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1

The Role of Ontologies in Schema-based Program Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program synthesis is the process of automatically deriving executable code from (non-executable) high-level specifications. It is more flexible and powerful than conventional code generation techniques that simply translate algorithmic specifications into lower-level code or only create code skeletons from structural specifications (such as UML class diagrams). Key to building a successful synthesis system is specializing to an appropriate application domain. The AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER systems, under development at NASA Ames, operate in the two domains of data analysis and state estimation, respectively. The central concept of both systems is the schema, a representation of reusable computational knowledge. This can take various forms, including high-level algorithm templates, code optimizations, datatype refinements, or architectural information. A schema also contains applicability conditions that are used to determine when it can be applied safely. These conditions can refer to the initial specification, to intermediate results, or to elements of the partially-instantiated code. Schema-based synthesis uses AI technology to recursively apply schemas to gradually refine a specification into executable code. This process proceeds in two main phases. A front-end gradually transforms the problem specification into a program represented in an abstract intermediate code. A backend then compiles this further down into a concrete target programming language of choice. A core engine applies schemas on the initial problem specification, then uses the output of those schemas as the input for other schemas, until the full implementation is generated. Since there might be different schemas that implement different solutions to the same problem this process can generate an entire solution tree. AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER have reached the level of maturity where they enable users to solve interesting application problems, e.g., the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images. They are large (in total around 100kLoC Prolog), knowledge intensive systems that employ complex symbolic reasoning to generate a wide range of non-trivial programs for complex application do- mains. Their schemas can have complex interactions, which make it hard to change them in isolation or even understand what an existing schema actually does. Adding more capabilities by increasing the number of schemas will only worsen this situation, ultimately leading to the entropy death of the synthesis system. The root came of this problem is that the domain knowledge is scattered throughout the entire system and only represented implicitly in the schema implementations. In our current work, we are addressing this problem by making explicit the knowledge from Merent parts of the synthesis system. Here; we discuss how Gruber's definition of an ontology as an explicit specification of a conceptualization matches our efforts in identifying and explicating the domain-specific concepts. We outline the dual role ontologies play in schema-based synthesis and argue that they address different audiences and serve different purposes. Their first role is descriptive: they serve as explicit documentation, and help to understand the internal structure of the system. Their second role is prescriptive: they provide the formal basis against which the other parts of the system (e.g., schemas) can be checked. Their final role is referential: ontologies also provide semantically meaningful "hooks" which allow schemas and tools to access the internal state of the program derivation process (e.g., fragments of the generated code) in domain-specific rather than language-specific terms, and thus to modify it in a controlled fashion. For discussion purposes we use AUTOLINEAR, a small synthesis system we are currently experimenting with, which can generate code for solving a system of linear equations, Az = b.

Bures, Tomas; Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Nistor, Eugen C.

2004-01-01

2

Three-dimensional motor schema based navigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reactive schema-based navigation is possible in space domains by extending the methods developed for ground-based navigation found within the Autonomous Robot Architecture (AuRA). Reformulation of two dimensional motor schemas for three dimensional applications is a straightforward process. The manifold advantages of schema-based control persist, including modular development, amenability to distributed processing, and responsiveness to environmental sensing. Simulation results show the feasibility of this methodology for space docking operations in a cluttered work area.

Arkin, Ronald C.

1989-01-01

3

AutoBayes Program Synthesis System System Internals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This lecture combines the theoretical background of schema based program synthesis with the hands-on study of a powerful, open-source program synthesis system (Auto-Bayes). Schema-based program synthesis is a popular approach toward program synthesis. The lecture will provide an introduction into this topic and discuss how this technology can be used to generate customized algorithms. The synthesis of advanced numerical algorithms requires the availability of a powerful symbolic (algebra) system. Its task is to symbolically solve equations, simplify expressions, or to symbolically calculate derivatives (among others) such that the synthesized algorithms become as efficient as possible. We will discuss the use and importance of the symbolic system for synthesis. Any synthesis system is a large and complex piece of code. In this lecture, we will study Autobayes in detail. AutoBayes has been developed at NASA Ames and has been made open source. It takes a compact statistical specification and generates a customized data analysis algorithm (in C/C++) from it. AutoBayes is written in SWI Prolog and many concepts from rewriting, logic, functional, and symbolic programming. We will discuss the system architecture, the schema libary and the extensive support infra-structure. Practical hands-on experiments and exercises will enable the student to get insight into a realistic program synthesis system and provides knowledge to use, modify, and extend Autobayes.

Schumann, Johann Martin

2011-01-01

4

Accessible programming using program synthesis  

E-print Network

New computing platforms have greatly increased the demand for programmers, but learning to program remains a big challenge. Program synthesis techniques have the potential to revolutionize programming by making it more ...

Singh, Rishabh

2014-01-01

5

Retrofitting the AutoBayes Program Synthesis System with Concrete Syntax  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AutoBayes is a fully automatic, schema-based program synthesis system for statistical data analysis applications. Its core component is a schema library. i.e., a collection of generic code templates with associated applicability constraints which are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis. Currently, AutoBayes is implemented in Prolog; the schemas thus use abstract syntax (i.e., Prolog terms) to formulate the templates. However, the conceptual distance between this abstract representation and the concrete syntax of the generated programs makes the schemas hard to create and maintain. In this paper we describe how AutoBayes is retrofitted with concrete syntax. We show how it is integrated into Prolog and describe how the seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with AutoBayes's remaining legacy meta-programming kernel based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually mitigate individual schemas without forcing a disruptive migration of the entire system to a different First experiences show that a smooth migration can be achieved. Moreover, it can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments.

Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

2004-01-01

6

IMAX: Incremental Maintenance of Schema-based XML Statistics Maya Ramanath1  

E-print Network

are applicable to a static scenario wherein the underlying XML data does not change subsequent to the collection problematic for statis- tics collection techniques that make multiple passes over the data (e.g., [20IMAX: Incremental Maintenance of Schema-based XML Statistics Maya Ramanath1 Lingzhi Zhang2 Juliana

Utah, University of

7

Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

Falzon, P.

1984-01-01

8

Programmed Organic Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes recent attempts to program computers to map synthetic routes to organic compounds. The computer is provided with structural information for many molecules and reaction descriptions; when a target compound is specified, the computer lists possible precursors, thus indicating possible synthetic routes. (MLH)

Heusler, Karl

1975-01-01

9

Variable dimension automatic synthesis programs (VASP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Variable dimension FORTRAN 4 version of the Automatic Synthesis Program (ASP) compensates for limitations within the program itself. Improvements are versatile programming language, convenient input/output format, new subprograms, variable dimensioning, and efficient storage.

White, J. S.; Lee, H. Q.

1972-01-01

10

GASP- GENERAL AVIATION SYNTHESIS PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Aviation Synthesis Program, GASP, was developed to perform tasks generally associated with the preliminary phase of aircraft design. GASP gives the analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner during preliminary design efforts. During the development of GASP, emphasis was placed on small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying from a single piston engine with a fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/turbofan systems as employed in business or transport type aircraft. The program is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines of design, integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedures. GASP provides a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, and performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies. By utilizing GASP, the impact of various aircraft requirements and design factors may be studied in a systematic manner, with benefits being measured in terms of overall aircraft performance and economics. The GASP program consists of a control module and six "technology" submodules which perform the various independent studies required in the design of general aviation or small transport type aircraft. The six technology modules include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, weight and balance, mission analysis, and economics. The geometry module calculates the dimensions of the synthesized aircraft components based on such input parameters as number of passengers, aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweep angles, and thickness of wing and tail surfaces. The aerodynamics module calculates the various lift and drag coefficients of the synthesized aircraft based on inputs concerning configuration geometry, flight conditions, and type of high lift device. The propulsion module determines the engine size and performance for the synthesized aircraft. Both cruise and take-off requirements for the aircraft may be specified. This module can currently simulate turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and reciprocating or rotating combustion engines. The weight and balance module accepts as input gross weight, payload, aircraft geometry, and weight trend coefficients for use in calculating the size of tip tanks and wing location required such that the synthesized aircraft is in balance for center of gravity travel. In the mission analysis module, the taxi, take-off, climb, cruise, and landing segments of a specified mission are analyzed to compute the total range, and the aircraft size required to provide this range is determined. In the economic module both the flyaway and operating costs are determined from estimated resources and services cost. The six technology modules are integrated into a single synthesis system by the control module. This integrated approach ensures that the results from each module contain the effect of design interactions among all the modules. Starting from a set of simple input quantities concerning aircraft type, size, and performance, the synthesis is extended to the point where all of the important aircraft characteristics have been analyzed quantitatively. Together, the synthesis model and procedure develops aircraft configurations in a manner useful in parametric analysis and provides a useful step toward more detailed analytical and experimental studies. The GASP program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 200K(octal) of 60 bit words. The GASP program was developed in 1978.

Galloway, T. L.

1994-01-01

11

Schema-Based Strategy Instruction in Mathematics and the Word Problem-Solving Performance of a Student with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary results on the use of schema-based strategy instruction to teach addition and subtraction word problem solving to a fourth grade student with autism. The student was taught to use schematic diagrams to solve three types of addition and subtraction word problems. A multiple probes across…

Rockwell, Sarah B.; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Jones, Hazel A.

2011-01-01

12

Sehwa: a program for synthesis of pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a set of techniques for the synthesis of pipelined data paths, and presents Sehwa, a program which performs such synthesis. The task includes the generation of data paths from a data flow graph along with a clocking scheme which overlaps execution of multiple tasks. Some examples which Sehwa has designed are given. Sehwa can find the minimum

Alice C. Parker

1986-01-01

13

A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management  

PubMed Central

In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products. Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

2013-01-01

14

A split-path schema-based RFID data storage model in supply chain management.  

PubMed

In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

2013-01-01

15

Inductive Synthesis of Recursive Logic Programs: Achievements and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inductive synthesis of recursive logic programs from incomplete information, such as input\\/output examples, is a challenging subfield both of ILP (Inductive Logic Programming) and of the synthesis (in general) of logic programs from formal specifications. We first overview past and present achievements, focusing on the techniques that were de- signed specifically for the inductive synthesis of recursive logic programs,

Pierre Flener; Serap Yilmaz

1999-01-01

16

A VISUAL PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE FOR SOUND SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main problems of Computer music is the availability of easy-to-use software systems in order to produce sound analysis and synthesis and rarely users are capable to utilize these systems without being expert programmers. In this paper, a visual programming language (VPL) software (Chang 1987, Shu 1986, Burnett and Baker 1994) of sound synthesis and analysis, named WFSound

Eleonora Bilotta; Pietro Pantano; Stefano Ven

2003-01-01

17

Towards High-Assurance High-Performance Program Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Domain-specific automatic program synthesis tools, also called application generators, are playing an ever-increasing role in software development. However, high-performance application generators require difficult manual construction, and are very difficult to verify correct. This paper describes research and an implemented system that transforms program synthesis tools based on deductive synthesis into high-performance application generators. Deductive synthesis uses theorem-proving to construct solutions when given problem specifications. The verification condition for a deductive synthesis tool is essentially the soundness of the implemented inference rules. Theory Operationalization for Program Synthesis (TOPS) synergistically combines reformulation, automated mathematical classification, and compilation through partial deduction to decision procedures. It transforms general-purpose deductive synthesis, with exponential performance, into efficient special-purpose deductive synthesis, with near-linear performance. This paper describes our experience with and empirical results of PD(TH) theory-based partial deduction - in which partial deduction of a set of first-order formulae is performed within the context of a background theory. The implemented TOPS system currently performs a special variant of PD(TH) in which the compilation process results in the transformation of a set of first order formulae into the theory of an instantiated library decision procedure augmented by a compiled unit theory.

Lowry, Michael; Roach, Steven; vanBaalen, Jeffrey

1997-01-01

18

AUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING OF IMPROVED PID TUNING RULES  

E-print Network

AUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING OF IMPROVED PID TUNING RULES Matthew J. Streeter1 University Abstract: Astrom and Hagglund developed tuning rules in 1995 for PID controllers that outperform genetic programming to automatically discover tuning rules for PID controllers that outperform the Astrom

Fernandez, Thomas

19

An implementation of the distributed programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for implementing a flexible software system that combines large, complex programs with small, user-supplied, problem-dependent programs and that distributes their execution between a mainframe and a minicomputer. The Programming Structural Synthesis System (PROSSS) was the specific software system considered. The results of such distributed implementation are flexibility of the optimization procedure organization and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables.

Rogers, J. L., Jr.

1981-01-01

20

Stiffness coupling application to modal synthesis program, users guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN IV computer program used to perform modal synthesis of structures by stiffness coupling, using the dynamic transformation method is described. The program was named SCAMP (Stiffness Coupling Approach Modal-Synthesis Program). The program begins with the entry of a substructure's physical mode shapes and eigenvalues or a substructure's mass and stiffness matrix. If the mass and stiffness matrices are entered, the eigen problem for the individual substructure is solved. Provisions are included for a maximum of 20 substructures which are coupled by stiffness matrix springs. Each substructure has a number degrees of freedom (DOF), except that for DOF greater than 100; vector sets having maximum row and column size of 100 were generated prior to entering SCAMP. The substructures are then coupled together via coupling springs, and the dynamic transformation is used to reduce the size of the eigen problem.

Kuhar, E. J.

1976-01-01

21

System for Structural Synthesis Combines Finite-Element Analysis and Optimization Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programming System for Structural Synthesis, EAL/PROSSS, provides structural-synthesis capability by combining EAL and CONMIN computer programs with set of interface procedures. EAL is general-purpose finiteelement structural-analysis program; CONMIN is general-purpose optimization program. User supplies two smaller problem-dependent programs to define design variables, constraints, and objective function.

Rogers, J. L., Jr.

1984-01-01

22

An implementation of the programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A particular implementation of the programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS) is described. This software system combines a state of the art optimization program, a production level structural analysis program, and user supplied, problem dependent interface programs. These programs are combined using standard command language features existing in modern computer operating systems. PROSSS is explained in general with respect to this implementation along with the steps for the preparation of the programs and input data. Each component of the system is described in detail with annotated listings for clarification. The components include options, procedures, programs and subroutines, and data files as they pertain to this implementation. An example exercising each option in this implementation to allow the user to anticipate the type of results that might be expected is presented.

Rogers, J. L., Jr.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Bhat, R. B.

1981-01-01

23

Alternative mathematical programming formulations for FSS synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of mathematical programming models and two solution strategies are suggested for the problem of allocating orbital positions to (synthesizing) satellites in the Fixed Satellite Service. Mixed integer programming and almost linear programming formulations are presented in detail for each of two objectives: (1) positioning satellites as closely as possible to specified desired locations, and (2) minimizing the total length of the geostationary arc allocated to the satellites whose positions are to be determined. Computational results for mixed integer and almost linear programming models, with the objective of positioning satellites as closely as possible to their desired locations, are reported for three six-administration test problems and a thirteen-administration test problem.

Reilly, C. H.; Mount-Campbell, C. A.; Gonsalvez, D. J. A.; Levis, C. A.

1986-01-01

24

A spectrum synthesis program for binary stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new program produces synthetic spectra of binary stars at arbitrary values of orbital longitude, including longitudes of partial or complete eclipse. The stellar components may be distorted, either tidally or rotationally, or both. Either or both components may be rotating nonsynchronously. We illustrate the program performance with two cases: EE Peg, an eclipsing binary with small distortion, and SX Aur, an eclipsing binary that is close to contact.

Linnell, Albert P.; Hubeny, Ivan

1994-01-01

25

Users manual for the Variable dimension Automatic Synthesis Program (VASP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dictionary and some problems for the Variable Automatic Synthesis Program VASP are submitted. The dictionary contains a description of each subroutine and instructions on its use. The example problems give the user a better perspective on the use of VASP for solving problems in modern control theory. These example problems include dynamic response, optimal control gain, solution of the sampled data matrix Ricatti equation, matrix decomposition, and pseudo inverse of a matrix. Listings of all subroutines are also included. The VASP program has been adapted to run in the conversational mode on the Ames 360/67 computer.

White, J. S.; Lee, H. Q.

1971-01-01

26

Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program has a two-fold purpose. It can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general-purpose branched trajectory optimization program. In the former use, it has the Space Shuttle Synthesis Program as well as a simplified stage weight module for optimally sizing manned recoverable launch vehicles. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent; the second employs the method of quasilinearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

1972-01-01

27

AutoBayes Program Synthesis System Users Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program synthesis is the systematic, automatic construction of efficient executable code from high-level declarative specifications. AutoBayes is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the statistical data analysis domain; in particular, it solves parameter estimation problems. It has seen many successful applications at NASA and is currently being used, for example, to analyze simulation results for Orion. The input to AutoBayes is a concise description of a data analysis problem composed of a parameterized statistical model and a goal that is a probability term involving parameters and input data. The output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code computing the values for those parameters that maximize the probability term. AutoBayes can solve many subproblems symbolically rather than having to rely on numeric approximation algorithms, thus yielding effective, efficient, and compact code. Statistical analysis is faster and more reliable, because effort can be focused on model development and validation rather than manual development of solution algorithms and code.

Schumann, Johann; Jafari, Hamed; Pressburger, Tom; Denney, Ewen; Buntine, Wray; Fischer, Bernd

2008-01-01

28

A Program Structure for Event-Based Speech Synthesis by Rules within a Flexible Segmental Framework.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program structure based on recently developed techniques for operating system simulation has the required flexibility for use as a speech synthesis algorithm research framework. This program makes synthesis possible with less rigid time and frequency-component structure than simpler schemes. It also meets real-time operation and memory-size…

Hill, David R.

1978-01-01

29

Integration of Major Computer Program Packages into Experimental Courses: Organic Synthesis Design and the Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents discussion on: (1) computer assisted synthesis in industry and academia; (2) computer applications to teaching organic synthesis; (3) a computer program (ORGSYN) incorporating reactions to synthesize aliphatic compounds; and (4) the design of a computer program as a heuristic device in an introductory organic course. (SK)

Sandel, Bonnie Burns; Solomon, Robert W.

1981-01-01

30

The AutoBayes Program Synthesis System: System Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AUTOBAYES is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the statistical data analysis domain. Its input is a concise description of a data analysis problem in the form of a statistical model; its output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code which can be linked dynamically into the Matlab and Octave environments. AUTOBAYES synthesizes code by a schema-guided deductive process. Schemas (i.e., code templates with associated semantic constraints) are applied to the original problem and recursively to emerging subproblems. AUTOBAYES complements this approach by symbolic computation to derive closed-form solutions whenever possible. In this paper, we concentrate on the interaction between the symbolic computations and the deductive synthesis process. A statistical model specifies for each problem variable (i.e., data or parameter) its properties and dependencies in the form of a probability distribution, A typical data analysis task is to estimate the best possible parameter values from the given observations or measurements. The following example models normal-distributed data but takes prior information (e.g., from previous experiments) on the data's mean value and variance into account.

Fischer, Bernd; Pressburger, Thomas; Rosu, Grigore; Schumann, Johann; Norvog, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

31

IMAGES: A digital computer program for interactive modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive digital computer program for modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis was written. Both mathematical and operation considerations are described; however, the mathematical presentation is limited to those concepts essential to the operational capability of the program. The program is capable of both modal and spectral synthesis of multi-input control systems. It is user friendly, has scratchpad capability and dynamic memory, and can be used to design either state or output feedback systems.

Jones, R. L.

1984-01-01

32

ACCESS 1: Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis program documentation and user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program documentation and user's guide for the ACCESS-1 computer program is presented. ACCESS-1 is a research oriented program which implements a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and general mathematical programming algorithms are applied in the design optimization procedure. Implementation of the computer program, preparation of input data and basic program structure are described, and three illustrative examples are given.

Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

1976-01-01

33

Application of ASP for Automatic Synthesis of Flexible Multiprocessor Systems from Parallel Programs  

E-print Network

Application of ASP for Automatic Synthesis of Flexible Multiprocessor Systems from Parallel. However, as the synthesis problem usually exhibits structure, Answer Set Programming (ASP), for which be effectively employed. This pa- per presents a design flow based on ASP that uses the solver clasp as back

Schaub, Torsten

34

Structural Sizing of the EDIN0620 Body Components Using the APAS Structural Synthesis Computer Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of a structural synthesis computer program to design components for a heavy lift launch vehicle is defined. A loads program was used to determine the vehicle shears, bending moments, and axial loads at two design loading conditions. A comparison was made between results from the structures program and the results of a weight estimating program which used historical data in determining component weights.

Nolte, W. E.

1976-01-01

35

Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The QL module of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is described. Execution of this module is initiated when and if subroutine PADSI calls subroutine GROPE. Subroutine GROPE controls the high level logical flow of the QL module. The purpose of the module is to determine a trajectory that satisfies the necessary variational conditions for optimal performance. The module achieves this by solving a nonlinear multi-point boundary value problem. The numerical method employed is described. It is an iterative technique that converges quadratically when it does converge. The three basic steps of the module are: (1) initialization, (2) iteration, and (3) culmination. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

1972-01-01

36

Insights into Fourier Synthesis and Analysis: Part I--Using Simple Programs and Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduced is a unique generation method of Fourier series requiring simple mathematical skills and using computer programs. Discusses Fourier synthesis by microcomputer, and Fourier analysis with simple equipment. Shown are a circuit diagram, computer programs, monitor displays and tables of data. (YP)

Moore, Guy S. M.

1988-01-01

37

Creative Synthesis and TPACK: Supporting Teachers through a Technology and Inquiry-Rich Graduate Degree Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study offers a new way to assess TPACK within the context of a graduate program revitalized to focus on new literacies. Whereas previous studies have focused on teacher lesson planning or modeling best practices, our research examines TPACK by exploring the Creative Synthesis Projects of graduates from our program. These projects reveal the…

Manfra, Meghan McGlinn; Spires, Hiller A.

2013-01-01

38

Applying Aspect-Oriented Programming to Intelligent Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I discuss a component-centered, aspect-oriented system, the Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), NASA's initiative on Intelligent Synthesis Environments (ISE), and the application of OIF to the architecture of ISE.

Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

39

Development of weight/sizing design synthesis computer program. Volume 3: User Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The user manual for the weight/sizing design synthesis program is presented. The program is applied to an analysis of the basic weight relationships for the space shuttle which contribute significant portions of the inert weight. The relationships measure the parameters of load, geometry, material, and environment. A verbal description of the processes simulated, data input procedures, output data, and values present in the program is included.

Garrison, J. M.

1973-01-01

40

Symbol IC-Evaluation as an Aid to Program Synthesis  

E-print Network

Symbolic-evaluation is the process which abstractly evaluates an actor program and checks to see whether the program fulfills its contract (specification). In this paper, a formalism based on the conceptual representation ...

Yonezawa, Akinori

41

Automatic Synthesis of Electrical Circuits Containing a Free Variable Using Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

Automatic Synthesis of Electrical Circuits Containing a Free Variable Using Genetic Programming electrical circuit in which the value of each component in the evolved circuit is specified by a mathematical of both the topology and component values (sizing) for a wide variety of analog electrical circuits from

Fernandez, Thomas

42

Automatic Synthesis of Electrical Circuits Containing a Free Variable Using Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

Automatic Synthesis of Electrical Circuits Containing a Free Variable Using Genetic Programming electrical circuit in which the value of each component in the evolved circuit is specified by a mathematical to synthesize electrical circuits, including passive linear circuits composed of two­leaded components

Fernandez, Thomas

43

Synthesis of software programs for embedded control application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software components for embedded reactive real-time appli- cations must satisfy tight code size and run-time constraints. Cooperating Finite State Machines provide a convenient in- termediate format for embedded system co-synthesis, between high-level specification languages and software or hardware implementations. We propose a software generation method- ology that takes advantage of the very restricted class of spec- ifications and allows for

Massimiliano Chiodo; Paolo Guisto; Attila Jurecska; Luciano Lavagno; Ellen Sentovich; Harry Hsieh; Kei Suzuki

1995-01-01

44

Synthesis of software programs for embedded control applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software components for embedded reactive real-time applications must satisfy tight code size and run- time constraints. Cooperating finite state machines provide a convenient intermediate format for embedded system co-synthesis, between high-level specification languages and software or hardware implementations. We propose a software generation methodology that takes advantage of a restricted class of specifications and allows for tight control over the

Felice Balarin; Massimiliano Chiodo; Paolo Giusto; Harry Hsieh; Attila Jurecska; Luciano Lavagno; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli; Ellen M. Sentovich; Kei Suzuki

1999-01-01

45

Creative Synthesis: Designing a Junior High School Science Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines a set of procedures for designing a science program for students at the junior high school level. A flow chart provides an overview of the curriculum design, and brief notes are given to clarify the procedures to be taken at each stage on the chart. Programs designed in this manner should fit into a larger framework of science…

Wolfe, T. J. E.

46

Conjunctive programming: An interactive approach to software system synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report introduces a technique of software documentation called conjunctive programming and discusses its role in the development and maintenance of software systems. The report also describes the conjoin tool, an adjunct to assist practitioners. Aimed at supporting software reuse while conforming with conventional development practices, conjunctive programming is defined as the extraction, integration, and embellishment of pertinent information obtained directly from an existing database of software artifacts, such as specifications, source code, configuration data, link-edit scripts, utility files, and other relevant information, into a product that achieves desired levels of detail, content, and production quality. Conjunctive programs typically include automatically generated tables of contents, indexes, cross references, bibliographic citations, tables, and figures (including graphics and illustrations). This report presents an example of conjunctive programming by documenting the use and implementation of the conjoin program.

Tausworthe, Robert C.

1992-01-01

47

Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 3: User manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-fold purpose of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is discussed. The program can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general purpose branched trajectory optimization program. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent. The second module uses the method of quasi-linearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module.

1972-01-01

48

Flexible Programming of Cell-Free Protein Synthesis Using Magnetic Bead-Immobilized Plasmids  

PubMed Central

The use of magnetic bead-immobilized DNA as movable template for cell-free protein synthesis has been investigated. Magnetic microbeads containing chemically conjugated plasmids were used to direct cell-free protein synthesis, so that protein generation could be readily programmed, reset and reprogrammed. Protein synthesis by using this approach could be ON/OFF-controlled through repeated addition and removal of the microbead-conjugated DNA and employed in sequential expression of different genes in a same reaction mixture. Since the incubation periods of individual template plasmids are freely controllable, relative expression levels of multiple proteins can be tuned to desired levels. We expect that the presented results will find wide application to the flexible design and execution of synthetic pathways in cell-free chassis. PMID:22470570

Lee, Ka-Young; Lee, Kyung-Ho; Park, Ji-Woong; Kim, Dong-Myung

2012-01-01

49

Analysis of Air Traffic Track Data with the AutoBayes Synthesis System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS) is aiming to provide substantial computer support for the air traffic controllers. Algorithms for the accurate prediction of aircraft movements are of central importance for such software systems but trajectory prediction has to work reliably in the presence of unknown parameters and uncertainties. We are using the AutoBayes program synthesis system to generate customized data analysis algorithms that process large sets of aircraft radar track data in order to estimate parameters and uncertainties. In this paper, we present, how the tasks of finding structure in track data, estimation of important parameters in climb trajectories, and the detection of continuous descent approaches can be accomplished with compact task-specific AutoBayes specifications. We present an overview of the AutoBayes architecture and describe, how its schema-based approach generates customized analysis algorithms, documented C/C++ code, and detailed mathematical derivations. Results of experiments with actual air traffic control data are discussed.

Schumann, Johann Martin Philip; Cate, Karen; Lee, Alan G.

2010-01-01

50

Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to improving elementary mathematics: mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and instructional process programs. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of at least 12 weeks, and…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

2008-01-01

51

A new implementation of the programming system for structural synthesis (PROSSS-2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This new implementation of the PROgramming System for Structural Synthesis (PROSSS-2) combines a general-purpose finite element computer program for structural analysis, a state-of-the-art optimization program, and several user-supplied, problem-dependent computer programs. The results are flexibility of the optimization procedure, organization, and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables. The analysis-optimization process results in a minimized objective function, typically the mass. The analysis and optimization programs are executed repeatedly by looping through the system until the process is stopped by a user-defined termination criterion. However, some of the analysis, such as model definition, need only be one time and the results are saved for future use. The user must write some small, simple FORTRAN programs to interface between the analysis and optimization programs. One of these programs, the front processor, converts the design variables output from the optimizer into the suitable format for input into the analyzer. Another, the end processor, retrieves the behavior variables and, optionally, their gradients from the analysis program and evaluates the objective function and constraints and optionally their gradients. These quantities are output in a format suitable for input into the optimizer. These user-supplied programs are problem-dependent because they depend primarily upon which finite elements are being used in the model. PROSSS-2 differs from the original PROSSS in that the optimizer and front and end processors have been integrated into the finite element computer program. This was done to reduce the complexity and increase portability of the system, and to take advantage of the data handling features found in the finite element program.

Rogers, James L., Jr.

1984-01-01

52

Integrated programs for women with substance use issues and their children: a qualitative meta-synthesis of processes and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a need for services that effectively and comprehensively address the complex needs of women with substance use issues and their children. A growing body of literature supports the relevance of integrated treatment programs that offer a wide range of services in centralized settings. Quantitative studies suggest that these programs are associated with positive outcomes. A qualitative meta-synthesis

Wendy Sword; Susan Jack; Alison Niccols; Karen Milligan; Joanna Henderson; Lehana Thabane

2009-01-01

53

Addressing the strategy synthesis approach for accomplishing the strategic fit in new product development projects and programs: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

How the strategic alignment for New Product Development Projects and Programs may be carried out is critical in actual business environments. Then formulating and implementing the right strategic chosen priorities are key tasks to be developed for achieving successful NPD projects and programs. Thus the main purpose of this paper is to address the strategic synthesis approach that may leverage

Cesar Castilla; Dragan Z. Milosevic

2009-01-01

54

Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program generation and transformation systems manipulate large, pa- rameterized object language fragments. Support for user-definable concrete syntax makes this easier but is typically restricted to certain object and meta languages. We show how Prolog can be retrofitted with concrete syntax and describe how a seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with an existing legacy meta-programming system based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually migrate the schemas of the AUTOBAYES program synthesis system to concrete syntax. Fit experiences show that this can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and an improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments and improves the locality in the schemas.

Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

2003-01-01

55

Motor Schema-Based Mobile Robot Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor schemas serve as the basic unit of behavior specifica tion for the navigation of a mobile robot. They are multiple concurrent processes that operate in conjunction with asso ciated perceptual schemas and contribute independently to the overall concerted action of the vehicle. The motivation be hind the use of schemas for this domain is drawn from neuro- scientific, psychological,

Ronald C. Arkin

1989-01-01

56

An Implementation of the Berlekamp-Massey Linear Feedback Shift-Register Synthesis Algorithm in the C Programming Language  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an implementation of the Berlekamp-Massey linear feedback shift-register (LFSR) synthesis algorithm in the C programming language. Two pseudo-code versions of the code are given, the operation of LFSRs is explained, C-version of the pseudo-code versions is presented, and the output of the code, when run on two input samples, is shown.

CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.

1999-08-01

57

Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Reports: Aerosol Properties and Their Impacts on Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is developing and extending its research activities to support policymaking and adaptive management. The program includes a set of "Synthesis and Assessment Products," active participation in international assessments such as those of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, improvements in modeling and other resources to facilitate comparison of response options, and development, with users, of tools to support adaptive management and planning. These efforts are building on substantial ongoing efforts of agencies and departments participating in the CCSP. One of the products focuses on aerosol properties and their impact on climate. The very complex mixture of aerosol types and their spatial distributions provide diverse warming and cooling influences on climate, and impact the formation of both water droplets and ice crystals in clouds. Our poor understanding of aerosol properties and distributions results in large uncertainties about the net impact of aerosols on climate and impairs our ability to project climate changes. The product will be produced in two phases: Phase-I aims for a few explicit and focused scientific "review nuggets" in the near term that would be not only stand alone as CCSP-facilitated products, but that would also be useful input to community-wide activities like the IPCC and Phase-II that would connect and focus the new (2006/7) level of community-wide understanding of climate change (and aerosol-climate inclusively) to explicit decision-support information and tools. In this light, we have embarked on Phase I of a synthesis product entitled, "Aerosol properties and their impacts on climate," which addresses Goal 2, "Improve quantification of the forces bringing about changes in the Earth's climate and related systems," under the Strategic Plan of the CCSP. We present here the status of this first phase of work, which is focused on new assessment and synthesis information stimulated by the CCSP. Three topics have been selected as foci and will be reported on here: (1) dependence of radiative forcing by tropospheric aerosols on aerosol composition in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and North Indian Ocean based on in-situ observations, (2) a review of measurement-based understanding of aerosol radiative forcing and aerosol sources derived from the analysis of remote-sensing observations, and (3) a model intercomparison study to quantify the uncertainties associated with indirect aerosol forcing. This work will feed in to the next IPCC assessment and serve as an input to Phase II of the product, which will focus on issues of special concern to North America.

Decola, P.; Moss, R.

2004-12-01

58

Automated synthesis of analog electrical circuits by means of genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design (synthesis) of analog electrical circuits starts with a high- level statement of the circuit's desired behavior and requires creating a circuit that satisfies the specified design goals. Analog circuit synthesis entails the creation of both the topology and the sizing (numerical values) of all of the circuit's components. The difficulty of the problem of analog circuit synthesis is

John R. Koza; Forrest H. Bennett III; David Andre; Martin A. Keane; Frank Dunlap

1997-01-01

59

Design of alpha-transglucosidases of controlled specificity for programmed chemoenzymatic synthesis of antigenic oligosaccharides.  

PubMed

Combined with chemical synthesis, the use of biocatalysts holds great potential to open the way to novel molecular diversity. We report in vitro chemoenzymatic pathways that, for the first time, take advantage of enzyme engineering to produce complex microbial cell-surface oligosaccharides and circumvent the chemical boundaries of glycochemistry. Glycoenzymes were designed to act on nonnatural conveniently protected substrates to produce intermediates compatible with a programmed chemical elongation. The study was focused on the synthesis of oligosaccharides mimicking the O-antigen motif of Shigella flexneri serotypes 1b and 3a, which could be used for the development of multivalent carbohydrate-based vaccines. A semirational engineering approach was successfully applied to amylosucrase, a transglucosidase that uses a low cost sucrose substrate as a glucosyl donor. The main difficulty was to retain the enzyme specificity toward sucrose, while creating a new catalytic function to render the enzyme able to regiospecifically glucosylate protected nonnatural acceptors. A structurally guided library of 133 mutants was generated from which several mutants with either completely new specificity toward methyl alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside or a tremendously enhanced one toward allyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranoside acceptors were isolated. The best variants were used to synthesize glucosylated building blocks. They were then converted into acceptors and potential donors compatible with chemical elongation toward oligosaccharide fragments of the O-antigens of the two targeted serotypes. This is the first report of a successful engineering of an alpha-transglycosidase acceptor binding site that led to new specificities. It demonstrates the potential of appropriate combinations of a planned chemoenzymatic pathway and enzyme engineering in glycochemistry. PMID:19432472

Champion, Elise; André, Isabelle; Moulis, Claire; Boutet, Julien; Descroix, Karine; Morel, Sandrine; Monsan, Pierre; Mulard, Laurence A; Remaud-Siméon, Magali

2009-06-01

60

Integration of a code for aeroelastic design of conventional and composite wings into ACSYNT, an aircraft synthesis program. [wing aeroelastic design (WADES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of program estimates of wing weight, material distribution. structural loads and elastic deformations with actual Northrop F-5A/B data is presented. Correlation coefficients obtained using data from a number of existing aircraft were computed for use in vehicle synthesis to estimate wing weights. The modifications necessary to adapt the WADES code for use in the ACSYNT program are described. Basic program flow and overlay structure is outlined. An example of the convergence of the procedure in estimating wing weights during the synthesis of a vehicle to satisfy F-5 mission requirements is given. A description of inputs required for use of the WADES program is included.

Mullen, J., Jr.

1976-01-01

61

North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision  

SciTech Connect

Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as whether nutrient limitation is considered in soil carbon decomposition. The disagreement in current estimates of carbon flux across North America, including whether North America is a net biospheric carbon source or sink, highlights the need for further analysis through the use of model runs following a common simulation protocol, in order to isolate the influences of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimates.

Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Michalak, Anna [University of Michigan; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Chen, Jing M. [University of Toronto; Davis, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State University; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Liu, Shuguang [United States Geological Survey, Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS); Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Neilson, Ronald [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Poulter, Ben [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Tomelleri, Enrico [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Viovy, Nicolas [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

2012-01-01

62

The Pre-X atmospheric re-entry experimental lifting body: Program status and system synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric glided re-entry is one of the main key technologies for future space vehicle applications. In this frame Pre-X is the CNES proposal to perform in-flight experimentation mainly on reusable thermal protections, aero-thermo-dynamics and guidance to secure the second generation of re-entry X vehicles. This paper describes the programme status and the synthesis of the system activities performed up to now together with the main technical issues. A preliminary in-flight experimentation and measurement plan has been assessed defining the main objectives. The current Pre-X procurement specification states that the vehicle recovery without damage of the TPS is mandatory for the mission success. The functional and experimental measurements are transmitted from the vehicle to ground during flight, except for some innovative measurement. The vehicle is recovered in the Pacific Ocean assuring sufficient duration of buoyancy. Flight is foreseen for year 2010. During the year 2005 the phase A of the Pre-X program has been achieved with the main objective to verify the compliance of the proposed vehicle solution with the procurement specification. Phase B is currently running. The VEGA and DNEPR launch vehicles have been assumed as main candidates for launching Pre-X and VEGA is the baseline. A complete system loop has been performed including the operations, ground system assessment, and visibility analysis. The vehicle re-entry point is at 120 km and the mission objectives are fulfilled between Mach 25 and 5. Then the vehicle has to pass to subsonic speeds, the parachute opens and it is finally recovered in the sea.

Baiocco, Paolo; Guedron, Sylvain; Plotard, Patrice; Moulin, Jacques

2007-06-01

63

Effective Programs for Elementary Science: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which science programs have been proven to help elementary students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the science achievement of students in grades K-6: (1) Inquiry-oriented programs without science kits, such as Increasing Conceptual Challenge, Science IDEAS, and Collaborative…

Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

2012-01-01

64

F100 Multivariable Control Synthesis Program. Computer Implementation of the F100 Multivariable Control Algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As turbofan engines become more complex, the development of controls necessitate the use of multivariable control techniques. A control developed for the F100-PW-100(3) turbofan engine by using linear quadratic regulator theory and other modern multivariable control synthesis techniques is described. The assembly language implementation of this control on an SEL 810B minicomputer is described. This implementation was then evaluated by using a real-time hybrid simulation of the engine. The control software was modified to run with a real engine. These modifications, in the form of sensor and actuator failure checks and control executive sequencing, are discussed. Finally recommendations for control software implementations are presented.

Soeder, J. F.

1983-01-01

65

The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project Part 1: Overview and experimental design  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

Huntzinger, D.N. [Northern Arizona University] [Northern Arizona University; Schwalm, C. [Northern Arizona University] [Northern Arizona University; Michalak, A.M [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford] [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford; Schaefer, K. [National Snow and Ice Data Center] [National Snow and Ice Data Center; King, A.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wei, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Jacobson, A. [National Snow and Ice Data Center] [National Snow and Ice Data Center; Liu, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Cook, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Post, W.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Berthier, G. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Hayes, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Huang, M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ito, A. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan] [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; Lei, H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lu, C. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.] [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Mao, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Peng, C.H. [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences] [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences; Peng, S. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Poulter, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Riccuito, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shi, X. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tian, H. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.] [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Wang, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field] [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field; Zeng, N. [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Zhao, F. [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Zhu, Q. [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University] [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University

2013-01-01

66

Synthesis of economic criteria in the design of electric utility industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

This paper lays out a set of economic criteria to guide the development of electricity conservation programs for industrial customers of the Costa Rican utilities. It puts the problem of utility and other public policy formulation in the industrial conservation field into the context of ongoing economic and trade liberalization in Costa Rica, as well as the financial and political pressures with which the country`s utilities must contend. The need to bolster utility financial performance and the perennial political difficulty of adjusting power rates for inflation and devaluation, not to mention maintaining efficient real levels, puts a premium on controlling the costs of utility conservation programs and increasing the degree of cost recovery over time. Industrial conservation programs in Costa Rica must adopt a certain degree of activation to help overcome serious market failures and imperfections while at the same time avoiding significant distortion of the price signals guiding the ongoing industrial rationalization process and the reactivation of growth.

Fisher, S.C.

1995-12-31

67

Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. [Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which elementary reading approaches have been proven to help struggling readers to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on six types of programs designed to improve the reading achievement of children having difficulty in learning to read: (1) One-to-One Tutoring by Teachers (TT) such as "Reading Recovery," "Auditory…

Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education, 2009

2009-01-01

68

Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Version 1.2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of three types of approaches to improving elementary mathematics: Mathematics curricula, computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and instructional process programs. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of 12 weeks, and achievement…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia

2007-01-01

69

Serving Special Needs Populations in Postsecondary Occupational Education: A Synthesis of Program Approaches.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Two-Year College Development Center undertook a project to identify two-year college programs in New York State that successfully serve one or more of the special needs populations targeted by the Carl D. Perkins Act. Four special needs populations were targeted for in-depth study: single parents/homemakers, learning disabled, limited English…

Fadale, LaVerna M.; Winter, Gene M.

70

Restoration 2012 SYNTHESIS MEMORANDUM  

E-print Network

Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program 2012 SYNTHESIS MEMORANDUM DRAFT Prepared by Ronald, National Marine Fisheries Service July 2012 #12;#12;iii Executive Summary The Bonneville Power the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) to implement federal ecosystem restoration actions

71

An Interactive Concert Program Based on Infrared Watermark and Audio Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to propose a video/audio system which allows the user to listen the typical music notes in the concert program under infrared detection. The system synthesizes audio with different pitches and tempi in accordance with the encoded data in a 2-D barcode embedded in the infrared watermark. The digital halftoning technique has been used to fabricate the infrared watermark composed of halftone dots by both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). The results show that this interactive system successfully recognizes the barcode and synthesizes audio under infrared detection of a concert program which is also valid for human observation of the contents. This interactive video/audio system has greatly expanded the capability of the printout paper to audio display and also has many potential value-added applications.

Wang, Hsi-Chun; Lee, Wen-Pin Hope; Liang, Feng-Ju

72

AutoBayes/CC: Combining Program Synthesis with Automatic Code Certification: System Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Code certification is a lightweight approach to formally demonstrate software quality. It concentrates on aspects of software quality that can be defined and formalized via properties, e.g., operator safety or memory safety. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies these quality properties. The proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently, by the code consumer or by certification authorities, e.g., the FAA. It is the idea underlying such approaches as proof-carrying code [6]. Code certification can be viewed as a more practical version of traditional Hoare-style program verification. The properties to be verified are fairly simple and regular so that it is often possible to use an automated theorem prover to automatically discharge all emerging proof obligations. Usually, however, the programmer must still splice auxiliary annotations (e.g., loop invariants) into the program to facilitate the proofs. For complex properties or larger programs this quickly becomes the limiting factor for the applicability of current certification approaches.

Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

73

An immunotherapeutic program for the treatment of nicotine addiction: hapten design and synthesis.  

PubMed

People continue to smoke and use tobacco products despite well-established hazardous consequences. The most contributing factor is the addictive nature of nicotine. There is no highly effective treatment for the problem of nicotine dependence. Immunotherapy offers an alternative to conventional approaches. The chemistry necessary for a comprehensive immunopharmacological program is presented. Haptens for the generation of antibodies specific for naturally occurring (S)-nicotine, (S)- and (R)-nornicotine, and the metabolite (S)-cotinine were prepared with high optical purity. Preliminary data for antinicotine antibodies are reported. PMID:11397142

Isomura, S; Wirsching, P; Janda, K D

2001-06-15

74

Environmental studies data base development and data synthesis activities of the US Subseabed Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

The US Subseabed Disposal Program is assessing the scientific feasibility of subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Studies of disposal methods and of the barriers to radionuclide migration (canister, waste form, and sediment) suggest that environmental information will be needed to address the impact of accidental release of radionuclides in the deep sea. Biological, physical, and geochemical data are being collected from field and laboratory studies as well as from literature searches. These data are being analyzed using a multicompartmental radionuclide transport model and appropriate physical oceanographic models. The data integrated into this framework will help answer two questions - what are the environmental effects of radionuclides that may be released in the deep sea, and what are the effects of such a release upon man.

Gomez, L S; Marietta, M G; Hessler, R R; Smith, Jr, K L; Yayanos, A A; Jackson, D W

1981-05-01

75

Environmental studies data base: development and data synthesis activities of the US Subseabed Disposal Program  

SciTech Connect

The US Subseabed Disposal Program is assessing the scientific feasibility of subseabed emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Studies of disposal methods and of the barriers to radionuclide migration (canister, waste form and sediment) suggest that environmental information will be needed to address the impact of accidental release of radionuclides in the deep sea. Biological, physical, and geochemical data are being collected from field and laboratory studies as well as from literature searches. These data are being analyzed using a multicompartmental radionuclide transport model and appropriate physical oceanographic models. The data integrated into this framework will help answer two questions: what are the environmental effects of radionuclides which may be released in the deep sea, and what are the effects of such a release upon man.

Gomez, L.S.; Hesssler, R.R.; Jackson, D.W.; Marietta, M.G.; Smith, K.L. Jr.; Yayanos, A.A.

1980-01-01

76

Proactive schema based link lifetime estimation and connectivity ratio.  

PubMed

The radio link between a pair of wireless nodes is affected by a set of random factors such as transmission range, node mobility, and environment conditions. The properties of such radio links are continually experienced when nodes status balances between being reachable and being unreachable; thereby on completion of each experience the statistical distribution of link lifetime is updated. This aspect is emphasized in mobile ad hoc network especially when it is deployed in some fields that require intelligent processing of data information such as aerospace domain. PMID:24526882

Bachir, Bouamoud; Ali, Ouacha; Ahmed, Habbani; Mohamed, Elkoutbi

2014-01-01

77

Summary of the 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report is a summary of the 2006 synthesis report prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

78

Global optimization of multiscenario mixed integer nonlinear programming models arising in the synthesis of integrated water networks under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of optimal synthesis of an integrated water system is addressed in this work, where water using processes and water treatment operations are combined into a single network such that the total cost of designing the network and operating it optimally is globally minimized. The network design has to be feasible and optimal over a given set of scenarios

Ramkumar Karuppiah; Ignacio E. Grossmann

2008-01-01

79

Key Ingredients of Anti-Stigma Programs for Health Care Providers: A Data Synthesis of Evaluative Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective: As part of its ongoing effort to combat stigma against mental illness among health care providers, the Mental Health Commission of Canada partnered with organizations conducting anti-stigma interventions. Our objective was to evaluate program effectiveness and to better understand what makes some programs more effective than others. Our paper reports the elements of these programs found to be most strongly associated with favourable outcomes. Methods: Our study employed a multi-phased, mixed-methods design. First, a grounded theory qualitative study was undertaken to identify key program elements. Next, each program (n = 22) was coded according to the presence or absence of the identified key program ingredients. Then, random-effects, meta-regression modelling was used to examine the association between program outcomes and the key ingredients. Results: The qualitative analysis led to a 6-ingredient model of key program elements. Results of the quantitative analysis showed that programs that included all 6 of these ingredients performed significantly better than those that did not. Individual analyses of each of the 6 ingredients showed that including multiple forms of social contact and emphasizing recovery were characteristics of the most effective programs. Conclusions: The results provide a validation of a 6-ingredient model of key program elements for anti-stigma programming for health care providers. Emphasizing recovery and including multiple types of social contact are of particular importance for maximizing the effectiveness of anti-stigma programs for health care providers.

Knaak, Stephanie; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B

2014-01-01

80

Programs  

Cancer.gov

The Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research Branch is responsible for the direction and management of several programs. These include the Biospecimen Research Network, the NCI Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources, the Cancer Human Biobank (caHUB) and the Biospecimen Pre-Analytical Variables Program. Each program has specific goals and targeted outcomes which lend themselves to supporting the mission and vision of the Branch as well as the other NCI and NIH initiatives. More information about each program can be found on their respective pages.

81

Ammonia synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a process for producing ammonia in a synthesis loop in which fresh synthesis gas containing hydrogen, nitrogen and, lesser amounts of argon and methane is combined with a hydrogen enriched recycle gas to provide combined synthesis gas, the combined synthesis is introduced to and reacted over ammonia synthesis catalyst under synthesis conditions to provide converted gas containing ammonia, hydrogen,

B. G. Mandelik; J. R. Cassata; P. J. S. Katy; C. P. Van Dijk

1986-01-01

82

Hardware-software-co-design of parallel and distributed systems using a behavioural programming and multi-process model with high-level synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design methodology for parallel and distributed embedded systems is presented using the behavioural hardware compiler ConPro providing an imperative programming model based on concurrently communicating sequential processes (CSP) with an extensive set of interprocess-communication primitives and guarded atomic actions. The programming language and the compiler-based synthesis process enables the design of constrained power- and resourceaware embedded systems with pure Register-Transfer-Logic (RTL) efficiently mapped to FPGA and ASIC technologies. Concurrency is modelled explicitly on control- and datapath level. Additionally, concurrency on data-path level can be automatically explored and optimized by different schedulers. The CSP programming model can be synthesized to hardware (SoC) and software (C,ML) models and targets. A common source for both hardware and software implementation with identical functional behaviour is used. Processes and objects of the entire design can be distributed on different hardware and software platforms, for example, several FPGA components and software executed on several microprocessors, providing a parallel and distributed system. Intersystem-, interprocess-, and object communication is automatically implemented with serial links, not visible on programming level. The presented design methodology has the benefit of high modularity, freedom of choice of target technologies, and system architecture. Algorithms can be well matched to and distributed on different suitable execution platforms and implementation technologies, using a unique programming model, providing a balance of concurrency and resource complexity. An extended case study of a communication protocol used in high-density sensor-actuator networks should demonstrate and compare the design of a hardware and software target. The communication protocol is suited for high-density intra-and interchip networks.

Bosse, Stefan

2011-05-01

83

Are workplace health promotion programs effective at improving presenteeism in workers? a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Presenteeism is highly prevalent and costly to employers. It is defined as being present at work, but limited in some aspect of job performance by a health problem. Workplace health promotion (WHP) is a common strategy used to enhance on-the-job productivity. The primary objective is to determine if WHP programs are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objectives are to identify characteristics of successful programs and potential risk factors for presenteeism. Methods The Cochrane Library, Medline, and other electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2010. Reference lists were examined, key journals were hand-searched and experts were contacted. Included studies were original research that contained data on at least 20 participants (? 18 years of age), and examined the impacts of WHP programs implemented at the workplace. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to rate studies. 'Strong' and 'moderate' studies were abstracted into evidence tables, and a best evidence synthesis was performed. Interventions were deemed successful if they improved the outcome of interest. Their program components were identified, as were possible risk factors contributing to presenteeism. Results After 2,032 titles and abstracts were screened, 47 articles were reviewed, and 14 were accepted (4 strong and 10 moderate studies). These studies contained preliminary evidence for a positive effect of some WHP programs. Successful programs offered organizational leadership, health risk screening, individually tailored programs, and a supportive workplace culture. Potential risk factors contributing to presenteeism included being overweight, a poor diet, a lack of exercise, high stress, and poor relations with co-workers and management. Limitations: This review is limited to English publications. A large number of reviewed studies (70%) were inadmissible due to issues of bias, thus limiting the amount of primary evidence. The uncertainties surrounding presenteeism measurement is of significant concern as a source of bias. Conclusions The presenteeism literature is young and heterogeneous. There is preliminary evidence that some WHP programs can positively affect presenteeism and that certain risk factors are of importance. Future research would benefit from standard presenteeism metrics and studies conducted across a broad range of workplace settings. PMID:21615940

2011-01-01

84

A Novel Mechanism of Programmed Cell Death in Bacteria by Toxin–Antitoxin Systems Corrupts Peptidoglycan Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Most genomes of bacteria contain toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems. These gene systems encode a toxic protein and its cognate antitoxin. Upon antitoxin degradation, the toxin induces cell stasis or death. TA systems have been linked with numerous functions, including growth modulation, genome maintenance, and stress response. Members of the epsilon/zeta TA family are found throughout the genomes of pathogenic bacteria and were shown not only to stabilize resistance plasmids but also to promote virulence. The broad distribution of epsilon/zeta systems implies that zeta toxins utilize a ubiquitous bacteriotoxic mechanism. However, whereas all other TA families known to date poison macromolecules involved in translation or replication, the target of zeta toxins remained inscrutable. We used in vivo techniques such as microscropy and permeability assays to show that pneumococcal zeta toxin PezT impairs cell wall synthesis and triggers autolysis in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, we demonstrated in vitro that zeta toxins in general phosphorylate the ubiquitous peptidoglycan precursor uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG) and that this activity is counteracted by binding of antitoxin. After identification of the product we verified the kinase activity in vivo by analyzing metabolite extracts of cells poisoned by PezT using high pressure liquid chromatograpy (HPLC). We further show that phosphorylated UNAG inhibitis MurA, the enzyme catalyzing the initial step in bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Additionally, we provide what is to our knowledge the first crystal structure of a zeta toxin bound to its substrate. We show that zeta toxins are novel kinases that poison bacteria through global inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis. This provides a fundamental understanding of how epsilon/zeta TA systems stabilize mobile genetic elements. Additionally, our results imply a mechanism that connects activity of zeta toxin PezT to virulence of pneumococcal infections. Finally, we discuss how phosphorylated UNAG likely poisons additional pathways of bacterial cell wall synthesis, making it an attractive lead compound for development of new antibiotics. PMID:21445328

Mutschler, Hannes; Gebhardt, Maike; Shoeman, Robert L.; Meinhart, Anton

2011-01-01

85

Synthesis: Intertwining product and process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthesis is a proposed systematic process for rapidly creating different members of a program family. Family members are described by variations in their requirements. Requirements variations are mapped to variations on a standard design to generate production quality code and documentation. The approach is made feasible by using principles underlying design for change. Synthesis incorporates ideas from rapid prototyping, application generators, and domain analysis. The goals of Synthesis and the Synthesis process are discussed. The technology needed and the feasibility of the approach are also briefly discussed. The status of current efforts to implement Synthesis methodologies is presented.

Weiss, David M.

1990-01-01

86

Cost-Effective Early Childhood Development Programs: A Synthesis of Evidence in the First Decade of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In recent years, greater attention has been given to promoting child well-being throughout the entire period of early childhood. We summarize evidence on the effects and cost-effectiveness of early childhood development programs from birth to age 10. Findings from17 estimates of 16 programs were emphasized. Birth to age 3 interventions including nutritional education and home visitation show family, health

Arthur J. Reynolds; Judy A. Temple; Barry A. White

87

Program  

Cancer.gov

Through the DCIDE program, the developer of a promising diagnostic agent or probe will be given access to the pre-clinical development resources of the National Cancer Institute in a manner that is intended to remove the most common barriers between laboratory discoveries and IND status.

88

Binary Maker 3.0 - An Interactive Graphics-Based Light Curve Synthesis Program Written in Java  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A revised and expanded version of the widely used Binary Maker program is nearing completion. The DOS version of this program has been incorporated into many curriculums around the world, enabling students to learn the rudiments of light curve analysis. It has also proven to be an excellent tool for the preliminary analysis of light curves, efficiently leading to the determination of initial parameters for differential light curve fitting. The program simultaneously displays the theoretical light and radial velocity curves as well as a revolving 3D model of the binary. Actual light and radial velocity data can be input into the graphs for direct comparison to theory. Completely re-written in Java, the Roche geometry-based program now incorporates eccentric orbits and asynchronous rotation into a modern, completely windows-driven, user-friendly interface. Because it is written in Java, the program now works on PC, Macintosh, and Unix/Linux platforms. Four windows allow simultaneous display of the light curve, radial velocity curves, 3D image, and user input binary parameters. Each output window can be easily maximized to full screen, and the user has much more control over the appearance of each window than in version 2.0. There is also an Outline function that outputs the binary system with its associated inner and outer Lagrangian surfaces. Hardcopy output of the 3D models, light and radial velocity curves, and outlines are in the form of PostScript files. Binary parameter (BMD) files from the DOS version, as well as the light and radial velocity data files, are upwardly compatible with the new program. The many features of the program will be demonstrated at the poster.

Bradstreet, D. H.; Steelman, D. P.

2002-12-01

89

2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

90

2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

91

The Evidence Base for Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Research Synthesis Addressing Staff and Program Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: One strategy to support early childhood providers' work with children exhibiting challenging behavior is offering mental health consultation services in order to build staff skills and confidence and reduce staff stress and turnover. Through systematic search procedures, 26 recent studies were identified that addressed the effectiveness of early childhood mental health consultation with respect to staff- and program-level

Eileen M. Brennan; Jennifer R. Bradley; Mary Dallas Allen; Deborah F. Perry

2008-01-01

92

Effective Reading Programs for Spanish Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research. Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant ELLs in elementary school. It is divided into two major sections: the effect of language of instruction on achievement (i.e., bilingual vs. English-only instruction) and effective reading approaches for ELLs other than the use of native…

Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

2012-01-01

93

The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 2: Environmental driver data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM model skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model-model and model-observation comparisons. This paper describes the global and North American environmental driver data sets prepared for the MsTMIP activity to both support their use in MsTMIP and make these data, along with the processes used in selecting/processing these data, accessible to a broader audience. Based on project needs, we compiled climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), C3/C4 grasses fractions, major crops, phenology, and soil data into a standard format for global (0.5° x 0.5° resolution) and regional (North American, 0.25° x 0.25° resolution) simulations. In order to meet the needs of MsTMIP, improvements were made to several of the original environmental data sets, by changing the quality, the spatial and temporal coverage, resolution, or a combination of these. The resulting standardized model driver data sets are being used by over 20 different models participating MsTMIP. The data are archived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC, http://daac.ornl.gov) to provide long-term data management and distribution.

Wei, Y.; Liu, S.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Viovy, N.; Post, W. M.; Schwalm, C. R.; Schaefer, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Cook, R. B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.

2013-11-01

94

The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 2: Environmental driver data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model-model and model-observation comparisons. This paper describes the global and North American environmental driver data sets prepared for the MsTMIP activity to both support their use in MsTMIP and make these data, along with the processes used in selecting/processing these data, accessible to a broader audience. Based on project needs and lessons learned from past model intercomparison activities, we compiled climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover change (LULCC), C3 / C4 grasses fractions, major crops, phenology and soil data into a standard format for global (0.5° × 0.5° resolution) and regional (North American: 0.25° × 0.25° resolution) simulations. In order to meet the needs of MsTMIP, improvements were made to several of the original environmental data sets, by improving the quality, and/or changing their spatial and temporal coverage, and resolution. The resulting standardized model driver data sets are being used by over 20 different models participating in MsTMIP. The data are archived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC, http://daac.ornl.gov) to provide long-term data management and distribution.

Wei, Y.; Liu, S.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Viovy, N.; Post, W. M.; Schwalm, C. R.; Schaefer, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Cook, R. B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.

2014-12-01

95

Temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) of CH 4 synthesis by Pd xNi 100- x nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Pd xNi 100- x nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method and analyzed using a temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) of their methanation reactions. ESCA measurement suggested that the as-prepared Pd-Ni alloys had Pd-core/Ni-shell structure. Surface Pd segregation occurred during H 2 reduction and resulted in a surface composition close to the nominal value. The TPSR experiments were performed by pre-adsorption of CO with H 2 to form methane. The peak temperature of methanation increased as Pd content increased, indicating that a methanation reaction is favored on Ni and Ni-rich alloy nanoparticles. For physical mixtures of Pd and Ni nanoparticles, methanation behaviors is similar to those of alloy nanoparticles; but the methanation temperatures of physical mixtures are always higher than those of alloy nanoparticles. This may be due to the formation of a Pd-enriched alloy surface layer during reduction in H 2 at 400 °C, or because the CO molecules adsorbed on the Pd sites spill over onto the Ni sites for methanation. Using TPSR technique and measuring methanation temperature, the top-most surface of such bimetallic nanoparticles can be probed.

Wang, Kuan-Wen; Chung, Shu-Ru; Wei, Yu-Chen; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Perng, Tsong P.

2009-03-01

96

Effects of Whey and Soy Protein Supplementation with a 9 Month Progressive Resistance Training Program on Intracellular Signaling Pathways of Muscle Protein Synthesis  

E-print Network

combined with a 9 month progressive resistance training protocol on the changes in intracellular signaling of protein synthesis. Methods: 19 healthy, young, non-obese sedentary individuals were recruited for participation and randomly assigned to either...

Emmons, Russell Scott

2013-08-31

97

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-08-01

98

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1999-01-01

99

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

none

1998-07-01

100

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-01-01

101

Key Scientific and Policy- and Health-Relevant Findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and Related Studies: An Integration and Synthesis of Results.  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1998, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a major air quality program, known as the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program. The Supersites Program was a multi year, $27 million air quality monitoring program consisting of eight regional air quality projects...

102

Using Realist Synthesis to Develop an Evidence Base from an Identified Data Set on Enablers and Barriers for Alcohol and Drug Program Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to show how "realist synthesis" methodology (Pawson, 2002) was adapted to review a large sample of community based projects addressing alcohol and drug use problems. Our study drew on a highly varied sample of 127 projects receiving funding from a national non-government organisation in Australia between 2002 and 2008.…

Hunter, Barbara; MacLean, Sarah; Berends, Lynda

2012-01-01

103

From Boolean to Quantitative Synthesis Pavol Cern  

E-print Network

From Boolean to Quantitative Synthesis Pavol Cerný IST Austria cernyp@ist.ac.at Thomas A in order for the program to meet the specification. In this paper, we argue that quantitative objectives objective that models performance. Other quantitative notions useful in synthesis include fault tolerance

Cerny, Pavol

104

Accelerate Synthesis in Ecology and Environmental Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ecology is a leading discipline in the synthesis of diverse knowledge. Ecologists have had considerable experience in bringing together diverse, multinational data sets, disciplines, and cultural perspectives to address a wide range of issues in basic and applied science. Now is the time to build on this foundation and invest in ecological synthesis through new national or international programs. While synthesis takes place through many mechanisms, including individual efforts, working groups, and research networks, centers are extraordinarily effective institutional settings for advancing synthesis projects.

Stephen Carpenter (University of Wisconsin;Center for Limnology)

2009-09-01

105

Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 1. Cationic plastoquinone derivatives: Synthesis and in vitro studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of cationic plastoquinone derivatives (SkQs) containing positively charged phosphonium or rhodamine moieties connected\\u000a to plastoquinone by decane or pentane linkers is described. It is shown that SkQs (i) easily penetrate through planar, mitochondrial,\\u000a and outer cell membranes, (ii) at low (nanomolar) concentrations, posses strong antioxidant activity in aqueous solution,\\u000a BLM, lipid micelles, liposomes, isolated mitochondria, and cells, (iii) at

Y. N. Antonenko; A. V. Avetisyan; L. E. Bakeeva; B. V. Chernyak; V. A. Chertkov; L. V. Domnina; O. Yu. Ivanova; D. S. Izyumov; L. S. Khailova; S. S. Klishin; G. A. Korshunova; K. G. Lyamzaev; M. S. Muntyan; O. K. Nepryakhina; A. A. Pashkovskaya; O. Yu. Pletjushkina; A. V. Pustovidko; V. A. Roginsky; T. I. Rokitskaya; E. K. Ruuge; V. B. Saprunova; I. V. Skulachev; R. A. Simonyan; M. V. Skulachev; N. V. Sumbatyan; I. V. Sviryaeva; V. N. Tashlitsky; J. M. Vassiliev; M. Yu. Vyssokikh; L. S. Yaguzhinsky; A. A. Zamyatnin; V. P. Skulachev

2008-01-01

106

Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

Chang, Young-Soo [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Liebich, R.E. [Raytheon Environmental Services Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-07-01

107

Logic synthesis of asynchronous circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthesis method and a CAD program to provide racefree asynchronous CMOS circuits that are independent of the internal and output delays are presented. The method minimizes the number of transitions between stable states and the number of gates, providing new cells for fast and low-power integrated circuits. Without any additional cost, the circuit will present neither critical races nor

C. Piguet

1990-01-01

108

Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

2003-01-01

109

Schema-based Scheduling of Event Processors and Buffer Minimization for Queries on Structured Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an extension of the XQuery lan- guage, FluX, that supports event-based query processing and the conscious handling of main memory buffers. Purely event-based queries of this language can be executed on stream- ing XML data in a very direct way. We then develop an algorithm that allows to efficiently rewrite XQueries into the event-based FluX language. This algorithm

Christoph Koch; Stefanie Scherzinger; Nicole Schweikardt; Bernhard Stegmaier

2004-01-01

110

Schema-based Scheduling of Event Processors and Buffer Minimization for Queries on Structured Data Streams  

E-print Network

Streams Christoph Koch, Stefanie Scherzinger Nicole Schweikardt Bernhard Stegmaier : Technische Universit, Email: scherzinger@wit.tuwien.ac.at : Humboldt Universit¨at zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany, Email

Kemper, Alfons

111

Integrating Schema-Based Instruction and Response Cards for Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of No Child Left Behind (2002), the academic expectations of students with disabilities have changed. Students with disabilities are now held to the same academic standards as their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, the 2004 provisions in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act state that students with…

Schwab, James Raymond; Tucci, Stacey; Jolivette, Kristine

2013-01-01

112

Extracting result schema based on query instances in the Deep Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep Web sources contain a large of high-quality and query-related structured date. One of the challenges in the Deep Web\\u000a is extracting result schemas of Deep Web sources. To address this challenge, this paper describes a novel approach that extracts\\u000a both result data and the result schema of a Web database. The approach first models the query interface of a

Tiezheng Nie; Ge Yu; Derong Shen; Yue Kou; Wei Liu

2007-01-01

113

SECAD-- a Schema-based Environment for Configuring, Analyzing and Documenting Integrated Fusion Simulations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

SECAD is a project that developed a GUI for running integrated fusion simulations as implemented in FACETS and SWIM SciDAC projects. Using the GUI users can submit simulations locally and remotely and visualize the simulation results.

Shasharina, Svetlana

2012-05-23

114

A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

Fracker, Martin L.

1988-01-01

115

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE?s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

None

1998-12-02

116

Macromitophagy, neutral lipids synthesis, and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation protect yeast from “liponecrosis”, a previously unknown form of programmed cell death  

PubMed Central

We identified a form of cell death called “liponecrosis.” It can be elicited by an exposure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to exogenous palmitoleic acid (POA). Our data imply that liponecrosis is: (1) a programmed, regulated form of cell death rather than an accidental, unregulated cellular process and (2) an age-related form of cell death. Cells committed to liponecrotic death: (1) do not exhibit features characteristic of apoptotic cell death; (2) do not display plasma membrane rupture, a hallmark of programmed necrotic cell death; (3) akin to cells committed to necrotic cell death, exhibit an increased permeability of the plasma membrane for propidium iodide; (4) do not display excessive cytoplasmic vacuolization, a hallmark of autophagic cell death; (5) akin to cells committed to autophagic death, exhibit a non-selective en masse degradation of cellular organelles and require the cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinase Atg1p for executing the death program; and (6) display a hallmark feature that has not been reported for any of the currently known cell death modalities—namely, an excessive accumulation of lipid droplets where non-esterified fatty acids (including POA) are deposited in the form of neutral lipids. We therefore concluded that liponecrotic cell death subroutine differs from the currently known subroutines of programmed cell death. Our data suggest a hypothesis that liponecrosis is a cell death module dynamically integrated into a so-called programmed cell death network, which also includes the apoptotic, necrotic, and autophagic modules of programmed cell death. Based on our findings, we propose a mechanism underlying liponecrosis. PMID:24196447

Sheibani, Sara; Richard, Vincent R; Beach, Adam; Leonov, Anna; Feldman, Rachel; Mattie, Sevan; Khelghatybana, Leila; Piano, Amanda; Greenwood, Michael; Vali, Hojatollah; Titorenko, Vladimir I

2014-01-01

117

Siberian school of regional studies within the framework of the program on Fundamental Issues of Spatial Development: Interdisciplinary Synthesis launched by the Presidium of the SB RAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of the researches made by the Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, SB RAS within the program on spatial development launched by the Presidium of the SB RAS. We also put forward a concept of strategizing the Russian spatial development which includes national strategizing and those at the levels of federal districts and RF subjects.

V. V. Kuleshov; V. Ye. Seliverstov; V. I. Suslov; S. A. Suspitsin

2012-01-01

118

Supplemental ammonia synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a process for producing ammonia in a synthesis loop fresh ammonia synthesis gas containing hydrogen, nitrogen, and lesser amounts of argon and methane is combined with a recycle gas to provide a combined synthesis gas. A portion of the combined synthesis gas is reacted over ammonia synthesis catalyst containing iron to provide a first converted gas having an ammonia

G. S. B. Katy; J. R. LeBlanc; J. M. Lee; H. P. Leftin; P. J. S. Katy; C. P. Van Dijk

1986-01-01

119

Maitotoxin: An Inspiration for Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Maitotoxin holds a special place in the annals of natural products chemistry as the largest and most toxic secondary metabolite known to date. Its fascinating, ladder-like, polyether molecular structure and diverse spectrum of biological activities elicited keen interest from chemists and biologists who recognized its uniqueness and potential as a probe and inspiration for research in chemistry and biology. Synthetic studies in the area benefited from methodologies and strategies that were developed as part of chemical synthesis programs directed toward the total synthesis of some of the less complex members of the polyether marine biotoxin class, of which maitotoxin is the flagship. This account focuses on progress made in the authors’ laboratories in the synthesis of large maitotoxin domains with emphasis on methodology development, strategy design, and structural comparisons of the synthesized molecules with the corresponding regions of the natural product. The article concludes with an overview of maitotoxin’s biological profile and future perspectives. PMID:21709816

Aversa, Robert J.

2011-01-01

120

GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Glutathione (GSH) is present in all mammalian tissues as the most abundant non-protein thiol that defends against oxidative stress. GSH is also a key determinant of redox signaling, vital in detoxification of xenobiotics, regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune function, and fibrogenesis. Biosynthesis of GSH occurs in the cytosol in a tightly regulated manner. Key determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of the sulfur amino acid precursor, cysteine, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), which is composed of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis is GSH synthetase (GS). SCOPE OF REVIEW This review summarizes key functions of GSH and focuses on factors that regulate the biosynthesis of GSH, including pathological conditions where GSH synthesis is dysregulated. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS GCL subunits and GS are regulated at multiple levels and often in a coordinated manner. Key transcription factors that regulate the expression of these genes include NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) via the antioxidant response element (ARE), AP-1, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B). There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of GSH synthesis contributes to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary and liver fibrosis, alcoholic liver disease, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE GSH is a key antioxidant that also modulates diverse cellular processes. A better understanding of how its synthesis is regulated and dysregulated in disease states may lead to improvement in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:22995213

Lu, Shelly C.

2012-01-01

121

Synthesis of Mathematical Modeling Software  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sinapse, a knowledge-based, domain-specific system for synthesizing mathematical-modeling software, is discussed. Sinapse generates Fortran-77, Connection Machine Fortran, or C programs from specifications of mathematical equations and numerical methods. The synthesis process is divided into phases of refinement that attempt to duplicate the users' problem-solving processes in the design, implementation, and evolution states of mathematical modeling. These phases, with automated implementation,

Elaine Kant

1993-01-01

122

Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 1. Cationic plastoquinone derivatives: synthesis and in vitro studies.  

PubMed

Synthesis of cationic plastoquinone derivatives (SkQs) containing positively charged phosphonium or rhodamine moieties connected to plastoquinone by decane or pentane linkers is described. It is shown that SkQs (i) easily penetrate through planar, mitochondrial, and outer cell membranes, (ii) at low (nanomolar) concentrations, posses strong antioxidant activity in aqueous solution, BLM, lipid micelles, liposomes, isolated mitochondria, and cells, (iii) at higher (micromolar) concentrations, show pronounced prooxidant activity, the "window" between anti- and prooxidant concentrations being very much larger than for MitoQ, a cationic ubiquinone derivative showing very much lower antioxidant activity and higher prooxidant activity, (iv) are reduced by the respiratory chain to SkQH2, the rate of oxidation of SkQH2 being lower than the rate of SkQ reduction, and (v) prevent oxidation of mitochondrial cardiolipin by OH*. In HeLa cells and human fibroblasts, SkQs operate as powerful inhibitors of the ROS-induced apoptosis and necrosis. For the two most active SkQs, namely SkQ1 and SkQR1, C(1/2) values for inhibition of the H2O2-induced apoptosis in fibroblasts appear to be as low as 1x10(-11) and 8x10(-13) M, respectively. SkQR1, a fluorescent representative of the SkQ family, specifically stains a single type of organelles in the living cell, i.e. energized mitochondria. Such specificity is explained by the fact that it is the mitochondrial matrix that is the only negatively-charged compartment inside the cell. Assuming that the Deltapsi values on the outer cell and inner mitochondrial membranes are about 60 and 180 mV, respectively, and taking into account distribution coefficient of SkQ1 between lipid and water (about 13,000 : 1), the SkQ1 concentration in the inner leaflet of the inner mitochondrial membrane should be 1.3x10(8) times higher than in the extracellular space. This explains the very high efficiency of such compounds in experiments on cell cultures. It is concluded that SkQs are rechargeable, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants of very high efficiency and specificity. Therefore, they might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo. PMID:19120014

Antonenko, Y N; Avetisyan, A V; Bakeeva, L E; Chernyak, B V; Chertkov, V A; Domnina, L V; Ivanova, O Yu; Izyumov, D S; Khailova, L S; Klishin, S S; Korshunova, G A; Lyamzaev, K G; Muntyan, M S; Nepryakhina, O K; Pashkovskaya, A A; Pletjushkina, O Yu; Pustovidko, A V; Roginsky, V A; Rokitskaya, T I; Ruuge, E K; Saprunova, V B; Severina, I I; Simonyan, R A; Skulachev, I V; Skulachev, M V; Sumbatyan, N V; Sviryaeva, I V; Tashlitsky, V N; Vassiliev, J M; Vyssokikh, M Yu; Yaguzhinsky, L S; Zamyatnin, A A; Skulachev, V P

2008-12-01

123

Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the ‘Top End’ of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change  

PubMed Central

Background Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. Methods A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of ‘out of hospital’ or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Results Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations and staff numbers with the required skills for providing care for infants, and an ‘outpatient’ model of care. Services were also characterised by absent Aboriginal leadership and inadequate coordination between remote and tertiary services that is essential to improve quality of care and reduce ‘system-introduced’ risk. Conclusion Evidence-informed redesign of maternity services and delivery of care has improved clinical effectiveness and quality for women. However, more work is needed to address substandard care provided for infants and their parents. PMID:24890910

2014-01-01

124

Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: A spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Ecosystem models are important tools for diagnosing the carbon cycle and projecting its behavior across space and time. Most assessments of model performance occur at individual temporal scales, but ecosystems respond to drivers at multiple time scales. Spectral methods, such as wavelet analyses, present an alternative approach that enables the identification of the dominant time scales contributing to model performance in the frequency domain. In this study we used wavelet analyses to synthesize the performance of twenty-one ecosystem models at nine eddy-covariance towers as part of the North American Carbon Program's site-level inter-comparison. This study expands upon previous single-site and single-model analyses to determine what patterns of model failure are consistent across a diverse range of models and sites.

Dietze, Michael; Vargas, Rodrigo; Richardson, Andrew D.; Stoy, Paul C.; Barr, Alan; Anderson, Ryan; Arain, M. A.; Baker, Ian; Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Jing Ming; Ciais, Philippe; Flanagan, Lawrence; Gough, Christopher; Grant, R. F.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kucharik, Chris; Lafleur, Peter; Liu, Shuguang; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Luo, Yiqi; Munger, J. W.; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David T.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Riley, William; Sahoo, Alok Kumar; Schaefer, Kevin; Suyker, Andrew E.; Tian, Hanqin; Tonitto, Christine; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, Shashi B.; Wang, Weifeng; Weng, Ensheng

2011-12-20

125

Computer Music Synthesis and Composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is computer music composition? Composers are using the computer for everything from MIDI instruments communicating with computer sequencers, pitch trackers analyzing the sounds of acoustic instruments and converting them to pitch information, live performers with recorded music, performers with interactive computer programs, computer music produced by dancers using sensors, automatic music composition with the computer programs composing the music, composing with sounds or parts of sounds rather than notes, how to structure the use of time, composing with timbres, or the colors of sounds, and timbre morphing, such as a gong morphing to a voice, composing with textures and texture morphing, such as fluttertonguing morphing to pitch, granular synthesis, trills and convolution.

Ayers, Lydia

126

Macrolide Synthesis Total Synthesis of Phorboxazole A**  

E-print Network

Macrolide Synthesis Total Synthesis of Phorboxazole A** David R. Williams,* Andre A. Kiryanov­f] leading to a convergent, enantiocontrolled total synthesis of 1. [*] Prof. D. R. Williams, Dr. A. A A and 1 H NMR spectra of natural and synthetic material. We also thank Prof. Amos B. Smith for 1 H NMR

Williams, David R.

127

Translating Nature's Library: The Bryostatins and Function-Oriented Synthesis  

PubMed Central

We review in part our computational, design, synthesis, and biological studies on a remarkable class of compounds and their designed analogs that have led to preclinical candidates for the treatment of cancer, a first-in-class approach to Alzheimer's disease, and a promising strategy to eradicate HIV/AIDS. Because these leads target, in part, protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, they have therapeutic potential even beyond this striking set of therapeutic indications. This program has given rise to new synthetic methodology and represents an increasingly important direction of synthesis focused on achieving function through synthesis-informed design (function-oriented synthesis). PMID:22661768

Wender, Paul A.; Loy, Brian A.; Schrier, Adam J.

2012-01-01

128

Recent Departures in the Synthesis of Peptides and Glycopeptides  

PubMed Central

In this account, we describe the results of a research program directed to the proposition that chemical synthesis can play a valuable role in identifying biologic level molecules worthy of pharma level development. We recount our journey towards the chemical synthesis of homogeneous erythropoietin, the challenges we encountered, and our efforts to address deficiencies in the current “state of the art” of glycopeptide synthesis. Here we describe new methods for the synthesis of glycopeptides that have emerged from the erythropoietin adventure, including the development of unique C-terminal acyl donors, novel amide bond forming methods, and new ligation and coupling strategies. PMID:20161377

Kan, Cindy; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

2009-01-01

129

A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO2 exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO2 exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans 220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO2 exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was 10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

Schwalm, Christopher R. [Clark University; Williams, Christopher A. [Clark University; Schaefer, Kevin [University of Colorado, Boulder; Anderson, Ryan [University of Montana, Missoula; Arain, A. [McMaster University; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Lokupitiya, Erandathie [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Barr, Alan [Atmospheric Science and Technology Directorate, Saskatoo, SK, Canada; Black, T. A. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Riciutto, Dan M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2010-12-01

130

A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO{sub 2} exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans {approx}220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was {approx}10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

Schwalm, C.R.; Williams, C.A.; Schaefer, K.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.; Black, T.A.; Chen, G.; Ciais, P.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dietze, M.; Dragoni, D.; Fischer, M.L.; Flanagan, L.B.; Grant, R.F.; Gu, L.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Kucharik, C.; Lafleur, P.M.; Law, B.E.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Ma, S.; Margolis, H.; Matamala, R.; McCaughey, H.; Monson, R. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.T.; Riciutto, D.M.; Riley, W.J.; Sahoo, A.K.; Sprintsin, M.; Sun, J.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Verbeeck, H.; Verma, S.B.

2011-06-01

131

Pruning the Search Space of Logic Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We analyse the use of pruning operators for reducing thesearch space of logic programming computations. The synthesis of a fewkey choices arising in the implementation of pruning operators allows usto compare alternative pruning strategies at a suitably abstract level.In this perspective, we examine the commit operator featured by thelanguage Godel.1 IntroductionLogic programming languages rely on the idea that programs

Antonio Brogi; Cosimo Guarino

1996-01-01

132

On the synthesis of a reactive module  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the synthesis of a reactive module with input x and output y, which is specified by the linear temporal formula @@@@(x, y). We show that there exists a program satisfying @@@@ iff the branching time formula (?x) (?y) A@@@@(x, y) is valid over all tree models. For the restricted case that all variables range over finite domains, the

Amir Pnueli; Roni Rosner

1989-01-01

133

Object-oriented concurrent programming  

SciTech Connect

This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

1986-01-01

134

Java Programming Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Java Programming Certificate Program COMPUTER PROGRAMMING The Java programming language lies that fuel the Internet economy. In addition, the portability inherent in Java is useful for programming are likely to encounter projects in the near future that require knowledge of Java. Who Should Enroll

Loudon, Catherine

135

Java Programming Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Java Programming Certificate Program COMPUTER PROGRAMMING The Java programming language lies that fuel the Internet economy. In addition, the portability inherent in Java is useful for programming languages are likely to encounter projects in the near future that require knowledge of Java. Who Should

Loudon, Catherine

136

Evaluating the agreement between measurements and models of net ecosystem exchange at different times and timescales using wavelet coherence: an example using data from the North American Carbon Program Site-Level Interim Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth system processes exhibit complex patterns across time, as do the models that seek to replicate these processes. Model output may or may not be significantly related to observations at different times and on different frequencies. Conventional model diagnostics provide an aggregate view of model-data agreement, but usually do not identify the time and frequency patterns of model-data disagreement, leaving unclear the steps required to improve model response to environmental drivers that vary on characteristic frequencies. Wavelet coherence can quantify the times and timescales at which two time series, for example time series of models and measurements, are significantly different. We applied wavelet coherence to interpret the predictions of 20 ecosystem models from the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Site-Level Interim Synthesis when confronted with eddy-covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from 10 ecosystems with multiple years of available data. Models were grouped into classes with similar approaches for incorporating phenology, the calculation of NEE, the inclusion of foliar nitrogen (N), and the use of model-data fusion. Models with prescribed, rather than prognostic, phenology often fit NEE observations better on annual to interannual timescales in grassland, wetland and agricultural ecosystems. Models that calculated NEE as net primary productivity (NPP) minus heterotrophic respiration (HR) rather than gross ecosystem productivity (GPP) minus ecosystem respiration (ER) fit better on annual timescales in grassland and wetland ecosystems, but models that calculated NEE as GPP minus ER were superior on monthly to seasonal timescales in two coniferous forests. Models that incorporated foliar nitrogen (N) data were successful at capturing NEE variability on interannual (multiple year) timescales at Howland Forest, Maine. The model that employed a model-data fusion approach often, but not always, resulted in improved fit to data, suggesting that improving model parameterization is important but not the only step for improving model performance. Combined with previous findings, our results suggest that the mechanisms driving daily and annual NEE variability tend to be correctly simulated, but the magnitude of these fluxes is often erroneous, suggesting that model parameterization must be improved. Few NACP models correctly predicted fluxes on seasonal and interannual timescales where spectral energy in NEE observations tends to be low, but where phenological events, multi-year oscillations in climatological drivers, and ecosystem succession are known to be important for determining ecosystem function. Mechanistic improvements to models must be made to replicate observed NEE variability on seasonal and interannual timescales.

Stoy, P. C.; Dietze, M. C.; Richardson, A. D.; Vargas, R.; Barr, A. G.; Anderson, R. S.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I. T.; Black, T. A.; Chen, J. M.; Cook, R. B.; Gough, C. M.; Grant, R. F.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Kucharik, C. J.; Lafleur, P.; Law, B. E.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Munger, J. W.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D. T.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Riley, W. J.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Schwalm, C. R.; Tian, H.; Verbeeck, H.; Weng, E.

2013-11-01

137

A practical framework for evaluating online distance education programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case is presented for distance education administrators that evaluation is an essential element of successful distance education programs. A synthesis of the program evaluation and distance education research literature is used to form a framework for conducting evaluations of online programs. Evaluators should assess student performance, determine program and cost effectiveness, monitor quality to include technology and support services,

Alfred P. Rovai

2003-01-01

138

Minimum weight aerospace structural synthesis program  

E-print Network

) . 83r) + . 17@ (Refs. 10 and 13) s T (24) E s r/ s E E g T E Dividing Eq, (22) by t and assuming v v = 0 X 76rIl d t (25) The expression for local stability is a semi-empirical equation developed at North American Aviation, LAD. 13 1. 55' E 2...

Walker, John Michael

1975-01-01

139

Programmed synthesis of freestanding graphene nanomembrane arrays.  

PubMed

Freestanding graphene membranes are unique materials. The combination of atomically thin dimensions, remarkable mechanical robustness, and chemical stability make porous and non-porous graphene membranes attractive for water purification and various sensing applications. Nanopores in graphene and other 2D materials have been identified as promising devices for next-generation DNA sequencing based on readout of either transverse DNA base-gated current or through-pore ion current. While several ground breaking studies of graphene-based nanopores for DNA analysis have been reported, all methods to date require a physical transfer of the graphene from its source of production onto an aperture support. The transfer process is slow and often leads to tears in the graphene that render many devices useless for nanopore measurements. In this work, we report a novel scalable approach for site-directed fabrication of pinhole-free graphene nanomembranes. Our approach yields high quality few-layer graphene nanomembranes produced in less than a day using a few steps that do not involve transfer. We highlight the functionality of these graphene devices by measuring DNA translocation through electron-beam fabricated nanopores in such membranes. PMID:25236988

Waduge, Pradeep; Larkin, Joseph; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Kar, Swastik; Wanunu, Meni

2015-02-01

140

Teaching Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis Using Interactive Microcomputer Graphics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis (HENS) program used at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Massachusetts) as an aid to teaching the energy integration step in process design. Focuses on the benefits of the computer graphics used in the program to increase the speed of generating and changing networks. (TW)

Dixon, Anthony G.

1987-01-01

141

High-Level Synthesis of Software Function Calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter presents a novel framework in high-level synthesis where hardware modules synthesized from functions in a given ANSI-C program can call the other software functions in the program. This enables high-level synthesis from C programs that contains calls to hard-to-synthesize functions, such as dynamic memory management, I/O request, or very large and complex functions. A single-thread implementation scheme is shown, whose correctness has been verified through register transfer level simulation.

Nishimura, Masanari; Ishiura, Nagisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Kanbara, Hiroyuki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki

142

The TeachScheme! Project: Computing and Programming for Every Student  

E-print Network

before us have observed, good programming requires critical reading, analytical thinking, creative synthesis, and attention to detail. And all of these skills are useful in many professions. Unfortunately

143

Program Aids Analysis And Optimization Of Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NETS/ PROSSS (NETS Coupled With Programming System for Structural Synthesis) computer program developed to provide system for combining NETS (MSC-21588), neural-network application program and CONMIN (Constrained Function Minimization, ARC-10836), optimization program. Enables user to reach nearly optimal design. Design then used as starting point in normal optimization process, possibly enabling user to converge to optimal solution in significantly fewer iterations. NEWT/PROSSS written in C language and FORTRAN 77.

Rogers, James L., Jr.; Lamarsh, William J., II

1994-01-01

144

New frontiers in design synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering Systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed.

Goldin, D. S.; Venneri, S. L.; Noor, A. K.

1999-01-01

145

DCTD — Developmental Therapeutics Program (DTP)  

Cancer.gov

DTP’s Pharmaceutical Resources Branch bears the responsibility of acquiring bulk materials for formulation and synthesis, formulating drugs and testing them, producing clinical dosage forms, and stability testing of clinical dosage forms. This branch provides clinical researchers, both academic and institutional, with top-quality drugs for clinical trials and formulates drug compounds that are under development by the NExT program.

146

Chemical Biology Coop Program (New for January 2011) Students from the Chemical Biology Coop Program will be prepared to conduct work terms in areas such as  

E-print Network

Chemical Biology Coop Program (New for January 2011) Students from the Chemical Biology Coop of the Chemical Biology Coop Program: Bioanalytical Chemistry Organic Chemistry & synthesis Cellular & molecular biology Nucleic acid structure & function Metabolism and regulation Modern physics Genetics Biomolecular

Hitchcock, Adam P.

147

Velocimetry signal synthesis with fringen.  

SciTech Connect

An important part of velocimetry analysis is the recovery of a known velocity history from simulated data signals. The fringen program synthesizes VISAR and PDV signals, given a specified velocity history, using exact formulations for the optical signal. Time-dependent light conditions, non-ideal measurement conditions, and various diagnostic limitations (noise, etc.) may be incorporated into the simulated signals. This report describes the fringen program, which performs forward VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) and PDV (Photonic Doppler Velocimetry, also known as heterodyne velocimetry) analysis. Nearly all effects that might occur in VISAR/PDV measurement of a single velocity can be modeled by fringen. The program operates in MATLAB, either within a graphical interface or as a user-callable function. The current stable version of fringen is 0.3, which was released in October 2010. The following sections describe the operation and use of fringen. Section 2 gives a brief overview of VISAR and PDV synthesis. Section 3 illustrates the graphical and console interface of fringen. Section 4 presents several example uses of the program. Section 5 summarizes program capabilities and discusses potential future work.

Dolan, Daniel H., III

2011-02-01

148

Cycle-time aware architecture synthesis of custom hardware accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the cycle-time aware architecture synthesis methodology used in PICO-NPA that automatically synthesizes minimal cost RT-level designs from high-level specifications to meet a given cycle-time. This allows subsequent physical synthesis to succeed on first pass with predictable performance. The core of the methodology is a static timing analysis engine that is used at multiple levels - program-level, architecture-level and

Mukund Sivaraman; Shail Aditya

2002-01-01

149

Sorghum Program BIOENERGY PROGRAM  

E-print Network

Sorghum Program BIOENERGY PROGRAM Sorghums are important nongrain lignocellulosic feedstocks for biofuel production. Texas AgriLife Research has a very active sorghum program that boasts about 40 and exhibit extensive molecular and trait diversity. Sorghum has an excellent genome plat- form. Nongrain

150

Strategic Partnering to Evaluate Cancer Signatures (SPECS) | Scientific Programs  

Cancer.gov

This proposal will define a molecular classification schema for organ-confined prostate cancer. The schema will be based on patterns of gene expression and DNA methylation found within prostate tumors and the surrounding stroma. The aim of the project is to create a method for classifying such tumors based on tumor biology rather than simply on histology. The development of a classification schema based on molecular profiles would improve our ability to treat and manage organ-confined prostate cancer.

151

Synthesis of multiple shaped beam antenna patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of research into the problem of finding an excitation of a given antenna such that the desired radiation pattern is approximated to within acceptable limits. This is to be done in such a fashion that boundary conditions involving hardware limitations may be inserted into the problem. The intended application is synthesis of multiple shaped beam antennas. Since this is perhaps the most difficult synthesis problem an antenna engineer is likely to encounter, the approach taken was to include as a by-product capability for synthesizing simpler patterns. The synthesis technique has been almost totally computerized. The class of antennas which may be synthesized with the computer program are those which may be represented as planar (continuous or discrete) current distributions. The technique is not limited in this sense and could indeed by extended to include, for example, the synthesis of conformal arrays or current distributions on the surface of reflectors. The antenna types which the program is set up to synthesize are: line source, rectangular aperture, circular aperture, linear array, rectangular array, and arbitrary planar array.

Stutzman, W. L.; Coffey, E. L.

1973-01-01

152

Sequential Circuit Design Using Synthesis and Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of SIS, an interactive tool for synthesis and optimization of sequential circuits. Given a state transition table or a logic-level description of a sequential circuit, SIS produces an optimized net-list in the target technology while preserving the sequential input-output behavior. Many different programs and algorithms have been integrated into SIS, allowing the user to choose among

Ellen M. Sentovich; Kanwar Jit Singh Gill; Cho W. Moon; Hamid Savoj; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1992-01-01

153

Evolutionary Image Synthesis Using a Model of Aesthetics Brian J. Ross, William Ralph, and Hai Zong  

E-print Network

Evolutionary Image Synthesis Using a Model of Aesthetics Brian J. Ross, William Ralph, and Hai Zong Abstract-- The automatic synthesis of aesthetically pleas- ing images is investigated. Genetic programming of aesthetics. This aesthetic model is based on empirical analyses of fine art, in which analyzed art work

Fernandez, Thomas

154

General aviation design synthesis utilizing interactive computer graphics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interactive computer graphics is a fast growing area of computer application, due to such factors as substantial cost reductions in hardware, general availability of software, and expanded data communication networks. In addition to allowing faster and more meaningful input/output, computer graphics permits the use of data in graphic form to carry out parametric studies for configuration selection and for assessing the impact of advanced technologies on general aviation designs. The incorporation of interactive computer graphics into a NASA developed general aviation synthesis program is described, and the potential uses of the synthesis program in preliminary design are demonstrated.

Galloway, T. L.; Smith, M. R.

1976-01-01

155

ACCESS-2: Approximation Concepts Code for Efficient Structural Synthesis, user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's guide is presented for the ACCESS-2 computer program. ACCESS-2 is a research oriented program which implements a collection of approximation concepts to achieve excellent efficiency in structural synthesis. The finite element method is used for structural analysis and general mathematical programming algorithms are applied in the design optimization procedure.

Miura, H.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

1978-01-01

156

Program Slicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program slicing is a method used by experienced computer programmers for abstracting from programs. Starting from a subset of a program's behavior, slicing reduces that program to a minimal form which still produces that behavior. The reduced program, called a “slice”, is an independent program guaranteed to faithfully represent the original program within the domain of the specified subset of

Mark Weiser

1984-01-01

157

Program Slicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program slicing is a method used by experienced computer programmers for abstracting from programs. Starting from a subset of a program's behavior, slicing reduces that program to a minimal form which still produces that behavior. The reduced program, called a “slice”, is an independent program guaranteed to faithfully represent the original program within the domain of the specified subset of

Mark Weiser

1981-01-01

158

Chemical Process Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Process synthesis is the specification of chemical and physical operations and the selection and interconnection of equipment to implement these operations to effect desired chemical processing transformations. Optimization and evolutionary and systematic generation process synthesis approaches are described. (Author/SK)

Siirola, J. J.

1982-01-01

159

Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have been an era of rapid progress in peptide research. This era was begun by the work of Sanger on the amino acid sequence determination of insulin and by du Vigneaud on the structure determination and synthesis of oxytocin. This period has seen impressive progress in the structure elucidation and synthesis of many peptides of natural

John Morrow Stewart

1976-01-01

160

Synthesis of Pandamarilactone-1  

PubMed Central

The first total synthesis of pandamarilactone-1, an alkaloid of Pandanus amaryllifolius, is reported. The nine-step synthesis features furan oxidation with singlet oxygen and then spiro-N,O-acetalization and elimination to generate the natural product and further Pandanus alkaloids, pandamarilactonines A–D. PMID:24479880

2014-01-01

161

Reaction synthesis of intermetallics  

SciTech Connect

Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides was utilized to obtain nickel, iron, and cobalt aluminides. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain intermetallics and their composites. Extrusion conditions, reduction ratios, and hot-pressing conditions of the intermetallics and their composites are discussed.

Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

1994-12-31

162

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLES  

E-print Network

Processes: i. Gold synthesis in laboratory ii. Inert gas condensation iii. Laser ablation processSYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLES Lokesh Kulkarni Dept. of Industrial and Systems Engineering September 11th, 2009 #12;OVERVIEW Synthesis Techniques: Top-down and Bottom-up Synthesis

Ding, Yu

163

Cell-free protein synthesis: the state of the art  

PubMed Central

Cell-free protein synthesis harnesses the synthetic power of biology, programming the ribosomal translational machinery of the cell to create macromolecular products. Like PCR, which uses cellular replication machinery to create a DNA amplifier, cell-free protein synthesis is emerging as a transformative technology with broad applications in protein engineering, biopharmaceutical development, and post-genomic research. By breaking free from the constraints of cell-based systems, it takes the next step towards synthetic biology. Recent advances in reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis (Protein synthesis Using Recombinant Elements (PURE) expression systems) are creating new opportunities to tailor the reactions for specialized applications including in vitro protein evolution, printing protein microarrays, isotopic labeling, and incorporating nonnatural amino acids. PMID:23086573

Whittaker, James W.

2012-01-01

164

Chemical synthesis of proteins.  

PubMed

Proteins have become accessible targets for chemical synthesis. The basic strategy is to use native chemical ligation, Staudinger ligation, or other orthogonal chemical reactions to couple synthetic peptides. The ligation reactions are compatible with a variety of solvents and proceed in solution or on a solid support. Chemical synthesis enables a level of control on protein composition that greatly exceeds that attainable with ribosome-mediated biosynthesis. Accordingly, the chemical synthesis of proteins is providing previously unattainable insight into the structure and function of proteins. PMID:15869385

Nilsson, Bradley L; Soellner, Matthew B; Raines, Ronald T

2005-01-01

165

Chemical Synthesis of Proteins  

PubMed Central

Proteins have become accessible targets for chemical synthesis. The basic strategy is to use native chemical ligation, Staudinger ligation, or other orthogonal chemical reactions to couple synthetic peptides. The ligation reactions are compatible with a variety of solvents and proceed in solution or on a solid support. Chemical synthesis enables a level of control on protein composition that greatly exceeds that attainable with ribosome-mediated biosynthesis. Accordingly, the chemical synthesis of proteins is providing previously unattainable insight into the structure and function of proteins. PMID:15869385

Nilsson, Bradley L.; Soellner, Matthew B.; Raines, Ronald T.

2010-01-01

166

Mechanochemical organic synthesis.  

PubMed

Recently, mechanical milling using a mixer mill or planetary mill has been fruitfully utilized in organic synthesis under solvent-free conditions. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of various solvent-free mechanochemical organic reactions, including metal-mediated or -catalyzed reactions, condensation reactions, nucleophilic additions, cascade reactions, Diels-Alder reactions, oxidations, reductions, halogenation/aminohalogenation, etc. The ball milling technique has also been applied to the synthesis of calixarenes, rotaxanes and cage compounds, asymmetric synthesis as well as the transformation of biologically active compounds. PMID:23660585

Wang, Guan-Wu

2013-09-21

167

Synthesis of Cruentaren A  

PubMed Central

Cruentaren A, an antifungal benzolactone produced by the myxobacterium Byssovorax cruenta, is highly cytotoxic against various human cancer cell lines and a highly selective inhibitor of mitochondrial F-ATPase. A convergent and efficient synthesis of cruentaren A is reported, based upon a diastereoselective alkylation, a series of stereoselective aldol reactions utilizing Myers’ pseudoephedrine propionamide, an acyl bromide–mediated esterification and a ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as the key steps. The RCM reaction was applied for the first time towards the total synthesis of cruentaren A, which led to a convergent and efficient synthesis of the natural product. PMID:23205851

Kusuma, Bhaskar Reddy; Brandt, Gary E. L.

2012-01-01

168

UV Spectral Synthesis of Sirius A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV Spectral Synthesis of Sirius A We report the first results from a study of the fundamental physical properties of the A1 V star Sirius A. Using archival spectrophotometric data from the Hubble Space Telescope's STIS spectrograph, we have produced a synthetic UV spectrum of the star. The data were obtained at medium resolution with the G160M, G200M, and G270M gratings (FWHM 15 km/s) and cover the wavelength range 1265-3200 Angstroms. The synthetic spectrum was constructed using Kurucz's ATLAS9 LTE stellar atmospheric models and Hubeny's SYNSPEC spectral synthesis program and is a function of the star's effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulence velocity, rotational velocity, radial velocity, and chemical composition. A chi2-minimization program was used to find the values of these parameters which produce the best match of the synthetic spectrum with the observed spectrum. In addition to determining the stellar properties, this program can illuminate - and help rectify - deficiencies in the spectral line database used to construct the synthetic spectra. In this poster, we illustrate the first results from this program, including the quality of the match between the observed and computed spectra and the elemental abundance profile of Sirius A, including CNO, the light metals (e.g., Si and Al), and the Fe group.

McClain, Timothy; Fitzpatrick, E.

2010-01-01

169

Intelligent design synthesis: an object-oriented approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual design is a process of converting design requirements into an acceptable design solution. An object-oriented system for conceptual design is presented. The process of component synthesis is guided by production rules. An object-oriented programming paradigm is chosen since it simulates the designer's way of thinking during conceptual design. The system is implemented in Smalltalk-80 programming language and environment. Besides

ANDREW KUSIAK; EDWARD SZCZERBICKI; RANKO VUJOSEVIC

1991-01-01

170

ODIN - Optimal Design Integration system for synthesis of aerospace vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ODIN system is a new design synthesis procedure for solving multiple discipline design problems. In ODIN an unlimited number of independent technology codes can be linked together in the computer in any desired sequence. This paper describes the ODIN system, the executive program DIALOG, the data management technique, and the program library. The use of ODIN is illustrated with an application drawn from space system studies.

Rau, T. R.; Decker, J. P.

1974-01-01

171

Microwave rapid heating for the synthesis of gold nanorods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave heating system with a sealed reaction chamber and a precise temperature-controlled module was employed to assess the synthesis of tetradecylammonium bromide (TOAB) cation surfactant-stabilized gold nanorods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to characterize the size and the shape of particles. It was found that both TOAB concentrations and reaction temperature programs played an important role in the

Fu-Ken Liu; Yu-Cheng Chang; Fu-Hsiang Ko; Tieh-Chi Chu

2004-01-01

172

Automatic Synthesis of Fine-Motion Strategies for Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active compliance enables robots to carry out tasks in the presence of significant sensing and control errors. Compliant motions are quite difficult for humans to specify, however. Furthermore, robot programs are quite sensitive to details of geometry and to error characteristics and must, therefore, be constructed anew for each task. These factors motivate the search for automatic synthesis tools for

Tomás Lozano-Pérez; Matthew T. Mason; Russell H. Taylor

1984-01-01

173

MATConcat: An Application for Exploring Concatenative Sound Synthesis Using MATLAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

MATConcat is a MATLAB application for exploring con- catenative sound synthesis. Using this program a sound or composition can be concatenatively synthesized with audio segments from a database of other sounds. The algorithm matches segments based on similarity of specified feature vec- tors, currently consisting of six independent elements. Us- ing MATConcat a recording of Mahler can be synthesized us-

Bob L. Sturm

2004-01-01

174

Total synthesis of (+)-angelmarin.  

PubMed

An efficient 8-step enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-angelmarin, starting from commercially available umbelliferone, has been achieved. Key reactions include olefin cross-metathesis and a Shi epoxidation-cyclization sequence. PMID:19459593

Magolan, Jakob; Coster, Mark J

2009-07-17

175

Fiber draw synthesis  

E-print Network

The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid ...

Orf, Nicholas D.

176

Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes  

E-print Network

Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes Program Career: Descripton College School;Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes Program Career: Descripton College School/ College 1

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

177

Modern Evolutionary Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Wickipedia describes the modern evolutionary synthesis. This theory brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. Essentially, the modern synthesis (or neo-Darwinism) introduces the connection between two important discoveries; the units of evolution (genes) with the mechanism of evolution (selection). The site features links to any of the topics discussed.

Wikipedia

178

Total synthesis of mevashuntin.  

PubMed

The total synthesis of (±)-mevashuntin, a structurally unique naturally occurring pyrano-naphthoquinone-thiazolone, is described. The route is centered upon a late stage regioselective Diels-Alder reaction between two highly functionalized components, as well as an improved protocol for the one pot synthesis of benzothiazolones from ortho-bromoaryl isothiocyanates. The strategy results in a highly convergent route, providing access to the natural product in 11 steps from 3-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanol and confirming its relative stereochemistry. PMID:22369640

Nawrat, Christopher C; Moody, Christopher J

2012-03-16

179

Postsecondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article lists postsecondary programs specifically for people with deafness and other postsecondary programs with supportive services for students with deafness. Alphabetized by state, contact information is provided for each of the programs, along with date the program was founded, programs, degrees, and number of students and staff with…

American Annals of the Deaf, 2002

2002-01-01

180

Microfluidic synthesis of colloidal nanomaterials  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on microfluidics based approaches for synthesis and surface-engineering of colloidal particles. Bottom-up assembly through colloidal nucleation and growth is a popular route to the controlled synthesis ...

Khan, Saif A

2006-01-01

181

The Synthesis of Lepidoptera Pheromones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review surveys the data in numerous publications of the synthesis of the pheromones of scale-winged insects (Lepidoptera). Attention is concentrated on problems of the sterospecific synthesis of pheromones. The bibliography includes 217 references.

Matveeva, Elena D.; Kurts, A. L.; Bundel', Yurii G.

1986-07-01

182

Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

1985-01-01

183

Genetic Programming for Image Analysis Riccardo Poli  

E-print Network

describes an approach to using GP for image analysis based on the idea that image enhancement, feature solution is known) and compared with artificial neural nets. 1 Introduction Genetic Programming (GP) has recognition, robotic control, synthesis on neural architectures, symbolic regression, music and picture

Fernandez, Thomas

184

INFORMAL SEMINAR MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

INFORMAL SEMINAR MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION PROGRAM Dr. Basil Greber Post-doctoral Research) perform protein synthesis inside mitochondria, the organelles responsible for energy conversion proteins and shortening of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA). To fully understand the function of these highly

Chan, Hue Sun

185

Automated optimal synthesis of microaccelerometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid layout synthesis of a lateral accelerometer from high-level functional specifications and design constraints is demonstrated. Functional parameters such as sensitivity, minimum and maximum detectable acceleration are satisfied while simultaneously optimizing a design objective, such as device area. The optimal synthesis tool allows exploration of micromechanical device and system design issues and objectives. Layout synthesis couples optimization-based design to

Tamal Mukherjeet; Yong Zhout; Gary K. Feddert

1999-01-01

186

Environmental Programs Environmental Programs Committee  

E-print Network

162 Environmental Programs Environmental Programs Committee Walter Whitfield Isle, Chair (English) Katherine Bennett Ensor (Statistics) Mark R. Wiesner (Civil and Environmental Engineering) Donald Ostdiek (Architecture) The Environmental Programs Committee coordinates courses and curricula on environmental topics

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

187

Part One: Mirrors; Part Two: Synthesis of Camphor  

E-print Network

KU ScholarWorks | The University of Kansas Pre-1923 Dissertations and Theses Collection Part One: Mirrors Part Two: Synthesis of Camphor 1908 by Robert C. Kent This work was digitized by the Scholarly Communications program staff in the KU.... One of the latest and most important synthesis of an organic compound i s that of camphor. Camphor i s obtained i n Japan and China from different species of the genus ©"amphora of the laurus family,by d i s ­ t i l l a t i o n of the chips...

Kent, Robert C.

1908-01-01

188

Synthesis of stiffened shells of revolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs for the synthesis of shells of various configurations were developed. The conditions considered are: (1) uniform shells (mainly cones) using a membrane buckling analysis, (2) completely uniform shells (cones, spheres, toroidal segments) using linear bending prebuckling analysis, and (3) revision of second design process to reduce the number of design variables to about 30 by considering piecewise uniform designs. A perturbation formula was derived and this allows exact derivatives of the general buckling load to be computed with little additional computer time.

Thornton, W. A.

1974-01-01

189

Computer program for design and performance analysis of navigation-aid power systems. Program documentation. Volume 1: Software requirements document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program has been developed for designing and analyzing the performance of solar array/battery power systems for the U.S. Coast Guard Navigational Aids. This program is called the Design Synthesis/Performance Analysis (DSPA) Computer Program. The basic function of the Design Synthesis portion of the DSPA program is to evaluate functional and economic criteria to provide specifications for viable solar array/battery power systems. The basic function of the Performance Analysis portion of the DSPA program is to simulate the operation of solar array/battery power systems under specific loads and environmental conditions. This document establishes the software requirements for the DSPA computer program, discusses the processing that occurs within the program, and defines the necessary interfaces for operation.

Goltz, G.; Kaiser, L. M.; Weiner, H.

1977-01-01

190

Exemplary Programs in Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Earth Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 1982 Search for Excellence in Science Education project has identified 50 exemplary programs in physics, chemistry, biology, and earth science. Descriptions of four of these programs and the criteria used in their selection are presented. The first section reviews the direction established by Project Synthesis in searching for exemplary…

Yager, Robert E., Ed.

191

Evolving object oriented agent programs in Robocup Domain  

E-print Network

Descriptors I.2.2­Automatic Programming, Program Synthesis; I.2.11­ Distributed Artificial Intelligence Distrital Member of Laboratory of Automatic, Microelectronic and Computational Intelligence (LAMIC) Bogotá of Laboratory of Automatic, Microelectronic and Computational Intelligence (LAMIC) Bogotá, Colombia jyolarter

Fernandez, Thomas

192

Computer programs for antenna feed system design and analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourteen computer programs have been developed for antenna feed system design and analysis. The programs cover a large spectrum of feed design problems, from primary feed pattern synthesis to the farfield pattern of the main reflector, including analyses of structural distortions.

Ludwig, A.

1967-01-01

193

Synthesis of organosilicon compounds  

SciTech Connect

Silicon-containing polymers have been a focus of synthesis and study in Dr. Barton`s group because of their chemistry and properties which are not offered by other systems or materials. For example, the polymer -[-SiMe{sub 2}C{triple_bond}C-]{sub n}-can be easily processed to films or fibers from melt or solution, and thermally converted to a SiC-containing ceramic in high yield at high temperature. In recent years, carbosilane dendritic polymers have been of great interests in many research groups. However, no synthesis of carbosilane dendrimers with functionalties both inside and outside the dendrimer has been reported. Functionality is very important in the synthesis of preceramic polymers. This thesis will be devoted to exploring several new organosilicon polymer systems.

Zhao, G.

1996-12-31

194

Programming Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 434. Programming Languages (3) Prerequisites: CSC 332 and CSC 360. Comparative study of programming languages from both theoretical and applied viewpoints. Typical issues include syntax and semantics, scope and binding times, storage allocation, parameter-passing techniques, control structures, run-time representation of programs and data. Detailed examples from the imperative, functional, parallel, object-oriented and logical programming paradigms.

Berman, David

2003-04-21

195

Genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents essays on genetic programming which involve topics such as: the artificial evolution of computer code, human-competitive machine intelligence by means of genetic programming, GP as automatic programming, GP application, the evolution of arbitrary computational processes and the art of genetic programming

Wolfgang Banzhaf; J. R. Koza; C. Ryan; L. Spector; C. Jacob

2000-01-01

196

Program Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparing large numbers of varying types of programs is a national-level problem that requires a uniform, total program perspective. A cost-per-student figure that has policy relevance for health professions education program needs to analyze the education output unit; be comparable across programs, schools, and institutions; and provide more…

Fraser, Jeannette L.; Wright, Barbara W.

1978-01-01

197

Invisible Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A user interface in which the user gives an example of the desired operation and the system generalizes to construct a general-purpose procedure is discussed. The user sees the results of the program execution and the data the program is operating on, but the program itself is not shown. The program is specified by demonstrating the operations that should be

Brad A. Myers

1990-01-01

198

Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2004-01-01

199

Supercritical synthesis of biodiesel.  

PubMed

The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats) has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs) for biodiesel synthesis. PMID:22825622

Bernal, Juana M; Lozano, Pedro; García-Verdugo, Eduardo; Burguete, M Isabel; Sánchez-Gómez, Gregorio; López-López, Gregorio; Pucheault, Mathieu; Vaultier, Michel; Luis, Santiago V

2012-01-01

200

Efficient synthesis of pyrenylalanine.  

PubMed

An efficient synthesis of L-3-(1'-pyrenyl)alanine (Pya), a highly fluorescent amino acid, is described. The amino acid was obtained by the classical asymmetric hydrogenation of chiral 1-acetyl-3-pyrenemethylidene-6-methyl-piperazine-2,5-dione. In the proposed improved procedure mild conditions of the synthesis were applied and the final product--N-tertbutoxycarbonyl-pyrenylalanine--was obtained in good yield. Pyrenylalanine, due to its interesting photophysical properties, can be applied as a fluorescent probe in numerous biochemical and conformational studies. PMID:11764407

Szyma?ska, A; Wiczk, W; Lankiewicz, L

2001-01-01

201

Synthesis of carbon nanotubes.  

PubMed

Carbon nanotubes play a fundamental role in the rapidly developing field of nanoscience and nanotechnology because of their unique properties and high potential for applications. In this article, the different synthesis methods of carbon nanotubes (both multi-walled and single-walled) are reviewed. From the industrial point of view, the chemical vapor deposition method has shown advantages over laser vaporization and electric arc discharge methods. This article also presents recent work in the controlled synthesis of carbon nanotubes with ordered architectures. Special carbon nanotube configurations, such as nanocoils, nanohorns, bamboo-shaped and carbon cylinder made up from carbon nanotubes are also discussed. PMID:16245519

Awasthi, Kalpana; Srivastava, Anchal; Srivastava, O N

2005-10-01

202

Heterogeneous Programming Library Programming Manual  

E-print Network

Heterogeneous Programming Library Programming Manual HPL Team August 23, 2013 #12;Contents 1.2.1 HPL automatic variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3.2.2 Control flow variables 17 1 #12;1 Introduction The Heterogeneous Programming Library (HPL) provides a programming

Fraguela, Basilio B.

203

Fetal haemoglobin synthesis following fetal liver transplantation in man.  

PubMed

Transplantation of haematopoietic tissue from the fetus to the adult is of considerable clinical and theoretical interest. In particular it could help to understand whether the haemoglobin switch is under the influence of environmental factors or inherently programmed in the haemopoietic cell population. In the present study we have monitored haemoglobin synthesis following fetal liver transplantation (FLT) in a patient with acute leukaemia after intensive chemoradiotherapy. 28 days following FLT, the haemoglobin synthesis showed a predominantly fetal haemoglobin pattern, as determined by globin chain synthesis of bone marrow cells and by the peroxidase anti-peroxidase (PAP) method applied to bone marrow sections treated with anti-fetal haemoglobin antibodies. These findings demonstrate that, in man, fetal haemopoietic cells, transplanted into an adult environment, do not immediately switch to the production of adult haemoglobin. PMID:6200131

Delfini, C; Saglio, G; Mazza, U; Muretto, P; Filippetti, A; Lucarelli, G

1983-12-01

204

Interactive systems design and synthesis of future spacecraft concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze and conduct parametric studies and modify Earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

1984-01-01

205

Synthesis of multichannel discriminators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An approach is presented for the synthesis of algorithms for evaluating the parameters of stochastic processes. In accordance with the approach proposed here, the derivative of the logarithm of the likelihood function is expanded into a Taylor series and then represented in the form of Stirling's interpolation polynomial. Discrimination procedures are developed which use three of more counts of the input process.

Zaichenko, K. V.

1988-01-01

206

Total synthesis of jiadifenolide.  

PubMed

As a potent neurotrophic agent, the sesquiterpenoid jiadifenolide represents a valuable small-molecule lead for the potential therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. A stereocontrolled total synthesis of this densely functionalized natural product is reported, central to which is an adventurous samarium-mediated cyclization reaction to establish the tricyclic core and the adjacent C5 and C6 quaternary stereocenters. PMID:24861364

Paterson, Ian; Xuan, Mengyang; Dalby, Stephen M

2014-07-01

207

Asymmetric Synthesis of Ageliferin  

PubMed Central

We describe herein an asymmetric synthesis of ageliferin. A Mn(III)-mediated oxidative radical cyclization reaction was used as the key step to construct the core skeleton of this pyrrole-imidazole dimer. This approach resembles the bio-genic [4+2] dimerization in an intramolecular fashion. PMID:21888421

Wang, Xiao; Ma, Zhiqiang; Lu, Jianming; Tan, Xianghui; Chen, Chuo

2011-01-01

208

Synthesis of louisianin C.  

PubMed

The synthesis of louisianin C (3), a member of a small family of 3,4,5-trisubstituted pyridyl natural products, is achieved in six steps and 11% overall yield starting from commercially available 3,5-dibromopyridine. The key step is a fluoride-induced desilylation-cyclization to afford carbinol 12. PMID:12790613

Beierle, John M; Osimboni, Ekundayo B; Metallinos, Costa; Zhao, Yajun; Kelly, T Ross

2003-06-13

209

Collaborative Information Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the growth in the quantity of scientific literature and advances in information retrieval techniques to find relevant articles. Explores user behavior and information requirements of scientists as they interact with medical literature to answer research questions and introduces METIS (Multi-user extraction and information synthesis) to…

Blake, Catherine; Pratt, Wanda

2002-01-01

210

The synthesis of gemcitabine.  

PubMed

Gemcitabine is a fluorinated nucleoside currently administered against a number of cancers. It consists of a cytosine base and a 2-deoxy-2,2-difluororibose sugar. The synthetic challenges associated with the introduction of the fluorine atoms, as well as with nucleobase introduction of 2,2-difluorinated sugars, combined with the requirement to have an efficient process suitable for large scale synthesis, have spurred significant activity towards the synthesis of gemcitabine exploring a wide variety of synthetic approaches. In addition, many methods have been developed for selective crystallisation of diastereomeric (including anomeric) mixtures. In that regard, the 2-deoxy-2,2-difluororibose sugar is one of the most investigated fluorinated carbohydrates in terms of its synthesis. The versatility of synthetic methods employed is illustrative of the current state of the art of fluorination methodology for the synthesis of CF2-containing carbohydrates, and involves the use of fluorinated building blocks, as well as nucleophilic and electrophilic fluorination of sugar precursors. PMID:24636495

Brown, Kylie; Dixey, Michael; Weymouth-Wilson, Alex; Linclau, Bruno

2014-03-31

211

Synthesis in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses various techniques that scientists and other professionals can use to keep current in their field despite the large amount of available information, such as consulting abstracts, indexes, reviews, and catalogues. It also examines specific language patterns that are used in the sciences to produce synthesis and abridgement,…

Horsella, Maria

212

The New Synthesis?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the following questions: (1) What are the aims and claims of contemporary sociobiology? (2) How does the enterprise fit into the history of ideas? and (3) Does sociobiology have the earmarks of being the beginning of a major synthesis? (Author/AM)

Holton, Gerald

1978-01-01

213

MICROWAVES IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of microwaves, a non-ionizing radiation, on organic reactions is described both in polar solvents and under solvent-free conditions. The special applications are highlighted in the context of solventless organic synthesis which involve microwave (MW) exposure of neat r...

214

Combustion synthesis and nanomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent developments and trends in combustion science towards the synthesis of nanomaterials are discussed. Different modifications made to conventional combustion approaches for preparation of nanomaterials are critically analyzed. Special attention is paid to various applications of combustion synthesized nanosized products.

Singanahally T. Aruna; Alexander S. Mukasyan

2008-01-01

215

Penny Rheingans Texture Synthesis  

E-print Network

for objects ­ Infill missing regions #12;2 Sample Replication Multiresolution Synthesis · Jeremy De Bonet-parametric Sampling · Their goals: ­ preserve local structure ­ model wide range of real textures ­ ability to do distribution of p, given the neighbourhood window? ­ Instead of constructing a model, let's directly search

Rheingans, Penny

216

Routine Human-Competitive Machine Intelligence by Means of Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

-return human-competitive machine intelligence; (2) is an automated invention machine; (3) can automatically-of-magnitude increases in the expenditure of computer time. Recent results involving the automatic synthesis: Genetic programming, automated inventions, parameterized topology, analog circuit synthesis, controller

Fernandez, Thomas

217

A Software Architecture for Intelligent Synthesis Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) program is a grand attempt to develop a system to transform the way complex artifacts are engineered. This paper discusses a "middleware" architecture for enabling the development of ISE. Desirable elements of such an Intelligent Synthesis Architecture (ISA) include remote invocation; plug-and-play applications; scripting of applications; management of design artifacts, tools, and artifact and tool attributes; common system services; system management; and systematic enforcement of policies. This paper argues that the ISA extend conventional distributed object technology (DOT) such as CORBA and Product Data Managers with flexible repositories of product and tool annotations and "plug-and-play" mechanisms for inserting "ility" or orthogonal concerns into the system. I describe the Object Infrastructure Framework, an Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP) environment for developing distributed systems that provides utility insertion and enables consistent annotation maintenance. This technology can be used to enforce policies such as maintaining the annotations of artifacts, particularly the provenance and access control rules of artifacts-, performing automatic datatype transformations between representations; supplying alternative servers of the same service; reporting on the status of jobs and the system; conveying privileges throughout an application; supporting long-lived transactions; maintaining version consistency; and providing software redundancy and mobility.

Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

218

Alcohol Medical Scholars Program--A Mentorship Program for Improving Medical Education regarding Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Alcohol Medical Scholars Program (AMSP) is designed to improve medical education related to substance use disorders (SUDs) through mentorship of junior, full-time academic faculty from medical schools across the United States. Scholarship focuses on literature review and synthesis, lecture development and delivery, increasing SUD education in…

Neufeld, Karin J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

219

Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development  

SciTech Connect

Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. ({sup 32}P) labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development.

Kelso, L.C.

1989-01-01

220

Process Synthesis and Optimization of Biorefinery Configurations  

E-print Network

biorefinery design. In the synthesis problem, a systems-based "forward-backward" approach was developed. It involves forward synthesis of biomass to possible intermediates and reverse synthesis starting with desired products and identifying necessary species...

Pham, Viet

2012-10-19

221

Career Education Programs for the Disadvantaged. Appendix A of a Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a project designed to provide a synthesis of literature and practice relating to the career education of disadvantaged students, this paper, which is intended for administrators of local programs, identifies successful components of career education programs for the disadvantaged. Program descriptions were secured through a…

Robertson, J. Marvin

222

Is Sustainability Possible? A Review and Commentary on Empirical Studies of Program Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important final step in the life cycles of programs and their evaluation involves assessing new programs' or innovations' sustainability. This review and synthesis of 19 empirical studies of the sustainability of American and Canadian health-related programs examines the extent of sustainability achieved and summarizes factors contributing to…

Scheirer, Mary Ann

2005-01-01

223

Computer Synthesis Approaches of Hyperboloid Gear Drives with Linear Contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer design has improved forming different type software for scientific researches in the field of gearing theory as well as performing an adequate scientific support of the gear drives manufacture. Here are attached computer programs that are based on mathematical models as a result of scientific researches. The modern gear transmissions require the construction of new mathematical approaches to their geometric, technological and strength analysis. The process of optimization, synthesis and design is based on adequate iteration procedures to find out an optimal solution by varying definite parameters. The study is dedicated to accepted methodology in the creation of soft- ware for the synthesis of a class high reduction hyperboloid gears - Spiroid and Helicon ones (Spiroid and Helicon are trademarks registered by the Illinois Tool Works, Chicago, Ill). The developed basic computer products belong to software, based on original mathematical models. They are based on the two mathematical models for the synthesis: "upon a pitch contact point" and "upon a mesh region". Computer programs are worked out on the basis of the described mathematical models, and the relations between them are shown. The application of the shown approaches to the synthesis of commented gear drives is illustrated.

Abadjiev, Valentin; Kawasaki, Haruhisa

2014-09-01

224

Deductive Glue Code Synthesis for Embedded Software Systems Based on Code Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated code synthesis is a constructive process that can be used to generate programs from specifications. It can, thus, greatly reduce the software development cost and time. The use of formal code synthesis approach for software generation further increases the dependability of the system. Though code synthesis has many potential benefits, the synthesis techniques are still limited. Meanwhile, components are widely used in embedded system development. Applying code synthesis to component based software development (CBSD) process can greatly enhance the capability of code synthesis while reducing the component composition efforts. In this paper, we discuss the issues and techniques for applying deductive code synthesis techniques to CBSD. For deductive synthesis in CBSD, a rule base is the key for inferring appropriate component composition. We use the code patterns to guide the development of rules. Code patterns have been proposed to capture the typical usages of the components. Several general composition operations have been identified to facilitate systematic composition. We present the technique for rule development and automated generation of new patterns from existing code patterns. A case study of using this method in building a real-time control system is also presented.

Liu, Jian; Fu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yansheng; Bastani, Farokh; Yen, I-Ling; Tai, Ann; Chau, Savio N.

2006-01-01

225

Flexibility Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

Connors, G. Patrick

226

Gifted Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes programs for the gifted: visual and performing arts for secondary students, enrichment for rural elementary students, and a learning center elementary enrichment program. NOTE: includes "INTERARTS: The High School Program for the Talented in the Arts" by Barbara Luehning, "Spice" by Jane V. Salisbury, and "Learning Center Enrichment…

Luehning, Barbara

1979-01-01

227

MEXUS Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The MEXUS program, a transnational, undergraduate, dual-degree program in the United States and Mexico, addresses the problem of how universities can better prepare students to manage business in an interdependent global marketplace. The program was initiated as a consortium of four institutions (San Diego State University and Southwestern College…

Branan, Alvord; Hergert, Michael

228

Program Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Triton College's proposed method of conducting periodic comprehensive evaluations of the quality and potential of its academic programs has five components. First, a self-study is conducted by the faculty and administrators of the program being reviewed, in a year-long comprehensive examination of the program. Second, an external consultant, with…

Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

229

Enhancing The Fault-Tolerance of Nonmasking Programs Sandeep S. Kulkarni Ali Ebnenasir  

E-print Network

synthesis algorithm. Based on these motivations, in [1,2], Kulkarni, Arora, and Chippada have presented to a fault-intolerant program is the complexity of such addition. Specifically, in [1], Kulkarni and Arora the heuristic b

Kulkarni, Sandeep

230

Liquid-Phase Combinatorial Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept termed liquid-phase combinatorial synthesis (LPCS) is described. The central feature of this methodology is that it combines the advantages that classic organic synthesis in solution offers with those that solid-phase synthesis can provide, through the application of a linear homogeneous polymer. To validate this concept two libraries were prepared, one of peptide and the second of non-peptide origin.

Hyunsoo Han; Mary M. Wolfe; Sydney Brenner; Kim D. Janda

1995-01-01

231

Ocean Drilling Program (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... FOR GEOSCIENCES (GEO) OCEAN SCIENCES (OCE) Ocean Drilling Program The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP ... scale, the Earth's crust beneath the ocean in order to learn more about the composition, structure ...

232

Total synthesis of taxol.  

PubMed

Taxol, a substance originally isolated from the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia) more than two decades ago, has recently been approved for the clinical treatment of cancer patients. Hailed as having provided one of the most significant advances in cancer therapy, this molecule exerts its anticancer activity by inhibiting mitosis through enhancement of the polymerization of tubulin and consequent stabilization of microtubules. The scarcity of taxol and the ecological impact of harvesting it have prompted extension searches for alternative sources including semisynthesis, cellular culture production and chemical synthesis. The latter has been attempted for almost two decades, but these attempts have been thwarted by the magnitude of the synthetic challenge. Here we report the total synthesis of taxol by a convergent strategy, which opens a chemical pathway for the production of both the natural product itself and a variety of designed taxoids. PMID:7906395

Nicolaou, K C; Yang, Z; Liu, J J; Ueno, H; Nantermet, P G; Guy, R K; Claiborne, C F; Renaud, J; Couladouros, E A; Paulvannan, K

1994-02-17

233

Biomimetic synthesis of lantibiotics.  

PubMed

The lantibiotics are a class of highly posttranslationally modified small peptide antibiotics containing numerous lanthionine and dehydroamino acid residues. We have prepared peptides containing multiple dehydroamino acids and cysteine residues in order to probe the biomimetic synthesis of the lantibiotics from their precursor peptides. A novel synthetic methodology was developed to allow the synthesis of multiple dehydroamino acid containing peptides. Cyclisations were rapid, quantitative and regiospecific. Remarkably the peptide sequences alone appear to contain sufficient information to direct a series of stereo- and regiospecific ring closures. Thus both the two linear peptides for the B and E-rings closed stereoselectively. In the case of the A-ring precursor peptide which contained two dehydroamino acids, cyclisation was again totally regioselective, although not totally stereoselective. PMID:10840968

Burrage, S; Raynham, T; Williams, G; Essex, J W; Allen, C; Cardno, M; Swali, V; Bradley, M

2000-04-14

234

Oxygenates from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The direct synthesis of oxygenates starting from synthesis gas is feasible by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous Rh and Ru based catalysts yielding methyl formate and alcohols will be presented. Interestingly, modified heterogeneous catalysts based on {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysis, practized in Germany (BRD) up to 1952 and in the former DDR until recently, yield isobutanol in addition to methanol. These {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysts are obtained by adding a base such as Li < Na < K < Cs to a Zn-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol catalyst. Isobutanol is obtained in up to 15% yield. Our best catalyst a Zr-Zn-Mn-Li-Pd catalyst produced isobotanol up to 60% at a rate of 740g isobutanol per liter catalyst and hour.

Falter, W.; Keim, W. [Institute fur Technische Chemie, Aschen (Germany)

1994-12-31

235

Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

Massoud, LindaLee

236

Cultural Voucher Program; Program Abstract.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the Museums Collaborative Voucher Program, a system through which cultural institutions conduct programs with large, heterogeneous, adult populations in New York City is provided in this paper. The program began with two goals: to broaden the audience served by New York City's cultural institutions and to provide the institutions…

Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, NY.

237

Synthesis of Psymberin Analogs  

PubMed Central

In this communication we describe an efficient synthesis of ‘psympederin’, a hybrid between the novel antitumor natural product psymberin and the blister beetle toxin pederin. Evaluation of antiproliferative activity reveals that the dihydroisocoumarin fragment is important for psymberin toxicity and the cyclic pederate fragment is important for pederin/mycalamide toxicity. Based on preliminary results described herein, we speculate that, despite their structural resemblance, psymberin and pederin/mycalamide induce toxicity through different mechanisms. PMID:17217271

Jiang, Xin; Williams, Noelle; De Brabander, Jef K.

2008-01-01

238

Hyaluronan Synthesis and Myogenesis  

PubMed Central

Exogenous hyaluronan is known to alter muscle precursor cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, ultimately inhibiting myogenesis in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of endogenous hyaluronan synthesis during myogenesis. In quantitative PCR studies, the genes responsible for synthesizing hyaluronan were found to be differentially regulated during muscle growth, repair, and pathology. Although all Has genes (Has1, Has2, and Has3) were differentially regulated in these models, only Has2 gene expression consistently associated with myogenic differentiation. During myogenic differentiation in vitro, Has2 was the most highly expressed of the synthases and increased after induction of differentiation. To test whether this association between Has2 expression and myogenesis relates to a role for Has2 in myoblast differentiation and fusion, C2C12 myoblasts were depleted of Has2 by siRNA and induced to differentiate. Depletion of Has2 inhibited differentiation and caused a loss of cell-associated hyaluronan and the hyaluronan-dependent pericellular matrix. The inhibition of differentiation caused by loss of hyaluronan was confirmed with the hyaluronan synthesis inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone. In hyaluronan synthesis-blocked cultures, restoration of the pericellular matrix could be achieved through the addition of exogenous hyaluronan and the proteoglycan versican, but this was not sufficient to restore differentiation to control levels. These data indicate that intrinsic hyaluronan synthesis is necessary for myoblasts to differentiate and form syncytial muscle cells, but the hyaluronan-dependent pericellular matrix is not sufficient to support differentiation alone; additional hyaluronan-dependent cell functions that are yet unknown may be required for myogenic differentiation. PMID:23493399

Hunt, Liam C.; Gorman, Chris; Kintakas, Christopher; McCulloch, Daniel R.; Mackie, Eleanor J.; White, Jason D.

2013-01-01

239

NTNU Java: Fourier Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates fourier synthesis. The user can left click and drag the circles to change the magnitude of each Fourier function. Then, they can right click the mouse button to change the magnitude between 0 and 1.0. The coefficient of sin(0f) is used as the amplification factor for all modes. It can be used to change the sound level. The coefficient of cos(0f) is the DC component.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2008-09-13

240

[Synthesis of porphyrin derivatives].  

PubMed

This paper presents the preparation of eleven 2, 4 or 6, 7-substituted porphyrine derivatives II-XII from I or diethyl ether of IV. The effects of these compounds, with irradiation, on DNA synthesis in L1210 cells were studied. The results showed that (1) all of these compounds were effective while (2) Va or Vb, VI and VII were more effective. PMID:1839589

Lu, Y H; Liu, F C

1991-01-01

241

Mississippi/Alabama Pinnacle Trend Ecosystem Monitoring Final Synthesis Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Final Synthesis Report summarizes a four-year program to characterize and monitor carbonate mounds on the Mississippi/Alabama outer continental shelf (OCS). The study area is shown in Fig.ES.1. The study was conducted by Continental Shelf Associates, Inc. and the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) of Texas A&M University (TAMU), for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Biological Resources Division.

Continental Shelf Associates Inc.; Texas A&M University, Geochemical and Environmental Research Group

2001-01-01

242

Hydrothermal organic synthesis experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The serious scientific debate about spontaneous generation which raged for centuries reached a climax in the nineteenth century with the work of Spallanzani, Schwann, Tyndall, and Pasteur. These investigators demonstrated that spontaneous generation from dead organic matter does not occur. Although no aspects of these experiments addressed the issue of whether organic compounds could be synthesized abiotically, the impact of the experiments was great enough to cause many investigators to assume that life and its organic compounds were somehow fundamentally different than inorganic compounds. Meanwhile, other nineteenth-century investigators were showing that organic compounds could indeed be synthesized from inorganic compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wohler synthesized urea in an attempt to form ammonium cyanate by heating a solution containing ammonia and cyanic acid. This experiment is generally recognized to be the first to bridge the artificial gap between organic and inorganic chemistry, but it also showed the usefulness of heat in organic synthesis. Not only does an increase in temperature enhance the rate of urea synthesis, but Walker and Hambly showed that equilibrium between urea and ammonium cyanate was attainable and reversible at 100 C. Wohler's synthesis of urea, and subsequent syntheses of organic compounds from inorganic compounds over the next several decades dealt serious blows to the 'vital force' concept which held that: (1) organic compounds owe their formation to the action of a special force in living organisms; and (2) forces which determine the behavior of inorganic compounds play no part in living systems. Nevertheless, such progress was overshadowed by Pasteur's refutation of spontaneous generation which nearly extinguished experimental investigations into the origins of life for several decades. Vitalism was dealt a deadly blow in the 1950's with Miller's famous spark-discharge experiments which were undertaken in the framework of the Oparin and Haldane hypotheses concerning the origin of life. These hypotheses were constructed on some basic assumptions which included a reduced atmosphere, and a low surface temperature for the early Earth. These ideas meshed well with the prevailing hypothesis of the 1940's and 50's that the Earth had formed through heterogeneous accretion of dust from a condensing solar nebula. Miller's experiments were extremely successful, and were followed by numerous other experiments by various investigators who employed a wide variety of energy sources for abiotic synthesis including spark discharges, ultra-violet radiation, heat, shock waves, plasmas, gamma rays, and other forms of energy. The conclusion reached from this body of work is that energy inputs can drive organic synthesis from a variety of inorganic starting materials.

Shock, Everett L.

1992-01-01

243

Combustion synthesis of complex oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced ceramic materials have numerous applications in electronic engineering, chemical engineering, and semiconductor industry. The synthesis of these materials at an economical cost is the bottleneck in the application of these materials. Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) is a new technique for producing these materials for exothermic systems by a combustion wave that propagates and produces high purity products. The full

Qimin Ming

1999-01-01

244

Enantioselective Synthesis of Apoptolidin Sugars  

E-print Network

Enantioselective Synthesis of Apoptolidin Sugars Michael T. Crimmins* and Alan Long Venable synthesis of the C9 and C27 sugar subunits (2) and (3), respectively, of the potent antitumor agent of the aldol adducts efficiently provided the three sugar units. A -selective glycosidation completed

245

Review article Melatonin synthesis pathway  

E-print Network

- O-methyltransferase/ pinéale/ rétine 1. INTRODUCTION The production of the pineal hormone melatoninReview article Melatonin synthesis pathway: circadian regulation of the genes encoding the key three enzymes of the melatonin synthesis pathway (tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), arylalkylamine

Boyer, Edmond

246

Total Synthesis of Bryostatin 9  

PubMed Central

The total synthesis of bryostatin 9 was accomplished using a uniquely step economical and convergent Prins-driven macrocyclization strategy. At 25 linear and 42 total steps, this is currently the most concise and convergent (5 steps post fragment coupling) synthesis of a potent bryostatin. PMID:21618969

Wender, Paul A.; Schrier, Adam J.

2011-01-01

247

Total Synthesis of (?)-Calyciphylline N  

PubMed Central

The total synthesis of the architecturally complex Daphniphyllum alkaloid (?)-calyciphylline N has been achieved. Highlights of the synthesis include a Et2AlCl promoted, highly stereoselective susbtrate controlled intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, a transannular enolate alkylation, an effective Stille carbonylation/Nazarov cyclization sequence, and a high risk dia-stereoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted conjugated diene ester. PMID:24319987

Shvartsbart, Artem; Smith, Amos B.

2014-01-01

248

Computational Synthesis for Scientific Experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This thesis presents a new use of computational synthesis for scientific experi- mentation, particularly synthesis from parameterisable experiment protocols. An experiment protocol, in addition to its own specific materials and methods, can incorporate modular protocols and can be made modular to be used by other protocols. Two synthesised Web-based experiments for cognitive science were conducted to demonstrate the practicality

Siu-wai Leung

249

Anionic synthesis of telechelic polyacetylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(phenyl vinyl sulfoxide) which is a soluble precursor to polyacetylene can be prepared using the ‘living’ anionic synthesis method. The thermal labile sulfoxide moieties can be readily converted to acetylenic units upon heating. In this report, a series of monodisperse end-functionalized soluble precursors were prepared. Details on the synthesis and characterization procedures were described. The end groups were either Li,

Louis M Leung; Wei-Dong He

2001-01-01

250

Total synthesis of lysergic acid.  

PubMed

A total synthesis of lysergic acid was accomplished. Key features of our synthesis include stereoselective construction of the stereogenic centers at the allylic positions by using the Evans aldol reaction, and a sequential process with a ring-closing metathesis and an intramolecular Heck reaction to construct the C and D rings. PMID:23919892

Umezaki, Satoshi; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

2013-08-16

251

The Festival Speech Synthesis System  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 1 Abstract This document provides a user manual for the Festival Speech Synthesis System, version 1.1.1. Festival offers a general framework for building speech synthesis systems as well as including examples of various modules. As a whole it offers full text to speech through a number APIs: from shell level, though a Scheme command interpreter, as a C++ library,

Alan W Black; Paul Taylor

1999-01-01

252

Users manual for flight control design programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs for the design of analog and digital flight control systems are documented. The program DIGADAPT uses linear-quadratic-gaussian synthesis algorithms in the design of command response controllers and state estimators, and it applies covariance propagation analysis to the selection of sampling intervals for digital systems. Program SCHED executes correlation and regression analyses for the development of gain and trim schedules to be used in open-loop explicit-adaptive control laws. A linear-time-varying simulation of aircraft motions is provided by the program TVHIS, which includes guidance and control logic, as well as models for control actuator dynamics. The programs are coded in FORTRAN and are compiled and executed on both IBM and CDC computers.

Nalbandian, J. Y.

1975-01-01

253

Fourier Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fourier program displays the Fourier transform of a user-defined complex spatial function of position. The default spatial function is a complex Gaussian. Additional parameters can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. Fourier is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of mathematical methods in the sciences. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the math_fourier.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other mathematical methods programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Math.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-14

254

SAVEnergy Program  

SciTech Connect

This program overview describes elements of the U.S. Department of Energy's SAVEnergy Program, which is managed by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program. The SAVEnergy Program helps agencies meet Federal goals for greater energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of renewable energy by contracting with expert engineering firms to conduct energy and water use audits at Federal facilities. To qualify for this assistance, agencies or facilities must request audits from FEMP and assure FEMP that they will implement some of the energy and water efficiency measures recommended in the auditor's report.

Not Available

2002-05-01

255

Wait Program!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After completing the associated lesson, students test their understanding in two programming tasks that utilize LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots and sound/touch sensors. In the first challenge, students become acquainted with wait blocks by designing programs to simply make robots move forward until "hearing" a noise, and then turn left. The second, more challenging activity pushes students to fully understand the potential of wait blocks. They create programs that make the robots change speed several times when a touch sensor is pressed. Students gain practice in the iterative design-program-test-redesign process. A PowerPoint® presentation, pre/post quizzes and worksheet are provided.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

256

Protein synthesis and memory: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews studies that have used protein synthesis inhibitors to test the hypothesis that memory in part depends on brain protein synthesis. Evidence from learning curves, examination of short-term retention, and posttraining drug injection indicate that initial acquisition is not dependent on such synthesis, but it appears that protein synthesis, during or shortly after training, is an essential step in the

Hasker P. Davis; Larry R. Squire

1984-01-01

257

Superconducting technology program Sandia 1996 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Sandia`s Superconductivity Technology Program is a thallium-based high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, open-system thick film conductor development, wire and tape fabrication, and HTS motor design. The objective of this work is to develop high-temperature superconducting conductors (wire and tape) capable of meeting requirements for high-power electrical devices of interest to industry. The research efforts currently underway are: (1) Process development and characterization of thallium-based high-temperature superconducting closed system wire and tape, (2) Investigation of the synthesis and processing of thallium-based thick films using two-zone processing, and (3) Cryogenic design of a 30K superconducting motor. This report outlines the research that has been performed during FY96 in each of these areas.

Roth, E.P.

1997-02-01

258

Synthesis and Summary  

Cancer.gov

R. Summers, NIH CC DRD 25-27 September 2002 Biomed ical Imaging Program 20 CT Colonography CAD R. Summers, D. J o hns on et al. Radiology 2001 Three polyps in the sigmoid colon of a 68 year old male (1.0, 1.5, 1.0 cm) 25-27 September 2002 Biomed ical Imaging Program 21 R.

259

SEASAT B orbit synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition were made to Battelle's Interactive Graphics Orbit Selection (IGOS) program; IGOS was exercised via telephone lines from JPL, and candidate SEASAT orbits were analyzed by Battelle. The additions to the program enable clear understanding of the implications of a specific orbit to the diverse desires of the SEASAT user community.

Rea, F. G.; Warmke, J. M.

1976-01-01

260

Program Learning Outcomes PROGRAM INFORMATION  

E-print Network

, and Mammals R R R R R R R MS 231 Biology of Seaweeds I R I I I I I I MS 233 Advanced Topics in Marine Ecology ______ Degree Program(s): M.S. Marine Science Department: Marine Science Department Chair: Jonathan Geller Phone-mail: geller@mlml.calstate.edu PROGRAM LEARNING OUTCOMES Students obtaining an M.S. degree in marine

McPhee-Shaw, Erika

261

PROGRAM OVERVIEW  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Cancer Centers Program Program Overview – St. Joseph’s / Candler 1 A. Hospital: St. Joseph’s/Candler (SJ/C) health system is comprised of two hospitals, Candler Hospital and St. Joseph’s. Candler Hospital is centrally

262

Postsecondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This listing provides directory information on U.S. postsecondary schools specifically for people who are deaf and other postsecondary programs with supportive services for students with deafness. Schools and programs are listed by state and information is provided on the number of students with deafness enrolled, degrees offered, and special…

American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

2003-01-01

263

Logic programming  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of the 1989 North American Conference on Logic Programming. Included are the following papers: Expanding query power in constrain logic programming languages, Investigating the linguistics of DNA with definite clause grammars, An intermediate language to support prolog's unification.

Lusk, E.L.; Overbeek, R.A.

1989-01-01

264

Computer Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

Anderson, Tiffoni

265

Visual Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual programming is programming in which more than one dimension is used to convey semantics. Examples of such additional dimensions are the use of multi-dimensional objects, the use of spatial relationships, or the use of the time dimension to specify \\

Margaret M. Burnett

266

GAMBIT program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

GAMBIT computer program provides multigroup flux and current averaged neutron cross sections for input to transport programs. The fast neutron compilation includes P/0/ and P/1/ elastic scattering transfer matrices, inelastic scattering matrices, n,2n cross section matrices, absorption and fission cross sections for all isotopes.

Collier, G.; Gibson, G.; Moran, L. L.

1969-01-01

267

Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2011 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

268

Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2003 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

269

Programming Interpretation,  

E-print Network

/2004) Chapter 2: Basic Notions of Predicate Logic . Signature, Formula . Interpretation, Model . Implication2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­1 Deductive Databases and Logic Programming (Winter 2003 and Logic Programming Univ. Halle, 2006 2. Basic Notions of Predicate Logic 2­2 Objectives After completing

Brass, Stefan

270

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The experiment allows students to view the formation of silver nanoparticles that can be detected by the reflection of a laser beam. Silver nanoparticles are used in the creation of yellow stained glass in churches around the country, an interesting, but little known fact. This is a fairly inexpensive activity as it involves stock solutions, and equipment present in any science laboratory. Overall, students will enjoy this basic, but still challenging, experiment.

Johnson, Chris

271

Aspartate Transcarbamylase Synthesis Ceases Prior to Inactivation of the Enzyme in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Aspartate transcarbamylase is synthesized during exponential growth of Bacillus subtilis and is inactivated when the cells enter the stationary phase. This work is a study of the regulation of aspartate transcarbamylase synthesis during growth and the stationary phase. Using specific immunoprecipitation of aspartate transcarbamylase from extracts of cells pulse-labeled with tritiated leucine, we showed that the synthesis of the enzyme decreased very rapidly at the end of exponential growth and was barely detectable during inactivation of the enzyme. Synthesis of most cell proteins continued during this time. When the cells ceased growing because of pyrimidine starvation of a uracil auxotroph, however, synthesis and inactivation occurred simultaneously. Measurement of pools of pyrimidine nucleotides and guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate demonstrated that failure to synthesize aspartate transcarbamylase in the stationary phase was not explained by simple repression by these compounds. The cessation of aspartate transcarbamylase synthesis may reflect the shutting off of a “vegetative gene” as part of the program of differential gene expression during sporulation. However, aspartate transcarbamylase synthesis decreased normally at the end of exponential growth at the nonpermissive temperature in a mutant strain that is temperature-sensitive in sporulation and RNA polymerase function. Cessation of aspartate transcarbamylase synthesis appeared to be normal in three other temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase mutants and in several classes of spo0 mutants. PMID:99440

Maurizi, Michael R.; Switzer, Robert L.

1978-01-01

272

Natural products synthesis: enabling tools to penetrate Nature's secrets of biogenesis and biomechanism.  

PubMed

Selected examples from our laboratory of how synthetic technology platforms developed for the total synthesis of several disparate families of natural products was harnessed to penetrate biomechanistic and/or biosynthetic queries is discussed. Unexpected discoveries of biomechanistic reactivity and/or penetrating the biogenesis of naturally occurring substances were made possible through access to substances available only through chemical synthesis. Hypothesis-driven total synthesis programs are emerging as very useful conceptual templates for penetrating and exploiting the inherent reactivity of biologically active natural substances. In many instances, new enabling synthetic technologies were required to be developed. The examples demonstrate the often untapped richness of complex molecule synthesis to provide powerful tools to understand, manipulate and exploit Nature's vast and creative palette of secondary metabolites. PMID:21438619

Williams, Robert M

2011-06-01

273

Programming placental nutrient transport capacity  

PubMed Central

Many animal studies and human epidemiological findings have shown that impaired growth in utero is associated with physiological abnormalities in later life and have linked this to tissue programming during suboptimal intrauterine conditions at critical periods of development. However, few of these studies have considered the contribution of the placenta to the ensuing adult phenotype. In mammals, the major determinant of intrauterine growth is the placental nutrient supply, which, in turn, depends on the size, morphology, blood supply and transporter abundance of the placenta and on synthesis and metabolism of nutrients and hormones by the uteroplacental tissues. This review examines the regulation of placental nutrient transfer capacity and the potential programming effects of nutrition and glucocorticoid over-exposure on placental phenotype with particular emphasis on the role of the Igf2 gene in these processes. PMID:16439433

Fowden, A L; Ward, J W; Wooding, F P B; Forhead, A J; Constancia, M

2006-01-01

274

SCIENCE Program early science program  

E-print Network

SCIENCE Program early science program Early at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility CONTACT: 150 Million Hours Using Multi-scale Dynamic Rupture Models to Improve Ground Motion Estimates PI Based on a Polarizable Force Field PI: Benoit Roux The University of Chicago Award: 80 Million Hours

Kemner, Ken

275

Synthesis of perfluoroalkylene dianilines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this contrast was to optimize and scale-up the synthesis of 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)-hexafluoropropane and 1,3-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, as well as to explore avenues to other perfluoroalkyl-bridged dianilines. Routes other than Friedel-Crafts reaction leading to 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane were investigated. The processes utilizing bisphenol-AF were all unsuccessful; reactions aimed at the production of 4-(hexafluoro-2-halo-isopropyl)aniline from the hydroxyl intermediate failed to yield the desired products. Tailoring the conditions of the Friedel-Crafts reaction of 4-(hexafluoro-2-hydroxyisopropyl)aniline, aniline, and aluminum chloride by using hydrochloride salts and selecting optimum reagent ratios, reaction times, and temperature resulted in approx. 20% yield of pure crystallized 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane in 0.2 mole reaction batches. Yields up to approx. 40% were realized in small, approx. 0.01 mole, batches. The synthesis of 1,3-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane starting with perfluoroglutarimidine was reinvestigated. The yield of the 4-step reaction sequence giving 1,3-bis(4-acetamidophenyl)hexafluoropropane was raised to 44%. The yield of the subsequent hydrolysis process was improved by a factor of approx. 2. Approaches to prepare other perfluoroalkyl-bridged dianilines were unsuccessful. Reactions reported to proceed readily with trifluoromethyl substituents failed when longer chain perfluoroalkyl groups were employed.

Paciorek, K. L.; Ito, T. I.; Harris, D. H.; Beechan, C. M.; Nakaham, J. H.; Kratzer, R. H.

1981-01-01

276

Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double-bed system that provides the feedstock for the synthesis of high octane and high cetane ethers, where the isobutanol productivity was as high as 139 g/kg cat/hr. Higher alcohol synthesis has been investigated over a Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at temperatures higher (up to 703K) than those previously utilized, and no sintering of the catalyst was observed during the short-term testing. However, the higher reaction temperatures led to lower CO conversion levels and lower yield of alcohols, especially of methanol, because of equilibrium limitations. With the double catalyst bed configuration, the effect of pressure in the range of 7.6--12.4 MPa on catalyst activity and selectivity was studied. The upper bed was composed of the copper-based catalyst at 598K, and the lower bed consisted of a copper-free Cs-ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at a high temperature of 678K. High pressure was found to increase CO conversion to oxygenated products, although the increase in isobutanol productivity did not keep pace with that of methanol. It was also shown that the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst could be utilized to advantage as the second-bed catalyst at 613--643K instead of the previously used copper-free Cs-ZnO/ Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at higher temperature, With double Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, high space time yields of up to 202 g/kg cat/hr, with high selectivity to isobutanol, were achieved.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

1999-04-01

277

Application of optimality criteria in structural synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rational use of optimality criteria was investigated for a class of structural synthesis problems where materials, configuration and applied load conditions are specified, and the minimum weight design is to be determined. The potential of hybrid methods of structural optimization for dealing with relatively large design problems involving practical complexity was explored. The reduced basis concept in design space was used to decrease the number of generalized design variables dealt with by the mathematical programming algorithm. Optimality criteria methods for obtaining design vectors associated with displacement, system buckling and natural frequency constraints are presented. A stress ratio method was used to generate a basis design vector representing the stress constraints. The finite element displacement method was used as the basic structural analysis tool. Results for several examples of truss systems subject to stress, displacement and minimum size constraints are presented. An assessment of these results indicates the effectiveness of the hybrid method developed.

Terai, K.

1974-01-01

278

Inhibition of heme synthesis induces apoptosis in human erythroid progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Heme synthesis by erythroid progenitor cells is maintained by erythropoietin (EP), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and stem cell factor (SCF), and without these growth factors apoptosis (programmed cell death) occurs. To clarify the possible interaction between heme synthesis and programmed cell death of human erythroid progenitor cells, the effect of specific inhibition of heme synthesis on apoptosis of highly purified human erythroid colony forming cells (ECFC) was studied. When the amount of uncleaved DNA was determined as a measure of apoptosis, the heme synthesis inhibitors, succinylacetone (SA) (0.1 mmol/L) or isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH) (10 mmol/L), significantly decreased the amount of uncleaved DNA (P < 0.01) in the presence of erythropoietin (EP). Addition of recombinant heavy-chain ferritin (rHF) (10 nmol/L), or deprivation of transferrin from the culture medium, which decreased heme synthesis, also reduced the amount of uncleaved DNA (P < 0.01). The production of apoptosis by diverse inhibitors of heme synthesis was in each case reversed by the addition of hemin (0.1 mmol/L) and did not occur with HL-60 cells. When the colony-forming capacity of ECFC was determined by plasma clot assay, SA, INH, or rHF reduced the number of CFU-E (P < 0.01), and the effect of SA was reversed by hemin. The addition of SA did not alter the c-myc response of ECFC to EP. These data indicate that inhibition of heme synthesis induces apoptosis of human erythroid progenitor cells, in a manner independent of an early c-myc response, and suggest that the presence of apoptosis in ineffective erythropoiesis may be secondary to impaired heme synthesis. PMID:7896899

Muta, K; Krantz, S B

1995-04-01

279

Optimization of microfluidic PET tracer synthesis with Cerenkov imaging†  

PubMed Central

Microfluidic technologies provide an attractive platform for the synthesis of radiolabeled compounds. Visualization of radioisotopes on chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. With Cerenkov imaging, beta particle emitting isotopes can be localized with a sensitive CCD camera. In order for Cerenkov imaging to also serve as a quantitative tool, it is necessary to understand how material properties relevant to Cerenkov emission, namely, index of refraction and beta particle stopping power, affect Cerenkov light output. In this report, we investigate the fundamental physical characteristics of Cerenkov photon yield at different stages of [18F]FDG synthesis on the electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) microfluidic platform. We also demonstrate how Cerenkov imaging has enabled synthesis optimization. Geant4, a Monte Carlo program applied extensively in high energy physics, is used to simulate Cerenkov photon yield from 18F beta particles traversing materials of interest during [18F]FDG synthesis on chip. Our simulations show that the majority (approximately two-thirds) of the 18F beta particle energy available to produce Cerenkov photons is deposited on the glass plates of the EWOD chip. This result suggests the possibility of using a single calibration factor to convert Cerenkov signal to radioactivity, independent of droplet composition. We validate our simulations with a controlled measurement examining varying ratios of [18O]H2O, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and acetonitrile (MeCN), and find a consistent calibration independent of solvent composition. However, the calibration factor may underestimate the radioactivity in actual synthesis due to discoloration of the droplet during certain steps of probe synthesis. In addition to the attractive quantitative potential of Cerenkov imaging, this imaging strategy provides indispensable qualitative data to guide synthesis optimization. We are able to use this imaging technique to optimize the mixing protocol as well as identify and correct for loss of radioactivity due to the migration of radioactive vapor outside of the EWOD heater, enabling an overall increase in the crude radiochemical yield from 50±3% (n=3) to 72±13% (n=5). PMID:23928799

Dooraghi, Alex A.; Keng, Pei Y.; Chen, Supin; Javed, Muhammad R.; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; van Dam, R. Michael

2013-01-01

280

Materials sciences programs fiscal year 1996  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

NONE

1997-06-01

281

Observing programs, what are the priorities?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This brief note reflects the exchanges that were made between the participants during the general discussion on the observing programs. Because of time constraints only two questions have been addressed: 1) What is the priority between large programs and detailed observations of one or only a few objects? 2) Large surveys implies some automatic pipelines: what is their reliability? Elements of answers are given below. One interesting unexpected outcome of this discussion was the realization that a recent and up-to-date textbook on spectral synthesis is missing, while it would be an extremely useful tool for the community.

Meynet, Georges; Henrichs, Huib

2015-01-01

282

Synthesis of Enantiomerically Pure Anthracyclinones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anthracycline antibiotics are among the most important clinical drugs used in the treatment of human cancer. The search for new agents with improved therapeutic efficacy and reduced cardiotoxicity stimulated considerable efforts in the synthesis of new analogues. Since the biological activity of anthracyclines depends on their natural absolute configuration, various strategies for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones (aglycones) have been developed. They comprise: resolution of racemic intermediate, incorporation of a chiral fragment derived from natural and non-natural chiral pools, asymmetric synthesis with the use of a chiral auxiliary or a chiral reagent, and enantioselective catalysis. Synthetic advances towards enantiopure anthracyclinones reported over the last 17 years are reviewed.

Achmatowicz, Osman; Szechner, Barbara

283

Total synthesis of (±)-antroquinonol d.  

PubMed

Total synthesis of (±)-antroquinonol D, which is isolated from very expensive and rarely found Antrodia camphorata and which has potential anticancer properties, was achieved from 4-methoxyphenol. In addition, a Michael addition to dimethoxy cyclohexadienones was studied. The main step involved chelation and substrate-controlled diastereoselective reduction of cyclohexenone and lactonization. Lactone synthesis facilitated the diastereoselective reduction of ketone, which help control the desired stereochemistry at the crucial stereogenic center in the natural product. Other key reactions in the synthesis involved a Michael addition of dimethyl malonate on cyclohexadienone, dihydroxylation, and Wittig olefination. A sesquiterpene side chain was synthesized through coupling with geranyl phenyl sulfide and Bouveault-Blanc reduction. PMID:25375772

Sulake, Rohidas S; Jiang, Yan-Feng; Lin, Hsiao-Han; Chen, Chinpiao

2014-11-21

284

Enantioselective Synthesis of SNAP-7941  

PubMed Central

An enantioselective synthesis of SNAP-7941, a potent melanin concentrating hormone receptor antagonist, was achieved using two organocatalytic methods. The first method utilized to synthesize the enantioenriched dihydropyrimidone core was the Cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed Mannich reaction of ?-keto esters to acyl imines and the second was chiral phosphoric acid-catalyzed Biginelli reaction. Completion of the synthesis was accomplished via selective urea formation at the N3 position of the dihydropyrimidone with the 3-(4-phenylpiperidin-1-yl)propyl amine side chain fragment. The synthesis of SNAP-7921 highlights the utility of asymmetric organocatalytic methods in the construction of an important class of chiral heterocycles. PMID:18767801

Goss, Jennifer M.; Schaus, Scott E.

2009-01-01

285

Protein Synthesis: at the ribosome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief animation demonstrates the process by which messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into protein. RNA is present in several formsmessenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Each of these RNA forms is involved in different steps of protein synthesis. mRNA is generated from DNA and is the template for protein synthesis. tRNA is critical to the translation of the mRNA sequence into protein sequence. rRNA are components of the ribosomes, which are the sites of protein synthesis.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)

2003-04-30

286

SECO Programs  

E-print Network

Renewable Energy Technology Grants ? Grants to Public ISDs, local governments, and state agencies ? Grants for demonstration of small-scale solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass technologies ? Competitive program ? Up to 16 grants/contracts at a...

Trevino, E.

2011-01-01

287

MATLAB Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MATLAB provides matrix manipulation, plotting, and general purpose scientific programming capability, as well as functionality through specialized "toolboxes" such as the Optimization toolbox, the Statistics toolbox, the Signal Processing toolbox, the Image Processing Toolbox, etc.

288

SPOT Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

2010-01-01

289

Program TOMSCAT  

SciTech Connect

Program TOMSCAT is an interactive code that calculates the scattering spectrum and background for a Thomson-scattering diagnostic in typical magnetic fusion plasmas. Thomson scattering yields values of the plasma electron temperature T/sub e/ and electron density N/sub e/. This program is intended as an aid for designing Thomson-scattering systems, so all experimental parameters are input by the user. The code is operational on OCTOPUS.

Frank, A.M.

1980-05-30

290

David Evans Programming Swarm Programming the Swarm  

E-print Network

David Evans Programming Swarm Programming the Swarm David Evans University Virginia, Department approach building prior work with a more speculative approach. #12; David Evans Programming Swarm Typical

Evans, David

291

Long-Term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Synthesis and Environmental Management Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility’s pollution abatement actions\\u000a and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue\\u000a of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program’s components and methods, the efficacy\\u000a of various biological monitoring techniques

Mark J. PetersonRebecca; Rebecca Ann Efroymson; S. Marshall Adams

2011-01-01

292

Two Examples of Computational Creativity: ILP Multiple Predicate Synthesis and the 'Assets' in Theorem Proving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a precise illustration of what can be the idea of “computational creativity”, that is, the whole set of the methods\\u000a by which a computer may simulate creativity. This paper is restricted to multiple predicate learning in Inductive Logic Programming\\u000a (ILP) and to Program Synthesis from its Formal Specification (PSFS). These two subfields of Computer Science deal with problems

Marta Franová; Yves Kodratoff

2010-01-01

293

The collaborative program of research in engineering sciences  

SciTech Connect

Research programs in the following areas are briefly described: High-Temperature Gas-Particle Reactions; Mathematical Modelling of Plasma Systems; Metal Transfer in Gas Metal-Arc Welding; Multivariable Control of Gas Metal-Arc Welding; Synthesis of Heat and Work Integration Systems for Chemical Process Plants; Parity Simulation of Dynamic Processes; Fundamentals of Elastic-Plastic Fracture: Three-Dimensional and Mechanistic Modelling; and Comminution of Energy Materials. Publications from each program are listed.

White, D.C.

1989-08-01

294

Synthesis and characterization of Sant-75 derivatives as Hedgehog-pathway inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Summary Sant-75 is a newly identified potent inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway. We designed a diversity-oriented synthesis program, and synthesized a series of Sant-75 analogues, which lays the foundation for further investigation of the structure–activity relationship of this important class of hedgehog-pathway inhibitors. PMID:23015832

Che, Chao; Li, Song; Yang, Bo; Xin, Shengchang; Yu, Zhixiong; Shao, Taofeng; Tao, Chuanye

2012-01-01

295

A CONCATENATIVE SPEECH SYNTHESIS METHOD USING CONTEXT DEPENDENT PHONEME SEQUENCES WITH VARIABLE LENGTH AS SEARCH UNITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new concatenative speech synthesis method using context dependent phoneme sequences with variable length as search units. Using Japanese broadcast news programs as a speech database, we synthesize Japanese news sentences that are not included in that speech database and perform subjective evaluations of the synthesized speech. As a result, (1) 77% of speech synthesized by the

Hiroyuki Segi; Tohru Takagi; Takayuki Ito

296

Review and synthesis of historical Tampa Bay water quality data. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The review and synthesis of historical water quality data was one of the first characterization projects administered by the Tampa Bay National Estuary Program (NEP). The objective of the project was to describe the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of Tampa Bay. The report examines the spatial and temporal trends from the acquired data for possible interrelationships and develops them statistically.

Vargo, G.; Weisberg, R.; Bendis, B.; Rutherford, E.H.

1992-11-01

297

Synthesis of calculational methods for design and analysis of radiation shields for nuclear rocket systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight computer programs make up a nine volume synthesis containing two design methods for nuclear rocket radiation shields. The first design method is appropriate for parametric and preliminary studies, while the second accomplishes the verification of a final nuclear rocket reactor design.

Capo, M. A.; Disney, R. K.; Jordan, T. A.; Soltesz, R. G.; Woodsum, H. C.

1969-01-01

298

REAL-TIME MUSIC SYNTHESIS IN JAVA USING THE METRONOME GARBAGE COLLECTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic memory management via garbage collec- tion is the key to the safety, portability, and high produc- tivity of modern programming languages like Java. How- ever, until now no truly real-time garbage collector has existed for Java. As a result, the extreme real-time re- quirements of interactive music synthesis and processing have made it impossible to build such systems in

Joshua Auerbach; David F. Bacon Florian; Perry Cheng

299

Synthesis of historical archaeological sites on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this report is to provide historical synthesis of the Savannah River Plant region integrated with the historical archeological record. The first chapter discusses the historic research concerns of the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program, the Physical Geography of the Savannah River Plant in regard to climate, coil, and vegetation, and the Human Geography of the region. Chapter

Brooks

1988-01-01

300

L2 Earth atmosphere observatory : formation guidance, metrology, and control synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the results of research sponsored by the NASA Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) program, and includes the synthesis and analysis of the guidance, metrology and control for a two-spacecraft formation in a unique continuously powered orbit near the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point observing the illuminated atmosphere of the Earth while it is continuously occulting the Sun.

Acikmese, Behcet A.; Mettler, Edward; Breckenridge, William G.; Macenka, Steven A.; Tubbs, Eldred F.

2004-01-01

301

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth with Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This meta-synthesis of empirical and nonempirical literature analyzed 24 journal articles and book chapters that addressed the intersection of disability, [homo]sexuality, and gender identity/expression in P-12 schools, colleges and universities, supported living programs, and other educational and social contexts in Australia, Belgium, Canada,…

Duke, Thomas Scott

2011-01-01

302

CLEAN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Newer green chemistry approach to accomplish chemical synthesis in water is summarized. Recent global developments pertaining to C-C bond forming reactions using metallic reagents and direct use of the renewable materials such as carbohydrates without derivatization are described...

303

A Convenient Synthesis of Sendaverine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sendaverine was isolated from Corydalis aurea willd by Manske and it was found to possess a tetrahydro-isoquinoline skeleton. The structural formula of the alkaloid has been established by the unambiguous synthesis by Kametani and Miwako Mori et al.

M. Masood; K. P. Tiwari

1980-01-01

304

Synthesis of Quaternary Heterocyclic Salts  

PubMed Central

The microwave synthesis of twenty quaternary ammonium salts is described. The syntheses feature comparable yields to conventional synthetic methods reported in the current literature with reduced reaction times and the absence of solvent or minimal solvent. PMID:24256924

Winstead, Angela J.; Nyambura, Grace; Matthews, Rachael; Toney, Deveine; Oyaghire, Stanley

2014-01-01

305

Vanillin Synthesis from 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A regioselective, safe and efficient method for the synthesis of vanillin from 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde is being described. The vanillin derived from the process is cheap and can be used as a flavor or in the paper industry.

Taber, Douglass F.; Patel, Shweta; Hambleton, Travis M.; Winkel, Emma E.

2007-01-01

306

Analysis of Dataflow Programs with Interval-limited Jurgen Teich  

E-print Network

Analysis of Dataflow Programs with Interval-limited Data-rates J¨urgen Teich ¢¡ and Shuvra S for modeling and synthesis of digital processing applications. Our paper is concerned with analyzing dataflow graphs whose component data rates are not known precisely in ad- vance. Such models are often given due

Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.

307

Efficient synthesis of flavanone glucuronides.  

PubMed

The first efficient synthesis of flavanone glucuronides as potential human metabolites is described. The synthetic strategy is based on acetyl protection, followed by a combination of chemical and enzymatic deprotection steps. As an example, the method is applied to a synthesis of 7,4'-di-O-methyleriodictyol 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide. The aglycone is a flavanone naturally present in tarragon spice ( Artemisia dracunculus ) as well as in various Chinese, Brazilian, and Malaysian medicinal plants. PMID:19653653

Boumendjel, Ahcene; Blanc, Madeleine; Williamson, Gary; Barron, Denis

2009-08-26

308

Total synthesis of (+/-)-pentacycloanammoxic acid.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of (+/-)-pentacycloanammoxic acid/methyl ester (1), an unusual naturally occurring fatty acid from Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, has been accomplished by the sequence of reactions shown in Scheme 1. The C20-structure of 1 was assembled with stereocontrol from three building blocks: cyclooctatetraene, 2-cyclopentenone, and 7-bromoheptanoic acid. The synthesis of 1 confirms the proposed structure of 1. The mode of biosynthesis and absolute configuration have yet to be clarified. PMID:15571387

Mascitti, Vincent; Corey, E J

2004-12-01

309

Fiber draw synthesis  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid state are arranged in proximate domains within a fiber preform. The preform is fluidized at elevated temperatures and drawn into fiber, reducing the lateral dimensions and bringing the domains into intimate contact to enable chemical reaction. A polymer preform containing a thin layer of selenium contacted by tin–zinc wires is drawn to yield electrically contacted crystalline ZnSe domains of sub-100-nm scales. The in situ synthesized compound semiconductor becomes the basis for an electronic heterostructure diode of arbitrary length in the fiber. The ability to synthesize materials within fibers while precisely controlling their geometry and electrical connectivity at submicron scales presents new opportunities for increasing the complexity and functionality of fiber structures.

Orf, Nicholas D.; Shapira, Ofer; Sorin, Fabien; Danto, Sylvain; Baldo, Marc A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

2011-01-01

310

Albumin synthesis in surgical patients.  

PubMed

Albumin plasma concentrations are being used as indicators of nutritional status and hepatic function based on the assumption that plasma levels reflect the rate of albumin synthesis. However, it has been shown that albumin levels are not reliable markers of albumin synthesis under a variety of clinical conditions including inflammation, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, and surgical tissue trauma. To date, only a few studies have measured albumin synthesis in surgical and critically ill patients. This review summarizes the findings from these studies, which used different tracer methodology in various surgical or critically ill patient populations. The results indicate that the fractional synthesis rate of albumin appears to decrease during surgery, followed by an increase during the postoperative phase. In the early postoperative phase, albumin fractional synthesis rate can be stimulated by perioperative nutrition, if enough amino acids are being provided and if nutrition is being initiated before the operation. The physiologic meaning of albumin synthesis after surgery, however, still needs to be further clarified. PMID:23333435

Hülshoff, Ansgar; Schricker, Thomas; Elgendy, Hamed; Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Lattermann, Ralph

2013-05-01

311

Civic Engagement Programs and Youth Development: A Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civic engagement that is, community service, political activism, environmentalism, and other volunteer activities provide needed services to community residents and psychological, social, and intellectual benefits to participants. A small but growing body of research suggests the likelihood that active involvement leads to healthy, active…

Michelsen, Erik; Zaff, Jonathan F.; Hair, Elizabeth C.

312

Applying Aspect-Oriented Programming to Intelligent Synthesis  

E-print Network

of injectors. #12;Applying AOP to ISE R. E. Filman 2 4. Dynamic injection. The injectors on an object for Advanced Computer Science NASA Ames Research Center MS/269-2 Moffett Field, California 94035 U.S.A. rfilman@mail.arc.nasa.gov http://ic.arc.nasa.gov/ic/darwin/oif/leo/filman/filman.html I discuss a component-centered, aspect

Filman, Robert E.

313

GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 3: Aerodynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerodynamics calculations are treated in routines which concern moments as they vary with flight conditions and attitude. The subroutines discussed: (1) compute component equivalent flat plate and wetted areas and profile drag; (2) print and plot low and high speed drag polars; (3) determine life coefficient or angle of attack; (4) determine drag coefficient; (5) determine maximum lift coefficient and drag increment for various flap types and flap settings; and (6) determine required lift coefficient and drag coefficient in cruise flight.

Hague, D.

1978-01-01

314

EXADS - EXPERT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN SYNTHESIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The expert system called EXADS was developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. Because of the general purpose nature of ADS, it is difficult for a nonexpert to select the best choice of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from the one hundred or so combinations that are available. EXADS aids engineers in determining the best combination based on their knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge previously stored by experts who developed ADS. EXADS is a customized application of the AESOP artificial intelligence program (the general version of AESOP is available separately from COSMIC. The ADS program is also available from COSMIC.) The expert system consists of two main components. The knowledge base contains about 200 rules and is divided into three categories: constrained, unconstrained, and constrained treated as unconstrained. The EXADS inference engine is rule-based and makes decisions about a particular situation using hypotheses (potential solutions), rules, and answers to questions drawn from the rule base. EXADS is backward-chaining, that is, it works from hypothesis to facts. The rule base was compiled from sources such as literature searches, ADS documentation, and engineer surveys. EXADS will accept answers such as yes, no, maybe, likely, and don't know, or a certainty factor ranging from 0 to 10. When any hypothesis reaches a confidence level of 90% or more, it is deemed as the best choice and displayed to the user. If no hypothesis is confirmed, the user can examine explanations of why the hypotheses failed to reach the 90% level. The IBM PC version of EXADS is written in IQ-LISP for execution under DOS 2.0 or higher with a central memory requirement of approximately 512K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

Rogers, J. L.

1994-01-01

315

FWP executive summaries. Basic Energy Sciences/Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)  

SciTech Connect

This report is divided into: budget, capital equipment requests, general programmatic overview and institutional issues, DOE center of excellence for synthesis and processing of advanced materials, industrial interactions and technology transfer, and research program summaries (new proposals, existing programs). Ceramics, semiconductors, superconductors, interfaces, CVD, tailored surfaces, adhesion, growth and epitaxy, boron-rich solids, nanoclusters, etc. are covered.

Samara, G.A.

1994-01-01

316

An integrated programming and development environment for adiabatic quantum optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware has raised challenging questions about how to evaluate adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO) programs. Processor behavior depends on multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program, which are each highly tunable. We present an integrated programming and development environment for AQO called Jade Adiabatic Development Environment (JADE) that provides control over all the steps taken during program synthesis. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously specify the AQO algorithm while allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its potential use for benchmarking AQO programs by the quantum computer science community.

Humble, T. S.; McCaskey, A. J.; Bennink, R. S.; Billings, J. J.; D?Azevedo, E. F.; Sullivan, B. D.; Klymko, C. F.; Seddiqi, H.

2014-01-01

317

An Integrated Programming and Development Environment for Adiabatic Quantum Optimization  

E-print Network

Adiabatic quantum computing is a promising route to the computational power afforded by quantum information processing. The recent availability of adiabatic hardware has raised challenging questions about how to evaluate adiabatic quantum optimization programs. Processor behavior depends on multiple steps to synthesize an adiabatic quantum program, which are each highly tunable. We present an integrated programming and development environment for adiabatic quantum optimization called JADE that provides control over all the steps taken during program synthesis. JADE captures the workflow needed to rigorously specify the adiabatic quantum optimization algorithm while allowing a variety of problem types, programming techniques, and processor configurations. We have also integrated JADE with a quantum simulation engine that enables program profiling using numerical calculation. The computational engine supports plug-ins for simulation methodologies tailored to various metrics and computing resources. We present the design, integration, and deployment of JADE and discuss its potential use for benchmarking adiabatic quantum optimization programs by the quantum computer science community.

Travis S. Humble; Alex J. McCaskey; Ryan S. Bennink; Jay J. Billings; Ed F. D'Azevedo; Blair D. Sullivan; Christine F. Klymko; Hadayat Seddiqi

2014-04-21

318

CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT CANCER PROGRAM  

E-print Network

CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT CANCER PROGRAM 2010 ANNUAL REPORT WITH STATISTICAL DATA FROM 2009 UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS MEDICAL CENTER #12;2 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT 2 #12;3 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT 3 UIMC CANCER PROGRAM CHANGING MULTIDISCIPLINARY CARE. FOR GOOD. #12;4 CANCER PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT

Illinois at Chicago, University of

319

Caregivers program.  

PubMed

The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts, with changes, the interim final rule concerning VA's Program of Comprehensive Assistance for Family Caregivers. VA administers this program to provide certain medical, travel, training, and financial benefits to caregivers of certain veterans and servicemembers who were seriously injured during service on or after September 11, 2001. Also addressed in this rulemaking is the Program of General Caregiver Support Services that provides support services to caregivers of veterans from all eras who are enrolled in the VA health care system. Specifically, changes in this final rule include a requirement that Veterans be notified in writing should a Family Caregiver request revocation (to no longer be a Family Caregiver), an extension of the application timeframe from 30 days to 45 days for a Family Caregiver, and a change in the stipend calculation to ensure that Primary Family Caregivers do not experience unexpected decreases in stipend amounts from year to year. PMID:25581943

2015-01-01

320

PNW Forest Nutrition:PNW Forest Nutrition: Synthesis & FutureSynthesis & Future  

E-print Network

Zn+2+2 Enzyme CofactorEnzyme Cofactor ­­ Protein SynthesisProtein Synthesis ClCl ClCl-- PhotosynthesisPNW Forest Nutrition:PNW Forest Nutrition: Synthesis & FutureSynthesis & Future Direction BioenergeticsBioenergetics ­­ ATPATP KK KK++ StomatalStomatal ApertureAperture NN NONO33 -- NHNH44 ++ Proteins

321

Logkow Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five databases are available for free online from the Syracuse Research Corporation (SRC) a not-for-profit research and development firm. The Logkow Program (3), an interactive demo, will calculate log P (octanol-water partition coefficient) and retrieve experimental log P data from an experimental database of 13,000 compounds. Because the database uses SRC's LogKow/KowWin program, inquiries should be submitted in SRC's SMILES notation (an example page is linked) but can also be submitted as CAS numbers.

322

Biomimetic synthesis of noble metal nanocrystals  

E-print Network

Cun et al. , Facile Synthesis of Gold Wavy Nanowires andHigh-Yield Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Gold NanoplatesGold high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The obtained peptides used in NCs syntheses

Chiu, Chin-Yi

2013-01-01

323

Total synthesis and study of myrmicarin alkaloids  

E-print Network

I. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tricyclic Myrmicarin Alkaloids An enantioselective gram-scale synthesis of a key dihydroindolizine intermediate for the preparation of myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Key transformations ...

Ondrus, Alison Evelynn, 1981-

2009-01-01

324

Microfluidic reactors for the synthesis of nanocrystals  

E-print Network

Several microfluidic reactors were designed and applied to the synthesis of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). Initially, a simple single-phase capillary reactor was used for the synthesis of CdSe NCs. Precursors ...

Yen, Brian K. H

2007-01-01

325

Model studies toward the synthesis of kirkine.  

PubMed

In model studies towards the synthesis of kirkine, the carbon skeleton was constructed using a radical cascade reaction. Two different approaches towards the synthesis have been examined as well as the regioselectivity of the radical cyclisation. PMID:15731869

Barclay, Gillian L; Quiclet-Sire, Béatrice; Sanchez-Jimenez, Graciela; Zard, Samir Z

2005-03-01

326

Macromolecular synthesis by yeasts under frozen conditions  

E-print Network

by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. Experi- ments at -5°C under frozen and liquid conditionsMacromolecular synthesis by yeasts under frozen conditions Pierre Amato,* Shawn Doyle and Brent C

Christner, Brent C.

327

Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching.   

E-print Network

This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...

Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

1999-01-01

328

SSML: A speech synthesis markup language.   

E-print Network

This paper describes the Speech Synthesis Markup Language, SSML, which has been designed as a platform independent interface standard for speech synthesis systems. The paper discusses the need for standardisation in speech ...

Taylor, Paul A; Isard, Amy

1997-01-01

329

Federal Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This listing provides directory information for federal offices that provide educational and rehabilitation services information for individuals with disabilities, including those with hearing impairments. Information is provided on the Office of Special Education Programs, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and the…

American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

2003-01-01

330

Program Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

Baskas, Richard S.

2012-01-01

331

Basal Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Products evaluated in this column are two readiness kits: Readiness Steps (Houghton Mifflin) and Experiences in Reading Readiness (Milton Bradley) plus three text series for the full elementary grade span: Pathfinders (Allyn and Bacon); American Book Reading Program (American Book Company); and Young America Basic Series (Rand McNally). (SJL)

Curriculum Review, 1978

1978-01-01

332

Communication synthesis for distributed embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Communication synthesis is an essential step in hardware-software co-synthesis: many embedded systems use custom communication topologies and the communication links are often a significant part of the system cost. This paper describes new techniques for the analysis and synthesis of the communication requirements of embedded systems during co-synthesis. Our analysis algorithm derives delay bounds on communication in the system

Ti-Yen Yen; Wayne Wolf

1995-01-01

333

AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS  

E-print Network

AMINO ACID REQUIREMENTS FOR MICROBIAL PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Jane LEIBHOLZ, R.C. KELLAWAY Department if a source of dietary amino acid was required to obtain a maximum effi- ciency of protein synthesis microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. #12;References FAICHNEY G.J., 1975. In Digestion and Metabolism

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

SSML: A speech synthesis markup language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the Speech Synthesis Markup Language, SSML, which has been designedas a platform independent interface standard for speech synthesis systems. The paper discussesthe need for standardisation in speech synthesizers and how this will help builders of systemsmake better use of synthesis. The SGML based markup language is then discussed, and detailsof the Edinburgh SSML interpreter are given as

Paul Taylor; Amy Isard

1997-01-01

335

Stellar population synthesis diagnostics  

E-print Network

A quantitative method is presented to compare observed and synthetic colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). The method is based on a chi^2 merit function for a point (c_i,m_i) in the observed CMD, which has a corresponding point in the simulated CMD within n*sigma(c_i,m_i) of the error ellipse. The chi^2 merit function is then combined with the Poisson merit function of the points for which no corresponding point was found within the n*sigma(c_i,m_i) error ellipse boundary. Monte-Carlo simulations are presented to demonstrate the diagnostics obtained from the combined (chi^2, Poisson) merit function through variation of different parameters in the stellar population synthesis tool. The simulations indicate that the merit function can potentially be used to reveal information about the initial mass function. Information about the star formation history of single stellar aggregates, such as open or globular clusters and possibly dwarf galaxies with a dominating stellar population, might not be reliable if one is dealing with a relatively small age range.

Y. K. Ng

1998-03-30

336

Control Augmented Structural Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.

Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.

1988-01-01

337

Rotation measure synthesis revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reformulate rotation measure (RM) synthesis for data sets with discrete frequency channels and an arbitrary channel response function. The most commonly used version of the formalism by Brentjens & De Bruyn assumes a top-hat response function in wavelength squared, while real data sets can often be approximated better with a top-hat in frequency. We simulate mock data sets for various source geometries, using a top-hat response function in frequency, and we compare the quality of the RM spectra that are found with both formalisms. We include the response function of the simulated data to calculate exact RM spectra using our formalism. We show that the formalism by Brentjens & De Bruyn produces accurate results even if depolarization at the lowest frequencies in the observing band is severe. If RMs are large, our formalism reconstructs the emitted signal more accurately, with a higher amplitude and (in most cases) a narrower RM spread function. Our formalism can also detect sources with larger (absolute) RMs for a given sensitivity level of the observations.

Schnitzeler, D. H. F. M.; Lee, K. J.

2015-02-01

338

Marine ecosystem synthesis: From physics to whales in the Pacific Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of Arctic Research (SOAR) Workshop; Anchorage, Alaska, 14-16 March 2012 The Synthesis of Arctic Research (SOAR) program brings together a multidisciplinary group of Arctic scientists and Alaskan coastal community residents to explore and integrate marine research information in the Pacific Arctic region. The goal of SOAR is to increase scientific understanding of the relationships among oceanographic conditions (physics, chemistry, sea ice), benthic organisms, lower trophic pelagic species (forage fish and zooplankton), and higher trophic species (i.e., seabirds, walrus, whales) in the Pacific Arctic, with particular emphasis on the Chukchi Sea oil and gas lease sale areas.

Sheffield Guy, Lisa; Moore, Sue E.; Stabeno, Phyllis

2012-11-01

339

Alternative fuel and chemicals from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

Development of a reliable and cost-effective method of wax/catalyst separation is a key step toward a commercially viable slurry reactor process with iron oxide-based catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbon transportation fuels. Although a variety of suitable catalysts (including, for example, cobalt-based catalysts) are available, iron oxide-based catalysts are preferred for coal-derived, CO-rich syngas because, in addition to catalyzing the F-T reaction, they simultaneously catalyze the reaction stifling CO to H{sub 2}, obviating a separate shift process block and associated costs. Because of the importance of development of this wax/catalyst separation, a study was initiated in February 1991. P. Z. Zhou of Burns and Roe reviewed the status of F-T wax/catalyst separation techniques. This led to the selection of a filtration system for the separation. Pilot tests were conducted by Mott Porous Metal Products in 1992 to develop this system. Initial results were good, but problems were encountered in follow-up testing. As a result of the testing, a filter was selected for use on the pilot plant. In LaPorte, Texas, APCI has been operating a pilot plant for the development of various synthesis gas technologies with DOE and industry support. The APCI F-T program builds on the DOE-sponsored laboratory-scale work by Mobil, reported in the mid-1980s, which used an iron oxide catalyst to produce high-quality F-T liquids in relatively compact reactors. Separation of the catalyst solids from the wax still represents a challenge. In the summer of 1992, testing of the selected filter was begun as part of the pilot plant testing. The filter performed poorly. Separation of the catalyst was primarily by sedimentation. It was recommended that the wax/catalyst separation be developed further.

NONE

1996-05-01

340

GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, K.; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

2003-01-01

341

Biota of North America Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Biota of North America Program (BONAP) is to develop a unified digital system for assessing the North American biota. BONAP's database now includes assessment for all vascular plants and vertebrate animals (native, naturalized, and adventive) of North America north of Mexico, and it maintains the most current taxonomy, nomenclature, and biogeographic data for all members of the biota. The Synthesis of the North American Flora, published in 1999, is available for purchase as a CD-ROM (ordering information is provided); a 1mb demonstration version for Windows is available through the BONAP site. The Synthesis includes taxonomic, nomenclatural, and biogeographic data and images, enabling users to produce species checklists, distribution summaries, and species assessments for morphology, rarity, endemism, nativity, and other biological attributes. It consists of three parts: the "Lexicon," which provides the underlying nomenclature and taxonomy; the "Atlas," which displays distribution maps for each of the accepted taxa; and the "Biological Attributes," which provides summaries of morphological and other specialized data (rarity and endemism, nativity, weediness, habit, habitat, and others).

342

Control augmented structural synthesis with dynamic stability constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dynamic stability constraints are included in a computer program that simultaneously synthesizes a structure and its control system. Two measures of stability, the real part of the system complex eigenvalues and the damping ratio, are examined. The procedure for calculating the sensitivities of the two measures of stability to changes in the structure and its control system is explained. The sensitivities are used to formulate an approximate problem that is solved at each design iteration. The effects of structural damping and noncollated controllers on the synthesis process are discussed.

Thomas, H. L.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

1989-01-01

343

Total synthesis of (+)-lysergic acid.  

PubMed

We report the enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-lysergic acid using two different strategies, which featured three metal-catalyzed reactions for the construction of the BCD three rings, involving Pd-catalyzed indole synthesis for the construction of the B ring, a ring-closing metathesis reaction for the formation of the D ring, and an intramolecular Heck reaction to forge the C ring. In synthetic strategy I, the synthesis was achieved in 20 steps following the ring construction sequence of BDC. In synthetic strategy II, the synthetic route was shortened to only 12 steps by following the ring construction sequence of DBC and using a 4-chlorotryptophan derivative for the intramolecular Heck reaction. Moreover, we also discussed an unsuccessful synthetic strategy. PMID:24111583

Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Yu-An; Xu, Ping; Jia, Yanxing

2013-11-01

344

Erythropoietin Derived by Chemical Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Erythropoietin is a signaling glycoprotein that controls the fundamental process of erythropoiesis, orchestrating the production and maintenance of red blood cells. As administrated clinically, erythropoietin has a polypeptide backbone with complex dishomogeneity in its carbohydrate domains. Here we describe the total synthesis of homogeneous erythropoietin with consensus carbohydrate domains incorporated at all of the native glycosylation sites. The oligosaccharide sectors were built by total synthesis and attached stereospecifically to peptidyl fragments of the wild-type primary sequence, themselves obtained by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The glycopeptidyl constructs were joined by chemical ligation, followed by metal-free dethiylation, and subsequently folded. This homogeneous erythropoietin glycosylated at the three wild-type aspartates with N-linked high-mannose sialic acid–containing oligosaccharides and O-linked glycophorin exhibits Procrit-level in vivo activity in mice. PMID:24337294

Shieh, Jae-Hung; Peguero, Elizabeth; Hendrickson, Ronald; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

2014-01-01

345

AWARD program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The All Weather ARrival and Departure (AWARD) program is supported by the European Commission under the Brite-EuRam III structure. Following the VERSATILE preparation program, it started on June 1996 and is planned to finish end of 1999. The program consortium consists of ten partners such as a major airline, aircraft and equipment manufacturers, research and tests centers, and an university. Contractors from France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy and The Netherlands are coordinated by Sextant Avionique. AWARD main objective is to demonstrate the efficiency of vision systems under adverse weather conditions. In order to evaluate the added benefits of these concepts within aircraft operations of approach, landing, taxi and takeoff, two applications are developed: (1) Enhanced Vision System (EVS) based on Head Up Display enhancement with Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and Millimeter Wave Radar (MMWR) images. (2) Synthetic Vision System (SVS) displaying an overlaid symbology on a perspective presentation of the environment, thanks to the combination of database and accurate positioning systems. The evaluation of these two tests systems will focus on: (1) Performance and human acceptability aspects. They will be appreciated according to human factors criteria as well as an integration within realistic environments. The NLR Research Flight Simulator and the DLR ATTAS flight test aircraft will be used. (2) Reliability, integrity aspects thanks to a theoretical certification/system study which will propose guidelines for certification, and will address impact on the system architecture. The paper addresses the work structure of AWARD in order to show what are the keypoints addressed in this program.

Leppert, Frank

1998-07-01

346

SAMPLES Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of the SAMPLES (Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services) Program is to enable customers to develop their own innovative products by leveraging advanced design, fabrication, and characterization technologies originally developed for National Laboratory applications. Participants can attend short courses, design new devices, and have those designs fabricated in our state-of-the-art fabrication facility. Additional cost-effective services are also available.

Hanselmann, Kathryn

2009-07-21

347

Libraries program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.

2011-01-01

348

Program Development  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers how to go about developing a human reliability program. In particular, it touches on conceptual thinking, raising awareness in an organization, the actions that go into developing a plan. It emphasizes evaluating all positions, eliminating positions from the pool due to mitigating factors, and keeping the process transparent. It lists components of the process and objectives in process development. It also touches on the role of leadership and the necessity for audit.

Atencio, Julian J.

2014-05-01

349

Program Description The Visiting Research Internship Program  

E-print Network

.S. Program Length The eight-week, Visiting Research Internship Program begins June 1, 2015 and runs through July 24, 2015. Financial Assistance The Visiting Research Internship Program is a paid internshipProgram Description The Visiting Research Internship Program (VRIP) is an eight-week mentored

Jenny, Andreas

350

A Program Certification Assistant Based on Fully Automated Theorem Provers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a certification assistant to support formal safety proofs for programs. It is based on a graphical user interface that hides the low-level details of first-order automated theorem provers while supporting limited interactivity: it allows users to customize and control the proof process on a high level, manages the auxiliary artifacts produced during this process, and provides traceability between the proof obligations and the relevant parts of the program. The certification assistant is part of a larger program synthesis system and is intended to support the deployment of automatically generated code in safety-critical applications.

Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

2005-01-01

351

Baseline program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This assumed program was developed from several sources of information and is extrapolated over future decades using a set of reasonable assumptions based on incremental growth. The assumptions for the NASA baseline program are as follows: balanced emphasis in four domains; a constant level of activity; low to moderate real budget growth; maximum use of commonality; and realistic and practical technology development. The first domain is low Earth Orbit (LEO). Activities there are concentrated on the space station but extend on one side to Earth-pointing sensors for unmanned platforms and on the other to the launch and staging of unmanned solar system exploration missions. The second domain is geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cislunar space. Activities here include all GEO missions and operations, both unmanned and manned, and all transport of materials and crews between LEO and the vicinity of the Moon. The third domain is the Moon itself. Lunar activities are to include both orbiting and landing missions; the landings may be either unmanned or manned. The last domain is Mars. Missions to Mars will initially be unmanned but they will eventually be manned. Program elements and descriptions are discussed as are critiques of the NASA baseline.

Roberts, Barney B.; Vonputtkamer, Jesco

1992-01-01

352

Reaction synthesis of heat-resistant materials  

SciTech Connect

Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides can be utilized to obtain aluminides of transition metals. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain dense intermetallics and their composites. Composites were analyzed by X- ray diffraction and microscopy techniques, and tensile properties were measured on button-head and sheet specimens of intermetallics and their composites. Mechanical properties of intermetallics obtained by reaction synthesis and densification compare well with conventionally processed materials. Reaction-synthesis principles were also extended to weld overlays. Possible approaches to obtaining dense products by reaction synthesis and densification are summarized in a schematic illustration. 19 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

1995-12-31

353

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

1993-03-30

354

Combustion synthesis method and products  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

Holt, J. Birch (San Jose, CA); Kelly, Michael (West Alexandria, OH)

1993-01-01

355

Enzymatic transglycosylation for glycoconjugate synthesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in exploiting the transglycosylation activity of glycosidases and glycosynthase mutants for oligosaccharide and glycoconjugate synthesis. New glycosynthases were generated from retaining glycosidases, inverting glycosidases, and those that proceed in a mechanism of substrate-assisted catalysis. Directed evolution coupled with elegant screening methods has led to the discovery of an expanding number of glycosynthase mutants that show improved catalytic activity and/or altered substrate specificity. In particular, enzymatic transglycosylation strategy has been recently extended to the synthesis of complex glycoconjugates, including glycosphingolipids, N-glycoproteins, and other glycosylated natural products. PMID:19766528

Wang, Lai-Xi; Huang, Wei

2009-01-01

356

Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities  

PubMed Central

Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reaction, Ultrasound-promoted reaction and Phase-transfer catalysis reaction. The biological activities of the synthesized quinazoline derivatives also are discussed. PMID:23731671

2013-01-01

357

a Real-Time Computer Music Synthesis System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A real time sound synthesis system has been developed at the Computer Music Center of The University of Texas at Austin. This system consists of several stand alone processors that were constructed jointly with White Instruments in Austin. These processors can be programmed as general purpose computers, but are provided with a number of specialized interfaces including: MIDI, 8 bit parallel, high speed serial, 2 channels analog input (18 bit A/Ds, 48kHz sample rate), and 4 channels analog output (18 bit D/As). In addition, a basic music synthesis language (Music56000) has been written in assembly code. On top of this, a symbolic compiler (PatchWork) has been developed to enable algorithms which run in these processors to be created graphically. And finally, a number of efficient time domain numerical models have been developed to enable the construction, simulation, control, and synthesis of many musical acoustics systems in real time on these processors. Specifically, assembly language models for cylindrical and conical horn sections, dissipative losses, tone holes, bells, and a number of linear and nonlinear boundary conditions have been developed.

Lent, Keith Henry

358

Reframing developmental biology and building evolutionary theory's new synthesis.  

PubMed

Gilbert and Epel present a new approach to developmental biology: embryogenesis must be understood within the full context of the organism's environment. Instead of an insular embryo following a genetic blueprint, this revised program maintains that embryogenesis is subject to inputs from the environment that generate novel genetic variation with dynamic consequences for development. Beyond allelic variation of structural genes and of regulatory loci, plasticity-derived epigenetic variation completes the triad of the major types of variation required for evolution. Developmental biology and ecology, disciplines that have previously been regarded as distinct, are presented here as fully integrated under the rubric of "eco-devo," and from this perspective, which highlights how the environment not only selects variation, it helps construct it, another synthesis with evolutionary biology must also be made, "eco-evo-devo." This second integration has enormous implications for expanding evolution theory, inasmuch as the Modern Synthesis (Provine 1971), which combined classical genetics and Darwinism in the mid-20th century, did not account for the role of development in evolution. The eco-evo-devo synthesis thus portends a major theoretical inflection in evolutionary biology. Following a description of these scientific developments, comment is offered as to how this new integrated approach might be understood within the larger shifts in contemporary biology. PMID:20495262

Tauber, Alfred I

2010-01-01

359

Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of ``green'' in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis.

Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

2013-10-01

360

Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches.  

PubMed

Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of "green" in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis. PMID:24056951

Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

2013-11-01

361

Ascorbate Synthesis Pathway  

PubMed Central

Using mouse gene knock-out models, we identify aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.2, Akr1a4 (GR)) and aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21, Akr1b3 (AR)) as the enzymes responsible for conversion of d-glucuronate to l-gulonate, a key step in the ascorbate (ASC) synthesis pathway in mice. The gene knock-out (KO) mice show that the two enzymes, GR and AR, provide ?85 and ?15% of l-gulonate, respectively. GRKO/ARKO double knock-out mice are unable to synthesize ASC (>95% ASC deficit) and develop scurvy. The GRKO mice (?85% ASC deficit) develop and grow normally when fed regular mouse chow (ASC content = 0) but suffer severe osteopenia and spontaneous fractures with stresses that increase ASC requirements, such as pregnancy or castration. Castration greatly increases osteoclast numbers and activity in GRKO mice and promotes increased bone loss as compared with wild-type controls and additionally induces proliferation of immature dysplastic osteoblasts likely because of an ASC-sensitive block(s) in early differentiation. ASC and the antioxidants pycnogenol and resveratrol block osteoclast proliferation and bone loss, but only ASC feeding restores osteoblast differentiation and prevents their dysplastic proliferation. This is the first in vivo demonstration of two independent roles for ASC as an antioxidant suppressing osteoclast activity and number as well as a cofactor promoting osteoblast differentiation. Although humans have lost the ability to synthesize ASC, our mouse models suggest the mechanisms by which suboptimal ASC availability facilitates the development of osteoporosis, which has important implications for human osteoporosis. PMID:20410296

Gabbay, Kenneth H.; Bohren, Kurt M.; Morello, Roy; Bertin, Terry; Liu, Jeff; Vogel, Peter

2010-01-01

362

Evolution of sucrose synthesis.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria and proteobacteria (purple bacteria) are the only prokaryotes known to synthesize sucrose (Suc). Suc-P synthase, Suc-phosphatase (SPP), and Suc synthase activities have previously been detected in several cyanobacteria, and genes coding for Suc-P synthase (sps) and Suc synthase (sus) have been cloned from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Anabaena (Nostoc) spp., respectively. An open reading frame in the Synechocystis genome encodes a predicted 27-kD polypeptide that shows homology to the maize (Zea mays) SPP. Heterologous expression of this putative spp gene in Escherichia coli, reported here, confirmed that this open reading frame encodes a functional SPP enzyme. The Synechocystis SPP is highly specific for Suc-6(F)-P (K(m) = 7.5 microM) and is Mg(2+) dependent (K(a) = 70 microM), with a specific activity of 46 micromol min(-1) mg(-1) protein. Like the maize SPP, the Synechocystis SPP belongs to the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily of phosphatases/hydrolases. Searches of sequenced microbial genomes revealed homologs of the Synechocystis sps gene in several other cyanobacteria (Nostoc punctiforme, Prochlorococcus marinus strains MED4 and MIT9313, and Synechococcus sp. WH8012), and in three proteobacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Magnetococcus sp. MC1, and Nitrosomonas europaea). Homologs of the Synechocystis spp gene were found in Magnetococcus sp. MC1 and N. punctiforme, and of the Anabaena sus gene in N. punctiforme and N. europaea. From analysis of these sequences, it is suggested that Suc synthesis originated in the proteobacteria or a common ancestor of the proteobacteria and cyanobacteria. PMID:11950997

Lunn, John Edward

2002-04-01

363

URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION  

E-print Network

URBAN LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTAL PROGRAM APPLICATION as part of your Graduate College application to the Urban Leadership Program/Supervisor: #12;Part 3: LEADERSHIP EXPERIENCES: Identify any educational leadership experiences

Walker, Lawrence R.

364

SHIPBOARD LABORATORY SAFETY PROGRAM  

E-print Network

SHIPBOARD LABORATORY SAFETY PROGRAM INTEGRATED OCEAN DRILLING PROGRAM U.S. IMPLEMENTING ................................................................................................................................7 Other TAMU and SIEM Offshore Policies and Programs

365

Efficient total synthesis of novel bioactive microbial metabolites.  

PubMed

Bioactive natural products produced by microbes have almost limitless potential in pharmaceutical applications, and the organic synthesis of such products as lead compounds will result in the creation of new and widely useful pharmaceutical products. A program of discovery of naturally occurring bioactive microbial metabolites has been ongoing at the Kitasato Institute. We have also developed efficient, rational, and highly flexible production methods for generation of target compounds, synthesis of related compounds, elucidation of their structure-activity relationships, and the possible creation of improved bioactive compounds. In this Account, the isolation and total synthesis of naturally occurring bioactive microbial metabolites in order to create novel medicines for specific illnesses is described. This covers diseases and conditions such as atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, cancer, inflammation, and osteoporosis, among others, and focuses on six specific compounds. Pyripyropenes were discovered from Aspergillus fumigatus FO-1289 through our screening of microbial metabolites that strongly inhibit acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in order to develop a new class of cholesterol-lowering agents. These novel polyoxygenated mixed polyketide-terpenoid (meroterpenoid) metabolites contain a fused pyridyl alpha-pyrone moiety. We carried out the first total synthesis of (+)-pyripyropene A via a flexible, concise, and highly efficient route and also clarified the structure-activity relationships. Arisugacins were discovered from Penicillium sp. FO-4259 by our screening of microbial metabolites that strongly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in order to create novel medicines for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Arisugacins are also meroterpenoids. We have achieved the first convergent total synthesis of arisugacins A and B. Lactacystin was isolated from Streptomyces sp. OM-6519 via our screening of microbial metabolites that promote the differentiation of the neuroblastoma cell to further discover new AD medicines. Lactacystin has a novel gamma-lactam thioester structure and is also a selective and strong proteasome inhibitor. We have developed a concise approach to synthesize lactacystin designed to afford easy access to the original compound and a variety of analogs. Macrosphelides were isolated from Microsphaeropsis sp. FO-5050 from our screening of microbial metabolites that inhibit the adhesion of HL-60 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Macrosphelides are the first 16-membered macrotriolides. Macrosphelides prevent cell-cell adhesion by inhibiting the binding of sialyl Lewis X to E-selectin. We have accomplished the first efficient total synthesis of macrosphelides. Madindolines were isolated from Streptomyces nitrosporeus K93-0711 by our program to discover new interleukin 6 (IL-6) modulators. Madindolines are comprised of a 3a-hydroxyfuroindoline ring connected at nitrogen via a methylene bridge to a cyclopentene-1,3-dione ring. We have developed an efficient and practical total synthesis of madindolines. Madindoline A binds to gp130 selectively and inhibits IL-6 activity. Neoxaline was isolated from Aspergillus japonicus Fg-551. Neoxaline is a member of a novel class of biologically active indole alkaloids characterized by a unique indoline spiroaminal framework and binds to tubulin, which results in inhibition of tubulin polymerization. We have developed a concise stereoselective synthesis of the indoline spiroaminal framework of neoxaline. PMID:18217720

Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Hirose, Tomoyasu; Omura, Satoshi

2008-02-01

366

Using Decision Procedures to Build Domain-Specific Deductive Synthesis Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a class of decision procedures that we have found useful for efficient, domain-specific deductive synthesis. These procedures are called closure-based ground literal satisfiability procedures. We argue that this is a large and interesting class of procedures and show how to interface these procedures to a theorem prover for efficient deductive synthesis. Finally, we describe some results we have observed from our implementation. Amphion/NAIF is a domain-specific, high-assurance software synthesis system. It takes an abstract specification of a problem in solar system mechanics, such as 'when will a signal sent from the Cassini spacecraft to Earth be blocked by the planet Saturn?', and automatically synthesizes a FORTRAN program to solve it.

VanBaalen, Jeffrey; Roach, Steven; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

367

Morphologically controlled synthesis of colloidal upconversion nanophosphors and their shape-directed self-assembly  

PubMed Central

We report a one-pot chemical approach for the synthesis of highly monodisperse colloidal nanophosphors displaying bright upconversion luminescence under 980 nm excitation. This general method optimizes the synthesis with initial heating rates up to 100 °C/minute generating a rich family of nanoscale building blocks with distinct morphologies (spheres, rods, hexagonal prisms, and plates) and upconversion emission tunable through the choice of rare earth dopants. Furthermore, we employ an interfacial assembly strategy to organize these nanocrystals (NCs) into superlattices over multiple length scales facilitating the NC characterization and enabling systematic studies of shape-directed assembly. The global and local ordering of these superstructures is programmed by the precise engineering of individual NC’s size and shape. This dramatically improved nanophosphor synthesis together with insights from shape-directed assembly will advance the investigation of an array of emerging biological and energy-related nanophosphor applications. PMID:21148771

Ye, Xingchen; Collins, Joshua E.; Kang, Yijin; Chen, Jun; Chen, Daniel T. N.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Murray, Christopher B.

2010-01-01

368

Program on application of communications satellites to educational development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interdisciplinary research in needs analysis, communications technology studies, and systems synthesis is reported. Existing and planned educational telecommunications services are studied and library utilization of telecommunications is described. Preliminary estimates are presented of ranges of utilization of educational telecommunications services for 1975 and 1985; instructional and public television, computer-aided instruction, computing resources, and information resource sharing for various educational levels and purposes. Communications technology studies include transmission schemes for still-picture television, use of Gunn effect devices, and TV receiver front ends for direct satellite reception at 12 GHz. Two major studies in the systems synthesis project concern (1) organizational and administrative aspects of a large-scale instructional satellite system to be used with schools and (2) an analysis of future development of instructional television, with emphasis on the use of video tape recorders and cable television. A communications satellite system synthesis program developed for NASA is now operational on the university IBM 360-50 computer.

Morgan, R. P.; Singh, J. P.

1971-01-01

369

program02  

Cancer.gov

B.C.N.P., Associate Director for Regulatory Program Policy, DMIRDP, CDER, FDA; Robert McDonough, M.D., J.D., M.P.P.S., Senior Technology Consultant, Medical Director, Clinical Policy and Guidelines Unit, Aetna US Healthcare; William McPhee, Managing General Partner, Medical Imaging Innovation and Investments L.P.; Robert Phillips, Ph.D. Radiology Branch Chief, CDRH, FDA; Vilim Simcic, Ph.D., Vice President, Product Management and Clinical Collaboration, Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.

370

RADARSAT program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on the RADARSAT system is progressing towards the currently scheduled launch date of early 1995. The spacecraft bus and the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) payload are at various stages of development. Requirements for the ground segment have been mostly established. The design of the ground elements such as the mission control facility and the SAR data processor is underway. The SAR applications development work is continuing and the chosen distributor, RADARSAT International Inc. (RSI) is making preparations to market RADARSAT data internationally. A plan for the follow-on to RADARSAT 1 is being finalized to ensure continuity of SAR data under the Radarsat program.

Mcnally, J.; Parashar, S.

1993-01-01

371

GLOBE Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A partnership among school systems, the U.S. Federal interagency program, the U.S. State Departments, colleges, universities, and over 100 other countries; this Web site provides an extensive look at GLOBE -- a worldwide hands-on educational experience for elementary to high school students. Educators can view guides and learn about student activities dealing with atmosphere, hydrology, soil, and much more. The site also provides a number of animated quizzes in concepts dealing with Earth Systems, Clouds, Thermometers, and Geography. Visitors can view data and graphs collected by student members of GLOBE.

372

Reverse Micelle Based Synthesis of Microporous Materials in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microporous materials include a large group of solids of varying chemical composition as well as porosity. These materials are characterized by channels and cavities of molecular dimensions. The framework structure is made up of interconnecting T-O-T' bonds, where T and T' can be Si, Al, P, Ga, Fe, Co, Zn, B and a host of other elements. Materials with Si-O-Al bonding in the framework are called zeolites and are extensively used in many applications. Ion-exchange properties of these materials are exploited in the consumer and environmental industries. Chemical and petroleum industries use zeolites as catalysts in hydrocarbon transform ations. Synthesis of new microporous frameworks has led to the development of new technologies, and thus considerable effort worldwide is expended in their discovery. Microporous materials are typically made under hydrothermal conditions. Influence of nature of starting reactants, structure directing agents, pH, temperature, and aging all have profound influence on the synthesis process. This is primarily because the most interesting open frameworks are not necessarily the stable structures in the reaction medium. Thus, the discovery of new frameworks is often tied to finding the right composition and synthesis conditions that allow for kinetic stabilization of the structure. This complexity of the synthesis process and limited understanding of it has made it difficult to develop directed is of microporous materials and most advances in this field have been made by trial and error. The basic issues in crystal growth of these materials include: (1) Nature of the nucleation process; (2) Molecular structure and assembly of nuclei; (3) Growth of nuclei into crystals; (4) Morphology control; and (5) Transformation of frameworks into other structures. The NASA-funded research described in this paper focuses on all the above issues and has been described in several publications. We present the highlights of our program, especially with the focus on possible experiments in microgravity.

Dutta, Prabir K.

2001-01-01

373

Synthesis and catalytic applications of novel mesoporous aluminosilicate molecular sieves  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the synthesis of 4 series of mesoporous aluminosilicate molecular sieves (Al-MCM-41) and their catalytic applications. Four different Al compounds were examined as Al source in the hydrothermal synthesis, including pseudo boehmite (alumina), Al sulfate, Al isopropoxide, and Na aluminate. Each Al source was examined at 3 different feed Si/Al ratios in the synthesis. XRD results show that there are differences in the d{sub 100}-spacings for the samples prepared with different Al sources: Na aluminate > Al isopropoxide < Na aluminate. XRD also indicates that the synthesized Al-MCM-41 samples have different crystallinity. {sup 27}Al NMR and {sub 29}Si NMR reveal that most of the Al species in the samples prepared with pseudo boehmite were present in octahedral coordination, whereas in other samples nearly all the Al species are tetrahedral (in the framework). The acid characteristics of the synthesized molecular sieves were characterized by temperature-programmed desorption of n-butylamine, and by using 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene hydrocracking as probe reaction. The results of TPD and probe reaction clearly indicate that the Al source used for synthesis has a major impact on the acidic and catalytic properties of Al-MCM-41. The samples prepared with Al isopropoxide and Na aluminate are better as catalysts than those with Al sulfate and pseudo boehmite. They also explored the potential of mesoporous molecular sieves as support for noble metal hydrogenation catalysts and metal sulfide-based hydrotreating catalysts. Pd and Pt-loaded mesoporous molecular sieves were prepared and applied for hydrogenation of naphthalene and phenanthrene. The results show that mesoporous molecular sieve-supported catalysts are much more active than alumina- and titania-supported catalysts. The data for dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurization suggest that Al-MCM-41 supported Co-Mo may be effective for deep desulfurization of distillate fuels.

Reddy, K.M.; Song, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1997-12-31

374

Perfluorophenyl Azides: New Applications in Surface Functionalization and Nanomaterial Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Conspectus A major challenge in materials science is the ongoing search for coupling agents that are readily synthesized, capable of versatile chemistry, able to easily functionalize materials and surfaces, and efficient in covalently linking organic and inorganic entities. A decade ago, we began a research program investigating perfluorophenylazides (PFPAs) as the coupling agents in surface functionalization and nanomaterial synthesis. The p-substituted PFPAs are attractive heterobifunctional coupling agents because of their two distinct and synthetically distinguishable reactive centers: (i) the fluorinated phenylazide, which is capable of forming stable covalent adducts, and (ii) the functional group R, which can be tailored through synthesis. Two approaches have been undertaken for material synthesis and surface functionalization. The first method involves synthesizing PFPA bearing the first molecule or material with a functional linker R, and then attaching the resulting PFPA to the second material by activating the azido group. In the second approach, the material surface is first functionalized with PFPA via functional center R, and coupling of the second molecule or material is achieved with the surface azido groups. In this Account, we review the design and protocols of the two approaches, providing examples in which PFPA derivatives were successfully used in material surface functionalization, ligand conjugation, and the synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials. The methods developed have proved to be general and versatile, and they are applicable to a wide range of materials (especially those that lack reactive functional groups or are difficult to derivatize) and to various substrates of polymers, oxides, carbon materials, and metal films. The coupling chemistry can be initiated by light, heat, and electrons. Patterned structures can be generated by selectively activating the areas of interest. Furthermore, the process is easy to perform, and light activation occurs in minutes, greatly facilitating the efficiency of the reaction. PFPAs indeed demonstrate many benefits as versatile surface coupling agents and offer opportunities for further exploration. PMID:20690606

Liu, Li-Hong; Yan, Mingdi

2010-01-01

375

Total synthesis of laetevirenol A.  

PubMed

The first complete synthesis of laetevirenol A was performed in nine steps via intramolecular Friedel-Crafts alkylation in a trans-selective manner. The key phenanthrene intermediate was synthesized by a one-pot Suzuki-Miyaura coupling and an aldol condensation cascade reaction. PMID:22946550

Choi, Young Lok; Kim, Bum Tae; Heo, Jung-Nyoung

2012-10-01

376

Synthesis of (+)-Luzofuran and (?)-Ancistrofuran  

PubMed Central

The first synthesis of the furan-containing snyderane, (+)-luzofuran, is reported. The key step in this approach was an electrophilic brominative cyclization, which was accomplished using a nucleophilic N-heterocycle-flanked phosphoramidite catalyst in combination with the common laboratory reagent N-bromosuccinimide. PMID:24437567

2015-01-01

377

Insolubilized enzymes for food synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellulose matrix with numerous enzyme-coated silica particles of colloidal size permanently bound at various sites within matrix was produced that has high activity and possesses requisite physical characteristics for filtration or column operations. Product also allows coupling step in synthesis of edible food to proceed under mild conditions.

Marshall, D. L.

1972-01-01

378

Texture synthesis for digital painting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of digital painting is considered from a signal processing viewpoint, and is reconsidered as a problem of directed texture synthesis. It is an important characteristic of natural texture that detail may be evident at many scales, and the detail at each scale may have distinct characteristics. A “sparse convolution” procedure for generating random textures with arbitrary spectral content

John-Peter Lewis

1984-01-01

379

Steganography Using Reversible Texture Synthesis.  

PubMed

We propose a novel approach for steganography using a reversible texture synthesis. A texture synthesis process resamples a smaller texture image, which synthesizes a new texture image with a similar local appearance and an arbitrary size. We weave the texture synthesis process into steganography to conceal secret messages. In contrast to using an existing cover image to hide messages, our algorithm conceals the source texture image and embeds secret messages through the process of texture synthesis. This allows us to extract the secret messages and source texture from a stego synthetic texture. Our approach offers three distinct advantages. First, our scheme offers the embedding capacity that is proportional to the size of the stego texture image. Second, a steganalytic algorithm is not likely to defeat our steganographic approach. Third, the reversible capability inherited from our scheme provides functionality, which allows recovery of the source texture. Experimental results have verified that our proposed algorithm can provide various numbers of embedding capacities, produce a visually plausible texture images, and recover the source texture. PMID:25415988

Wu, Kuo-Chen; Chung-Ming, Wang

2015-01-01

380

The Gabriel Synthesis of Benzylamine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment which utilizes the Gabriel Synthesis to demonstrate the acidity of imides and to provide an example of nucleophilic substitution reactions. The experiment also demonstrates the laboratory techniques involved in simple and steam distillation, filtration, extraction, and…

Nigh, W. G.

1975-01-01

381

Green chemistry for chemical synthesis  

PubMed Central

Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

2008-01-01

382

Phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells  

SciTech Connect

Tomato cells that are exposed to cadmium and other heavy metals synthesize phytochelatins (PCs), a family of peptides that bind heavy metals and are structurally related to glutathione (GSH). PCs have the structure (..gamma..-glutamyl-cysteinyl) glycine; for PCs, n=2-10; GSH, n=1. GSH levels decline rapidly in tomato cells exposed to Cd/sup 2 +/. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, prevents sustained synthesis of PC. However the addition of GSH to the medium of BSO-treated cells restores PC production. In vivo labeling studies indicate that /sup 35/(S)-cysteine is incorporated into PC via GSH, rather than being added directly to GSH or pre-formed PC. Initial synthesis of PCs is not inhibited by cycloheximide. Tomato cell cultures that are tolerant of high levels of Cd/sup 2 +/ contain large amounts of PCs. However, when sensitive and tolerant cells that have been grown in the absence of Cd/sup 2 +/ are exposed to relatively low concentrations of Cd/sup 2 +/, they synthesize PCs at similar rates. These and other results suggest that, although PCs are necessary, increased PC synthesis is not sufficient for expression of the Cd/sup 2 +/ tolerant phenotype.

Goldsbrough, P.; Gupta, S.; Huang, B.; Scheller, H.

1987-04-01

383

Synthesis of (+)-luzofuran and (-)-ancistrofuran.  

PubMed

The first synthesis of the furan-containing snyderane, (+)-luzofuran, is reported. The key step in this approach was an electrophilic brominative cyclization, which was accomplished using a nucleophilic N-heterocycle-flanked phosphoramidite catalyst in combination with the common laboratory reagent N-bromosuccinimide. PMID:24437567

Recsei, Carl; Chan, Bun; McErlean, Christopher S P

2014-02-01

384

Synthesis of deserpidine from reserpine.  

PubMed

The Rauwolfia alkaloids reserpine (1) and deserpidine (2), two alkaloids from Rauwolfia species, have been widely used for their antihypertensive action. Deserpidine (2) is a compound with limited availability from natural sources, and its synthesis from 1 in six steps (41% overall yield) is reported here. PMID:16309312

Varchi, Greta; Battaglia, Arturo; Samorì, Cristian; Baldelli, Eleonora; Danieli, Bruno; Fontana, Gabriele; Guerrini, Andrea; Bombardelli, Ezio

2005-11-01

385

CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS & TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES  

EPA Science Inventory

A historical account of the utility of microwaves in a variety of chemical synthesis applications will be presented, including a solvent-free strategy that involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) catalyzed by the surfaces of recyclable mineral supports such...

386

Chronology of a Difficult Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a short synthesis and many of the difficulties experienced while carrying it out (e.g., low yields, impurities, racemization, nonrepeatable literature preps, etc.). As such, students will be educated in aspects of synthetic organic chemistry that are often down-played, or even not mentioned, in published syntheses. (Contains…

Menger, Fredric M.; Sorrells, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01

387

NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

2004-12-01

388

Stop smoking support programs  

MedlinePLUS

Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

389

USDA PROGRAMS WETLAND RESTORATION  

E-print Network

1 USDA PROGRAMS WETLAND RESTORATION PROGRAMS FOUR PROGRAMS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM (WRP ATTENUATION REMOVE OR RETAIN NUTRIENTS TRAP SEDIMENT SUPPORT WILDLIFE EROSION CONTROL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AESTHETICS WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT #12;3 RESTORABLE WETLANDS IDENTIFIED AS PRIOR CONVERTED CROPLAND FARMED

Gray, Matthew

390

Human Reliability Program Overview  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

Bodin, Michael

2012-09-25

391

Testimony of Program Manager  

E-print Network

interoperability-related programs, including the SAFECOM Program within the Office of Emergency Communications (OECTestimony of Dereck Orr Program Manager Public Safety Communications Research (PSCR) Program of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Communications and Technology Hearing

392

NASA's educational programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

Brown, Robert W.

1990-01-01

393

Isobutanol-methanol mixtures from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January--31 March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The contract objectives are: to design a catalytic material for the synthesis of isobutanol with a productivity of 200 g isoalcohols/g-cat-h and a molar isobutanol/methanol ratio near unity; and to develop structure-function rules for the design of catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas to isoalcohols. Several catalyst samples have been prepared by controlled co-precipitation from aqueous mixtures of metal nitrates. The composition of these materials is based on reports of best available catalysts for methanol synthesis, for isobutanol synthesis, and for methanol coupling reactions. The mechanical construction and pressure testing of the microreactor system has been completed. The in-situ infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a nitrogen purge is fully operational. The temperature-programmed surface reaction (TPSR) unit has been designed; construction will begin during the third quarter FY`95. Air Products and Chemicals has provided us with a sample of a BASF isobutanol synthesis catalyst and with catalytic data obtained on this catalyst in a LaPorte test run. This catalyst will serve as a benchmark for the certification of our new microreactor system.

Iglesia, E.

1995-04-24

394

CHAPTER ONE Redox Effects on Chloroplast Protein Synthesis  

E-print Network

CHAPTER ONE Redox Effects on Chloroplast Protein Synthesis and Phosphorylation Carol A. Allen stress, chlo- roplasts, evolution, cytoplasmic genomes, protein synthesis, protein phosphorylation on Chloroplast Protein Synthesis and Phosphorylation support genes. Keeping an independent genetic sys- tem

Allen, John F.

395

The Technology Fellowship Program Program Guidelines  

E-print Network

, multimedia work, programming), learning new technology skills if necessary, consulting with CER staff membersThe Technology Fellowship Program Program Guidelines The Technology Fellowship Program is a mini expertise and project design capabilities with the technology skills of students who are interested

von der Heydt, Rüdiger

396

The Technology Fellowship Program Program Guidelines  

E-print Network

, graphic or web design, multimedia work, programming), learning new technology skills if necessaryThe Technology Fellowship Program Program Guidelines The Technology Fellowship Program is a mini expertise and project design capabilities with the technology skills of students who are interested

Gray, Jeffrey J.

397

Telemedicine Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the 1970s, NASA has been involved in the research and demonstration of telemedicine for its potential in the care of astronauts in flight and Earth-bound applications. A combination of NASA funding, expertise and off-the-shelf computer and networking systems made telemedicine possible for a medically underserved hospital in Texas. Through two-way audio/video relay, the program links pediatric oncology specialists at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio to South Texas Hospital in Harlingen, providing easier access and better care to children with cancer. Additionally, the hospital is receiving teleclinics on pediatric oncology nursing, family counseling and tuberculosis treatment. VTEL Corporation, Sprint, and the Healthcare Open Systems and Trials Consortium also contributed staff and hardware.

1996-01-01

398

A Program in Air Transportation Technology (Joint University Program)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Joint University Program on Air Transportation Technology was conducted at Princeton University from 1971 to 1995. Our vision was to further understanding of the design and operation of transport aircraft, of the effects of atmospheric environment on aircraft flight, and of the development and utilization of the National Airspace System. As an adjunct, the program emphasized the independent research of both graduate and undergraduate students. Recent principal goals were to develop and verify new methods for design and analysis of intelligent flight control systems, aircraft guidance logic for recovery from wake vortex encounter, and robust flight control systems. Our research scope subsumed problems associated with multidisciplinary aircraft design synthesis and analysis based on flight physics, providing a theoretical basis for developing innovative control concepts that enhance aircraft performance and safety. Our research focus was of direct interest not only to NASA but to manufacturers of aircraft and their associated systems. Our approach, metrics, and future directions described in the remainder of the report.

Stengel, Robert F.

1996-01-01

399

Utopianism in the British evolutionary synthesis.  

PubMed

In this paper I propose a new interpretation of the British evolutionary synthesis. The synthetic work of J. B. S. Haldane, R. A. Fisher and J. S. Huxley was characterized by both an integration of Mendelism and Darwinism and the unification of different biological subdisciplines within a coherent framework. But it must also be seen as a bold and synthetic Darwinian program in which the biosciences served as a utopian blueprint for the progress of civilization. Describing the futuristic visions of these three scientists in their synthetic heydays, I show that, despite a number of important divergences, their biopolitical ideals could be biased toward a controlled and regimented utopian society. Their common ideals entailed a social order where liberal and democratic principles were partially or totally suspended in favor of bioscientific control and planning for the future. Finally, I will argue that the original redefinition of Darwinism that modern synthesizers proposed is a significant historical example of how Darwinism has been used and adapted in different contexts. The lesson I draw from this account is a venerable one: that, whenever we wish to define Darwinism, we need to recognize not only its scientific content and achievements but expose the other traditions and ideologies it may have supported. PMID:21300314

Esposito, Maurizio

2011-03-01

400

Preliminary Technical Risk Analysis for the Geothermal Technologies Program  

SciTech Connect

This report explains the goals, methods, and results of a probabilistic analysis of technical risk for a portfolio of R&D projects in the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program ('the Program'). The analysis is a task by Princeton Energy Resources International, LLC (PERI), in support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) on behalf of the Program. The main challenge in the analysis lies in translating R&D results to a quantitative reflection of technical risk for a key Program metric: levelized cost of energy (LCOE). This requires both computational development (i.e., creating a spreadsheet-based analysis tool) and a synthesis of judgments by a panel of researchers and experts of the expected results of the Program's R&D.

McVeigh, J.; Cohen, J.; Vorum, M.; Porro, G.; Nix, G.

2007-03-01

401

Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

402

Probabilistic Synthesis of Personal-Style Handwriting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of personal-style handwriting synthesis is to produce texts in the same style as an individual writer by analyzing the writer's samples of handwriting. The difficulty of handwriting synthesis is that the output should have the characteristics of the person's handwriting as well as looking natural, based on a limited number of available examples. We develop a synthesis algorithm which produces handwriting that exhibits naturalness based on the probabilistic character model.

Choi, Hyunil; Kim, Jin Hyung

403

View synthesis prediction for multiview video coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a rate-distortion-optimized framework that incorporates view synthesis for improved prediction in multiview video coding. In the proposed scheme, auxiliary information, including depth data, is encoded and used at the decoder to generate the view synthesis prediction data. The proposed method employs optimal mode decision including view synthesis prediction, and sub-pixel reference matching to improve prediction accuracy of the

Sehoon Yea; Anthony Vetro

2009-01-01

404

Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-maoecrystal v.  

PubMed

The enantioselective synthesis of maoecrystal V, a cytotoxic polycyclic diterpene, is described. Key reactions in the synthesis include an intramolecular Heck reaction, an oxidative cycloetherification, and an intermolecular Diels-Alder reaction to forge the carbocyclic core in a concise and stereoselective manner. Late-stage amine and C-H oxidation is used to install the final functional groups required to complete the synthesis. PMID:25495370

Zheng, Changwu; Dubovyk, Igor; Lazarski, Kiel E; Thomson, Regan J

2014-12-24

405

RNA synthesis during male meiosis and spermiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Using 3H-uridine, the course of RNA synthesis has been followed autoradiographically during all stages of male meiosis and spermiogenesis in the locusts Schistocerca gregaria and Cyrtacanthacris tartarica and the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus. Using 3H-thymidine, premeiotic DNA synthesis was followed in Cyrtacanthacris tartarica.2.RNA synthesis is actively carried out by all autosomes throughout first meiotic prophase, up to and including diakinesis, and

S. A. Henderson

1964-01-01

406

Total synthesis of Class II and Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids  

E-print Network

I. Total Synthesis of All Class III Galbulimima Alkaloids We describe the total synthesis of (+)- and (-)-galbulimima alkaloid 13, (-)-himgaline anad (-)-himbadine. The absolute stereochemistry of natural (-)-galbulimima ...

Tjandra, Meiliana

2010-01-01

407

Formal total synthesis of cyanolide A.  

PubMed

Formal total synthesis of cyanolide A, aglycosidic dimeric macrolide is accomplished. The key reactions involved are asymmetric acetate aldol reaction, CBS reduction, and Shiina's lactonization. PMID:21280592

Pabbaraja, Srihari; Satyanarayana, K; Ganganna, B; Yadav, J S

2011-03-18

408

Zinc Oxide Nanostructures by Solvothermal Synthesis .  

E-print Network

??The synthesis, characterization, and properties of three types of one-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures are described. They were obtained by solvothermal treatment of nanometric zinc oxide… (more)

Segovia, M.

2012-01-01

409

Language ProgramsEnglish Language Programs English Language Programs  

E-print Network

with exceptional students and professionals from all over the world who wish to learn English as a second languageEnglish Language ProgramsEnglish Language Programs #12;English Language Programs "Never leave for a variety of reasons. We believe that learning a second language works best in a nurturing environment

Plotkin, Joshua B.

410

Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products  

SciTech Connect

With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

Tuan Hoang Nguyen

2003-05-31

411

Cellulose Synthesis and Its Regulation  

PubMed Central

Cellulose, the most abundant biopolymer synthesized on land, is made of linear chains of ß (1–4) linked D-glucose. As a major structural component of the cell wall, cellulose is important not only for industrial use but also for plant growth and development. Cellulose microfibrils are tethered by other cell wall polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectin, and lignin. In higher plants, cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized rosette cellulose synthase complexes. Despite the recent advances using a combination of molecular genetics, live cell imaging, and spectroscopic tools, many aspects of the cellulose synthesis remain a mystery. In this chapter, we highlight recent research progress towards understanding the mechanism of cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:24465174

Li, Shundai; Bashline, Logan; Lei, Lei; Gu, Ying

2014-01-01

412

Cellulose synthesis: a complex complex.  

PubMed

Cellulose is the world's most abundant biopolymer and a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is comprised of hydrogen-bonded beta-1,4-linked glucan chains that are synthesized at the plasma membrane by large cellulose synthase (CESA) complexes. Recent advances in visualization of fluorescently labelled complexes have facilitated exploration of regulatory modes of cellulose production. For example, several herbicides, such as isoxaben and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile that inhibit cellulose production appear to affect different aspects of synthesis. Dual-labelling of cytoskeletal components and CESAs has revealed dynamic feedback regulation between cellulose synthesis and microtubule orientation and organization. In addition, fluorescently tagged CESA2 subunits may substitute for another subunit, CESA6, which suggests both plasticity and specificity for one of the components of the CESA complex. PMID:18485800

Mutwil, Marek; Debolt, Seth; Persson, Staffan

2008-06-01

413

Graphene:. Synthesis, Functionalization and Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphenes with varying number of layers can be synthesized by different strategies. Thus, single-layer graphene is obtained by the reduction of single layer graphene oxide, CVD and other methods besides micromechanical cleavage. Few-layer graphenes are prepared by the conversion of nanodiamond, arc-discharge of graphite and other means. We briefly present the various methods of synthesis and the nature of graphenes

C. N. R. Rao; K. S. Subrahmanyam; H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte; A. Govindaraj

2011-01-01

414

Total Synthesis of Apoptolidin A  

PubMed Central

A highly convergent, enantioselective total synthesis of the potent antitumor agent apoptolidin A, has been completed. The key transformations include highly selective glycosylations to attach the C27 disaccharide and the C9 6?-deoxy-l-glucose, a cross metathesis to incorporate the C1-C10 trienoate unit, and a Yamaguchi macrolactonization to complete the macrocycle. Twelve stereocenters in the polypropionate segments and sugar units were established through diastereoselective chlorotitanium enolate aldol reactions. PMID:19199767

Crimmins, Michael T.; Christie, Hamish S.; Long, Alan; Chaudhary, Kleem

2009-01-01

415

Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in techniques and instrumentation for radio synthesis imaging in astronomy are discussed in a collection of review essays. Topics addressed include coherence in radio astronomy, the interferometer in practice, primary antenna elements, cross correlators, calibration and editing, sensitivity, deconvolution, self-calibration, error recognition, and image analysis. Consideration is given to wide-field imaging (bandwidth and time-average smearing, noncoplanar arrays, and

Richard A. Perley; Frederic R. Schwab; Alan H. Bridle

1989-01-01

416

Synthesis and stability of boratriazaroles.  

PubMed

We describe the synthesis and stability analysis of novel boratriazaroles that can be viewed as bioisosteres of imidazoles or pyrazoles. These heterocycles could conveniently be obtained by condensing a boronic acid and amidrazone 1 in various solvents. A detailed stability analysis of selected compounds at different pH values as a function of time led to the identification of steric hindrance around the boron atom as a key element for stabilization. PMID:25514579

Zurwerra, Didier; Quetglas, Vincent; Kloer, Daniel P; Renold, Peter; Pitterna, Thomas

2015-01-01

417

Enantioselective synthesis of pentacycloanammoxic acid.  

PubMed

A highly effective enantioselective synthesis of pentacycloanammoxic acid (1), an unusual naturally occurring fatty acid from Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, has been accomplished. The C20-structure of 1 was assembled with stereocontrol from four building blocks, cyclobutene, 2-cyclopentenone, the chiral silylcyclopentenone 6, and 7-bromoheptanoic acid. Both 1 and its enantiomer are now available in quantities that should facilitate future studies on the mode of biosynthesis which appears to be unprecedented. PMID:16522072

Mascitti, Vincent; Corey, E J

2006-03-15

418

Module selection for pipelined synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Module selection is one of the many functions which have to be performed during behavioral synthesis of pipelined designs. Module selection is the process of choosing the types of modules (e.g. carry-look-ahead adder) to implement each operation (e.g. addition). In this paper, we give a limited solution to the module selection problem for pipelined designs. A model for estimating area-time

Rajiv Jain; Alice C. Parker

1988-01-01

419

Synthesis of spiroannulated dihydroisobenzofuranylated monosaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient synthesis of spiroannulated dihydroisobenzofurans is achieved using easily accessible carbohydrate-derived furanyl propargyl ethers via an AuCl3 promoted intramolecular Diels–Alder (IMDA) reaction. The scope of the spiroannulation protocol was demonstrated using a diverse range of pentofuranosyl, hexofuransoyl and hexopyranosyl derived substrates in order to synthesize spiroannulated dihydroisobenzofurans. The reaction is high yielding, moisture tolerant, fast and uses only a

Sushil K. Maurya; Srinivas Hotha

2006-01-01

420

Total synthesis of (+)-cylindradine A.  

PubMed

Cylindradines A and B, members of the polycyclic pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids (PIAs), are the only congeners bearing a 3-carbamoylpyrrole unit among the PIAs. In this communication, we described a total synthesis of (+)-cylindradine A based on intramolecular Friedel-Crafts type cyclization of pyrrole-aldehyde and oxidative cyclization of tricyclic pyrrolopyrrolidine-guanidine with hypervalent iodine to construct the cyclic guanidine structure including the N,N'-aminal moiety. PMID:24846327

Iwata, Makoto; Kanoh, Kyohei; Imaoka, Takuya; Nagasawa, Kazuo

2014-07-01

421

Citrate Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The experiment allows students to view the formation of gold nanoparticles that can be detected by the reflection of a laser beam. This is a fairly inexpensive activity as it involves stock solutions, and equipment present in any science laboratory. Overall, students will enjoy this basic, but still challenging, experiment.

2009-01-22

422

Microbial Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One of the most important aspects in researching nanotechnology is the synthesis of metal nanoparticles of well-defined sizes,\\u000a shapes and controlled monodispersity. The most common methods of preparation are based on harsh chemicals, such as strong\\u000a reducing agents, surfactants, polymer capping agents and, occasionally, organic solvent systems, to achieve better results.\\u000a Therefore, there is a necessity to develop an environment

Irena Maliszewska

423

Total Synthesis of (+)-Isatisine A  

PubMed Central

Total synthesis of (+)-isatisine A is described based on the application of a silyl-directed Mukaiyama-type [3+2]-annulation for the preparation of a fully substituted furan core. The indole branch forming the quaternary carbon center at C2 was constructed by addition to an intermediate N-acyliminium ion derived from aminal 4. In addition, the fused tetracyclic framework including furan core was built up using modified Buchwald amidation conditions. PMID:21188973

Lee, Jihoon; Panek, James S.

2011-01-01

424

Chloroplast ribosomes and protein synthesis.  

PubMed Central

Consistent with their postulated origin from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of plants and algae have ribosomes whose component RNAs and proteins are strikingly similar to those of eubacteria. Comparison of the secondary structures of 16S rRNAs of chloroplasts and bacteria has been particularly useful in identifying highly conserved regions likely to have essential functions. Comparative analysis of ribosomal protein sequences may likewise prove valuable in determining their roles in protein synthesis. This review is concerned primarily with the RNAs and proteins that constitute the chloroplast ribosome, the genes that encode these components, and their expression. It begins with an overview of chloroplast genome structure in land plants and algae and then presents a brief comparison of chloroplast and prokaryotic protein-synthesizing systems and a more detailed analysis of chloroplast rRNAs and ribosomal proteins. A description of the synthesis and assembly of chloroplast ribosomes follows. The review concludes with discussion of whether chloroplast protein synthesis is essential for cell survival. PMID:7854253

Harris, E H; Boynton, J E; Gillham, N W

1994-01-01

425

Photoelectrochemical synthesis of DNA microarrays  

PubMed Central

Optical addressing of semiconductor electrodes represents a powerful technology that enables the independent and parallel control of a very large number of electrical phenomena at the solid-electrolyte interface. To date, it has been used in a wide range of applications including electrophoretic manipulation, biomolecule sensing, and stimulating networks of neurons. Here, we have adapted this approach for the parallel addressing of redox reactions, and report the construction of a DNA microarray synthesis platform based on semiconductor photoelectrochemistry (PEC). An amorphous silicon photoconductor is activated by an optical projection system to create virtual electrodes capable of electrochemically generating protons; these PEC-generated protons then cleave the acid-labile dimethoxytrityl protecting groups of DNA phosphoramidite synthesis reagents with the requisite spatial selectivity to generate DNA microarrays. Furthermore, a thin-film porous glass dramatically increases the amount of DNA synthesized per chip by over an order of magnitude versus uncoated glass. This platform demonstrates that PEC can be used toward combinatorial bio-polymer and small molecule synthesis. PMID:19706433

Chow, Brian Y.; Emig, Christopher J.; Jacobson, Joseph M.

2009-01-01

426

Yeast cell-wall synthesis  

PubMed Central

1. A study of wall synthesis has been made by following the incorporation of radioactive glucose and threonine into the cytoplasm and wall of yeast. 2. Both glucose and threonine are incorporated into a mannan glycopeptide. The glucose is also synthesized into a structural glucan of the wall. 3. The mannan glycopeptide contains high-molecular-weight mannan and low-molecular-weight mannose and oligosaccharide units composed of mannose. Both types of carbohydrate are attached to the peptide. The extent of radioactive incorporation into these different carbohydrate constituents of the glycopeptide remained constant during a pulse-chase experiment. No evidence of a sequential synthesis of oligosaccharides and high-molecular-weight mannan was obtained. 4. Cycloheximide inhibits the incorporation of threonine into the wall but only partially inhibits the incorporation of glucose. Thus not all the polysaccharide deposited into the wall is dependent on a simultaneous peptide synthesis and incorporation. 5. Protoplasts grown in an iso-osmotic medium secreted a mannan polymer that was probably a glycopeptide. PMID:5378380

Sentandreu, R.; Northcote, D. H.

1969-01-01

427

Video-based Crowd Synthesis.  

PubMed

As a controllable medium, video-realistic crowds are important for creating the illusion of a populated reality in special effects, games and architectural visualization. While recent progress in simulation and motion captured-based techniques for crowd synthesis has focused on natural macro-scale behavior, this paper addresses the complementary problem of synthesizing crowds with realistic micro-scale behavior and appearance. Example-based synthesis methods such as video textures are an appealing alternative to conventional model-based methods, but current techniques are unable to represent and satisfy constraints between video sprites and the scene. This paper describes how to synthesize crowds by segmenting pedestrians from input videos of natural crowds and optimally placing them into an output video while satisfying environmental constraints imposed by the scene. We introduce crowd tubes, a representation of video objects designed to compose a crowd of video billboards while avoiding collisions between static and dynamic obstacles. The approach consists of representing crowd tube samples and constraint violations with a conflict graph. The maximal independent set yields a dense constraint-satisyfing crowd composition. We present a prototype system for the capture, analysis, synthesis and control of video-based crowds. Several results demonstrate the system's ability to generate videos of crowds which exhibit a variety of natural behaviors. PMID:23209047

Flagg, Matthew; Rehg, Jim

2012-11-29

428

The combustion synthesis of boride composites. [BâC\\/TiBâ infiltrated with Al  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the combustion synthesis process as a means of producing hard, tough, lightweight Bâc\\/TiBâ composites. We based our experimental program on thermodynamic calculations. Adiabatic temperatures and product compositions were determined on the basis of the stoichiometry and initial temperature of the reactants. For lightweight products the composition must be relatively rich in the BâC component. We found that

D. C. Halverson; B. Y. Lum; Z. A. Munir

1987-01-01

429

New Catalysts for the Conversion of Methane to Synthesis Gas: Molybdenum and Tungsten Carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-surface-area molybdenum and tungsten carbide materials, synthesised by the temperature programming reduction of the relevant metal oxide with methane\\/hydrogen, are highly efficient catalysts for the conversion of methane to synthesis gas, via the steam reforming, dry reforming, or partial oxidation processes. The activities of the carbides were found to be comparable to those of elemental iridium and ruthenium (well known

John B. Claridge; Andrew P. E. York; Attila J. Brungs; Carlos Marquez-Alvarez; Jeremy Sloan; Shik Chi Tsang; Malcolm L. H. Green

1998-01-01

430

Synthesis, Characterization and Testing of Novel Anode and Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries  

SciTech Connect

During this program we have synthesized and characterized several novel cathode and anode materials for application in Li-ion batteries. Novel synthesis routes like chemical doping, electroless deposition and sol-gel method have been used and techniques like impedance, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling have been used to characterize these materials. Mathematical models have also been developed to fit the experimental result, thus helping in understanding the mechanisms of these materials.

White, Ralph E.; Popov, Branko N.

2002-10-31

431

The rapid synthesis of oxazolines and their heterogeneous oxidation to oxazoles under flow conditions  

E-print Network

separate bottles (selected by V1) and passed through the heated MnO2 columns (1–4). A software protocol created in the Python programming language35,36 and running on a Raspberry Pi® microcomputer37 controlled the individual reactor components according... -assisted systems to save skilled researcher time in the laboratory. Scheme 6 Automated oxidation of oxazolines using a Raspberry Pi® computer and a multiple position valve. Conclusions In conclusion, an improved rapid method for the flow synthesis...

Glöckner, Steffen; Tran, Duc N.; Ingham, Richard J.; Fenner, Sabine; Wilson, Zoe E.; Battilocchio, Claudio; Ley, Steven V.

2014-10-28

432

The Effects of GO Solve Word Problems Math Intervention on Applied Problem Solving Skills of Low Performing Fifth Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigation examined the effects of "GO Solve Word Problems" math intervention on problem-solving skills of struggling 5th grade students. In a randomized controlled study, 16 5th grade students were given a 12-week intervention of "GO Solve", a computer-based program designed to teach schema-based instruction strategies (SBI.s) to…

Fede, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

433

ACADEMIC PROGRAM Biochemistry  

E-print Network

ACADEMIC PROGRAM GUIDELINES Program in Biochemistry #12;Biochemistry Ph.D. Program Guidelines Biochemistry Ph.D. Program at Washington University in St. Louis Program Director: Dr. Peter Burgers office Washington University has a century-long tradition of excellence in biochemistry research and education

Stormo, Gary

434

ACADEMIC PROGRAM Biochemistry  

E-print Network

ACADEMIC PROGRAM GUIDELINES Program in Biochemistry (REVISED AUGUST, 2014) #12;Biochemistry Ph.D. Program Guidelines Biochemistry Ph.D. Program Washington University in St. Louis Program Director: Dr a century-long tradition of excellence in biochemistry research and education. A number of faculty, students

Kornfeld, S. Kerry

435

Cancer Centers Program - About the Program  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Centers Program - About the Program Our History Staff Directory Contact Us Driving Directions Home > About Us > Staff Directory Staff Directory Linda K. Weiss, Ph.D. | Chief weissl@mail.nih.gov Jaswant S. Bhorjee, Ph.D.

436

Research-tested Intervention Programs: Program Ratings  

Cancer.gov

Dissemination Capability The readiness of program materials for use by others as well program's capability to offer services/resources to facilitate dissemination. This is measured through (a) the quality of implementation materials; (b) training and

437

Fire Protection Systems Program Program Manual  

E-print Network

Fire Protection Systems Program Program Manual Approved by: (name) Last revised by: (name) Revision ................................................................................................................. 3 7.1.1 Job Plan: Fire Pump Testing/Impairment................................................................................ 3 7.1.4 Job Plan: Weekly/Monthly Fire Pump Runs

Pawlowski, Wojtek

438

Initiatives & Programs | Radiation Research Program (RRP)  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Content Search this site Initiatives & Programs Main Program Collaborations Specialized Initiatives Human Resources Needed for Cancer Control in Low & Middle Income Countries Human Resources Needed for Cervical Cancer Screening Information

439

Cost-effective ceramics program in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The 5-year Cost-Effective Ceramics for Heat Engines program began in 1993. This effort reflects the realization that the problems with reliability of structural ceramics have been largely overcome, but the high cost of structural ceramics is limited their use in commercial applications. The technical causes of high cost were identified, and a technical plan developed. The work elements in the program include the following: economic cost modeling, ceramic machining, powder synthesis, alternative forming and densification processes, yield improvement, standards development, and low-expansion ceramics.

Schulz, R.B. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, D.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-10-01

440

First Results from TYPHOON: A Spectrophotometric Data Cube Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TYPHOON is a program for producing and analyzing spectrophotometric data cubes with unprecedented resolution and coverage. This program has wavelength coverage spanning 3727 to 7000 Angstroms, has a 2-6 Angstrom spectral resolution, a 15 arcmin spatial field, is seeing limited to < 1 arcsec, and is being employed on the 100" duPont telescope in Las Campanas. TYPHOON uses instruments already active on the telescope and thus is well underway. Using TYPHOON, we can analyze kinetic structure, view 3D representations of galaxies in wavelength space, create integrated spectra of bars, nuclei, rings, etc, and analyze galactic population synthesis. TYPHOON is a powerful tool for extragalactic science with many applications.

Sturch, Laura; Madore, B.

2012-01-01

441

First enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-tejedine.  

PubMed

[structure: see text] The first enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-tejedine (1) is reported. Tejedine is a seco-bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline isolated in 1998 as a minor component from Berberis vulgaris. The synthesis was achieved using a strategy employing four key steps, including a chiral auxiliary-assisted diastereoselective Bischler-Napieralski cyclization. PMID:12153207

Wang, You-Chu; Georghiou, Paris E

2002-08-01

442

Synthesis-Where It All Comes Together  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of "Synthesis", the most visible part of the information problem-solving process, varies depending on the original task. Organizing information and presenting information are the two forms of Synthesis and they are very important for the students as they can save time and effort, and do a better job, by using technology in meaningful…

Eisenberg, Michael B.

2005-01-01

443

Timed Circuit Synthesis Using Implicit Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and synthesis of asynchronous circuits is gaining importance in both the industrial and academic worlds. Timed circuits are a class of asynchronous circuits that incorporate explicit timing informationin the specifica- tion. This information is used throughout the synthesis pro- cedure to optimize the design. In order to synthesize a timed circuit, it is necessary to explore the timed

Robert A. Thacker; Wendy Belluomini; Chris J. Myers

1999-01-01

444

Accelerate synthesis in ecology and environmental sciences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Synthesis of diverse knowledge is a central part of all sciences, but especially those such as ecology and environmental sciences which draw information from many disciplines. Research and education in ecology are intrinsically synthetic, and synthesis is increasingly needed to find solutions for en...

445

TUNABLE HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS OF BAMNO3 NANOCRYSTALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although synthesis of nanooxides has been attempted by many different and innovative chemical approaches, further research is still needed to develop inexpensive and mass- production methods capable to provide pure products and thus make nanocrystals' technological applications viable. Hydrothermal synthesis matches these requirements. Under hydrothermal conditions, where an aqueous reaction mixture is heated above 100 ºC in a sealed reaction

Ana Querejeta; Marina Parras; Aurea Varela; Jose González-Calbet

446

Communication Interface Synthesis for Multilanguage Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays the design o f complex systems r equires the cooperation of several teams belonging to different cultures and using different languages. It is necessary to dispose of new design and verification methods to handle multilanguage approaches. This paper presents an approach for the c ommunication interface synthesis of multilanguage specifications. In the proposed a pproach, communication synthesis allows to

F. Hessel; Philippe Coste; P. Lemarrec; Nacer-eddine Zergainoh; Jean-marc Daveau; Ahmed Amine Jerraya

1999-01-01

447

Applying ?-synthesis to missile autopilot design  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-synthesis combines the structured singular value and H ? control to design compensators for plants with structured uncertainty. The application of ?-synthesis to the design of a flight control system for a highly maneuverable tail controlled missile is discussed. Performance goals are given in the time and frequency domains and include time constant, overshoot, stability margins, and high-frequency attenuation. The

P. Jackson

1990-01-01

448

Abiotic Methane Synthesis: Caveats and New Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of mineral interaction with geochemical fluids under hydrothermal conditions has invoked models of geochemical synthesis of organic molecules at deep crustal conditions. Since Thomas Gold's (1992) hypothesis of the possibility of an abiotic organic synthesis, there have been several reports of hydrocarbon formation under high pressure and temperature conditions. Several previous experimental studies have recognized that small amounts

R. Zou; A. Sharma

2005-01-01

449

Automatic design synthesis with artificial intelligence techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design synthesis represents a highly complex task in the field of industrial design. The main difficulty in automating it is the definition of the design and performance spaces, in a way that a computer can generate optimum solutions. Following a different line from the machine learning, and knowledge-based methods that have been proposed, our approach considers design synthesis as an

Francisco J. Vico; Francisco J. Veredas; José Manuel Bravo; J. Almaraz

1999-01-01

450

Enantiospecific total synthesis of (-)-bengamide E.  

PubMed

Total synthesis of the polyhydroxy caprolactam amide natural product, bengamide E, is accomplished starting from tartaric acid. Key reactions in the synthesis include desymmetrization of the bis(dimethylamide) unit of tartaric acid, Zn(BH(4))(2)-mediated anti-selective reduction, and a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination. PMID:23208822

Metri, Prashant K; Schiess, Raphael; Prasad, Kavirayani R

2013-02-01

451

Flexible Software Framework for Modal Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modal synthesis is an important area of physical model- ing whose exploration in the past has been held back by a large number of control parameters, the scarcity of general- purpose design tools and the difficultyof obtaining the com- putational power required for real-time synthesis. This pa- per presents an overview of a fle xible software framework facilitating the design

Ilia Bisnovatyi

2001-01-01

452

Low energy synthesis gas systems - New technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas steam reforming today covers more than 70% of synthesis gas production. The gas specific consumption has been largely improved during the last thirty years. It has now reached 32 GJ\\/metric ton of NHâ on HHV, from 45 in the sixties. Ammonia is still the major user of synthesis gas. The successive improvements are: thermal energy recovery from the

V. Julemont; J. Ribesse

1988-01-01

453

Energetic analysis of ammonia synthesis unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify possible reserves in the ammonia synthesis, an exergetic analysis was made of the stages of nitrogen-hydrogen compression, ammonia synthesis and separation at an operating plant. The analysis showed that the unit has a relatively low degree of thermodynamic completeness: the target exergetic efficiency of the stages studied is 0.26. The margins for improvement are not great.

G. A. Britina; I. L. Leites; S. A. Mikhailova; M. B. Aizenbud

1977-01-01

454

Web-Mediated Knowledge Synthesis for Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ubiquitous and instant access to information on the Web is challenging what constitutes 21st century literacies. This article explores the notion of Web-mediated knowledge synthesis, an approach to integrating Web-based learning that may result in generative synthesis of ideas. This article describes the skills and strategies that may support…

DeSchryver, Michael

2015-01-01

455

The synthesis radio telescope at Westerbork  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis radio telescope (SRT) is an array of 20 simultaneous interferometers formed by 10 fixed and 2 movable antennas on an E-W baseline of 1600 m, operating on the principle of rotational aperture synthesis. It is capable of observing continuum radiation in 4 Stokes parameters and line radiation at 50-, 21-, and 6-cm wavelengths. This paper centers on a

J. W. M. Baars; J. F. van der Brugge; Jean L. Casse; J. P. Hamaker; L. H. Sondaar; J. J. Visser; K. J. Wellington

1973-01-01

456

Music Program of Study: Educational Program Definition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The West Virginia music study program is a public school K-12 curriculum sequence. This program is divided into the four principal areas of: (1) general classroom music; (2) string instrumental music; (3) wind and percussion instrumental music; and (4) choral music. The general classroom music program is an early and middle childhood sequence of…

West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston.

457

Perennial Grass Breeding Program BIOENERGY PROGRAM  

E-print Network

Perennial Grass Breeding Program BIOENERGY PROGRAM One Texas AgriLife Research initiative for bioenergy is the perennial grass breeding program. Results are outlined here. Pearl Millet-Napiergrass P Ã? g hybridizations utilizing improved parental lines. Maiden Grass Miscanthus sinensis Maiden Grass

458

TEN MASTER TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN 1966 THE AMERICAN CLASSICAL LEAGUE HONORED THREE TEACHERS WITH ITS MASTER SECONDARY SCHOOL LATIN TEACHER AND PROGRAM AWARD. AMONG THE 32 PROGRAMS CITED FOR RECOGNITION, TEN (INCLUDING THOSE OF THE AWARD WINNERS) POSSESS CLEARLY INNOVATIVE FEATURES. IN BRIEF THEY FEATURE (1) A FIFTH YEAR ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM, LATIN AS INTRODUCTORY TO…

KOVACH, EDITH M.A.

459

SPANISH PROGRAM SUMMER 2015 SPANISH PROGRAM  

E-print Network

SPANISH PROGRAM SUMMER 2015 SPANISH PROGRAM (4 week program) July 1 - 24, 2015 (inclusive) WHICH: NATIONALITY: TELEPHONE NUMBER: (with international dialing codes) E-MAIL: DO YOU REQUIRE A VISA TO STUDY.175 in Ciutadella Campus, spanishprogram@upf.edu. FEES In the case of payment being made via international bank

460

Intercultural Programs: Program Evaluation Report, July 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report evaluates the Des Moines (Iowa) Independent Community School District (DMICSD) Intercultural programs. The following types of programs are in place: (1) a Voluntary Transfer Program; (2) paired schools; (3) magnet schools; (4) Extended Day Kindergarten; (5) English as a Second Language (ESL)/Bilingual Education; (6) a Bilingual…

Des Moines Public Schools, IA. Office of Intercultural Programs.

461

Strategic Programming Meets Adaptive Programming Ralf Lammel  

E-print Network

Strategic Programming Meets Adaptive Programming Ralf L¨ammel , Eelco Visser ¡ , and Joost Visser@cs.uu.nl¢ SIG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Joost.Visser@software-improvers.nl ABSTRACT Strategic programming illustrate adaptive traversal. o1 o2 o4 o5 o3 o6 o7 : A : B : D : B : E : F : C The heavy arrows build up

Visser, Joost

462

Acid Rain Program CEM audit program  

SciTech Connect

This presentation will give an overview of the Acid Rain Program CEM Audit Program: electronic and field audits. The presentation will include the reasons for audits, field audit types and levels the steps used in develop in the audit program and the audit procedures.

Nguyen, K.O.T.; Alexander, T.H.; Dupree, J.C. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31

463

Drive program documentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program description and user's guide for the Downlist Requirement Integrated Verification and Evaluation (DRIVE) program is provided. The program is used to compare existing telemetry downlist files with updated downlist requirements.

Graham, S.

1979-01-01

464

Neuroscience Training Program  

E-print Network

Neuroscience Graduate Training Program University of Connecticut Health Center 2011-12 (http://neuroscience and Expectations............................ 6 Neuroscience Program Curriculum.......................................... 7 Neuroscience Program Course Requirements................................. 7 Credit for Previous

Oliver, Douglas L.

465

Neuroscience Training Program  

E-print Network

Neuroscience Graduate Training Program University of Connecticut Health Center 2012-13 (http://neuroscience of Requirements and Expectations...............................6 Neuroscience Program Curriculum.............................................7 Neuroscience Program Course Requirements................................. 8 Credit for Previous

Kim, Duck O.

466

Neuroscience Training Program  

E-print Network

Neuroscience Graduate Training Program University of Connecticut Health Center 2013-14 (http://neuroscience of Requirements and Expectations............................ 6 Neuroscience Program Curriculum.......................................... 7 Neuroscience Program Course Requirements................................. 8 Credit for Previous

Kim, Duck O.

467

Masonry Program Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains statewide standards for the masonry program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program structure…

Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

468

ERP Program Faculty Handbook  

E-print Network

............................................................................................ 28 Other Information and Resources-Reproductive Physiology Program encompasses the broad field of Endocrinology with a focus on Reproductive Physiology Program in Endocrinology-Reproductive Physiology Program 1) Faculty Membership a) Faculty: Individuals

Sheridan, Jennifer

469

National Vaccine Program Office  

MedlinePLUS

... on matters related to program responsibilities. NVAC Global Immunization Supplement-Now Available Online Enhancing the work of the HHS National Vaccine Program in Global Immunizations Global immunization programs have considerable impact on reducing ...

470

General Medical Surveillance Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

1993-01-01

471

Clinical Trials Reporting Program  

Cancer.gov

Clinical Trials Reporting Program This site contains information that will help you understand NCI's Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP). About CTRP Outlines the background and objectives of NCI's Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP) How to Register

472

Environmental Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Environmental Management Certificate Program Accelerate Your Career Environmentaland Facilities of excellence. Environmental Management Certificate Program Compliance with regulatory requirements, remediation Irvine Extension's Certificate Program in Environmental Manage- ment prepares professionals at every

Rose, Michael R.

473

[Theme: Horticulture Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of articles discusses requirements for optimum growth of horticulture education programs. Includes beginning a program, simulating working conditions, the need for mechanical skills, starting a business, and other areas to be considered for a successful horticultural program. (JOW)

Henderson, Jan; And Others

1982-01-01

474

Contract Management Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Contract Management Certificate Program Accelerate Your Career BusinessandManagement extension bearing the UC seal signifies a well- known, uncompromising standard of academic excellence. #12;Contract Management Certificate Program UC Irvine Extension's Contract Management Certificate Program focuses on core

Rose, Michael R.

475

Fishery Biology Graduate Programs  

E-print Network

: Fisheries Biology, Marine Biology, Oceanography http://www.sfos.uaf.edu:8000/academicsFishery Biology Graduate Programs University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska 997750820 Program State University Fort Collins, Colorado 805230015 Programs: Fishery Biology http

476

MOLECULAR BIOPHYSICS GRADUATE PROGRAM  

E-print Network

MOLECULAR BIOPHYSICS GRADUATE PROGRAM Florida State University STUDENT HANDBOOK Effective AUGUST;3 MOLECULAR BIOPHYSICS GRADUATE PROGRAM FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY PHILOSOPHY The Graduate Program in Molecular Biophysics is designed to transform an indi- vidual from student to professional scholar. Awarding

McQuade, D. Tyler

477

NCCCP Program Governance Plan  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Cancer Centers Program Pilot Launch and Orientation June 25-26, 2007 Natcher Conference Center National Institutes of Health Bethesda, Maryland Launch Agenda Pilot Program Summary Pilot Program Governance Pilot Organizations:

478

Programming Styles in Nial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programming language Nial several styles f supports several styles of programming including imperative, procedural, applicative, and lambda-free. Nial tools can be built to illustrate relational and object-oriented styles of programming.

Michael A. Jenkins; Janice I. Glasgow; Carl Mccrosky

1986-01-01

479

Protein synthesis inhibitors and gastric acid secretion.  

PubMed

The involvement of de novo protein synthesis in acid secretion by the in vitro bullfrog gastric mucosa was examined using the inhibitors cycloheximide and puromycin. Both inhibitors reduced [3H]leucine incorporation by more than 90%. The inhibition of protein synthesis had no influence on spontaneous acid secretion nor did it effect secretory stimulation by histamine, carbachol, pentagastrin, or theophylline. Oxygen consumption by nonstimulated and theophyllinestimulated tissues was shown to be independent of protein synthesis. The dramatic morphological changes observed in oxyntic cells during a transition from rest to active secretion persisted in cycloheximide-and puromycin-treated tissues. Stereological analysis of the apical membrane surface area density failed to demonstrate any quantitative influence of protein synthesis inhibition. These studies quantitatively confirm that protein synthesis is not required for the biochemical and morphological events involved in acid secretion by the in vitro frog gastric mucosa. PMID:305378

Carlisle, K S; Reagan, C R; Hersey, S J

1978-03-01

480

Texture synthesis and transfer from multiple samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Texture Mapping plays a very important role in Computer Graphics. Texture Synthesis is one of the main methods to obtain textures, it makes use of sample textures to generate new textures. Texture Transfer is based on Texture Synthesis, it renders objects with textures taken from different objects. Currently, most of Texture Synthesis and Transfer methods use a single sample texture. A method for Texture Synthesis adn Transfer from multi samples was presented. For texture synthesis, the L-shaped neighborhood seaching approach was used. Users specify the proportion of each sample, the number of seed points, and these seed points are scattered randomly according to their samples in horizontal and vertical direction synchronously to synthesize textures. The synthesized textures are very good. For texture transfer, the luminance of the target image and the sample textures are analyzed. This procedure is from coarse to fine, and can produce a visually pleasing result.

Qi, Yue; Zhao, Qinping

2003-09-01

481

Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrogen from synthesis gas made by gasification of coal is expensive. The separation of hydrogen from synthesis gas is a major cost element in the total process. In this report we describe the results of a program aimed at the development of membranes and membrane modules for the separation and purification of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The performance properties of the developed membranes were used in an economic evaluation of membrane gas separation systems in the coal gasification process. Membranes tested were polyetherimide and a polyamide copolymer. The work began with an examination of the chemical separations required to produce hydrogen from synthesis gas, identification of three specific separations where membranes might be applicable. A range of membrane fabrication techniques and module configurations were investigated to optimize the separation properties of the membrane materials. Parametric data obtained were used to develop the economic comparison of processes incorporating membranes with a base-case system without membranes. The computer calculations for the economic analysis were designed and executed. Finally, we briefly investigated alternative methods of performing the three separations in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The three potential opportunities for membranes in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas are: (1) separation of hydrogen from nitrogen as the final separation in a air-blown or oxygen-enriched air-blown gasification process, (2) separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide to reduce or eliminate the conventional ethanolamine acid gas removal unit, and (3) separation of hydrogen and/or carbon dioxide form carbon monoxide prior to the shift reactor to influence the shift reaction. 28 refs., 54 figs., 40 tabs.

Baker, R.W.; Bell, C.M.; Chow, P.; Louie, J.; Mohr, J.M.; Peinemann, K.V.; Pinnau, I.; Wijmans, J.G.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L.

1990-10-01

482

Water conservation programs  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses three water conservation programs: statewide water conservation efforts, a 5-point program of the City of Albuquerque, and the program for recycling wastewater by the Intel Corporation. Water conservation programs depend largely on public education programs. Albuquerque`s program, for example, includes development of a K-12th grade curriculum on water conservation, live theater performances promoting conservation for elementary school children, and collaboration with existing community organizations to promote water conservation.

Darilek, A. [New Mexico State Engineer Office, Santa Fe, NM (United States). Water Conservation Program; Witherspoon, J. [City of Albuquerque, NM (United States). Public Works Dept.; Hutchinson, D.L. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

483

Synthesis of Na-zeolites from fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on the synthesis of zeolites after fly ash activation, the major objectives being: (a) to study the activation processes; (b) to elucidate the activation conditions for maximum synthesis efficiency; (c) to optimize the conditions for the monomineral synthesis; and (d) to test synthesis efficiencies for different fly ash types. Fly ash was activated by NaOH and

Xavier Querol; Felicià Plana; Andrés Alastuey; Angel López-Soler

1997-01-01

484

Techniques for the synthesis of reversible Toffoli networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents novel techniques for the synthesis of reversible networks of Toffoli gates, as well as improvements to previous methods. Gate count and technology oriented cost metrics are used. Our synthesis techniques are independent of the cost metrics. Two new iterative synthesis procedure employing Reed-Muller spectra are introduced and shown to complement earlier synthesis approaches. The template simplification sug-

Dmitri Maslov; Gerhard W. Dueck; D. Michael Miller

2007-01-01

485

GRADUATE PROGRAM IN NEUROSCIENCE  

E-print Network

GRADUATE PROGRAM IN NEUROSCIENCE STUDENT DIRECTORY __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Tuesday, August 14, 2012 Page 1 of 6 #12;GRADUATE PROGRAM IN NEUROSCIENCE STUDENT DIRECTORY

Thomas, David D.

486

GRADUATE PROGRAM IN BIOSTATISTICS  

E-print Network

GRADUATE PROGRAM IN BIOSTATISTICS Student Handbook Division of Biostatistics Medical College........................................................................ 3 The Division of Biostatistics................................................................................................... 3 PhD Program in Biostatistics

487

Undergraduate Programs BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Programs in BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Dalhousie University 5850 College Street ............................................................................................................................. 3 1. Biochemistry Degree Programs .............................................................................................................. 4 Minor in Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Dellaire, Graham

488

Undergraduate Programs BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Programs in BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Dalhousie University 5850 College Street.............................................................................................................................. 3 1. Biochemistry Degree Programs .............................................................................................................. 4 Minor in Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Dellaire, Graham

489

Undergraduate Programs BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Programs in BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Dalhousie University 9B1 - 5850 College........................................................................................................................................................ 3 1. Biochemistry Degree Programs ............................................................................................................................. 5 Minor in Biochemistry & Molecular Biology

Dellaire, Graham

490

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30

491

The collaborative program of research in engineering science  

SciTech Connect

MIT and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are continuing the program of collaborative research on energy-related engineering. The program involves research in the following areas: (1) mathematical modeling of thermal plasma systems, (2) high-temperature gas-particle reactions, (3) metal transfer in gas-metal arc welding, (4) multivariate control of gas-metal arc welding, (5) fundamentals of elastic-plastic fracture, (6) comminution of energy materials, and (7) synthesis and optimization of integrated chemical processes. A key objective of this collaborative program is to serve as a prototype for other university/laboratory collaborative programs. Another important goal is to enhance the transfer of new technology to the industrial sector.

Not Available

1990-12-01

492

PIFCGT: A PIF autopilot design program for general aviation aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the PIFCGT computer program. In FORTRAN, PIFCGT is a computer design aid for determing Proportional-Integral-Filter (PIF) control laws for aircraft autopilots implemented with a Command Generator Tracker (CGT). The program uses Linear-Quadratic-Regulator synthesis algorithms to determine feedback gains, and includes software to solve the feedforward matrix equation which is useful in determining the command generator tracker feedforward gains. The program accepts aerodynamic stability derivatives and computes the corresponding aerodynamic linear model. The nine autopilot modes that can be designed include four maneuver modes (ROLL SEL, PITCH SEL, HDG SEL, ALT SEL), four final approach models (APR GS, APR LOCI, APR LOCR, APR LOCP), and a BETA HOLD mode. The program has been compiled and executed on a CDC computer.

Broussard, J. R.

1983-01-01

493

The collaborative program of research in engineering sciences. Annual report, September 1, 1988--August 31, 1989  

SciTech Connect

Research programs in the following areas are briefly described: High-Temperature Gas-Particle Reactions; Mathematical Modelling of Plasma Systems; Metal Transfer in Gas Metal-Arc Welding; Multivariable Control of Gas Metal-Arc Welding; Synthesis of Heat and Work Integration Systems for Chemical Process Plants; Parity Simulation of Dynamic Processes; Fundamentals of Elastic-Plastic Fracture: Three-Dimensional and Mechanistic Modelling; and Comminution of Energy Materials. Publications from each program are listed.

White, D.C.

1989-08-01

494

Human-Inspired Control of Bipedal Robots via Control Lyapunov Functions and Quadratic Programs  

E-print Network

Human-Inspired Control of Bipedal Robots via Control Lyapunov Functions and Quadratic Programs walking through controller synthesis inspired by human locomotion. Motivated by the hierarchical con- trol present in humans, we begin by viewing the human as a "black box" and describe outputs, or virtual

Ames, Aaron

495

FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)  

SciTech Connect

The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

Samara, G.A.

1997-05-01

496

Review of mixed-integer nonlinear and generalized disjunctive programming applications in Process Systems Engineering  

E-print Network

Systems Engineering Francisco Trespalacios and Ignacio E. Grossmann Department of Chemical Engineering of the applications of MINLP and generalized disjunctive programming (GDP) in process systems engineering (PSE in process systems engineering LP MILP/LGDP QP, LCP NLP MINLP/GDP Process synthesis Process Flowsheet Reactor

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

497

Total Synthesis of 7?-Desmethylkealiiquinone  

PubMed Central

The total synthesis of an analog of the marine alkaloid kealiiquinone has been completed through application of an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction of an imidazole-containing enyne. Oxidative aromatization of the lactone adduct and N-methylation facilitates C2-oxidation via the imidazolium salt. Conversion of the lactone to the phthalaldehyde derivative and then to the dihydroxybenzoquinone was achieved via a reaction with glyoxal in the presence of KCN. Esterification of the vinylogous diacid and deprotection provided 7?-desmethylkealiiquinone. PMID:22530654

Lima, Heather M.; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Lovely, Carl J.

2012-01-01

498

Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.  

PubMed

We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M? for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23030150

Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

2012-07-13

499

The Synthesis Paradigm in Genetics  

PubMed Central

Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics—and other fields of biology—are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous “-omics” data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time. PMID:24496401

Rice, William R.

2014-01-01

500

Synthesis of New Polyphosphonic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general method for the synthesis of new polyphosphonic acids is described. The hexaisopropyl alkane-1,1,n-triphosphonates (n = 4-5) are formed by the reaction of the salt of tetraisopropyl methylenediphosphonate with diisopropyl n-bromoalkanephosphonates (n = 3-4) while the hexaisopropyl alkane-2,2,n-triphosphonates (n = 5-6) are formed by the reaction of the salt of tetraisopropyl ethane-1,1-diphosphonate with diisopropyl n-bromoalkanephosphonates (n = 3-4). The

Carine Viornery; Péter Péchy; Mickaël Boegli; Björn-O. Aronsson; Pierre Descouts; Michael Grätzel

2002-01-01