Evaluation, Stake's Client-Centered Evaluation, Stufflebeam's Decision-Oriented Evaluation, Taba's Experimental-Research Evaluation, and Scriven's Consumer-Oriented Evaluation. Also discussed was the Utilization-Focused Approach to Evaluation. However, while all prototypes contribute in some manner to the conditions necessary for conducting a comprehensive evaluation of nursing programs, none are complete or sufficient in this regard. An eclectic approach to evaluating nursing programs developed by Waltz in an attempt to incorporate the strengths of existing models, minimize limitations, and expand thinking to include additional components and concerns with particular relevance to nursing was discussed. Attention was given to definition of terms, purposes for the evaluation, what the focus of the evaluation is, how the evaluation should proceed, when evaluation should occur, and major audiences. Specific considerations that increase the likelihood that an evaluation will be comprehensive but cost-efficient were elaborated. PMID:2664703

  19. Design, Synthesis and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Nan Yao; Enrique Iglesia

    2007-03-31

    This project extends previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rates and selectivities for synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic results previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During the third and fourth reporting periods, we improved the catalysts preparation method, which led to Fe-based materials with the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported, a finding that allowed their operation at lower temperatures and pressures with high selectivity to desired products (C{sub 5+}, olefins). During the fifth and sixth reporting period, we studied the effects of different promoters on catalytic performance, specifically how their sequence of addition dramatically influenced the performance of these materials in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. We also continued our studies of the kinetic behavior of these materials during the sixth reporting period. Specifically, the effects of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} on the rates and selectivities of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis reactions led us to propose a new sequence of elementary steps on Fe and Co Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Finally, we also started a study of the use of colloidal precipitation methods for the synthesis small Co clusters using recently developed methods to explore possible further improvements in FTS rates and selectivities. We found that colloidal synthesis makes possible the preparation of small cobalt particles, although large amount of cobalt silicate species, which are difficult to reduce, were formed. During this seventh reporting period, we have explored several methods to modify the silanol groups on SiO{sub 2} by using either a homogeneous deposition-precipitation method or surface titration of Si-OH on SiO{sub 2} with zirconium (IV) ethoxide to prevent the formation of unreducible and unreactive CoO{sub x} species during synthesis and FTS catalysis. We have synthesized monometallic Co/ZrO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts with different Co loadings (11-20 wt%) by incipient wetness impregnation methods and characterized the prepared Co supported catalysts by H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR) and H{sub 2}-chemisorption. We have measured the catalytic performance in FTS reactions and shown that although the hydroxyl groups on the SiO{sub 2} surface are difficult to be fully titrated by ZrO{sub 2}, modification of ZrO{sub 2} on SiO{sub 2} surface can improve the Co clusters dispersion and lead to a larger number of exposed Co surface atoms after reduction and during FTS reactions. During this seventh reporting period, we have also advanced our development of the reaction mechanism proposed in the previous reporting period. Specifically, we have shown that our novel proposal for the pathways involved in CO activation on Fe and Co catalysts is consistent with state-of-the-art theoretical calculations carried out in collaboration with Prof. Manos Mavrikakis (University of Wisconsin-Madison). Finally, we have also worked on the preparation of several manuscripts describing our findings about the preparation, activation and mechanism of the FTS with Fe-based catalysts and we have started redacting the final report for this project.

  20. Identifying and managing inappropriate hospital utilization: a policy synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, S M

    1987-01-01

    Utilization review, the assessment of the appropriateness and efficiency of hospital care through review of the medical record, and utilization management, deliberate action by payers or hospital administrators to influence providers of hospital services to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which services are provided, are valuable but relatively unfamiliar strategies for containing hospital costs. The purpose of this synthesis is to increase awareness of the scope of and potential for these approaches among health services managers and administrators, third-party payers, policy analysts, and health services researchers. The synthesis will assist the reader to trace the conceptual context and the historical development of utilization review from unstructured methods using individual physicians' professional judgment to structured methods using explicit criteria; to establish the context of utilization review and clarify its uses; to understand the concepts and tools used in assessing the efficiency of hospital use; and to select, design, and evaluate utilization review and utilization management programs. The extent of inappropriate (medical unnecessary) hospital utilization and the factors associated with it are described. Implications for managers, providers, and third-party payers in targeting utilization review and in designing and evaluating utilization management programs are discussed. PMID:3121538

  1. Organocatalytic Asymmetric Assembly Reactions: Synthesis of Spirooxindoles via Organocascade Strategies

    E-print Network

    Barbas III, Carlos F.

    Organocatalytic Asymmetric Assembly Reactions: Synthesis of Spirooxindoles via Organocascade in the enantioselective synthesis of spirooxindoles via organocascade strategies. Various organocatalysts with distinct on the enantioselective synthesis of spirooxindoles via organocascade strategies and is organized on the basis of three

  2. Dynamic Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald A. Howard; Todd Callantine

    1966-01-01

    Dynamic programming is a mathematical technique for solving certain types of sequential decision problems. We characterize a sequential decision problem as a problem in which a sequence of decisions must be made with each decision affecting future decisions. We need to consider such problems because we rarely encounter an operational situation where the implications of any decision do not extend

  3. Program Description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Dinis; Wynne DuBray; Joan Dworkin; Susan Eggman; John Erlich; Janice Gagerman; Krishna Guadalupe; Jacqueline Kelly; Robin Kennedy; Serge Lee; Mimi Lewis; Doman Lum; Mary Beth Montgomery; Sylvia Navari; Nicole Nicotera; David Nylund; Tony Platt; Eva Revesz; Dale Russell; Arline Prigoff; John Strother; Susan Taylor; Santos Torres; Francis Yuen

    USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives' (OTI) Initial Governance Response Program (IGRP) assists the Government of Colombia (GOC) to stabilize areas recently retaken from insurgent forces by promoting government presence and responsiveness to local needs. OTI's main government partner is the Center for Coordination of Integrated Action (CCAI by its Spanish acronym), which is part of the Office of the President

  4. Federal Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information for federal offices that provide educational and rehabilitation services information for individuals with disabilities, including those with hearing impairments. Information is provided on the Office of Special Education Programs, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and the…

  5. Program Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

  6. CCG Programs

    Cancer.gov

    CCG and the offices it oversees—The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG)—manage multiple programs. These offices serve to advance CCG's goal of ushering in a modern era of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention based on the study of genomes.

  7. Summer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Isabella H.

    An intensive 6-week summer readiness program held in the Beaver Area School District, Beaver, Pennsylvania, developed linguistic facility among 15 preschool children. Daily activities included discussion, picture study, creative arts, field trips, developing experience charts, and other nonlanguage arts activities. A combined experiential,…

  8. ChucK: A Concurrent, On-the-fly, Audio Programming Language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ge Wang; Perry R. Cook

    2003-01-01

    ChucK is a new audio programming language for real-time synthesis, composition, and performance, which runs on commodity operating systems. ChucK natively supports concurrency, multiple, simultaneous, dynamic control rates, and the ability to add, remove, and modify code, on-the-fly, while the program is running, without stopping or restarting. It offers composers and performers a powerful and flexible programming tool for building

  9. Biota of North America Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The goal of the Biota of North America Program (BONAP) is to develop a unified digital system for assessing the North American biota. BONAP's database now includes assessment for all vascular plants and vertebrate animals (native, naturalized, and adventive) of North America north of Mexico, and it maintains the most current taxonomy, nomenclature, and biogeographic data for all members of the biota. The Synthesis of the North American Flora, published in 1999, is available for purchase as a CD-ROM (ordering information is provided); a 1mb demonstration version for Windows is available through the BONAP site. The Synthesis includes taxonomic, nomenclatural, and biogeographic data and images, enabling users to produce species checklists, distribution summaries, and species assessments for morphology, rarity, endemism, nativity, and other biological attributes. It consists of three parts: the "Lexicon," which provides the underlying nomenclature and taxonomy; the "Atlas," which displays distribution maps for each of the accepted taxa; and the "Biological Attributes," which provides summaries of morphological and other specialized data (rarity and endemism, nativity, weediness, habit, habitat, and others).

  10. A Program Certification Assistant Based on Fully Automated Theorem Provers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2005-01-01

    We describe a certification assistant to support formal safety proofs for programs. It is based on a graphical user interface that hides the low-level details of first-order automated theorem provers while supporting limited interactivity: it allows users to customize and control the proof process on a high level, manages the auxiliary artifacts produced during this process, and provides traceability between the proof obligations and the relevant parts of the program. The certification assistant is part of a larger program synthesis system and is intended to support the deployment of automatically generated code in safety-critical applications.

  11. Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesia, E.

    1995-04-24

    The contract objectives are: to design a catalytic material for the synthesis of isobutanol with a productivity of 200 g isoalcohols/g-cat-h and a molar isobutanol/methanol ratio near unity; and to develop structure-function rules for the design of catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas to isoalcohols. Several catalyst samples have been prepared by controlled co-precipitation from aqueous mixtures of metal nitrates. The composition of these materials is based on reports of best available catalysts for methanol synthesis, for isobutanol synthesis, and for methanol coupling reactions. The mechanical construction and pressure testing of the microreactor system has been completed. The in-situ infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a nitrogen purge is fully operational. The temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) unit has been designed; construction will begin during the third quarter FY`95. Air Products and Chemicals has provided us with a sample of a BASF isobutanol synthesis catalyst and with catalytic data obtained on this catalyst in a LaPorte test run. This catalyst will serve as a benchmark for the certification of our new microreactor system.

  12. Utopianism in the British evolutionary synthesis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    In this paper I propose a new interpretation of the British evolutionary synthesis. The synthetic work of J. B. S. Haldane, R. A. Fisher and J. S. Huxley was characterized by both an integration of Mendelism and Darwinism and the unification of different biological subdisciplines within a coherent framework. But it must also be seen as a bold and synthetic Darwinian program in which the biosciences served as a utopian blueprint for the progress of civilization. Describing the futuristic visions of these three scientists in their synthetic heydays, I show that, despite a number of important divergences, their biopolitical ideals could be biased toward a controlled and regimented utopian society. Their common ideals entailed a social order where liberal and democratic principles were partially or totally suspended in favor of bioscientific control and planning for the future. Finally, I will argue that the original redefinition of Darwinism that modern synthesizers proposed is a significant historical example of how Darwinism has been used and adapted in different contexts. The lesson I draw from this account is a venerable one: that, whenever we wish to define Darwinism, we need to recognize not only its scientific content and achievements but expose the other traditions and ideologies it may have supported. PMID:21300314

  13. Enantioselective organocatalytic construction of hexahydropyrroloindole by means of ?-alkylation of aldehydes leading to the total synthesis of (+)-gliocladin C.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin; Guo, Chang; Adele, Arafate; Yin, Hao; Gong, Liu-Zhu

    2013-03-01

    12-step program: The combined use of cinchona alkaloid based amine and chiral phosphoric acid enabled the asymmetric alkylation reaction of 3-hydroxyoxindoles with aldehydes to give 3,3'-disubstituted oxindoles in excellent enantioselectivities, which allows for the enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-gliocladin?C in 12?steps from 3-hydroxyoxindole with 19?% overall yield (see scheme; PMB = para-methoxybenzyl). PMID:23401076

  14. Developing Understanding of Innovative Strategies of Teaching Science through Action Research: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Nelofer

    2012-01-01

    This study is a meta-synthesis of 20 action research studies undertaken in the classroom by teachers to develop their understanding of an innovative strategy for teaching science. The studies were undertaken as part of the requirements for their 2-year M.Ed. program from the Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED),…

  15. Synthesis of Mixed Ceramic MgxZn1-xO Nanofibers via Mg2+ Using Sol-Gel Electrospinning

    E-print Network

    Khan, Saad A.

    acetate (MgAc) and zinc acetate (ZnAc) with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), electrospinning is performedSynthesis of Mixed Ceramic MgxZn1-xO Nanofibers via Mg2+ Doping Using Sol-Gel Electrospinning Yakup Aykut,,§ Gregory N. Parsons, Behnam Pourdeyhimi, and Saad A. Khan*, Fiber and Polymer Science Program

  16. The Role of Reflection in Elementary Mathematics and Science Teachers' Training and Development: A Meta-Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Laura Lackner; Johnson, Carla C.

    2014-01-01

    Meaningful and effective training and professional development programs for teachers are key to the improvement of teaching practices in our schools. In this paper, the authors offer a meta-synthesis of the literature on the role of reflection for mathematics and science teachers within the context of professional development. The authors frame…

  17. Direct synthesis of LPG from synthesis gas over Pd–Zn–Cr\\/Pd-? hybrid catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingjie Ge; Xiaohong Li; Hiroshi Kaneko; Kaoru Fujimoto

    2007-01-01

    The reaction of synthesis gas to liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) over Zn–Cr-based hybrid catalysts was systematically investigated in this paper. The results show that the synergistic effect, existed in the Zn–Cr-based methanol synthesis component and ? zeolite, results in the high performance of hybrid catalysts for synthesis gas to LPG. Active metal Pd in the ? zeolite mainly play the

  18. Probabilistic Synthesis of Personal-Style Handwriting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyunil; Kim, Jin Hyung

    The goal of personal-style handwriting synthesis is to produce texts in the same style as an individual writer by analyzing the writer's samples of handwriting. The difficulty of handwriting synthesis is that the output should have the characteristics of the person's handwriting as well as looking natural, based on a limited number of available examples. We develop a synthesis algorithm which produces handwriting that exhibits naturalness based on the probabilistic character model.

  19. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

  20. RNA synthesis during male meiosis and spermiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Henderson

    1964-01-01

    1.Using 3H-uridine, the course of RNA synthesis has been followed autoradiographically during all stages of male meiosis and spermiogenesis in the locusts Schistocerca gregaria and Cyrtacanthacris tartarica and the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus. Using 3H-thymidine, premeiotic DNA synthesis was followed in Cyrtacanthacris tartarica.2.RNA synthesis is actively carried out by all autosomes throughout first meiotic prophase, up to and including diakinesis, and

  1. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-maoecrystal V.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Changwu; Dubovyk, Igor; Lazarski, Kiel E; Thomson, Regan J

    2014-12-24

    The enantioselective synthesis of maoecrystal V, a cytotoxic polycyclic diterpene, is described. Key reactions in the synthesis include an intramolecular Heck reaction, an oxidative cycloetherification, and an intermolecular Diels-Alder reaction to forge the carbocyclic core in a concise and stereoselective manner. Late-stage amine and C-H oxidation is used to install the final functional groups required to complete the synthesis. PMID:25495370

  2. Rapid synthesis of aligned zinc oxide nanowires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Husnu Emrah Unalan; Pritesh Hiralal; Nalin Rupesinghe; Sharvari Dalal; William I. Milne; Gehan A. J. Amaratunga

    2008-01-01

    A solution growth approach for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires is highly appealing because of the low growth temperature and possibility for large area synthesis. Reported reaction times for ZnO nanowire synthesis, however, are long, spanning from several hours to days. In this work, we report on the rapid synthesis of ZnO nanowires on various substrates (such as poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET),

  3. Total synthesis of Class II and Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids

    E-print Network

    Tjandra, Meiliana

    2010-01-01

    I. Total Synthesis of All Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids We describe the total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-galbulimima alkaloid 13, (-)-himgaline anad (-)-himbadine. The absolute stereochemistry of natural (-)-galbulimima ...

  4. Formal total synthesis of aliskiren.

    PubMed

    Peters, Byron K; Liu, Jianguo; Margarita, Cristiana; Andersson, Pher G

    2015-05-01

    The efficient and selective formal total synthesis of aliskiren is described. Aliskiren, a renin inhibitor drug, has received considerable attention, primarily because it is the first of the renin inhibitor drugs to be approved by the FDA. Herein, the formal synthesis of aliskiren by iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of two allylic alcohol fragments is reported. Screening a number of N,P-ligated iridium catalysts yielded two catalysts that gave the highest enantioselectivity in the hydrogenation, which gave the saturated alcohols in 97 and 93?% ee. In only four steps after hydrogenation, the fragments were combined by using the Julia-Kocienski reaction to produce late-stage intermediate in an overall yield of 18?%. PMID:25783891

  5. Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Hoang Nguyen

    2003-05-31

    With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

  6. Plant Desiccation and Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gwó?d?, Edward A.; Bewley, J. Derek

    1975-01-01

    The conditions and requirements for an in vitro protein synthesizing system from the moss Tortula ruralis are outlined. Using this system the effects of desiccation, achieved quickly or slowly, were studied. Slowly dried moss retained fewer polyribosomes on desiccation but more active ribosomes than rapidly dried moss. Even in the completely desiccated moss the polyribosomes and/or free ribosomes present have retained their synthetic capacities. On rehydration, the slowly dried moss resumed protein synthesis more quickly than moss previously desiccated rapidly. Moss ribosomes are cycloheximide sensitive and chloramphenicol insensitive and thus the major protein synthesis occurs within the cytoplasm on rehydration. Extracted polyribosomes per se can withstand desiccation to a significant extent, suggesting that protection by the cytoplasm might not be necessary. The aquatic moss Hygrohypnum luridum can retain polyribosomal and ribosomal activity during desiccation, but this decreases greatly on rehydration. PMID:16659079

  7. Cellulose Synthesis and Its Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Lei, Lei; Gu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer synthesized on land, is made of linear chains of ß (1–4) linked D-glucose. As a major structural component of the cell wall, cellulose is important not only for industrial use but also for plant growth and development. Cellulose microfibrils are tethered by other cell wall polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized rosette cellulose synthase complexes. Despite the recent advances using a combination of molecular genetics, live cell imaging, and spectroscopic tools, many aspects of the cellulose synthesis remain a mystery. In this chapter, we highlight recent research progress towards understanding the mechanism of cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:24465174

  8. Total synthesis of maoecrystal v.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Bin; Lin, Guang; Shao, Wen-Bin; Gong, Jian-Xian; Yang, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Maoecrystal V (1) is a novel diterpenoid, which was originally isolated from the leaves of the Chinese medicinal herb Isodon eriocalyx in 2004 by Sun et?al.1 It has been found to be selectively cytotoxic towards HeLa cells, with an IC50 value of 20?ng?mL(-1) . Significant research efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of maoecrystal V because of its intriguing biological properties, rarity in nature, and complex structural features. Herein, we describe our recent investigations, which have culminated in the total synthesis of (±)-maoecrystal V. The current strategy involved three key steps for the successful construction of the key tetrahydrofuran oxa-bridge skeleton, including a Wessely oxidative dearomatization, a novel intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, and a Rh(II) -catalyzed O?H insertion reaction. PMID:25504983

  9. Rate in Template-directed Polymer Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Takuya Saito

    2014-03-29

    We discuss temporal efficiency of template-directed polymer synthesis, such as DNA replication and transcription, under a given template string. To weigh the synthesis speed and accuracy on the same scale, we propose a template-directed synthesis (TDS) rate, which contains an expression analogous to that for the Shannon entropy. Increasing the synthesis speed accelerates the TDS rate, but the TDS rate is lowered if the produced sequences are diversified. We apply the TDS rate to some production system models and investigate how the balance between the speed and the accuracy is affected by changes in the system conditions.

  10. NEUROSCIENCE GRADUATE PROGRAM PROGRAM HANDBOOK

    E-print Network

    Palmeri, Thomas

    by the Vanderbilt Brain Institute. All rights reserved. Mark T. Wallace, Ph.D. Director Douglas G. McMahon, Ph.D. Director of Graduate Studies Rosalind C. Johnson, B.B.A. Interdisciplinary Program Coordinator Handbook ..................................................................................................................................II WELCOME NOTE BY MARK WALLACE

  11. 7. Genetic Programming Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    to cover everything) and interesting current and future research but start with a tutorial of how to get is actually doing. Today. Genetic programming [79] works by applying the power of evolution by natural who is fit, who survives and who has children. Like nature, children are not identical

  12. Fruit IPM Program Program Leader

    E-print Network

    Lazzaro, Brian

    industries - grapes, tree fruit and berries. Contributions to key publications New York and Pennsylvania Pest cherry, strawberry, raspberry, and blueberry. The Crop Update. Lake Erie Regional Grape Program York and the Lake Erie grape belt. Responsiveness to fruit industry needs ­ crop certification

  13. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Aplyviolene

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Larry E.; Schnermann, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    The enantioselective total synthesis of the rearranged spongian diterpene aplyviolene has been completed in 14 steps from the known hydroazulenone 8. The key junction of the hydrocarbon and oxygenated fragments to form the critical C8 quaternary carbon stereocenter and set the stage for elaborating the delicate bicyclic lactone functionality was accomplished in high yield and exquisite stereoselectivity by Michael addition of an enantioenriched hydroazulenone enolate to an enantiopure ?-bromocyclopentenone. PMID:21936525

  14. Enantioselective total synthesis of borrelidin.

    PubMed

    Duffey, Matthew O; LeTiran, Arnaud; Morken, James P

    2003-02-12

    The first total synthesis of the natural product borrelidin is described. The propionate fragment of the molecule was concisely synthesized through catalytic enantioselective reductive aldol reactions, a catalytic Negishi coupling, and a catalytic directed hydrogenation. The propionate segment was then fused to the vinyl iodide fragment through a catalytic Sonogashira coupling. Subsequent catalytic hydrostannylation and catalytic cyanation allowed access to the target structure. PMID:12568588

  15. Synthesis of perfluoroalkylether triazine elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Korus, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of perfluoroalkylether triazine elastomer synthesis is described. To form an elastomer, the resultant polymer is heated in a closed oven at slightly reduced pressures for 1-day periods at 100, 130 and 150 C. A high-molecular-weight perfluoroalkylether triazine elastomer is produced that exhibits thermal and oxidative stability. This material is potentially useful in applications such as high-temperature seals, 'O' rings, and wire enamels.

  16. Asymmetric total synthesis of rollicosin.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Kevin J; Isaacs, André K; DeChristopher, Brian A; Szklarz, Stephanie C; Arvary, Rebecca A

    2005-03-31

    [structure: see text] The first total synthesis of rollicosin, a member of a rare subgroup of Annonaceous acetogenins containing two terminal gamma-lactones, is reported. The approach features a highly regio- and stereoselective tandem ring-closing/cross-metathesis reaction for construction of the east-wing lactone and incorporation of the alkyl spacer. Establishment of the C4 stereocenter and addition of the west-wing lactone were achieved by Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation and enolate alkylation. PMID:15787477

  17. Citrate Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The experiment allows students to view the formation of gold nanoparticles that can be detected by the reflection of a laser beam. This is a fairly inexpensive activity as it involves stock solutions, and equipment present in any science laboratory. Overall, students will enjoy this basic, but still challenging, experiment.

  18. Photonic synthesis of THz signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Seeds; C. C. Renaud; M. Pantouvaki; M. Robertson; I. Lealman; D. Rogers; R. Firth; P. J. Cannard; R. Moore; R. Gwilliam

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a review of our work on photonic synthesis of high spectral purity THz signals. This work includes novel developments on optical frequency comb generation (integrated, 2THz span, 25 GHz spacing), frequency locking of semiconductor lasers (1kHz channel stability, 10 ns switching time) and high speed photodetectors integrated with antennas (3dB bandwidth > 108 GHz, 0.2

  19. Module selection for pipelined synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv Jain; Alice C. Parker

    1988-01-01

    Module selection is one of the many functions which have to be performed during behavioral synthesis of pipelined designs. Module selection is the process of choosing the types of modules (e.g. carry-look-ahead adder) to implement each operation (e.g. addition). In this paper, we give a limited solution to the module selection problem for pipelined designs. A model for estimating area-time

  20. Total Synthesis of Theopederin D

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael E.; Rech, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    The total synthesis of the potent cytotoxin theopederin D has been achieved through the use of an oxidative carbon–carbon bond cleavage reaction to form an acyliminium ion in the presence of acid labile acetal groups Other key transformations include an acid mediated functionalization of a tetrahydrofuranyl alcohol in the presence of a tetrahydropyranyl alcohol, a syn-selective glycal epoxide opening, and a catalytic asymmetric aldehyde-acid chloride condensation. PMID:18683833

  1. A linear synthesis of gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kylie; Weymouth-Wilson, Alex; Linclau, Bruno

    2015-04-10

    Gemcitabine, 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluorocytidine, is currently prescribed against a number of cancers. Here we report a linear synthesis of gemcitabine with a high-yielding direct conversion of 3,5-di-O-benzoyl-2-deoxy-2,2-difluororibose into the corresponding glycosyl urea as the key step, followed by conventional conversion to the cytosine base via the uracil derivative. The process proceeded with modest anomeric selectivity. PMID:25681996

  2. Microbial Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irena Maliszewska

    \\u000a One of the most important aspects in researching nanotechnology is the synthesis of metal nanoparticles of well-defined sizes,\\u000a shapes and controlled monodispersity. The most common methods of preparation are based on harsh chemicals, such as strong\\u000a reducing agents, surfactants, polymer capping agents and, occasionally, organic solvent systems, to achieve better results.\\u000a Therefore, there is a necessity to develop an environment

  3. Biomimetic synthesis of dendridine a.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Emily M; Sperry, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of the bisindole natural product dendridine A is reported. Although attempts to install the hindered biaryl bond by oxidative phenolic coupling of the 7-hydroxytryptamine 6 gave the undesired ortho-ortho product, a Scholl-type oxidative coupling of the 7-isopropoxytryptamine 9 with molybdenum pentachloride proceeded through the desired para-para pathway, installing the entire carbon framework of dendridine A. PMID:25699647

  4. Verification of logic programs and imperative programs

    E-print Network

    Naish, Lee

    believe that writing Prolog programs is not well understood, and writing logic programs which are to be evaluated bottom­up is understood even less well. One of the advantages of logic programmingVerification of logic programs and imperative programs Lee Naish Technical Report 90/6 (Revised May

  5. Program on application of communications satellites to educational development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research in needs analysis, communications technology studies, and systems synthesis is reported. Existing and planned educational telecommunications services are studied and library utilization of telecommunications is described. Preliminary estimates are presented of ranges of utilization of educational telecommunications services for 1975 and 1985; instructional and public television, computer-aided instruction, computing resources, and information resource sharing for various educational levels and purposes. Communications technology studies include transmission schemes for still-picture television, use of Gunn effect devices, and TV receiver front ends for direct satellite reception at 12 GHz. Two major studies in the systems synthesis project concern (1) organizational and administrative aspects of a large-scale instructional satellite system to be used with schools and (2) an analysis of future development of instructional television, with emphasis on the use of video tape recorders and cable television. A communications satellite system synthesis program developed for NASA is now operational on the university IBM 360-50 computer.

  6. Multiview synthesis for autostereoscopic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dane, Gökçe.; Bhaskaran, Vasudev

    2013-09-01

    Autostereoscopic (AS) displays spatially multiplex multiple views, providing a more immersive experience by enabling users to view the content from different angles without the need of 3D glasses. Multiple views could be captured from multiple cameras at different orientations, however this could be expensive, time consuming and not applicable to some applications. The goal of multiview synthesis in this paper is to generate multiple views from a stereo image pair and disparity map by using various video processing techniques including depth/disparity map processing, initial view interpolation, inpainting and post-processing. We specifically emphasize the need for disparity processing when there is no depth information is available that is associated with the 2D data and we propose a segmentation based disparity processing algorithm to improve disparity map. Furthermore we extend the texture based 2D inpainting algorithm to 3D and further improve the hole-filling performance of view synthesis. The benefit of each step of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with comparison to state of the art algorithms in terms of visual quality and PSNR metric. Our system is evaluated in an end-to-end multi view synthesis framework where only stereo image pair is provided as input to the system and 8 views are outputted and displayed in 8-view Alioscopy AS display.

  7. Video-based crowd synthesis.

    PubMed

    Flagg, Matthew; Rehg, James M

    2013-11-01

    As a controllable medium, video-realistic crowds are important for creating the illusion of a populated reality in special effects, games, and architectural visualization. While recent progress in simulation and motion captured-based techniques for crowd synthesis has focused on natural macroscale behavior, this paper addresses the complementary problem of synthesizing crowds with realistic microscale behavior and appearance. Example-based synthesis methods such as video textures are an appealing alternative to conventional model-based methods, but current techniques are unable to represent and satisfy constraints between video sprites and the scene. This paper describes how to synthesize crowds by segmenting pedestrians from input videos of natural crowds and optimally placing them into an output video while satisfying environmental constraints imposed by the scene. We introduce crowd tubes, a representation of video objects designed to compose a crowd of video billboards while avoiding collisions between static and dynamic obstacles. The approach consists of representing crowd tube samples and constraint violations with a conflict graph. The maximal independent set yields a dense constraint-satisfying crowd composition. We present a prototype system for the capture, analysis, synthesis, and control of video-based crowds. Several results demonstrate the system's ability to generate videos of crowds which exhibit a variety of natural behaviors. PMID:24029912

  8. Video-based Crowd Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Flagg, Matthew; Rehg, Jim

    2012-11-29

    As a controllable medium, video-realistic crowds are important for creating the illusion of a populated reality in special effects, games and architectural visualization. While recent progress in simulation and motion captured-based techniques for crowd synthesis has focused on natural macro-scale behavior, this paper addresses the complementary problem of synthesizing crowds with realistic micro-scale behavior and appearance. Example-based synthesis methods such as video textures are an appealing alternative to conventional model-based methods, but current techniques are unable to represent and satisfy constraints between video sprites and the scene. This paper describes how to synthesize crowds by segmenting pedestrians from input videos of natural crowds and optimally placing them into an output video while satisfying environmental constraints imposed by the scene. We introduce crowd tubes, a representation of video objects designed to compose a crowd of video billboards while avoiding collisions between static and dynamic obstacles. The approach consists of representing crowd tube samples and constraint violations with a conflict graph. The maximal independent set yields a dense constraint-satisyfing crowd composition. We present a prototype system for the capture, analysis, synthesis and control of video-based crowds. Several results demonstrate the system's ability to generate videos of crowds which exhibit a variety of natural behaviors. PMID:23209047

  9. Chloroplast ribosomes and protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, E H; Boynton, J E; Gillham, N W

    1994-01-01

    Consistent with their postulated origin from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of plants and algae have ribosomes whose component RNAs and proteins are strikingly similar to those of eubacteria. Comparison of the secondary structures of 16S rRNAs of chloroplasts and bacteria has been particularly useful in identifying highly conserved regions likely to have essential functions. Comparative analysis of ribosomal protein sequences may likewise prove valuable in determining their roles in protein synthesis. This review is concerned primarily with the RNAs and proteins that constitute the chloroplast ribosome, the genes that encode these components, and their expression. It begins with an overview of chloroplast genome structure in land plants and algae and then presents a brief comparison of chloroplast and prokaryotic protein-synthesizing systems and a more detailed analysis of chloroplast rRNAs and ribosomal proteins. A description of the synthesis and assembly of chloroplast ribosomes follows. The review concludes with discussion of whether chloroplast protein synthesis is essential for cell survival. PMID:7854253

  10. Water Stress and Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Dhindsa, Rajinder S.; Bewley, J. Derek

    1977-01-01

    The effects have been studied of water stress and desiccation on protein synthesis in the drought-tolerant moss Tortula ruralis and the drought-sensitive moss Hygrohypnum luridum. At any particular level of steady state water stress, the inhibition of protein synthesis was greater in H. luridum than in T. ruralis. Water stress-induced changes in the pattern of protein synthesis, as determined by the double label ratio technique, were minor in T. ruralis, but major in H. luridum. Proteins of both mosses were found to be stable during desiccation and subsequent rehydration. Changes in membrane permeability, as indicated by the leakage of amino acid, were observed during rehydration of desiccated moss and were dependent on the rate of desiccation. The leakage was small and reversible in T. ruralis but large and irreversible in H. luridum. Although H. luridum failed to recover from complete desiccation (80% loss in fresh weight), it was able to recover fully from steady state stress under conditions where a maximum loss of 55% in fresh weight was recorded. PMID:16659837

  11. Libraries program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.

  12. Developmental Programming

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Lopez, A.; Wurst, A. K.; Steckler, T. L.; Ye, W.; Padmanabhan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Excess of prenatal testosterone (T) induces reproductive defects including follicular persistence. Comparative studies with T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) have suggested that follicular persistence is programmed via estrogenic actions of T. This study addresses the androgenic and estrogenic contributions in programming follicular persistence. Because humans are exposed to estrogenic environmental steroids from various sources throughout their life span and postnatal insults may also induce organizational and/or activational changes, we tested whether continuous postnatal exposure to estradiol (E) will amplify effects of prenatal steroids on ovarian function. Pregnant sheep were treated with T, DHT, E, or ED (E and DHT) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Postnatally, a subset of the vehicle (C), T, and DHT females received an E implant. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed in the first breeding season during a synchronized cycle to monitor ovarian follicular dynamics. As expected, number of ?8 mm follicles was higher in the T versus C group. Postnatal E reduced the number of 4 to 8 mm follicles in the DHT group. Percentage of females bearing luteinized follicles and the number of luteinized follicles differed among prenatal groups. Postnatal E increased the incidence of subluteal cycles in the prenatal T-treated females. Findings from this study confirm previous findings of divergences in programming effects of prenatal androgens and estrogens. They also indicate that some aspects of follicular dynamics are subject to postnatal modulation as well as support the existence of an extended organizational period or the need for a second insult to uncover the previously programmed event. PMID:24077439

  13. Program Development

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation covers how to go about developing a human reliability program. In particular, it touches on conceptual thinking, raising awareness in an organization, the actions that go into developing a plan. It emphasizes evaluating all positions, eliminating positions from the pool due to mitigating factors, and keeping the process transparent. It lists components of the process and objectives in process development. It also touches on the role of leadership and the necessity for audit.

  14. SAMPLES Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hanselmann, Kathryn

    The objective of the SAMPLES (Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services) Program is to enable customers to develop their own innovative products by leveraging advanced design, fabrication, and characterization technologies originally developed for National Laboratory applications. Participants can attend short courses, design new devices, and have those designs fabricated in our state-of-the-art fabrication facility. Additional cost-effective services are also available.

  15. Baseline program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney B.; Vonputtkamer, Jesco

    1992-01-01

    This assumed program was developed from several sources of information and is extrapolated over future decades using a set of reasonable assumptions based on incremental growth. The assumptions for the NASA baseline program are as follows: balanced emphasis in four domains; a constant level of activity; low to moderate real budget growth; maximum use of commonality; and realistic and practical technology development. The first domain is low Earth Orbit (LEO). Activities there are concentrated on the space station but extend on one side to Earth-pointing sensors for unmanned platforms and on the other to the launch and staging of unmanned solar system exploration missions. The second domain is geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cislunar space. Activities here include all GEO missions and operations, both unmanned and manned, and all transport of materials and crews between LEO and the vicinity of the Moon. The third domain is the Moon itself. Lunar activities are to include both orbiting and landing missions; the landings may be either unmanned or manned. The last domain is Mars. Missions to Mars will initially be unmanned but they will eventually be manned. Program elements and descriptions are discussed as are critiques of the NASA baseline.

  16. Zeolite catalysis in the synthesis of isobutylene from hydrous ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Cory Bernard

    1999-11-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of isobutylene from a hydrous ethanol feedstock over zeolites. The synthesis is accomplished in three steps: (1) low-temperature direct ethanol conversion to ethylene on H-ZSM-5 zeolite, (2) ethylene conversion to butene products over metal-exchanged zeolites, and (3) butene skeletal rearrangement to isobutylene over FER zeolites. The key to understanding and optimizing each synthesis step lies in the ability to control and regulate the zeolite acidity (Bronsted and Lewis)---both strength and number. Therefore, the continuous temperature programmed amine desorption (CTPAD) technique was further developed to simultaneously count the Bronsted acid sites and quantitatively characterize their strength. The adsorption of ethanol, reaction products, amines, coke and ethanol-derived residue (EDR) were monitored gravimetrically using the highly sensitive, novel Tapered Element Oscillating Microreactor (TEOM) apparatus. The TEOM was also used also in conjunction with CTPAD to characterize Bronsted acidity which is a new application for the instrument. For the first synthesis step, a parallel reaction exists which simultaneously produces diethyl ether and ethylene directly over H-ZSM-5. The reaction rates for each pathway were measured directly using a differential reactor operating at low temperatures (<473 K). Water in the ethanol feed enhances the rate of ethylene formation. A mechanism and kinetic expression are proposed for this reaction over H-ZSM-5, with diethyl-ether desorption and ethylene formation as the rate limiting steps. Heat of adsorption values measured from the independent microcalorimetry work reported in the literature are incorporated into the kinetic analysis which reduces the number of regressed parameters. For the remaining synthesis steps, several zeolite structures (ZSM-5, Y, FER) partially exchanged with Pd, Ti, Ni and Au were prepared and tested. It was determined from this screening study that the zeolites containing Pd are the most efficient catalysts for the dimerization reaction. Characterization results from x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and CTPAD suggest a stable, Pd species with a low oxidation state as part of the active site in Pd-exchanged zeolites. Isobutylene was present in the C4 fraction at reasonable quantities for most of the catalyst candidates, especially those containing an alkali metal co-cation.

  17. SHIPBOARD LABORATORY SAFETY PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    SHIPBOARD LABORATORY SAFETY PROGRAM INTEGRATED OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM U.S. IMPLEMENTING ................................................................................................................................7 Other TAMU and SIEM Offshore Policies and Programs

  18. URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION as part of your Graduate College application to the Urban Leadership Program/Supervisor: #12;Part 3: LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES: Identify any educational leadership experiences

  19. The MSFC Program Control Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    It is the policy of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that employees be given the opportunity to develop their individual skills and realize their full potential consistent with their selected career path and with the overall Center's needs and objectives. The MSFC Program Control Development Program has been designed to assist individuals who have selected Program Control or Program Analyst Program Control as a career path to achieve their ultimate career goals. Individuals selected to participate in the MSFC Program Control Development Program will be provided with development training in the various Program Control functional areas identified in the NASA Program Control Model. The purpose of the MSFC Program Control Development Program is to develop individual skills in the various Program Control functions by on-the-job and classroom instructional training on the various systems, tools, techniques, and processes utilized in these areas.

  20. Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October--31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesia, E.

    1994-12-31

    Objective was to design a catalyst for synthesizing isobutanol with a productivity of 200 g isoalcohols/g-cat-h and a molar isobutanol/methanol ratio near unity, and to develop structure-function rules for designing catalyst for selective conversion of synthesis gas to isoalcohols. Activities during this period are reported; equipment reported include controlled pH precipitation unit, catalytic microreactor, and temperature programmed surface reaction/infrared unit.