Sample records for schema-based program synthesis

  1. Combining Model-driven and Schema-based Program Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen; Whittle, John

    2004-01-01

    We describe ongoing work which aims to extend the schema-based program synthesis paradigm with explicit models. In this context, schemas can be considered as model-to-model transformations. The combination of schemas with explicit models offers a number of advantages, namely, that building synthesis systems becomes much easier since the models can be used in verification and in adaptation of the synthesis systems. We illustrate our approach using an example from signal processing.

  2. The Role of Ontologies in Schema-based Program Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bures, Tomas; Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Nistor, Eugen C.

    2004-01-01

    Program synthesis is the process of automatically deriving executable code from (non-executable) high-level specifications. It is more flexible and powerful than conventional code generation techniques that simply translate algorithmic specifications into lower-level code or only create code skeletons from structural specifications (such as UML class diagrams). Key to building a successful synthesis system is specializing to an appropriate application domain. The AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER systems, under development at NASA Ames, operate in the two domains of data analysis and state estimation, respectively. The central concept of both systems is the schema, a representation of reusable computational knowledge. This can take various forms, including high-level algorithm templates, code optimizations, datatype refinements, or architectural information. A schema also contains applicability conditions that are used to determine when it can be applied safely. These conditions can refer to the initial specification, to intermediate results, or to elements of the partially-instantiated code. Schema-based synthesis uses AI technology to recursively apply schemas to gradually refine a specification into executable code. This process proceeds in two main phases. A front-end gradually transforms the problem specification into a program represented in an abstract intermediate code. A backend then compiles this further down into a concrete target programming language of choice. A core engine applies schemas on the initial problem specification, then uses the output of those schemas as the input for other schemas, until the full implementation is generated. Since there might be different schemas that implement different solutions to the same problem this process can generate an entire solution tree. AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER have reached the level of maturity where they enable users to solve interesting application problems, e.g., the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images. They are large (in total around 100kLoC Prolog), knowledge intensive systems that employ complex symbolic reasoning to generate a wide range of non-trivial programs for complex application do- mains. Their schemas can have complex interactions, which make it hard to change them in isolation or even understand what an existing schema actually does. Adding more capabilities by increasing the number of schemas will only worsen this situation, ultimately leading to the entropy death of the synthesis system. The root came of this problem is that the domain knowledge is scattered throughout the entire system and only represented implicitly in the schema implementations. In our current work, we are addressing this problem by making explicit the knowledge from Merent parts of the synthesis system. Here; we discuss how Gruber's definition of an ontology as an explicit specification of a conceptualization matches our efforts in identifying and explicating the domain-specific concepts. We outline the dual role ontologies play in schema-based synthesis and argue that they address different audiences and serve different purposes. Their first role is descriptive: they serve as explicit documentation, and help to understand the internal structure of the system. Their second role is prescriptive: they provide the formal basis against which the other parts of the system (e.g., schemas) can be checked. Their final role is referential: ontologies also provide semantically meaningful "hooks" which allow schemas and tools to access the internal state of the program derivation process (e.g., fragments of the generated code) in domain-specific rather than language-specific terms, and thus to modify it in a controlled fashion. For discussion purposes we use AUTOLINEAR, a small synthesis system we are currently experimenting with, which can generate code for solving a system of linear equations, Az = b.

  3. Three-dimensional motor schema based navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, Ronald C.

    1989-01-01

    Reactive schema-based navigation is possible in space domains by extending the methods developed for ground-based navigation found within the Autonomous Robot Architecture (AuRA). Reformulation of two dimensional motor schemas for three dimensional applications is a straightforward process. The manifold advantages of schema-based control persist, including modular development, amenability to distributed processing, and responsiveness to environmental sensing. Simulation results show the feasibility of this methodology for space docking operations in a cluttered work area.

  4. AutoBayes Program Synthesis System System Internals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann Martin

    2011-01-01

    This lecture combines the theoretical background of schema based program synthesis with the hands-on study of a powerful, open-source program synthesis system (Auto-Bayes). Schema-based program synthesis is a popular approach toward program synthesis. The lecture will provide an introduction into this topic and discuss how this technology can be used to generate customized algorithms. The synthesis of advanced numerical algorithms requires the availability of a powerful symbolic (algebra) system. Its task is to symbolically solve equations, simplify expressions, or to symbolically calculate derivatives (among others) such that the synthesized algorithms become as efficient as possible. We will discuss the use and importance of the symbolic system for synthesis. Any synthesis system is a large and complex piece of code. In this lecture, we will study Autobayes in detail. AutoBayes has been developed at NASA Ames and has been made open source. It takes a compact statistical specification and generates a customized data analysis algorithm (in C/C++) from it. AutoBayes is written in SWI Prolog and many concepts from rewriting, logic, functional, and symbolic programming. We will discuss the system architecture, the schema libary and the extensive support infra-structure. Practical hands-on experiments and exercises will enable the student to get insight into a realistic program synthesis system and provides knowledge to use, modify, and extend Autobayes.

  5. Automatic Program Synthesis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, A. W.; And Others

    Some of the major results of future goals of an automatic program synthesis project are described in the two papers that comprise this document. The first paper gives a detailed algorithm for synthesizing a computer program from a trace of its behavior. Since the algorithm involves a search, the length of time required to do the synthesis of…

  6. Aerospace vehicle synthesis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A modified version of the Aerospace Vehicle Synthesis Program (VSP) to simulate a space shuttle on the computer is presented. The effects of various changes such as payload weight, and orbital velocity can be determined along with minimum costs in vehicle design. The program logic, and weight estimating equations are discussed, and an example case of a solid propellant boosted, drop tank orbiter is included to indicate the type of results produced by the VSP.

  7. Retrofitting the AutoBayes Program Synthesis System with Concrete Syntax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    AutoBayes is a fully automatic, schema-based program synthesis system for statistical data analysis applications. Its core component is a schema library. i.e., a collection of generic code templates with associated applicability constraints which are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis. Currently, AutoBayes is implemented in Prolog; the schemas thus use abstract syntax (i.e., Prolog terms) to formulate the templates. However, the conceptual distance between this abstract representation and the concrete syntax of the generated programs makes the schemas hard to create and maintain. In this paper we describe how AutoBayes is retrofitted with concrete syntax. We show how it is integrated into Prolog and describe how the seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with AutoBayes's remaining legacy meta-programming kernel based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually mitigate individual schemas without forcing a disruptive migration of the entire system to a different First experiences show that a smooth migration can be achieved. Moreover, it can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments.

  8. Robot Learning by Demonstration using Forward Models of Schema-Based Behaviors

    E-print Network

    Louis, Sushil J.

    Robot Learning by Demonstration using Forward Models of Schema-Based Behaviors Adam Olenderski behaviors. This paper presents an approach to robot learning by demonstration that uses a potential-field behavioral representation to learn tasks composed by superposition of behaviors. The method allows a robot

  9. Schema Induction for Logic Program Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Lynn Tinkham

    1998-01-01

    Prolog program synthesis can be made more efficient by using schemata which capture similarities in previously-seen programs. Such schemata narrow the search involved in the synthesis of a new program. We define a generalization operator for forming schemata from programs and a downward refinement operator for constructing programs from schemata. These operators define schema-hierarchy graphs which can be used to

  10. Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falzon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

  11. Program Synthesis _ Past, Present and Future A Tutorial

    E-print Network

    Hagiya, Masami

    Program Synthesis _ Past, Present and Future A Tutorial Abstract For more than two decades, program synthesis, or automatic programming* *, has been is aimed at introducing the audience to various approaches to program syn* *thesis, making clear

  12. Sehwa: a program for synthesis of pipelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice C. Parker

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a set of techniques for the synthesis of pipelined data paths, and presents Sehwa, a program which performs such synthesis. The task includes the generation of data paths from a data flow graph along with a clocking scheme which overlaps execution of multiple tasks. Some examples which Sehwa has designed are given. Sehwa can find the minimum

  13. The Effect of Schema-Based Instruction in Solving Mathematics Word Problems: An Emphasis on Prealgebraic Conceptualization of Multiplicative Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Yan Ping

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a schema-based instructional strategy that emphasizes prealgebraic conceptualization of multiplicative relations on solving arithmetic word problems with elementary students with learning disabilities or problems (LP). Introducing symbolic representation and algebraic thinking in earlier…

  14. A split-path schema-based RFID data storage model in supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

  15. Oracle-Guided Component-Based Program Synthesis UC Berkeley

    E-print Network

    Seshia, Sanjit A.

    Oracle-Guided Component-Based Program Synthesis Susmit Jha UC Berkeley jha@eecs.berkeley.edu Sumit synthesis of loop- free programs. The approach is based on a combination of oracle-guided learning from.2 [Learning]: Concept Learning Keywords Program synthesis, Oracle-based learning, SMT, SAT 1. INTRODUCTION

  16. Minimum weight aerospace structural synthesis program 

    E-print Network

    Walker, John Michael

    1975-01-01

    Webs Weight Equations General 12 15 16 Multirib Weight Multispar Weight III. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT 21 27 30 IV. Minimum Weight Analysis of Multirib and Multiweb Wing Box Structures Minimum Weight Aerospace Structural Synthesis Program... The Desk Top Calculator Plot Routines Increased Efficiency PLASTICITY CORRECTION FACTORS Upper Cover ? Multirib Upper Cover ? Multispar 30 35 35 36 37 53 CHAPTER VI. Shear Webs ? Multirib and Multispar Ribs ? Multirib EFFECTIVE DEPTH FACTOR...

  17. VASP- VARIABLE DIMENSION AUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    VASP is a variable dimension Fortran version of the Automatic Synthesis Program, ASP. The program is used to implement Kalman filtering and control theory. Basically, it consists of 31 subprograms for solving most modern control problems in linear, time-variant (or time-invariant) control systems. These subprograms include operations of matrix algebra, computation of the exponential of a matrix and its convolution integral, and the solution of the matrix Riccati equation. The user calls these subprograms by means of a FORTRAN main program, and so can easily obtain solutions to most general problems of extremization of a quadratic functional of the state of the linear dynamical system. Particularly, these problems include the synthesis of the Kalman filter gains and the optimal feedback gains for minimization of a quadratic performance index. VASP, as an outgrowth of the Automatic Synthesis Program, has the following improvements: more versatile programming language; more convenient input/output format; some new subprograms which consolidate certain groups of statements that are often repeated; and variable dimensioning. The pertinent difference between the two programs is that VASP has variable dimensioning and more efficient storage. The documentation for the VASP program contains a VASP dictionary and example problems. The dictionary contains a description of each subroutine and instructions on its use. The example problems include dynamic response, optimal control gain, solution of the sampled data matrix Riccati equation, matrix decomposition, and a pseudo-inverse of a matrix. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on the IBM 360. The VASP program was developed in 1971.

  18. Turning Eureka Steps into Calculations in Automatic Program Synthesis 

    E-print Network

    Bundy, Alan; Smaill, A.; Hesketh, J.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of a technique called middle-out reasoning for the control of search in automatic theorem proving. The authors illustrate it use in the domain of automatic program synthesis. Programs can be synthesised ...

  19. Meeting the Needs of Students with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Mathematics Classrooms: The Role of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses schema-based instruction (SBI) as an alternative to traditional instruction for enhancing the mathematical problem solving performance of students with learning disabilities (LD). In the authors' most recent research and developmental efforts, they designed SBI to meet the needs of middle school students with LD in inclusive…

  20. An Exploratory Study of Schema-Based Word-Problem-Solving Instruction for Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities: An Emphasis on Conceptual and Procedural Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha; DiPipi, Caroline M.; Perron-Jones, Nora

    2002-01-01

    Four middle school students with learning disabilities and low mathematics performance received schema strategy training in problem schemata (conceptual understanding) and problem solution (procedural understanding). Results indicated that the schema-based strategy was effective in substantially increasing the number of correctly solved word…

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Outcomes for Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Slater, Susan; Cozine-Corroy, Kelly; Church, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the effects of delivering a supplemental, small-group tutoring intervention on the mathematics outcomes of third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MD) who were randomly assigned to either a schema-based instruction (SBI) or control group. SBI emphasized the underlying mathematical structure of additive…

  2. Towards Automatic Imperative Program Synthesis Through Proof Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamie Stark; Andrew Ireland

    1999-01-01

    An approach to automatic imperative program synthesis is presented which builds upon Gries' (1981) vision of developing a program and its proof hand in hand. To achieve this vision we rely on the proof planning paradigm, which enables the coupling of both heuristic and deductive components. By formalising structured programming and proof heuristics within the proof planning framework we focus

  3. Stiffness coupling application to modal synthesis program, users guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhar, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV computer program used to perform modal synthesis of structures by stiffness coupling, using the dynamic transformation method is described. The program was named SCAMP (Stiffness Coupling Approach Modal-Synthesis Program). The program begins with the entry of a substructure's physical mode shapes and eigenvalues or a substructure's mass and stiffness matrix. If the mass and stiffness matrices are entered, the eigen problem for the individual substructure is solved. Provisions are included for a maximum of 20 substructures which are coupled by stiffness matrix springs. Each substructure has a number degrees of freedom (DOF), except that for DOF greater than 100; vector sets having maximum row and column size of 100 were generated prior to entering SCAMP. The substructures are then coupled together via coupling springs, and the dynamic transformation is used to reduce the size of the eigen problem.

  4. Challenges in automated verification and synthesis for molecular programming

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    of abstractions. In the semiconductor industry, design automation has established itself as a key technologyChallenges in automated verification and synthesis for molecular programming Marta Kwiatkowska systems makes the manual process of designing such devices error-prone, requiring automated design support

  5. System-Level Synthesis of MEMS via Genetic Programming and Bond Graphs

    E-print Network

    Hu, Jianjun

    System-Level Synthesis of MEMS via Genetic Programming and Bond Graphs Zhun Fan+ , Kisung Seo for automatic synthesis of MEMS system-level lumped parameter models using genetic programming and bond graphs. This paper first dis- cusses the necessity of narrowing the problem of MEMS synthesis into a certain specific

  6. PASS: A computer program for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer code for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis provides rapid and accurate analysis for aircraft structures that can be adequately modeled by beam finite elements. The philosophy used in developing the program was to provide a basic framework that can be used for structural synthesis. It is anticipated that a user will need to add detail to this framework in order to perform his specific task. With this philosophy in mind, the program was written so that it is easily divided into segments, thereby making it readily adaptable. The theoretical portion of this manual describes the basic structure of the program and details the development of the unique beam element that is used. The present capability of the algorithm is stated and suggestions are made regarding enhancements to this capability. User information is also given that provides an overview of the program's construction, identifies the required inputs, describes the program output, provides some comments on the program use, and exhibits results for a simple example.

  7. Synthesis of fault-tolerant concurrent programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anish Arora; Paul C. Attie; E. Allen Emerson

    1998-01-01

    )Anish ARORA1Department of Computer ScienceThe Ohio State Universityanish@cis.ohio-state.eduPaul C. ATTIE2School of Computer ScienceFlorida International Universityattie@fiu.eduE. Allen EMERSON3Department of Computer SciencesThe University of Texas at Austinemerson@cs.utexas.eduAbstractMethods for mechanically synthesizing concurrent programsfrom temporal logic specifications obviate the need to manuallyconstruct a program and compose a proof of its correctness...

  8. A Program Structure for Event-Based Speech Synthesis by Rules within a Flexible Segmental Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David R.

    1978-01-01

    A program structure based on recently developed techniques for operating system simulation has the required flexibility for use as a speech synthesis algorithm research framework. This program makes synthesis possible with less rigid time and frequency-component structure than simpler schemes. It also meets real-time operation and memory-size…

  9. AutoBayes Program Synthesis System Users Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Jafari, Hamed; Pressburger, Tom; Denney, Ewen; Buntine, Wray; Fischer, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Program synthesis is the systematic, automatic construction of efficient executable code from high-level declarative specifications. AutoBayes is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the statistical data analysis domain; in particular, it solves parameter estimation problems. It has seen many successful applications at NASA and is currently being used, for example, to analyze simulation results for Orion. The input to AutoBayes is a concise description of a data analysis problem composed of a parameterized statistical model and a goal that is a probability term involving parameters and input data. The output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code computing the values for those parameters that maximize the probability term. AutoBayes can solve many subproblems symbolically rather than having to rely on numeric approximation algorithms, thus yielding effective, efficient, and compact code. Statistical analysis is faster and more reliable, because effort can be focused on model development and validation rather than manual development of solution algorithms and code.

  10. Development of a weight/sizing design synthesis computer program. Volume 1: Program formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a weight/sizing design synthesis methodology for use in support of the main line space shuttle program is discussed. The methodology has a minimum number of data inputs and quick turn around capabilities. The methodology makes it possible to: (1) make weight comparisons between current shuttle configurations and proposed changes, (2) determine the effects of various subsystems trades on total systems weight, and (3) determine the effects of weight on performance and performance on weight.

  11. The AutoBayes Program Synthesis System: System Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Pressburger, Thomas; Rosu, Grigore; Schumann, Johann; Norvog, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    AUTOBAYES is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the statistical data analysis domain. Its input is a concise description of a data analysis problem in the form of a statistical model; its output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code which can be linked dynamically into the Matlab and Octave environments. AUTOBAYES synthesizes code by a schema-guided deductive process. Schemas (i.e., code templates with associated semantic constraints) are applied to the original problem and recursively to emerging subproblems. AUTOBAYES complements this approach by symbolic computation to derive closed-form solutions whenever possible. In this paper, we concentrate on the interaction between the symbolic computations and the deductive synthesis process. A statistical model specifies for each problem variable (i.e., data or parameter) its properties and dependencies in the form of a probability distribution, A typical data analysis task is to estimate the best possible parameter values from the given observations or measurements. The following example models normal-distributed data but takes prior information (e.g., from previous experiments) on the data's mean value and variance into account.

  12. ACCESS computer program for the synthesis of large structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleury, C.; Ramanathan, R. K.; Salama, M.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The structural-synthesis computer code ACCESS-3, originally limited to the optimization of relatively simple problems involving truss, membrane, and shear panel elements, has been restructured to make it applicable to structures with a larger number of degrees-of-freedom, design variables, and constraints. The modifications made allow the use of six degrees-of-freedom per node and permit the out-of-core solution of large matrix equations encountered at the analysis stage. Also, finite elements which permit pure bending as well as combined bending and membrane (axial) behavior have been added to satisfy the need for a more comprehensive set of elements. Like its predecessor, the new version of the program combines the approximation concepts with primal or dual formulations to provide an efficient optimization tool.

  13. Automated Synthesis by Means of Genetic Programming of Complex Structures Incorporating

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Chapter 14 Automated Synthesis by Means of Genetic Programming of Complex Structures Incorporating A. Keane3 1 Stanford University, Stanford, California 2 Genetic Programming Inc., Mountain View, California 3 Econometrics Inc., Chicago, Illinois Abstract: Genetic programming can be used as an automated

  14. Automatic Synthesis of Electrical Circuits Containing a Free Variable Using Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Automatic Synthesis of Electrical Circuits Containing a Free Variable Using Genetic Programming. Chicago, Illinois makeane@ix.netcom.com Jessen Yu Genetic Programming Inc. Los Altos, California jyu@cs.stanford.edu William Mydlowec Genetic Programming Inc. Los Altos, California myd@cs.stanford.edu Abstract

  15. Transient Analysis and Synthesis of Linear Circuits using Constraint Logic Programming

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, David

    Transient Analysis and Synthesis of Linear Circuits using Constraint Logic Programming Archana, City University London, UK In this paper describes the design of a transient analysis program for linear circuits and its implementation in a Constraint Logic Programming language, CLP(R). The transient

  16. Automated Synthesis by Means of Genetic Programming of Human-Competitive Designs Employing Reuse, Hierarchies, Modularities,

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Automated Synthesis by Means of Genetic Programming of Human- Competitive Designs Employing Reuse applications have been filed. Genetic programming has also generated numerous other human-competitive results, and mathematical algorithms. Genetic programming has also generated numerous other human-competitive results

  17. REVERSE ENGINEERING AND AUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    REVERSE ENGINEERING AND AUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS FROM OBSERVED DATA USING GENETIC of Medicine Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, koza (reverse engineer) a network of chemical reactions from observed time-domain data. Genetic programming

  18. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 1: Main program. Part 1: Theoretical development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    The General Aviation synthesis program performs tasks generally associated with aircraft preliminary design and allows an analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner. GASP emphasizes small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying froma single piston engine with fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/ turbofan powered business or transport type aircraft. The program, which may be operated from a computer terminal in either the batch or interactive graphic mode, is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedure. The model is a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies, and assessing the impact of advanced technologies on aircraft performance and economics.

  19. National Irrigation Water Quality Program data-synthesis data base

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Under the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) of the U.S. Department of the Interior, researchers investigated contamination caused by irrigation drainage in 26 areas in the Western United States from 1986 to 1993. From 1992 to 1995, a comprehensive relational data base was built to organize data collected during the 26-area investigations. The data base provided the basis for analysis and synthesis of these data to identify common features of contaminated areas and hence dominant biologic, geologic, climatic, chemical, and physiographic factors that have resulted in contamination of water and biota in irrigated areas in the Western United States. Included in the data base are geologic, hydrologic, climatological, chemical, and cultural data that describe the 26 study areas in 14 Western States. The data base contains information on 1,264 sites from which water and bottom sediment were collected. It also contains chemical data from 6,903 analyses of surface water, 914 analyses of ground water, 707 analyses of inorganic constituents in bottom sediments, 223 analyses of organochlorine pesticides in bottom sediments, 8,217 analyses of inorganic constituents in biota, and 1,088 analyses for organic constituents in biota. The data base is available to the public and can be obtained at the NIWQP homepage http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp as dBase III tables for personal-computer systems or as American Standard Code for Information Exchange structured query language (SQL) command and data files for SQL data bases.

  20. Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, A.

    1992-06-01

    This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new tools for developing advanced materials. Concentrated sunlight from solar furnaces can produce intensities that approach those on the surface of the sun and can generate temperatures well over 2000{degrees}C. Very thin layers of illuminated surfaces can be driven to remarkably high temperatures in a fraction of a second. Concentrated solar energy can be delivered over large areas, allowing for rapid processing and high production rates. By using this technology, researchers are transforming low-cost raw materials into high-performance products. Solar synthesis of advanced materials uses bulk materials and energy more efficiently, lowers processing costs, and reduces the need for strategic materials -- all with a technology that does not harm the environment. The Solar Industrial Program has built a unique, world class solar furnace at NREL to help meet the growing need for applied research in advanced materials. Many new advanced materials processes have been successfully demonstrated in this facility, including the following: Metalorganic deposition, ceramic powders, diamond-like carbon materials, rapid heat treating, and cladding (hard coating).

  1. Insights into Fourier Synthesis and Analysis: Part I--Using Simple Programs and Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Guy S. M.

    1988-01-01

    Introduced is a unique generation method of Fourier series requiring simple mathematical skills and using computer programs. Discusses Fourier synthesis by microcomputer, and Fourier analysis with simple equipment. Shown are a circuit diagram, computer programs, monitor displays and tables of data. (YP)

  2. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The QL module of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is described. Execution of this module is initiated when and if subroutine PADSI calls subroutine GROPE. Subroutine GROPE controls the high level logical flow of the QL module. The purpose of the module is to determine a trajectory that satisfies the necessary variational conditions for optimal performance. The module achieves this by solving a nonlinear multi-point boundary value problem. The numerical method employed is described. It is an iterative technique that converges quadratically when it does converge. The three basic steps of the module are: (1) initialization, (2) iteration, and (3) culmination. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

  3. Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, George E.

    An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

  4. Music 4C, a multi-voiced synthesis program with instruments defined in C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, James W.

    2003-04-01

    Music 4C is a program which runs under Unix (including Linux) and provides a means for the synthesis of arbitrary signals as defined by the C code. The program is actually a loose translation of an earlier program, Music 4BF [H. S. Howe, Jr., Electronic Music Synthesis (Norton, 1975)]. A set of instrument definitions are driven by a numerical score which consists of a series of ``events.'' Each event gives an instrument name, start time and duration, and a number of parameters (e.g., pitch) which describe the event. Each instrument definition consists of event parameters, performance variables, initializations, and a synthesis algorithmic code. Thus, the synthetic signal, no matter how complex, is precisely defined. Moreover, the resulting sounds can be overlaid in any arbitrary pattern. The program serves as a mixer of algorithmically produced sounds or recorded sounds taken from sample files or synthesized from spectrum files. A score file can be entered by hand, generated from a program, translated from a MIDI file, or generated from an alpha-numeric score using an auxiliary program, Notepro. Output sample files are in wav, snd, or aiff format. The program is provided in the C source code for download.

  5. Symbol IC-Evaluation as an Aid to Program Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Yonezawa, Akinori

    Symbolic-evaluation is the process which abstractly evaluates an actor program and checks to see whether the program fulfills its contract (specification). In this paper, a formalism based on the conceptual representation ...

  6. Automatic Synthesis, Placement, and Routing of an Amplifier Circuit by Means of Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Automatic Synthesis, Placement, and Routing of an Amplifier Circuit by Means of Genetic Programming Inc., Los Altos, California myd@cs.stanford.edu Abstract The complete design of a circuit typically includes the tasks of creating the circuit's placement and routing as well as creating its topology

  7. Synthesis of High-Performance Parallel Programs for a Class of Ab Initio Quantum

    E-print Network

    Baumgartner, Gerald

    Synthesis of High-Performance Parallel Programs for a Class of Ab Initio Quantum Chemistry Models. Currently, manual development of accurate quantum chemistry models in this domain is very tedious and takes-performance im- plementations of sophisticated ab initio quantum chemistry models, including models that are too

  8. Synthesis of High-Performance Parallel Programs for a Class of ab Initio Quantum Chemistry Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GERALD BAUMGARTNER; ALEXANDER AUER; DAVID E. BERNHOLDT; ALINA BIBIREATA; VENKATESH CHOPPELLA; DANIEL COCIORVA; Xiaoyang Gao; ROBERT J. HARRISON; SO HIRATA; SRIRAM KRISHNAMOORTHY; SANDHYA KRISHNAN; Chi-chung Lam; Qingda Lu; MARCEL NOOIJEN; RUSSELL M. PITZER; J. Ramanujam; P. Sadayappan; ALEXANDER SIBIRYAKOV

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of a program synthesis system for a class of quantum chemistry computations. These computations are expressible as a set of tensor contractions and arise in electronic structure modeling. The input to the system is a a high-level specification of the computation, from which the system can synthesize high-performance parallel code tailored to the characteristics of

  9. Computer program for network synthesis by frequency response fit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program synthesizes a passive network by minimizing the difference in desired and actual frequency response. The program solves for the critical points of the error function /weighted least squares fit between calculated and desired frequency response/ by the multivariable Newton-Raphson method with components constrained to an admissible region.

  10. Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 3: User manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The two-fold purpose of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is discussed. The program can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general purpose branched trajectory optimization program. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent. The second module uses the method of quasi-linearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module.

  11. ADS: A FORTRAN program for automated design synthesis: Version 1.10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1985-01-01

    A new general-purpose optimization program for engineering design is described. ADS (Automated Design Synthesis - Version 1.10) is a FORTRAN program for solution of nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The program is segmented into three levels: strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search. At each level, several options are available so that a total of over 100 possible combinations can be created. Examples of available strategies are sequential unconstrained minimization, the Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method, and Sequential Linear Programming. Available optimizers include variable metric methods and the Method of Feasible Directions as examples, and one-dimensional search options include polynomial interpolation and the Golden Section method as examples. Emphasis is placed on ease of use of the program. All information is transferred via a single parameter list. Default values are provided for all internal program parameters such as convergence criteria, and the user is given a simple means to over-ride these, if desired.

  12. Investigation of the daytime lunar atmosphere for lunar synthesis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Synthesis studies of the daytime lunar atmoshere were directed toward improved understanding of fundamental lunar atmospheric dynamics and the relationship of the detectable atmosphere to physical processes of the lunar surface and interior. The primary source of data is the Apollo 17 lunar surface mass spectrometer. The Ar40 is radiogenic and its escape rate from the lunar atmosphere requires release of a significant fraction (about 8%) of the argon produced from the decay of K40 within the moon. Furthermore the process of argon release from the solid moon is time varying and related to seismic activity. Most of the helium on the moon is due to release of implanted solar wind alpha particles from the regolith.

  13. Analysis of Air Traffic Track Data with the AutoBayes Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann Martin Philip; Cate, Karen; Lee, Alan G.

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS) is aiming to provide substantial computer support for the air traffic controllers. Algorithms for the accurate prediction of aircraft movements are of central importance for such software systems but trajectory prediction has to work reliably in the presence of unknown parameters and uncertainties. We are using the AutoBayes program synthesis system to generate customized data analysis algorithms that process large sets of aircraft radar track data in order to estimate parameters and uncertainties. In this paper, we present, how the tasks of finding structure in track data, estimation of important parameters in climb trajectories, and the detection of continuous descent approaches can be accomplished with compact task-specific AutoBayes specifications. We present an overview of the AutoBayes architecture and describe, how its schema-based approach generates customized analysis algorithms, documented C/C++ code, and detailed mathematical derivations. Results of experiments with actual air traffic control data are discussed.

  14. COMBINING ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS IN THE CHUCK PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    . Cook Princeton University Dept. of Computer Science Princeton, NJ USA gewang@cs.princeton.edu Princeton University Dept. of Computer Science Princeton, NJ USA fiebrink@cs.princeton.edu Princeton University Dept. of Computer Science (also Music) Princeton, NJ USA prc@cs.princeton.edu Figure 0. A ChucK-based programming

  15. A new implementation of the programming system for structural synthesis (PROSSS-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This new implementation of the PROgramming System for Structural Synthesis (PROSSS-2) combines a general-purpose finite element computer program for structural analysis, a state-of-the-art optimization program, and several user-supplied, problem-dependent computer programs. The results are flexibility of the optimization procedure, organization, and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables. The analysis-optimization process results in a minimized objective function, typically the mass. The analysis and optimization programs are executed repeatedly by looping through the system until the process is stopped by a user-defined termination criterion. However, some of the analysis, such as model definition, need only be one time and the results are saved for future use. The user must write some small, simple FORTRAN programs to interface between the analysis and optimization programs. One of these programs, the front processor, converts the design variables output from the optimizer into the suitable format for input into the analyzer. Another, the end processor, retrieves the behavior variables and, optionally, their gradients from the analysis program and evaluates the objective function and constraints and optionally their gradients. These quantities are output in a format suitable for input into the optimizer. These user-supplied programs are problem-dependent because they depend primarily upon which finite elements are being used in the model. PROSSS-2 differs from the original PROSSS in that the optimizer and front and end processors have been integrated into the finite element computer program. This was done to reduce the complexity and increase portability of the system, and to take advantage of the data handling features found in the finite element program.

  16. AUTOMATIC SYNTHESIS USING GENETIC PROGRAMMING OF BOTH THE TOPOLOGY AND SIZING FOR FIVE POST-2000 PATENTED ANALOG AND MIXED

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    ) and without relying on any human know-how concerning the synthesis of circuits. This paper applies genetic and development efforts of the engineering and scientific communities. Genetic programming can automatically describes genetic programming. Section 3 explains the preparatory steps performed by the human user prior

  17. Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2003-01-01

    Program generation and transformation systems manipulate large, pa- rameterized object language fragments. Support for user-definable concrete syntax makes this easier but is typically restricted to certain object and meta languages. We show how Prolog can be retrofitted with concrete syntax and describe how a seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with an existing legacy meta-programming system based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually migrate the schemas of the AUTOBAYES program synthesis system to concrete syntax. Fit experiences show that this can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and an improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments and improves the locality in the schemas.

  18. Trajectory module of the NASA Ames Research Center aircraft synthesis program ACSYNT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.; Paterson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A program was developed to calculate trajectories for both military and commercial aircraft for use in the aircraft synthesis program, ACSYNT. The function of the trajectory module was to calculate the changes in the vehicle's flight conditions and weight, as fuel is consumed, during the flying of one or more missions. The trajectory calculations started with a takeoff, followed by up to 12 phases chosen from among the following: climb, cruise, acceleration, combat, loiter, descent, and paths. In addition, a balanced field length was computed. The emphasis was on relatively simple formulations and analytic expressions suitable for rapid computation since a prescribed trajectory had to be calculated many times in the process of converging an aircraft design, or finding an optimum configuration. The trajectory module consists of about 2500 cards and operational on a CDC 7600 computer.

  19. VIPOWR-02: A RASP interface program for thermal-hydraulic synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    McClure, J.A.; Gose, G.C.

    1989-04-01

    VIPOWR-02 (a thermal-hydraulics data synthesis code) is a RASP interface program designed to help the user enter the power distributions and forcing functions that are computed by the RASP physics and transient thermal-hydraulics codes into a VIPRE data deck. VIPOWR-02 combines the functions of the RASP programs VIPCRD, VIPOWR, HISTAP, STRIPR, VIPIN, DCOPY, and TCOPY. VIPOWR-02 is written in FORTRAN-77 and will run on both CDC and IBM systems. VIPOWR-02 is a 'stand-alone' code which can be called by DATATRAN or executed independently, so a DATATRAN database is not a necessary component of the operating environment for VIPOWR-02. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. An Implementation of the Berlekamp-Massey Linear Feedback Shift-Register Synthesis Algorithm in the C Programming Language

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.

    1999-08-01

    This report presents an implementation of the Berlekamp-Massey linear feedback shift-register (LFSR) synthesis algorithm in the C programming language. Two pseudo-code versions of the code are given, the operation of LFSRs is explained, C-version of the pseudo-code versions is presented, and the output of the code, when run on two input samples, is shown.

  1. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Reports: Aerosol Properties and Their Impacts on Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decola, P.; Moss, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is developing and extending its research activities to support policymaking and adaptive management. The program includes a set of "Synthesis and Assessment Products," active participation in international assessments such as those of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, improvements in modeling and other resources to facilitate comparison of response options, and development, with users, of tools to support adaptive management and planning. These efforts are building on substantial ongoing efforts of agencies and departments participating in the CCSP. One of the products focuses on aerosol properties and their impact on climate. The very complex mixture of aerosol types and their spatial distributions provide diverse warming and cooling influences on climate, and impact the formation of both water droplets and ice crystals in clouds. Our poor understanding of aerosol properties and distributions results in large uncertainties about the net impact of aerosols on climate and impairs our ability to project climate changes. The product will be produced in two phases: Phase-I aims for a few explicit and focused scientific "review nuggets" in the near term that would be not only stand alone as CCSP-facilitated products, but that would also be useful input to community-wide activities like the IPCC and Phase-II that would connect and focus the new (2006/7) level of community-wide understanding of climate change (and aerosol-climate inclusively) to explicit decision-support information and tools. In this light, we have embarked on Phase I of a synthesis product entitled, "Aerosol properties and their impacts on climate," which addresses Goal 2, "Improve quantification of the forces bringing about changes in the Earth's climate and related systems," under the Strategic Plan of the CCSP. We present here the status of this first phase of work, which is focused on new assessment and synthesis information stimulated by the CCSP. Three topics have been selected as foci and will be reported on here: (1) dependence of radiative forcing by tropospheric aerosols on aerosol composition in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and North Indian Ocean based on in-situ observations, (2) a review of measurement-based understanding of aerosol radiative forcing and aerosol sources derived from the analysis of remote-sensing observations, and (3) a model intercomparison study to quantify the uncertainties associated with indirect aerosol forcing. This work will feed in to the next IPCC assessment and serve as an input to Phase II of the product, which will focus on issues of special concern to North America.

  2. Schema Based XML Security: RBAC Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinwen Zhang; Jaehong Park; Ravi S. Sandhu

    2003-01-01

    As a platform-independent solution, XML is going to be used in many environments such as applica- tion integration and Web Services. Security of XML instance is a basic problem, especially in enterprise with large number of users and XML objects as well as complex authorizations administration. In this paper, a role-based access control (RBAC) model based on XML Schema is

  3. Automated synthesis of analog electrical circuits by means of genetic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Koza; Forrest H. Bennett III; David Andre; Martin A. Keane; Frank Dunlap

    1997-01-01

    The design (synthesis) of analog electrical circuits starts with a high- level statement of the circuit's desired behavior and requires creating a circuit that satisfies the specified design goals. Analog circuit synthesis entails the creation of both the topology and the sizing (numerical values) of all of the circuit's components. The difficulty of the problem of analog circuit synthesis is

  4. Biologically programmed synthesis of core-shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystalsw Shailendra Singh,ab

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    Biologically programmed synthesis of core-shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystalsw Shailendra Singh 2010 DOI: 10.1039/b920688d Here we report a biomimetic method to synthsize core-shell CdSe/ZnS­VI semiconductor nanocrystals (e.g., ZnS, CdS, CdSe, CdTe) or quantum dots (QDs) have been shown to possess unique

  5. Object detection via feature synthesis using MDL-based genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yingqiang; Bhanu, Bir

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we use genetic programming (GP) to synthesize composite operators and composite features from combinations of primitive operations and primitive features for object detection. The motivation for using GP is to overcome the human experts' limitations of focusing only on conventional combinations of primitive image processing operations in the feature synthesis. GP attempts many unconventional combinations that in some cases yield exceptionally good results. To improve the efficiency of GP and prevent its well-known code bloat problem without imposing severe restriction on the GP search, we design a new fitness function based on minimum description length principle to incorporate both the pixel labeling error and the size of a composite operator into the fitness evaluation process. To further improve the efficiency of GP, smart crossover, smart mutation and a public library ideas are incorporated to identify and keep the effective components of composite operators. Our experiments, which are performed on selected training regions of a training image to reduce the training time, show that compared to normal GP, our GP algorithm finds effective composite operators more quickly and the learned composite operators can be applied to the whole training image and other similar testing images. Also, compared to a traditional region-of-interest extraction algorithm, the composite operators learned by GP are more effective and efficient for object detection. PMID:15971921

  6. An expert system for choosing the best combination of options in a general-purpose program for automated design synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L., Jr.; Barthelemy, J. F. M.

    1985-01-01

    An expert system was developed to aid a user of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general-purpose optimization computer program in selecting the best combination of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options for solving a problem. There are approximately 100 such combinations available in ADS. The knowledge base contains over 200 rules, and is divided into three categories: constrained problems, unconstrained problems, and constrained problems treated as unconstrained problems. The inference engine is written in LISP and is available on DEC-VAX and IBM PC/XT computers.

  7. 69 FR 18358 - Availability of the Draft Guidelines for the Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-04-07

    ...States Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is announcing...S. Climate Change Science Program (http:// www.climatescience.gov/Library/stratplan2003/final...climatescience.gov/Library/sap/sap-guidelines...S. Climate Change Science Program, Suite...

  8. Application of ASP for Automatic Synthesis of Flexible Multiprocessor Systems from Parallel Programs

    E-print Network

    Schaub, Torsten

    of the design space of such systems, it is important to automatically optimize design parameters in order be effectively employed. This pa- per presents a design flow based on ASP that uses the solver clasp as back-end engine. Synthesis experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. 1 Design Flow The input

  9. Use of Time-Domain Simulations in Automatic Synthesis of Computational Circuits Using Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Programming William Mydlowec Genetic Programming Inc. Los Altos, California myd@cs.stanford.edu John R. Koza's desired behavior and characteristics (Koza, Bennett, Andre, and Keane 1999; Koza, Bennett, Andre, Keane

  10. Effective Programs for Elementary Science: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Which science programs have been proven to help elementary students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the science achievement of students in grades K-6: (1) Inquiry-oriented programs without science kits, such as Increasing Conceptual Challenge, Science IDEAS, and Collaborative…

  11. Synthesis of components of a comprehensive K-12 science education program and resource guide for program developers in Delaware

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colleen Hogan-Tinsman

    1997-01-01

    This doctoral project involved the examination of criteria for effective science education from the literature and existing programs. These criteria were used to create a resource guide for training and implementation of comprehensive K-12 science education in Delaware. Chapter 1 introduces the scope and objectives of the project, set in the context of national and state reform efforts. The literature

  12. Effective Reading Programs for Middle and High Schools: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    What reading programs have been proven to help middle and high school students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on four types of programs designed to improve the reading achievement of students in grades 6-12: (1) Reading Curricula (Curr), such as "LANGUAGE!," "McDougal Littel," and other standard and alternative textbooks;…

  13. Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    What mathematics programs have been proven to help elementary students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the mathematics achievement of students in grades K-6: (1) Mathematics Curricula (MC), such as "Everyday Mathematics," "Saxon Math," and other standard and alternative…

  14. Towards a New Generation of Program Synthesis Approaches Justinian P. Rosca

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    programs without being explicitly pro­ grammed how to do it [1]. GP is a randomized, adaptive search on Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering June 22­24, 1995 #12; Towards a New Generation of Program pro­ grams by using the crossover or reproduction opera­ tions. Crossover swaps code fragments

  15. A synthesis review of exemplary drug abuse prevention programs in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken C. Winters; Tanya Fawkes; Tamara Fahnhorst; Andria Botzet; Gerald August

    2007-01-01

    In the United States, there has been a concerted emphasis during the past 30 years toward identifying and implementing evidence-based drug prevention programs. The wealth of prevention efficacy research has contributed to the publication of several recent reports on promising, model, and effective programs. We identified five such recent reports, four from the federal government and one from a private

  16. Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    Program generation and transformation systems work on two language levels, the object-level (i e., the language of the manipulated programs), and the meta-level (i.e., the implementation language of the system itself). The meta-level representations of object-level program fragments are usually built in an essentially syntax-free fashion using the operations provided by the meta-language. However, syntax matters and a large conceptual distance between the two languages makes it difficult to maintain and extend such systems. Here we describe how an existing Prolog-based system can gradually be retrofitted with concrete object-level syntax, thus shrinking this distance.

  17. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT COMPONENT OF THE FIELD VERIFICATION PROGRAM: DATA PRESENTATION AND SYNTHESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure assessment component of the aquatic portion of the Field Verification Program (FVP) related the source input of dredged material contaminants to corresponding concentration distributions in space and time in the vicinity of the disposal mound. he specific objectives ...

  18. U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.2

    E-print Network

    . Schultz Lead Agency Principal Representative to CCSP; Deputy Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans Science Program (CCSP) Strategic Plan, was prepared in accordance with Section 515 of the Treasury

  19. A preliminary synthesis of major scientific results during the SALSA program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chehbouni; D. C. Goodrich; M. S. Moran; C. J. Watts; Y. H. Kerr; G. Dedieu; W. G. Kepner; W. J. Shuttleworth; S. Sorooshian

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the primary results of the Semi-Arid Land–Surface–Atmosphere (SALSA) Program in the context of improvements to our overall understanding of hydrologic, ecologic, and atmospheric processes and their interactions in a semi-arid basin. The major findings and future research needs associated with the different core components of the program are emphasized.

  20. Interior point algorithm for linear programming used in transmission network synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. G. Sánchez; R. Romero; J. R. S. Mantovani; A. Garcia

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a well-known interior point method (IPM) used to solve problems of linear programming that appear as sub-problems in the solution of the long-term transmission network expansion planning problem. The linear programming problem appears when the transportation model is used, and when there is the intention to solve the planning problem using a constructive heuristic algorithm (CHA), or

  1. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project Part 1: Overview and experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Huntzinger, D.N. [Northern Arizona University] [Northern Arizona University; Schwalm, C. [Northern Arizona University] [Northern Arizona University; Michalak, A.M [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford] [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford; Schaefer, K. [National Snow and Ice Data Center] [National Snow and Ice Data Center; King, A.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wei, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Jacobson, A. [National Snow and Ice Data Center] [National Snow and Ice Data Center; Liu, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Cook, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Post, W.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Berthier, G. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Hayes, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Huang, M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ito, A. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan] [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; Lei, H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lu, C. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.] [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Mao, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Peng, C.H. [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences] [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences; Peng, S. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Poulter, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Riccuito, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shi, X. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tian, H. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.] [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Wang, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field] [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field; Zeng, N. [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Zhao, F. [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Zhu, Q. [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University] [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

  2. Automatic Synthesis of Parallel Programs Targeted to Dynamically Reconfigurable Logic Arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maya Gokhale; Aaron Marks

    1995-01-01

    Dynamically reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer virtually unlimited numbers of gates to an application. This technology makes feasible large applications which can be temporally partitioned, with each phase being rapidly loaded onto the chip as required. We demonstrate in this paper an automatic technique to temporally partition a parallel program. Our technique partitions along a data parallel C

  3. AN INTEGRATED SYNTHESIS OF KEY AND POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview and initial insights into the findings based on results from EPA's PM Supersites Program and related studies. Many key atmospheric sciences findings have been identified through the research conducted during the last five years as part of t...

  4. An Interactive Concert Program Based on Infrared Watermark and Audio Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsi-Chun; Lee, Wen-Pin Hope; Liang, Feng-Ju

    The objective of this research is to propose a video/audio system which allows the user to listen the typical music notes in the concert program under infrared detection. The system synthesizes audio with different pitches and tempi in accordance with the encoded data in a 2-D barcode embedded in the infrared watermark. The digital halftoning technique has been used to fabricate the infrared watermark composed of halftone dots by both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). The results show that this interactive system successfully recognizes the barcode and synthesizes audio under infrared detection of a concert program which is also valid for human observation of the contents. This interactive video/audio system has greatly expanded the capability of the printout paper to audio display and also has many potential value-added applications.

  5. Unscheduled DNA synthesis tests. A report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A D; Casciano, D A; Meltz, M L; Robinson, D E; San, R H; Williams, G M; Von Halle, E S

    1983-12-01

    The utility of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) testing for screening potentially hazardous chemicals was evaluated using the published papers and technical reports available to the UDS Work Group. A total of 244 documents were reviewed. Based on criteria defined in advance for evaluation of the results, 169 were rejected. From the 75 documents accepted, results were reviewed for 136 chemicals tested using autoradiographic approaches and for 147 chemicals tested using liquid scintillation counting (LSC) procedures; 38 chemicals were tested by both approaches to measure UDS. Since there were no documents available that provided detailed recommendations of UDS screening protocols or criteria for evaluating the results, the UDS Work Group presents suggested protocols and evaluation criteria suitable for measuring and evaluating UDS by autoradiography in primary rat hepatocytes and diploid human fibroblasts and by the LSC approach in diploid human fibroblasts. UDS detection is an appropriate system for inclusion in carcinogenicity and mutagenicity testing programs, because it measures the repair of DNA damage induced by many classes of chemicals over the entire mammalian genome. However, for this system to be utilized effectively, appropriate metabolic activation systems for autoradiographic measurements of UDS in human diploid fibroblasts must be developed, the nature of hepatocyte-to-hepatocyte variability in UDS responses must be determined, and the three suggested protocols must be thoroughly evaluated by using them to test a large number of coded chemicals of known in vivo mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. PMID:6358881

  6. Proactive schema based link lifetime estimation and connectivity ratio.

    PubMed

    Bachir, Bouamoud; Ali, Ouacha; Ahmed, Habbani; Mohamed, Elkoutbi

    2014-01-01

    The radio link between a pair of wireless nodes is affected by a set of random factors such as transmission range, node mobility, and environment conditions. The properties of such radio links are continually experienced when nodes status balances between being reachable and being unreachable; thereby on completion of each experience the statistical distribution of link lifetime is updated. This aspect is emphasized in mobile ad hoc network especially when it is deployed in some fields that require intelligent processing of data information such as aerospace domain. PMID:24526882

  7. Recognition mechanisms for schema-based knowledge representations

    SciTech Connect

    Havens, W.S.

    1983-01-01

    The author considers generalizing formal recognition methods from parsing theory to schemata knowledge representations. Within artificial intelligence, recognition tasks include aspects of natural language understanding, computer vision, episode understanding, speech recognition, and others. The notion of schemata as a suitable knowledge representation for these tasks is discussed. A number of problems with current schemata-based recognition systems are presented. To gain insight into alternative approaches, the formal context-free parsing method of earley is examined. It is shown to suggest a useful control structure model for integrating top-down and bottom-up search in schemata representations. 46 references.

  8. Proactive Schema Based Link Lifetime Estimation and Connectivity Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Bachir, Bouamoud; Ali, Ouacha; Ahmed, Habbani; Mohamed, Elkoutbi

    2014-01-01

    The radio link between a pair of wireless nodes is affected by a set of random factors such as transmission range, node mobility, and environment conditions. The properties of such radio links are continually experienced when nodes status balances between being reachable and being unreachable; thereby on completion of each experience the statistical distribution of link lifetime is updated. This aspect is emphasized in mobile ad hoc network especially when it is deployed in some fields that require intelligent processing of data information such as aerospace domain. PMID:24526882

  9. A Program of Research and Education to Advance the Design, Synthesis, and Optimization of Aero-Space System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandusky, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Since its inception in December 1999, the program has provided support for a total of 11 Graduate Research Scholar Assistants, of these, 6 have completed their MS degree program. The program has generated 3 MS theses and a total of 4 publications/presentations.

  10. Synthesis gas demonstration plant program, Phase I. Deliverable No. 7F: Phases II and III environmental monitoring plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The baseline monitoring program established existing conditions at the site from which construction and operational impacts were predicted in the Environmental Report. The purpose of construction and operational programs is to identify and quantify impacts and monitor the effectiveness of selected mitigation measures. The construction and operational programs are a refinement of the baseline monitoring program. The goal is to avoid redundance by monitoring specific activities and areas where impacts could occcur. This includes utilizing data required for permit compliance (air and water discharges and solid waste disposal). A review of the baseline monitoring program was also conducted to determine if data gaps or voids existed in the baseline program which could be filled with a preconstruction monitoring program. The review was conducted in light of the potential impacts from construction and operational activities identified in the Environmental Report. Review of the baseline monitoring program and the Environmental Report indicated the need for some additional data. Therefore, a preconstruction monitoring program has been designed to fill in the data gaps and strengthen the data base for subsequent impact and mitigative measure assessments.

  11. Effective Reading Programs for Spanish Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research. Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant ELLs in elementary school. It is divided into two major sections: the effect of language of instruction on achievement (i.e., bilingual vs. English-only instruction) and effective reading approaches for ELLs other than the use of native…

  12. The Evidence Base for Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Research Synthesis Addressing Staff and Program Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen M. Brennan; Jennifer R. Bradley; Mary Dallas Allen; Deborah F. Perry

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: One strategy to support early childhood providers' work with children exhibiting challenging behavior is offering mental health consultation services in order to build staff skills and confidence and reduce staff stress and turnover. Through systematic search procedures, 26 recent studies were identified that addressed the effectiveness of early childhood mental health consultation with respect to staff- and program-level

  13. Orbital Mechanics Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. C.; Jankowski, S. C.; Hughes, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    Orbital Mechanics Analysis Program provides engineers with simple tool for analysis or synthesis of any orbital maneuvering function involving vehicle and target. Program useful in such applications as proximity operations and rendezvous maneuvers.

  14. Hormonal programming of rat social play behavior: Standardized techniques will aid synthesis and translation to human health.

    PubMed

    Blake, Bevin E; McCoy, Krista A

    2015-08-01

    Early social behaviors like juvenile play are important for normal cognitive and social development. Deficits in these behaviors are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism. Rat juvenile rough-and-tumble play is a useful behavioral biomarker of neurodevelopment, and is sensitive to chemical factors such as pre and neonatal hormones. Despite a rich body of literature characterizing hormonal programming of rodent juvenile play, the physiological mechanisms that regulate the organization of play behavior are not well characterized. Synthesizing results to understand the role of endocrine signaling in the development of play behavior remains difficult due to methodological inconsistency across studies. In this review, we synthesize what is known about hormonal mechanisms programming play, advocate standardized protocols for investigating rat play, and identify key areas where future research is needed. A synthetic understanding of the relationship between endocrine signaling and behavioral programming will improve our ability to understand the development and onset of neurodevelopmental disorders in humans and ultimately will help prevent these devastating conditions. PMID:25964215

  15. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 2: Environmental driver data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Liu, S.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Viovy, N.; Post, W. M.; Schwalm, C. R.; Schaefer, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Cook, R. B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model-model and model-observation comparisons. This paper describes the global and North American environmental driver data sets prepared for the MsTMIP activity to both support their use in MsTMIP and make these data, along with the processes used in selecting/processing these data, accessible to a broader audience. Based on project needs and lessons learned from past model intercomparison activities, we compiled climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, land use and land cover change (LULCC), C3 / C4 grasses fractions, major crops, phenology and soil data into a standard format for global (0.5° × 0.5° resolution) and regional (North American: 0.25° × 0.25° resolution) simulations. In order to meet the needs of MsTMIP, improvements were made to several of the original environmental data sets, by improving the quality, and/or changing their spatial and temporal coverage, and resolution. The resulting standardized model driver data sets are being used by over 20 different models participating in MsTMIP. The data are archived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC, http://daac.ornl.gov) to provide long-term data management and distribution.

  16. Program

    Cancer.gov

    Through the DCIDE program, the developer of a promising diagnostic agent or probe will be given access to the pre-clinical development resources of the National Cancer Institute in a manner that is intended to remove the most common barriers between laboratory discoveries and IND status.

  17. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1998-01-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  18. RIP140 represses the "brown-in-white" adipocyte program including a futile cycle of triacylglycerol breakdown and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kiskinis, Evangelos; Chatzeli, Lemonia; Curry, Edward; Kaforou, Myrsini; Frontini, Andrea; Cinti, Saverio; Montana, Giovanni; Parker, Malcolm G; Christian, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a corepressor of nuclear receptors that is highly expressed in adipose tissues. We investigated the role of RIP140 in conditionally immortal preadipocyte cell lines prepared from white or brown fat depots. In white adipocytes, a large set of brown fat-associated genes was up-regulated in the absence of RIP140. In contrast, a relatively minor role can be ascribed to RIP140 in the control of basal gene expression in differentiated brown adipocytes because significant changes were observed only in Ptgds and Fabp3. The minor role of RIP140 in brown adipocytes correlates with the similar histology and uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA staining in knockout compared with wild-type brown adipose tissue (BAT). In contrast, RIP140 knockout sc white adipose tissue (WAT) shows increased numbers of multilocular adipocytes with elevated staining for uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA. Furthermore in a white adipocyte cell line, the markers of BRITE adipocytes, Tbx1, CD137, Tmem26, Cited1, and Epsti1 were repressed in the presence of RIP140 as was Prdm16. Microarray analysis of wild-type and RIP140-knockout white fat revealed elevated expression of genes associated with cold-induced expression or high expression in BAT. A set of genes associated with a futile cycle of triacylglycerol breakdown and resynthesis and functional assays revealed that glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity as well as [(3)H]glycerol incorporation were elevated in the absence of RIP140. Thus, RIP140 blocks the BRITE program in WAT, preventing the expression of brown fat genes and inhibiting a triacylglycerol futile cycle, with important implications for energy homeostasis. PMID:24479876

  19. RIP140 Represses the “Brown-in-White” Adipocyte Program Including a Futile Cycle of Triacyclglycerol Breakdown and Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kiskinis, Evangelos; Chatzeli, Lemonia; Curry, Edward; Kaforou, Myrsini; Frontini, Andrea; Cinti, Saverio; Montana, Giovanni; Parker, Malcolm G.

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a corepressor of nuclear receptors that is highly expressed in adipose tissues. We investigated the role of RIP140 in conditionally immortal preadipocyte cell lines prepared from white or brown fat depots. In white adipocytes, a large set of brown fat-associated genes was up-regulated in the absence of RIP140. In contrast, a relatively minor role can be ascribed to RIP140 in the control of basal gene expression in differentiated brown adipocytes because significant changes were observed only in Ptgds and Fabp3. The minor role of RIP140 in brown adipocytes correlates with the similar histology and uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA staining in knockout compared with wild-type brown adipose tissue (BAT). In contrast, RIP140 knockout sc white adipose tissue (WAT) shows increased numbers of multilocular adipocytes with elevated staining for uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA. Furthermore in a white adipocyte cell line, the markers of BRITE adipocytes, Tbx1, CD137, Tmem26, Cited1, and Epsti1 were repressed in the presence of RIP140 as was Prdm16. Microarray analysis of wild-type and RIP140-knockout white fat revealed elevated expression of genes associated with cold-induced expression or high expression in BAT. A set of genes associated with a futile cycle of triacylglycerol breakdown and resynthesis and functional assays revealed that glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity as well as [3H]glycerol incorporation were elevated in the absence of RIP140. Thus, RIP140 blocks the BRITE program in WAT, preventing the expression of brown fat genes and inhibiting a triacylglycerol futile cycle, with important implications for energy homeostasis. PMID:24479876

  20. Combustion synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kashinath C Patil; Singanahally T Aruna; Sambandan Ekambaram

    1997-01-01

    Many innovative self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) techniques such as filtration, combustion, the centrifugal thermite process, field activated combustion, solid-state metathesis, flame synthesis and simultaneous SHS and densification have been developed for the synthesis of ‘advanced materials’. A novel gas producing self-propagating process initiated at low temperature using redox compounds and mixtures has been used for the preparation of fine particle

  1. Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Data collected by the NIWQP studies indicated that, in surface water, filtered and unfiltered samples had nearly the same concentrations of arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and selenium for concentrations greater than about 10 micrograms per liter. Therefore, in this concentration range, filtered concentrations can be directly compared to biological-effect levels developed for unfiltered samples. In the range of 1 to 10 micrograms per liter there may be a tendency for unfiltered arsenic concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. For selenium, however, the data suggest differences from equality in that range result from analytical imprecision and not a general tendency for unfiltered concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. This relation may not be true in lentic, nutrient-rich waters because in such settings algae can bioaccumulate large amounts of selenium and other trace elements. Selenium was the trace element in surface water that most commonly exceeded chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life; more than 40 percent of the selenium concentrations in surface-water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) aquatic-life chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). In 12 of the 26 areas at least 25 percent of the surface water-samples had selenium concentrations that either equaled or exceeded the chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). More than 28 percent of boron concentrations and almost 17 percent of the molybdenum concentrations exceeded the aquatic life criteria established by the State of California (550 and 19 micrograms per liter, respectively). In ground water, more than 22 percent of the arsenic concentrations and more than 35 percent of the selenium concentrations exceeded the MCL (10 and 50 micrograms per liter, respectively). Few samples of uranium in surface water exceeded a criterion for the protection of aquatic life (300 micrograms per liter), but 44 percent

  2. Open Maps, Alternating Simulations and Control Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Tabuada

    2004-01-01

    Abstract. Control synthesis is slowly transcending its traditional ap-plication domain within engineering to ?nd interesting and useful appli-cations in computer science. Synthesis of interfaces, distributed network monitors or reactive programs are some examples that bene?t from this design paradigm. In this paper we shed new light on the interplay be-tween the fundamental notion of bisimulation and the control synthesis problem.

  3. Mimetics of beta-galactosylceramide with simple ceramide substitutes: Synthesis and binding togp 120 of HIV-1, and, Enactment of chemistry knowledge by a high school student at a summer program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, Line A.

    This thesis is the account of two research works. The first part reports the synthesis of O- and C- and aza-C-glycosides of beta-Galactosylceramide (GalCer) that contain simple ceramide substitutes, and the initial results of their binding with gp120 of HIV-1. The O-glycosides were prepared via an established procedure. The C- and aza-C-glycosides originated from a central C1-substituted galactal precursor, and their synthesis is illustrative of a potentially general method for pairs of C- and aza-C-beta-galactosides. They aza-C-glycoside with a simple C-17 hydrocarbon chain exhibited significant higher affinity than GalCer, whereas the corresponding C-glycoside was as active as GalCer. The second part describes the ethnographic study of the enactment of the chemistry knowledge of a high school student at a summer program and the influence of a cultural practice, othermothering, on her ability to perform well on her chemistry Regents Exams. Kelly, an 11th grade student exhibited very good understanding of the chemistry curriculum in the classroom, the laboratory period and the tutoring sessions where she plays a caring role for her peers. The same level of understanding was not reflected on the paper pencil exams taken during the summer program.

  4. ISSYS: An integrated synergistic Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dovi, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated Synergistic Synthesis System (ISSYS), an integrated system of computer codes in which the sequence of program execution and data flow is controlled by the user, is discussed. The commands available to exert such control, the ISSYS major function and rules, and the computer codes currently available in the system are described. Computational sequences frequently used in the aircraft structural analysis and synthesis are defined. External computer codes utilized by the ISSYS system are documented. A bibliography on the programs is included.

  5. Using Realist Synthesis to Develop an Evidence Base from an Identified Data Set on Enablers and Barriers for Alcohol and Drug Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Barbara; MacLean, Sarah; Berends, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how "realist synthesis" methodology (Pawson, 2002) was adapted to review a large sample of community based projects addressing alcohol and drug use problems. Our study drew on a highly varied sample of 127 projects receiving funding from a national non-government organisation in Australia between 2002 and 2008.…

  6. Action-Reaction Learning: Analysis and Synthesis of Human

    E-print Network

    Jebara, Tony

    Action-Reaction Learning: Analysis and Synthesis of Human Behaviour by Tony Jebara B Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998 All Rights Reserved Signature of Author Program in Media Arts: Analysis and Synthesis of Human Behaviour by Tony Jebara Submitted to the Program in Media Arts

  7. Automatic Synthesis of Both the Control Law and Parameters for a Controller for a Three-Lag Plant with Five-Second Delay using Genetic Programming and

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    with Five-Second Delay using Genetic Programming and Simulation Techniques John R. Koza Stanford University Programming Inc. Los Altos, California myd@cs.stanford.edu Forrest H Bennett III Genetic Programming Inc. (Currently, FX Palo Alto Laboratory, Palo Alto, California) bennett@pal.xerox.com Abstract This paper

  8. Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Soo [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Liebich, R.E. [Raytheon Environmental Services Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

  9. GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shelly C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Glutathione (GSH) is present in all mammalian tissues as the most abundant non-protein thiol that defends against oxidative stress. GSH is also a key determinant of redox signaling, vital in detoxification of xenobiotics, regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune function, and fibrogenesis. Biosynthesis of GSH occurs in the cytosol in a tightly regulated manner. Key determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of the sulfur amino acid precursor, cysteine, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), which is composed of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis is GSH synthetase (GS). SCOPE OF REVIEW This review summarizes key functions of GSH and focuses on factors that regulate the biosynthesis of GSH, including pathological conditions where GSH synthesis is dysregulated. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS GCL subunits and GS are regulated at multiple levels and often in a coordinated manner. Key transcription factors that regulate the expression of these genes include NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) via the antioxidant response element (ARE), AP-1, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B). There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of GSH synthesis contributes to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary and liver fibrosis, alcoholic liver disease, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE GSH is a key antioxidant that also modulates diverse cellular processes. A better understanding of how its synthesis is regulated and dysregulated in disease states may lead to improvement in the treatment of these disorders. PMID:22995213

  10. Traceability Through Automatic Program Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Julian; Green, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Program synthesis is a technique for automatically deriving programs from specifications of their behavior. One of the arguments made in favour of program synthesis is that it allows one to trace from the specification to the program. One way in which traceability information can be derived is to augment the program synthesis system so that manipulations and calculations it carries out during the synthesis process are annotated with information on what the manipulations and calculations were and why they were made. This information is then accumulated throughout the synthesis process, at the end of which, every artifact produced by the synthesis is annotated with a complete history relating it to every other artifact (including the source specification) which influenced its construction. This approach requires modification of the entire synthesis system - which is labor-intensive and hard to do without influencing its behavior. In this paper, we introduce a novel, lightweight technique for deriving traceability from a program specification to the corresponding synthesized code. Once a program has been successfully synthesized from a specification, small changes are systematically made to the specification and the effects on the synthesized program observed. We have partially automated the technique and applied it in an experiment to one of our program synthesis systems, AUTOFILTER, and to the GNU C compiler, GCC. The results are promising: 1. Manual inspection of the results indicates that most of the connections derived from the source (a specification in the case of AUTOFILTER, C source code in the case of GCC) to its generated target (C source code in the case of AUTOFILTER, assembly language code in the case of GCC) are correct. 2. Around half of the lines in the target can be traced to at least one line of the source. 3. Small changes in the source often induce only small changes in the target.

  11. Real-Time Control of Greek Chant Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis Zannos; Dimitrios Delviniotis; Anastasia Georgaki; Georgios Kouroupetroglou

    2006-01-01

    This paper we report on an interdisciplinary project for modeling Greek chant with real-time vocal synthesis. Building on previous research, we employ a hybrid musical instrument: Phonodeon (Georgaki et al. 2005), consisting of a MIDI-accordeon coupled to a real-time algorithmic interaction and vocal synthesis engine. The synthesis is based on data provided by the AOIDOS program developed in the Department

  12. An artificial intelligence approach to active filter synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Wawryn

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with a novel active filter synthesis method using artificial intelligence (AI). The AI-based synthesis methodology uses original analog circuit representation performed by a Prolog backward-chaining inference mechanism. Circuit representation is specified as an analog circuit language to describe filter topologies, performance characteristics, and subcircuits. Synthesis is organized as a Prolog searching program based on backward-chaining strategy to

  13. Macromitophagy, neutral lipids synthesis, and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation protect yeast from “liponecrosis”, a previously unknown form of programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Sheibani, Sara; Richard, Vincent R; Beach, Adam; Leonov, Anna; Feldman, Rachel; Mattie, Sevan; Khelghatybana, Leila; Piano, Amanda; Greenwood, Michael; Vali, Hojatollah; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2014-01-01

    We identified a form of cell death called “liponecrosis.” It can be elicited by an exposure of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to exogenous palmitoleic acid (POA). Our data imply that liponecrosis is: (1) a programmed, regulated form of cell death rather than an accidental, unregulated cellular process and (2) an age-related form of cell death. Cells committed to liponecrotic death: (1) do not exhibit features characteristic of apoptotic cell death; (2) do not display plasma membrane rupture, a hallmark of programmed necrotic cell death; (3) akin to cells committed to necrotic cell death, exhibit an increased permeability of the plasma membrane for propidium iodide; (4) do not display excessive cytoplasmic vacuolization, a hallmark of autophagic cell death; (5) akin to cells committed to autophagic death, exhibit a non-selective en masse degradation of cellular organelles and require the cytosolic serine/threonine protein kinase Atg1p for executing the death program; and (6) display a hallmark feature that has not been reported for any of the currently known cell death modalities—namely, an excessive accumulation of lipid droplets where non-esterified fatty acids (including POA) are deposited in the form of neutral lipids. We therefore concluded that liponecrotic cell death subroutine differs from the currently known subroutines of programmed cell death. Our data suggest a hypothesis that liponecrosis is a cell death module dynamically integrated into a so-called programmed cell death network, which also includes the apoptotic, necrotic, and autophagic modules of programmed cell death. Based on our findings, we propose a mechanism underlying liponecrosis. PMID:24196447

  14. Automated synthesis for asynchronous FPGAs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Song Peng; David Fang; John Teifel; Rajit Manohar

    2005-01-01

    We present an automatic logic synthesis method targeted for high-performance asynchronous FPGA (AFPGA) architectures. Our method transforms sequential programs as well as high-level descriptions of asynchronous circuits into fine-grain asynchronous process netlists suitable for an AFPGA. The resulting circuits are inherently pipelined, and can be physically mapped onto our AFPGA with standard partitioning and place-and-route algorithms. For a wide variety

  15. Research Brief--Effects of An Experimental Program on the Quality of Children's Art and Concept Attainment Using a Synthesis of Japanese Music and Art Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platten, Marvin R.; Arimitsu, Tokuroh

    1982-01-01

    American 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children participated in an art program synthesizing the Suzuki Music method and an art instruction method developed by Yoshio Tamano. Children receiving the self-paced art lessons at home gained more in concept formation and painting skill than did a control group. (PP)

  16. Zhang, B.T. & Muhlenbein, H. (1994). Synthesis of sigmapi neural networks by the breeder genetic programming. In Michaelewicz, Z. (Ed.), Proceedings of

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    network or an input signal. A variation of the genetic algorithm called the breeder genetic algorithm Occam's razor. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms, (pp. 342 genetic programming. In Michaelewicz, Z. (Ed.), Proceedings of the First IEEE World Congress

  17. Title: Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.2: Thresholds of Climate Change on Subject and Purpose: The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), a consortium of

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    and Purpose: The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), a consortium of Federal agencies performing period. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a participant in the CCSP, is responsible for 3 of the 21 SAPs of the SAP to serve as the CCSP definitive document on current knowledge pertaining to the topic of abrupt

  18. Title: Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.4: Abrupt Climate Change Subject and Purpose: The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), a consortium of

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    .S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP), a consortium of Federal agencies performing climate science, has.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a participant in the CCSP, is responsible for 3 of the 21 SAPs. SAP 3.4: Abrupt this information to the USGS and CCSP. Committee members will meet and discuss issues relating to relevant study

  19. What Prevents State Covering Kids & Families' Grantees from Achieving the Program's Goals? A Synthesis of Findings on Barriers, 2003-2006. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila Hoag; Nora Paxton

    2007-01-01

    The Covering Kids & Families (CKF) initiative was designed to help overcome barriers that made it difficult for children and adults to enroll, and stay enrolled, in Medicaid and SCHIP programs. This report examines the types of barriers CKF grantees encountered when trying to achieve these goals. Most CKF grantees named environmental barriers—for example, limited state funding, policy changes, difficult

  20. A Research Synthesis of the Evaluation Capacity Building Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labin, Susan N.; Duffy, Jennifer L.; Meyers, Duncan C.; Wandersman, Abraham; Lesesne, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    The continuously growing demand for program results has produced an increased need for evaluation capacity building (ECB). The "Integrative ECB Model" was developed to integrate concepts from existing ECB theory literature and to structure a synthesis of the empirical ECB literature. The study used a broad-based research synthesis method with…

  1. Experimental design methods and flowsheet synthesis of energy systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tor-Martin Tveit

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a discussion of how to utilise well known methods from the field of experimental design in the flowsheet synthesis of energy systems. The work is based on an earlier work, where a methodology for improving large scale energy systems using a combination of simulation, experimental design and mathematical programming was presented. The methodology is suitable for synthesis

  2. Mutual Information-based Fitness Functions for Evolutionary Circuit Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Mutual Information-based Fitness Functions for Evolutionary Circuit Synthesis Arturo Hern. The conclusions we draw are applicable to any evolutionary system for Boolean function synthesis based on entropy been done using Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Genetic Programming is also included in this review, since

  3. Extracting result schema based on query instances in the Deep Web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiezheng Nie; Ge Yu; Derong Shen; Yue Kou; Wei Liu

    2007-01-01

    Deep Web sources contain a large of high-quality and query-related structured date. One of the challenges in the Deep Web\\u000a is extracting result schemas of Deep Web sources. To address this challenge, this paper describes a novel approach that extracts\\u000a both result data and the result schema of a Web database. The approach first models the query interface of a

  4. Schema-based Scheduling of Event Processors and Buffer Minimization for Queries on Structured Data Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Koch; Stefanie Scherzinger; Nicole Schweikardt; Bernhard Stegmaier

    2004-01-01

    We introduce an extension of the XQuery lan- guage, FluX, that supports event-based query processing and the conscious handling of main memory buffers. Purely event-based queries of this language can be executed on stream- ing XML data in a very direct way. We then develop an algorithm that allows to efficiently rewrite XQueries into the event-based FluX language. This algorithm

  5. Multivoxel patterns in face-sensitive temporal regions reveal an encoding schema based on detecting life

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    , toy dogs). We used multivariate pattern analysis of BOLD responses to uncover the representational of faces by using animate and inanimate faces with human form (humans, mannequins) and dog form (real dogs occipital gyrus are organized by global facial form alone (human vs dog) while animacy becomes an additional

  6. XML Schema Based Faultset Definition to Improve Faults Injection Tools Interoperability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Da Silva; José-fernán Martínez; Lourdes López; Ana Belén García; Vicente Hernández

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an XML schema formalization approach for the definition of basic fault sets which specify memory and\\/or register value corruption in microprocessor-based systems. SWIFI (software implemented fault injection) tools use fault injectors to carry out the fault injection campaign defined in a GUI-based application. However, the communication between the fault injector and the application is defined in an

  7. Integrating Schema-Based Instruction and Response Cards for Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, James Raymond; Tucci, Stacey; Jolivette, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of No Child Left Behind (2002), the academic expectations of students with disabilities have changed. Students with disabilities are now held to the same academic standards as their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, the 2004 provisions in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act state that students with…

  8. Multilevel placement with circuit schema based clustering in analog IC layouts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Nojima; Xiaoke Zhu; Yasuhiro Takashima; Shigetoshi Nakatake; Yoji Kajitani

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims at developing an automated device-level placement for analog circuit design which achieves comparable quality to manual designs by experts. It extracts a set of clusters from a circuit schema as experts do. We provide a multi-level placement based on the Sequence-Pair by relaxing the shape of clusters from rectangles and allowing boundaries of clusters to be 'jagged'.

  9. Multilevel placement with circuit schema based clustering in analog IC layouts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Nojima; Xiaoke Zhu; Yasuhiro Takashima; S. Nakatake; Y. Kajitani

    2004-01-01

    We aim at developing an automated device-level placement for analog circuit design which achieves comparable quality to manual designs by experts. It extracts a set of clusters from a circuit schema as experts do. We provide a multilevel placement based on the sequence-pair by relaxing the shape of clusters from rectangles and allowing boundaries of clusters to be 'jagged'. The

  10. A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fracker, Martin L.

    1988-01-01

    Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

  11. Texture Synthesis Michael Kazhdan

    E-print Network

    Kazhdan, Michael

    Texture Synthesis Michael Kazhdan (600.357 / 600.457) An Image Synthesizer. Perlin, 1985 Texture Synthesis by Non-Parametric Sampling. Efros and Leung, 1999 Wang Tiles for Image and Texture Generation. Cohen et al., 2003 #12;Overview · Texture synthesis Introduction Procedural texture synthesis Image

  12. Automated Coordinator Synthesis for Mission Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    Automated Coordinator Synthesis for Mission Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles S autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) programs to meet evolving requirements and capabilities. The hierarchical architecture for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) that facilitates graphical design and code generation

  13. An Improved Method of Gene Synthesis Based on DNA Works Software and Overlap Extension PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bingxue Dong; Runqian Mao; Baojian Li; Qiuyun Liu; Peilin Xu; Gang Li

    2007-01-01

    A bottleneck in recent gene synthesis technologies is the high cost of oligonucleotide synthesis and post-synthesis sequencing.\\u000a In this article, a simple and rapid method for low-cost gene synthesis technology was developed based on DNAWorks program\\u000a and an improved single-step overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR). This method enables any DNA sequence to be synthesized with few\\u000a errors, then any mutated sites

  14. Translating Nature's Library: The Bryostatins and Function-Oriented Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wender, Paul A.; Loy, Brian A.; Schrier, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    We review in part our computational, design, synthesis, and biological studies on a remarkable class of compounds and their designed analogs that have led to preclinical candidates for the treatment of cancer, a first-in-class approach to Alzheimer's disease, and a promising strategy to eradicate HIV/AIDS. Because these leads target, in part, protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, they have therapeutic potential even beyond this striking set of therapeutic indications. This program has given rise to new synthetic methodology and represents an increasingly important direction of synthesis focused on achieving function through synthesis-informed design (function-oriented synthesis). PMID:22661768

  15. I. The design, synthesis, and structure of antiparallel beta-sheet and beta-strand mimics. II. The design of a scripted chemistry outreach program to high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Amy Sue

    I. Protein structure is not easily predicted from the linear sequence of amino acids. An increased ability to create protein structures would allow researchers to develop new peptide-based therapeutics and materials, and would provide insights into the mechanisms of protein folding. Toward this end, we have designed and synthesized two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet mimics containing conformationally biased scaffolds and semicarbazide, urea, and hydrazide linker groups that attach peptide chains to the scaffold. The mimics exhibited populations of intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded beta-sheet-like conformers as determined by spectroscopic techniques such as FTIR, sp1H NMR, and ROESY studies. During our studies, we determined that a urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic was able to tightly hydrogen bond to peptides in an antiparallel beta-sheet-like configuration. Several derivatives of the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic were synthesized. Preliminary data by electron microscopy indicate that the beta-strand mimics have an effect on the folding of Alzheimer's Abeta peptide. These data suggest that the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimics and related compounds may be developed into therapeutics which effect the folding of the Abeta peptide into neurotoxic aggregates. II. In recent years, there has been concern about the low level of science literacy and science interest among Americans. A declining interest in science impacts the abilities of people to make informed decisions about technology. To increase the interest in science among secondary students, we have developed the UCI Chemistry Outreach Program to High Schools. The Program features demonstration shows and discussions about chemistry in everyday life. The development and use of show scripts has enabled large numbers of graduate and undergraduate student volunteers to demonstrate chemistry to more than 12,000 local high school students. Teachers, students, and volunteers have expressed their enjoyment of The UCI Chemistry Outreach Program to High Schools.

  16. Are workplace health promotion programs effective at improving presenteeism in workers? a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Cancelliere; J David Cassidy; Carlo Ammendolia; Pierre Côté

    2011-01-01

    Background  \\u000a Presenteeism is highly prevalent and costly to employers. It is defined as being present at work, but limited in some aspect of job performance\\u000a by a health problem.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Workplace health promotion (WHP) is a common strategy used to enhance on-the-job productivity. The primary objective is to\\u000a determine if WHP programs are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objectives are

  17. Version 4 Submitted ---, 2001 for Engineering Design Synthesis: Understanding, Approaches and Tools, edited by: Amaresh Chakrabarti.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    by creative human designers. The claim that genetic programming has produced human- competitive resultsVersion 4 Submitted ---, 2001 for Engineering Design Synthesis: Understanding, Approaches for Complex Structures Using Genetic Programming John R. Koza Consulting Professor Biomedical Informatics

  18. [New synthesis empathogenic agents].

    PubMed

    Velea, D; Hautefeuille, M; Vazeille, G; Lantran-Davoux, C

    1999-01-01

    The use of synthesis drugs is the object of numerous written articles and TV programs in the last, decade. These synthesis drugs or "designer drugs", are well known for their ability to enhance, reinforce or appease social difficulties and relationships. In the research for empathetic and entactogenic relations one discover an obvious lack of communication and "warmth" in personal or professional relationship. An image of chemical "well being" has become a frequent stereotype of a society with an atrophying of performance and values while supposedly dedicating itself to individual performance. The youths are the first victims of these new drugs, the economical and social environment are the main reinforcing factors of this behaviour. The main characteristic of these drugs, is the non-recognition of their danger, some users go so far as to describe this category of substances as "drugs which are not drugs". As a characteristic, the use of a these synthesis drugs is almost recreative, during the week-end and holiday. The drug addiction is different than that of opiates or cocaine. One can observe some cases of real dependence--corresponding to the DSW IV criterion--when the personality of the users is the main characteristic (narcissic failure, immature personality, family and school problems). Many adverse effects--hypertension, kidney failure, psychoses--were declared. The mass-media has presented many articles concerning Ecstasy (MDMA). This is the most used drug during the rave parties. Its adverse effects are well known and proven. The authors would like to present other more recent synthesis drugs, also known as "analogs". These drugs, a kind of mixture between amphetamine-like (MDMA, MBDB, MDA) and misused medicines (ketamine, gamma OH, atropine) represent a real danger. GHB, 2 CB, HMB, are some of these recent substances. The possibility to procure them on the Web, or to produce them by oneself, add to their danger because of the lack of controls on toxicity and quality. The original danger signs were revealed by the FDA and currently a major preoccupation within french specialised services. The major problem for the practitionner is to inform the users, in order to prevent addiction and analyse the solutions. PMID:10598316

  19. From Boolean to Quantitative Synthesis Pavol Cern

    E-print Network

    Cerny, Pavol

    Engineering]: Design Tools and Techniques--computer-aided software en- gineering; D.2.8 [Software Engineering]: Metrics--com- plexity measures, performance measures This work was partially supported by the ERC Advanced on the idea that a program can be syn- thesized from the proof of the specification. The synthesis system KIDS

  20. Towards Fully Automatic Synthesis of Embedded Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Kühne; D. Grose; R. Drechsler

    2010-01-01

    This letter presents an approach to automatically synthesize embedded software. Starting from an instruction set architecture description of a hardware platform and a formal specification of the input-output behavior of a program to be realized, a control sequence of minimal length is generated. The proposed approach uses formal techniques, i.e., the synthesis problem is mapped to an instance of satisfiability

  1. Argonne's Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    Argonne's Advanced Battery Materials Synthesis and Manufacturing R&D Program Bridging the Gap Between Research and Commercialization ...... #12;Scale-Up: A Critical Element of Battery R&D ChallenGes ................ Scalable process R&D is essential to support domestic battery manufacturing and to enable the transition

  2. Programmed frameshifting in the synthesis of mammalian antizyme is +1 in mammals, predominantly +1 in fission yeast, but -2 in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, I P; Gesteland, R F; Matsufuji, S; Atkins, J F

    1998-01-01

    The coding sequence for mammalian ornithine decarboxylase antizyme is in two different partially overlapping reading frames with no independent ribosome entry to the second ORF. Immediately before the stop codon of the first ORF, a proportion of ribosomes undergo a quadruplet translocation event to shift to the +1 reading frame of the second and main ORF. The proportion that frameshifts is dependent on the polyamine level and, because the product antizyme is a negative regulator of intracellular polyamine levels, the frameshifting acts to complete an autoregulatory circuit by sensing polyamine levels. An mRNA element just 5' of the shift site and a 3' pseudoknot are important for efficient frameshifting. Previous work has shown that a cassette with the mammalian shift site and associated signals directs efficient shifting in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the same codon to the correct frame, but that the shift is -2 instead of +1. The product contains an extra amino acid corresponding to the shift site. The present work shows efficient frameshifting also occurs in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This frameshifting is 80% +1 and 20% -2. The response of S. pombe translation apparatus to the mammalian antizyme recoding signals is more similar to that of the mammalian system than to that of S. cerevisiae. S. pombe provides a good model system for genetic studies on the mechanism of at least this type of programmed mammalian frameshifting. PMID:9769097

  3. Total Synthesis of (?)-Himandrine

    E-print Network

    Movassaghi, Mohammad

    We describe the first total synthesis of (?)-himandrine, a member of the class II galbulimima alkaloids. Noteworthy features of this chemistry include a diastereoselective Diels?Alder reaction in the rapid synthesis of the ...

  4. A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalm, C.R.; Williams, C.A.; Schaefer, K.; Anderson, R.; Arain, M.A.; Baker, I.; Black, T.A.; Chen, G.; Ciais, P.; Davis, K. J.; Desai, A. R.; Dietze, M.; Dragoni, D.; Fischer, M.L.; Flanagan, L.B.; Grant, R.F.; Gu, L.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, R.C.; Kucharik, C.; Lafleur, P.M.; Law, B.E.; Li, L.; Li, Z.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Ma, S.; Margolis, H.; Matamala, R.; McCaughey, H.; Monson, R. K.; Oechel, W. C.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D.T.; Riciutto, D.M.; Riley, W.J.; Sahoo, A.K.; Sprintsin, M.; Sun, J.; Tian, H.; Tonitto, C.; Verbeeck, H.; Verma, S.B.

    2011-06-01

    Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO{sub 2} exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO{sub 2} exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans {approx}220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO{sub 2} exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was {approx}10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

  5. Tectonics and geology of spreading ridge subduction at the Chile Triple Junction: a synthesis of results from Leg 141 of the Ocean Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrmann, J. H.; Lewis, S. D.; Cande, S. C.

    1994-12-01

    An active oceanic spreading ridge is being subducted beneath the South American continent at the Chile Triple Junction. This process has played a major part in the evolution of most of the continental margins that border the Pacific Ocean basin. A combination of high resolution swath bathymetric maps, seismic reflection profiles and drillhole and core data from five sites drilled during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 141 provide important data that define the tectonic, structural and stratigraphic effects of this modern example of spreading ridge subduction. A change from subduction accretion to subduction erosion occurs along-strike of the South American forearc. This change is prominently expressed by normal faulting, forearc subsidence, oversteepening of topographic slopes and intensive sedimentary mass wasting, overprinted on older signatures of sediment accretion, overthrusting and uplift processes in the forearc. Data from drill sites north of the triple junction (Sites 859 861) show that after an important phase of forearc building in the early to late Pliocene, subduction accretion had ceased in the late Pliocene. Since that time sediment on the downgoing oceanic Nazca plate has been subducted. Site 863 was drilled into the forearc in the immediate vicinity of the triple junction above the subducted spreading ridge axis. Here, thick and intensely folded and faulted trench slope sediments of Pleistocene age are currently involved in the frontal deformation of the forearc. Early faults with thrust and reverse kinematics are overprinted by later normal faults. The Chile Triple Junction is also the site of apparent ophiolite emplacement into the South American forearc. Drilling at Site 862 on the Taitao Ridge revealed an offshore volcanic sequence of Plio-Pleistocene age associated with the Taitao Fracture Zone, adjacent to exposures of the Pliocene-aged Taitao ophiolite onshore. Despite the large-scale loss of material from the forearc at the triple junction, ophiolite emplacement produces a large topographic promontory in the forearc immediately after ridge subduction, and represents the first stage of forearc rebuilding.

  6. GRADUATE PROGRAM UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS

    E-print Network

    SELF STUDY GRADUATE PROGRAM UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE COLLEGE OF LIBERALARTS TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY March 2007 #12;SELF STUDY GRADUATE PROGRAM UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS DEPARTMENT........................................................................................ 4 Brief History of Degree Programs and the Department

  7. Tectonics and geology of spreading ridge subduction at the Chile Triple Junction: a synthesis of results from Leg 141 of the Ocean Drilling Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrmann, J.H.; Lewis, S.D.; Cande, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    An active oceanic spreading ridge is being subducted beneath the South American continent at the Chile Triple Junction. This process has played a major part in the evolution of most of the continental margins that border the Pacific Ocean basin. A combination of high resolution swath bathymetric maps, seismic reflection profiles and drillhole and core data from five sites drilled during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 141 provide important data that define the tectonic, structural and stratigraphic effects of this modern example of spreading ridge subduction. A change from subduction accretion to subduction erosion occurs along-strike of the South American forearc. This change is prominently expressed by normal faulting, forearc subsidence, oversteepening of topographic slopes and intensive sedimentary mass wasting, overprinted on older signatures of sediment accretion, overthrusting and uplift processes in the forearc. Data from drill sites north of the triple junction (Sites 859-861) show that after an important phase of forearc building in the early to late Pliocene, subduction accretion had ceased in the late Pliocene. Since that time sediment on the downgoing oceanic Nazca plate has been subducted. Site 863 was drilled into the forearc in the immediate vicinity of the triple junction above the subducted spreading ridge axis. Here, thick and intensely folded and faulted trench slope sediments of Pleistocene age are currently involved in the frontal deformation of the forearc. Early faults with thrust and reverse kinematics are overprinted by later normal faults. The Chile Triple Junction is also the site of apparent ophiolite emplacement into the South American forearc. Drilling at Site 862 on the Taitao Ridge revealed an offshore volcanic sequence of Plio-Pleistocene age associated with the Taitao Fracture Zone, adjacent to exposures of the Pliocene-aged Taitao ophiolite onshore. Despite the large-scale loss of material from the forearc at the triple junction, ophiolite emplacement produces a large topographic promontory in the forearc immediately after ridge subduction, and represents the first stage of forearc rebuilding. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  8. New frontiers in design synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldin, D. S.; Venneri, S. L.; Noor, A. K.

    1999-01-01

    The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering Systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed.

  9. ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1999-04-01

    The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

  10. Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel

    E-print Network

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Solution Combustion Synthesis Impregnated Layer Combustion Synthesis is a Novel Methodology Engineering University of Notre Dame University of Notre Dame #12;Outline: Overview of combustion synthesis Reaction system Combustion front analaysis Theoretical model results Conclusions Acknowledgements #12

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Tijrn

    2003-01-01

    This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily

  12. Homogeneously catalyzed synthesis gas transformations to oxygenate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, D.; Mattas, L.; Sanchez, J.

    1992-04-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the ongoing oxygenates synthesis program is addressing the catalytic synthesis gas conversion to liquid fuels and fuel additives. The major thrust of this effort is to enhance carbon conversion, reaction rates, product selectivity and overall process efficiency. To this effect, a series of liquid phase homogeneous catalysts have been developed and successfully utilized in the synthesis of methanol and other oxygenates. This paper identifies advantages and uncertainties associated with these newly developed catalysts. The effect of system parameters on the overall process scheme is discussed.

  13. Homogeneously catalyzed synthesis gas transformations to oxygenate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mahajan, D.; Mattas, L.; Sanchez, J.

    1992-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the ongoing oxygenates synthesis program is addressing the catalytic synthesis gas conversion to liquid fuels and fuel additives. The major thrust of this effort is to enhance carbon conversion, reaction rates, product selectivity and overall process efficiency. To this effect, a series of liquid phase homogeneous catalysts have been developed and successfully utilized in the synthesis of methanol and other oxygenates. This paper identifies advantages and uncertainties associated with these newly developed catalysts. The effect of system parameters on the overall process scheme is discussed.

  14. Using Program Synthesis for Social Recommendations

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Alvin

    2012-08-13

    This paper presents a new approach to select events of interest to a user in a social media setting where events are generated by the activities of the user's friends through their mobile devices. We argue that given the ...

  15. Using program synthesis for social recommendations

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Alvin K.

    This paper presents a new approach to select events of interest to users in a social media setting where events are generated from mobile devices. We argue that the problem is best solved by inductive learning, where the ...

  16. INDUCTIVE SYNTHESIS OF RECURSIVE LOGIC PROGRAMS

    E-print Network

    Flener, Pierre

    . -------------------------------------------------------------- Ass't Prof. Pierre Flener (Principal Advisor) I certify that I have read this thesis and that in my. -------------------------------------------------------------- Ass't Prof. Ilyas �içekli I certify that I have read this thesis and that in my opinion it is fully. -------------------------------------------------------------- Ass't Prof. Ays¸e Göker Approved for the Institute of Engineering and Science

  17. Minimum weight aerospace structural synthesis program

    E-print Network

    Walker, John Michael

    1975-01-01

    (in) maximum height (in) moment of inertia (in ) 4 1 + y+ EXC(n -1) c EXC I 2 1 + y+ EXC(n -2) c EXC J 0 J2 dc' N E xyw w 3/7 n (. 577 a' ) w J3 n -1 n + J2&7 w w 2 w J4 1 + J u w n -1 2 w K s k e buckling coefficient thin walled.... i c i~i 7/ E ( d. g. a, i C M. + p Y. g. d. i m2E g 2 r 1 1. 1 ct ? 1 1+et + d i i w i 0E(N. (52) Differentiating to find a dw. i minimum ? = 0 da. i 2 C (1+y) p r r OPT n y Pc 1+y 1 (0E () 3y+2 E d r (53) To find the minimum weight...

  18. Programmed synthesis of freestanding graphene nanomembrane arrays.

    PubMed

    Waduge, Pradeep; Larkin, Joseph; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Kar, Swastik; Wanunu, Meni

    2015-02-01

    Freestanding graphene membranes are unique materials. The combination of atomically thin dimensions, remarkable mechanical robustness, and chemical stability make porous and non-porous graphene membranes attractive for water purification and various sensing applications. Nanopores in graphene and other 2D materials have been identified as promising devices for next-generation DNA sequencing based on readout of either transverse DNA base-gated current or through-pore ion current. While several ground breaking studies of graphene-based nanopores for DNA analysis have been reported, all methods to date require a physical transfer of the graphene from its source of production onto an aperture support. The transfer process is slow and often leads to tears in the graphene that render many devices useless for nanopore measurements. In this work, we report a novel scalable approach for site-directed fabrication of pinhole-free graphene nanomembranes. Our approach yields high quality few-layer graphene nanomembranes produced in less than a day using a few steps that do not involve transfer. We highlight the functionality of these graphene devices by measuring DNA translocation through electron-beam fabricated nanopores in such membranes. PMID:25236988

  19. Synthesis of multiple shaped beam antenna patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Coffey, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of research into the problem of finding an excitation of a given antenna such that the desired radiation pattern is approximated to within acceptable limits. This is to be done in such a fashion that boundary conditions involving hardware limitations may be inserted into the problem. The intended application is synthesis of multiple shaped beam antennas. Since this is perhaps the most difficult synthesis problem an antenna engineer is likely to encounter, the approach taken was to include as a by-product capability for synthesizing simpler patterns. The synthesis technique has been almost totally computerized. The class of antennas which may be synthesized with the computer program are those which may be represented as planar (continuous or discrete) current distributions. The technique is not limited in this sense and could indeed by extended to include, for example, the synthesis of conformal arrays or current distributions on the surface of reflectors. The antenna types which the program is set up to synthesize are: line source, rectangular aperture, circular aperture, linear array, rectangular array, and arbitrary planar array.

  20. Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

    2008-02-01

    Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. Specifically, the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- uptake were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

  1. Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

    2007-08-01

    Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. The synthesis of one class of membrane lipids, the phospholipids, also creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- incorporation were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

  2. STARLIGHT: Spectral Synthesis Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid Fernandes, R.; Mateus, A.; Sodré, L.; Stasinska, G.; Gomes, J. M.

    2011-08-01

    The study of stellar populations in galaxies is entering a new era with the availability of large and high quality databases of both observed galactic spectra and state-of-the-art evolutionary synthesis models. The power of spectral synthesis can be investigated as a mean to estimate physical properties of galaxies. Spectral synthesis is nothing more than the decomposition of an observed spectrum in terms of a superposition of a base of simple stellar populations of various ages and metallicities, producing astrophysically interesting output such as the star-formation and chemical enrichment histories of a galaxy, its extinction and velocity dispersion. This is what the STARLIGHT spectral synthesis code does.

  3. The economies of synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    In this tutorial review the economies of synthesis are analysed from both detailed and macroscopic perspectives, using case-studies from complex molecule synthesis. Atom, step, and redox economy are more than philosophical constructs, but rather guidelines, which enable the synthetic chemist to design and execute an efficient synthesis. Students entering the field of synthesis might find this tutorial helpful for understanding the subtle differences between these economic principles and also see real-world situations where such principles are put into practice. PMID:19847337

  4. Z .Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, 1, 121 164 2000 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Manufactured in The Netherlands.

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    , reinforce the prediction that genetic programming is on the threshold of routinely producing human patentable new inventions. Keywords: control, network synthesis, genetic programming, humanZ .Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, 1, 121 164 2000 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers

  5. Synthesis of Fondaparinux: modular synthesis investigation for heparin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Lian, Gaoyan; Zhou, Ying

    2013-04-19

    The anti-thromboembolic pentasaccharide Fondaparinux was synthesized in 36 steps for the longest linear route, with 0.017% overall yield from D-glucose. Only three kinds of protecting groups were used for hydroxyl protection, Bn, Ac, and Bz, to accomplish this complex synthesis without decreasing the synthetic efficiency. Three L-idopyranosyl donors were investigated. Thioethyl glycoside is an efficient donor for L-idopyranosyl glycosylation with full ?-selectivity, while L-idopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate resulted in poor ?/? selectivity. A practical synthesis of key intermediate 1,6-anhydro-L-idopyranose 17 by H(+)/?-CD catalyst was developed. PMID:23474455

  6. Proposals for planetary programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proposals submitted to the planetary geology and geophysics program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will be reviewed this fall. Scientists interested in being supported early in fiscal 1985 by the planetary and geophysics program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) should submit their research proposals to the agency by late August. Although the program accepts unsolicited proposals at any time, it is anticipated that proposals received by NASA by late August will be reviewed this fall by a peer review panel.The program supports scientific investigations that contribute to the understanding of the geological and geophysical evolution of the planets, their satellites, and smaller solar system bodies (asteroids and comets). Several types of research efforts underpin the program: generation of new, basic data; analysis and synthesis of existing data; and combination of both activities. The program fosters the gathering, synthesis, and comparative study of data that will improve the understanding of planetary geological and geophysical processes, their extent, and the results of their interactions through time; the origin and evolution of the solar system; the nature of earth in comparison to other planets; and the origin and distribution of life in the universe.

  7. Java Programming Certificate Program

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Java Programming Certificate Program COMPUTER PROGRAMMING The Java programming language lies that fuel the Internet economy. In addition, the portability inherent in Java is useful for programming are likely to encounter projects in the near future that require knowledge of Java. Who Should Enroll

  8. Java Programming Certificate Program

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    Java Programming Certificate Program COMPUTER PROGRAMMING The Java programming language lies that fuel the Internet economy. In addition, the portability inherent in Java is useful for programming languages are likely to encounter projects in the near future that require knowledge of Java. Who Should

  9. Automatic Synthesis of Active Electronic Networks using Genetic Algorithms IEE/IEEE International Conference on Genetic Algorithms in Engineering Systems: Innovations and Applications

    E-print Network

    Grimbleby, James

    containing a single operational amplifier. Active Network Synthesis using GAs Operational amplifiers haveAutomatic Synthesis of Active Electronic Networks using Genetic Algorithms IEE/IEEE International. In spite of the fact that no expert rules are built into the synthesis program, the networks generated

  10. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Roads; R. Lawford; E. Bainto; E. Berbery; S. Chen; B. Fekete; K. Gallo; A. Grundstein; W. Higgins; M. Kanamitsu; W. Krajewski; V. Lakshmi; D. Leathers; D. Lettenmaier; L. Luo; E. Maurer; T. Meyers; D. Miller; K. Mitchell; T. Mote; R. Pinker; T. Reichler; D. Robinson; A. Robock; J. Smith; G. Srinivasan; K. Verdin; K. Vinnikov; T. Vonder Haar; C. Vörösmarty; S. Williams; E. Yarosh

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996–1999 from the “best available” observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the

  11. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Roads; R. Lawford; E. Bainto; E. Berbery; S. Chen; B. Fekete; K. Gallo; A. Grundstein; W. Higgins; M. Kanamitsu; W. Krajewski; V. Lakshmi; D. Leathers; D. Lettenmaier; L. Luo; E. Maurer; T. Meyers; D. Miller; K. Mitchell; T. Mote; R. Pinker; T. Reichler; D. Robinson; A. Robock; J. Smith; G. Srinivasan; K. Verdin; K. Vinnikov; T. Vonder Haar; C. Vörösmarty; S. Williams; E. Yarosh

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 from the ``best available'' observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the

  12. Program Aids Analysis And Optimization Of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.; Lamarsh, William J., II

    1994-01-01

    NETS/ PROSSS (NETS Coupled With Programming System for Structural Synthesis) computer program developed to provide system for combining NETS (MSC-21588), neural-network application program and CONMIN (Constrained Function Minimization, ARC-10836), optimization program. Enables user to reach nearly optimal design. Design then used as starting point in normal optimization process, possibly enabling user to converge to optimal solution in significantly fewer iterations. NEWT/PROSSS written in C language and FORTRAN 77.

  13. A Synthesis of Studies Examining Long-Term Language Minority Student Data on Academic Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia P. Collier

    1992-01-01

    This article provides a research synthesis of studies that have examined language-minority students' academic achievement over a period of four or more years, for a comparison with the longitudinal findings on student academic achievement reported in the Ramírez study. One program variable is the focus of this synthesis--the use of a minority language for instructional purposes. Some of the limitations

  14. Sehwa: a software package for synthesis of pipelines from behavioral specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice C. Parker

    1988-01-01

    A set of techniques for the synthesis of pipelined data paths is described, and Sehwa, a program that performs such synthesis, is presented. The task includes the generation of data paths from a data-flow graph along with a clocking scheme that overlaps execution of multiple tasks. Some design examples are given. Sehwa can find the minimum-cost design, the highest performance

  15. Total synthesis of gambierol.

    PubMed

    Fuwa, Haruhiko; Sasaki, Makoto; Satake, Masayuki; Tachibana, Kazuo

    2002-08-22

    [structure: see text] The first total synthesis of gambierol, a marine polycyclic ether toxin, has been achieved. The synthesis features the Pd(PPh3)4/CuCl/LiCl-promoted Stille coupling for the stereoselective construction of the sensitive triene side chain that includes a conjugated (Z,Z)-diene moiety. PMID:12182604

  16. Optica aperture synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casper van der Avoort

    2006-01-01

    Optical long baseline stellar interferometry is an observational technique in astronomy that already exists for over a century, but is truly blooming during the last decades. The undoubted value of stellar interferometry as a technique to measure stellar parameters beyond the classical resolution limit is more and more spreading to the regime of synthesis imaging. With optical aperture synthesis imaging,

  17. Wireplanning in logic synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilsin Gosti; Amit Narayan; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new logic synthesis methodology to deal with the increasing importance of the interconnect delay in deep- submicron technologies. We first show that conventional logic syn- thesis techniques can produce circuits which will have long paths even if placed optimally. Then, we characterize the conditions under which this can happen and propose logic synthesis techniques

  18. Multilevel logic synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Brayton; G. D. Hachtel; A. L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

    1990-01-01

    A survey of logic synthesis techniques for multilevel combinational logic is presented. The goal is to provide more in-depth background and perspective for people interested in pursuing or assessing some of the topics in this emerging field. Introductions, capsule summaries, and, in some cases, detailed analysis of the synthesis methods that have become established as practically significant are provided. Also

  19. Active Document Layout Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaofan Lin

    2005-01-01

    Document layout analysis has been researched for many years. However, there is little work on the reverse of document layout analysis: document layout synthesis, whose goal is to generate logically correct and aesthetically appealing layout given the text\\/image contents and the flexible layout template. This paper introduces a new automatic document layout synthesis method, which can actively pursue the optimal

  20. Total synthesis of (+)-cyperolone.

    PubMed

    Klahn, Philipp; Duschek, Alexander; Liébert, Clémence; Kirsch, Stefan F

    2012-03-01

    The total synthesis of (+)-cyperolone, an eudesmane-derived sesquiterpenoid from Cyperus rotundus, is described. The de novo synthesis was accomplished via a 15 step sequence starting from (R)-(-)-carvone. The synthetic route features a platinum-catalyzed cycloisomerization to rapidly construct the bicyclic core from a 3-silyloxy-1,5-enyne intermediate. PMID:22324453

  1. Selected Programs College Program

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    Selected Programs College Program City College Sophie Davis BS/MD Program Physician Assistant Technology Physician Assistant Nursing Occupational Therapy Pharmaceutical Sciences Social Work John Jay/Paramedic Exercise Science Nursing Physical Therapy Assistant Surgical Technology BMCC Emergency Medical Technician

  2. General aviation design synthesis utilizing interactive computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.; Smith, M. R.

    1976-01-01

    Interactive computer graphics is a fast growing area of computer application, due to such factors as substantial cost reductions in hardware, general availability of software, and expanded data communication networks. In addition to allowing faster and more meaningful input/output, computer graphics permits the use of data in graphic form to carry out parametric studies for configuration selection and for assessing the impact of advanced technologies on general aviation designs. The incorporation of interactive computer graphics into a NASA developed general aviation synthesis program is described, and the potential uses of the synthesis program in preliminary design are demonstrated.

  3. Chemical Biology Coop Program (New for January 2011) Students from the Chemical Biology Coop Program will be prepared to conduct work terms in areas such as

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Chemical Biology Coop Program (New for January 2011) Students from the Chemical Biology Coop of the Chemical Biology Coop Program: Bioanalytical Chemistry Organic Chemistry & synthesis Cellular & molecular biology Nucleic acid structure & function Metabolism and regulation Modern physics Genetics Biomolecular

  4. Physical Synthesis TechniquesPhysical Synthesis TechniquesPhysical Synthesis TechniquesPhysical Synthesis Techniques Thin Film Processes

    E-print Network

    Liu, Kai

    Physical Synthesis TechniquesPhysical Synthesis TechniquesPhysical Synthesis TechniquesPhysical Synthesis Techniques Thin Film Processes (Vossen & Kern, Academic Press) #12;I. SputteringI. Sputtering SubstrateSubstrate + Target atom A i Target + + + Ar ion -V High purity sputtering gas necessary Typically 0

  5. Synthesizing Programs with Constraint Solvers

    E-print Network

    Bodik, Rastisla

    ) we will examine key ideas next 6 #12;Denali: synthesis with axioms and E-graphs . 2 = 2 , . 2 to semantics-preserving rules ­ only correct programs are explored ­ Denali is scalable: prior super-optimizers gen-and-test Successfully built for axiomatizable domains ­ expression equivalence (Denali) ­ linear

  6. U.S.ClimateChange Science Program

    E-print Network

    Pennycook, Steve

    to the Guidelines for Producing Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis and Assessment Products. The prospectus was reviewed and approved by the CCSP Interagency Committee. The document describes the focus-2007), in line with Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Decision Support Goal 1: "Prepare scientific syntheses

  7. Programming ProgrammingModel

    E-print Network

    Browne, James C.

    9/11/01 Parallel Programming 1 Notes on Carriero and Gelernter Four Steps in Developing a Parallel and Gelernter cover the first three with the coverage of the third topic restricted to Linda. 9/11/01 Parallel.Measure the programs behavior 6. Transform to obtain efficient program. 9/11/01 Parallel Programming 3

  8. Gas Phase Nanoparticle Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granqvist, Claes; Kish, Laszlo; Marlow, William

    This book deals with gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis and is intended for researchers and research students in nanomaterials science and engineering, condensed matter physics and chemistry, and aerosol science. Gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis is instrumental to nanotechnology - a field in current focus that raises hopes for environmentally benign, resource-lean manufacturing. Nanoparticles can be produced by many physical, chemical, and even biological routes. Gas-phase synthesis is particularly interesting since one can achieve accurate manufacturing control and hence industrial viability.

  9. Synthesis of dimethyl ether and alternative fuels in the liquid phase from coal-derived synthesis gas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Through the mid-1980s, Air Products has brought the liquid phase approach to a number of other synthesis gas reactions where effective heat management is a key issue. In 1989, in response to DOE`s PRDA No. DE-RA22-88PC88805, Air Products proposed a research and development program entitled ``Synthesis of Dimethyl Ether and Alternative Fuels in the Liquid Phase from Coal Derived Syngas.`` The proposal aimed at extending the LPMEOH experience to convert coal-derived synthesis gas to other useful fuels and chemicals. The work proposed included development of a novel one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas, and exploration of other liquid phase synthesis of alternative fuel directly from syngas. The one-step DME process, conceived in 1986 at Air Products as a means of increasing syngas conversion to liquid products, envisioned the concept of converting product methanol in situ to DME in a single reactor. The slurry reactor based liquid phase technology is ideally suited for such an application, since the second reaction (methanol to DME) can be accomplished by adding a second catalyst with dehydration activity to the methanol producing reactor. An area of exploration for other alternative fuels directly from syngas was single-step slurry phase synthesis of hydrocarbons via methanol and DME as intermediates. Other possibilities included the direct synthesis of mixed alcohols and mixed ethers in a slurry reactor.

  10. SUMMARY OF EMISSIONS MANAGEMENT STRATEGY POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S PM SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is developing an integrated synthesis of key scientific and policy-relevant findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program. This presentation provides a summary of the program and the integrated synthesis. Since there are many examples of such findings, ranging f...

  11. Modern Evolutionary Synthesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wikipedia

    This site from Wickipedia describes the modern evolutionary synthesis. This theory brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. Essentially, the modern synthesis (or neo-Darwinism) introduces the connection between two important discoveries; the units of evolution (genes) with the mechanism of evolution (selection). The site features links to any of the topics discussed.

  12. Template synthesis of nanomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Wade; J.-E. Wegrowe

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of template synthesis as it applies to our nanomaterials research. This bottom-up approach is motivated by our desire to find an alternative to the big, top-down approaches to nanoscience, such as clean-rooms and X-ray lithography. Using universally available templates and materials, and very modest synthesis techniques, we have created a variety of interesting and useful structures.

  13. ActionReaction Learning: Analysis and Synthesis of Human

    E-print Network

    Jebara, Tony

    an action and its reaction by observing time sequences. I apply this method to analyze human interactionAction­Reaction Learning: Analysis and Synthesis of Human Behaviour by Tony Jebara BMassachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998 All Rights Reserved Signature of Author Program in Media Arts and Sciences 15

  14. MODEL-BASED CONTROL SYNTHESIS FOR DISCRETE EVENT SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mourad Chouikha; Eckehard Schnieder; Bernhard Ober; Siemens AG

    In control engineering models of the controlled systems are the basis for controller synthesis as well as for analyti- cal or simulative examination of open or closed-loop be- haviour. This model-based methodology is being trans- ferred into automation engineering by means of a devel- opment environment for the programming of logical con- trollers. Petri net models of the controlled system

  15. Model-based Synthesis and Diagnosis of Discrete Event Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mourad Chouikha; Eckehard Schnieder; Karsten Lemmer; Siemens AG

    In control engineering models of the controlled systems are the basis for controller synthesis as well as for analytical or sim ulative exami- nation of open or closed-loop behaviour. This model-based methodology is being transferred into automation engineering by means of a development environment for the programming of logical controllers. Petri net models of the controlled system allow an automati

  16. Enabling Integration and Synthesis through the Ridge 2000 Data Portal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Ryan; V. Ferrini; S. M. Carbotte; S. O'Hara; R. A. Arko; J. Bonczkowski; S. Chan

    2009-01-01

    Achieving an integrated, holistic understanding of global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) processes through the Ridge 2000 Program relies heavily on the sharing of data across disciplinary boundaries. Although most Ridge 2000 research has been focused on three Integrated Study Sites (ISSs), data from throughout the global mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system will also be important in the integration and synthesis phase of

  17. Child Abuse and Neglect Programs: Practice and Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Monica B.

    Presented are detailed reports of eight child abuse and neglect programs, and a synthesis of the information obtained through onsite visits to programs and a review of the literature. Provided in Part I are the descriptive case studies of two hospital-based programs (Children's Trauma Center, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland,…

  18. Sourcebook for Improving Postsecondary Self-Employment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Two Year Coll. Student Development Center.

    This sourcebook on small business/entrepreneurship programs is based on beliefs and experiences of staff members involved in a project to improve such programs in New York two-year colleges. The major section, a Handbook for Coordinators of Postsecondary Programs for Self-Employment, is a synthesis of ideas and recommendations in ten decision…

  19. 34 CFR 668.10 - Direct assessment programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...specific subject, content area, or skill or that the student demonstrates a specific quality such as creativity, analysis or synthesis associated with the subject matter of the program. Examples of direct measures include projects, papers,...

  20. Multivoxel patterns in face-sensitive temporal regions reveal an encoding schema based on detecting life in a face.

    PubMed

    Looser, Christine E; Guntupalli, Jyothi S; Wheatley, Thalia

    2013-10-01

    More than a decade of research has demonstrated that faces evoke prioritized processing in a 'core face network' of three brain regions. However, whether these regions prioritize the detection of global facial form (shared by humans and mannequins) or the detection of life in a face has remained unclear. Here, we dissociate form-based and animacy-based encoding of faces by using animate and inanimate faces with human form (humans, mannequins) and dog form (real dogs, toy dogs). We used multivariate pattern analysis of BOLD responses to uncover the representational similarity space for each area in the core face network. Here, we show that only responses in the inferior occipital gyrus are organized by global facial form alone (human vs dog) while animacy becomes an additional organizational priority in later face-processing regions: the lateral fusiform gyri (latFG) and right superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, patterns evoked by human faces were maximally distinct from all other face categories in the latFG and parts of the extended face perception system. These results suggest that once a face configuration is perceived, faces are further scrutinized for whether the face is alive and worthy of social cognitive resources. PMID:22798395

  1. Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

  2. Ensure Program Correctness Programming Languages

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Ensure Program Correctness Programming Languages and Formal Methods Research Group Lab Coordinator Bow-Yaw Wang The Programming Languages and Formal Methods Research Group develops techniques to help ensure program correctness. Our research in programming languages focuses on syntactic, semantic

  3. Planet Population Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Benz, W; Alibert, Y; Lin, D N C; Mordasini, C

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing number of exoplanets discovered, statistical properties of the population as a whole become unique constraints on planet formation models provided a link between the description of the detailed processes playing a role in this formation and the observed population can be established. Planet population synthesis provides such a link. The approach allows to study how different physical models of individual processes (e.g., proto-planetary disc structure and evolution, planetesimal formation, gas accretion, migration, etc.) affect the overall properties of the population of emerging planets. By necessity, planet population synthesis relies on simplified descriptions of complex processes. These descriptions can be obtained from more detailed specialised simulations of these processes. The objective of this chapter is twofold: 1) provide an overview of the physics entering in the two main approaches to planet population synthesis and 2) present some of the results achieved as well as illustrate...

  4. Program Slicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Weiser

    1984-01-01

    Program slicing is a method used by experienced computer programmers for abstracting from programs. Starting from a subset of a program's behavior, slicing reduces that program to a minimal form which still produces that behavior. The reduced program, called a “slice”, is an independent program guaranteed to faithfully represent the original program within the domain of the specified subset of

  5. Program Slicing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Weiser

    1981-01-01

    Program slicing is a method used by experienced computer programmers for abstracting from programs. Starting from a subset of a program's behavior, slicing reduces that program to a minimal form which still produces that behavior. The reduced program, called a “slice”, is an independent program guaranteed to faithfully represent the original program within the domain of the specified subset of

  6. Electrochemical synthesis of cyclopropanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elinson, M. N.; Dorofeeva, E. O.; Vereshchagin, A. N.; Nikishin, G. I.

    2015-05-01

    Data on methods of electrochemical synthesis of cyclopropanes are summarized and described systematically. Direct electrochemical methods to afford cyclopropanes in both cathodic and anodic processes are considered. Among indirect electrochemical methods such as the processes employing electrogenerated bases and also those involving electrogenerated metal complexes, attention is focused on the most promising methods for the synthesis of functionally substituted cyclopropanes, namely, the electrocatalytic cascade and multicomponent transformations of CH acids and also the joint electrolysis of CH acids and activated alkenes or carbonyl compounds in the presence of alkali metal halides as mediators. The bibliography includes 62 references.

  7. Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2004-01-01

    A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

  8. B7-H1 Is Expressed by Human Endothelial Cells and Suppresses T Cell Cytokine Synthesis1

    E-print Network

    Hughes, Christopher C. W.

    T cell ligand, programmed death-1 (PD-1), using a PD-1-Fc fusion protein, or by blocking B7-H1 expression regulator of cytokine synthesis. However, signaling through PD-1 does not affect induction of the activation

  9. Use of Automatically Defined Functions and Architecture-Altering Operations in Automated Circuit Synthesis with Genetic

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    -passband filter is genetically evolved in which the architecture-altering operations discover a suitable programUse of Automatically Defined Functions and Architecture- Altering Operations in Automated Circuit Synthesis with Genetic Programming John R. Koza Computer Science Dept. 258 Gates Building Stanford

  10. Inverse texture synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-yi Wei; Jianwei Han; Kun Zhou; Hujun Bao; Baining Guo; Heung-yeung Shum

    2008-01-01

    The quality and speed of most texture synthesis algorithms depend on a 2D input sample that is small and contains enough texture variations. However, little research exists on how to acquire such a sample. For homogeneous patterns this can be achieved via manual cropping, but no adequate solution exists for inhomogeneous or globally varying textures, i.e. patterns that are local

  11. Synthesis in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsella, Maria

    This paper discusses various techniques that scientists and other professionals can use to keep current in their field despite the large amount of available information, such as consulting abstracts, indexes, reviews, and catalogues. It also examines specific language patterns that are used in the sciences to produce synthesis and abridgement,…

  12. Statistical Parametric Speech Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    synthesis All segments Target cost Concatenation cost · Concatenate actual instances of speech from database analysis Text analysis Model training x y x y^ l^ · Training - Extract linguistic features x & acoustic features y - Train acoustic model given (x, y) ^ = arg max p(y | x, ) Heiga Zen Statistical Parametric

  13. Total synthesis of (-)-goniotrionin.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luiz C; Ferreira, Marco A B

    2012-04-20

    A stereoselective total synthesis of the reported structure of goniotrionin (4) has been accomplished. The key steps involved the opening of a chiral epoxide, a highly diastereoselective Mukaiyama aerobic oxidative cyclization, a selective 1,2-syn Mukaiyama aldol reaction, and a Noyori reduction. PMID:22443275

  14. Combustion synthesis and nanomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Singanahally T. Aruna; Alexander S. Mukasyan

    2008-01-01

    The recent developments and trends in combustion science towards the synthesis of nanomaterials are discussed. Different modifications made to conventional combustion approaches for preparation of nanomaterials are critically analyzed. Special attention is paid to various applications of combustion synthesized nanosized products.

  15. Pesticide National Synthesis Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pesticide National Synthesis Project homepage offers a number of publications and reports on pesticides in the Hydrologic System. The site also features data sets, national maps of pesticide use, and some special topic reports, as well as information on the Project and its staff.

  16. SYNTHESIS & INTEGRATION Earth Stewardship

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    SYNTHESIS & INTEGRATION Earth Stewardship: science for action to sustain the human-earth system F, A. G. Power, and A. Bartuska. 2011. Earth Stewardship: science for action to sustain the human. This paper describes Earth Stewardship, an initiative of the Ecological Society of America to provide

  17. Collaborative Information Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Catherine; Pratt, Wanda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the growth in the quantity of scientific literature and advances in information retrieval techniques to find relevant articles. Explores user behavior and information requirements of scientists as they interact with medical literature to answer research questions and introduces METIS (Multi-user extraction and information synthesis) to…

  18. Total synthesis of (?)-vallesamidine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Tanino; Kazuhisa Fukuishi; Mina Ushiyama; Kunisuke Okada

    2002-01-01

    A new synthetic method of (?)-vallesamidine, including a unique 2,2,3-trialkylindoline skeleton, is developed by reductive radical cyclization reaction from the 2,3-dialkylindole derivative, which has been known to be an intermediate for the synthesis of aspidospermidine.

  19. Total synthesis of (+/-)-aspidospermidine.

    PubMed

    Toczko, M A; Heathcock, C H

    2000-05-01

    (+/-)-Aspidospermidine (1) has been synthesized from readily available methyl 3-ethyl-2-oxocylo-pentanecarboxylate (17) in 5.9% yield over 13 steps. The key step of the synthesis is an intramolecular cascade reaction that simultaneously forms the B, C, and D rings of 1. A high-yielding method of closing the remaining E ring is also described. PMID:10808435

  20. Photochemical Synthesis of Nepetanudone.

    PubMed

    Jayan, Swapna; Jones, Paul B

    2015-06-26

    Nepetanudone and nepetaparnone have been suspected of being the products of a photochemical dimerization of nepetapyrone. Both are natural products found in a variety of Nepeta species. The synthesis of (±)-nepetapyrone and subsequent photochemical experiments are described. (±)-Nepetanudone was produced upon irradiation of (±)-nepetapyrone, while (±)-nepetaparnone, a diastereomer of nepetanudone, was not observed. PMID:25978278

  1. Spectrum synthesis for magnetic, chemically stratified stellar atmospheres

    E-print Network

    O. Kochukhov

    2007-01-04

    Modern investigations of magnetic chemically peculiar stars reveal a variety of complex processes in their atmospheres. Realistic spectrum synthesis modelling of these objects has to take into account anomalous chemical composition, strong magnetic field and chemical stratification. These effects complicate calculation of theoretical spectra, especially when one has to deal with large number of lines and wide spectral regions. To overcome the formidable problem of comparing model and observed spectra for magnetic chemically peculiar stars, a new suite of spectrum synthesis programs was developed. Here we describe in detail the synthesis codes, Synth3 and Synthmag and present examples of their application to various aspects of the peculiar-star surface phenomena. The new codes proved to be reliable tools for the line identification, magnetic field determination, chemical abundance and stratification analysis.

  2. Interactive systems design and synthesis of future spacecraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze and conduct parametric studies and modify Earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  3. Perovskite membranes by aqueous combustion synthesis: synthesis and properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander S. Mukasyan; Colleen Costello; Katherine P. Sherlock; David Lafarga; Arvind Varma

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to identify optimum synthesis, compacting and sintering conditions in order to achieve a pure phase fully densified La0.8Sr0.2CrO3 (LSC) perovskite membrane. The aqueous combustion synthesis of LSC powders was investigated over a wide range of synthesis conditions by using the metal nitrates (oxidizer)–glycine (fuel) system. The powders were pressed and sintered to create dense

  4. Knowledge-based synthesis of custom VLSI router software. [Very Large Scale Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Setliff, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis describes a synthesis architecture for automatic generation of technology-sensitive VLSI physical design tools from high-level specifications. Physical design refers to the process of reducing a structural description of a piece of hardwater down to the geometric layout of an integrated circuit. Successful physical design tools must cope with shifting technology and application environments. The author argues that the appropriate place for technology-dependent information is not in the run-time environment of such tools, but in a generator for these tools. They describe a synthesis architecture and its prototype implementation - called ELF - that integrates knowledge of the application domain with knowledge of generic programming mechanics. ELF strives to meet the demands of the target technology by automatically generating an implementation of the tool to match the application requirements. The ELF synthesis architecture has three key features. First, a very high level language, lacking data structure implementation specifications, is used to describe algorithm design styles. Second, application domain knowledge and generic program synthesis knowledge are used to guide search among candidate design styles for all necessary component algorithms, and to deduce compatible data structure implementations for these components. Third, code generation is used to transform the resulting abstract descriptions of selected algorithms and data structures into final, executable code. Code generation is an incremental, stepwise refinement process, and also relies on application domain knowledge, as well as generic program synthesis knowledge. A wide variety of fully-functional routers has been synthesized by ELF, and verified on both synthetic and industrial routing benchmarks. ELF demonstrates a synthesis architecture that efficiently generates router software using router domain-specific and generic program synthesis knowledge as a synthesis guide.

  5. A high-level approach to synthesis of high-performance codes for quantum chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Baumgartner; David E. Bernholdt; Daniel Cociorva; Robert J. Harrison; So Hirata; Chi-Chung Lam; Marcel Nooijen; Russell M. Pitzer; J. Ramanujam; P. Sadayappan

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to the synthesis of high-performance parallel programs for a class of computations encountered in quantum chemistry and physics. These computations are expressible as a set of tensor contractions and arise in electronic structure modeling. An overview is provided of the synthesis system, that transforms a high-level specification of the computation into high-performance parallel code, tailored

  6. Synthesis of communicating processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abha Moitra; Bombay INDIA

    1983-01-01

    Today's technological and economic profile make it desirable to attempt distributed solutions for a majority of computing tasks. In this paper we describe a scheme by which a sequential program can be transformed into a weakly equivalent distributed program. This transformation can, in principle, be automated and is applicable to any program written in a sequential guarded command language. The

  7. Deductive Glue Code Synthesis for Embedded Software Systems Based on Code Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jian; Fu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yansheng; Bastani, Farokh; Yen, I-Ling; Tai, Ann; Chau, Savio N.

    2006-01-01

    Automated code synthesis is a constructive process that can be used to generate programs from specifications. It can, thus, greatly reduce the software development cost and time. The use of formal code synthesis approach for software generation further increases the dependability of the system. Though code synthesis has many potential benefits, the synthesis techniques are still limited. Meanwhile, components are widely used in embedded system development. Applying code synthesis to component based software development (CBSD) process can greatly enhance the capability of code synthesis while reducing the component composition efforts. In this paper, we discuss the issues and techniques for applying deductive code synthesis techniques to CBSD. For deductive synthesis in CBSD, a rule base is the key for inferring appropriate component composition. We use the code patterns to guide the development of rules. Code patterns have been proposed to capture the typical usages of the components. Several general composition operations have been identified to facilitate systematic composition. We present the technique for rule development and automated generation of new patterns from existing code patterns. A case study of using this method in building a real-time control system is also presented.

  8. Prebiotic synthesis of histidine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, C.; Yang, L.; Miller, S. L.; Oro, J.

    1990-01-01

    The prebiotic formation of histidine (His) has been accomplished experimentally by the reaction of erythrose with formamidine followed by a Strecker synthesis. In the first step of this reaction sequence, the formation of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde took place by the condensation of erythrose and formamidine, two compounds that are known to be formed under prebiotic conditions. In a second step, the imidazole-4-acetaldehyde was converted to His, without isolation of the reaction products by adding HCN and ammonia to the reaction mixture. LC, HPLC, thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the product, which was obtained in a yield of 3.5% based on the ratio of His/erythrose. This is a new chemical synthesis of one of the basic amino acids which had not been synthesized prebiotically until now.

  9. Total synthesis of clostrubin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Jian; Li, Ang

    2015-01-01

    Clostrubin is a potent antibiotic against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria that was isolated from a strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium beijerinckii in 2014. This polyphenol possesses a fully substituted arene moiety on its pentacyclic scaffold, which poses a considerable challenge for chemical synthesis. Here we report the first total synthesis of clostrubin in nine steps (the longest linear sequence). A desymmetrization strategy is exploited based on the inherent structural feature of the natural product. Barton–Kellogg olefination forges the two segments together to form a tetrasubstituted alkene. A photo-induced 6? electrocyclization followed by spontaneous aromatization constructs the hexasubstituted B ring at a late stage. In total, 200?mg of clostrubin are delivered through this approach. PMID:25759087

  10. Oxygenates from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, W.; Keim, W. [Institute fur Technische Chemie, Aschen (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The direct synthesis of oxygenates starting from synthesis gas is feasible by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous Rh and Ru based catalysts yielding methyl formate and alcohols will be presented. Interestingly, modified heterogeneous catalysts based on {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysis, practized in Germany (BRD) up to 1952 and in the former DDR until recently, yield isobutanol in addition to methanol. These {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysts are obtained by adding a base such as Li < Na < K < Cs to a Zn-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol catalyst. Isobutanol is obtained in up to 15% yield. Our best catalyst a Zr-Zn-Mn-Li-Pd catalyst produced isobotanol up to 60% at a rate of 740g isobutanol per liter catalyst and hour.

  11. Remote sensing image synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Liu; Alexander Wong; Paul W. Fieguth

    2010-01-01

    For remote sensing data, the testing analysis tools is difficult since the ground-truth data are not available in many cases. To address this issue, a novel method for image synthesis is presented for use as a evaluation test-bed. Given the scale-dependent, non-stationary nature of remotely sensed data, a new modeling approach that combines a resolution-oriented hierarchical method with a regional

  12. Laser Synthesis of Nanomaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sébastien Besner; Michel Meunier

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a We present an overview of the basic principles and applications of laser-based synthesis of nanomaterials. Pulsed laser ablation\\u000a (PLA) of a bulk solid leads to the formation of nanoparticles having essentially the target composition.When performed in\\u000a vacuum or in a gas, the ejected clusters may accumulate on a subtrate, thus producing a nanostructured thin film. In liquids,\\u000a it produces a

  13. Microplasmas for nanomaterials synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Mariotti; R Mohan Sankaran

    2010-01-01

    Microplasmas have attracted a tremendous amount of interest from the plasma community because of their small physical size, stable operation at atmospheric pressure, non-thermal characteristics, high electron densities and non-Maxwellian electron energy distributions. These properties make microplasmas suitable for a wide range of materials applications, including the synthesis of nanomaterials. Research has shown that vapour-phase precursors can be injected into

  14. Leonurine, an improved synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Cheng; C. S. Yip; H. W. Yeung; Y. C. Kong

    1979-01-01

    Summary Leonurine (1) is the uterotonic principle ofLeonurus artemisia. We have developed a simple, high-yield synthetic procedure of1 that is adaptable to large scale preparation. The synthesis involves the condensation of syringic acid and 4-guanidino-1-butanol hydrochloride in the presence of DDC using 1?1 HMPT-ether as solvent. The synthetic leonurine showed uterotonic activity in vivo and in vitro.

  15. Leonurine, an improved synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, K F; Yip, C S; Yeung, H W; Kong, Y C

    1979-05-15

    Leonurine (1) is the uterotonic principle of Leonurus artemisia. We have developed a simple, high-yield synthetic procedure of 1 that is adaptable to large scale preparation. The synthesis involves the condensation of syringic acid and 4-guanidino-1-butanol hydrochloride in the presence of DDC using 1:1 HMPT-ether as solvent. The synthetic leonurine showed uterotonic activity in vivo and in vitro. PMID:446644

  16. Machine Assisted Organic Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Ley, Steven V.; Fitzpatrick, Daniel E.; Myers, Rebecca M.; Battilocchio, Claudio; Ingham, Richard. J.

    2015-01-01

    % selectivity could be obtained with the injection of oxygen occurring at half-bed height (Figure 7b). It would not have been possible to evaluate all these dynamic parameters in static batch reactor systems. Figure 6. A photocatalytic reactor in which a... by parts of the chemical research community to adopt these methods since they constitute a disruptive technology and a massive change in the philosophy of synthesis. In time, and with intelligent integration, many of the labor intensive tasks and data...

  17. Inductive Programming Meets the Real World Sumit Gulwani,

    E-print Network

    Muggleton, Stephen H.

    , and cognitive science that studies the automatic synthesis of computer programs from examples and background-world applications emerge with spreadsheet tools, intelligent program tutors, and robotics. 2. Learning from few computers for everyday tasks, but most fail to benefit from the power of computation due to their inability

  18. Occupational Safety and Health Programs in Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Robert D.; And Others

    This resource guide was developed in response to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and is intended to assist teachers in implementing courses in occupational safety and health as part of a career education program. The material is a synthesis of films, programed instruction, slides and narration, case studies, safety pamphlets,…

  19. Computer program for design and performance analysis of navigation-aid power systems. Program documentation. Volume 1: Software requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goltz, G.; Kaiser, L. M.; Weiner, H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program has been developed for designing and analyzing the performance of solar array/battery power systems for the U.S. Coast Guard Navigational Aids. This program is called the Design Synthesis/Performance Analysis (DSPA) Computer Program. The basic function of the Design Synthesis portion of the DSPA program is to evaluate functional and economic criteria to provide specifications for viable solar array/battery power systems. The basic function of the Performance Analysis portion of the DSPA program is to simulate the operation of solar array/battery power systems under specific loads and environmental conditions. This document establishes the software requirements for the DSPA computer program, discusses the processing that occurs within the program, and defines the necessary interfaces for operation.

  20. Analysis and synthesis of abstract data types through generalization from examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, Christian

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of general patterns of behavior from a set of input/output examples can be a useful technique in the automated analysis and synthesis of software systems. These generalized descriptions of the behavior form a set of assertions which can be used for validation, program synthesis, program testing and run-time monitoring. Describing the behavior is characterized as a learning process in which general patterns can be easily characterized. The learning algorithm must choose a transform function and define a subset of the transform space which is related to equivalence classes of behavior in the original domain. An algorithm for analyzing the behavior of abstract data types is presented and several examples are given. The use of the analysis for purposes of program synthesis is also discussed.

  1. Analysis and synthesis of abstract data types through generalization from examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, Christian

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of general patterns of behavior from a set of input/output examples can be a useful technique in the automated analysis and synthesis of software systems. These generalized descriptions of the behavior form a set of assertions which can be used for validation, program synthesis, program testing, and run-time monitoring. Describing the behavior is characterized as a learning process in which the set of inputs is mapped into an appropriate transform space such that general patterns can be easily characterized. The learning algorithm must chose a transform function and define a subset of the transform space which is related to equivalence classes of behavior in the original domain. An algorithm for analyzing the behavior of abstract data types is presented and several examples are given. The use of the analysis for purposes of program synthesis is also discussed.

  2. Mississippi/Alabama Pinnacle Trend Ecosystem Monitoring Final Synthesis Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Continental Shelf Associates Inc.; Texas A&M University, Geochemical and Environmental Research Group

    2001-01-01

    This Final Synthesis Report summarizes a four-year program to characterize and monitor carbonate mounds on the Mississippi/Alabama outer continental shelf (OCS). The study area is shown in Fig.ES.1. The study was conducted by Continental Shelf Associates, Inc. and the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) of Texas A&M University (TAMU), for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Biological Resources Division.

  3. Graduate Program

    E-print Network

    Internal Resources · Computing Information · Business Office · Information for ... Please use the links below to navigate the Graduate Program's online ... Almost all of our graduate students have financial assistance in the form of ... Interdisciplinary Degree Programs; Computational Finance Program · Computational Science ...

  4. Graduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Includes four sections that present information on doctoral programs in instructional technology; master's degree and six-year programs in instructional technology; graduate programs in educational computing; and scholarships, fellowships, and awards in related fields. (LRW)

  5. Graduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This directory describes graduate programs in instructional technology, educational media and communications, school library media, and closely allied programs in the United States. Entries are listed alphabetically by state, following a classified list of programs. (AEF)

  6. Sponsored Program Resources SPONSORED PROGRAMS

    E-print Network

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Sponsored Program Resources - 1 - SPONSORED PROGRAMS Sponsored programs are research, instruction for sponsored programs is provided through an agreement between the sponsor and Syracuse University are being achieved and funds properly used Sponsored programs are managed by the Office of Sponsored

  7. BSA BENEFITS PROGRAM BSA Benefits Program

    E-print Network

    ...................................................................................................................... 7 Medical Programs............................................................................................................................. 8 Medical Programs Comparison Chart................................................................................................. 10 Dental Programs

  8. Total Synthesis of Propolisbenzofuran B†

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Brian T.; Avetta, Christopher T.; Thomson, Regan J.

    2014-01-01

    The first total synthesis of propolisbenzofuran B, a bioactive natural product isolated from honeybee propolis resin, is reported. The convergent synthesis makes use of a silicon-tether controlled oxidative ketone–ketone cross-coupling and a novel benzofuran-generating cascade reaction to deliver the core structure of the natural product from readily prepared precursors. PMID:24976944

  9. Total synthesis of bryostatin 9.

    PubMed

    Wender, Paul A; Schrier, Adam J

    2011-06-22

    The total synthesis of bryostatin 9 was accomplished using a uniquely step-economical and convergent Prins-driven macrocyclization strategy. At 25 linear and 42 total steps, this is currently the most concise and convergent synthesis of a potent bryostatin. PMID:21618969

  10. Total Synthesis of Bryostatin 9

    PubMed Central

    Wender, Paul A.; Schrier, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    The total synthesis of bryostatin 9 was accomplished using a uniquely step economical and convergent Prins-driven macrocyclization strategy. At 25 linear and 42 total steps, this is currently the most concise and convergent (5 steps post fragment coupling) synthesis of a potent bryostatin. PMID:21618969

  11. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-laurenditerpenol.

    PubMed

    Pitsinos, Emmanuel N; Athinaios, Nikolaos; Vidali, Veroniki P

    2012-09-01

    A highly convergent total synthesis of (-)-laurenditerpenol has been accomplished through an organolithium to aldehyde nucleophilic addition. Preparation of the prerequisite key intermediates in optically pure form was based on an improved, short, and efficient synthesis of "wine lactone" from (S)-limonene and Corey's catalytic enantioselective Diels-Alder reaction of 2,5-dimethyl furan with diethyl fumarate. PMID:22905649

  12. Total synthesis of lysergic acid.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Satoshi; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Fukuyama, Tohru

    2013-08-16

    A total synthesis of lysergic acid was accomplished. Key features of our synthesis include stereoselective construction of the stereogenic centers at the allylic positions by using the Evans aldol reaction, and a sequential process with a ring-closing metathesis and an intramolecular Heck reaction to construct the C and D rings. PMID:23919892

  13. Protein synthesis: The ribosome & translation

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    with the 30S ribosomal subunit in the A site and prevents aminoacyl-tRNA from entering11/3/14 1 Protein synthesis: The ribosome & translation Ribosomes ("ribonucleic acid" "bodies the complete ribosome. During protein synthesis, the ribosome binds transfer RNA molecules in three different

  14. Stereo Vision for View Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Scharstein

    1996-01-01

    We propose a new method for view synthesis fromreal images using stereo vision. The method doesnot explicitly model scene geometry, and enables fastand exact generation of synthetic views. We also reevaluatethe requirements on stereo algorithms for theapplication of view synthesis and discuss ways of dealingwith partially occluded regions of unknown depthand with completely occluded regions of unknown texture.Our experiments demonstrate

  15. HAPTIC SYNTHESIS Vincent Hayward 1

    E-print Network

    Hayward, Vincent

    . Haptic interfaces. Virtual reality. 1. INTRODUCTION The phrase "haptic rendering" was introduced of "haptic synthesis", a set of algorithms designed to reduce the amount of online compu- tations to a smallHAPTIC SYNTHESIS Vincent Hayward 1 Haptics Laboratory, Center for Intelligent Machines, Mc

  16. SYNTHESIS OF IRON-GERMANIUM

    E-print Network

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    SYNTHESIS OF IRON-GERMANIUM Summer Research 2010 Rohan Isaac Advisor: Dr. Amer Lahamer #12;What in solid state devices. Can create completely spin polarized current. #12;Synthesis Mix stoichiometric. Under vacuum or flow of argon (inert gas) so that materials only react with each other

  17. Gestural control of sound synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARCELO M. WANDERLEY; PHILIPPE DEPALLE

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a review of gestural control of sound synthesis in the context of the design and evaluation of digital musical instruments. It discusses research in various areas related to this field and equally focuses on four main topics: analysis of music performers' gestures, gestural capture technologies, real-time sound synthesis methods, and strategies for mapping gesture variables to sound

  18. Total Synthesis of (?)-Calyciphylline N

    PubMed Central

    Shvartsbart, Artem; Smith, Amos B.

    2014-01-01

    The total synthesis of the architecturally complex Daphniphyllum alkaloid (?)-calyciphylline N has been achieved. Highlights of the synthesis include a Et2AlCl promoted, highly stereoselective susbtrate controlled intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, a transannular enolate alkylation, an effective Stille carbonylation/Nazarov cyclization sequence, and a high risk dia-stereoselective hydrogenation of a fully substituted conjugated diene ester. PMID:24319987

  19. Collagen synthesis in generalized morphea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Th. Krieg; O. Braun-Falco; J. S. Perlish; R. Fleischmajer

    1983-01-01

    Synthesis of collagen and non-collagenous proteins was measured in fibroblast cultures derived from different layers of the dermis from a patient with an early stage of localized scleroderma. Increased synthesis of collagen was found in fibroblasts grown from the subcutaneous fat of this patient, whereas cells obtained from the papillary dermis revealed normal metabolism. These data agree with the results

  20. HighHigh--LevelSynthesisLevelSynthesis SarajuP.Mohanty

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    DataFlowGraph(DFG)/ControlFlow Graphdetails(CFG) 3.TolearnHigh-LevelSynthesis(HLS)withthehelp ofasmallexample 4.TodiscussALGORITHM #12;7 TransitionbetweendomainsTransitionbetweendomains #12;8 WhatisHighWhatisHigh--LevelSynthesis(HLS)??LevelSynthesis(HLS ·Theabilitytosearchthedesignspace ·Documentingthedesignprocess ·AvailabilityofICtechnologytomore people #12;11 HighHigh--LevelSynthesis(HLS)ProcessLevelSynthesis(HLS

  1. Manual and automated synthesis Manual synthesis of a resin-bound pentapeptide library 6

    E-print Network

    Yao, Shao Q

    with molecular tags 18 Synthesis of a radiofrequency encoded library 24 Synthesis of the peptide library Preparation of the amino acid solutions for a heptapeptide library synthesis 35 Synthesis of a linear peptide library with 19 eukaryotic amino acids (cysteine excluded) 36 Synthesis of the disulfide cyclic peptide

  2. Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide

    E-print Network

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 389 X Combustion Synthesis of Silicon Carbide Alexander S. Mukasyan University of Notre Dame USA 1. Introduction Combustion synthesis (CS) is an effective technique by which combustion synthesis can occur: self - propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and volume

  3. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  4. Scalable and scalably-verifiable sequential synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Mishchenko; Michael Case; Robert Brayton; Stephen Jang

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient implementation of sequential synthesis that uses induction to detect and merge sequentially-equivalent nodes. State-encoding, scan chains, and test vectors are essentially preserved. Moreover, the sequential synthesis results are sequentially verifiable using an independent inductive prover similar to that used for synthesis, with guaranteed completeness. Experiments with this sequential synthesis show effectiveness. When applied to a

  5. Modern radioastronomical aperture synthesis systems (review)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Tseytlin

    1984-01-01

    Although sequential aperture synthesis is based on an analogy to synthesis of antenna arrays it is not adequate for analysis of signals and radioluminance distributions which vary during movement of the antennas. Parallel aperture synthesis is performed by an interferometer with fixed antennas so that not only stationary processes but also transient ones can be simultaneously observed. The aperture synthesis

  6. Lung epinephrine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.; Elayan, H.; Ziegler, M.G. (Univ. of California Medical Center, San Diego (USA))

    1990-04-01

    We studied in vitro and in vivo epinephrine (E) synthesis by rat lung. Nine days after removal of the adrenal medullas, circulating E was reduced to 7% of levels found in sham-operated rats but 30% of lung E remained. Treatment of demedullated rats with 6 hydroxydopamine plus reserpine did not further reduce lung E. In the presence of S-(3H)adenosylmethionine lung homogenates readily N-methylated norepinephrine (NE) to form (3H)E. The rate of E synthesis by lung homogenates was progressively more rapid with increasing NE up to a concentration of 3 mM, above which it declined. The rate of E formation was optimal at an incubation pH of 8 and at temperatures of approximately 55 degrees C. We compared the E-forming enzyme(s) of lung homogenates with those of adrenal and cardiac ventricle. The adrenal contains mainly phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which is readily inhibited by SKF 29661 and methylates dopamine (DA) very poorly. Cardiac ventricles contain mainly nonspecific N-methyltransferase (NMT), which is poorly inhibited by SKF 29661 and readily methylates both DA and NE. Lung homogenates were inhibited by SKF 29661 about half as well as adrenal but more than ventricle. We used the rate of E formation from NE as an index of PNMT-like activity and deoxyepinephrine synthesis from DA as an index of NMT-like activity. PNMT and NMT activity in rat lung homogenates were not correlated with each other, displayed different responses to change in temperature, and were affected differently by glucocorticoids.

  7. Facile synthesis of troilite.

    PubMed

    Pedoussaut, Nathalie M; Lind, Cora

    2008-01-21

    Low-temperature synthetic pathways can result in crystallization of metastable materials. These methods have been widely explored for the preparation of metal oxides. Adaptation of nonhydrolytic sol-gel chemistry to non-oxide systems offers an elegant route to transition-metal sulfides. The method can be exploited for the facile and reproducible synthesis of iron sulfide crystallizing in the troilite structure. This phase is only found in meteorites and planets and has previously been obtained by high-temperature or high-energy ball-milling methods. "Nonhydrolytic" sol-gel processing results in direct crystallization of troilite with no need for further calcination. PMID:18154329

  8. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Johnson, Chris

    This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The experiment allows students to view the formation of silver nanoparticles that can be detected by the reflection of a laser beam. Silver nanoparticles are used in the creation of yellow stained glass in churches around the country, an interesting, but little known fact. This is a fairly inexpensive activity as it involves stock solutions, and equipment present in any science laboratory. Overall, students will enjoy this basic, but still challenging, experiment.

  9. Total Synthesis of Limonin.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shuji; Naruko, Akito; Nakazawa, Yuki; Zhao, Le; Hayashi, Yujiro; Hirama, Masahiro

    2015-07-13

    Limonoids are highly oxygenated C13?-triterpenes and common secondary metabolites. Several hundred congeners have been isolated to date. The first total synthesis of (±)-limonin, the flagship congener of the limonoids, is now reported and features 1)?a tandem radical cyclization generating the BCD ring system with the C13? configuration that is essential to the limonoids and a Robinson annulation to construct the limonoid androstane framework, 2)?a singlet-oxygen cycloaddition and a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation to synthesize the highly oxidized D?ring, and 3)?a Suárez reaction to construct the unique AA' ring system. PMID:26036432

  10. SEASAT B orbit synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, F. G.; Warmke, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Addition were made to Battelle's Interactive Graphics Orbit Selection (IGOS) program; IGOS was exercised via telephone lines from JPL, and candidate SEASAT orbits were analyzed by Battelle. The additions to the program enable clear understanding of the implications of a specific orbit to the diverse desires of the SEASAT user community.

  11. Synthesis and Summary

    Cancer.gov

    R. Summers, NIH CC DRD 25-27 September 2002 Biomed ical Imaging Program 20 CT Colonography CAD R. Summers, D. J o hns on et al. Radiology 2001 Three polyps in the sigmoid colon of a 68 year old male (1.0, 1.5, 1.0 cm) 25-27 September 2002 Biomed ical Imaging Program 21 R.

  12. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE OR REPLACE THE USE OF ANIMALS IN THE ENDOCRINE SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone synthesis and androgen (AR...

  13. Adventure Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, John A.

    Summarizing the historical development of Adventure Education concepts and programs, this publication describes past and present programs and presents suggestions relative to future programming. Specifically, the following are discussed: (1) Informal Education Programs (Outward Bound; the National Outdoor Leadership School; and other informal…

  14. Synthesis of (±)-7-Hydroxylycopodine

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong-Yu; Causey, Robert; Garcia, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    A seven-step synthesis of (±)-7-hydroxylycopodine that proceeds in 5% overall yield has been achieved. The key step is a Prins reaction in 60% sulfuric acid that gave the key tricyclic intermediate with complete control of the ring fusion stereochemistry. A one-pot procedure orthogonally protected the primary alcohol as an acetate and the tertiary alcohol as a methylthiomethyl ether. The resulting product was converted to 7-hydroxydehydrolycopodine by heating with KO-t-Bu and benzophenone in benzene followed by acidic workup. During unsuccessful attempts to make optically pure starting material, we observed the selective Pt-catalyzed hydrogenation of the 5-phenyl group of a 4,5-diphenyloxazolidine under acidic conditions and the Pt-catalyzed isomerization of the oxazolidine to an amide under neutral conditions. In attempts to hydroxylate the starting material so that we could adapt this synthesis to the preparation of (±)-7,8-dihydroxylycopodine (sauroine) we observed the novel oxidation of a bicyclic vinylogous amide to a keto pyridine with Mn(OAc)3 and to an amino phenol with KHMDS and oxygen. PMID:22443298

  15. Natural products synthesis: enabling tools to penetrate Nature's secrets of biogenesis and biomechanism.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert M

    2011-06-01

    Selected examples from our laboratory of how synthetic technology platforms developed for the total synthesis of several disparate families of natural products was harnessed to penetrate biomechanistic and/or biosynthetic queries is discussed. Unexpected discoveries of biomechanistic reactivity and/or penetrating the biogenesis of naturally occurring substances were made possible through access to substances available only through chemical synthesis. Hypothesis-driven total synthesis programs are emerging as very useful conceptual templates for penetrating and exploiting the inherent reactivity of biologically active natural substances. In many instances, new enabling synthetic technologies were required to be developed. The examples demonstrate the often untapped richness of complex molecule synthesis to provide powerful tools to understand, manipulate and exploit Nature's vast and creative palette of secondary metabolites. PMID:21438619

  16. Regional nonpoint source program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.; Partee, G.; Fleming, F.

    1992-11-01

    The Regional Nonpoint Source Program Summary outlines the major components of the strategies for controlling nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in EPA Region 10. The document was developed from the Clean Water Act Section 319 Nonpoint Source Assessments, NPS Management Programs and related documents for Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington and for the Colville Confederated Tribes. The water resources and associated land uses vary widely both within and between the four states in EPA Region 10. The primary purpose of the NPS Assessments and Management Programs is to provide the states and tribes with a new blueprint for implementing integrated programs to address priority NPS water quality problems. The focus is needed in order to identify innovative funding opportunities and to effectively direct limited resources toward the highest priority issues and waterbodies. A secondary purpose of the Assessments and Management Programs involves the fulfillment of Clean Water Act requirements in order for states and tribes to compete for Section 319 grants for implementing NPS controls. The Regional NPS Program Summary provides a synthesis of these documents in order to improve understanding of the programs and to assist in their implementation.

  17. Total synthesis of (+)-madangamine D.

    PubMed

    Ballette, Roberto; Pérez, Maria; Proto, Stefano; Amat, Mercedes; Bosch, Joan

    2014-06-10

    Madangamines are a group of bioactive marine sponge alkaloids, embodying an unprecedented diazapentacyclic skeletal type. The enantioselective total synthesis of madangamine?D has been accomplished, and represents the first total synthesis of an alkaloid of the madangamine group. It involves the stereoselective construction of the diazatricyclic ABC core using a phenylglycinol-derived lactam as the starting enantiomeric scaffold and the subsequent assembly of the peripheral macrocyclic rings. The synthesis provides, for the first time, a pure sample of madangamine?D and confirms the absolute configuration of this alkaloid family. PMID:24798407

  18. Optimization of microfluidic PET tracer synthesis with Cerenkov imaging†

    PubMed Central

    Dooraghi, Alex A.; Keng, Pei Y.; Chen, Supin; Javed, Muhammad R.; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; van Dam, R. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic technologies provide an attractive platform for the synthesis of radiolabeled compounds. Visualization of radioisotopes on chip is critical for synthesis optimization and technological development. With Cerenkov imaging, beta particle emitting isotopes can be localized with a sensitive CCD camera. In order for Cerenkov imaging to also serve as a quantitative tool, it is necessary to understand how material properties relevant to Cerenkov emission, namely, index of refraction and beta particle stopping power, affect Cerenkov light output. In this report, we investigate the fundamental physical characteristics of Cerenkov photon yield at different stages of [18F]FDG synthesis on the electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) microfluidic platform. We also demonstrate how Cerenkov imaging has enabled synthesis optimization. Geant4, a Monte Carlo program applied extensively in high energy physics, is used to simulate Cerenkov photon yield from 18F beta particles traversing materials of interest during [18F]FDG synthesis on chip. Our simulations show that the majority (approximately two-thirds) of the 18F beta particle energy available to produce Cerenkov photons is deposited on the glass plates of the EWOD chip. This result suggests the possibility of using a single calibration factor to convert Cerenkov signal to radioactivity, independent of droplet composition. We validate our simulations with a controlled measurement examining varying ratios of [18O]H2O, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and acetonitrile (MeCN), and find a consistent calibration independent of solvent composition. However, the calibration factor may underestimate the radioactivity in actual synthesis due to discoloration of the droplet during certain steps of probe synthesis. In addition to the attractive quantitative potential of Cerenkov imaging, this imaging strategy provides indispensable qualitative data to guide synthesis optimization. We are able to use this imaging technique to optimize the mixing protocol as well as identify and correct for loss of radioactivity due to the migration of radioactive vapor outside of the EWOD heater, enabling an overall increase in the crude radiochemical yield from 50±3% (n=3) to 72±13% (n=5). PMID:23928799

  19. A Convenient Synthesis of Sendaverine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Masood; K. P. Tiwari

    1980-01-01

    Sendaverine was isolated from Corydalis aurea willd by Manske and it was found to possess a tetrahydro-isoquinoline skeleton. The structural formula of the alkaloid has been established by the unambiguous synthesis by Kametani and Miwako Mori et al.

  20. Vanillin Synthesis from 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Douglass F.; Patel, Shweta; Hambleton, Travis M.; Winkel, Emma E.

    2007-01-01

    A regioselective, safe and efficient method for the synthesis of vanillin from 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde is being described. The vanillin derived from the process is cheap and can be used as a flavor or in the paper industry.

  1. Solid phase protein chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Raibaut, Laurent; El Mahdi, Ouafâa; Melnyk, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    The chemical synthesis of peptides or small proteins is often an important step in many research projects and has stimulated the development of numerous chemical methodologies. The aim of this review is to give a substantial overview of the solid phase methods developed for the production or purification of polypeptides. The solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) technique has facilitated considerably the access to short peptides (<50 amino acids). However, its limitations for producing large homogeneous peptides have stimulated the development of solid phase covalent or non-covalent capture purification methods. The power of the native chemical ligation (NCL) reaction for protein synthesis in aqueous solution has also been adapted to the solid phase by the combination of novel linker technologies, cysteine protection strategies and thioester or N,S-acyl shift thioester surrogate chemistries. This review details pioneering studies and the most recent publications related to the solid phase chemical synthesis of large peptides and proteins. PMID:25791484

  2. Fiber draw synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Orf, Nicholas D.; Shapira, Ofer; Sorin, Fabien; Danto, Sylvain; Baldo, Marc A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of a high-melting temperature semiconductor in a low-temperature fiber drawing process is demonstrated, substantially expanding the set of materials that can be incorporated into fibers. Reagents in the solid state are arranged in proximate domains within a fiber preform. The preform is fluidized at elevated temperatures and drawn into fiber, reducing the lateral dimensions and bringing the domains into intimate contact to enable chemical reaction. A polymer preform containing a thin layer of selenium contacted by tin–zinc wires is drawn to yield electrically contacted crystalline ZnSe domains of sub-100-nm scales. The in situ synthesized compound semiconductor becomes the basis for an electronic heterostructure diode of arbitrary length in the fiber. The ability to synthesize materials within fibers while precisely controlling their geometry and electrical connectivity at submicron scales presents new opportunities for increasing the complexity and functionality of fiber structures.

  3. Total synthesis of (+)-chloriolide.

    PubMed

    Ostermeier, Michael; Schobert, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    (+)-Chloriolide, a metabolite of the ascomycete Chloridium virescens var. chlamydosporum, was synthesized in 16 linear steps from cellulose as a source of a levoglucosenone that contributed the (Z)-alkene and the R stereocenter. The attachment of a spacer derived from l-lactate gave an ?-hydroxyacetal which was added to the phosphorus ylide Ph3PCCO. The resulting ester ylide was treated with hydrochloric acid to liberate the hemiacetal shown. Addition of sodium hydroxide regenerated the corresponding ylide, which underwent a spontaneous intramolecular Wittig olefination to afford (+)-chloriolide in 65% yield without the necessity of high-dilution conditions. This is the third synthesis of (+)-chloriolide and the first one ever of a macrolide by a ring-closing Wittig olefination of a stabilized phosphorus ylide bearing an ?-hemiacetal. Our synthetic sample exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against cancer cells but no antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24708255

  4. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  5. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth with Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Thomas Scott

    2011-01-01

    This meta-synthesis of empirical and nonempirical literature analyzed 24 journal articles and book chapters that addressed the intersection of disability, [homo]sexuality, and gender identity/expression in P-12 schools, colleges and universities, supported living programs, and other educational and social contexts in Australia, Belgium, Canada,…

  6. Learning rules for morphological analysis and synthesis of Macedonian nouns, adjectives and verbs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aneta Ivanovska; Katerina Zdravkova; Toma Erjavec

    This paper presents a machine learning approach to morphological analysis and synthesis of Macedonian nouns, adjectives and verbs. An inductive logic programming (ILP) system, Clog, was used to learn the inflectional paradigms of Macedonian words. Clog learns first-order decision lists, i.e., ordered sets of rules. Training and testing of the rules was performed on the words originating from Orwell's \\

  7. Review and Synthesis of Research on Preparation of Leadership Personnel for Vocational and Tehcnical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melvin D.

    In view of the continued growth of vocational education, vocational educators have recognized the importance of leadership and have initiated educational programs to insure that competent professional personnel will be available in the future. This review and synthesis paper identifies and examines such developmental efforts and analyzes the…

  8. Synthesis and characterization of Sant-75 derivatives as Hedgehog-pathway inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Che, Chao; Li, Song; Yang, Bo; Xin, Shengchang; Yu, Zhixiong; Shao, Taofeng; Tao, Chuanye

    2012-01-01

    Summary Sant-75 is a newly identified potent inhibitor of the hedgehog pathway. We designed a diversity-oriented synthesis program, and synthesized a series of Sant-75 analogues, which lays the foundation for further investigation of the structure–activity relationship of this important class of hedgehog-pathway inhibitors. PMID:23015832

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE FIELD SYNTHESIS ALGORITHM, VARIABLE FIELD GENERATION, USING MAGNETOSTATIC FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND OPTIMIZATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. BROOKS; F. GROSS; T. BALDWIN

    An overview of the magnetostatic field synthesis method, Variable Field Generation (VFG), and results from applying it to a test case to design magneto-plasma-aerodynamic (MPAD) devices to observe algorithm performance in the MATLAB programming environment are presented in this paper. The algorithm applied to this test case included integrating the Magnetostatic module of the finite element software package, Maxwell 3D

  10. Petri Net Based Synthesis Method to Construct Optimal Controllers and Its Application to a Jobshop Scheduling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Joo Lee; In-jae Jeong; Jeehyoung Lee

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to propose a design method of closed-loop Petri net model respecting user specifications. We propose a synthesis method for optimal controllers based on the supervisory control and the Petri nets formalism. By proposed the method, forbidden, enabled and cycle sequences of transitions are found. In addition, the method proposes a general integer programming to

  11. Synthesis of Optimal Fixed-Point Implementation of Numerical Software Routines

    E-print Network

    Seshia, Sanjit A.

    theory. For the control theory examples, we not only exhibit the synthesized fixed-point programsSynthesis of Optimal Fixed-Point Implementation of Numerical Software Routines Susmit Jha1-environments such as Matlab. However, these designs are often implemented using fixed-point arithmetic for speed

  12. Automatic Synthesis of High-Performance Codes for Quantum Chemistry Applications

    E-print Network

    Baumgartner, Gerald

    Automatic Synthesis of High-Performance Codes for Quantum Chemistry Applications£ Gerald State University clam@cis.ohio-state.edu Marcel Nooijen Department of Chemistry Princeton University-performance parallel programs for a class of computations encountered in quantum chem- istry and physics

  13. Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    Triton College's proposed method of conducting periodic comprehensive evaluations of the quality and potential of its academic programs has five components. First, a self-study is conducted by the faculty and administrators of the program being reviewed, in a year-long comprehensive examination of the program. Second, an external consultant, with…

  14. MEXUS Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branan, Alvord; Hergert, Michael

    The MEXUS program, a transnational, undergraduate, dual-degree program in the United States and Mexico, addresses the problem of how universities can better prepare students to manage business in an interdependent global marketplace. The program was initiated as a consortium of four institutions (San Diego State University and Southwestern College…

  15. Graduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Anna E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes graduate programs in instructional technology, educational media and communications, school library media, and closely allied programs in the United States. Entries provide name and address, chairperson, types of degrees offered, special features of the program, admission requirements, degree requirements, number of faculty, number of…

  16. Graduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Oratile Maribe, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Describes graduate programs in Instructional Technology, Educational Media and Communications, School Library Media, and closely allied programs in the United States. Entries provide name and address, chairperson, types of degrees offered, special features of the program, admission requirements, degree requirements, number of faculty, number of…

  17. EXADS - EXPERT SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED DESIGN SYNTHESIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The expert system called EXADS was developed to aid users of the Automated Design Synthesis (ADS) general purpose optimization program. Because of the general purpose nature of ADS, it is difficult for a nonexpert to select the best choice of strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search options from the one hundred or so combinations that are available. EXADS aids engineers in determining the best combination based on their knowledge of the problem and the expert knowledge previously stored by experts who developed ADS. EXADS is a customized application of the AESOP artificial intelligence program (the general version of AESOP is available separately from COSMIC. The ADS program is also available from COSMIC.) The expert system consists of two main components. The knowledge base contains about 200 rules and is divided into three categories: constrained, unconstrained, and constrained treated as unconstrained. The EXADS inference engine is rule-based and makes decisions about a particular situation using hypotheses (potential solutions), rules, and answers to questions drawn from the rule base. EXADS is backward-chaining, that is, it works from hypothesis to facts. The rule base was compiled from sources such as literature searches, ADS documentation, and engineer surveys. EXADS will accept answers such as yes, no, maybe, likely, and don't know, or a certainty factor ranging from 0 to 10. When any hypothesis reaches a confidence level of 90% or more, it is deemed as the best choice and displayed to the user. If no hypothesis is confirmed, the user can examine explanations of why the hypotheses failed to reach the 90% level. The IBM PC version of EXADS is written in IQ-LISP for execution under DOS 2.0 or higher with a central memory requirement of approximately 512K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1986.

  18. Users manual for flight control design programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalbandian, J. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Computer programs for the design of analog and digital flight control systems are documented. The program DIGADAPT uses linear-quadratic-gaussian synthesis algorithms in the design of command response controllers and state estimators, and it applies covariance propagation analysis to the selection of sampling intervals for digital systems. Program SCHED executes correlation and regression analyses for the development of gain and trim schedules to be used in open-loop explicit-adaptive control laws. A linear-time-varying simulation of aircraft motions is provided by the program TVHIS, which includes guidance and control logic, as well as models for control actuator dynamics. The programs are coded in FORTRAN and are compiled and executed on both IBM and CDC computers.

  19. 2008 Academic Program Review Graduate Programs

    E-print Network

    2008 Academic Program Review of Graduate Programs November 2008 Texas A&M University College ........................................................................................................12 III. Graduate Program.....................................................................................................14 B. Educational Programs

  20. Synthesis of nanostructured polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surwade, Sumedh P.

    The organization of my thesis is as follows: (a) Chapter III describes the synthesis of bulk quantities of polyaniline nanofibers in one step using a simple and versatile high ionic strength aqueous system (HCl/NaCl) that permits the use of pure H2O2 as a mild oxidant without any added metal or enzyme catalyst. Polyaniline nanofibers obtained are highly conducting, sigma˜1--5 S/cm, and spectroscopically similar to conventional polyaniline synthesized using stronger oxidants. The synthesis method is further extended to the synthesis of oligoanilines of controlled molecular weight, e.g., aniline tetramer, octamer, and hexadecamer. Microns long tetramer nanofibers are synthesized using this method. (b) Chapter IV describes the mechanism of nanofiber formation in polyaniline. It is proposed that the surfaces such as the walls of the reaction vessel and/or intentionally added surfaces play a dramatic role in the evolution of nanofibrillar morphology. Nucleation sites on surfaces promote the accumulation of aniline dimer that reacts further to yield aniline tetramer, which (surprisingly) is entirely in form of nanofibers and whose morphology is transcribed to the bulk by a double heterogeneous nucleation mechanism. This unexpected phenomenon could form the basis of nanofiber formation in all classes of precipitation polymerization systems. (c) Chapter V is the mechanistic study on the formation of oligoanilines during the chemical oxidation of aniline in weakly acidic, neutral or basic media using peroxydisulfate oxidant. It is proposed that the reaction proceeds via the intermediacy of benzoquinone monoimine that is formed as a result of a Boyland-Sims rearrangement of aniline. The initial role of peroxydisulfate is to provide a pathway for the formation of benzoquinone monoimine intermediate that is followed by a conjugate Michael-type addition reaction with aniline or sulfated anilines. The products isolated in pH 2.5--10.0 buffers are intermediate species at various stages of hydrolysis. Confirmatory evidence is obtained when a spectroscopically similar product is formed when solid 1,4-benzoquinone is added to an aqueous solution of aniline at room temperature in the absence of peroxydisulfate. These findings also offer a rationale for the residual sulfur and the high C/N ratios frequently observed in the product. (d) Chapter VI describes a flexible, lightweight, reversible NO2 vapor sensor based on resistance changes of a thin film of a doped aniline oligomers and poly-o-toluidine deposited on plastic substrates. Unlike the irreversible signals typically observed in organic films, signal reversibility in the concentration range 100--5 ppm is readily achieved using a short burst of UV irradiation at room temperature in ambient air without the aid of heating or pump down cycles. In case of poly-o-toluidine based sensor, it is observed that the signal response is dependent on the organic solvent used to cast the polymer film with dipolar aprotic solvents yielding films showing a strong response. There are also striking differences in electrical and electronic properties including morphology of films cast from different solvents. This phenomenon is traced to polymer chain conformation in solution that is preserved in the solid state (cast film) which opens a new structural vector to tailor sensor response and selectivity. This study also expands the use of conducting polymers for the detection of vapors that were previously believed to be chemically too aggressive. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  1. The new biology: beyond the Modern Synthesis

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R; Oakley, Todd H

    2007-01-01

    Modern Synthesis, genes were adaptive characteris- tics of species,were part of the Modern Synthesis. If species are the dura-species, or that we can speak mean- ingfully about the ancient history of modern "

  2. Speech synthesis by phonological structure matching. 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Paul; Black, Alan W

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique for speech synthesis by unit selection. The technique works by specifying the synthesis target and the speech database as phonological trees, and using a selection algorithm which ...

  3. Microfluidic reactors for the synthesis of nanocrystals

    E-print Network

    Yen, Brian K. H

    2007-01-01

    Several microfluidic reactors were designed and applied to the synthesis of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). Initially, a simple single-phase capillary reactor was used for the synthesis of CdSe NCs. Precursors ...

  4. Total synthesis and study of myrmicarin alkaloids

    E-print Network

    Ondrus, Alison Evelynn, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    I. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tricyclic Myrmicarin Alkaloids An enantioselective gram-scale synthesis of a key dihydroindolizine intermediate for the preparation of myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Key transformations ...

  5. Early Childhood Programs: Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Moines Public Schools, IA.

    This report describes the early childhood education programs of the Des Moines Independent Community School District and provides evaluation of the programs' context, process, and product. Following a preface that includes the city's early childhood philosophy, the first section of the report presents a context evaluation of the programs,…

  6. HPC Productivity Model Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy Kepner

    2004-01-01

    The DARPA High Productivity Computing System (HPCS) program is developing systems that deliver increased value to users at a rate commensurate with the rate of improvement in the underlying technologies. For example, if the relevant technology was silicon, the goal of such a system would be to double in productivity (or value) every 18 months, following Moore's Law. The key

  7. Summer Synthesis Institutes: A Novel Approach for Transformative Research and Student Career Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J.; Hermans, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    It is believed that breakthroughs tend to occur when small groups of highly motivated scientists are driven by challenges encountered in real problem-solving situations and given the freedom to experiment with new ideas. Summer synthesis institutes provide a mechanism to facilitiate these breakthroughs and by which graduate students may engage in interdisciplinary research in a way that is not often available in their normal course of study. In this presentation we examine two complementary models of summer synthesis institutes in hydrology, how these intensive programs facilitate scientific outcomes and the impact of synthesis and the summer institute model on student perceptions of academic roles, collaboration opportunities and team science. Five summer synthesis institutes were held over three years, sharing similar duration and structure but different degrees of participant interdisciplinarity and focus questions. Through informal assessments, this presentation will demonstrate how these programs offered a unique opportunity for the development of student-student and student-mentor relationships and facilitated deeper understanding of a student’s own research as well as new techniques, perspective and disciplines. Additionally, though the summer synthesis institute model offers a unique ability to leverage limited funding (on the order of a single graduate student) to advance earth sciences, the model also presents specific challenges for research follow-through and may require specific content and interpersonal dynamics for optimum success.

  8. Communication synthesis for distributed embedded systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ti-Yen Yen; Wayne Wolf

    1995-01-01

    Abstract: Communication synthesis is an essential step in hardware-software co-synthesis: many embedded systems use custom communication topologies and the communication links are often a significant part of the system cost. This paper describes new techniques for the analysis and synthesis of the communication requirements of embedded systems during co-synthesis. Our analysis algorithm derives delay bounds on communication in the system

  9. Gasification Research BIOENERGY PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    and Results Product outputs are heat, electrical power, bio-oil, and synthesis gas. Computer control system&M University fluidized bed gasifier mounted on a trailer Synthesis gas Dry Mole % Hydrogen 9.8% Methane 2

  10. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND MECHANISTIC EVALUATION OF IRON-BASED CATALYSIS FOR SYNTHESIS GAS CONVERSION TO FUELS AND CHEMICALS

    SciTech Connect

    Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Enrique Iglesia

    2005-03-31

    This project explores the extension of previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have previously shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity with synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic performance previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During this third reporting period, we have prepared a large number of Fe-based catalyst compositions using precipitation and impregnations methods with both supercritical and subcritical drying and with the systematic use of surface active agents to prevent pore collapse during drying steps required in synthetic protocols. These samples were characterized during this period using X-ray diffraction, surface area, and temperature-programmed reduction measurements. These studies have shown that these synthesis methods lead to even higher surface areas than in our previous studies and confirm the crystalline structures of these materials and their reactivity in both oxide-carbide interconversions and in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction rates and selectivities with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio feeds (H{sub 2}/CO = 1) were the highest reported in the literature at the low-temperature and relatively low pressure in our measurements. Current studies are exploring the optimization of the sequence of impregnation of Cu, K, and Ru promoters, of the activation and reaction conditions, and of the co-addition of light hydrocarbons to increase diffusion rates of primary olefin products so as to increase the selectivity to unsaturated products. Finally, we are also addressing the detailed kinetic response of optimized catalysts to reaction conditions (temperature, partial pressures of H{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, olefins) in an effort to further increase rates and olefin and C{sub 5+} selectivities.

  11. NEW POSSIBILITIES IN SOUND ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Rodet; Philippe Depalle; Guillermo Garcia

    1995-01-01

    In this presentation we exemplify the emergence of new possibilities in sound analysis and synthesis with three novel developments that have been done in the Analysis\\/Synthesis team at IRCAM. These examples address three main activities in our domain, and have reached a large public making or simply listening to music. The first example concerns synthesis using physical models. We have

  12. Concatenative sound synthesis: The early years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diemo Schwarz

    2006-01-01

    Concatenative sound synthesis is a promising method of musical sound synthesis with a steady stream of work and publications for over five years now. This article offers a comparative survey and taxonomy of the many different approaches to concatenative synthesis throughout the history of electronic music, starting in the 1950s, even if they weren't known as such at their time,

  13. Hippocampal Synapses Depend on Hippocampal Estrogen Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Kretz; Lars Fester; Uwe Wehrenberg; Lepu Zhou; Silke Brauckmann; Shanting Zhao; Janine Prange-Kiel; Thomas Naumann; Hubertus Jarry; Michael Frotscher; Gabriele M. Rune

    2004-01-01

    Estrogens have been described to induce synaptogenesis in principal neurons of the hippocampus and have been shown to be synthesized and released by exactly these neurons. Here, we have focused on the significance of local estrogen synthesis on spine synapse formation and the synthesis of synaptic proteins. To this end, we reduced hippocampal estrogen synthesis in vitro with letrozole, a

  14. COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    COMBUSTION SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS: PRINCIPLESAND APPLICATIONS Arvind Varma, Alexander S. Gasless Combustion SynthesisFrom Elements B. Combustion Synthesis in Gas-Solid Systems C. Products of Thermite-vpe SHS D. Commercial Aspects IV. Theoretical Considerations A. Combustion Wave Propagation Theory

  15. Towards System level modeling and synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed A. Jerraya; Kevin OBrien; Bernard Courtois

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we present COSMOS, a system level synthesis framework which is in progress at IMAG. COSMOS is aimed to bridge the gap between the system level development tools and existing synthesis tools. The underlying methodology of the COSMOS framework involves three steps, starting with a spcxifcation at the communicating system level. Communication synthesis would then trangorm this into

  16. Collaboration and Productivity in Scientific Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Parker, John N.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific synthesis has transformed ecological research and presents opportunities for advancements across the sciences; to date, however, little is known about the antecedents of success in synthesis. Building on findings from 10 years of detailed research on social interactions in synthesis groups at the National Center for Ecological Analysis…

  17. Evolutionary Synthesis of MEMS Raffi Roupen Kamalian

    E-print Network

    Agogino, Alice M.

    Evolutionary Synthesis of MEMS by Raffi Roupen Kamalian B.S. (University of California, Berkeley Professor Albert P. Pisano Professor Kristofer S.J. Pister Fall 2004 #12;Evolutionary Synthesis of MEMS Evolutionary Synthesis of MEMS by Raffi Roupen Kamalian Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering - Mechanical

  18. Text-to-Picture Synthesis Xiaojin Zhu

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Xiaojin "Jerry"

    Text-to-Picture Synthesis Xiaojin Zhu Department of Computer Sciences University of Wisconsin (LTI seminar) Text-to-Picture Synthesis 1 / 46 #12;Outline prior work our first system our second system one application (LTI seminar) Text-to-Picture Synthesis 2 / 46 #12;Humans switch modalities (LTI

  19. Scalable and scalably-verifiable sequential synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Mishchenko; Michael L. Case; Robert K. Brayton; Stephen Jang

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient implementation of an effective sequential synthesis operation that uses induction to detect and merge sequentially-equivalent nodes. State-encoding, scan chains, and test vectors are essentially preserved. Moreover, the sequential synthesis results are guaranteed to be sequentially verifiable against the original circuits. Verification can use an independent inductive prover similar to that used for synthesis, with guaranteed

  20. Combustion and plasma synthesis of high-temperature materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. A. Munir; J. B. Holt

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on combustion and plasmas synthesis of high-temperature materials are presented. Individual topics addressed include: self-propagation high-temperature synthesis, modeling and numerical computation of a nonsteady SHS process, new modes of quasi-periodic burning in combustion synthesis, combustion synthesis of intermetallic compounds, combustion synthesis of nickel aluminides, advanced ceramics via SHS, simultaneous combustion synthesis and densification of AlN, combustion synthesis of

  1. GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roads, J.; Lawford, R.; Bainto, E.; Berbery, E.; Chen, S.; Fekete, B.; Gallo, K.; Grundstein, A.; Higgins, W.; Kanamitsu, M.; Krajewski, W.; Lakshmi, V.; Leathers, D.; Lettenmaier, D.; Luo, L.; Maurer, E.; Meyers, T.; Miller, D.; Mitchell, K.; Mote, T.; Pinker, R.; Reichler, T.; Robinson, D.; Robock, A.; Smith, J.; Srinivasan, G.; Verdin, K.; Vinnikov, K.; Vonder, Haar T.; Vorosmarty, C.; Williams, S.; Yarosh, E.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 fromthe "best available" observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the interested researcher from the GEWEX project office, the GAPP project office, or the first author. An updated online version of the CD-ROM is also available at http://ecpc.ucsd.edu/gcip/webs.htm/. Observations cannot adequately characterize or "close" budgets since too many fundamental processes are missing. Models that properly represent the many complicated atmospheric and near-surface interactions are also required. This preliminary synthesis therefore included a representative global general circulation model, regional climate model, and a macroscale hydrologic model as well as a global reanalysis and a regional analysis. By the qualitative agreement among the models and available observations, it did appear that we now qualitatively understand water and energy budgets of the Mississippi River Basin. However, there is still much quantitative uncertainty. In that regard, there did appear to be a clear advantage to using a regional analysis over a global analysis or a regional simulation over a global simulation to describe the Mississippi River Basin water and energy budgets. There also appeared to be some advantage to using a macroscale hydrologic model for at least the surface water budgets. Copyright 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Deactivation of methanol synthesis catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, G.W.; Brown, D.M.; Hsiung, T.H.; Lewnard, J.J. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States))

    1993-08-01

    A novel methanol synthesis process, the liquid-phase methanol (LPMEOH) process, has been developed and scaled up to a nominal 380 kg/h (10 ton/day) pilot plant. The process is based on a gas-sparged slurry reactor instead of a conventional, fixed-bed reactor. The use of slurry reactors, which are essentially gradientless, greatly facilitated the interpretation and quantification of catalyst deactivation phenomena. With a poison-free, CO-rich feedstream, the rate of deactivation of the Cu/ZnO catalyst increased rapidly with temperature. At constant temperature, in the absence of poisons, the decline with time in the rate constant for methanol synthesis correlated with the loss of BET surface area. Iron carbonyl, nickel carbonyl, and carbonyl sulfide are severe and highly specific poisons for methanol-synthesis catalyst. There was a linear relationship between the catalyst activity loss and the concentration of metal or sulfur on the catalyst.

  3. Total synthesis of (+)-lysergic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Yu-An; Xu, Ping; Jia, Yanxing

    2013-11-01

    We report the enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-lysergic acid using two different strategies, which featured three metal-catalyzed reactions for the construction of the BCD three rings, involving Pd-catalyzed indole synthesis for the construction of the B ring, a ring-closing metathesis reaction for the formation of the D ring, and an intramolecular Heck reaction to forge the C ring. In synthetic strategy I, the synthesis was achieved in 20 steps following the ring construction sequence of BDC. In synthetic strategy II, the synthetic route was shortened to only 12 steps by following the ring construction sequence of DBC and using a 4-chlorotryptophan derivative for the intramolecular Heck reaction. Moreover, we also discussed an unsuccessful synthetic strategy. PMID:24111583

  4. Glycothermal synthesis of metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masashi

    2004-04-01

    The author has been exploring the synthesis of inorganic materials in organic solvents at temperatures (200-300 °C) higher than their boiling points (solvothermal reaction), and has developed various reaction methods for the synthesis of ultrafine particles of metal oxides. In this paper, the reactions of aluminium compounds (aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3; gibbsite), aluminium alkoxides, and aluminium salts) in various organic solvents (alcohols, glycols, aminoalcohols, and inert organic solvents) are first reviewed, and reaction mechanisms and effects of the starting materials and solvents on the products are discussed. Then, the specificity of the use of glycols, especially 1,4-butanediol (glycothermal reaction), is clarified, and glycothermal synthesis of crystalline mixed oxides such as yttrium aluminium garnet is described. Finally, the use of the solvothermally prepared products as the catalyst materials is described.

  5. A framework for exact synthesis

    E-print Network

    Vadym Kliuchnikov; Jon Yard

    2015-04-16

    Exact synthesis is a tool used in algorithms for approximating an arbitrary qubit unitary with a sequence of quantum gates from some finite set. These approximation algorithms find asymptotically optimal approximations in probabilistic polynomial time, in some cases even finding the optimal solution in probabilistic polynomial time given access to an oracle for factoring integers. In this paper, we present a common mathematical structure underlying all results related to the exact synthesis of qubit unitaries known to date, including Clifford+T, Clifford-cyclotomic and V-basis gate sets, as well as gates sets induced by the braiding of Fibonacci anyons in topological quantum computing. The framework presented here also provides a means to answer questions related to the exact synthesis of unitaries for wide classes of other gate sets, such as Clifford+T+V and SU(2) level k anyons.

  6. SAVEnergy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-05-01

    This program overview describes elements of the U.S. Department of Energy's SAVEnergy Program, which is managed by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program. The SAVEnergy Program helps agencies meet Federal goals for greater energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of renewable energy by contracting with expert engineering firms to conduct energy and water use audits at Federal facilities. To qualify for this assistance, agencies or facilities must request audits from FEMP and assure FEMP that they will implement some of the energy and water efficiency measures recommended in the auditor's report.

  7. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf, Northeast Gulf of Alaska interim synthesis report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This volume represents an interim edition of the Northeast Gulf of Alaska (NEGOA) Synthesis Report and is intended to present a multidisciplinary overview of information relevant to possible Alaskan Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas development. The program focuses on several lease areas, ranging from the subarctic Northeast Gulf of Alaska to the arctic Beaufort Sea. This current synthesis organizes all available marine environmental information pertinent to OCS development for the given lease area. It presents a picture of the operation and vulnerability of the environmental system.

  8. Observing programs, what are the priorities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynet, Georges; Henrichs, Huib

    2015-01-01

    This brief note reflects the exchanges that were made between the participants during the general discussion on the observing programs. Because of time constraints only two questions have been addressed: 1) What is the priority between large programs and detailed observations of one or only a few objects? 2) Large surveys implies some automatic pipelines: what is their reliability? Elements of answers are given below. One interesting unexpected outcome of this discussion was the realization that a recent and up-to-date textbook on spectral synthesis is missing, while it would be an extremely useful tool for the community.

  9. System Level Synthesis Of Dataflow Programs: HEVC Decoder Case Study

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an actor oriented language under the Reconfigurable Video Coding (RVC) standard. Once the design) description from high-level description language is the reduction of time-to-market. However, most existing to obtain RTL description from a dataflow description. First, we design image processing algo- rithms using

  10. GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 6: Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft performance modeling requires consideration of propulsion, aerodynamics, and weight characteristics. Eleven subroutines used in modeling aircraft performance are presented and their interactions considered. Manuals for performance model users and programmers are included.

  11. Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Davis, Susan; Madden, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of alternative approaches for struggling readers ages 5-10 (US grades K-5): One-to-one tutoring, small-group tutorials, classroom instructional process approaches, and computer-assisted instruction. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or well-matched control groups, study…

  12. FPGA Circuit Synthesis of Accelerator Data-Parallel Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Bond; Kerry Hammil; Lubomir Litchev; Satnam Singh

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques used to describe and synthesize FPGA circuits expressed in a data-parallel domain specific language (DSL) called Accelerator. We identify the subset of data-parallel descriptions that are supported by our system and explain how we track memory access patterns which allow us to generate efficient FPGA circuits.

  13. Workshop 3 (synthesis): water, poverty alleviation and social programs.

    PubMed

    Biswas, A K; Shady, A; Lundqvist, J; Takahashi, K

    2003-01-01

    Poverty is a complex issue, which must be understood in a holistic manner. Low and variable income is certainly a key element, but it is far from enough to portray poverty. The various characteristics of poverty and their relative strength are determined through contextually specific circumstances, in terms of history, environmental preconditions, socio-cultural traits, etc. Much of this context is made up of local and national circumstances. The consequences of globalisation must, however, increasingly to be taken into account. At a larger scale, it is also relevant to mention that climate change will have a negative, although largely unpredictable, impact for the people in some parts of the world. For those who are already living on marginal lands or who are exposed to water problems, climate change is likely to create considerable adverse effects. PMID:12731781

  14. Reaction synthesis of heat-resistant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides can be utilized to obtain aluminides of transition metals. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain dense intermetallics and their composites. Composites were analyzed by X- ray diffraction and microscopy techniques, and tensile properties were measured on button-head and sheet specimens of intermetallics and their composites. Mechanical properties of intermetallics obtained by reaction synthesis and densification compare well with conventionally processed materials. Reaction-synthesis principles were also extended to weld overlays. Possible approaches to obtaining dense products by reaction synthesis and densification are summarized in a schematic illustration. 19 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reaction, Ultrasound-promoted reaction and Phase-transfer catalysis reaction. The biological activities of the synthesized quinazoline derivatives also are discussed. PMID:23731671

  16. Terrain Synthesis By-Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosz, John; Samavati, Faramarz F.; Sousa, Mario Costa

    Synthesizing terrain or adding detail to terrains manually is a long and tedious process. With procedural synthesis methods this process is faster but more difficult to control. This paper presents a new technique of terrain synthesis that uses an existing terrain to synthesize new terrain. To do this we use multi-resolution analysis to extract the high-resolution details from existing models and apply them to increase the resolution of terrain. Our synthesized terrains are more heterogeneous than procedural results, are superior to terrains created by texture transfer, and retain the large-scale characteristics of the original terrain.

  17. A sustainable catalytic pyrrole synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlik, Stefan; Kempe, Rhett

    2013-02-01

    The pyrrole heterocycle is a prominent chemical motif and is found widely in natural products, drugs, catalysts and advanced materials. Here we introduce a sustainable iridium-catalysed pyrrole synthesis in which secondary alcohols and amino alcohols are deoxygenated and linked selectively via the formation of C-N and C-C bonds. Two equivalents of hydrogen gas are eliminated in the course of the reaction, and alcohols based entirely on renewable resources can be used as starting materials. The catalytic synthesis protocol tolerates a large variety of functional groups, which includes olefins, chlorides, bromides, organometallic moieties, amines and hydroxyl groups. We have developed a catalyst that operates efficiently under mild conditions.

  18. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J. Birch (San Jose, CA); Kelly, Michael (West Alexandria, OH)

    1993-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  19. Combustion synthesis method and products

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.; Kelly, M.

    1993-03-30

    Disclosed is a method of producing dense refractory products, comprising: (a) obtaining a quantity of exoergic material in powder form capable of sustaining a combustion synthesis reaction; (b) removing absorbed water vapor therefrom; (c) cold-pressing said material into a formed body; (d) plasma spraying said formed body with a molten exoergic material to form a coat thereon; and (e) igniting said exoergic coated formed body under an inert gas atmosphere and pressure to produce self-sustained combustion synthesis. Also disclosed are products produced by the method.

  20. Synthesis metal nanoparticle

    DOEpatents

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-08-16

    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for Cu.degree., (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm Ag.degree. spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for Au.degree..

  1. Ascorbate Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Kenneth H.; Bohren, Kurt M.; Morello, Roy; Bertin, Terry; Liu, Jeff; Vogel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Using mouse gene knock-out models, we identify aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.2, Akr1a4 (GR)) and aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21, Akr1b3 (AR)) as the enzymes responsible for conversion of d-glucuronate to l-gulonate, a key step in the ascorbate (ASC) synthesis pathway in mice. The gene knock-out (KO) mice show that the two enzymes, GR and AR, provide ?85 and ?15% of l-gulonate, respectively. GRKO/ARKO double knock-out mice are unable to synthesize ASC (>95% ASC deficit) and develop scurvy. The GRKO mice (?85% ASC deficit) develop and grow normally when fed regular mouse chow (ASC content = 0) but suffer severe osteopenia and spontaneous fractures with stresses that increase ASC requirements, such as pregnancy or castration. Castration greatly increases osteoclast numbers and activity in GRKO mice and promotes increased bone loss as compared with wild-type controls and additionally induces proliferation of immature dysplastic osteoblasts likely because of an ASC-sensitive block(s) in early differentiation. ASC and the antioxidants pycnogenol and resveratrol block osteoclast proliferation and bone loss, but only ASC feeding restores osteoblast differentiation and prevents their dysplastic proliferation. This is the first in vivo demonstration of two independent roles for ASC as an antioxidant suppressing osteoclast activity and number as well as a cofactor promoting osteoblast differentiation. Although humans have lost the ability to synthesize ASC, our mouse models suggest the mechanisms by which suboptimal ASC availability facilitates the development of osteoporosis, which has important implications for human osteoporosis. PMID:20410296

  2. Optica aperture synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Avoort, Casper

    2006-05-01

    Optical long baseline stellar interferometry is an observational technique in astronomy that already exists for over a century, but is truly blooming during the last decades. The undoubted value of stellar interferometry as a technique to measure stellar parameters beyond the classical resolution limit is more and more spreading to the regime of synthesis imaging. With optical aperture synthesis imaging, the measurement of parameters is extended to the reconstruction of high resolution stellar images. A number of optical telescope arrays for synthesis imaging are operational on Earth, while space-based telescope arrays are being designed. For all imaging arrays, the combination of the light collected by the telescopes in the array can be performed in a number of ways. In this thesis, methods are introduced to model these methods of beam combination and compare their effectiveness in the generation of data to be used to reconstruct the image of a stellar object. One of these methods of beam combination is to be applied in a future space telescope. The European Space Agency is developing a mission that can valuably be extended with an imaging beam combiner. This mission is labeled Darwin, as its main goal is to provide information on the origin of life. The primary objective is the detection of planets around nearby stars - called exoplanets- and more precisely, Earth-like exoplanets. This detection is based on a signal, rather than an image. With an imaging mode, designed as described in this thesis, Darwin can make images of, for example, the planetary system to which the detected exoplanet belongs or, as another example, of the dust disk around a star out of which planets form. Such images will greatly contribute to the understanding of the formation of our own planetary system and of how and when life became possible on Earth. The comparison of beam combination methods for interferometric imaging occupies most of the pages of this thesis. Additional chapters will treat related subjects, being experimental work on beam combination optics, a description of a novel formalism for aberration retrieval and experimental work on nulling interferometry. The Chapters on interferometric imaging are organized in such a way that not only the physical principles behind a stellar interferometer are clear, but these chapters also form a basis for the method of analysis applied to the interferometers - -or rather beam combination methods- under consideration. The imaging process in a stellar interferometer will be treated as the inversion of a linear system of equations. The definition of interferometric imaging in this thesis can be stated to be the reconstruction of a luminosity distribution function on the sky, that is, in angular measure, larger than the angular diffraction limited spot size -or Point-Spread Function (PSF)- of a single telescope in the array and that contains, again in angular measure, spatial structure that is much smaller than the PSF of a single telescope. This reconstruction has to be based on knowledge of the dimensions of the telescope array and the detector. The detector collects intensity data that is formed by observation of the polychromatic luminosity distribution on the sky and is deteriorated by the quantum-nature of light and an imperfect electronic detection process. Therefore, the imaging study presented in this thesis can be regarded to be a study on the signal characteristics of various interferometers while imaging a polychromatic wide-field stellar source. The collection of beam combination methods under consideration consists of four types. Among these are two well-known types, having either co-axially combined beams as in the Michelson-Morley experiment to demonstrate the existence of ether, or beams that follow optical paths as if an aperture mask were placed in front of a telescope, making the beams combine in the focus of that telescope, as suggested by Fizeau. For separated apertures rather than an aperture mask, these optical paths are stated to be homothetic. In short, these two types wi

  3. The collaborative program of research in engineering sciences

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.C.

    1989-08-01

    Research programs in the following areas are briefly described: High-Temperature Gas-Particle Reactions; Mathematical Modelling of Plasma Systems; Metal Transfer in Gas Metal-Arc Welding; Multivariable Control of Gas Metal-Arc Welding; Synthesis of Heat and Work Integration Systems for Chemical Process Plants; Parity Simulation of Dynamic Processes; Fundamentals of Elastic-Plastic Fracture: Three-Dimensional and Mechanistic Modelling; and Comminution of Energy Materials. Publications from each program are listed.

  4. Overview of multilayer ceramic actuator program at C-MET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Raghu; V. Kumar; K. R. Dayas; I. C. Rao

    2003-01-01

    One of the major programs being undertaken in our unit is, development of actuator materials and conversion of these materials into multilayer actuator devices. In order to achieve this objective, development of piezoelectric and electrostrictive materials are also being attempted. A simple and novel chemical precipitation route has been adopted for the synthesis of nano-actuator materials. Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT)

  5. Developing genetic programming techniques for the design of compliant mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Parsons; S. L. Canfield

    2002-01-01

    Compliant mechanisms achieve desired force and displacement characteristics through elastic deformation of their structure. Current research in the synthesis of compliant mechanism topology has pursued multiobjective optimization using gradient-based search methods. This paper will explore the use of a random-guided search method for multiobjective optimization of compliant mechanisms through genetic programming techniques. The combination of genetic algorithms and compliant mechanisms

  6. Reframing developmental biology and building evolutionary theory's new synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Alfred I

    2010-01-01

    Gilbert and Epel present a new approach to developmental biology: embryogenesis must be understood within the full context of the organism's environment. Instead of an insular embryo following a genetic blueprint, this revised program maintains that embryogenesis is subject to inputs from the environment that generate novel genetic variation with dynamic consequences for development. Beyond allelic variation of structural genes and of regulatory loci, plasticity-derived epigenetic variation completes the triad of the major types of variation required for evolution. Developmental biology and ecology, disciplines that have previously been regarded as distinct, are presented here as fully integrated under the rubric of "eco-devo," and from this perspective, which highlights how the environment not only selects variation, it helps construct it, another synthesis with evolutionary biology must also be made, "eco-evo-devo." This second integration has enormous implications for expanding evolution theory, inasmuch as the Modern Synthesis (Provine 1971), which combined classical genetics and Darwinism in the mid-20th century, did not account for the role of development in evolution. The eco-evo-devo synthesis thus portends a major theoretical inflection in evolutionary biology. Following a description of these scientific developments, comment is offered as to how this new integrated approach might be understood within the larger shifts in contemporary biology. PMID:20495262

  7. Postsecondary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information on U.S. postsecondary schools specifically for people who are deaf and other postsecondary programs with supportive services for students with deafness. Schools and programs are listed by state and information is provided on the number of students with deafness enrolled, degrees offered, and special…

  8. Promising Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindall, Lloyd W.; Hedberg, Sally B.

    Benefits to disabled participants of programs funded by the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) are summarized and several JTPA programs highlighted. Common services included vocational assessment, work experience, career exploration, on-the-job training, vocational training, job placement, job counseling, job seeking, and job keeping. The Special…

  9. Computer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tiffoni

    This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

  10. Graduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Leslie.

    2002-01-01

    This section of "Educational Media and Technology Yearbook" is a directory that describes graduate programs in Instructional Technology, Educational Media and Communications, School Library Media, and closely allied programs in the United States. Master's, specialist, and doctoral degrees are combined into one list. Information can be considered…

  11. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  12. Application Programming

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    16. Application Programming I (Embedded SQL, ODBC, JDBC) 16­1 Part 16: Application Programming I, ``Embedded SQL'', Chapter 5, ``Oracle JDBC''. . Michael Gertz: Oracle/SQL Tutorial, 1999. [http.5 Developer's Guide. McGraw­Hill, 1999. . SQL Server Books Online, ``Building SQL Server Applications''. . Art

  13. Application Programming

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    15. Application Programming I (Embedded SQL, ODBC, JDBC) 15­1 Part 15: Application Programming I, ``Embedded SQL'', Chapter 5, ``Oracle JDBC''. . Michael Gertz: Oracle/SQL Tutorial, 1999. [http.5 Developer's Guide. McGraw­Hill, 1999. . SQL Server Books Online, ``Building SQL Server Applications''. . Art

  14. Application Programming

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    17. Application Programming I (Embedded SQL, ODBC, JDBC) 17­1 Part 17: Application Programming I, ``Embedded SQL'', Chapter 5, ``Oracle JDBC''. . Michael Gertz: Oracle/SQL Tutorial, 1999. [http.5 Developer's Guide. McGraw­Hill, 1999. . SQL Server Books Online, ``Building SQL Server Applications''. . Art

  15. PROGRAM OVERVIEW

    Cancer.gov

    NCI Community Cancer Centers Program Program Overview – St. Joseph’s / Candler 1 A. Hospital: St. Joseph’s/Candler (SJ/C) health system is comprised of two hospitals, Candler Hospital and St. Joseph’s. Candler Hospital is centrally

  16. Prolog programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yazdani

    1986-01-01

    A volume in the Artificial Intelligence Texts series, this book teaches Prolog programming by following a series of sample programs. New concepts are introduced step-by-step in order to present solutions to problems, each problem being chosen so that its solution exposes one of the features of Prolog. The examples are chosen from areas which are of practical use to readers,

  17. ASAP: a portable program for the symbolic analysis of analog integrated circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. V. Fernandez; A. Rodriguez-Vazquez; J. L. Huertas

    1990-01-01

    A new and efficient symbolic analyzer for analog integrated circuits, ASAP (Analog Symbolic Analysis Program), is presented. ASAP provides symbolic expressions for all types of AC transfer and driving-point characteristics of analog integrated circuits. The resulting expressions can be automatically simplified, which makes them useful for circuit synthesis. The main features of the program are described as well as some

  18. Comparison of Object-oriented and Functional Programming for Code Generation

    E-print Network

    Bystroff, Chris

    and solution, then applying those abstractions to the task at hand. Programming languages have developed out may look like conventional programming languages at the surface, their fundamental abstractions in the hardware synthesis process. All computer languages have limitations on their expressiveness, many of which

  19. In Brief: U.S. climate change program releases annual report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Zielinski

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) has issued its Fiscal Year 2007 report to the U.S. Congress documenting the program's previous year's activities and its plans for the current year. The CCSP coordinates climate change research across 13 federal agencies and departments and oversees the creation and publication of the 21 CCSP synthesis and assessment reports, the first of

  20. Use of Modern Chemical Protein Synthesis and Advanced Fluorescent Assay Techniques to Experimentally Validate the Functional Annotation of Microbial Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Stephen [University of Chicago

    2012-07-20

    The objective of this research program was to prototype methods for the chemical synthesis of predicted protein molecules in annotated microbial genomes. High throughput chemical methods were to be used to make large numbers of predicted proteins and protein domains, based on microbial genome sequences. Microscale chemical synthesis methods for the parallel preparation of peptide-thioester building blocks were developed; these peptide segments are used for the parallel chemical synthesis of proteins and protein domains. Ultimately, it is envisaged that these synthetic molecules would be ‘printed’ in spatially addressable arrays. The unique ability of total synthesis to precision label protein molecules with dyes and with chemical or biochemical ‘tags’ can be used to facilitate novel assay technologies adapted from state-of-the art single molecule fluorescence detection techniques. In the future, in conjunction with modern laboratory automation this integrated set of techniques will enable high throughput experimental validation of the functional annotation of microbial genomes.

  1. Total Synthesis of (±)-Maoecrystal V

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Feng; Danishefsky, Samuel J.

    2012-01-01

    The total synthesis of racemic maoecrystal V has been accomplished. Key steps include an intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization to rapidly construct the core system from simple starting materials and the creation of the A–C ring trans-fusion through intramolecular delivery of a hydrogen to the hindered ?-face of the ring system. PMID:23126440

  2. Chemical synthesis under shock compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Graham; B. Morosin; Y. Horie; E. L. Venturini; M. Boslough; M. J. Carr; D. L. Williamson

    1985-01-01

    Many reports of chemical synthesis under high pressure shock loading have been published over the past thirty years, but little progress has been made in developing an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed effects. This paper discusses the current status of studies in shock-induced solid state chemistry. It is observed that it is relatively easy to initiate and

  3. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  4. The Gabriel Synthesis of Benzylamine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigh, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment which utilizes the Gabriel Synthesis to demonstrate the acidity of imides and to provide an example of nucleophilic substitution reactions. The experiment also demonstrates the laboratory techniques involved in simple and steam distillation, filtration, extraction, and…

  5. Combustion synthesis of calcium aluminates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Fumo; M. R. Morelli; A. M. Segadães

    1996-01-01

    Commercial calcium aluminate cements for refractory use are known to contain various phases, the hydration behavior of which is interdependent and not fully understood. Hydration studies normally require that pure oxides be synthesized. Solid-state synthesis of single aluminates requires high temperatures and full conversion is not guaranteed. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain a compositionally homogeneous product with this method.

  6. Protein Synthesis by Amoebal Ribosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Carter; Hilton B. Levy; L. S. Diamond

    1967-01-01

    ALTHOUGH some of the first observations localizing the site of protein biosynthesis to microsomes were made with Tetrahymena1, interest in protozoa has generally been overshadowed by that shown for bacteria, yeast or rat liver, as appropriate cells in which to study the mechanisms of protein synthesis. None the less, the possibilities of variation in the organization of polysomes or in

  7. Toward synthesis from English descriptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walling R. Cyre

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project to design a system for automatically interpreting English specifications of digital systems in terms of design representation formalisms currently employed in CAD systems. The necessary processes involve the machine analysis of English and the synthesis of models from the specifications. The approach being investigated is interactive and consists of syntactic scanning, semantic analysis,

  8. Toward Synthesis from English Descriptions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walling Cyre

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a research project to design a system for automatically interpreting English specifications of digital systems in terms of design representation formalisms currently employed in CAD systems. The necessary processes involve the machine analysis of English and the synthesis of models from the specifications. The approach being investigated is interactive and consists of syntactic scanning, semantic analysis,

  9. Insolubilized enzymes for food synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Cellulose matrix with numerous enzyme-coated silica particles of colloidal size permanently bound at various sites within matrix was produced that has high activity and possesses requisite physical characteristics for filtration or column operations. Product also allows coupling step in synthesis of edible food to proceed under mild conditions.

  10. Nonparametric wavelet based texture synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Gallagher; Anil C. Kokaram

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for synthesising image tex- ture. Texture synthesis is an important process in image post- production. Previous approaches can be classified as either para- metric or nonparametric. Of these nonparametric approaches have achieved the most impressive results. Unfortunately, these meth- ods generally suffer from high computational cost and diffic ulty in handling scale in the

  11. An Enantiospecific Synthesis of Jiadifenolide**

    PubMed Central

    Siler, David A.; Mighion, Jeffrey D.; Sorensen, Erik J.

    2014-01-01

    A Robinson annulation, van Leusen homologation, and a desymmetrizing C–H oxidation enabled an enantiospecific synthesis of the neurotrophic natural product jiadifenolide. From a pulegone-derived building block, a key propellane intermediate was constructed through the use of simple reagents in a highly diastereoselective fashion. A short series of oxidations of this tricylic framework allowed progression to the natural product. PMID:24757120

  12. Embedded System Synthesis and Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jurgen Teich

    2000-01-01

    In this introductory paper to the field, it is our goal to provi de a new unified look at synthesis problems that is inde- pendent from the level of abstraction like system, RTL, and logic (for refinements targeted to hardware), or process- and basic block level (for refinements targeted to software) . For each level of our model called \\

  13. Synplicity FPGA Synthesis , Synplify Pro

    E-print Network

    Greenwood, Garrison W.

    Synplicity FPGA Synthesis Synplify ® , Synplify Pro ® , Synplify ® Premier, and Synplify ® Premier (U.S.) +1 408 215-6000 direct (U.S.) +1 408 222-0268 fax www.synplicity.com ® #12;LO Preface ii Fpga without notice. Trademarks Synplicity, the Synplicity "S" logo, Amplify, Amplify ASIC, Amplify FPGA

  14. Total Synthesis of (–)-Nakadomarin A

    PubMed Central

    Nilson, Mark G.; Funk, Raymond L.

    2011-01-01

    A concise diastereoselective total synthesis of (–)-nakadomarin A has been completed in 21 steps from D-pyroglutamic acid. Key steps include an enecarbamate Michael addition/furan-N-acyliminium ion cascade cyclization to provide the tetracyclic core, and ring-closing alkyne and alkene metatheses to construct the 15- and 8-membered azacycles, respectively. PMID:20932022

  15. Chemically Consistent Evolutionary Synthesis Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Universitatssternwarte Gottingen

    Any stellar system with a star formation history (SFH) more extended than a massive star's lifetime will be composite in metallicity. Our method of chemically consistent evolutionary synthesis tries to ac- count for the increasing initial metallicity of successive generations of stars. Using various sets of input physics for a range of metallicities 10?4 ? Z ? 0.05 we keep

  16. Total synthesis of clavatadine A.

    PubMed

    Conn, Stephanie J; Vreeland, Shannon M; Wexler, Alexandra N; Pouwer, Rebecca N; Quinn, Ronald J; Chamberland, Stephen

    2015-01-23

    The first total synthesis of the potent and selective human blood coagulation factor XIa inhibitor clavatadine A (1) is described. Direct, early-stage guanidinylation enabled rapid, convergent access to an immediate clavatadine A precursor. Concomitant lactone hydrolysis and guanidine deprotection with aqueous acid cleanly provided clavatadine A (1) in only four steps (longest linear sequence, 41-43% overall yield). PMID:25517413

  17. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLES

    E-print Network

    Ding, Yu

    SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLES Lokesh Kulkarni Dept. of Industrial and Systems of gold nanoparticles: - Chemicals: Auric salt (source of Au ions), sodium citrate (reducing agent - Process: See figure - Capable of producing spherical gold nanoparticles of around 10-20 nm in diameter

  18. Concise Synthesis of Ximenynic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lutai Wang; Jiabin Li; Xiaowen Xue

    2012-01-01

    An improved synthesis of ximenynic acid (1) starting from castor oil has been developed with the direct chlorination of ricinstearolic acid as the key step. By this modification, the synthetic route was more concise and economic. The separation of geometric somers was achieved by repeated urea fractionation.Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go the publisher's online edition of Synthetic

  19. The synthesis of cloth objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry Weil

    1986-01-01

    In image synthesis, cloth objects such as clothes are most often modelled as textures mapped onto rigid surfaces. However, in order to represent such objects more realistically, their physical properties must be examined. This paper describes a method for modelling cloth material hanging in three dimensions when supported by any number of constraint points. The cloth synthesized with this model

  20. Synthesis of industrial neural controllers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Aliev; R. R. Aliev; R. H. Abiev

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the synthesis problems of industrial deterministic, fuzzy and adaptive controllers, based on neural technology are considered. Comparative results of considered classes of controllers are given. Results of application of neural controllers in the oil-refinery industry are discussed

  1. Chronology of a Difficult Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menger, Fredric M.; Sorrells, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a short synthesis and many of the difficulties experienced while carrying it out (e.g., low yields, impurities, racemization, nonrepeatable literature preps, etc.). As such, students will be educated in aspects of synthetic organic chemistry that are often down-played, or even not mentioned, in published syntheses. (Contains…

  2. Facile total synthesis of xanthorrhizol.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhenting; Wang, Yin; Ma, Weili; Lv, Dong; Yu, Hongrui

    2011-02-01

    A facile total synthesis of the bisabolane sesquiterpene, xanthorrhizol (1), has been achieved in 6 steps, in 48% overall yield. The starting material was 3-methoxy-4-methyl-phenoacetone (7), and a Claisen-Johnson rearrangement was used as the key step to construct the skeleton of the target molecule. PMID:21425666

  3. Incremental Synthesis for Engineering Changes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yosinori Watanabe; Robert K. Brayton

    1991-01-01

    The problem of rectifying design incorrectness due to specification changes as well as design errors of VLSI circuits is formulated and a basic approach using logic synthesis techniques is presented. An efficient approach is presented for rectifying the functional incorrectness by attaching circuitry exterior to the original design. A necessary and sufficient condition for full rectification of the design is

  4. Organic chemistry: Streamlining drug synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Joel M.

    2015-04-01

    Drug manufacture can benefit from flow synthesis, in which raw materials are fed into a sequence of reactors, producing the drug as a continuous output. A flow strategy that capitalizes on solid catalysts has now been realized. See Letter p.329

  5. FLY Program (Freshers' Leave Year Program)

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    and values by themselves. Program overview This program is based on the gap year system of universitiesFLY Program (Freshers' Leave Year Program) The University of Tokyo introduces the new FLY Program (Freshers' Leave Year Program), starting from the 2013 academic year. This program enables undergraduate

  6. Wheat Improvement Programs WHEAT PROGRAM

    E-print Network

    Wheat Improvement Programs WHEAT PROGRAM The small grains improvement effort at Texas Agri techniques. The College Station center focuses on wheat and oats for the South Texas and Blacklands regions of Texas, while the Amarillo center develops wheat and triticale lines for the Texas High Plains

  7. Spectral Synthesis of SDSS Galaxies

    E-print Network

    L. Sodre Jr.; R. Cid Fernandes; A. Mateus; G. Stasinska; J. M. Gomes

    2005-06-17

    We investigate the power of spectral synthesis as a mean to estimate physical properties of galaxies. Spectral synthesis is nothing more than the decomposition of an observed spectrum in terms of a superposition of a base of simple stellar populations of various ages and metallicities (here from Bruzual & Charlot 2003), producing as output the star-formation and chemical histories of a galaxy, its extinction and velocity dispersion. We discuss the reliability of this approach and apply it to a volume limited sample of 50362 galaxies from the SDSS Data Release 2, producing a catalog of stellar population properties. A comparison with recent estimates of both observed and physical properties of these galaxies obtained by other groups shows good qualitative and quantitative agreement, despite substantial differences in the method of analysis. The confidence in the method is further strengthened by several empirical and astrophysically reasonable correlations between synthesis results and independent quantities. For instance, we report the existence of strong correlations between stellar and nebular metallicites, stellar and nebular extinctions, mean stellar age and equivalent width of Halpha and 4000 \\AA break, and between stellar mass and velocity dispersion. We also present preliminary results of an analysis of a magnitude-limited sample which clearly reveals that the bimodality of galaxy populations is present in the parameters computed in the synthesis. Our results are also consistent with the "down-sizing" scenario of galaxy formation and evolution. Finally, we point out one of the major problems facing spectral synthesis of early-type systems: the spectral base adopted here is based on solar-scaled evolutionary tracks whose abundance pattern may not be appropriate for this type of galaxy.

  8. Stereoselective synthesis of dienyl-carboxylate building blocks: formal synthesis of inthomycin C.

    PubMed

    Souris, Caroline; Frébault, Frédéric; Patel, Ashay; Audisio, Davide; Houk, K N; Maulide, Nuno

    2013-07-01

    A direct synthesis of stereodefined halodienes is reported. Those key building blocks enable a concise access to polyenic products, as demonstrated in a modular synthesis of Inthomycin C. PMID:23763296

  9. Diastereoselective synthesis of fused lactone-pyrrolidinones; application to a formal synthesis of (-)-salinosporamide A.

    PubMed

    Logan, Angus W J; Sprague, Simon J; Foster, Robert W; Marx, Léo B; Garzya, Vincenzo; Hallside, Michal S; Thompson, Amber L; Burton, Jonathan W

    2014-08-15

    A mild, diastereoselective synthesis of fused lactone-pyrrolidinones using an oxidative radical cyclization is reported. The methodology is demonstrated in a formal synthesis of (-)-salinosporamide A. PMID:25068416

  10. SECO Programs

    E-print Network

    Trevino, E.

    2011-01-01

    Renewable Energy Technology Grants ? Grants to Public ISDs, local governments, and state agencies ? Grants for demonstration of small-scale solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass technologies ? Competitive program ? Up to 16 grants/contracts at a...

  11. Programming models

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Pherson, Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thorp, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barrett, Richard [SNL; Clay, Robert [SNL; De Supinski, Bronis [LLNL; Dube, Evi [LLNL; Heroux, Mike [SNL; Janssen, Curtis [SNL; Langer, Steve [LLNL; Laros, Jim [SNL

    2011-01-14

    A programming model is a set of software technologies that support the expression of algorithms and provide applications with an abstract representation of the capabilities of the underlying hardware architecture. The primary goals are productivity, portability and performance.

  12. SECO Programs 

    E-print Network

    Trevino, E.

    2011-01-01

    maximum of $50,000 per grant ? Funded on a reimbursement basis Renewable Energy Technology Grants ? Fort Worth ISD ? South Sills High School ? 5KW Wind Turbine Alternative Fuel Grants ? Grant program to convert city/county and ISD vehicle...

  13. Combustion and plasma synthesis of high-temperature materials

    SciTech Connect

    Munir, Z.A.; Holt, J.B. (California, University, Davis (United States) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States))

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on combustion and plasmas synthesis of high-temperature materials are presented. Individual topics addressed include: self-propagation high-temperature synthesis, modeling and numerical computation of a nonsteady SHS process, new modes of quasi-periodic burning in combustion synthesis, combustion synthesis of intermetallic compounds, combustion synthesis of nickel aluminides, advanced ceramics via SHS, simultaneous combustion synthesis and densification of AlN, combustion synthesis of oxide-carbide composites. Also discussed are: combustion synthesis in the Ti-C-Ni-Al systems, combustion synthesis dynamics modeling, shock-induced reaction synthesis-assisted processing of ceramics, shock consolidation of combustion-synthesized ceramics, thermal plasma synthesis ceramic powders and coatings, formation of refractory aerosol particles, silica particle formation using the counterflow diffusion flame burner, synthesis of Si, SiC, and Si3N4 powders under high number density conditions.

  14. Nanostructures for Energy Application: Synthesis, Characterization and Advanced Applications

    E-print Network

    Vardi, Amichay

    , shape, and composition. The synthesis of 1-dimensional nanostructures is conducted by gas- and solution and composition Control of nanostructures Synthesis of nanowires and other structures using gas phase techniquesNanostructures for Energy Application: Synthesis, Characterization and Advanced Applications

  15. Program TOMSCAT

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.

    1980-05-30

    Program TOMSCAT is an interactive code that calculates the scattering spectrum and background for a Thomson-scattering diagnostic in typical magnetic fusion plasmas. Thomson scattering yields values of the plasma electron temperature T/sub e/ and electron density N/sub e/. This program is intended as an aid for designing Thomson-scattering systems, so all experimental parameters are input by the user. The code is operational on OCTOPUS.

  16. SPOT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  17. The Effect of Mo2C Synthesis and Pretreatment on Catalytic Stability in Oxidative Reforming Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, David C. (8392); Gilligan, Andrew J. (Washington University); Darujati, Anna R S. (Washington State University); Chellappa, Anand S. (WASHINGTON STATE UNIV); Thomson, Wiliam J. (8392)

    2003-07-10

    The role of catalyst pretreatment on the stability of Mo2C catalysts in oxidative reforming environments has been studied. Catalysts were produced by both the temperature programmed reaction (TPR) and a solution-derived (SD) synthesis method, and compared to a low surface area commercial catalyst. Using a variety of techniques, including in situ dynamic X-ray diffraction (DXRD), the effects of various hydrogen pretreatment protocols were evaluated, including catalyst thermal stability, oxidation resistance and susceptibility to coking. The high surface areas produced by the SD synthesis is attributed to the presence of excess synthesis carbon and, whereas the presence of excess synthesis carbon enhances thermal stability, it also appears to accelerate coking. It is pointed out that the lowered oxidation resistance of the high surface area catalysts is due to a combination of smaller crystallite sizes and competitive oxidation of the excess synthesis carbon, which alters the oxidation mechanism. In addition, it was also found that incomplete carburization during TPR synthesis, forms an oxycarbide and its acidity also promotes coking. Hydrogen pretreatment at 700 .C not only removes all excess synthesis carbon, but it also reduces the oxycarbide to Mo, which is easily carburized under reforming conditions. Pretreatment at 600 .C, was largely ineffective and it is concluded that high temperature pretreatment is necessary to form the stoichiometric carbide, which is required for stability during reforming. Both the TPR and SD catalysts pretreated at 700 .C, were found to be stable over a 72 h period, whereas the commercial carbide had almost identical activity but slowly deactivated over the same period, probably because of its low surface area. Finally, labeled isotope experiments revealed that carbon exchange occurs readily with bulk Mo2C at temperatures above 550 .C, lending credence to a reforming redox mechanism.

  18. Identifying and managing inappropriate hospital utilization: a policy synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, S M

    1987-01-01

    Utilization review, the assessment of the appropriateness and efficiency of hospital care through review of the medical record, and utilization management, deliberate action by payers or hospital administrators to influence providers of hospital services to increase the efficiency and effectiveness with which services are provided, are valuable but relatively unfamiliar strategies for containing hospital costs. The purpose of this synthesis is to increase awareness of the scope of and potential for these approaches among health services managers and administrators, third-party payers, policy analysts, and health services researchers. The synthesis will assist the reader to trace the conceptual context and the historical development of utilization review from unstructured methods using individual physicians' professional judgment to structured methods using explicit criteria; to establish the context of utilization review and clarify its uses; to understand the concepts and tools used in assessing the efficiency of hospital use; and to select, design, and evaluate utilization review and utilization management programs. The extent of inappropriate (medical unnecessary) hospital utilization and the factors associated with it are described. Implications for managers, providers, and third-party payers in targeting utilization review and in designing and evaluating utilization management programs are discussed. PMID:3121538

  19. Discrete-continuous variable structural synthesis using dual methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A.; Fleury, C.

    1980-01-01

    Approximation concepts and dual methods are extended to solve structural synthesis problems involving a mix of discrete and continuous sizing type of design variables. Pure discrete and pure continuous variable problems can be handled as special cases. The basic mathematical programming statement of the structural synthesis problem is converted into a sequence of explicit approximate primal problems of separable form. These problems are solved by constructing continuous explicit dual functions, which are maximized subject to simple nonnegativity constraints on the dual variables. A newly devised gradient projection type of algorithm called DUAL 1, which includes special features for handling dual function gradient discontinuities that arise from the discrete primal variables, is used to find the solution of each dual problem. Computational implementation is accomplished by incorporating the DUAL 1 algorithm into the ACCESS 3 program as a new optimizer option. The power of the method set forth is demonstrated by presenting numerical results for several example problems, including a pure discrete variable treatment of a metallic swept wing and a mixed discrete-continuous variable solution for a thin delta wing with fiber composite skins.

  20. Highly Efficient Synthesis of Clean Biofuels from Biomass Using FeCuZnAlK Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Song-bai; Xu, Yong; Ye, Tong-qi; Gong, Fei-yan; Yang, Zhi; Yamamoto, Mitsuo; Liu, Yong; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-12-01

    Highly efficient synthesis of clean biofuels using the bio-syngas obtained from biomass gasification was performed over Fe1.5Cu1Zn1Al1K0.117 catalyst. The maximum biofuel yield from the bio-syngas reaches about 1.59 kg biofuels/(kgcatal·h) with a contribution of 0.57 kg alcohols/(kgcatal·h) and 1.02 kg liquid hydrocarbons/(kgcatal·h). The alcohol products in the resulting biofuels were dominated by the C2+ alcohols (mainly C2—C6 alcohols) with a content of 73.55%-89.98%. The selectivity of the liquid hydrocarbons (C5+) in the hydrocarbon products ranges from 60.37% to 70.94%. The synthesis biofuels also possess a higher heat value of 40.53-41.49 MJ/kg. The effects of the synthesis conditions, including temperature, pressure, and gas hourly space velocity, on the biofuel synthesis were investigated in detail. The catalyst features were characterized by inductively coupled plasma and atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction, and the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms measurements. The present biofuel synthesis with a higher biofuel yield and a higher selectivity of liquid hydrocarbons and C2+ alcohols may be a potentially useful route to produce clean biofuels and chemicals from biomass.

  1. Phosphate Tethers in Synthesis: The Total Synthesis of Dolabelide C.

    E-print Network

    Waetzig, Joshua David

    2008-07-18

    ,6-di-t-butyl-p-cresol Bn benzyl BTAF benzyltrimethylammonium fluoride Bu butyl cat. catalytic CM cross metathesis COSY correlation spectroscopy Cp cyclopentadienyl CSA camphorsulfonic acid Cy cyclohexyl DABCO 1,4... vi Table of Contents viii Abbreviations x Chapter 1: Temporary Tethers in Total Synthesis 1 1.1 Introduction 2 1.2 Silicon Tethers 3 1.2.1 Temporary Silicon Tethers: Cycloadditons 4 1.2.2 Temporary...

  2. Total synthesis of zoanthamine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Fumihiko; Tanino, Keiji; Miyashita, Masaaki

    2012-05-15

    Zoanthamine alkaloids, isolated from organisms in the Zoanthus genus, constitute a distinctive family of marine metabolites. These molecules exhibit a broad spectrum of unique biological properties. For example, norzoanthamine inhibits interleukin-6, the key mediator of bone resorption in osteoporosis, providing a promising drug candidate for a disease that affects more than 10 million people over age 50 in the United States. In addition, these natural products are characterized by a densely functionalized heptacyclic framework, as exemplified by the structures of zoanthamine, norzoanthamine, and zoanthenol, which makes them extremely attractive targets for chemical synthesis. Prior to our first total synthesis of norzoanthamine in 2004, the densely functionalized and complex stereostructures of the zoanthamine alkaloids had impeded synthetic studies of these molecules. In this Account, we describe our synthetic approach toward the total synthesis of zoanthamine alkaloids, focusing on how we overcame various synthetic challenges. At the beginning of our synthetic studies, we aimed to develop an efficient route that was flexible enough to provide access to several members of the family while allowing the synthesis of various analogues for biological testing. Our first project was the total synthesis of norzoanthamine, and we established an efficient synthetic route based on a novel strategy involving the following key features. First, we used a sequential three-component coupling reactions and subsequent photosensitized oxidation of a furan moiety to synthesize the precursor for the key intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction. Second, the key intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction constructed the ABC-ring carbon framework bearing two adjacent quaternary asymmetric carbon atoms at the C12 and C22 positions in a single stereoselective step. Third, we installed the third quaternary asymmetric carbon center at the C9 position by an intramolecular acylation of a keto alcohol followed by successive O-methylation and C-methylation reactions with complete stereoselectivity. Through the exploitation of a deuterium kinetic isoptope effect, we then efficiently synthesized the alkyne segment. Next, a coupling reaction between the alkyne segment and the amino alcohol segment and several subsequent synthetic transformations afforded the bis-aminoacetalization precursor. Finally, bis-aminoacetalization reactions carried out in one-pot constructed the DEFG-ring system and culminated in the total synthesis of norzoanthamine. Our synthetic route to norzoanthamine also allowed access to other zoanthamine alkaloids from a common synthetic intermediate, by way of stereoselective introduction of the C19 methyl group for zoanthamine, and isoaromatization for construction of the aromatic A-ring in zoanthenol. The chemistry described here not only allowed us to overcome formidable synthetic challenges but also opened a completely chemical avenue to naturally occurring zoanthamine alkaloids and their synthetic derivatives. PMID:22340011

  3. The Role of Reflection in Elementary Mathematics and Science Teachers' Training and Development: A Meta-Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Laura Lackner; Johnson, Carla C.

    2014-01-01

    Meaningful and effective training and professional development programs for teachers are key to the improvement of teaching practices in our schools. In this paper, the authors offer a meta-synthesis of the literature on the role of reflection for mathematics and science teachers within the context of professional development. The authors frame…

  4. RNA synthesis during male meiosis and spermiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Henderson

    1964-01-01

    1.Using 3H-uridine, the course of RNA synthesis has been followed autoradiographically during all stages of male meiosis and spermiogenesis in the locusts Schistocerca gregaria and Cyrtacanthacris tartarica and the grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus. Using 3H-thymidine, premeiotic DNA synthesis was followed in Cyrtacanthacris tartarica.2.RNA synthesis is actively carried out by all autosomes throughout first meiotic prophase, up to and including diakinesis, and

  5. Asymmetric, stereocontrolled total synthesis of paraherquamide A.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert M; Cao, Jianhua; Tsujishima, Hidekazu; Cox, Rhona J

    2003-10-01

    The first total synthesis of paraherquamide A, a potent anthelmintic agent isolated from various Penicillium sp. with promising activity against drug-resistant intestinal parasites, is reported. Key steps in this asymmetric, stereocontrolled total synthesis include a new enantioselective synthesis of alpha-alkylated-beta-hydroxyproline derivatives to access the substituted proline nucleus and a highly diastereoselective intramolecular S(N)2' cyclization to generate the core bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane ring system. PMID:14519003

  6. A Brush Tool for Interactive Texture Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colas Schretter

    We present a user-centered approach to image-based tex- ture synthesis. The synthesis uses a user-defined brush as generation primitive. This allows synthesis of textures at the texel level and further integration of the method into most of the existing digital image edition softwares. We treat texture images as probability density estimators from which new images with perceptually similar appearance and

  7. Overview of high level synthesis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakis, Spyridon; Evans, John

    2011-02-01

    High Level Synthesis takes an abstract behavioural or algorithmic description of a digital system and creates a register transfer level structure that realises the described behaviour. Various methodologies have been developed to perform such synthesis tasks. This paper presents the different HLS concepts used in the current leading tools. It makes a comparison between the different approaches and highlights their advantages and limitations. We also present a high level synthesis example.

  8. An unrestricted vocabulary Arabic speech synthesis system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YOUSIF A. EL-IMAM

    1989-01-01

    A method for synthesizing Arabic speech has been developed which uses a reasonably sized set of subphonetic elements as the synthesis units to allow synthesis of unlimited-vocabulary speech of good quality. The synthesis units have been defined after a careful study of the phonetic properties of modern standard Arabic, and they consist of central steady-state portions of vowels, central steady-state

  9. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product

  10. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical families of herbicide (groups that share similar chemical structures) inhibit fatty acid synthesis, while fatty acid elongation is inhibited by two other families. This lesson will provide an overview of fatty acid synthesis and elongation, and explain where herbicides inhibit the pathway. Mechanisms of resistance to these herbicides will be described.

  11. A Concise Synthesis of ent-Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Belani, Jitendra D.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.

    2009-01-01

    ent-Cholesterol was synthesized in 16 steps from commercially available (S)-citronellol. The overall yield for the synthesis was 2.0%. This route is amenable to gram scale preparation of ent-cholesterol. Isotopic incorporation near the end of the synthesis was achieved using labeled methyl iodide. This synthesis is the most practical to date, and it will make ent-cholesterol more readily available to use as a probe of the function and metabolism of cholesterol. PMID:18336043

  12. Transformational derivation of programs using the Focus system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, Uday S.

    1988-01-01

    A program derivation support system called Focus is being constructed. It will formally derive programs using the paradigm of program transformation. The following issues are discussed: (1) the integration of validation and program derivation activities in the Focus system; (2) its tree-based user interface; (3) the control of search spaces in program derivation; and (4) the structure and organization of program derivation records. The inference procedures of the system are based on the integration of functional and logic programming principles. This brings about a synthesis of paradigms that were heretofore considered far apart, such as logical and executable specifications and constructive and transformational approaches to program derivation. A great emphasis has been placed, in the design of Focus, on achieving small search spaces during program derivation. The program manipulation operations such as expansion, simplification and rewriting were designed with this objective. The role of operations that are expensive in search spaces, such as folding, has been reduced. Program derivations are documented in Focus in a way that the high level descriptions of derivations are expressed only using program level information. All the meta-level information, together with dependencies between derivations of program components, is automatically recorded by the system at a lower level of description for its own use in replay.

  13. METABOLIC CONTROL OF ?-GLUCOSIDASE SYNTHESIS IN YEAST

    PubMed Central

    MacQuillan, Anthony M.; Halvorson, Harlyn O.

    1962-01-01

    MacQuillan, Anthony M. (University of Wisconsin, Madison) and Harlyn O. Halvorson. Metabolic control of ?-glucosidase synthesis in yeast. J. Bacteriol. 84:23–30. 1962—The hybrid Saccharomyces fragilis × S. dobzhanskii produced a constitutive ?-glucosidase when grown in succinate synthetic medium. Upon addition of ?-glucosides, thio-?-glucosides, or low concentrations of glucose, a further induction of enzyme synthesis was observed. Studies with other sugars revealed some specificity in response to hexose induction. Phenyl-thio-?-d-glucoside did not affect constitutive synthesis nor induction by glucosides, thio-glucosides, or glucose. Repression of ?-glucosidase synthesis is brought about by high concentrations of glucose and other carbon compounds. Preinduction does not confer resistance to catabolic repression of enzyme synthesis; this leads to the conclusion that two sites of control for ?-glucosidase synthesis are present in yeast. Multiplicity of control is further suggested from: (i) the properties of the inducing system; (ii) semiconstitutive nature of enzyme synthesis; (iii) the repression of constitutive synthesis by glucose; (iv) the elevated derepressed rates of enzyme synthesis after glucose inhibition; and (v) the selection of a family of low constitutive mutants with variable inducibility. PMID:14468063

  14. Verification after Synthesis Alan Mishchenko Robert Brayton

    E-print Network

    Brayton, Robert K.

    Verification after Synthesis Alan Mishchenko Robert Brayton Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 {alanmi, brayton}@eecs.berkeley.edu Abstract The disconnect between

  15. Total synthesis of maoecrystal V.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Bin; Lin, Guang; Shao, Wen-Bin; Gong, Jian-Xian; Yang, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Maoecrystal V (1) is a novel diterpenoid, which was originally isolated from the leaves of the Chinese medicinal herb Isodon eriocalyx in 2004 by Sun et?al.1 It has been found to be selectively cytotoxic towards HeLa cells, with an IC50 value of 20?ng?mL(-1) . Significant research efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of maoecrystal V because of its intriguing biological properties, rarity in nature, and complex structural features. Herein, we describe our recent investigations, which have culminated in the total synthesis of (±)-maoecrystal V. The current strategy involved three key steps for the successful construction of the key tetrahydrofuran oxa-bridge skeleton, including a Wessely oxidative dearomatization, a novel intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction, and a Rh(II) -catalyzed O - H insertion reaction. PMID:25504983

  16. Bioinspired iterative synthesis of polyketides

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kuan; Xie, Changmin; Hong, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Diverse array of biopolymers and second metabolites (particularly polyketide natural products) has been manufactured in nature through an enzymatic iterative assembly of simple building blocks. Inspired by this strategy, molecules with inherent modularity can be efficiently synthesized by repeated succession of similar reaction sequences. This privileged strategy has been widely adopted in synthetic supramolecular chemistry. Its value also has been reorganized in natural product synthesis. A brief overview of this approach is given with a particular emphasis on the total synthesis of polyol-embedded polyketides, a class of vastly diverse structures and biologically significant natural products. This viewpoint also illustrates the limits of known individual modules in terms of diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity. More efficient and practical iterative strategies are anticipated to emerge in the future development. PMID:26052510

  17. Polyurethane synthesis reactions in asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Bukowski, A.; Gretkiewicz, J.

    1982-04-01

    A series of asphalt-polyurethane composites was prepared by means of polyurethane synthesis in asphalt and carried out in melt. The applied materials were asphalts of differentiated group components content, polyester polyols of chain structure from linear to strongly branched, 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), and tinorganic catalyst. The asphalt components react with isocyanates to a minimal degree. The influence of the applied substrates, temperature, and polyurethane content in the system on the basic kinetic relations characterizing the process is presented. Polyurethane synthesis in asphalts does not differ in a fundamental way from the obtaining of polyurethanes, especially when their content in the composition is significant, 20 wt% and more.

  18. Formal total synthesis of aliskiren.

    PubMed

    Peters, Byron K; Liu, Jianguo; Margarita, Cristiana; Andersson, Pher G

    2015-05-01

    The efficient and selective formal total synthesis of aliskiren is described. Aliskiren, a renin inhibitor drug, has received considerable attention, primarily because it is the first of the renin inhibitor drugs to be approved by the FDA. Herein, the formal synthesis of aliskiren by iridium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of two allylic alcohol fragments is reported. Screening a number of N,P-ligated iridium catalysts yielded two catalysts that gave the highest enantioselectivity in the hydrogenation, which gave the saturated alcohols in 97 and 93?% ee. In only four steps after hydrogenation, the fragments were combined by using the Julia-Kocienski reaction to produce late-stage intermediate in an overall yield of 18?%. PMID:25783891

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  20. Green synthesis of isopropyl ricinoleate.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nishat R; Pratap, Amit P

    2013-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness is slowly driving the industry to develop alternatives to chemical routes for synthesis. Lipase catalysed synthesis is one such alternative route that is environmentally more acceptable. In this study, immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (Lipozyme 435) was used for the esterification of ricinoleic acid and isopropyl alcohol. Molecular sieves were used to remove the water formed during esterification to drive the reaction in forward direction. The optimal conditions observed were 40°C temperature, 4% enzyme concentration, 1:1 acid: alcohol ratio and 4 hours time interval. Under the described conditions, the reusability of lipase was tested and it was found that above 80% esterification was observed for over three cycles. PMID:23470442

  1. Computer Programming. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Instructional Development and Services.

    This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a computer programming curriculum in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes a curriculum…

  2. Module selection for pipelined synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajiv Jain; Alice C. Parker

    1988-01-01

    Module selection is one of the many functions which have to be performed during behavioral synthesis of pipelined designs. Module selection is the process of choosing the types of modules (e.g. carry-look-ahead adder) to implement each operation (e.g. addition). In this paper, we give a limited solution to the module selection problem for pipelined designs. A model for estimating area-time

  3. Graphene:. Synthesis, Functionalization and Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. R. Rao; K. S. Subrahmanyam; H. S. S. Ramakrishna Matte; A. Govindaraj

    2011-01-01

    Graphenes with varying number of layers can be synthesized by different strategies. Thus, single-layer graphene is obtained by the reduction of single layer graphene oxide, CVD and other methods besides micromechanical cleavage. Few-layer graphenes are prepared by the conversion of nanodiamond, arc-discharge of graphite and other means. We briefly present the various methods of synthesis and the nature of graphenes

  4. Total synthesis of (+)-papulacandin D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott E. Denmark; Tetsuya Kobayashi; Christopher S. Regens

    2010-01-01

    A total synthesis of (+)-papulacandin D has been achieved in 31 steps, in a 9.2% overall yield from commercially available materials. The synthetic strategy divided the molecule into two nearly equal sized subunits, the spirocyclic C-arylglycopyranoside and the polyunsaturated fatty acid side-chain. The C-arylglycopyranoside was prepared in 11 steps in a 30% overall yield from triacetoxyglucal. The fatty acid side-chain

  5. Facial Analysis and Synthesis Scheme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilse Ravyse; Hichem Sahli

    2006-01-01

    We developed an algorithmic scheme to extract the semantical description of the face and the face motion from an image sequence,\\u000a and to re-play this action in a 3-dimensional (3D) virtual world. The presented Facial Analysis and Synthesis Scheme combines new methods for detection and tracking of the face and facial features, for estimating the 3D face movements and\\u000a the

  6. First total synthesis of ocimarin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Hui Yang; Yun Feng Li; Cong Bin Ji; Shi Zhi Jiang; Wan Yi Liu

    2010-01-01

    A facile approach for the first synthesis of ocimarin, naturally occurring coumarins, was developed by employing a cerium (III) chloride heptahydrate-catalyzed Pechmann condensation of phenols and ?-keto esters in a solvent-free system as key step, by which ocimarin was achieved by three steps starting from acetylacetic ether and resorcinol with total yield 23.2%. All structures of new compounds were confirmed

  7. Neurotransmitter Synthesis by Neuroblastoma Clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiko Amano; Elliott Richelson; Marshall Nirenberg

    1972-01-01

    Neuroblastoma clones were examined for choline acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6), tyrosine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.3.a), acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7), and also for neurite formation. One clone does not form axons or dendrites. Three types of clones were found with respect to neurotransmitter synthesis: cholinergic, adrenergic, and clones that do not synthesize acetylcholine or catechols. All clones contain acetylcholinesterase. These results show that genes

  8. Synthesis of Ru alkylidene complexes

    PubMed Central

    Rosiak, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Summary The present work describes the robust synthesis of Ru alkylidene complexes (PCy3)2Cl2Ru=CHR – precursors for metathesis catalysts. Moreover, the dynamic behavior of complexes where R = 2-naphthyl and 2-thienyl was studied. 1H NMR techniques were employed to establish the preferred conformations in solution for both complexes and the energy barrier for rotation around single (Ru=)CH–C(thienyl) bond was estimated (?G ? 303K = 12.6 kcal/mol). PMID:21286400

  9. Synthesis in Human T Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall N. Knibbs; Ronald A. Craig; Shunji Natsuka; Alfred Chang; Mark Cameron; John B. Lowe; Lloyd M. Stoolman

    Selectin-ligands on T cells contribute to the recruitment of circulating cells into chronic inflamma- tory lesions in the skin and elsewhere. This report pro- vides the first evidence that a single fucosyltransferase, termed FucT-VII, controls the synthesis of E-selectin ligands in human T-lymphoblasts. The FucT-IV trans- ferase (the ELFT enzyme), in contrast, constructs lower avidity E-selectin ligands and requires enzyme

  10. Citrate Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The experiment allows students to view the formation of gold nanoparticles that can be detected by the reflection of a laser beam. This is a fairly inexpensive activity as it involves stock solutions, and equipment present in any science laboratory. Overall, students will enjoy this basic, but still challenging, experiment.

  11. Synthesis of transparent conductive polycerams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terho Kololuoma; Seppo M. Nissila; Juha T. Rantala

    2000-01-01

    Organic polythiophene polymers are known to be good electrical conductors, however they are lacking of chemical and mechanical stability. In this paper we describe a synthesis of polyethylene dioxythiophene-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDT-PSS) doped sol-gel polyceram material to improve chemical and mechanical properties of PEDT-PSS thin films. Thin films are fabricated by spin and spray coating methods from polymer-sol-gel solutions on sodalime

  12. STUDY PROGRAM Advanced Modules

    E-print Network

    Ullmann, G. Matthias

    Practical Course synthesis, characterization, methods From Research to Publication scientific writing Management Training project and intellectual property management Research Abroad research in cooperation

  13. Photoelectrochemical synthesis of DNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Brian Y.; Emig, Christopher J.; Jacobson, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    Optical addressing of semiconductor electrodes represents a powerful technology that enables the independent and parallel control of a very large number of electrical phenomena at the solid-electrolyte interface. To date, it has been used in a wide range of applications including electrophoretic manipulation, biomolecule sensing, and stimulating networks of neurons. Here, we have adapted this approach for the parallel addressing of redox reactions, and report the construction of a DNA microarray synthesis platform based on semiconductor photoelectrochemistry (PEC). An amorphous silicon photoconductor is activated by an optical projection system to create virtual electrodes capable of electrochemically generating protons; these PEC-generated protons then cleave the acid-labile dimethoxytrityl protecting groups of DNA phosphoramidite synthesis reagents with the requisite spatial selectivity to generate DNA microarrays. Furthermore, a thin-film porous glass dramatically increases the amount of DNA synthesized per chip by over an order of magnitude versus uncoated glass. This platform demonstrates that PEC can be used toward combinatorial bio-polymer and small molecule synthesis. PMID:19706433

  14. Chloroplast ribosomes and protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, E H; Boynton, J E; Gillham, N W

    1994-01-01

    Consistent with their postulated origin from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of plants and algae have ribosomes whose component RNAs and proteins are strikingly similar to those of eubacteria. Comparison of the secondary structures of 16S rRNAs of chloroplasts and bacteria has been particularly useful in identifying highly conserved regions likely to have essential functions. Comparative analysis of ribosomal protein sequences may likewise prove valuable in determining their roles in protein synthesis. This review is concerned primarily with the RNAs and proteins that constitute the chloroplast ribosome, the genes that encode these components, and their expression. It begins with an overview of chloroplast genome structure in land plants and algae and then presents a brief comparison of chloroplast and prokaryotic protein-synthesizing systems and a more detailed analysis of chloroplast rRNAs and ribosomal proteins. A description of the synthesis and assembly of chloroplast ribosomes follows. The review concludes with discussion of whether chloroplast protein synthesis is essential for cell survival. PMID:7854253

  15. An historical and technical perspective on SHS. [Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mccauley, J.W.

    1990-10-01

    Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS), or combustion synthesis, is a process which utilizes the heat generated by an exothermic reaction between precursor constituents to restrain itself after ignition. After a brief historical account and technical perspectives of exothermic and related processing reactions is presented, a summarized status of programs in Japan, as well as short overviews of the total efforts in the U.S and U.S.S.R. is given. Finally, drawing on experience from programs at the Materials Technology Laboratory (MTL), a review is given of the various equilibrium and nonequilibrium factors which may influence the SHS-processing of materials in the Ti-B-C system. 73 refs.

  16. Biota of North America Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The goal of the Biota of North America Program (BONAP) is to develop a unified digital system for assessing the North American biota. BONAP's database now includes assessment for all vascular plants and vertebrate animals (native, naturalized, and adventive) of North America north of Mexico, and it maintains the most current taxonomy, nomenclature, and biogeographic data for all members of the biota. The Synthesis of the North American Flora, published in 1999, is available for purchase as a CD-ROM (ordering information is provided); a 1mb demonstration version for Windows is available through the BONAP site. The Synthesis includes taxonomic, nomenclatural, and biogeographic data and images, enabling users to produce species checklists, distribution summaries, and species assessments for morphology, rarity, endemism, nativity, and other biological attributes. It consists of three parts: the "Lexicon," which provides the underlying nomenclature and taxonomy; the "Atlas," which displays distribution maps for each of the accepted taxa; and the "Biological Attributes," which provides summaries of morphological and other specialized data (rarity and endemism, nativity, weediness, habit, habitat, and others).

  17. Postdoctoral Mentoring Program

    E-print Network

    Kemner, Ken

    Postdoctoral Mentoring Program Procedures, Guidelines and Resources As one of the largest Mentoring Program Procedures, Guidelines and Resources Overview of the Mentoring Program: As one. · Assists their divisions with procedural aspects of the Mentoring Program. Mentoring Program Assistants

  18. National Diabetes Prevention Program

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . National Diabetes Prevention Program Prevent Diabetes STAT: Get Involved Program Video: ... CDC/AMA Call to Action For Healthcare Providers Diabetes Prevention Recognition Program Program Topics About the Program Learn ...

  19. Self-propagating high temperature synthesis for compound thermoelectrics and new criterion for applicability of combustion processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xinfeng; Su, Xianli; Uher, Ctirad; Tang's Group Team; Uher's Group Team

    2015-03-01

    Here we report compound thermoelectric materials (Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, Cu2Se,Cu2SnSe3, half-Heusler alloys, lead chalcogenides, skutterudites, and magnesium silicides) with thermoelectric properties comparable with materials prepared by the traditional routes of synthesis can be synthesized at a minimal cost and on the time scale of seconds using the self-propagating high temperature synthesis method. Moreover, we found that the criterion often quoted in the literature as the necessary precondition for combustion synthesis, Tad >= 1800 K, is not universal and certainly not applicable to thermoelectric compound semiconductors. Instead, we offer new empirically-based criterion, Tad /Tm , L >1, i.e., the adiabatic temperature must be high enough to melt the lower melting point component, which covers all materials synthesized by self-propagating high temperature synthesis, including the high temperature refractory compounds for which the Tad >= 1800 K criterion was originally developed. Our work opens a new avenue for ultra-fast, low cost, mass production fabrication of efficient thermoelectric materials and the new criterion greatly broadens the scope of materials that can be successfully synthesized by self-propagating high temperature synthesis. We wish to acknowledge support from the National Basic Research Program of China (973 program) under Project 2013CB632502.

  20. Evaluation of Coprecipitation Processes for the Synthesis of Mixed-Oxide Fuel Feedstock Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emory D Collins; Stewart L Voit; Raymond James Vedder

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this report is the evaluation of various co-precipitation processes for use in the synthesis of mixed oxide feedstock powders for the Ceramic Fuels Technology Area within the Fuels Cycle R&D (FCR&D) Program's Advanced Fuels Campaign. The evaluation will include a comparison with standard mechanical mixing of dry powders and as well as other co-conversion methods. The end

  1. The synthesis and magnetic properties of LaCo 13 hydrides and nitrides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Nikitin; I. S. Tereshina; V. N. Verbetsky; A. A. Salamova; B. I. Lazoryak; V. A. Morozov

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of LaCo13H3.5 was performed under a 10-bar pressure of hydrogen and at the temperature of 600 K. Nitriding was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere of 30 bar pressure and at temperature 700 K. The structure of LaCo13N3 was refined by the full-profile analysis using the GSAS program. Magnetic measurements were made on free and aligned samples in the

  2. Reachability and control synthesis for piecewise-affine hybrid systems on simplices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Collins; J. H. van Schuppen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the synthesis of control laws for piecewise-affine hybrid systems on simplices. The construction is based on the solution to the control-to-facet problem at the continuous level, and on dynamic programming at the discrete level. The construction is given as an explicit algorithm using only linear algebra and reach-set computations for automata; no numerical integration is

  3. Structure of the Basin and Ridge System West of New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific): A Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Lafoy; I. Brodien; R. Vially; N. F. Exon

    2005-01-01

    Complementary to previous work mainly based on seismic interpretation, our compilation of geophysical data (multibeam bathymetry,\\u000a gravity, magnetic and seismic) acquired within the framework of the ZoNéCo (ongoing since 1993) and FAUST (1998–2001) programs\\u000a enables us to improve the knowledge of the New Caledonia Basin, Fairway Basin and Fairway Ridge, located within the Southwest\\u000a Pacific region. The structural synthesis map

  4. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth with Disabilities: A Meta-Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Scott Duke

    2011-01-01

    This meta-synthesis of empirical and nonempirical literature analyzed 24 journal articles and book chapters that addressed the intersection of disability, [homo]sexuality, and gender identity\\/expression in P–12 schools, colleges and universities, supported living programs, and other educational and social contexts in Australia, Belgium, Canada, New Zealand, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The articles and chapters emphasized the diversity

  5. Evolutionary process indicators for active IGAs applied to weight tuning in unit selection TTS synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lluís Formiga; Francesc Alías; Xavier Llorà

    2010-01-01

    Text-to-Speech (TTS) synthesis systems produce speech from an input text. Corpus based or unit selection TTS (US-TTS) are based on retrieving the best set of speech units from a large labelled speech database. To that effect, the unit selection is guided by dynamic programming and a weighted cost function. Several weight tuning approaches have been defined so as to integrate

  6. Deactivation studies of nano-structured iron catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Nakhaei Pour; Mohammad Reza Housaindokht; Sayyed Faramarz Tayyari; Jamshid Zarkesh

    2010-01-01

    A nano-structured iron catalyst for syngas conversion to hydrocarbons in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was prepared by micro-emulsion method. Compositions of bulk iron phase and phase transformations of carbonaceous species during catalyst deactivation in FTS reaction were characterized by temperature-programmed surface reaction with hydrogen (TPSR-H2), and XRD techniques. Many carbonaceous species on surface and bulk of the nano-structured iron catalysts were

  7. Summer Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toussaint, Isabella H.

    An intensive 6-week summer readiness program held in the Beaver Area School District, Beaver, Pennsylvania, developed linguistic facility among 15 preschool children. Daily activities included discussion, picture study, creative arts, field trips, developing experience charts, and other nonlanguage arts activities. A combined experiential,…

  8. Federal Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information for federal offices that provide educational and rehabilitation services information for individuals with disabilities, including those with hearing impairments. Information is provided on the Office of Special Education Programs, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and the…

  9. Graduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Describes 141 graduate programs in Instructional Technology, Educational Media and Communications, and School Library Media in 40 states and the District of Columbia. Entries provide name and address, contact person, degrees offered and specializations, special features, admission requirements, degree requirements, number of full-time and…

  10. Minimum Energy Pulse Synthesis Inverse Scattering Transform

    E-print Network

    Minimum Energy Pulse Synthesis via the Inverse Scattering Transform Charles L. Epstein LSNI profile and certain auxiliary parameters used in the inverse scattering transform (IST) approach to RF-pulse of nuclear magnetic resonance. The oldest method of pulse synthesis is the Fourier transform method

  11. User directed view synthesis on OMAP processors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mursel Yildiz; Gozde Bozdagi Akar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for user directed real time view synthesis for hand-held devices. Stored image frames with corresponding depth maps are used as input to the system. Users view point choice is captured using a GYRO based system. OMAP3530 microprocessor is used as the main processor which processes suggested view synthesis algorithm with occlusion handling and

  12. SCMC for SLA: A Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauro, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This research synthesis explores the role of synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) for second language acquisition (SLA). Using Hymes' (1971) notion of communicative competence and Canale and Swain's (1980; Canale, 1983) subsequent framework for communicative language teaching, the synthesis examines the research trends, methods, and…

  13. Practical synthesis of the calcimimetic agent, cinacalcet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver R. Thiel; Charles Bernard; Wanda Tormos; Alan Brewin; Shuji Hirotani; Kazuo Murakami; Kenji Saito; Robert D. Larsen; Michael J. Martinelli; Paul J. Reider

    2008-01-01

    A practical synthesis of cinacalcet (Sensipar®, Mimpara®) is described. The synthesis starts from readily available starting materials and relies on safe and practical reaction conditions. The sequence comprises three synthetic steps and only one isolation point. The overall yield for the sequence is 85%.

  14. THE "LISTENING SPEED" PARADIGM FOR SYNTHESIS EVALUATION

    E-print Network

    Carlson, Rolf

    al. study, the synthesis used was produced by the Votrax synthesizer, a widely used deviceTHE "LISTENING SPEED" PARADIGM FOR SYNTHESIS EVALUATION Rolf Carlson, Björn Granström, Lennart-to-speech systems, from tests that essentially measures aspects of segmental intelligibility (Carlson et al. 1992

  15. Accelerate synthesis in ecology and environmental sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthesis of diverse knowledge is a central part of all sciences, but especially those such as ecology and environmental sciences which draw information from many disciplines. Research and education in ecology are intrinsically synthetic, and synthesis is increasingly needed to find solutions for en...

  16. Sustainable Synthesis of Nanomaterials Using Microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation summarizes our recent activity in MW-assisted synthesis of nanomaterials under benign conditions. Shape-controlled aqueous synthesis of noble nanostructures via MW-assisted spontaneous reduction of noble metal salts using ¿-D-glucose, sucrose, and maltose will be...

  17. The synthesis radio telescope at Westerbork

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. M. Baars; J. F. van der Brugge; Jean L. Casse; J. P. Hamaker; L. H. Sondaar; J. J. Visser; K. J. Wellington

    1973-01-01

    The synthesis radio telescope (SRT) is an array of 20 simultaneous interferometers formed by 10 fixed and 2 movable antennas on an E-W baseline of 1600 m, operating on the principle of rotational aperture synthesis. It is capable of observing continuum radiation in 4 Stokes parameters and line radiation at 50-, 21-, and 6-cm wavelengths. This paper centers on a

  18. Tolerance synthesis: quantifier notion and virtual boundary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-yves Dantan; Luc Mathieu; Alex Ballu; Patrick Martin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of functional tolerancing process is to define the geometrical specifications of parts ensuring functional requirements. For automotive and aircraft industries, the tolerance synthesis has become an important issue in product design process. Indeed, designers need methods and rules to determine the tolerances. To define rules, a mathematical formulation of tolerance synthesis is detailed. This mathematical formulation of tolerance

  19. Lensless imaging by spatial Fourier synthesis holography.

    PubMed

    Arons, E; Dilworth, D

    1996-02-10

    The technique of Fourier synthesis holography is extended to the spatial domain. A spatially extended source is decomposed into its Fourier components, and a hologram of an object distribution is formed at each spatial frequency and stored in a computer. Upon synthesis in the computer a clear image can be formed of the object without the use of lenses. PMID:21069067

  20. Timed Circuit Synthesis Using Implicit Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Thacker; Wendy Belluomini; Chris J. Myers

    1999-01-01

    The design and synthesis of asynchronous circuits is gaining importance in both the industrial and academic worlds. Timed circuits are a class of asynchronous circuits that incorporate explicit timing informationin the specifica- tion. This information is used throughout the synthesis pro- cedure to optimize the design. In order to synthesize a timed circuit, it is necessary to explore the timed

  1. FPGA Logic Synthesis using Quantified Boolean Satisfiability

    E-print Network

    Brown, Stephen Dean

    FPGA Logic Synthesis using Quantified Boolean Satisfiability Andrew Ling1 , Deshanand P. Singh2 a novel Field Programmable Gate Ar- ray (FPGA) logic synthesis technique which determines if a logic. The applications demonstrated in this paper include FPGA technology mapping and resynthesis where their results

  2. Combustion Synthesis of Aluminoborate Glass Matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Yi; J. Y. Guigne; L. A. Whalen; J. J. Moore

    2000-01-01

    Combustion synthesis or self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been used for the first time to produce glass–ceramic materials. The materials produced by the technique have a glassy matrix (aluminoborate glass) and crystalline TiB2 particles, of about 0.5 µm. The combustion characteristics and microstructures of the synthesized materials are presented.

  3. Software Synthesis for Complex Reactive Embedded Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felice Balarin; Massimiliano Chiodo

    1999-01-01

    We propose a software synthesis procedure for reactive embedded system. The procedure is an extension of the approach in the POLIS co-design framework. In our approach, control parts of the system are represented in a decomposed form, enabling more complex control structures to be represented. We propose a synthesis procedure for this representation that avoids unnecessary evaluations of the data

  4. Communication Interface Synthesis for Multilanguage Specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Hessel; Philippe Coste; P. Lemarrec; Nacer-eddine Zergainoh; Jean-marc Daveau; Ahmed Amine Jerraya

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays the design o f complex systems r equires the cooperation of several teams belonging to different cultures and using different languages. It is necessary to dispose of new design and verification methods to handle multilanguage approaches. This paper presents an approach for the c ommunication interface synthesis of multilanguage specifications. In the proposed a pproach, communication synthesis allows to

  5. Microwave chemistry for inorganic nanomaterials synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Idalia Bilecka; Markus Niederberger

    2010-01-01

    This Feature Article gives an overview of microwave-assisted liquid phase routes to inorganic nanomaterials. Whereas microwave chemistry is a well-established technique in organic synthesis, its use in inorganic nanomaterials' synthesis is still at the beginning and far away from having reached its full potential. However, the rapidly growing number of publications in this field suggests that microwave chemistry will play

  6. A synthesis environment for designing DSP systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Casavant; M. A. d'Abreu; M. Dragomirecky; D. A. Duff; J. R. Jasica; M. J. Hartman; K. S. Hwang; W. D. Smith

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a high-level synthesis tool that addresses the broad range of throughput requirements inherent in all DSP (digital signal processor) systems. The primary role of this system, called FACE (flexible architecture compilation environment), is to provide a set of algorithms that adequately support architecturally specific hardware synthesis for a class of DSP applications. They first identify the shortcomings

  7. The topological synthesis of compliant mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry L. Howell; A MIDHA

    1996-01-01

    Type synthesis of rigid-link mechanisms provides a means to determine mechanism topologies before considering link dimensions. Although researchers have provided valuable insight into the enumeration of mechanisms containing flexible members, a mathematically rigorous process for the topological synthesis of complaint mechanisms is lacking. One reason for this is the large increase in the number of possible mechanisms for a given

  8. Woodger, Positivism, and the Evolutionary Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joe Cain

    2000-01-01

    In Unifying Biology, Smocovitis offers a series of claimsregarding the relationship between key actors in the synthesisperiod of evolutionary studies and “positivism,” especially claimsentailing Joseph Henry Woodger and the Unity of Science Movement.This commentary examines Woodger's possible relevance to key synthesis actors and challenges Smocovitis' arguments for theexplanatory relevance of logical positivism, and positivism moregenerally, to synthesis history. Under scrutiny,

  9. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Lithospermic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xu; Zhou, Bing

    2012-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of (+)-lithospermic acid, a potent anti-HIV agent, has been accomplished in a convergent manner in 9 steps. The synthesis features an enantioselective intramolecular oxa-Michael addition catalyzed by a quinidine derivative, a hypervalent iodine-mediated rearrangement of chromanone to dihydrobenzofuran, an enantioselective ?-oxyamination, and an intermolecular C-H olefination. PMID:22978790

  10. Web-Mediated Knowledge Synthesis for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSchryver, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitous and instant access to information on the Web is challenging what constitutes 21st century literacies. This article explores the notion of Web-mediated knowledge synthesis, an approach to integrating Web-based learning that may result in generative synthesis of ideas. This article describes the skills and strategies that may support…

  11. Synthesis Of B, B', B"-Trichloroborazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Chen, Timothy S.; Hsu, Ming-Ta S.

    1988-01-01

    Simplified, relatively safe, and economical synthesis of B, B', B"-trichloroborazine easily practiced in standard organic-chemistry laboratory. Yield is 20 to 30 percent, fairly acceptable value in view of inherent difficulty of synthesizing borazines. New synthesis has potential use in industry.

  12. Mechanochemically enhanced synthesis of isomorphously substituted kaolinites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Restrepo; Carolin Griebel; Kyle Giesler; Eric J. Buker; Danielle K. Silletti; Sarah A. Brokus; Graham F Peaslee; Richard G. Blair

    2011-01-01

    A mechanochemical method for the rapid, bulk synthesis of kaolinite has been developed. Metal hydroxides and silicic acid are mechanically ground and hydrothermally treated for as little as a day at 250°C to produce X-ray pure crystalline materials. This approach has been expanded to allow the synthesis of kaolinites with a portion of the aluminum sites isomorphously substituted with other

  13. A Comprehensive Program for the Training of Elementary School Teachers at Shaw University. Final Report, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw Univ., Raleigh, NC.

    This report contains a description of the current elementary teacher education program at Shaw University; a brief summary of each of the nine U.S. Office of Education models for elementary teacher education programs; review and synthesis of concepts in the three models (Florida State, Georgia, and Massachusetts) most applicable in redeveloping…

  14. NATURAL PRODUCT SYNTHESIS: The Art of Total Synthesis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    István E. Markó (Université Catholique de Louvain, Unité de Chimie Organique et Médicinale; )

    2001-11-30

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Advances in synthetic strategies and analytical technology are allowing ever more natural product molecules to be synthesized. In his Perspective, Markó briefly reviews the history of this field and highlights the synthesis of ciguatoxin by Hirama et al. This marine toxin belongs to the ciguatera family of neurotoxins, which poison some 20,000 people every year. The elegant and highly convergent strategy developed by the authors will be helpful in the development of antibodies to ciguatoxin for the detection of contaminated seafood.

  15. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined. 10 refs.

  16. Requirement for Protein Synthesis at Developing Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Sebeo, Joseph; Hsiao, Kuangfu; Bozdagi, Ozlem; Dumitriu, Dani; Ge, Yongchao; Zhou, Qiang; Benson, Deanna L.

    2009-01-01

    Activity and protein synthesis act cooperatively to generate persistent changes in synaptic responses. This forms the basis for enduring memory in adults. Activity also shapes neural circuits developmentally, but whether protein synthesis plays a congruent function in this process is poorly understood. Here, we show that brief periods of global or local protein synthesis inhibition decrease the synaptic vesicles available for fusion and increase synapse elimination. CaMKII is a critical target; its levels are controlled by rapid turnover, and blocking its activity or knocking it down recapitulates the effects of protein synthesis inhibition. Mature presynaptic terminals show decreased sensitivity to protein synthesis inhibition, and resistance coincides with a developmental switch in regulation from CaMKII to PKA. These findings demonstrate a novel mechanism regulating presynaptic activity and synapse elimination during development, and suggest that protein translation acts coordinately with activity to selectively stabilize appropriate synaptic interactions. PMID:19657031

  17. Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined.

  18. Synthetic fuels and chemicals production from biomass synthesis gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingjun Zhu; Shurong Wang; Yingying Zhu; Xiaolan Ge; Xinbao Li; Zhongyang Luo

    2010-01-01

    Experimental research on the synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME), ethylene glycol (EG), methyl glycolate (MG) from syngas, produced by biomass gasification and catalytic reforming, was carried out. The improved two step process, composed of methanol synthesis and methanol dehydration in a fixed-bed reactor, was employed for the direct DME synthesis. It shows that methanol synthesis catalyst in top stage is

  19. Combustion synthesis and quasi-isostatic densication of powder cermets

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Combustion synthesis and quasi-isostatic densi®cation of powder cermets E.A. Olevskya,* , E-propagating High-temperature synthesis (also known as SHS or combustion synthesis) presents a bright potential equation parameters. The distortion undergone by the combustion synthesis products during QIP densi

  20. Verification of logic programs and imperative programs

    E-print Network

    Naish, Lee

    Verification of logic programs and imperative programs Lee Naish Technical Report 90/6 (Revised May@cs.mu.OZ.AU Abstract This paper explores the relationship between verification of logic programs and imperative programs with the aim of uncovering the kinds of reasoning used to construct logic programs. We discuss

  1. Proposed New Program: Planning New Programs

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Proposed New Program: Planning New Programs Planning Program As outlined in the attached document, the Human Geography group is bringing forward a proposal for a new undergraduate program in Planning. The Curriculum Committee has discussed this program both last year, and in our Friday the 13th

  2. Joint MPP/JD Program Program Description

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Joint MPP/JD Program Program Description The combined JD/ MPP program levers the considerable and associated intellectual discourses than would be possible in either degree program on its own. The importance of these degree programs will provide students with an opportunity to integrate public policy considerations

  3. Relating Logic Programs Via Program Maps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Kirschenbaum; Leon Sterling; Ashish Jain

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical theory underlying a systematic method for constructing Prolog programs called stepwise enhancement. Stepwise enhancement dictates building a program starting with a skeleton program which constitutes the basic control flow for the problem to be solved, and adding extra computations to the skeleton program by using well-understood programming techniques. Each extra computation can be developed independently,

  4. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.; Bell, C.M.; Chow, P.; Louie, J.; Mohr, J.M.; Peinemann, K.V.; Pinnau, I.; Wijmans, J.G.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L.

    1990-10-01

    The production of hydrogen from synthesis gas made by gasification of coal is expensive. The separation of hydrogen from synthesis gas is a major cost element in the total process. In this report we describe the results of a program aimed at the development of membranes and membrane modules for the separation and purification of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The performance properties of the developed membranes were used in an economic evaluation of membrane gas separation systems in the coal gasification process. Membranes tested were polyetherimide and a polyamide copolymer. The work began with an examination of the chemical separations required to produce hydrogen from synthesis gas, identification of three specific separations where membranes might be applicable. A range of membrane fabrication techniques and module configurations were investigated to optimize the separation properties of the membrane materials. Parametric data obtained were used to develop the economic comparison of processes incorporating membranes with a base-case system without membranes. The computer calculations for the economic analysis were designed and executed. Finally, we briefly investigated alternative methods of performing the three separations in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The three potential opportunities for membranes in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas are: (1) separation of hydrogen from nitrogen as the final separation in a air-blown or oxygen-enriched air-blown gasification process, (2) separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide to reduce or eliminate the conventional ethanolamine acid gas removal unit, and (3) separation of hydrogen and/or carbon dioxide form carbon monoxide prior to the shift reactor to influence the shift reaction. 28 refs., 54 figs., 40 tabs.

  5. Functional Programming Olaf Chitil

    E-print Network

    Kent, University of

    Functional Programming Olaf Chitil University of Kent, United Kingdom Abstract Functional programming is a programming paradigm like object-oriented pro- gramming and logic programming. Functional programming comprises both a spe- cific programming style and a class of programming languages that encourage

  6. 75 FR 9442 - Lonza, Inc., Riverside Plant, Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section, Custom Manufacturing Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ...Riverside Plant, Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section, Custom Manufacturing Division...Riverside Plant, Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section, Custom Manufacturing Division...Riverside Plant, Lonza Exclusive Synthesis Section, Custom Manufacturing...

  7. The Synthesis Paradigm in Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Rice, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics—and other fields of biology—are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous “-omics” data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time. PMID:24496401

  8. Photochemical reactions for commercial synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Guillet, J. E.

    1985-06-25

    Photochemical reactions are conducted using floating polymer beads on the surface of a moving body of water. The polymer bead is impregnated with a reactant, floated on the water in direct sunlight so as to expose the reactant to solar radiation, collected at a downstream location, treated to remove product from the polymer, and then the bead can be recycled. The process can be used to collect and store solar energy in chemical form, or for conducting photochemical synthesis to produce useful chemical products.

  9. Synthesis of colloidal silica dumbbells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Patrick M; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2005-11-22

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of stable suspensions of monodisperse fluorescently labeled silica dumbbell particles. Pure dispersions of silica dumbbells with center-to-center lengths from 174 nm to 2.3 microm were produced with a variety of aspect ratios. Individual particles in concentrated dispersions of these particles could be imaged with confocal microscopy. These particles can be used as a colloidal model system for addressing fundamental questions about crystal and glass formation of low-aspect-ratio anisotropic particles. They also have potential in photonic applications and electro-optical devices. PMID:16285834

  10. Lithium synthesis in microquasar accretion.

    PubMed

    Iocco, Fabio; Pato, Miguel

    2012-07-13

    We study the synthesis of lithium isotopes in the hot tori formed around stellar mass black holes by accretion of the companion star. We find that sizable amounts of both stable isotopes 6Li and 7Li can be produced, the exact figures varying with the characteristics of the torus and reaching as much as 10(-2) M? for each isotope. This mass output is enough to contaminate the entire Galaxy at a level comparable with the original, pregalactic amount of lithium and to overcome other sources such as cosmic-ray spallation or stellar nucleosynthesis. PMID:23030150

  11. The total synthesis of (-)-nitidasin.

    PubMed

    Hog, Daniel T; Huber, Florian M E; Mayer, Peter; Trauner, Dirk

    2014-08-01

    Nitidasin is a pentacyclic sesterterpenoid with a rare 5-8-6-5 carbon skeleton that was isolated from the Peruvian folk medicine "Hercampuri". It belongs to a small class of sesterterpenoids that feature an isopropyl trans-hydrindane moiety fused to a variety of other ring systems. As a first installment of our general approach toward these natural products, we report the total synthesis of the title compound. Our stereoselective, convergent route involves the addition of a complex alkenyl lithium compound to a trans-hydrindanone, followed by chemoselective epoxidation, ring-closing olefin metathesis, and redox adjustment. PMID:24962933

  12. fsclean: Faraday Synthesis CLEAN imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. R.; Ensslin, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Fsclean produces 3D Faraday spectra using the Faraday synthesis method, transforming directly from multi-frequency visibility data to the Faraday depth-sky plane space. Deconvolution is accomplished using the CLEAN algorithm, and the package includes Clark and Högbom style CLEAN algorithms. Fsclean reads in MeasurementSet visibility data and produces HDF5 formatted images; it handles images and data of arbitrary size, using scratch HDF5 files as buffers for data that is not being immediately processed, and is limited only by available disk space.

  13. Synthesis of boron nitride powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreissig, Dirk Horst

    2002-09-01

    In the materials science community there is much interest in the development of new, efficient approaches for preparing ceramic powders having properties or performance characteristics not found with powders produced by traditional metallurgical synthesis methods. In this regard, aerosol-based syntheses are finding general acceptance for the preparation of non-metal and metal oxide powders. In contrast, much less effort has been given to aerosol-type syntheses for non-oxide powders despite potentially useful benefits. This dissertation describes the application of two chemical systems in aerosol assisted vapor phase synthesis (AAVS) for the preparation of spherical morphology boron oxynitride, BNxOy, powders that are subsequently converted to spherical morphology boron nitride in a second nitridation step. Chapter 1 describes the AAVS synthesis of BNxOy powders using a reaction of an aqueous boric acid containing aerosol with ammonia at 1000°C. The effect of reactor tube material, total gas flow rate, ammonia concentration, boric acid concentration, and urea addition to the boric acid aerosol on the percent oxygen composition is described. The resulting BNxOy powders contain significant amounts of oxygen that require replacement in a second stage nitridation reaction at elevated temperature under ammonia. The influences of the reaction temperature profile, crucible geometry and transformation additive on final oxygen composition and powder crystallinity are described. Chapter 2 outlines the formation of BNxOy powders from an AAVS reaction between the boron precursor (MeO)3B and ammonia. The formation of the powders is studied as a function of total gas flow rate and ammonia concentration. In all cases the resulting powders contain lower levels of oxygen compared to powders produced from aqueous boric acid aerosols. The conversion of the BNxOy powders in the second stage nitridation reaction with ammonia is examined as a function of crucible geometry, temperature profile and ammonia flow rate. In support of this process, the molecular reaction between (MeO)3B and NH3 was reexamined. The adduct, (MeO)3B·NH3, was isolated and its molecular structure determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The results of these studies provide guidance for more detailed studies that should result in industrial scale synthesis of spherical morphology BN which currently is not formed by standard metallurgical syntheses. This new material has potential applications in several areas including the formation of BN loaded organic polymer composites.

  14. Synthesis of New Polyphosphonic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carine Viornery; Péter Péchy; Mickaël Boegli; Björn-O. Aronsson; Pierre Descouts; Michael Grätzel

    2002-01-01

    A general method for the synthesis of new polyphosphonic acids is described. The hexaisopropyl alkane-1,1,n-triphosphonates (n = 4-5) are formed by the reaction of the salt of tetraisopropyl methylenediphosphonate with diisopropyl n-bromoalkanephosphonates (n = 3-4) while the hexaisopropyl alkane-2,2,n-triphosphonates (n = 5-6) are formed by the reaction of the salt of tetraisopropyl ethane-1,1-diphosphonate with diisopropyl n-bromoalkanephosphonates (n = 3-4). The

  15. Concise Synthesis of Functionalized Benzocyclobutenones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng-hao; Savage, Nikolas A.; Dong, Guangbin

    2014-01-01

    A concise approach to access functionalized benzocyclobutenones from 3-halophenol derivatives is described. This modified synthesis employs a [2+2] cycloaddition between benzynes generated from dehydrohalogenation of aryl halides using LiTMP and acetaldehyde enolate generated from n-BuLi and THF, followed by oxidation of the benzocyclobutenol intermediates to provide benzocyclobutenones. The [2+2] reaction can be run on a 10-gram scale with an increased yield. A number of functional groups including alkenes and alkynes are tolerated. Coupling of benzynes with ketene silyl acetals to give 8-substituted benzocyclobutenones is also demonstrated. PMID:24926108

  16. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Lobeck, William E.

    2002-01-01

    Four research activities related to Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) have been performed under this grant. The four activities are: 1) non-deterministic approaches that incorporate technologies such as intelligent software agents, visual simulations and other ISE technologies; 2) virtual labs that leverage modeling, simulation and information technologies to create an immersive, highly interactive virtual environment tailored to the needs of researchers and learners; 3) advanced learning modules that incorporate advanced instructional, user interface and intelligent agent technologies; and 4) assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments.

  17. Cellulose Synthesis in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Alan R. White; Ann G. Matthysse

    2004-07-31

    We have cloned the celC gene and its homologue from E. coli, yhjM, in an expression vector and expressed the both genes in E. coli; we have determined that the YhjM protein is able to complement in vitro cellulose synthesis by extracts of A. tumefaciens celC mutants, we have purified the YhjM protein product and are currently examining its enzymatic activity; we have examined whole cell extracts of CelC and various other cellulose mutants and wild type bacteria for the presence of cellulose oligomers and cellulose; we have examined the ability of extracts of wild type and cellulose mutants including CelC to incorporate UDP-14C-glucose into cellulose and into water-soluble, ethanol-insoluble oligosaccharides; we have made mutants which synthesize greater amounts of cellulose than the wild type; and we have examined the role of cellulose in the formation of biofilms by A. tumefaciens. In addition we have examined the ability of a putative cellulose synthase gene from the tunicate Ciona savignyi to complement an A. tumefaciens celA mutant. The greatest difference between our knowledge of bacterial cellulose synthesis when we started this project and current knowledge is that in 1999 when we wrote the original grant very few bacteria were known to synthesize cellulose and genes involved in this synthesis were sequenced only from Acetobacter species, A. tumefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum. Currently many bacteria are known to synthesize cellulose and genes that may be involved have been sequenced from more than 10 species of bacteria. This additional information has raised the possibility of attempting to use genes from one bacterium to complement mutants in another bacterium. This will enable us to examine the question of which genes are responsible for the three dimensional structure of cellulose (since this differs among bacterial species) and also to examine the interactions between the various proteins required for cellulose synthesis. We have carried out one preliminary experiment of this type and have successfully complemented an A. tumefaciens CelC mutant with the homologous gene (yhjM) from E. coli.

  18. Synthesis of some alkylarsonic acids

    E-print Network

    McBrearty, Charles Francis

    1967-01-01

    of vrhite crystalline product formed. The mixture vias refluxed for an hour prior to fiitnation. The yield of crude n-dodecylansonic acid was 26. 0 g. Several reer ysta I I i zat ions were carried out from acemone-water mixtures un+ i I a constart r.... For the preparation of arsonic acids with carbon cnains longer than n-C additional precautions were found to be necessary in ihe synthesis of the Grignard reagent. A specially constructed three- I0 necked reaction flask (Fig. I & equioped with reflux condenser...

  19. Total synthesis of heronapyrrole C.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Bo; Furkert, Daniel P; Capon, Robert J; Brimble, Margaret A

    2014-01-17

    A flexible total synthesis of the 2-nitropyrrole-derived marine natural product, (+)-heronapyrrole C, is reported. The approach is based on regioselective access to key building blocks containing the rare 4-substituted 2-nitropyrrole motif. Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation and dihydroxylation and a Shi epoxidation were used to introduce the five stereogenic centers of the bis-THF-diol side chain. The N-benzoyloxymethyl (Boz) protecting group was crucial for functionalization of the 2-nitropyrrole moiety and enabling final deprotection under mild conditions. PMID:24351092

  20. DARPA dynamic synthesis program: Sandia National Laboratories' program on shock-activated sintering. Second quarterly report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Graham; E. K. Beauchamp; B. Morosin; E. L. Venturini; D. M. Webb

    1982-01-01

    This report describes progress on shock-activated sintering of inorganic powders TiC, TiBâ, AlN and AlâOâ. This report describes progress in recovery fixture development, describes progress in numerical simulation of shock conditions imposed in our explosive shock modification experiments, describes characterization of shock-modified powders, and describes powder consolidation studies.