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1

The Role of Ontologies in Schema-based Program Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program synthesis is the process of automatically deriving executable code from (non-executable) high-level specifications. It is more flexible and powerful than conventional code generation techniques that simply translate algorithmic specifications into lower-level code or only create code skeletons from structural specifications (such as UML class diagrams). Key to building a successful synthesis system is specializing to an appropriate application domain. The AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER systems, under development at NASA Ames, operate in the two domains of data analysis and state estimation, respectively. The central concept of both systems is the schema, a representation of reusable computational knowledge. This can take various forms, including high-level algorithm templates, code optimizations, datatype refinements, or architectural information. A schema also contains applicability conditions that are used to determine when it can be applied safely. These conditions can refer to the initial specification, to intermediate results, or to elements of the partially-instantiated code. Schema-based synthesis uses AI technology to recursively apply schemas to gradually refine a specification into executable code. This process proceeds in two main phases. A front-end gradually transforms the problem specification into a program represented in an abstract intermediate code. A backend then compiles this further down into a concrete target programming language of choice. A core engine applies schemas on the initial problem specification, then uses the output of those schemas as the input for other schemas, until the full implementation is generated. Since there might be different schemas that implement different solutions to the same problem this process can generate an entire solution tree. AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER have reached the level of maturity where they enable users to solve interesting application problems, e.g., the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images. They are large (in total around 100kLoC Prolog), knowledge intensive systems that employ complex symbolic reasoning to generate a wide range of non-trivial programs for complex application do- mains. Their schemas can have complex interactions, which make it hard to change them in isolation or even understand what an existing schema actually does. Adding more capabilities by increasing the number of schemas will only worsen this situation, ultimately leading to the entropy death of the synthesis system. The root came of this problem is that the domain knowledge is scattered throughout the entire system and only represented implicitly in the schema implementations. In our current work, we are addressing this problem by making explicit the knowledge from Merent parts of the synthesis system. Here; we discuss how Gruber's definition of an ontology as an explicit specification of a conceptualization matches our efforts in identifying and explicating the domain-specific concepts. We outline the dual role ontologies play in schema-based synthesis and argue that they address different audiences and serve different purposes. Their first role is descriptive: they serve as explicit documentation, and help to understand the internal structure of the system. Their second role is prescriptive: they provide the formal basis against which the other parts of the system (e.g., schemas) can be checked. Their final role is referential: ontologies also provide semantically meaningful "hooks" which allow schemas and tools to access the internal state of the program derivation process (e.g., fragments of the generated code) in domain-specific rather than language-specific terms, and thus to modify it in a controlled fashion. For discussion purposes we use AUTOLINEAR, a small synthesis system we are currently experimenting with, which can generate code for solving a system of linear equations, Az = b.

Bures, Tomas; Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Nistor, Eugen C.

2004-01-01

2

Improving Students' Proportional Thinking Using Schema-Based Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effectiveness of an instructional program (schema-based instruction, SBI) designed to teach 7th graders how to comprehend and solve proportion problems involving ratios/rates, scale drawings, and percents. The SBI program emphasized the underlying mathematical structure of problems via schematic diagrams, focused on a…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.; Rodriguez, Michael; Lindell, Mary; Someki, Fumio

2011-01-01

3

AutoBayes Program Synthesis System System Internals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This lecture combines the theoretical background of schema based program synthesis with the hands-on study of a powerful, open-source program synthesis system (Auto-Bayes). Schema-based program synthesis is a popular approach toward program synthesis. The lecture will provide an introduction into this topic and discuss how this technology can be used to generate customized algorithms. The synthesis of advanced numerical algorithms requires the availability of a powerful symbolic (algebra) system. Its task is to symbolically solve equations, simplify expressions, or to symbolically calculate derivatives (among others) such that the synthesized algorithms become as efficient as possible. We will discuss the use and importance of the symbolic system for synthesis. Any synthesis system is a large and complex piece of code. In this lecture, we will study Autobayes in detail. AutoBayes has been developed at NASA Ames and has been made open source. It takes a compact statistical specification and generates a customized data analysis algorithm (in C/C++) from it. AutoBayes is written in SWI Prolog and many concepts from rewriting, logic, functional, and symbolic programming. We will discuss the system architecture, the schema libary and the extensive support infra-structure. Practical hands-on experiments and exercises will enable the student to get insight into a realistic program synthesis system and provides knowledge to use, modify, and extend Autobayes.

Schumann, Johann Martin

2011-01-01

4

A Survey of Schema-Based Matching Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schema and ontology matching is a critical problem in many appli- cation domains, such as semantic web, schema\\/ontology integration, data ware- houses, e-commerce, etc. Many different matching solutions have been proposed so far. In this paper we present a new classification of schema-based matching techniques that builds on the top of state of the art in both schema and ontology

Pavel Shvaiko; Jérôme Euzenat

2005-01-01

5

Schema-Based Constrained XML Data Indexing and Storage Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The XML Schema describes XML document pattern information standard as a W3C formulation; it is not only integrated and exchanges XML document data to provide valid confirmation for different enterprise information, supporting document renewal effectively.The article proposes a schema based on XML Schema memory and index XML document technology and avoids the connection operation which the multi-tables save, when inquiry

Xuebin Chen; Guolin Duan; Hongcan Yan; Shufen Zhang; Yuee Che

2009-01-01

6

Programing Structural Synthesis System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program aids research in analysis and optimization. Programing Structural Synthesis System (PROSSS2) developed to provide structural-synthesis capability by combining access to SPAR with CONMIN program and set of interface procedures. SPAR is large general-purpose finite-element structural-analysis program, and CONMIN is large general-purpose optimization program. PROSSS2 written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

Rogers, James L., Jr.

1986-01-01

7

Toward automatic program synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An elementary outline of the theorem-proving approach to automatic program synthesis is given, without dwelling on technical details. The method is illustrated by the automatic construction of both recursive and iterative programs operating on natural numbers, lists, and trees.In order to construct a program satisfying certain specifications, a theorem induced by those specifications is proved, and the desired program is

Zohar Manna; Richard J. Waldinger

1971-01-01

8

Synthesis: Dreams - Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deductive techniques arepresented forderiving programs systematically fromgiven specifications. Thespecifications express the purpose ofthedesired program without giving anyhintofthealgo- rithm tobeemployed. Thebasic approach istotransform thespecifi- cations repeatedly according tocertain rules, until asatisfactory pro- gramisproduced. Therules areguided byanumberofstrategic controls. Thesetechniques havebeenincorporated inarunning pro- -gram-synthesis system, called DEDALUS. Manyofthetransformation rules represent knowledge aboutthe program's subject domain(e.g., nu,mbers, lists, sets); somerepresent thet meaning oftheconstructs ofthespecification

Zohar Manna; Richard J. Waldinger

1979-01-01

9

Enhancing Mathematical Problem Solving Among Third-Grade Students With Schema-Based Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to assess the effects of schema-based instruction (SBI) in promoting mathematical problem solving and to investigate schema induction as a mechanism in the development of mathematical problem solving. Twenty-four 3rd-grade teachers, with 366 students, were assigned randomly to conditions that provided instruction on…

Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Prentice, Karin; Hamlett, Carol L.; Finelli, Robin; Courey, Susan J.

2004-01-01

10

Improving Seventh Grade Students' Learning of Ratio and Proportion: The Role of Schema-Based Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an instructional intervention (schema-based instruction, SBI) that was designed to meet the diverse needs of middle school students by addressing the research literatures from both special education and mathematics education. Specifically, SBI emphasizes the role of the mathematical structure of…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.; Starosta, Kristin; Leh, Jayne M.; Sood, Sheetal; Caskie, Grace; Hughes, Cheyenne L.; Mack, Toshi R.

2009-01-01

11

The Effects of Simplified Schema-Based Instruction on Elementary Students' Mathematical Word Problem Solving Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is an evidence-based mathematical intervention in word problem solving for elementary students. One of the purposes of teaching mathematics is to help students apply mathematics to real life situations. As we know, teaching word problem solving is a very suitable format for this purpose. Schema-based instruction (SBI) is one of the most…

Fang, Houbin Lewis

2012-01-01

12

Understanding a technical language: A schema-based approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Workers in many job categories tend to develop technical languages, which are restricted subjects of natural language. A better knowledge of these retrictions provides guidelines for the design of the restricted languages of interactive systems. Accordingly, a technical language used by air-traffic controllers in their communications with pilots was studied. A method of analysis is presented that allows the schemata underlying each category of messages to be identified. This schematic knowledge was implemented in programs, which assume that the goal-oriented aspect of technical languages (and particularly the restricted domain of discourse) limits the processes and the data necessary in order to understand the messages (monosemy, limited vocabulary, evocation of the schemata by some command words, absence of syntax). The programs can interpret, and translate into sequences of action, the messages emitted by the controllers.

Falzon, P.

1984-01-01

13

Distributed Queries and Query Optimization in Schema-Based P2P-Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Databases have employed a schema-based approach to store and retrieve structured data for decades. For peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, similar approaches are just beginning to emerge, also motivated by the fact, that sending (atomic) queries to the appropriate peers clearly fails for queries which need data from more than one peer to be executed. While quite a few database techniques can

Ingo Brunkhorst; Hadhami Dhraief; Alfons Kemper; Wolfgang Nejdl; Christian Wiesner

2003-01-01

14

A Deductive Approach to Program Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program synthesis is the systematic derivation of a program from a given specification. A deductive approach to program synthesis is presented for the construction of recursive programs. This approach regards program synthesis as a theorem-proving task and relies on a theorem-proving method that combines the features of transformation rules, unification, and mathematical induction within a single framework.

Zohar Manna; Richard J. Waldinger

1980-01-01

15

Fundamentals of Deductive Program Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An informal tutorial is presented for program synthesis, with an emphasis on deductive methods. According to this approach, to construct a program meeting a given specification, we prove the existence of an object meeting the specified conditions. The proof is restricted to be sufficiently constructive, in the sense that, in establishing the existence of the desired output, the proof is

Zohar Manna; Richard J. Waldinger

1992-01-01

16

Knowledge and Reasoning in Program Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program synthesis is the construction of a computer program from given specifications. An automatic program synthesis system must combine reasoning and programming ability with a good deal of knowledge about the subject matter of the program. This ability and knowledge must be represented both procedurally (by programs) and structurally (by choice of representation).

Zohar Manna; Richard Waldinger

1974-01-01

17

Effectiveness of Schema-Based Instruction for Improving Seventh-Grade Students' Proportional Reasoning: A Randomized Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of schema-based instruction (SBI) on 7th-grade students' mathematical problem-solving performance. SBI is an instructional intervention that emphasizes the role of mathematical structure in word problems and also provides students with a heuristic to self-monitor and aid problem solving. Using a…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Rodriguez, Michael C.

2013-01-01

18

Programmed Organic Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes recent attempts to program computers to map synthetic routes to organic compounds. The computer is provided with structural information for many molecules and reaction descriptions; when a target compound is specified, the computer lists possible precursors, thus indicating possible synthetic routes. (MLH)

Heusler, Karl

1975-01-01

19

A split-path schema-based RFID data storage model in supply chain management.  

PubMed

In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

2013-01-01

20

Program Synthesis = Proof Method + Knowledge. Example of Recursion Function Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To master the inherent complexity of deductive program synthesis, an approach in which the proof of the initial specification formation is split into two parts is proposed. One constructs a program in proving the specification, the other infers the needed...

P. Jacquet M. L. Potet

1986-01-01

21

Motor schema based navigation for a mobile robot: An approach to programming by behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor schemas are proposed as a basic unit of behavior specification for the navigation of a mobile robot. These are multiple concurrent processes which operate in conjunction with associated perceptual schemas and contribute independently to the overall concerted action of the vehicle. The motivation behind the use of schemas for this domain is drawn from neuroscientific, psychological and robotic sources.

Ronald C. Arkin

1987-01-01

22

Virtual drug screen schema based on multiview similarity integration and ranking aggregation.  

PubMed

The current drug virtual screen (VS) methods mainly include two categories. i.e., ligand/target structure-based virtual screen and that, utilizing protein-ligand interaction fingerprint information based on the large number of complex structures. Since the former one focuses on the one-side information while the later one focuses on the whole complex structure, they are thus complementary and can be boosted by each other. However, a common problem faced here is how to present a comprehensive understanding and evaluation of the various virtual screen results derived from various VS methods. Furthermore, there is still an urgent need for developing an efficient approach to fully integrate various VS methods from a comprehensive multiview perspective. In this study, our virtual screen schema based on multiview similarity integration and ranking aggregation was tested comprehensively with statistical evaluations, providing several novel and useful clues on how to perform drug VS from multiple heterogeneous data sources. (1) 18 complex structures of HIV-1 protease with ligands from the PDB were curated as a test data set and the VS was performed with five different drug representations. Ritonavir ( 1HXW ) was selected as the query in VS and the weighted ranks of the query results were aggregated from multiple views through four similarity integration approaches. (2) Further, one of the ranking aggregation methods was used to integrate the similarity ranks calculated by gene ontology (GO) fingerprint and structural fingerprint on the data set from connectivity map, and two typical HDAC and HSP90 inhibitors were chosen as the queries. The results show that rank aggregation can enhance the result of similarity searching in VS when two or more descriptions are involved and provide a more reasonable similarity rank result. Our study shows that integrated VS based on multiple data fusion can achieve a remarkable better performance compared to that from individual ones and, thus, serves as a promising way for efficient drug screening, taking advantages of the rapidly accumulated molecule representations and heterogeneous data in the pharmacological area. PMID:22332590

Kang, Hong; Sheng, Zhen; Zhu, Ruixin; Huang, Qi; Liu, Qi; Cao, Zhiwei

2012-03-26

23

GASP- GENERAL AVIATION SYNTHESIS PROGRAM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The General Aviation Synthesis Program, GASP, was developed to perform tasks generally associated with the preliminary phase of aircraft design. GASP gives the analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner during preliminary design efforts. During the development of GASP, emphasis was placed on small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying from a single piston engine with a fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/turbofan systems as employed in business or transport type aircraft. The program is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines of design, integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedures. GASP provides a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, and performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies. By utilizing GASP, the impact of various aircraft requirements and design factors may be studied in a systematic manner, with benefits being measured in terms of overall aircraft performance and economics. The GASP program consists of a control module and six "technology" submodules which perform the various independent studies required in the design of general aviation or small transport type aircraft. The six technology modules include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, weight and balance, mission analysis, and economics. The geometry module calculates the dimensions of the synthesized aircraft components based on such input parameters as number of passengers, aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweep angles, and thickness of wing and tail surfaces. The aerodynamics module calculates the various lift and drag coefficients of the synthesized aircraft based on inputs concerning configuration geometry, flight conditions, and type of high lift device. The propulsion module determines the engine size and performance for the synthesized aircraft. Both cruise and take-off requirements for the aircraft may be specified. This module can currently simulate turbojet, turbofan, turboprop, and reciprocating or rotating combustion engines. The weight and balance module accepts as input gross weight, payload, aircraft geometry, and weight trend coefficients for use in calculating the size of tip tanks and wing location required such that the synthesized aircraft is in balance for center of gravity travel. In the mission analysis module, the taxi, take-off, climb, cruise, and landing segments of a specified mission are analyzed to compute the total range, and the aircraft size required to provide this range is determined. In the economic module both the flyaway and operating costs are determined from estimated resources and services cost. The six technology modules are integrated into a single synthesis system by the control module. This integrated approach ensures that the results from each module contain the effect of design interactions among all the modules. Starting from a set of simple input quantities concerning aircraft type, size, and performance, the synthesis is extended to the point where all of the important aircraft characteristics have been analyzed quantitatively. Together, the synthesis model and procedure develops aircraft configurations in a manner useful in parametric analysis and provides a useful step toward more detailed analytical and experimental studies. The GASP program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 200K(octal) of 60 bit words. The GASP program was developed in 1978.

Galloway, T. L.

1994-01-01

24

Model-Integrated Program Synthesis Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a model-integrated program synthesis environment for computer-based system applications. In model-integrated program synthesis (MIPS), domain-specific, multiple-view models represent the software, its environment and their relationships. Model interpreters translate the models into the input languages of static and dynamic analysis tools, and application specific model interpreters synthesize software applications. The components of the system are built in the

Janos Sztipanovits; Gabor Karsai; Hubertus Franke

1996-01-01

25

Mathematical programming formulations for satellite synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of satellite synthesis can be described as optimally allotting locations and sometimes frequencies and polarizations, to communication satellites so that interference from unwanted satellite signals does not exceed a specified threshold. In this report, mathematical programming models and optimization methods are used to solve satellite synthesis problems. A nonlinear programming formulation which is solved using Zoutendijk's method and a gradient search method is described. Nine mixed integer programming models are considered. Results of computer runs with these nine models and five geographically compatible scenarios are presented and evaluated. A heuristic solution procedure is also used to solve two of the models studied. Heuristic solutions to three large synthesis problems are presented. The results of our analysis show that the heuristic performs very well, both in terms of solution quality and solution time, on the two models to which it was applied. It is concluded that the heuristic procedure is the best of the methods considered for solving satellite synthesis problems.

Bhasin, Puneet; Reilly, Charles H.

1987-01-01

26

Using Psychometric Technology in Educational Assessment: The Case of a Schema-Based Isomorphic Approach to the Automatic Generation of Quantitative Reasoning Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article deals with the investigation of the psychometric quality and constructs validity of algebra word problems generated by means of a schema-based version of the automatic min-max approach. Based on review of the research literature in algebra word problem solving and automatic item generation this new approach is introduced as a…

Arendasy, Martin; Sommer, Markus

2007-01-01

27

A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Impact of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Outcomes for Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effects of delivering a supplemental, small-group tutoring intervention on the mathematics outcomes of third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MD) who were randomly assigned to either a schema-based instruction (SBI) or control group. SBI emphasized the underlying mathematical structure of additive…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.; Slater, Susan; Cozine-Corroy, Kelly; Church, Chris

2013-01-01

28

Meeting the Needs of Students with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Mathematics Classrooms: The Role of Schema-Based Instruction on Mathematical Problem-Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses schema-based instruction (SBI) as an alternative to traditional instruction for enhancing the mathematical problem solving performance of students with learning disabilities (LD). In the authors' most recent research and developmental efforts, they designed SBI to meet the needs of middle school students with LD in inclusive…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.

2011-01-01

29

Mentoring Programs and Youth Development: A Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mentoring of youth by adults has been identified as one of the more promising program approaches to promoting positive youth outcomes. This synthesis examines the role that mentoring plays in helping youth develop a broad array of strengths and capacities related to: (1) education and cognitive attainment; (2) health and safety; (3) social and…

Jekielek, Susan; Moore, Kristin A.; Hair, Elizabeth C.

30

The design of the PSI program synthesis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the current state of the PSI automatic program synthesis system and discusses the design considerations. The PSI system allows a user to specify a desired program in a dialogue using natural language and traces. PSI then synthesizes a program meeting these specifications. The target programs are simple symbolic computation programs in LISP. PSI may

C. Cordell Green

1976-01-01

31

Access Computer Program for the Synthesis of Large Structural Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent extensions to ACCESS-3 computer program for structural synthesis are described herein. The original program was limited to the optimization of relatively small problems having truss, membrane and shear panel elements. The new extensions include: re...

C. Fleury R. K. Ramanathan M. Salama L. A. Schmit

1981-01-01

32

Using Model Checking Techniques for Symbolic Synthesis of Distributed Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Given the non-determinism and race conditions in distributed programs, the ability to provide assurance about them is crucial. Our work focuses on incremental synthesis where we modify existing 'fault-intolerant' distributed programs to add fault-toleranc...

B. Bonakdarpour F. Abujarad S. S. Kulkarni

2008-01-01

33

SPECTRUM: A stellar spectral synthesis program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPECTRUM ((C) Richard O. Gray, 1992-2008) is a stellar spectral synthesis program which runs on a number of platforms, including most flavors of UNIX and LINUX . It will also run under Windows 9x/XP/NT/2000/(VISTA?) using the Cygwin tools or the distributed Windows binaries. The code for SPECTRUM has been written in the "C" language. SPECTRUM computes the LTE synthetic spectrum given a stellar atmosphere model. SPECTRUM can use as input the fully blanketed stellar atmosphere models of Robert Kurucz including the new models of Castelli and Kurucz, but any other stellar atmosphere model which can be cast into the format of Kurucz's models can be used as well. SPECTRUM can be programmed with "command-line switches" to give a number of different outputs. In the default mode, SPECTRUM computes the stellar-disk-integrated normalized-intensity spectrum, but in addition, SPECTRUM will compute the absolute monochromatic flux from the stellar atmosphere or the specific intensity from any point on the stellar surface.

Gray, Richard O.

1999-10-01

34

Planning and Imperative Program Synthesis: A Deductive Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A theorem proving framework is developed particularly well suited to the program synthesis application. In this framework, a deductive tableau of assertions and goals is manipulated, with declarative sentences each associated with a term, called its outpu...

R. Waldinger

1990-01-01

35

Towards High-Assurance High-Performance Program Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Domain-specific automatic program synthesis tools, also called application generators, are playing an ever-increasing role in software development. However, high-performance application generators require difficult manual construction, and are very difficult to verify correct. This paper describes research and an implemented system that transforms program synthesis tools based on deductive synthesis into high-performance application generators. Deductive synthesis uses theorem-proving to construct solutions when given problem specifications. The verification condition for a deductive synthesis tool is essentially the soundness of the implemented inference rules. Theory Operationalization for Program Synthesis (TOPS) synergistically combines reformulation, automated mathematical classification, and compilation through partial deduction to decision procedures. It transforms general-purpose deductive synthesis, with exponential performance, into efficient special-purpose deductive synthesis, with near-linear performance. This paper describes our experience with and empirical results of PD(TH) theory-based partial deduction - in which partial deduction of a set of first-order formulae is performed within the context of a background theory. The implemented TOPS system currently performs a special variant of PD(TH) in which the compilation process results in the transformation of a set of first order formulae into the theory of an instantiated library decision procedure augmented by a compiled unit theory.

Lowry, Michael; Roach, Steven; vanBaalen, Jeffrey

1997-01-01

36

Mathematics Word Problem Solving: An Investigation into Schema-Based Instruction in a Computer-Mediated Setting and a Teacher-Mediated Setting with Mathematically Low-Performing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substantial evidence indicates that teacher-delivered schema-based instruction (SBI) facilitates significant increases in mathematics word problem solving (WPS) skills for diverse students; however research is unclear whether technology affordances facilitate superior gains in computer-mediated (CM) instruction in mathematics WPS when compared to…

Leh, Jayne

2011-01-01

37

An implementation of the distributed programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for implementing a flexible software system that combines large, complex programs with small, user-supplied, problem-dependent programs and that distributes their execution between a mainframe and a minicomputer. The Programming Structural Synthesis System (PROSSS) was the specific software system considered. The results of such distributed implementation are flexibility of the optimization procedure organization and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables.

Rogers, J. L., Jr.

1981-01-01

38

Stiffness coupling application to modal synthesis program, users guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN IV computer program used to perform modal synthesis of structures by stiffness coupling, using the dynamic transformation method is described. The program was named SCAMP (Stiffness Coupling Approach Modal-Synthesis Program). The program begins with the entry of a substructure's physical mode shapes and eigenvalues or a substructure's mass and stiffness matrix. If the mass and stiffness matrices are entered, the eigen problem for the individual substructure is solved. Provisions are included for a maximum of 20 substructures which are coupled by stiffness matrix springs. Each substructure has a number degrees of freedom (DOF), except that for DOF greater than 100; vector sets having maximum row and column size of 100 were generated prior to entering SCAMP. The substructures are then coupled together via coupling springs, and the dynamic transformation is used to reduce the size of the eigen problem.

Kuhar, E. J.

1976-01-01

39

AutoBayes Program Synthesis System: System Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

AUTOBAYES is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the statistical data analysis domain. Its input is a concise description of a data analysis problem in the form of a statistical model; its output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code whi...

B. Fischer T. Pressburger G. Rosu J. Schumann

2001-01-01

40

An implementation of the programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A particular implementation of the programming structural synthesis system (PROSSS) is described. This software system combines a state of the art optimization program, a production level structural analysis program, and user supplied, problem dependent interface programs. These programs are combined using standard command language features existing in modern computer operating systems. PROSSS is explained in general with respect to this implementation along with the steps for the preparation of the programs and input data. Each component of the system is described in detail with annotated listings for clarification. The components include options, procedures, programs and subroutines, and data files as they pertain to this implementation. An example exercising each option in this implementation to allow the user to anticipate the type of results that might be expected is presented.

Rogers, J. L., Jr.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Bhat, R. B.

1981-01-01

41

A spectrum synthesis program for binary stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new program produces synthetic spectra of binary stars at arbitrary values of orbital longitude, including longitudes of partial or complete eclipse. The stellar components may be distorted, either tidally or rotationally, or both. Either or both components may be rotating nonsynchronously. We illustrate the program performance with two cases: EE Peg, an eclipsing binary with small distortion, and SX

Albert P. Linnell; Ivan Hubeny

1994-01-01

42

Alternative mathematical programming formulations for FSS synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A variety of mathematical programming models and two solution strategies are suggested for the problem of allocating orbital positions to (synthesizing) satellites in the Fixed Satellite Service. Mixed integer programming and almost linear programming formulations are presented in detail for each of two objectives: (1) positioning satellites as closely as possible to specified desired locations, and (2) minimizing the total length of the geostationary arc allocated to the satellites whose positions are to be determined. Computational results for mixed integer and almost linear programming models, with the objective of positioning satellites as closely as possible to their desired locations, are reported for three six-administration test problems and a thirteen-administration test problem.

Reilly, C. H.; Mount-Campbell, C. A.; Gonsalvez, D. J. A.; Levis, C. A.

1986-01-01

43

Modeling and Synthesis Support for the North American Carbon Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) supports the North American Carbon Program by providing data products and data management services needed for modeling and synthesis activities. The overall objective of MAST-DC is to provide advanced data management support to NACP investigators doing modeling and synthesis, thereby freeing those investigators from having to perform data management functions. MAST-DC has compiled a number of data products for North America, including sub-pixel land-water content, daily meteorological data, and soil, land cover, and elevation data. In addition, we have developed an internet-based WebGIS system that enables users to browse, query, display, subset, and download spatial data using a standard web browser. For the mid-continent intensive, MAST-DC is working with a group of data assimilation modelers to generate a consistent set of meteorological data to drive bottom-up models.

Baskaran, L.; Cook, R. B.; Thornton, P. E.; Post, W. M.; Wilson, B. E.; Dadi, U.

2007-12-01

44

PASS: A computer program for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer code for Preliminary Aircraft Structural Synthesis provides rapid and accurate analysis for aircraft structures that can be adequately modeled by beam finite elements. The philosophy used in developing the program was to provide a basic framework that can be used for structural synthesis. It is anticipated that a user will need to add detail to this framework in order to perform his specific task. With this philosophy in mind, the program was written so that it is easily divided into segments, thereby making it readily adaptable. The theoretical portion of this manual describes the basic structure of the program and details the development of the unique beam element that is used. The present capability of the algorithm is stated and suggestions are made regarding enhancements to this capability. User information is also given that provides an overview of the program's construction, identifies the required inputs, describes the program output, provides some comments on the program use, and exhibits results for a simple example.

Johnson, E. H.

1977-01-01

45

Users manual for the Variable dimension Automatic Synthesis Program (VASP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dictionary and some problems for the Variable Automatic Synthesis Program VASP are submitted. The dictionary contains a description of each subroutine and instructions on its use. The example problems give the user a better perspective on the use of VASP for solving problems in modern control theory. These example problems include dynamic response, optimal control gain, solution of the sampled data matrix Ricatti equation, matrix decomposition, and pseudo inverse of a matrix. Listings of all subroutines are also included. The VASP program has been adapted to run in the conversational mode on the Ames 360/67 computer.

White, J. S.; Lee, H. Q.

1971-01-01

46

69 FR 72181 - Guidelines for Producing the Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Products  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Guidelines for Producing the Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...SUMMARY: The United States Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) is announcing...Strategic Plan for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The...

2004-12-13

47

71 FR 35626 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [I.D. 061306C] U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...the availability of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis...CONTACT: Vanessa Richardson,Climate Change Science Program Office,...

2006-06-21

48

73 FR 39952 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Report 2.3 “Aerosol...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration RIN 0648-XI82 U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...draft report titled, U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...CONTACT: Dr. Fabien Laurier, Climate Change Science Program Office,...

2008-07-11

49

73 FR 10005 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Report 4.1: “Coastal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2008-02-25

50

73 FR 46596 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Report 1.2 “Past...  

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2008-08-11

51

72 FR 68571 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Report 3.2 “Climate...  

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2007-12-05

52

71 FR 65089 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Prospectus 1.2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [I.D. 103106A] U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...Prospectus for one of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis...CONTACT: Dr. Fabien Laurier, Climate Change Science Program Office,...

2006-11-07

53

72 FR 46611 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Report 3.3: “Weather...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2007-08-21

54

72 FR 46610 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Report 4.4...  

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2007-08-21

55

70 FR 70061 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product 1.1  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [I.D. 111405A] U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...the availability of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis...Moss, Ph.D., Director, Climate Change Science Program Office,...

2005-11-21

56

70 FR 5969 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Prospectuses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [I.D. 013105A] U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...Prospectuses for three of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis...Moss, Ph.D., Director, Climate Change Science Program Office...

2005-02-04

57

Western Africa to c/1860 A.D.: A Provisional Historical Schema Based on Climate Periods. Indiana University African Studies Program Working Papers Series, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An examination of historical developments in western Africa during six climate periods extending over two millennia, this study demonstrates that numerous historical developments correlate with climate periods and/or were influenced by changes in rainfall patterns and ecological conditions. These include such diverse topics as the diffusion of…

Brooks, George E.

58

Alternative Technical Concepts for Contract Delivery Methods. National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 455. A Synthesis of Highways Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 455: Alternative Technical Concepts for Contract Delivery Methods Transportation documents various methods by which agencies have successfully implemented alternative technical concepts (ATCs...

D. D. Gransberg G. M. Gad M. C. Loulakeis

2014-01-01

59

AutoBayes Program Synthesis System Users Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program synthesis is the systematic, automatic construction of efficient executable code from high-level declarative specifications. AutoBayes is a fully automatic program synthesis system for the statistical data analysis domain; in particular, it solves parameter estimation problems. It has seen many successful applications at NASA and is currently being used, for example, to analyze simulation results for Orion. The input to AutoBayes is a concise description of a data analysis problem composed of a parameterized statistical model and a goal that is a probability term involving parameters and input data. The output is optimized and fully documented C/C++ code computing the values for those parameters that maximize the probability term. AutoBayes can solve many subproblems symbolically rather than having to rely on numeric approximation algorithms, thus yielding effective, efficient, and compact code. Statistical analysis is faster and more reliable, because effort can be focused on model development and validation rather than manual development of solution algorithms and code.

Schumann, Johann; Jafari, Hamed; Pressburger, Tom; Denney, Ewen; Buntine, Wray; Fischer, Bernd

2008-01-01

60

Development of a weight/sizing design synthesis computer program. Volume 1: Program formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a weight/sizing design synthesis methodology for use in support of the main line space shuttle program is discussed. The methodology has a minimum number of data inputs and quick turn around capabilities. The methodology makes it possible to: (1) make weight comparisons between current shuttle configurations and proposed changes, (2) determine the effects of various subsystems trades on total systems weight, and (3) determine the effects of weight on performance and performance on weight.

Garrison, J. M.

1973-01-01

61

71 FR 61031 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Prospectus 2.4  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [I.D. 101106B] U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...Prospectus for one of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis...ultraviolet radiation exposure and climate change. After consideration of...

2006-10-17

62

73 FR 23427 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Report 3.4 “Abrupt...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration RIN 0648-XH50 U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...Draft Report 3.4 ``Abrupt Climate Change'' AGENCY: National Oceanic...draft report titled, U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis...

2008-04-30

63

71 FR 42817 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Prospectus 3.2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [I.D. 071806B] U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...Prospectus for one of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis...CONTACT: Vanessa Richardson, Climate Change [[Page 42818

2006-07-28

64

72 FR 51805 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Report 4.3: “The...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration RIN 0648-XC39 U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...Report 4.3: ``The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources...draft report titled, U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis...

2007-09-11

65

ACCESS computer program for the synthesis of large structural systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structural-synthesis computer code ACCESS-3, originally limited to the optimization of relatively simple problems involving truss, membrane, and shear panel elements, has been restructured to make it applicable to structures with a larger number of degrees-of-freedom, design variables, and constraints. The modifications made allow the use of six degrees-of-freedom per node and permit the out-of-core solution of large matrix equations encountered at the analysis stage. Also, finite elements which permit pure bending as well as combined bending and membrane (axial) behavior have been added to satisfy the need for a more comprehensive set of elements. Like its predecessor, the new version of the program combines the approximation concepts with primal or dual formulations to provide an efficient optimization tool.

Fleury, C.; Ramanathan, R. K.; Salama, M.; Schmit, L. A., Jr.

1982-01-01

66

IMAGES: A digital computer program for interactive modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive digital computer program for modal analysis and gain estimation for eigensystem synthesis was written. Both mathematical and operation considerations are described; however, the mathematical presentation is limited to those concepts essential to the operational capability of the program. The program is capable of both modal and spectral synthesis of multi-input control systems. It is user friendly, has scratchpad capability and dynamic memory, and can be used to design either state or output feedback systems.

Jones, R. L.

1984-01-01

67

National Irrigation Water Quality Program data-synthesis data base  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Under the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) of the U.S. Department of the Interior, researchers investigated contamination caused by irrigation drainage in 26 areas in the Western United States from 1986 to 1993. From 1992 to 1995, a comprehensive relational data base was built to organize data collected during the 26-area investigations. The data base provided the basis for analysis and synthesis of these data to identify common features of contaminated areas and hence dominant biologic, geologic, climatic, chemical, and physiographic factors that have resulted in contamination of water and biota in irrigated areas in the Western United States. Included in the data base are geologic, hydrologic, climatological, chemical, and cultural data that describe the 26 study areas in 14 Western States. The data base contains information on 1,264 sites from which water and bottom sediment were collected. It also contains chemical data from 6,903 analyses of surface water, 914 analyses of ground water, 707 analyses of inorganic constituents in bottom sediments, 223 analyses of organochlorine pesticides in bottom sediments, 8,217 analyses of inorganic constituents in biota, and 1,088 analyses for organic constituents in biota. The data base is available to the public and can be obtained at the NIWQP homepage http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp as dBase III tables for personal-computer systems or as American Standard Code for Information Exchange structured query language (SQL) command and data files for SQL data bases.

Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.

2001-01-01

68

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new tools for developing advanced materials. Concentrated sunlight from solar furnaces can produce intensities that approach those on the surface of the sun and can generate temperatures well over 2000 C. Very thin layers of illuminated surfaces can be driven to remarkably high temperatures in a fraction of a second. Concentrated solar energy can be delivered over large areas, allowing for rapid processing and high production rates. By using this technology, researchers are transforming low-cost raw materials into high-performance products. Solar synthesis of advanced materials uses bulk materials and energy more efficiently, lowers processing costs, and reduces the need for strategic materials -- all with a technology that does not harm the environment. The Solar Industrial Program has built a unique, world class solar furnace at NREL to help meet the growing need for applied research in advanced materials. Many new advanced materials processes have been successfully demonstrated in this facility, including metalorganic deposition, ceramic powders, diamond-like carbon materials, rapid heat treating, and cladding (hard coating).

Lewandowski, A.

1992-06-01

69

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative  

SciTech Connect

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new tools for developing advanced materials. Concentrated sunlight from solar furnaces can produce intensities that approach those on the surface of the sun and can generate temperatures well over 2000{degrees}C. Very thin layers of illuminated surfaces can be driven to remarkably high temperatures in a fraction of a second. Concentrated solar energy can be delivered over large areas, allowing for rapid processing and high production rates. By using this technology, researchers are transforming low-cost raw materials into high-performance products. Solar synthesis of advanced materials uses bulk materials and energy more efficiently, lowers processing costs, and reduces the need for strategic materials -- all with a technology that does not harm the environment. The Solar Industrial Program has built a unique, world class solar furnace at NREL to help meet the growing need for applied research in advanced materials. Many new advanced materials processes have been successfully demonstrated in this facility, including the following: Metalorganic deposition, ceramic powders, diamond-like carbon materials, rapid heat treating, and cladding (hard coating).

Lewandowski, A.

1992-06-01

70

Airport Revenue Diversification, A Synthesis of Airport Practice. Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 19.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year TRB sponsors a series of synthesis reports on current knowledge and practice in the airport industry. The intention of the synthesis is to develop a compendium of best available knowledge on addressing or resolving specific airport problems. Oft...

L. S. Kramer

2010-01-01

71

Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 2: Program description, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The QL module of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is described. Execution of this module is initiated when and if subroutine PADSI calls subroutine GROPE. Subroutine GROPE controls the high level logical flow of the QL module. The purpose of the module is to determine a trajectory that satisfies the necessary variational conditions for optimal performance. The module achieves this by solving a nonlinear multi-point boundary value problem. The numerical method employed is described. It is an iterative technique that converges quadratically when it does converge. The three basic steps of the module are: (1) initialization, (2) iteration, and (3) culmination. For Volume 1 see N73-13199.

1972-01-01

72

Insights into Fourier Synthesis and Analysis: Part I--Using Simple Programs and Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduced is a unique generation method of Fourier series requiring simple mathematical skills and using computer programs. Discusses Fourier synthesis by microcomputer, and Fourier analysis with simple equipment. Shown are a circuit diagram, computer programs, monitor displays and tables of data. (YP)

Moore, Guy S. M.

1988-01-01

73

Creative Synthesis and TPACK: Supporting Teachers through a Technology and Inquiry-Rich Graduate Degree Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study offers a new way to assess TPACK within the context of a graduate program revitalized to focus on new literacies. Whereas previous studies have focused on teacher lesson planning or modeling best practices, our research examines TPACK by exploring the Creative Synthesis Projects of graduates from our program. These projects reveal the…

Manfra, Meghan McGlinn; Spires, Hiller A.

2013-01-01

74

Technical Description of the Stock Synthesis Assessment Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Synthesis is an age-structured population assessment tool. It includes a population simulation model to calculate the abundance and mortality of a harvested population, an observation model to relate this population model to observable data from the popul...

R. D. Methot

2000-01-01

75

Applying Aspect-Oriented Programming to Intelligent Synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I discuss a component-centered, aspect-oriented system, the Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), NASA's initiative on Intelligent Synthesis Environments (ISE), and the application of OIF to the architecture of ISE.

Filman, Robert E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

76

Optimized FPGA implementations of demanding PLC programs based on hardware high-level synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a continuation of a previous work by the same authors concerning the use of automated high-level synthesis tools for obtaining high-performance FPGA implementations of industrial automation and control algorithms coded as PLC programs. The proposed method is mainly targeting demanding applications requiring lots of numerical computations. High-level synthesis is based on powerful, commercial tools. Since most of

Christoforos Economakos; George Economakos

2008-01-01

77

74 FR 1666 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Draft Unified Synthesis Product Report: Global Climate Change...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration RIN 0648-XM56 U.S. Climate Change Science Program Draft Unified Synthesis Product Report: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States AGENCY...of the report titled, U.S. Climate Change Science Program Unified...

2009-01-13

78

73 FR 41042 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Draft Unified Synthesis Product Report: Global Climate Change...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration RIN 0648-XJ11 U.S. Climate Change Science Program Draft Unified Synthesis Product Report: Global Climate Change in the United States AGENCY...draft report titled, U.S. Climate Change Science Program Unified...

2008-07-17

79

73 FR 75678 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Draft Unified Synthesis Product: Global Climate Change...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration RIN 0648-XM13 U.S. Climate Change Science Program Draft Unified Synthesis Product: Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States AGENCY...production schedule for the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Unified...

2008-12-12

80

71 FR 65090 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Prospectus 3.4  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [I.D. 103106B] U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...Prospectus for one of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis...CCSP Topic: Product 3.4 Abrupt Climate Change. After consideration of...

2006-11-07

81

70 FR 17239 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Prospectus 4.7  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [I.D. 032105B] U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...the draft Prospectus for U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis...Assessment Product 4.7-Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on...

2005-04-05

82

71 FR 75717 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Report 4.5  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [I.D. 120106A] U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...Report for one of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis...Topic: Product 4.5 Effects of Climate Change on Energy Production and Use...

2006-12-18

83

72 FR 60652 - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and Assessment Product Draft Report 4.7 “Impacts of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration RIN 0648-XD48 U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis and...Draft Report 4.7 ``Impacts of Climate Change and Variability on Transportation...draft report titled, U.S. Climate Change Science Program Synthesis...

2007-10-25

84

Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 1: Formulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program formulation for PADS computer program is presented. It can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general-purpose branched trajectory optimization program. In the former use, it has the Space Shuttle Synthesis Program as well as a simplified stage weight module for optimally sizing manned recoverable launch vehicles. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent; the second employs the method of quasilinearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module.

1972-01-01

85

A Spectrum Synthesis Program for Binary Stars with Optically Thick Accretion Disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported a spectrum synthesis program for binary stars (Linnell & Hubeny, 1994, ApJ, 434, Oct.20). That program now has been extended to include the case of an optically thick accretion disk associated with either of the two stellar components. Our model of the accretion disk uses the Pringle expression (Pringle, 1981, ARA&A, 19, 137) for T_eff values on

A. P. Linnell; I. Hubeny

1994-01-01

86

Implementation of the AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide and Software. National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 457. A Synthesis of Highway Practice..  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 457: Implementation of the AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide and Software documents the experience of transportation agencies in the implementation of the 2008 American Assoc...

G. McGovern L. M. Pierce

2014-01-01

87

Second progress report of the DARPA dynamic synthesis and consolidation program  

SciTech Connect

The program activities include dynamic compaction, shock activation and combustion and plasma synthesis. The primary materials under study are the compounds AlN, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, TiC and TiB/sub 2/.

Cline, C.F. (ed.)

1983-03-01

88

First quarterly report of the DARPA dynamic synthesis and consolidation program  

SciTech Connect

The report covers activities of national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. The program activities include dynamic compaction, shock activation, and combustion and plasma synthesis. The primary materials under study are AlN, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, TiC, and TiB/sub 2/. (DLC)

Cline, C.F. (ed.)

1982-08-01

89

Program Evaluation and Policy Analysis: Toward a New Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While policy analysis is currently the most popular research strategy for educational administration, it is more effective when used in conjunction with program evaluation. The relationship between these methods is illustrated by examining alternative research designs for a hypothetical school drug abuse program. (BS)

Bolland, John M.; Bolland, Kathleen A.

1984-01-01

90

Optimal Controller Synthesis Using Approximating-Graph Dynamic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic programming is well known as a method of calculating optimal control but is not often used in practice because it is assumed to be computationally expensive. We introduce a new stageless version of dynamic programming that produces numerical approximations to optimal control laws for continuous systems. The method creates an approximating graph that models the possible state transitions in

Michiel van de Panne; Eugene Fiume; Zvonko Vranesic

1993-01-01

91

Computer program for network synthesis by frequency response fit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program synthesizes a passive network by minimizing the difference in desired and actual frequency response. The program solves for the critical points of the error function /weighted least squares fit between calculated and desired frequency response/ by the multivariable Newton-Raphson method with components constrained to an admissible region.

Green, S.

1967-01-01

92

Conjunctive programming: An interactive approach to software system synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report introduces a technique of software documentation called conjunctive programming and discusses its role in the development and maintenance of software systems. The report also describes the conjoin tool, an adjunct to assist practitioners. Aimed at supporting software reuse while conforming with conventional development practices, conjunctive programming is defined as the extraction, integration, and embellishment of pertinent information obtained directly from an existing database of software artifacts, such as specifications, source code, configuration data, link-edit scripts, utility files, and other relevant information, into a product that achieves desired levels of detail, content, and production quality. Conjunctive programs typically include automatically generated tables of contents, indexes, cross references, bibliographic citations, tables, and figures (including graphics and illustrations). This report presents an example of conjunctive programming by documenting the use and implementation of the conjoin program.

Tausworthe, Robert C.

1992-01-01

93

Motor Schema-Based Mobile Robot Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor schemas serve as the basic unit of behavior specifica tion for the navigation of a mobile robot. They are multiple concurrent processes that operate in conjunction with asso ciated perceptual schemas and contribute independently to the overall concerted action of the vehicle. The motivation be hind the use of schemas for this domain is drawn from neuro- scientific, psychological,

Ronald C. Arkin

1989-01-01

94

Tribal Transportation Programs. A Synthesis of Highway Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Indian tribal transportation is undergoing significant change; however, relatively little significant research has examined where such programs currently are and where they are headed. This report attempted to establish a baseline for future research by e...

S. Meck, R. Retzlaff, J. Schwab

2007-01-01

95

Exception handling and object-oriented programming: towards a synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a discussion and a specification of an exception handling system dedicated to object-oriented programming. We show how a full object-oriented representation of exceptions and of protocols to handle them, using meta-classes, makes the system powerful as well as extendible and solves many classical exception handling issues. We explain the interest for object-oriented programming of handlers attached to

Christophe Dony; Marie Curie

1990-01-01

96

ADS: A FORTRAN program for automated design synthesis: Version 1.10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new general-purpose optimization program for engineering design is described. ADS (Automated Design Synthesis - Version 1.10) is a FORTRAN program for solution of nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The program is segmented into three levels: strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search. At each level, several options are available so that a total of over 100 possible combinations can be created. Examples of available strategies are sequential unconstrained minimization, the Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method, and Sequential Linear Programming. Available optimizers include variable metric methods and the Method of Feasible Directions as examples, and one-dimensional search options include polynomial interpolation and the Golden Section method as examples. Emphasis is placed on ease of use of the program. All information is transferred via a single parameter list. Default values are provided for all internal program parameters such as convergence criteria, and the user is given a simple means to over-ride these, if desired.

Vanderplaats, G. N.

1985-01-01

97

Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program. Volume 3: User manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two-fold purpose of the Performance Analysis and Design Synthesis (PADS) computer program is discussed. The program can size launch vehicles in conjunction with calculus-of-variations optimal trajectories and can also be used as a general purpose branched trajectory optimization program. For trajectory optimization alone or with sizing, PADS has two trajectory modules. The first trajectory module uses the method of steepest descent. The second module uses the method of quasi-linearization, which requires a starting solution from the first trajectory module.

1972-01-01

98

Investigation of the daytime lunar atmosphere for lunar synthesis program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synthesis studies of the daytime lunar atmoshere were directed toward improved understanding of fundamental lunar atmospheric dynamics and the relationship of the detectable atmosphere to physical processes of the lunar surface and interior. The primary source of data is the Apollo 17 lunar surface mass spectrometer. The Ar40 is radiogenic and its escape rate from the lunar atmosphere requires release of a significant fraction (about 8%) of the argon produced from the decay of K40 within the moon. Furthermore the process of argon release from the solid moon is time varying and related to seismic activity. Most of the helium on the moon is due to release of implanted solar wind alpha particles from the regolith.

Hodges, R. R., Jr.

1976-01-01

99

Analysis of Air Traffic Track Data with the AutoBayes Synthesis System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Next Generation Air Traffic System (NGATS) is aiming to provide substantial computer support for the air traffic controllers. Algorithms for the accurate prediction of aircraft movements are of central importance for such software systems but trajectory prediction has to work reliably in the presence of unknown parameters and uncertainties. We are using the AutoBayes program synthesis system to generate customized data analysis algorithms that process large sets of aircraft radar track data in order to estimate parameters and uncertainties. In this paper, we present, how the tasks of finding structure in track data, estimation of important parameters in climb trajectories, and the detection of continuous descent approaches can be accomplished with compact task-specific AutoBayes specifications. We present an overview of the AutoBayes architecture and describe, how its schema-based approach generates customized analysis algorithms, documented C/C++ code, and detailed mathematical derivations. Results of experiments with actual air traffic control data are discussed.

Schumann, Johann Martin Philip; Cate, Karen; Lee, Alan G.

2010-01-01

100

Synthesis of components of a comprehensive K-12 science education program and resource guide for program developers in Delaware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This doctoral project involved the examination of criteria for effective science education from the literature and existing programs. These criteria were used to create a resource guide for training and implementation of comprehensive K-12 science education in Delaware. Chapter 1 introduces the scope and objectives of the project, set in the context of national and state reform efforts. The literature review gives an historical perspective of science education reform in the twentieth century, coupled with a review of current initiatives, and a synthesis of the essential elements and associated challenges. The methodology section contains descriptions of current professional development activities in Delaware, with evaluative comments by participants. The chapter also summarizes feedback from an expert panel regarding the interrelationships of program components. The resource guide for program planners in Delaware is presented in Chapter 4. This chapter incorporates an analysis of Delaware's science content standards, with emphasis on the interdependence of curriculum, instruction, assessment, and training.

Hogan-Tinsman, Colleen

1997-12-01

101

U.S. GLOBEC - Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics: Synthesis in the Northwest Atlantic/Georges Bank Program and the Northeast Pacific/Coastal Gulf of Alaska Program  

NSF Publications Database

Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that supplements the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. Proposals are encouraged that initiate the process of synthesis and intercomparison of results from NWA / Georges Bank with other Atlantic Basin scale programs and other U.S. GLOBEC programs as appropriate. Any changes in NSF's fiscal year programs occurring after press time for the Guide to Programs will be announced in the ...

102

A new implementation of the programming system for structural synthesis (PROSSS-2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This new implementation of the PROgramming System for Structural Synthesis (PROSSS-2) combines a general-purpose finite element computer program for structural analysis, a state-of-the-art optimization program, and several user-supplied, problem-dependent computer programs. The results are flexibility of the optimization procedure, organization, and versatility of the formulation of constraints and design variables. The analysis-optimization process results in a minimized objective function, typically the mass. The analysis and optimization programs are executed repeatedly by looping through the system until the process is stopped by a user-defined termination criterion. However, some of the analysis, such as model definition, need only be one time and the results are saved for future use. The user must write some small, simple FORTRAN programs to interface between the analysis and optimization programs. One of these programs, the front processor, converts the design variables output from the optimizer into the suitable format for input into the analyzer. Another, the end processor, retrieves the behavior variables and, optionally, their gradients from the analysis program and evaluates the objective function and constraints and optionally their gradients. These quantities are output in a format suitable for input into the optimizer. These user-supplied programs are problem-dependent because they depend primarily upon which finite elements are being used in the model. PROSSS-2 differs from the original PROSSS in that the optimizer and front and end processors have been integrated into the finite element computer program. This was done to reduce the complexity and increase portability of the system, and to take advantage of the data handling features found in the finite element program.

Rogers, James L., Jr.

1984-01-01

103

ADS: A FORTRAN program for automated design synthesis, version 1.00  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new general-purpose optimization program for engineering design is described. ADS-1 (Automated Design Synthesis - Version 1) is a FORTRAN program for solution of nonlinear constrained optimization problems. The program is segmented into three levels, being strategy, optimizer, and one-dimensional search. At each level, several options are available so that a total of over 100 possible combinations can be created. Examples of available strategies are sequential unconstrained minimization, the Augmented Lagrange Multiplier method, and Sequential Linear Programming. Available optimizers include variable metric methods and the Method of Feasible Directions as examples and one-dimensional search options include polynomial interpolation and the Golden Section method as examples. Emphasis is placed on ease of use of the program. All information is transferred via a single parameter list. Default values are provided for all internal program parameters such as convergence criteria, and the user is given a simple means to over-ride these, if desired. The program is demonstrated with a simple structural design example.

Vanderplaats, G. N.

1984-01-01

104

Bridge Inspection Practices. National Cooperative Highway Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 375. A Synthesis of Highway Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis reports bridge inspection practices in the United States and selected foreign countries. The synthesis is a collection of information on formal inspection practices of departments of transportation (DOTs). These are primarily visual inspect...

G. Hearn

2007-01-01

105

Trajectory module of the NASA Ames Research Center aircraft synthesis program ACSYNT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was developed to calculate trajectories for both military and commercial aircraft for use in the aircraft synthesis program, ACSYNT. The function of the trajectory module was to calculate the changes in the vehicle's flight conditions and weight, as fuel is consumed, during the flying of one or more missions. The trajectory calculations started with a takeoff, followed by up to 12 phases chosen from among the following: climb, cruise, acceleration, combat, loiter, descent, and paths. In addition, a balanced field length was computed. The emphasis was on relatively simple formulations and analytic expressions suitable for rapid computation since a prescribed trajectory had to be calculated many times in the process of converging an aircraft design, or finding an optimum configuration. The trajectory module consists of about 2500 cards and operational on a CDC 7600 computer.

Tauber, M. E.; Paterson, J. A.

1978-01-01

106

Synthesis of feedback control law for stabilization of chaotic system oscillations by means of analytic programming - Preliminary study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with a synthesis of control law for selected discrete chaotic system - logistic equation by means of analytic programming. The novelty of the approach is that a tool for symbolic regression - analytic programming - is used for the purpose of stabilization of higher periodic orbits - oscillations between several values of chaotic system. The paper consists of the descriptions of analytic programming as well as used chaotic system and detailed proposal of cost function used in optimization process. For experimentation, Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) with analytic programming and Differential evolution (DE) as second algorithm for meta-evolution were used.

Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Zelinka, Ivan; Davendra, Donald; Jasek, Roman

2012-11-01

107

Automated synthesis of analog electrical circuits by means of genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design (synthesis) of analog electrical circuits starts with a high- level statement of the circuit's desired behavior and requires creating a circuit that satisfies the specified design goals. Analog circuit synthesis entails the creation of both the topology and the sizing (numerical values) of all of the circuit's components. The difficulty of the problem of analog circuit synthesis is

John R. Koza; Forrest H. Bennett III; David Andre; Martin A. Keane; Frank Dunlap

1997-01-01

108

North American Carbon Program (NACP) Interim Synthesis Project: Regional Forward Model Intercomparision (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of how carbon is exchanged between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is gained from direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to larger regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle research is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities (http://nacp.ornl.gov/ int_synthesis.shtml) to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the time period of 2000 through 2005. Here, we present the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare 19 TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations and data currently available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. Bringing model estimates (and available data) together that incorporate a wide range of modeling approaches provides a valuable assessment of the current state of understanding of regional carbon flux across North America. The TBM flux estimates are evaluated over different land cover regions of North America, and with respect to photosynthetic formulation, soil carbon dynamics, environmental driving variables, and temporal resolution. Model estimates are also compared to spatially explicit inventory-based estimates of cropland productivity. There is significant disagreement among the models in their estimates of gross primary production (GPP), with estimates during the peak growing season differing by over 300 gC/(m2 month) in mixed deciduous and broadleaf forests, and over cultivated and managed lands. When totaled over the growing season and annually, most models estimate 1.2 to 2 times greater GPP than that predicted by the MODIS product. In addition, the TBMs estimate much greater net primary productivity in agricultural regions compared to inventory-based estimates. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including how the model represents photosynthesis, the source of environmental driver data, temporal resolution, and whether nutrient limitation is considered in soil carbon decomposition. The results of this study highlight the disagreement in current estimates of carbon flux across North America, and the need for further analysis through the use of formal model intercomparisons including a detailed model simulation protocol in order to isolate the influence of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimations.

Post, M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Cook, R. B.; Regional-Interim Synthesis Participants, N.; Regional/Continental Interim-Synthesis Team

2010-12-01

109

Issues with Use of Airfield LED Light Fixtures. Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 35. A Synthesis of Airport Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Light-emitting diode (LED) airfield lighting is increasingly used at airports in the United States and abroad. The objective of this synthesis study is to provide documentation about the performance of LED airfield lighting systems, and it is primarily in...

J. D. Bullough

2012-01-01

110

Indirect synthesis of multi-degree of freedom transient systems. [linear programming for a kinematically linear system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An indirect synthesis method is used in the efficient optimal design of multi-degree of freedom, multi-design element, nonlinear, transient systems. A limiting performance analysis which requires linear programming for a kinematically linear system is presented. The system is selected using system identification methods such that the designed system responds as closely as possible to the limiting performance. The efficiency is a result of the method avoiding the repetitive systems analyses accompanying other numerical optimization methods.

Pilkey, W. D.; Chen, Y. H.

1974-01-01

111

Integration of a code for aeroelastic design of conventional and composite wings into ACSYNT, an aircraft synthesis program. [wing aeroelastic design (WADES)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparison of program estimates of wing weight, material distribution. structural loads and elastic deformations with actual Northrop F-5A/B data is presented. Correlation coefficients obtained using data from a number of existing aircraft were computed for use in vehicle synthesis to estimate wing weights. The modifications necessary to adapt the WADES code for use in the ACSYNT program are described. Basic program flow and overlay structure is outlined. An example of the convergence of the procedure in estimating wing weights during the synthesis of a vehicle to satisfy F-5 mission requirements is given. A description of inputs required for use of the WADES program is included.

Mullen, J., Jr.

1976-01-01

112

North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision  

SciTech Connect

Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as whether nutrient limitation is considered in soil carbon decomposition. The disagreement in current estimates of carbon flux across North America, including whether North America is a net biospheric carbon source or sink, highlights the need for further analysis through the use of model runs following a common simulation protocol, in order to isolate the influences of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimates.

Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Michalak, Anna [University of Michigan; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Chen, Jing M. [University of Toronto; Davis, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State University; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Liu, Shuguang [United States Geological Survey, Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS); Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Neilson, Ronald [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Poulter, Ben [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Tomelleri, Enrico [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Viovy, Nicolas [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

2012-01-01

113

Synthesis and Characterization of Oxide Feedstock Powders for the Fuel Cycle R&D Program  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel feedstock properties, such as physical, chemical, and isotopic characteristics, have a significant impact on the fuel fabrication process and, by extension, the in-reactor fuel performance. This has been demonstrated through studies with UO{sub 2} spanning greater than 50 years. The Fuel Cycle R&D Program with The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy has initiated an effort to develop a better understanding of the relationships between oxide feedstock, fresh fuel properties, and in-reactor fuel performance for advanced mixed oxide compositions. Powder conditioning studies to enable the use of less than ideal powders for ceramic fuel pellet processing are ongoing at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and an understanding of methods to increase the green density and homogeneity of pressed pellets has been gained for certain powders. Furthermore, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing methods for the co-conversion of mixed oxides along with techniques to analyze the degree of mixing. Experience with the fabrication of fuel pellets using co-synthesized multi-constituent materials is limited. In instances where atomically mixed solid solutions of two or more species are needed, traditional ceramic processing methods have been employed. Solution-based processes may be considered viable synthesis options, including co-precipitation (AUPuC), direct precipitation, direct-conversion (Modified Direct Denitration or MDD) and internal/external gelation (sol-gel). Each of these techniques has various advantages and disadvantages. The Fiscal Year 2010 feedstock development work at ORNL focused on the synthesis and characterization of one batch of UO{sub x} and one batch of U{sub 80}Ce{sub 20}O{sub x}. Oxide material synthesized at ORNL is being shipped to LANL for fuel fabrication process development studies. The feedstock preparation was performed using the MDD process which utilizes a rotary kiln to continuously thermally denitrate double salts of ammonium and metals to produce free-flowing powders that have good ceramic properties for fuel fabrication. Feedstock powder properties of interest include: particle size and distribution, surface area, phase purity, morphology, tap and bulk density, and flow characteristics.

Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Vedder, Raymond James [ORNL; Johnson, Jared A [ORNL

2010-09-01

114

Results of ocean margin drilling program synthesis of Gulf of Mexico basin  

SciTech Connect

A series of 23 maps plus three cross sections synthesize and integrate for the first time geologic and geophysical data from both the deep central Gulf of Mexico basin and the periphery of the basin. These maps and sections are part of the Ocean Margin Drilling Program synthesis of the Gulf of Mexico basin, a joint project sponsored by the National Science Foundation/Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc., and a consortium of petroleum companies. The study area is bounded by 30/sup 0//31/sup 0/ on the north, 98/sup 0/ on the west, 82/sup 0/ on the east, and 18/sup 0/ on the south (excluding Cuba and the Yucatan basin). Maps include a regional tectonic map; a map of all seismic refraction data; six structure maps (basement, top Jurassic, top Early Cretaceous, top Late Cretaceous, top Paleogene, and top Neogene); six lithofacies maps (Oxfordian (Late Jurassic), Aptian-Cenomanian (Early Cretaceous), Coniancian-Santonian (Lake Cretaceous), Early Eocene, Miocene, and Pleistocene); and nine isopach maps (total sediment, pre-top Early Cretaceous, post-top Early Cretaceous, Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Lake Cretaceous, Paleogene, Neogene, and Pleistocene). Also included are two N-S cross sections and one E-W cross section. This project is an attempt to synthesize all data available in the public domain. Data for the deep central Gulf are based mainly on regional multifold seismic lines, while data from the periphery are based mainly on the published literature. These maps and sections present for the first time an integrated and comprehensive look at the structure and stratigraphy of the entire central Gulf basin as well as document many details of the early history and later filling of the basin.

Buffler, R.T.; Locker, S.D.; Cagle, C.D.; Sawyer, W.B.; Crowe, J.C.; Phair, R.L.

1983-03-01

115

The Pre-X atmospheric re-entry experimental lifting body: Program status and system synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric glided re-entry is one of the main key technologies for future space vehicle applications. In this frame Pre-X is the CNES proposal to perform in-flight experimentation mainly on reusable thermal protections, aero-thermo-dynamics and guidance to secure the second generation of re-entry X vehicles. This paper describes the programme status and the synthesis of the system activities performed up to now together with the main technical issues. A preliminary in-flight experimentation and measurement plan has been assessed defining the main objectives. The current Pre-X procurement specification states that the vehicle recovery without damage of the TPS is mandatory for the mission success. The functional and experimental measurements are transmitted from the vehicle to ground during flight, except for some innovative measurement. The vehicle is recovered in the Pacific Ocean assuring sufficient duration of buoyancy. Flight is foreseen for year 2010. During the year 2005 the phase A of the Pre-X program has been achieved with the main objective to verify the compliance of the proposed vehicle solution with the procurement specification. Phase B is currently running. The VEGA and DNEPR launch vehicles have been assumed as main candidates for launching Pre-X and VEGA is the baseline. A complete system loop has been performed including the operations, ground system assessment, and visibility analysis. The vehicle re-entry point is at 120 km and the mission objectives are fulfilled between Mach 25 and 5. Then the vehicle has to pass to subsonic speeds, the parachute opens and it is finally recovered in the sea.

Baiocco, Paolo; Guedron, Sylvain; Plotard, Patrice; Moulin, Jacques

2007-06-01

116

Cognitive Effects of Programming in Logo: A Review of Literature and Synthesis of Strategies for Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of literature on programing in Logo, including prerequisites of programing, cognitive effects of programing, stages of programing, and levels of programing expertise. An analysis of the literature establishes the need for operationalizing problem solving with Logo, and a research strategy to meet this need is suggested. (32…

Singh, Jagjit Kaur

1992-01-01

117

72 FR 57308 - Meeting: Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Product Development Committee (CPDC) for Synthesis...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration Meeting: Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Product...SUMMARY: The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Product...Assessment Product 3.3 to the Climate Change Science Program Office. FOR...

2007-10-09

118

72 FR 31292 - Meeting: Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Product Development Committee (CPDC) for Synthesis...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration Meeting: Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Product...SUMMARY: The Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Product...Assessment Product 3.3 to the Climate Change Science Program Office for...

2007-06-06

119

71 FR 57472 - Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Product Development Committee (CPDC) for Synthesis and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Atmospheric Administration Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Product...ACTIONS: Notice; establishment of Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Product...Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Change Science Program (CCSP)...

2006-09-29

120

Deductive Synthesis of Numerical Simulation Programs from Networks of Algebraic and Ordinary Differential Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists and engineers face recurring problems of constructing, testing and modifying numerical simulation programs. The process of coding and revising such simulators is extremely time-consuming, because they are almost always written in conventional programming languages. Scientists and engineers can therefore benefit from software that facilitates construction of programs for simulating physical systems. Our research adapts the methodology of deductive program

Thomas Ellman; Takahiro Murata

1998-01-01

121

Motor Schema-Based Formation Control for Multiagent Robot Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

New reactive behaviors that implement formations in multi-robot teams are presented and evaluated. These motor schemas, or primitive behaviors, for relative positional maintenance are integrated with existing navigational behaviors to help robots complete nav- igational tasks while in formation. Four formations, based on existing military doctrine (Army 1986), and three methods for determining correct vehicle posi- tion are investigated. The

Tucker R. Balch; Ronald C. Arkin

1995-01-01

122

Proactive Schema Based Link Lifetime Estimation and Connectivity Ratio  

PubMed Central

The radio link between a pair of wireless nodes is affected by a set of random factors such as transmission range, node mobility, and environment conditions. The properties of such radio links are continually experienced when nodes status balances between being reachable and being unreachable; thereby on completion of each experience the statistical distribution of link lifetime is updated. This aspect is emphasized in mobile ad hoc network especially when it is deployed in some fields that require intelligent processing of data information such as aerospace domain.

Bachir, Bouamoud; Ali, Ouacha; Ahmed, Habbani; Mohamed, Elkoutbi

2014-01-01

123

Transit Fare Arrangements for Public Employees. Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 82.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this synthesis is to document the state of the practice in terms of fare arrangements for public employees. Results of a cross section survey of transit agencies in North America are used to document important issues such as the following: ...

D. K. Boyle

2010-01-01

124

72 FR 26832 - Committee Establishment: Climate Change Science Program Committee for Synthesis and Assessment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Committee Establishment: Climate Change Science Program Committee for...Product 4.2: Thresholds of Climate Change AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey...United States Geological Survey--Climate Change Science Program for...

2007-05-11

125

Automated synthesis of both the topology and numerical parameters for seven patented optical lens systems using genetic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes how genetic programming was used as an automated invention machine to synthesize both the topology and numerical parameters for seven previously patented optical lens systems, including one aspherical system and one issued in the 21st-century. Two of the evolved optical lens systems infringe the claims of the patents and the others are novel solutions that satisfy the design goals stated in the patent. The automatic synthesis was done "from scratch"--that is, without starting from a pre-existing good design and without pre-specifying the number of lenses, the topological layout of the lenses, or the numerical parameters of the lenses. Genetic programming is a form of evolutionary computation used to automatically solve problems. It starts from a high-level statement of what needs to be done and progressively breeds a population of candidate individuals over many generations using the principle of Darwinian natural selection and genetic recombination. The paper describes how genetic programming created eyepieces that duplicated the functionality of seven previously patented lens systems. The seven designs were created in a substantially similar and routine way, suggesting that the use of genetic programming in the automated design of both the topology and numerical parameters for optical lens systems may have widespread utility.

Jones, Lee W.; Al-Sakran, Sameer H.; Koza, John R.

2005-08-01

126

Effective Programs for Elementary Science: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which science programs have been proven to help elementary students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the science achievement of students in grades K-6: (1) Inquiry-oriented programs without science kits, such as Increasing Conceptual Challenge, Science IDEAS, and Collaborative…

Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

2012-01-01

127

The PreX atmospheric re-entry experimental lifting body: Program status and system synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric glided re-entry is one of the main key technologies for future space vehicle applications. In this frame Pre-X is the CNES proposal to perform in-flight experimentation mainly on reusable thermal protections, aero-thermo-dynamics and guidance to secure the second generation of re-entry X vehicles.This paper describes the programme status and the synthesis of the system activities performed up to now

Paolo Baiocco; Sylvain Guedron; Patrice Plotard; Jacques Moulin

2007-01-01

128

Effective Programs in Elementary Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What mathematics programs have been proven to help elementary students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on three types of programs designed to improve the mathematics achievement of students in grades K-6: (1) Mathematics Curricula (MC), such as "Everyday Mathematics," "Saxon Math," and other standard and alternative…

Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2009

2009-01-01

129

Effective Reading Programs for Middle and High Schools: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What reading programs have been proven to help middle and high school students to succeed? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on four types of programs designed to improve the reading achievement of students in grades 6-12: (1) Reading Curricula (Curr), such as "LANGUAGE!," "McDougal Littel," and other standard and alternative textbooks;…

Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2008

2008-01-01

130

Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program generation and transformation systems work on two language levels, the object-level (i e., the language of the manipulated programs), and the meta-level (i.e., the implementation language of the system itself). The meta-level representations of object-level program fragments are usually built in an essentially syntax-free fashion using the operations provided by the meta-language. However, syntax matters and a large conceptual distance between the two languages makes it difficult to maintain and extend such systems. Here we describe how an existing Prolog-based system can gradually be retrofitted with concrete object-level syntax, thus shrinking this distance.

Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

2004-01-01

131

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT COMPONENT OF THE FIELD VERIFICATION PROGRAM: DATA PRESENTATION AND SYNTHESIS  

EPA Science Inventory

The exposure assessment component of the aquatic portion of the Field Verification Program (FVP) related the source input of dredged material contaminants to corresponding concentration distributions in space and time in the vicinity of the disposal mound. he specific objectives ...

132

Synthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices: 2014. Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Results Digest 18.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following factors are considered in the selection process for synthesis topics: (1) The problem should be widespread enough to generate broad interest in the synthesis. (2)The problem should be timely and critical with respect to economic impact, safe...

2014-01-01

133

The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 1: Overview and experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A. M.; Schaefer, K.; King, A. W.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A.; Liu, S.; Cook, R. B.; Post, W. M.; Berthier, G.; Hayes, D.; Huang, M.; Ito, A.; Lei, H.; Lu, C.; Mao, J.; Peng, C. H.; Peng, S.; Poulter, B.; Riccuito, D.; Shi, X.; Tian, H.; Wang, W.; Zeng, N.; Zhao, F.; Zhu, Q.

2013-07-01

134

The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project Part 1: Overview and experimental design  

SciTech Connect

Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

Huntzinger, D.N. [Northern Arizona University] [Northern Arizona University; Schwalm, C. [Northern Arizona University] [Northern Arizona University; Michalak, A.M [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford] [Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford; Schaefer, K. [National Snow and Ice Data Center] [National Snow and Ice Data Center; King, A.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Wei, Y. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Jacobson, A. [National Snow and Ice Data Center] [National Snow and Ice Data Center; Liu, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Cook, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Post, W.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Berthier, G. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Hayes, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Huang, M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ito, A. [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan] [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan; Lei, H. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Lu, C. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.] [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Mao, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Peng, C.H. [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences] [University of Quebec at Montreal, Institute of Environment Sciences; Peng, S. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Poulter, B. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE)] [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE); Riccuito, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shi, X. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tian, H. [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.] [International Center for Climate and Global Change Research and School of Forestry and Wildlife Sci.; Wang, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field] [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Ames Research Center, Moffett Field; Zeng, N. [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Zhao, F. [University of Maryland] [University of Maryland; Zhu, Q. [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University] [Laboratory for Ecological Forecasting and Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University

2013-01-01

135

The North American Carbon Program Multi-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 1: Overview and experimental design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g., nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g., photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e., model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A. M.; Schaefer, K.; King, A. W.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A.; Liu, S.; Cook, R. B.; Post, W. M.; Berthier, G.; Hayes, D.; Huang, M.; Ito, A.; Lei, H.; Lu, C.; Mao, J.; Peng, C. H.; Peng, S.; Poulter, B.; Riccuito, D.; Shi, X.; Tian, H.; Wang, W.; Zeng, N.; Zhao, F.; Zhu, Q.

2013-12-01

136

AN INTEGRATED SYNTHESIS OF KEY AND POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides an overview and initial insights into the findings based on results from EPA's PM Supersites Program and related studies. Many key atmospheric sciences findings have been identified through the research conducted during the last five years as part of t...

137

An overview of the North American Carbon Program Site-Level Interim Synthesis Results (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthesis of observed and modeled carbon, water, and energy fluxes and associated measures of ecosystem state and function is underway for 30+ sites across North America. The sites are distributed across many of the continent's physiographic and ecological regions, and represent both natural and managed ecosystems. Based on the contributions of dozens of site investigators, primary observations are derived from eddy covariance flux measurements, while detailed physical, ecological, and meteorological datasets have also been compiled, resulting in the best many-site compilation to date of high-quality observations and model driving datasets for the continent. Likewise dozens of modeling groups have now contributed estimates of carbon, water, and energy state and flux variables, based on simulations parameterized to represent the known physical and ecological details of each site. Here we present a summary of the comparison of all the observational and modeling results received to date, with a special emphasis on the question of model vs. measurement uncertainty. This project is trying to answer the broad question "Are the model estimates and measurements (of multiple fluxes and state variables) consistent with one another, and if not, why?". We are using the concept of overlapping uncertainty estimates to address this question, considering as many sources of uncertainty in both observations and modeling results as possible.

Thornton, P. E.

2009-12-01

138

Leptin treatment during lactation programs leptin synthesis, intermediate metabolism, and liver microsteatosis in adult rats.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and experimental studies have associated development of metabolic syndrome with stressful events (nutritional, hormonal, or environmental) in early life. This phenomenon is known as programing and changes in adipokines levels in early life, especially leptin, seem to be involved with its development. We have shown that neonatal hyperleptinemia on lactation programs for leptin resistance, hyperthyroidism, and higher corticosterone and catecholamines levels with cardiovascular consequences. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of hyperleptinemia during lactation on the glucose and lipid metabolism and liver morphology of adult rats, which were saline or leptin-treated (8 microg/100 g of body weight) daily, for the first 10 days of life. Leptin group had lower body mass during treatment, but higher body mass and hyperleptinemia at adulthood, without difference in fat mass. We showed that the probable source of hyperleptinemia is the higher leptin content in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The programed rats showed hyperinsulinemia and hypoadiponectinemia with higher expression of the hypothalamic Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 (SOCS3), suggesting insulin resistance. Besides, they presented higher liver glycogen and hypertriglyceridemia. We also observed liver microsteatosis in the leptin-programed adult rats. Our data show that neonatal hyperleptinemia alters glucose metabolism, which seems to be partially compensated by the hyperinsulinemia. However, changes in the lipid metabolism are not compensated. It is probable that these changes induced by neonatal hyperleptinemia result from a selective tissue specific resistance both to insulin and leptin at adulthood, and the increase of SOCS3 may play an important role in this process. PMID:20340066

Trevenzoli, I H; Rodrigues, A L; Oliveira, E; Thole, A A; Carvalho, L; Figueiredo, M S; Toste, F P; Neto, J F N; Passos, M C F; Lisboa, P C; Moura, E G

2010-06-01

139

AutoBayes/CC: Combining Program Synthesis with Automatic Code Certification: System Description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Code certification is a lightweight approach to formally demonstrate software quality. It concentrates on aspects of software quality that can be defined and formalized via properties, e.g., operator safety or memory safety. Its basic idea is to require code producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies these quality properties. The proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently, by the code consumer or by certification authorities, e.g., the FAA. It is the idea underlying such approaches as proof-carrying code [6]. Code certification can be viewed as a more practical version of traditional Hoare-style program verification. The properties to be verified are fairly simple and regular so that it is often possible to use an automated theorem prover to automatically discharge all emerging proof obligations. Usually, however, the programmer must still splice auxiliary annotations (e.g., loop invariants) into the program to facilitate the proofs. For complex properties or larger programs this quickly becomes the limiting factor for the applicability of current certification approaches.

Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

140

Older Commercial Drivers: Do They Pose a Safety Risk. Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) 18, A Synthesis of Safety.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis provides a knowledge base regarding age-related changes in the basic functional abilities needed to drive safely that can assist industry and labor practitioners in promoting safer commercial operations. Managers of bus and truck fleets, ac...

G. Bergoffen J. F. Brock L. Staplin

2010-01-01

141

Temperature-programmed reduction of cobalt-containing catalysts of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis based on ultrafine aluminum powders alloyed with rare-earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrafine aluminum powder alloyed with rare-earth metals (Ce, Sm), which is used as a support for the cobalt-containing\\u000a catalysts of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, was studied by the temperature-programmed reduction method. The presence of rare-earth\\u000a metals in the composition of the ultrafine aluminum powder changes the reduction process of cobalt oxides on the catalytic\\u000a system surface.

A. S. Seleznev; L. A. Petrov; V. I. Kononenko; I. A. Chupova; A. V. Ryabina

2009-01-01

142

Observed and modeled carbon and energy fluxes for agricultural sites under North American Carbon Program site-level interim synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Croplands are unique, man-made ecosystems with dynamics mostly dependent on human decisions. Crops uptake a significant amount of Carbon dioxide (CO2) during their short growing seasons. Reliability of the available models to predict the carbon exchanges by croplands is important in estimating the cropland contribution towards overall land-atmosphere carbon exchange and global carbon cycle. The energy exchanges from croplands include both sensible and latent heat fluxes. This study focuses on analyzing the performance of 19 land surface models across five agricultural sites under the site-level interim synthesis of North American Carbon Program (NACP). Model simulations were performed using a common simulation protocol and input data, including gap-filled meteorological data corresponding to each site. The net carbon fluxes (i.e. net ecosystem exchange; NEE) and energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat) predicted by 12 models with sub-hourly/hourly temporal resolution and 7 models with daily temporal resolution were compared against the site-specific gap-filled observed flux tower data. Comparisons were made by site and crop type (i.e. maize, soybean, and wheat), mainly focusing on the coefficient of determination, correlation, root mean square error, and standard deviation. Analyses also compared the diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variability of the modeled fluxes against the observed data and the mean modeled data.

Lokupitiya, E. Y.; Denning, A.

2010-12-01

143

North American Carbon Balance: Results from the Regional Synthesis Project of the North America Carbon Program (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Past studies have documented continental scale carbon balances for North America but there are large differences among the results. Recent improvements in the amount and quality of available observation-based data, and application of comparative analyses among approach methods, may allow us to reduce disagreement and resolve sources of discrepancies among flux estimates. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) regional interim synthesis project has brought together a large number of spatial data sets, and terrestrial biogeochemistry model (TBM) and atmospheric inversion simulation results to construct a holistic assessment of North America carbon fluxes for the years 2000 to 2005. One of the goals of the interim synthesis project has been to investigate the magnitude and potential causes of the large differences in estimated component and net fluxes over regional scales. Although the results to date have not resolved the disparity in estimates of NA carbon fluxes, they have lead to insights into the ability of various types of data and analysis approaches to understand some of the flux discrepancies among the different estimation approaches. Regional TBM results were compared with inversion and inventory-based estimates, as well as modeled and observed flux estimates from eddy covariance sites. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimates range from -2.9 to 0.68 PgC/yr (inversions) and -1.64 to 0.52 PgC/yr (TBMs) for temperate NA. In boreal NA, TBMs, on average, estimate slightly greater uptake than inversions (-0.12 PgC/yr versus -0.07 PgC/yr), but both methods have similar range in estimates. In Temperate NA, inversions, on average, estimate twice the uptake of TBMs (-0.96 PgC/yr versus -0.41 PgC/yr) and have a greater range in estimates. A comparison of NEE estimates for TBMs with both regional drivers and site-specific data indicates that a component for TBM uncertainty is the quality of reanalysis data used as weather forcing in the regional simulations. Nevertheless, additional descrepencies remain that can be attributed to different model formulations of photosynthesis, and decomposition, as well as the temporal resolution of the simulations. Comparison of annual NPP with agricultural and forestry inventories provide additional information for evaluating the performance of TBMs. Results indicate that TBMs may overestimate gross carbon exchanges, but not net exchanges. There are, however, many difficult assumptions in using inventory data to estimate net exchanges.

Post, M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Davis, K. J.; Raczka, B. M.; Hayes, D. J.; Michalak, A. M.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A. R.; Cook, R. B.; Nacp Regional-Interim Synthesis Participants

2010-12-01

144

Synthesis of data from studies by the National Irrigation Water-Quality Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 1986 to 1993, the National Irrigation Water-Quality Program (NIWQP) of the U.S, Department of the Interior studied whether contamination was induced by irrigation drainage in 26 areas of the Western United States. In 1992, a study to evaluate and synthesize data collected during these 26 investigations began. Selenium, boron, and molybdenum are the trace elements and DDT the pesticide most commonly found in surface water at concentrations exceeding chronic criteria for the protection of aquatic life. In six of the areas, the median selenium concentration exceeded the criterion. Aquatic- life criteria have not been developed for uranium, but the median uranium concentration exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water in seven areas. A principal components analysis indicates that severity of selenium contamination is not related to the severity of contamination by boron, molybdenum, and arsenic. Arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and selenium concentrations are nearly the same in both filtered and unfiltered samples, which indicates that contaminant concentrations in filtered samples can be directly compared with biological-effects data developed using unfiltered samples. At a given site, selenium concentrations in surface water can change by an order of magnitude during the course of a year and from one year to another.

Seiler, R. L.

1996-01-01

145

Computer programs in nucleic acid synthesis: synthetic strategy development using solid-phase chemical techniques with data storage, retrieval and analysis capabilities.  

PubMed Central

A computer program has been designed to aid development of synthetic strategies for oligonucleotides produced by solid-phase chemical techniques. The program reduces the time required to develop a strategy and a data file from hours to minutes. The program contains inventories, provides cost analyses, and generates and stores other associated data. The program searches an inventory of sequences for that sequence to avoid duplicate synthesis. If the sequence is not in the inventory the program devises a synthetic strategy, calculates the amounts of reagents and labor costs necessary to complete the synthetic oligonucleotide. The program also deducts the reagents from inventory files. Physical data is also calculated. A file is generated in a sequence inventory for storage of the data as well as other data that will be generated during the purification processes. All variable parameters can be easily edited. The programs were designed to provide a cross-referencing feature for data analysis and can use several parameters as a constant.

Lombardi, S; Seidell, H; Pulford, S; Dutton, W; Parekh, S

1984-01-01

146

Emerging Technologies for Construction Delivery. National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 372. A Sythesis of Highway Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This synthesis study provides information on the use of five emerging technologies by transportation agencies for construction projects. The technologies explored are: 1. Global positioning systems (GPS) for layout, machine guidance, and quantity tracking...

J. J. Hannon

2008-01-01

147

Control of Ctenocephalides felis on dogs and cats using the insect growth regulator (or chitin synthesis inhibitor) lufenuron Program, in Egypt.  

PubMed

Lufenuron, the chitin synthesis inhibitor (Program, Novartis-Switzerland) was given orally at doses of 10-mg/kg b/w to dogs and 30-mg/kg b/w to cats every four weeks (monthly) for the treatment of experimental flea infestations. Three to four weeks after the last infestation, Lufenuron had effectively controlled the Ct. felis infestation of dogs and cats as the drug prevented the development of the offspring of adult female fleas feeding on animals. Flea populations were absent or very low and remained so until the end of the study, 91 days after the first treatment. PMID:12049275

Fahmy, M M; el-Dien, N M Ezz

2002-04-01

148

Geometric Design Practices for Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 417. A Synthesis of Highway Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Resurfacing, Restoration, and Rehabilitation (3R) program began in 1976 when the U.S. Congress authorized funding for highway projects that were intended to extend the service life of an existing road. The program originally defined the 3Rs as follows...

H. W. McGee

2011-01-01

149

Summary of the 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report is a summary of the 2006 synthesis report prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

150

Program  

Cancer.gov

Through the DCIDE program, the developer of a promising diagnostic agent or probe will be given access to the pre-clinical development resources of the National Cancer Institute in a manner that is intended to remove the most common barriers between laboratory discoveries and IND status.

151

72 FR 1760 - Climate Change Science Program Committee for Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.4: Abrupt Climate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...United States Geological Survey Climate Change Science Program Committee for...Assessment Product 3.4: Abrupt Climate Change AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey...United States Geological Survey--Climate Change Science Program Committee...

2007-01-16

152

73 FR 2519 - U.S. Geological Survey-Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Committee on Synthesis and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...U.S. Geological Survey--Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Committee...Product 4.2: Thresholds of Climate Change AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey...U.S. Geological Survey--Climate Change Science Program (CCSP)...

2008-01-15

153

Are workplace health promotion programs effective at improving presenteeism in workers? a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Presenteeism is highly prevalent and costly to employers. It is defined as being present at work, but limited in some aspect of job performance by a health problem. Workplace health promotion (WHP) is a common strategy used to enhance on-the-job productivity. The primary objective is to determine if WHP programs are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objectives are to identify characteristics of successful programs and potential risk factors for presenteeism. Methods The Cochrane Library, Medline, and other electronic databases were searched from 1990 to 2010. Reference lists were examined, key journals were hand-searched and experts were contacted. Included studies were original research that contained data on at least 20 participants (? 18 years of age), and examined the impacts of WHP programs implemented at the workplace. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Tool for Quantitative Studies was used to rate studies. 'Strong' and 'moderate' studies were abstracted into evidence tables, and a best evidence synthesis was performed. Interventions were deemed successful if they improved the outcome of interest. Their program components were identified, as were possible risk factors contributing to presenteeism. Results After 2,032 titles and abstracts were screened, 47 articles were reviewed, and 14 were accepted (4 strong and 10 moderate studies). These studies contained preliminary evidence for a positive effect of some WHP programs. Successful programs offered organizational leadership, health risk screening, individually tailored programs, and a supportive workplace culture. Potential risk factors contributing to presenteeism included being overweight, a poor diet, a lack of exercise, high stress, and poor relations with co-workers and management. Limitations: This review is limited to English publications. A large number of reviewed studies (70%) were inadmissible due to issues of bias, thus limiting the amount of primary evidence. The uncertainties surrounding presenteeism measurement is of significant concern as a source of bias. Conclusions The presenteeism literature is young and heterogeneous. There is preliminary evidence that some WHP programs can positively affect presenteeism and that certain risk factors are of importance. Future research would benefit from standard presenteeism metrics and studies conducted across a broad range of workplace settings.

2011-01-01

154

Synthesis of Research on the Effectiveness of Intellectual Skills Programs: Snake-Oil Remedies or Miracle Cures?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the research on the effectiveness of five thinking skills training programs: Instrumental Enrichment, Philosophy for Children, Structure-of-Intellect (SOI), Problem Solving and Comprehension: A Short Course in Analytical Reasoning, and Odyssey. Compares and contrasts the content of each program and describes the relative lack of adequate…

Sternberg, Robert J.; Bhana, Kastoor

1986-01-01

155

A novel mechanism of programmed cell death in bacteria by toxin-antitoxin systems corrupts peptidoglycan synthesis.  

PubMed

Most genomes of bacteria contain toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. These gene systems encode a toxic protein and its cognate antitoxin. Upon antitoxin degradation, the toxin induces cell stasis or death. TA systems have been linked with numerous functions, including growth modulation, genome maintenance, and stress response. Members of the epsilon/zeta TA family are found throughout the genomes of pathogenic bacteria and were shown not only to stabilize resistance plasmids but also to promote virulence. The broad distribution of epsilon/zeta systems implies that zeta toxins utilize a ubiquitous bacteriotoxic mechanism. However, whereas all other TA families known to date poison macromolecules involved in translation or replication, the target of zeta toxins remained inscrutable. We used in vivo techniques such as microscropy and permeability assays to show that pneumococcal zeta toxin PezT impairs cell wall synthesis and triggers autolysis in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, we demonstrated in vitro that zeta toxins in general phosphorylate the ubiquitous peptidoglycan precursor uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG) and that this activity is counteracted by binding of antitoxin. After identification of the product we verified the kinase activity in vivo by analyzing metabolite extracts of cells poisoned by PezT using high pressure liquid chromatograpy (HPLC). We further show that phosphorylated UNAG inhibitis MurA, the enzyme catalyzing the initial step in bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Additionally, we provide what is to our knowledge the first crystal structure of a zeta toxin bound to its substrate. We show that zeta toxins are novel kinases that poison bacteria through global inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis. This provides a fundamental understanding of how epsilon/zeta TA systems stabilize mobile genetic elements. Additionally, our results imply a mechanism that connects activity of zeta toxin PezT to virulence of pneumococcal infections. Finally, we discuss how phosphorylated UNAG likely poisons additional pathways of bacterial cell wall synthesis, making it an attractive lead compound for development of new antibiotics. PMID:21445328

Mutschler, Hannes; Gebhardt, Maike; Shoeman, Robert L; Meinhart, Anton

2011-03-01

156

Sequential programs of retinoic acid synthesis in the myocardial and epicardial layers of the developing avian heart.  

PubMed

Endogenous patterns of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in avian cardiac morphogenesis were characterized by localized expression of a key RA-synthetic enzyme, RALDH2, which displayed a biphasic pattern during heart development. RALDH2 immunoreactivity was initially apparent posterior to Hensen's node of stage 5-6 embryos and subsequently in somites and unsegmented paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm overlapping atrial precursors in the cardiogenic plate of stage 9- embryos. Initial RALDH2 synthesis in the posterior myocardium coincided with activation of the AMHC1 gene, a RA-responsive marker of inflow heart segments. A wave of RALDH2 synthesis then swept the myocardium in a posterior-to-anterior direction, reaching the outflow tract by stage 13, then fading from the myocardial layer. The second phase of RALDH2 expression, initiated at stage 18 in the proepicardial organ, persisted in migratory epicardial cells that completely enveloped the heart by stage 24. Early restriction of RALDH2 expression to the posterior cardiogenic plate, overlapping RA-inducible gene activation, provides evidence for commitment of posterior avian heart segments by localized production of RA, whereas subsequent RALDH2 expression exclusively in the migratory epicardium suggests a role for the morphogen in ventricular expansion and morphogenesis of underlying myocardial tissues. PMID:10677260

Xavier-Neto, J; Shapiro, M D; Houghton, L; Rosenthal, N

2000-03-01

157

Factors Influencing the Sustainability of U.S. Foreign Assistance Programs in Health 1942-1989: A Six Country Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study reviews U.S. assistance in health, population, and nutrition programs between 1942 and 1988 in six countries -- Honduras, Guatemala, Senegal, Tanzania, Zaire, and Thailand. The analysis reveals striking differences in the levels of project susta...

1990-01-01

158

Cost-Effective Early Childhood Development Programs: A Synthesis of Evidence in the First Decade of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In recent years, greater attention has been given to promoting child well-being throughout the entire period of early childhood. We summarize evidence on the effects and cost-effectiveness of early childhood development programs from birth to age 10. Findings from17 estimates of 16 programs were emphasized. Birth to age 3 interventions including nutritional education and home visitation show family, health

Arthur J. Reynolds; Judy A. Temple; Barry A. White

159

Binary Maker 3.0 - An Interactive Graphics-Based Light Curve Synthesis Program Written in Java  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A revised and expanded version of the widely used Binary Maker program is nearing completion. The DOS version of this program has been incorporated into many curriculums around the world, enabling students to learn the rudiments of light curve analysis. It has also proven to be an excellent tool for the preliminary analysis of light curves, efficiently leading to the determination of initial parameters for differential light curve fitting. The program simultaneously displays the theoretical light and radial velocity curves as well as a revolving 3D model of the binary. Actual light and radial velocity data can be input into the graphs for direct comparison to theory. Completely re-written in Java, the Roche geometry-based program now incorporates eccentric orbits and asynchronous rotation into a modern, completely windows-driven, user-friendly interface. Because it is written in Java, the program now works on PC, Macintosh, and Unix/Linux platforms. Four windows allow simultaneous display of the light curve, radial velocity curves, 3D image, and user input binary parameters. Each output window can be easily maximized to full screen, and the user has much more control over the appearance of each window than in version 2.0. There is also an Outline function that outputs the binary system with its associated inner and outer Lagrangian surfaces. Hardcopy output of the 3D models, light and radial velocity curves, and outlines are in the form of PostScript files. Binary parameter (BMD) files from the DOS version, as well as the light and radial velocity data files, are upwardly compatible with the new program. The many features of the program will be demonstrated at the poster.

Bradstreet, D. H.; Steelman, D. P.

2002-12-01

160

2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

161

2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River  

SciTech Connect

Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

2008-08-12

162

Effective Programs in Middle and High School Mathematics: A Best-Evidence Synthesis. Version 1.4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of mathematics programs for middle and high schools. Study inclusion requirements included use of a randomized or matched control group, a study duration of at least twelve weeks, and equality at pretest. There were 102 qualifying studies, 28 of which used random assignment to treatments.…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Groff, Cynthia

2008-01-01

163

Listener Preference and Comprehension Tests of Stress Algorithms for a Text-to-Phonetic Speech Synthesis Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six different stress algorithms were tested to find a relatively simple set of rules that would work well with a text-to-phonetic program of limited size. Algorithms using spelling rules only (no lexical, syntactic, or semantic information) were compared ...

A. McHugh

1976-01-01

164

Effective Reading Programs for Spanish Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research. Educator's Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant ELLs in elementary school. It is divided into two major sections: the effect of language of instruction on achievement (i.e., bilingual vs. English-only instruction) and effective reading approaches for ELLs other than the use of native…

Center for Research and Reform in Education, 2012

2012-01-01

165

The Evidence Base for Mental Health Consultation in Early Childhood Settings: Research Synthesis Addressing Staff and Program Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: One strategy to support early childhood providers' work with children exhibiting challenging behavior is offering mental health consultation services in order to build staff skills and confidence and reduce staff stress and turnover. Through systematic search procedures, 26 recent studies were identified that addressed the effectiveness of early childhood mental health consultation with respect to staff- and program-level

Eileen M. Brennan; Jennifer R. Bradley; Mary Dallas Allen; Deborah F. Perry

2008-01-01

166

Effective Reading Programs for Spanish Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant ELLs in elementary schools. It is divided into two major sections. One focuses on studies of language of instruction, and one on reading approaches for ELLs other than bilingual education. A total of 14 qualifying studies met the inclusion…

Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

2012-01-01

167

The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project - Part 2: Environmental driver data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystems are important and dynamic components of the global carbon cycle, and terrestrial biospheric models (TBMs) are crucial tools in further understanding of how terrestrial carbon is stored and exchanged with the atmosphere across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Improving TBM model skills, and quantifying and reducing their estimation uncertainties, pose significant challenges. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal multi-scale and multi-model intercomparison effort set up to tackle these challenges. The MsTMIP protocol prescribes standardized environmental driver data that are shared among model teams to facilitate model-model and model-observation comparisons. This paper describes the global and North American environmental driver data sets prepared for the MsTMIP activity to both support their use in MsTMIP and make these data, along with the processes used in selecting/processing these data, accessible to a broader audience. Based on project needs, we compiled climate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, nitrogen deposition, land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), C3/C4 grasses fractions, major crops, phenology, and soil data into a standard format for global (0.5° x 0.5° resolution) and regional (North American, 0.25° x 0.25° resolution) simulations. In order to meet the needs of MsTMIP, improvements were made to several of the original environmental data sets, by changing the quality, the spatial and temporal coverage, resolution, or a combination of these. The resulting standardized model driver data sets are being used by over 20 different models participating MsTMIP. The data are archived at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC, http://daac.ornl.gov) to provide long-term data management and distribution.

Wei, Y.; Liu, S.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Michalak, A. M.; Viovy, N.; Post, W. M.; Schwalm, C. R.; Schaefer, K.; Jacobson, A. R.; Lu, C.; Tian, H.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Cook, R. B.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.

2013-11-01

168

RIP140 represses the "brown-in-white" adipocyte program including a futile cycle of triacylglycerol breakdown and synthesis.  

PubMed

Receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) is a corepressor of nuclear receptors that is highly expressed in adipose tissues. We investigated the role of RIP140 in conditionally immortal preadipocyte cell lines prepared from white or brown fat depots. In white adipocytes, a large set of brown fat-associated genes was up-regulated in the absence of RIP140. In contrast, a relatively minor role can be ascribed to RIP140 in the control of basal gene expression in differentiated brown adipocytes because significant changes were observed only in Ptgds and Fabp3. The minor role of RIP140 in brown adipocytes correlates with the similar histology and uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA staining in knockout compared with wild-type brown adipose tissue (BAT). In contrast, RIP140 knockout sc white adipose tissue (WAT) shows increased numbers of multilocular adipocytes with elevated staining for uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA. Furthermore in a white adipocyte cell line, the markers of BRITE adipocytes, Tbx1, CD137, Tmem26, Cited1, and Epsti1 were repressed in the presence of RIP140 as was Prdm16. Microarray analysis of wild-type and RIP140-knockout white fat revealed elevated expression of genes associated with cold-induced expression or high expression in BAT. A set of genes associated with a futile cycle of triacylglycerol breakdown and resynthesis and functional assays revealed that glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity as well as [(3)H]glycerol incorporation were elevated in the absence of RIP140. Thus, RIP140 blocks the BRITE program in WAT, preventing the expression of brown fat genes and inhibiting a triacylglycerol futile cycle, with important implications for energy homeostasis. PMID:24479876

Kiskinis, Evangelos; Chatzeli, Lemonia; Curry, Edward; Kaforou, Myrsini; Frontini, Andrea; Cinti, Saverio; Montana, Giovanni; Parker, Malcolm G; Christian, Mark

2014-03-01

169

Comparing intra- and inter- biogeochemical model uncertainties based on the results of the North American Carbon Program Site-level Interim Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model inter-comparison studies have been used to explore model uncertainty. However, it is still unclear how much uncertainty is induced by parametrization and how much is from model structures. In this study, we compared the uncertainty of a relatively simple terrestrial ecosystem model (TECO) induced solely by changes in parameter values (intra-model uncertainty) with that of another 20 participant models of the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Site-level Interim Synthesis (inter-model uncertainty). The confidence intervals and the diurnal, seasonal, and interannual patterns of simulated gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (RE), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and the length of growing season, were used to characterize the intra- and inter- model uncertainties of the TECO model and the 20 participant models, respectively. We found that both of the intra- and inter- model uncertainties have the likely spreads of confidence intervals in GPP, RE, and NEE, but the different patterns on diurnal to interannual temporal scales. The inter-model uncertainties that couldn’t be reproduced by changes in parametrization were usually resulted from model assumptions and different representations of processes. The responses to extreme weather events, e.g., drought, were a critical factor leading to inter-model uncertainties. Our results indicate that the knowledge gaps on terrestrial ecosystem processes are the key reason of model structure uncertainties. Model inter-comparison studies are valuable in identifying the key assumptions on ecosystem processes, while intra-model uncertainty emphasizes on the sensitivities of ecosystem to environmental conditions.

Weng, E.; Luo, Y.

2009-12-01

170

Deductive Computer Programming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research has been conducted on the following related topics: Automated Deduction - new inference rules have been developed to facilitate reasoning about ordering relations, which pervade all software-development applications. Program Synthesis - a deducti...

Z. Manna

1993-01-01

171

Extracting result schema based on query instances in the Deep Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep Web sources contain a large of high-quality and query-related structured date. One of the challenges in the Deep Web\\u000a is extracting result schemas of Deep Web sources. To address this challenge, this paper describes a novel approach that extracts\\u000a both result data and the result schema of a Web database. The approach first models the query interface of a

Tiezheng Nie; Ge Yu; Derong Shen; Yue Kou; Wei Liu

2007-01-01

172

Integrating Schema-Based Instruction and Response Cards for Students with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of No Child Left Behind (2002), the academic expectations of students with disabilities have changed. Students with disabilities are now held to the same academic standards as their peers without disabilities. Furthermore, the 2004 provisions in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act state that students with…

Schwab, James Raymond; Tucci, Stacey; Jolivette, Kristine

2013-01-01

173

A schema-based model of situation awareness: Implications for measuring situation awareness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measures of pilot situation awareness (SA) are needed in order to know whether new concepts in display design help pilots keep track of rapidly changing tactical situations. In order to measure SA, a theory of situation assessment is needed. Such a theory is summarized, encompassing both a definition of SA and a model of situation assessment. SA is defined as the pilot's knowledge about a zone of interest at a given level of abstraction. Pilots develop this knowledge by sampling data from the environment and matching the sampled data to knowledge structures stored in long-term memory. Matched knowledge structures then provide the pilot's assessment of the situation and serve to guide his attention. A number of cognitive biases that result from the knowledge matching process are discussed, as are implications for partial report measures of situation awareness.

Fracker, Martin L.

1988-01-01

174

SECAD-- a Schema-based Environment for Configuring, Analyzing and Documenting Integrated Fusion Simulations. Final report  

SciTech Connect

SECAD is a project that developed a GUI for running integrated fusion simulations as implemented in FACETS and SWIM SciDAC projects. Using the GUI users can submit simulations locally and remotely and visualize the simulation results.

Shasharina, Svetlana

2012-05-23

175

Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Data collected by the NIWQP studies indicated that, in surface water, filtered and unfiltered samples had nearly the same concentrations of arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and selenium for concentrations greater than about 10 micrograms per liter. Therefore, in this concentration range, filtered concentrations can be directly compared to biological-effect levels developed for unfiltered samples. In the range of 1 to 10 micrograms per liter there may be a tendency for unfiltered arsenic concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. For selenium, however, the data suggest differences from equality in that range result from analytical imprecision and not a general tendency for unfiltered concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. This relation may not be true in lentic, nutrient-rich waters because in such settings algae can bioaccumulate large amounts of selenium and other trace elements. Selenium was the trace element in surface water that most commonly exceeded chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life; more than 40 percent of the selenium concentrations in surface-water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) aquatic-life chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). In 12 of the 26 areas at least 25 percent of the surface water-samples had selenium concentrations that either equaled or exceeded the chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). More than 28 percent of boron concentrations and almost 17 percent of the molybdenum concentrations exceeded the aquatic life criteria established by the State of California (550 and 19 micrograms per liter, respectively). In ground water, more than 22 percent of the arsenic concentrations and more than 35 percent of the selenium concentrations exceeded the MCL (10 and 50 micrograms per liter, respectively). Few samples of uranium in surface water exceeded a criterion for the protection of aquatic life (300 micrograms per liter), but 44 percent

Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

2003-01-01

176

Solar array synthesis computer program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photovoltaic characteristics have been measured on solar cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons to fluences ranging from 1 x 10 to the 13th power e/sq cm to 1 x 10 to the 16th power e/sq cm, for cell temperatures ranging from 123 K to 473 K and for illumination intensities ranging from 5m W/sq cm to 1830m W/sq cm. Empirical equations have been derived from these measurements to describe the behavior of light generated current, open circuit voltage and I-V curve shape over various portions of these temperature/illumination ranges. Both 10 ohms/cm and 17 ohms/cm n-p silicon solar cells were tested, and similar analytical expressions were formulated for easy comparison between the two resistivities.

Faith, T. J.

1973-01-01

177

Using Realist Synthesis to Develop an Evidence Base from an Identified Data Set on Enablers and Barriers for Alcohol and Drug Program Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to show how "realist synthesis" methodology (Pawson, 2002) was adapted to review a large sample of community based projects addressing alcohol and drug use problems. Our study drew on a highly varied sample of 127 projects receiving funding from a national non-government organisation in Australia between 2002 and 2008.…

Hunter, Barbara; MacLean, Sarah; Berends, Lynda

2012-01-01

178

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

1998-01-01

179

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter J. Tijrn

2000-06-30

180

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals From Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

none

1998-07-01

181

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter Tijrn

2003-02-03

182

Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Peter Tijrn

2003-01-02

183

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2001-12-31

184

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

Unknown

2001-09-30

185

Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

Chang, Young-Soo [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Liebich, R.E. [Raytheon Environmental Services Company, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1997-07-01

186

Superconducting technology program Sandia 1996 annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia's Superconductivity Technology Program is a thallium-based high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, open-system thick film conductor development, wire ...

E. P. Roth

1997-01-01

187

Superconducting Technology Program: Sandia 1993 annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia's STP program is a four-part high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, thallium-based HTS film development, wire and tape fabrication, and HTS motor des...

E. P. Roth

1994-01-01

188

Superconducting Technology Program Sandia 1994 Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia's STP program is a four-part high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, thallium-based HTS film development, wire and tape fabrication, and HTS motor des...

E. P. Roth

1995-01-01

189

Superconducting technology program: Sandia 1995 annual report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia's STP program is a thallium-based high-temperature superconductor (HTS) research and development program consisting of efforts in powder synthesis and process development, open-system thick film conductor development, wire and tape fabrication, and...

E. P. Roth

1996-01-01

190

Cancer Tracer Synthesis Resources  

Cancer.gov

The Cancer Imaging Program has been creating Investigational New Drug Applications (IND) for imaging agents in order to engage in multi-center clinical trials of these materials. A subset of the documents filed is being made available to the research community to implement routine synthesis of tracers at their own facilities and to assist investigators with the filing of their own INDs. The first of these document sets is for F-18 fluorothymidine (FLT).

191

Computer Series, 12: Computer-Assisted Teaching of Organic Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a new version of the LHASA computer program specifically designed for use by students in an elementary organic chemistry course. This program presents a new method of teaching chemical synthesis and solving synthetic problems. (CS)

Stolow, Robert D.; Joncas, Leo J.

1980-01-01

192

Characterization by Temperature-Programmed Reduction and by Temperature-Programmed Oxidation (TPR-TPO) of Chromium(III) Oxide-Based Catalysts: Correlation with the Catalytic Activity for Hydrofluoroalkane Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catalytic activity of chromium (III) oxide for the fluorination of CF3CH2Cl (HCFC 133a) is proportional to the number of reversibly oxidized sites. The proportionality coefficient depends on the atmosphere employed during the pretreatment of the catalyst. The temperature-programmed reduction and temperature-programmed oxidation experiments constitute a simple technique that allows the number of reversibly oxidized chromium atoms to be measured.

S. Brunet; B. Requieme; E. Matouba; J. Barrault; M. Blanchard

1995-01-01

193

Linear systems analysis program, L224(QR). Volume 2: Supplemental system design and maintenance document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computer program known as QR is described. Classical control systems analysis and synthesis (root locus, time response, and frequency response) can be performed using this program. Programming details of the QR program are presented.

Heidergott, K. W.

1979-01-01

194

Synthesis of LPG from synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) from synthesis gas using hybrid catalyst consisting of methanol synthesis catalyst and zeolite was investigated in a fixed bed reactor. Experimental results demonstrated that in the hybrid catalyst system, methanol formed from synthesis gas over methanol synthesis catalyst firstly converted into dimethyl ether and then into hydrocarbons over zeolite employed. The composition of the

Qianwen Zhang; Xiaohong Li; Kenji Asami; Sachio Asaoka; Kaoru Fujimoto

2004-01-01

195

A Synthesis and Reflection on the Research Findings from a Statewide Undergraduate Program To Prepare Specialist Mathematics and Science Teachers (The Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable interest in preparing science teachers who can implement reform-based practices in schools. However, there are relatively few research programs that have systematically studied the implementation of this teaching innovation over extended time (i.e., the entire undergraduate experience and the first few years of full time…

McGinnis, J. Randy

196

A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program Site Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of COâ exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and

C. R. Schwalm; C. A. Williams; K. Schaefer; R. Anderson; M. A. Arain; I. Baker; T. A. Black; G. Chen; P. Ciais; K. J. Davis; A. R. Desai; M. Dietze; D. Dragoni; M. L. Fischer; L. B. Flanagan; R. F. Grant; L. Gu; D. Hollinger; R. C. Izaurralde; C. Kucharik; P. M. Lafleur; B. E. Law; L. Li; Z. Li; S. Liu; E. Lokupitiya; Y. Luo; S. Ma; H. Margolis; R. Matamala; H. McCaughey; R. K. Monson; W. C. Oechel; C. Peng; B. Poulter; D. T. Price; D. M. Riciutto; W. J. Riley; A. K. Sahoo; M. Sprintsin; J. Sun; H. Tian; C. Tonitto; H. Verbeeck; S. B. Verma

2011-01-01

197

77 FR 8324 - Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applications for the Environment: Real-Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) User Needs Workshop; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY...Applications for the Environment: Real- Time Information Synthesis (AERIS) Program and solicit user needs for its...

2012-02-14

198

Automatic Design and Synthesis of Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) systems Using Learning Paradigms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report investigates evolutionary computational techniques such as genetic programming (GP), coevolutionary genetic programming (CGP), linear genetic programming (LGP) and genetic algorithms (GA) to automate the synthesis and analysis of object detect...

B. Bhanu Y. Lin K. Krawiec

2003-01-01

199

Field-Verification Program (aquatic disposal): synthesis of research results: applicability and field verification of predictive methodologies for aquatic dredged-material disposal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Field-Verification Program was designed to determine the applicability, reproducibility, and field verification of test methods for the evaluation of disposal of dredged material at aquatic, upland, and wetland sites. There were three objectives in this program. The first was to demonstrate the applicability of existing test methods to detect and measure effects of dredged material and to determine the degree of variability and reproducibility inherent in the testing procedures. The second objective was to field verify laboratory responses by comparing the exposure-response relationships between the laboratory and field. The third objective was to determine the degree of correlation between contaminated tissue residues and biological responses resulting from laboratory and field exposure to dredged material. These objectives were examined for the following biological responses: bioaccumulation, scope for growth, bioenergetics, adenylate energy charge, sister chromatid exchange, histopathology, survival, growth, reproduction, intrinsic rates of population growth, recolonization, and community structure.

Gentile, J.H.; Pesch, G.G.; Lake, J.; Yevich, P.P.; Zaroogian, G.

1988-09-01

200

Temperature-Programmed Reduction and XRD Studies of the Interactions in Supported Rhodium Catalysts and Their Effect on Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, comprehensive temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray diffraction studies were conducted, with particular emphasis on the effect of calcination temperature on the interactions between rhodium oxide and support. The formation of a compound between rhodium and support oxide is strongly dependent on the nature of the support and the calcination temperature. No such compounds were formed over ?-Al2O3

E. Ruckenstein; H. Y. Wang

2000-01-01

201

I. The design, synthesis, and structure of antiparallel beta-sheet and beta-strand mimics. II. The design of a scripted chemistry outreach program to high schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I. Protein structure is not easily predicted from the linear sequence of amino acids. An increased ability to create protein structures would allow researchers to develop new peptide-based therapeutics and materials, and would provide insights into the mechanisms of protein folding. Toward this end, we have designed and synthesized two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet mimics containing conformationally biased scaffolds and semicarbazide, urea, and hydrazide linker groups that attach peptide chains to the scaffold. The mimics exhibited populations of intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded beta-sheet-like conformers as determined by spectroscopic techniques such as FTIR, sp1H NMR, and ROESY studies. During our studies, we determined that a urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic was able to tightly hydrogen bond to peptides in an antiparallel beta-sheet-like configuration. Several derivatives of the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimic were synthesized. Preliminary data by electron microscopy indicate that the beta-strand mimics have an effect on the folding of Alzheimer's Abeta peptide. These data suggest that the urea-hydrazide beta-strand mimics and related compounds may be developed into therapeutics which effect the folding of the Abeta peptide into neurotoxic aggregates. II. In recent years, there has been concern about the low level of science literacy and science interest among Americans. A declining interest in science impacts the abilities of people to make informed decisions about technology. To increase the interest in science among secondary students, we have developed the UCI Chemistry Outreach Program to High Schools. The Program features demonstration shows and discussions about chemistry in everyday life. The development and use of show scripts has enabled large numbers of graduate and undergraduate student volunteers to demonstrate chemistry to more than 12,000 local high school students. Teachers, students, and volunteers have expressed their enjoyment of The UCI Chemistry Outreach Program to High Schools.

Waldman, Amy Sue

202

Are workplace health promotion programs effective at improving presenteeism in workers? a systematic review and best evidence synthesis of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Presenteeism is highly prevalent and costly to employers. It is defined as being present at work, but limited in some aspect of job performance\\u000a by a health problem.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Workplace health promotion (WHP) is a common strategy used to enhance on-the-job productivity. The primary objective is to\\u000a determine if WHP programs are effective in improving presenteeism. The secondary objectives are

Carol Cancelliere; J David Cassidy; Carlo Ammendolia; Pierre Côté

2011-01-01

203

Synthesis of Cubane Based Energetic Molecules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to pack more power with less weight into less space in tomorrow's weapons drove this program for the synthesis of super energetic materials. Our original impetus was a program based solely on the energetic properties of cubane. However, as a cour...

R. J. Schmitt J. C. Bottaro P. E. Penwell

1993-01-01

204

Mitochondria-targeted plastoquinone derivatives as tools to interrupt execution of the aging program. 1. Cationic plastoquinone derivatives: synthesis and in vitro studies.  

PubMed

Synthesis of cationic plastoquinone derivatives (SkQs) containing positively charged phosphonium or rhodamine moieties connected to plastoquinone by decane or pentane linkers is described. It is shown that SkQs (i) easily penetrate through planar, mitochondrial, and outer cell membranes, (ii) at low (nanomolar) concentrations, posses strong antioxidant activity in aqueous solution, BLM, lipid micelles, liposomes, isolated mitochondria, and cells, (iii) at higher (micromolar) concentrations, show pronounced prooxidant activity, the "window" between anti- and prooxidant concentrations being very much larger than for MitoQ, a cationic ubiquinone derivative showing very much lower antioxidant activity and higher prooxidant activity, (iv) are reduced by the respiratory chain to SkQH2, the rate of oxidation of SkQH2 being lower than the rate of SkQ reduction, and (v) prevent oxidation of mitochondrial cardiolipin by OH*. In HeLa cells and human fibroblasts, SkQs operate as powerful inhibitors of the ROS-induced apoptosis and necrosis. For the two most active SkQs, namely SkQ1 and SkQR1, C(1/2) values for inhibition of the H2O2-induced apoptosis in fibroblasts appear to be as low as 1x10(-11) and 8x10(-13) M, respectively. SkQR1, a fluorescent representative of the SkQ family, specifically stains a single type of organelles in the living cell, i.e. energized mitochondria. Such specificity is explained by the fact that it is the mitochondrial matrix that is the only negatively-charged compartment inside the cell. Assuming that the Deltapsi values on the outer cell and inner mitochondrial membranes are about 60 and 180 mV, respectively, and taking into account distribution coefficient of SkQ1 between lipid and water (about 13,000 : 1), the SkQ1 concentration in the inner leaflet of the inner mitochondrial membrane should be 1.3x10(8) times higher than in the extracellular space. This explains the very high efficiency of such compounds in experiments on cell cultures. It is concluded that SkQs are rechargeable, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants of very high efficiency and specificity. Therefore, they might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo. PMID:19120014

Antonenko, Y N; Avetisyan, A V; Bakeeva, L E; Chernyak, B V; Chertkov, V A; Domnina, L V; Ivanova, O Yu; Izyumov, D S; Khailova, L S; Klishin, S S; Korshunova, G A; Lyamzaev, K G; Muntyan, M S; Nepryakhina, O K; Pashkovskaya, A A; Pletjushkina, O Yu; Pustovidko, A V; Roginsky, V A; Rokitskaya, T I; Ruuge, E K; Saprunova, V B; Severina, I I; Simonyan, R A; Skulachev, I V; Skulachev, M V; Sumbatyan, N V; Sviryaeva, I V; Tashlitsky, V N; Vassiliev, J M; Vyssokikh, M Yu; Yaguzhinsky, L S; Zamyatnin, A A; Skulachev, V P

2008-12-01

205

Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: A spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Ecosystem models are important tools for diagnosing the carbon cycle and projecting its behavior across space and time. Most assessments of model performance occur at individual temporal scales, but ecosystems respond to drivers at multiple time scales. Spectral methods, such as wavelet analyses, present an alternative approach that enables the identification of the dominant time scales contributing to model performance in the frequency domain. In this study we used wavelet analyses to synthesize the performance of twenty-one ecosystem models at nine eddy-covariance towers as part of the North American Carbon Program's site-level inter-comparison. This study expands upon previous single-site and single-model analyses to determine what patterns of model failure are consistent across a diverse range of models and sites.

Dietze, Michael; Vargas, Rodrigo; Richardson, Andrew D.; Stoy, Paul C.; Barr, Alan; Anderson, Ryan; Arain, M. A.; Baker, Ian; Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Jing Ming; Ciais, Philippe; Flanagan, Lawrence; Gough, Christopher; Grant, R. F.; Hollinger, D.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Kucharik, Chris; Lafleur, Peter; Liu, Shuguang; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Luo, Yiqi; Munger, J. W.; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David T.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Riley, William; Sahoo, Alok Kumar; Schaefer, Kevin; Suyker, Andrew E.; Tian, Hanqin; Tonitto, Christine; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, Shashi B.; Wang, Weifeng; Weng, Ensheng

2011-12-20

206

Improving Aboriginal maternal and infant health services in the 'Top End' of Australia; synthesis of the findings of a health services research program aimed at engaging stakeholders, developing research capacity and embedding change  

PubMed Central

Background Health services research is a well-articulated research methodology and can be a powerful vehicle to implement sustainable health service reform. This paper presents a summary of a five-year collaborative program between stakeholders and researchers that led to sustainable improvements in the maternity services for remote-dwelling Aboriginal women and their infants in the Top End (TE) of Australia. Methods A mixed-methods health services research program of work was designed, using a participatory approach. The study area consisted of two large remote Aboriginal communities in the Top End of Australia and the hospital in the regional centre (RC) that provided birth and tertiary care for these communities. The stakeholders included consumers, midwives, doctors, nurses, Aboriginal Health Workers (AHW), managers, policy makers and support staff. Data were sourced from: hospital and health centre records; perinatal data sets and costing data sets; observations of maternal and infant health service delivery and parenting styles; formal and informal interviews with providers and women and focus groups. Studies examined: indicator sets that identify best care, the impact of quality of care and remoteness on health outcomes, discrepancies in the birth counts in a range of different data sets and ethnographic studies of ‘out of hospital’ or health centre birth and parenting. A new model of maternity care was introduced by the health service aiming to improve care following the findings of our research. Some of these improvements introduced during the five-year research program of research were evaluated. Results Cost effective improvements were made to the acceptability, quality and outcomes of maternity care. However, our synthesis identified system-wide problems that still account for poor quality of infant services, specifically, unacceptable standards of infant care and parent support, no apparent relationship between volume and acuity of presentations and staff numbers with the required skills for providing care for infants, and an ‘outpatient’ model of care. Services were also characterised by absent Aboriginal leadership and inadequate coordination between remote and tertiary services that is essential to improve quality of care and reduce ‘system-introduced’ risk. Conclusion Evidence-informed redesign of maternity services and delivery of care has improved clinical effectiveness and quality for women. However, more work is needed to address substandard care provided for infants and their parents.

2014-01-01

207

Structural synthesis - Its genesis and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An historical account is given of the development, from its conception in 1960, of the structural synthesis method. While synthesis techniques lag behind analytical ones in both sophistication and application, the structural design procedures created by combining finite element analysis and mathematical programming algorithms have progressed to the point of maturity. As in the case of finite element analysis, use and acceptance of structural synthesis methodology depends on the development and distribution of easily used and well-documented, production-quality computer programs. Attention is given such elementary applications of synthesis methods as the three-bar truss, an integrally stiffened waffle plate, a stiffened cylindrical shell, aircraft fuselage window panels, the structural efficiency of graphite-epoxy hat-stiffened panels, and an idealized delta wing.

Schmit, L. A.

1981-01-01

208

Maitotoxin: An Inspiration for Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Maitotoxin holds a special place in the annals of natural products chemistry as the largest and most toxic secondary metabolite known to date. Its fascinating, ladder-like, polyether molecular structure and diverse spectrum of biological activities elicited keen interest from chemists and biologists who recognized its uniqueness and potential as a probe and inspiration for research in chemistry and biology. Synthetic studies in the area benefited from methodologies and strategies that were developed as part of chemical synthesis programs directed toward the total synthesis of some of the less complex members of the polyether marine biotoxin class, of which maitotoxin is the flagship. This account focuses on progress made in the authors’ laboratories in the synthesis of large maitotoxin domains with emphasis on methodology development, strategy design, and structural comparisons of the synthesized molecules with the corresponding regions of the natural product. The article concludes with an overview of maitotoxin’s biological profile and future perspectives.

Aversa, Robert J.

2011-01-01

209

A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our current understanding of terrestrial carbon processes is represented in various models used to integrate and scale measurements of CO2 exchange from remote sensing and other spatiotemporal data. Yet assessments are rarely conducted to determine how well models simulate carbon processes across vegetation types and environmental conditions. Using standardized data from the North American Carbon Program we compare observed and simulated monthly CO2 exchange from 44 eddy covariance flux towers in North America and 22 terrestrial biosphere models. The analysis period spans ˜220 site-years, 10 biomes, and includes two large-scale drought events, providing a natural experiment to evaluate model skill as a function of drought and seasonality. We evaluate models' ability to simulate the seasonal cycle of CO2 exchange using multiple model skill metrics and analyze links between model characteristics, site history, and model skill. Overall model performance was poor; the difference between observations and simulations was ˜10 times observational uncertainty, with forested ecosystems better predicted than nonforested. Model-data agreement was highest in summer and in temperate evergreen forests. In contrast, model performance declined in spring and fall, especially in ecosystems with large deciduous components, and in dry periods during the growing season. Models used across multiple biomes and sites, the mean model ensemble, and a model using assimilated parameter values showed high consistency with observations. Models with the highest skill across all biomes all used prescribed canopy phenology, calculated NEE as the difference between GPP and ecosystem respiration, and did not use a daily time step.

Schwalm, Christopher R.; Williams, Christopher A.; Schaefer, Kevin; Anderson, Ryan; Arain, M. Altaf; Baker, Ian; Barr, Alan; Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Guangsheng; Chen, Jing Ming; Ciais, Philippe; Davis, Kenneth J.; Desai, Ankur; Dietze, Michael; Dragoni, Danilo; Fischer, Marc L.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Grant, Robert; Gu, Lianhong; Hollinger, David; Izaurralde, R. CéSar; Kucharik, Chris; Lafleur, Peter; Law, Beverly E.; Li, Longhui; Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Luo, Yiqi; Ma, Siyan; Margolis, Hank; Matamala, Roser; McCaughey, Harry; Monson, Russell K.; Oechel, Walter C.; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David T.; Riciutto, Dan M.; Riley, William; Sahoo, Alok Kumar; Sprintsin, Michael; Sun, Jianfeng; Tian, Hanqin; Tonitto, Christina; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, Shashi B.

2010-09-01

210

Pruning the Search Space of Logic Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We analyse the use of pruning operators for reducing thesearch space of logic programming computations. The synthesis of a fewkey choices arising in the implementation of pruning operators allows usto compare alternative pruning strategies at a suitably abstract level.In this perspective, we examine the commit operator featured by thelanguage Godel.1 IntroductionLogic programming languages rely on the idea that programs

Antonio Brogi; Cosimo Guarino

1996-01-01

211

Evaluation of Driver Education and Training Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What contributions do driver education and training programs make to the Nation's highway safety program? An answer to this question was sought through a synthesis of four feasibility studies concerning the effectiveness of current or proposed driver education programs. These preliminary investigations failed to identify any clear proof that…

Harman, Harry H.; And Others

212

Speech Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis is the art of designing talking machines. It is often seen by engineers as an easy task, compared to speech recognition.1 It is true, indeed, that it is easier to create a bad, first trial text-to-speech (TTS) system than to design a rudimentary speech recognizer.

Dutoit, Thierry; Bozkurt, Baris

213

Network synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion, with numerous examples, on the application of state variable methods to network analysis and synthesis is reported. The state variable point of view is useful in the design of control circuits for regulators because, unlike frequency domain methods, it is applicable to linear and nonlinear problems. The reported are intended as an introduction to this theory.

Brockett, R. W.

1975-01-01

214

A schema based paradigm for facile description and control of amulti-component parallel, coupled atmosphere-ocean model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidisciplinary Earth System science applications involve coupling interacting components over differing time scales and varying spatial locations. Each individual Earth System model component is, in itself, a complex high-performance application that involves considerable user expertise in setting up both at build-time and at runtime. The added complexity of running in a coupled fashion presents domain science experts with additional hurdles

Constantinos Evangelinos; Chris N. Hill

2007-01-01

215

Multivoxel patterns in face-sensitive temporal regions reveal an encoding schema based on detecting life in a face.  

PubMed

More than a decade of research has demonstrated that faces evoke prioritized processing in a 'core face network' of three brain regions. However, whether these regions prioritize the detection of global facial form (shared by humans and mannequins) or the detection of life in a face has remained unclear. Here, we dissociate form-based and animacy-based encoding of faces by using animate and inanimate faces with human form (humans, mannequins) and dog form (real dogs, toy dogs). We used multivariate pattern analysis of BOLD responses to uncover the representational similarity space for each area in the core face network. Here, we show that only responses in the inferior occipital gyrus are organized by global facial form alone (human vs dog) while animacy becomes an additional organizational priority in later face-processing regions: the lateral fusiform gyri (latFG) and right superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, patterns evoked by human faces were maximally distinct from all other face categories in the latFG and parts of the extended face perception system. These results suggest that once a face configuration is perceived, faces are further scrutinized for whether the face is alive and worthy of social cognitive resources. PMID:22798395

Looser, Christine E; Guntupalli, Jyothi S; Wheatley, Thalia

2013-10-01

216

Accelerating Spirocyclic Polyketide Synthesis using Flow Chemistry.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, the integration of synthetic chemistry with flow processing has resulted in a powerful platform for molecular assembly that is making an impact throughout the chemical community. Herein, we demonstrate the extension of these tools to encompass complex natural product synthesis. We have developed a number of novel flow-through processes for reactions commonly encountered in natural product synthesis programs to achieve the first total synthesis of spirodienal A and the preparation of spirangien?A methyl ester. Highlights of the synthetic route include an iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation, iterative Roush crotylations, gold-catalyzed spiroketalization and a late-stage cis-selective reduction. PMID:24729438

Newton, Sean; Carter, Catherine F; Pearson, Colin M; de C Alves, Leandro; Lange, Heiko; Thansandote, Praew; Ley, Steven V

2014-05-01

217

Object-oriented concurrent programming  

SciTech Connect

This book deals with a major theme of the Japanese Fifth Generation Project, which emphasizes logic programming, parallelism, and distributed systems. It presents a collection of tutorials and research papers on a new programming and design methodology in which the system to be constructed is modeled as a collection of abstract entities called ''objects'' and concurrent messages passing among objects. The book includes proposals for programming languages that support this methodology, as well as the applications of object-oriented concurrent programming to such areas as artificial intelligence, software engineering, music synthesis, office information systems, and system programming.

Yonezawa, A.; Tokoro, M.

1986-01-01

218

Characterizing the performance of ecosystem models across time scales: A spectral analysis of the North American Carbon Program site-level synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystem models are important tools for diagnosing the carbon cycle and projecting its behavior across space and time. Despite the fact that ecosystems respond to drivers at multiple time scales, most assessments of model performance do not discriminate different time scales. Spectral methods, such as wavelet analyses, present an alternative approach that enables the identification of the dominant time scales contributing to model performance in the frequency domain. In this study we used wavelet analyses to synthesize the performance of 21 ecosystem models at 9 eddy covariance towers as part of the North American Carbon Program's site-level intercomparison. This study expands upon previous single-site and single-model analyses to determine what patterns of model error are consistent across a diverse range of models and sites. To assess the significance of model error at different time scales, a novel Monte Carlo approach was developed to incorporate flux observation error. Failing to account for observation error leads to a misidentification of the time scales that dominate model error. These analyses show that model error (1) is largest at the annual and 20-120 day scales, (2) has a clear peak at the diurnal scale, and (3) shows large variability among models in the 2-20 day scales. Errors at the annual scale were consistent across time, diurnal errors were predominantly during the growing season, and intermediate-scale errors were largely event driven. Breaking spectra into discrete temporal bands revealed a significant model-by-band effect but also a nonsignificant model-by-site effect, which together suggest that individual models show consistency in their error patterns. Differences among models were related to model time step, soil hydrology, and the representation of photosynthesis and phenology but not the soil carbon or nitrogen cycles. These factors had the greatest impact on diurnal errors, were less important at annual scales, and had the least impact at intermediate time scales.

Dietze, Michael C.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Richardson, Andrew D.; Stoy, Paul C.; Barr, Alan G.; Anderson, Ryan S.; Arain, M. Altaf; Baker, Ian T.; Black, T. Andrew; Chen, Jing M.; Ciais, Philippe; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Gough, Christopher M.; Grant, Robert F.; Hollinger, David; Izaurralde, R. Cesar; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Lafleur, Peter; Liu, Shugang; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Luo, Yiqi; Munger, J. William; Peng, Changhui; Poulter, Benjamin; Price, David T.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Riley, William J.; Sahoo, Alok Kumar; Schaefer, Kevin; Suyker, Andrew E.; Tian, Hanqin; Tonitto, Christina; Verbeeck, Hans; Verma, Shashi B.; Wang, Weifeng; Weng, Ensheng

2011-12-01

219

GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Glutathione (GSH) is present in all mammalian tissues as the most abundant non-protein thiol that defends against oxidative stress. GSH is also a key determinant of redox signaling, vital in detoxification of xenobiotics, regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune function, and fibrogenesis. Biosynthesis of GSH occurs in the cytosol in a tightly regulated manner. Key determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of the sulfur amino acid precursor, cysteine, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), which is composed of a catalytic (GCLC) and a modifier (GCLM) subunit. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis is GSH synthetase (GS). SCOPE OF REVIEW This review summarizes key functions of GSH and focuses on factors that regulate the biosynthesis of GSH, including pathological conditions where GSH synthesis is dysregulated. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS GCL subunits and GS are regulated at multiple levels and often in a coordinated manner. Key transcription factors that regulate the expression of these genes include NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) via the antioxidant response element (ARE), AP-1, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF?B). There is increasing evidence that dysregulation of GSH synthesis contributes to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary and liver fibrosis, alcoholic liver disease, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE GSH is a key antioxidant that also modulates diverse cellular processes. A better understanding of how its synthesis is regulated and dysregulated in disease states may lead to improvement in the treatment of these disorders.

Lu, Shelly C.

2012-01-01

220

Tectonics and geology of spreading ridge subduction at the Chile Triple Junction: a synthesis of results from Leg 141 of the Ocean Drilling Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An active oceanic spreading ridge is being subducted beneath the South American continent at the Chile Triple Junction. This process has played a major part in the evolution of most of the continental margins that border the Pacific Ocean basin. A combination of high resolution swath bathymetric maps, seismic reflection profiles and drillhole and core data from five sites drilled during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 141 provide important data that define the tectonic, structural and stratigraphic effects of this modern example of spreading ridge subduction. A change from subduction accretion to subduction erosion occurs along-strike of the South American forearc. This change is prominently expressed by normal faulting, forearc subsidence, oversteepening of topographic slopes and intensive sedimentary mass wasting, overprinted on older signatures of sediment accretion, overthrusting and uplift processes in the forearc. Data from drill sites north of the triple junction (Sites 859-861) show that after an important phase of forearc building in the early to late Pliocene, subduction accretion had ceased in the late Pliocene. Since that time sediment on the downgoing oceanic Nazca plate has been subducted. Site 863 was drilled into the forearc in the immediate vicinity of the triple junction above the subducted spreading ridge axis. Here, thick and intensely folded and faulted trench slope sediments of Pleistocene age are currently involved in the frontal deformation of the forearc. Early faults with thrust and reverse kinematics are overprinted by later normal faults. The Chile Triple Junction is also the site of apparent ophiolite emplacement into the South American forearc. Drilling at Site 862 on the Taitao Ridge revealed an offshore volcanic sequence of Plio-Pleistocene age associated with the Taitao Fracture Zone, adjacent to exposures of the Pliocene-aged Taitao ophiolite onshore. Despite the large-scale loss of material from the forearc at the triple junction, ophiolite emplacement produces a large topographic promontory in the forearc immediately after ridge subduction, and represents the first stage of forearc rebuilding. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

Behrmann, J. H.; Lewis, S. D.; Cande, S. C.

1994-01-01

221

73 FR 13875 - Notice of Renewal of the Climate Change Science Program Product Development Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENERGY Notice of Renewal of the Climate Change Science Program Product Development...agencies responsible for preparing Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) Synthesis...notice is hereby given that the Climate Change Science Program Product...

2008-03-14

222

A Research Synthesis of the Evaluation Capacity Building Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The continuously growing demand for program results has produced an increased need for evaluation capacity building (ECB). The "Integrative ECB Model" was developed to integrate concepts from existing ECB theory literature and to structure a synthesis of the empirical ECB literature. The study used a broad-based research synthesis method with…

Labin, Susan N.; Duffy, Jennifer L.; Meyers, Duncan C.; Wandersman, Abraham; Lesesne, Catherine A.

2012-01-01

223

A New Synthesis Algorithm for the MIMOLA Software System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MIMOLA software system is a system for the design of digital processors. The system includes subsystems for retargetable microcode generation, automatic generation of self-test programs and a synthesis subsystem. This paper describes the synthesis part of the system, which accepts a PASCAL-like, high-level program as specification and produces a register transfer structure. Because of the complexity of this design

Peter Marwedel; W. Germany

1986-01-01

224

Program Aids Analysis And Optimization Of Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NETS/ PROSSS (NETS Coupled With Programming System for Structural Synthesis) computer program developed to provide system for combining NETS (MSC-21588), neural-network application program and CONMIN (Constrained Function Minimization, ARC-10836), optimization program. Enables user to reach nearly optimal design. Design then used as starting point in normal optimization process, possibly enabling user to converge to optimal solution in significantly fewer iterations. NEWT/PROSSS written in C language and FORTRAN 77.

Rogers, James L., Jr.; Lamarsh, William J., II

1994-01-01

225

Evaluating the agreement between measurements and models of net ecosystem exchange at different times and time scales using wavelet coherence: an example using data from the North American Carbon Program Site-Level Interim Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth system processes exhibit complex patterns across time, as do the models that seek to replicate these processes. Model output may or may not be significantly related to observations at different times and on different frequencies. Conventional model diagnostics provide an aggregate view of model-data agreement, but usually do not identify the time and frequency patterns of model misfit, leaving unclear the steps required to improve model response to environmental drivers that vary on characteristic frequencies. Wavelet coherence can quantify the times and frequencies at which models and measurements are significantly different. We applied wavelet coherence to interpret the predictions of twenty ecosystem models from the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Site-Level Interim Synthesis when confronted with eddy covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from ten ecosystems with multiple years of available data. Models were grouped into classes with similar approaches for incorporating phenology, the calculation of NEE, and the inclusion of foliar nitrogen (N). Models with prescribed, rather than prognostic, phenology often fit NEE observations better on annual to interannual time scales in grassland, wetland and agricultural ecosystems. Models that calculate NEE as net primary productivity (NPP) minus heterotrophic respiration (HR) rather than gross ecosystem productivity (GPP) minus ecosystem respiration (ER) fit better on annual time scales in grassland and wetland ecosystems, but models that calculate NEE as GPP - ER were superior on monthly to seasonal time scales in two coniferous forests. Models that incorporated foliar nitrogen (N) data were successful at capturing NEE variability on interannual (multiple year) time scales at Howland Forest, Maine. Combined with previous findings, our results suggest that the mechanisms driving daily and annual NEE variability tend to be correctly simulated, but the magnitude of these fluxes is often erroneous, suggesting that model parameterization must be improved. Few NACP models correctly predicted fluxes on seasonal and interannual time scales where spectral energy in NEE observations tends to be low, but where phenological events, multi-year oscillations in climatological drivers, and ecosystem succession are known to be important for determining ecosystem function. Mechanistic improvements to models must be made to replicate observed NEE variability on seasonal and interannual time scales.

Stoy, P. C.; Dietze, M.; Richardson, A. D.; Vargas, R.; Barr, A. G.; Anderson, R. S.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I. T.; Black, T. A.; Chen, J. M.; Cook, R. B.; Gough, C. M.; Grant, R. F.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Kucharik, C. J.; Lafleur, P.; Law, B. E.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Munger, J. W.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D. T.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Riley, W. J.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Schwalm, C. R.; Tian, H.; Verbeeck, H.; Weng, E.

2013-02-01

226

Evaluating the agreement between measurements and models of net ecosystem exchange at different times and timescales using wavelet coherence: an example using data from the North American Carbon Program Site-Level Interim Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth system processes exhibit complex patterns across time, as do the models that seek to replicate these processes. Model output may or may not be significantly related to observations at different times and on different frequencies. Conventional model diagnostics provide an aggregate view of model-data agreement, but usually do not identify the time and frequency patterns of model-data disagreement, leaving unclear the steps required to improve model response to environmental drivers that vary on characteristic frequencies. Wavelet coherence can quantify the times and timescales at which two time series, for example time series of models and measurements, are significantly different. We applied wavelet coherence to interpret the predictions of 20 ecosystem models from the North American Carbon Program (NACP) Site-Level Interim Synthesis when confronted with eddy-covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from 10 ecosystems with multiple years of available data. Models were grouped into classes with similar approaches for incorporating phenology, the calculation of NEE, the inclusion of foliar nitrogen (N), and the use of model-data fusion. Models with prescribed, rather than prognostic, phenology often fit NEE observations better on annual to interannual timescales in grassland, wetland and agricultural ecosystems. Models that calculated NEE as net primary productivity (NPP) minus heterotrophic respiration (HR) rather than gross ecosystem productivity (GPP) minus ecosystem respiration (ER) fit better on annual timescales in grassland and wetland ecosystems, but models that calculated NEE as GPP minus ER were superior on monthly to seasonal timescales in two coniferous forests. Models that incorporated foliar nitrogen (N) data were successful at capturing NEE variability on interannual (multiple year) timescales at Howland Forest, Maine. The model that employed a model-data fusion approach often, but not always, resulted in improved fit to data, suggesting that improving model parameterization is important but not the only step for improving model performance. Combined with previous findings, our results suggest that the mechanisms driving daily and annual NEE variability tend to be correctly simulated, but the magnitude of these fluxes is often erroneous, suggesting that model parameterization must be improved. Few NACP models correctly predicted fluxes on seasonal and interannual timescales where spectral energy in NEE observations tends to be low, but where phenological events, multi-year oscillations in climatological drivers, and ecosystem succession are known to be important for determining ecosystem function. Mechanistic improvements to models must be made to replicate observed NEE variability on seasonal and interannual timescales.

Stoy, P. C.; Dietze, M. C.; Richardson, A. D.; Vargas, R.; Barr, A. G.; Anderson, R. S.; Arain, M. A.; Baker, I. T.; Black, T. A.; Chen, J. M.; Cook, R. B.; Gough, C. M.; Grant, R. F.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Kucharik, C. J.; Lafleur, P.; Law, B. E.; Liu, S.; Lokupitiya, E.; Luo, Y.; Munger, J. W.; Peng, C.; Poulter, B.; Price, D. T.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Riley, W. J.; Sahoo, A. K.; Schaefer, K.; Schwalm, C. R.; Tian, H.; Verbeeck, H.; Weng, E.

2013-11-01

227

Program Slicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program slicing is a method used by experienced computer programmers for abstracting from programs. Starting from a subset of a program's behavior, slicing reduces that program to a minimal form which still produces that behavior. The reduced program, called a “slice”, is an independent program guaranteed to faithfully represent the original program within the domain of the specified subset of

Mark Weiser

1981-01-01

228

Program Slicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program slicing is a method used by experienced computer programmers for abstracting from programs. Starting from a subset of a program's behavior, slicing reduces that program to a minimal form which still produces that behavior. The reduced program, called a “slice”, is an independent program guaranteed to faithfully represent the original program within the domain of the specified subset of

Mark Weiser

1984-01-01

229

Synthesis of Cubane Based Energetic Molecules.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need to pack more power with less weight into less space in tomorrow's weapons drives this program for the synthesis of new generations of super energetic materials based on cubane. Cubane's heat of formation (+161 kcal/mol), density (1.29 g/cm3), and...

J. C. Botaro P. E. Penwell R. J. Schmitt

1989-01-01

230

RESY: Requirement Synthesis for Compositional Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirement synthesis tool RESY automatically com- putes environment assumptions for compositional model checking. Given a process M in a multi-process PROMELA program, an abstraction re- finement loop computes a coarse equivalence relation on the states of the environment, collapsing two states if the environment of M can ei- ther force the occurrence of an error from both states or

Bernd Finkbeiner; Hans-jörg Peter; Sven Schewe

2008-01-01

231

Evolutionary feature synthesis for object recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Features represent the characteristics of objects and selecting or synthesizing effective composite features are the key to the performance of object recognition. In this paper, we propose a coevolutionary genetic programming (CGP) approach to learn composite features for object recognition. The knowledge about the problem domain is incorporated in primitive features that are used in the synthesis of composite features

Yingqiang Lin; Bir Bhanu

2005-01-01

232

BUS RAPID TRANSIT: SYNTHESIS OF CASE STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bus rapid transit systems have grown in popularity in recent years. Spurred by federal initiatives, the spiraling cost of rail transit, and market realities, a growing number of cities have installed or are planning bus rapid transit (BRT). There is a synthesis of current experience, drawing on ongoing research conducted in a project for the Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP).

Herbert S Levinson; Samuel Zimmerman; Jennifer Clinger; James Gast

2003-01-01

233

Liquid fuels from coal derived synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern synthesis gas chemistry has evolved from technology first developed in Germany early this century. Since that time worldwide interest in the production of liquid fuels from coal has gone through cycles reflecting the perceived availability of petroleum. In the U.S., the Department of Energy (DOE) has supported an indirect coal liquefaction program to investigate new techniques for the production

W. S. Jones; J. Shen; E. Schmetz

1986-01-01

234

Evaluation of Flux Synthesis Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flux synthesis algorithm which is the best fit to the numerical solution of the multigroup diffusion equations, was determined. Three different types of synthesis were studied: 1) discontinuous synthesis 2) continuous synthesis 3) pseudo-continuous sy...

L. J. Antunes

1981-01-01

235

Synthesis and Chemistry of a New, Functionalized Polycyclic Azoalkane. A Novel Entry into the Homopentaprismane Ring System. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of a general program that is concerned with the synthesis and chemistry of novel, substituted pentacycloundecanes, we have recently undertaken the synthesis of some unusual cage amines via reductive amination of pentacyclo undecane-8,11-dione and ...

A. P. Marchand G. M. Reddy W. H. Watson R. P. Kashyap A. Nagl

1991-01-01

236

Carborane Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes Phase I work done in thermolysis of tetraethylammonium borohydride (1-), (Et4NBH4) to tetraethylammonium decahydrodecaborate(2(-)), ((Et4N)2B10H10). The objective of this Phase I program was to solve the heat transfer requirements oc...

1979-01-01

237

Limited Domain Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents a reliable and efficient method for building limited domain speech synthesis voices. By constructing databases close to the targeted domain of the speech application, unit selection synthesis techniques can be used to reliably give very...

A. W. Black K. A. Lenzo

2000-01-01

238

Reaction synthesis of intermetallics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides was utilized to obtain nickel, iron, and cobalt aluminides. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain intermetallics and their composites. Extrusion conditions, redu...

S. C. Deevi V. K. Sikka

1994-01-01

239

Teaching Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis Using Interactive Microcomputer Graphics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis (HENS) program used at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (Massachusetts) as an aid to teaching the energy integration step in process design. Focuses on the benefits of the computer graphics used in the program to increase the speed of generating and changing networks. (TW)

Dixon, Anthony G.

1987-01-01

240

On the Synthesis of Strategies in Infinite Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Infinite two-person games are a natural framework for the study of reactive nonterminating programs. The effective construction of winning strategies in such games is an approach to the synthesis of reactive programs. We describe the automata theoretic setting of infinite games (given by "game graphs"), outline a new construction of winning strategies in finite-state games, and formulate some questions

Wolfgang Thomas; Praktische Mathematik; Christian-Albrechts-Universits Kiel

1995-01-01

241

The economies of synthesis  

PubMed Central

In this tutorial review the economies of synthesis are analysed from both detailed and macroscopic perspectives, using case-studies from complex molecule synthesis. Atom, step, and redox economy are more than philosophical constructs, but rather guidelines, which enable the synthetic chemist to design and execute an efficient synthesis. Students entering the field of synthesis might find this tutorial helpful for understanding the subtle differences between these economic principles and also see real-world situations where such principles are put into practice.

Newhouse, Timothy

2010-01-01

242

High-Level Synthesis of Software Function Calls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter presents a novel framework in high-level synthesis where hardware modules synthesized from functions in a given ANSI-C program can call the other software functions in the program. This enables high-level synthesis from C programs that contains calls to hard-to-synthesize functions, such as dynamic memory management, I/O request, or very large and complex functions. A single-thread implementation scheme is shown, whose correctness has been verified through register transfer level simulation.

Nishimura, Masanari; Ishiura, Nagisa; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Kanbara, Hiroyuki; Tomiyama, Hiroyuki

243

Gender-Specific Substance Prevention Programming: Going beyond Just Focusing on Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a brief history of the Female Adolescent Initiative Program, findings from selected programs, and a synthesis of what program interventionists learned. Discusses how program results inform development of a framework for future work on gender-specific substance abuse prevention. Suggests specifics for designing new programs. (Author/DLH)

Guthrie, Barbara J.; Flinchbaugh, Laura J.

2001-01-01

244

ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS. FINAL QUARTERLY STATUS REPORT NO. 10  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

None

1998-11-01

245

Sourcebook for Improving Postsecondary Self-Employment Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook on small business/entrepreneurship programs is based on beliefs and experiences of staff members involved in a project to improve such programs in New York two-year colleges. The major section, a Handbook for Coordinators of Postsecondary Programs for Self-Employment, is a synthesis of ideas and recommendations in ten decision…

State Univ. of New York, Albany. Two Year Coll. Student Development Center.

246

New frontiers in design synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering Systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed.

Goldin, D. S.; Venneri, S. L.; Noor, A. K.

1999-01-01

247

New frontiers in design synthesis.  

PubMed

The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering Systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed. PMID:11542518

Goldin, D S; Venneri, S L; Noor, A K

1999-01-01

248

ADS-1 - A new general-purpose optimization program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today, numerous programs are available which may be coupled with finite element analysis or other analysis techniques to perform the optimization function in the solution of structural synthesis problems. However, most of these codes include only one or two algorithms and many have not been tested on problems of significant size and complexity. There is, therefore, a need for a reliable, general-purpose, publicly available code, containing a variety of modern algorithms for use in structural synthesis as well as general engineering design. The ADS-1 program (Automated Design Synthesis: Version 1) was written in response to this need. The present investigation has the objective to present the capabilities of the ADS program and to demonstrate its application to structural synthesis. The ADS program solves the general nonlinear constrained optimization problem in the standard form. At each level of the optimization process, several options are available.

Vanderplaats, G. N.; Sprague, C. M.; Sugimoto, H.

1983-01-01

249

Feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following subject areas are covered: General Reflector Antenna Systems Program version 7(GRASP7); Multiple Reflector Analysis Program for Cylindrical Antennas (MRAPCA); Tri-Reflector 2D Synthesis Code (TRTDS); a geometrical optics and a physical optics synthesis techniques; beam scanning reflector, the type 2 and 6 reflectors, spherical reflector, and multiple reflector imaging systems; and radiometric array design.

Stutzman, W. L.; Takamizawa, K.; Werntz, P.; Lapean, J.; Barts, R.

1991-01-01

250

Velocimetry signal synthesis with fringen.  

SciTech Connect

An important part of velocimetry analysis is the recovery of a known velocity history from simulated data signals. The fringen program synthesizes VISAR and PDV signals, given a specified velocity history, using exact formulations for the optical signal. Time-dependent light conditions, non-ideal measurement conditions, and various diagnostic limitations (noise, etc.) may be incorporated into the simulated signals. This report describes the fringen program, which performs forward VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) and PDV (Photonic Doppler Velocimetry, also known as heterodyne velocimetry) analysis. Nearly all effects that might occur in VISAR/PDV measurement of a single velocity can be modeled by fringen. The program operates in MATLAB, either within a graphical interface or as a user-callable function. The current stable version of fringen is 0.3, which was released in October 2010. The following sections describe the operation and use of fringen. Section 2 gives a brief overview of VISAR and PDV synthesis. Section 3 illustrates the graphical and console interface of fringen. Section 4 presents several example uses of the program. Section 5 summarizes program capabilities and discusses potential future work.

Dolan, Daniel H., III

2011-02-01

251

DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND CHEMICALS FROM SYNTHESIS GAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Final Report for Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-95PC93052, the ''Development of Alternative Fuels and Chemicals from Synthesis Gas,'' was prepared by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products), and covers activities from 29 December 1994 through 31 July 2002. The overall objectives of this program were to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily

Peter J. Tijrn

2003-01-01

252

Ranking Function Synthesis for Bit-Vector Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ranking function synthesis is a key aspect to the success of modern termination provers for imperative programs. While it\\u000a is wellknown how to generate linear ranking functions for relations over (mathematical) integers or rationals, efficient synthesis\\u000a of ranking functions for machine-level integers (bit-vectors) is an open problem. This is particularly relevant for the verification\\u000a of low-level code. We propose several

Byron Cook; Daniel Kroening; Philipp Rümmer; Christoph M. Wintersteiger

2010-01-01

253

System-level synthesis using re-programmable components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors formulate the synthesis problem of complex behavioral descriptions with performance constraints as a hardware-software co-design problem. The target system architecture consists of a software component as a program running on a re-programmable processor assisted by application-specific hardware components. System synthesis is performed by first partitioning the input system description into hardware and software portions and then by implementing

R. K. Gupta; G. De Micheli

1992-01-01

254

NACP Data Center for Modeling and Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North American Carbon Program (NACP) is designed to quantify the magnitudes and distributions of carbon sources and sinks, explain the processes controlling them, and produce a consistent analysis of North America's carbon budget. To accomplish these ambitious goals, NACP requires an integrated data and information management system that will enable researchers to access, understand, use, and analyze large volumes of diverse data at multiple thematic, temporal, and spatial scales. The Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) is an integral component of the NACP data system and will support NACP by providing data products and data management services needed for modeling and synthesis activities. The overall objective of MAST-DC is to provide advanced data management support to NACP investigators and agencies performing modeling and synthesis activities. Based on specific requirements established by NACP, we will provide data products for modeling and synthesis in consistent and uniform grids, projections, and formats. The specific tasks of MAST-DC are (1) coordinate data management activities with NACP modelers and synthesis groups; (2) prepare and distribute model input data; (3) provide data management support for model outputs; (4) provide tools for accessing, subsetting and visualization; (5) provide data packages to evaluate model output; and (6) support synthesis activities, including data support for workshops. MAST-DC will provide data products and services required by NACP in a central location, with common and co-registered spatial projection, in easily converted formats. The MAST-DC will free modelers and those doing the synthesis and integration from having to perform data management functions. Consequently the MAST-DC will enable NACP participants to conduct their work more readily, facilitate the development of new model products needed by models, and assist in gaining new insights into the carbon cycle in North America.

Cook, R. B.; Post, W. M.; Wilson, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.

2006-12-01

255

Synthesis of multiple shaped beam antenna patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of research into the problem of finding an excitation of a given antenna such that the desired radiation pattern is approximated to within acceptable limits. This is to be done in such a fashion that boundary conditions involving hardware limitations may be inserted into the problem. The intended application is synthesis of multiple shaped beam antennas. Since this is perhaps the most difficult synthesis problem an antenna engineer is likely to encounter, the approach taken was to include as a by-product capability for synthesizing simpler patterns. The synthesis technique has been almost totally computerized. The class of antennas which may be synthesized with the computer program are those which may be represented as planar (continuous or discrete) current distributions. The technique is not limited in this sense and could indeed by extended to include, for example, the synthesis of conformal arrays or current distributions on the surface of reflectors. The antenna types which the program is set up to synthesize are: line source, rectangular aperture, circular aperture, linear array, rectangular array, and arbitrary planar array.

Stutzman, W. L.; Coffey, E. L.

1973-01-01

256

RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The RIDGE Program is a National Science Foundation initiative that promotes interdisciplinary study, scientific communication, and outreach related to all aspects of the globe-encircling, mid-ocean ridge system. The RIDGE Multibeam Synthesis Project site provides free access to downloadable multibeam bathymetric images and datasets of suboceanic ridges and vents. From either a hotlinked world map or a drop-down menu, users can specify the feature of interest - from the Reykjanes Ridge to the Shona Hotspot to the Galapagos Spreading Center - then progressively zoom to finer grid scales. The bathymetric images are depicted at different node spacings (100 m to 1500m) and grids are supported by the appropriate metadata. The images are also accompanied by ping data (including ship tracks) and other related data, which may include coaxial segment perspective images or isochron interpretation maps. Also, for many of the grids the user can specify subsample regions or retrieve contour areas of subregions. Links throughout the site include those to the main RIDGE page, a gallery of coaxial images, information on Served Data Formats, and the Principal Investigators involved with the Project.

257

Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. The synthesis of one class of membrane lipids, the phospholipids, also creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- incorporation were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

2007-08-01

258

Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. Specifically, the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- uptake were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

2008-02-01

259

Adventure Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizing the historical development of Adventure Education concepts and programs, this publication describes past and present programs and presents suggestions relative to future programming. Specifically, the following are discussed: (1) Informal Education Programs (Outward Bound; the National Outdoor Leadership School; and other informal…

Metcalfe, John A.

260

Programming Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 434. Programming Languages (3) Prerequisites: CSC 332 and CSC 360. Comparative study of programming languages from both theoretical and applied viewpoints. Typical issues include syntax and semantics, scope and binding times, storage allocation, parameter-passing techniques, control structures, run-time representation of programs and data. Detailed examples from the imperative, functional, parallel, object-oriented and logical programming paradigms.

Berman, David

2003-04-21

261

Gifted Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three programs for gifted students are described: a 2-week publication arts project; a summer science enrichment program; and a consortium. Note: Article includes: "Risks and Results: A Summer Program on Publication Arts" (Neil Daniel); "Summer Science Program at Appalachian State University" (John Tashner, Richard Stahl, and Debby Carr);…

Daniel, Neil; And Others

1979-01-01

262

Visual Learning by Evolutionary Feature Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a novel method for learning complex concepts\\/hypotheses directly from raw training data. The task addressed here concerns data-driven synthesis of recognition procedures for real-world object recognition task. The method uses linear genetic programming to encode potential solutions expressed in terms of elementary operations, and handles the complexity of the learning task by applying cooperative coevolution

Krzysztof Krawiec; Bir Bhanu

2003-01-01

263

Sequential Circuit Design Using Synthesis and Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of SIS, an interactive tool for synthesis and optimization of sequential circuits. Given a state transition table or a logic-level description of a sequential circuit, SIS produces an optimized net-list in the target technology while preserving the sequential input-output behavior. Many different programs and algorithms have been integrated into SIS, allowing the user to choose among

Ellen M. Sentovich; Kanwar Jit Singh Gill; Cho W. Moon; Hamid Savoj; Robert K. Brayton; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

1992-01-01

264

GCIP water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRPs) Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP), a preliminary water and energy budget synthesis (WEBS) was developed for the period 1996-1999 from the ``best available'' observations and models. Besides this summary paper, a companion CD-ROM with more extensive discussion, figures, tables, and raw data is available to the

J. Roads; R. Lawford; E. Bainto; E. Berbery; S. Chen; B. Fekete; K. Gallo; A. Grundstein; W. Higgins; M. Kanamitsu; W. Krajewski; V. Lakshmi; D. Leathers; D. Lettenmaier; L. Luo; E. Maurer; T. Meyers; D. Miller; K. Mitchell; T. Mote; R. Pinker; T. Reichler; D. Robinson; A. Robock; J. Smith; G. Srinivasan; K. Verdin; K. Vinnikov; T. Vonder Haar; C. Vörösmarty; S. Williams; E. Yarosh

2003-01-01

265

Application of Wave Field Synthesis in electronic music and sound installations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave Field Synthesis offers new possibilities for composers of electronic music and to sound artists to add the dimension of space to a composition. Unlike most other spatialisation techniques, Wave Field Synthesis is suitable for concert situations, where the listening area needs to be large. Using the software program \\

M. A. J. Baalman

266

Using global code motions to improve the quality of results for high-level synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of synthesis results for most high-level synthesis approaches is strongly affected by the choice of control flow (through condi- tions and loops) in the input description. This leads to a need for high-level and compiler transformations that overcome the effects of programming style on the quality of generated circuits. To address this issue, we have de- veloped a

Sumit Gupta; Nicolae Savoiu; Nikil D. Dutt; Rajesh K. Gupta; Alexandru Nicolau

2004-01-01

267

A Synthesis of Studies Examining Long-Term Language Minority Student Data on Academic Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a research synthesis of studies that have examined language-minority students' academic achievement over a period of four or more years, for a comparison with the longitudinal findings on student academic achievement reported in the Ramírez study. One program variable is the focus of this synthesis--the use of a minority language for instructional purposes. Some of the limitations

Virginia P. Collier

1992-01-01

268

Models of speech synthesis.  

PubMed

The term "speech synthesis" has been used for diverse technical approaches. In this paper, some of the approaches used to generate synthetic speech in a text-to-speech system are reviewed, and some of the basic motivations for choosing one method over another are discussed. It is important to keep in mind, however, that speech synthesis models are needed not just for speech generation but to help us understand how speech is created, or even how articulation can explain language structure. General issues such as the synthesis of different voices, accents, and multiple languages are discussed as special challenges facing the speech synthesis community. PMID:7479805

Carlson, R

1995-10-24

269

Photocontrol of Anthocyanin Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Streptomycin enhances the synthesis of anthocyanins and inhibits the synthesis of chlorophylls and the development of chloroplasts in dark-grown seedlings of cabbage (Brassica oleracea), mustard (Sinapis alba), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and turnip (Brassica rapa) exposed to prolonged periods of irradiation in various spectral regions. These results suggest that the contribution of photosynthesis to light-dependent high irradiance reaction anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip is minimal, if any at all. So far, phytochrome is the only photoreceptor whose action in the control of light-dependent anthocyanin synthesis in seedlings of cabbage, mustard, tomato, and turnip has been satisfactorily demonstrated. Images

Mancinelli, A. L.; Yang, Chia-Ping Huang; Lindquist, P.; Anderson, O. R.; Rabino, I.

1975-01-01

270

Synthesis of Cubane Based High Energy Materials. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research is to develop new methods for the functionalization of the cubane nucleus and to synthesize energetic cubanes for use as energetic propellants and explosives. Recent achievements in this program include a high yield synthesi...

R. J. Schmitt J. C. Bottaro P. E. Eaton

1988-01-01

271

Interactive Tools for Sound Signal Analysis/Synthesis Based on a Sinusoidal Representation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis develops a series of programs that implement the sinusoidal representation model for speech and sound waveform analysis and synthesis. This sinusoidal representation model can also be used for a variety of sound signal transformations such as ...

M. F. Chuang

1997-01-01

272

Design of generic coal conversion facilities: Production of oxygenates from synthesis gas---A technology review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report concentrates on the production of oxygenates from coal via gasification and indirect liquefaction. At the present the majority of oxygenate synthesis programs are at laboratory scale. Exceptions include commercial and demonstration scale plant...

1991-01-01

273

Robust control via sequential semidefinite programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses nonlinear optimization techniques in robust control synthesis, with special emphasis on design problems which may be cast as minimizing a linear objective function under Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) in tandem with nonlinear matrix equality constraints. The latter type of constraints renders the design numerically and algorithmically difficult. We solve the optimization problem via sequential semidefinite programming (SSDP),

Bassem Fares; Dominikus Noll; Pierre Apkarian

2002-01-01

274

Total synthesis of (-)-okilactomycin.  

PubMed

A highly convergent synthesis of (-)-okilactomycin is described. Key reactions of this synthesis include a strategy-level diastereoselective oxy-Cope rearrangement/oxidation sequence, a Petasis-Ferrier union/rearrangement tactic, and an efficient RCM reaction to construct the 13-membered macrocyclic ring. PMID:17997560

Smith, Amos B; Basu, Kallol; Bosanac, Todd

2007-12-01

275

Stereoselective synthesis of microcarpalide.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of the naturally occurring nonenolide, microcarpalide, is described. The key step in the synthesis was the ring-closing metathesis of a dienic ester prepared in turn by coupling an acid and an alcohol stereoselectively synthesized from (S,S)-tartaric acid and (R)-glycidol, respectively. [structure: see text] PMID:12323040

Murga, Juan; Falomir, Eva; García-Fortanet, Jorge; Carda, Miguel; Marco, J Alberto

2002-10-01

276

Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have been an era of rapid progress in peptide research. This era was begun by the work of Sanger on the amino acid sequence determination of insulin and by du Vigneaud on the structure determination and synthesis of oxytocin. This period has seen impressive progress in the structure elucidation and synthesis of many peptides of natural

John Morrow Stewart

1976-01-01

277

Total Synthesis of Brevisamide  

PubMed Central

The second total synthesis of Brevisamide, a marine cyclic ether alkaloid from Karenia brevis is reported. This streamlined synthesis proceeds in 21 steps, 14 steps longest linear sequence, in 5.2% overall yield and features a key SmI2 reductive cyclization step to access the tetrasubstituted pyran core.

Fadeyi, Olugbeminiyi O.; Lindsley, Craig W.

2010-01-01

278

Synthesis of polynomial filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agafonov's (1970) method for the synthesis of polynomial microwave filters is extended to filters whose circuits cannot be divided into individual parts. Filter design relationships are obtained for three classes of circuits. The proposed method can be applied to circuits with lumped and distributed constants. It is particularly effective for the synthesis of complex filters, e.g., those based on coupled microstrip lines.

Agafonov, V. M.

1987-03-01

279

Synthesis of Pandamarilactone-1  

PubMed Central

The first total synthesis of pandamarilactone-1, an alkaloid of Pandanus amaryllifolius, is reported. The nine-step synthesis features furan oxidation with singlet oxygen and then spiro-N,O-acetalization and elimination to generate the natural product and further Pandanus alkaloids, pandamarilactonines A–D.

2014-01-01

280

Total synthesis of (±)-meloscine.  

PubMed

The total synthesis of (±)-meloscine was completed in a highly stereoselective manner starting from the known 4-(2-aminophenyl)-2,3-dihydro-N-methoxycarbonylpyrrole. The crucial step in this total synthesis involves the efficient construction of the tetracyclic framework of the target natural product by the intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction. PMID:21381682

Hayashi, Yujiro; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Mukai, Chisato

2011-04-01

281

Reaction synthesis of intermetallics  

SciTech Connect

Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides was utilized to obtain nickel, iron, and cobalt aluminides. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain intermetallics and their composites. Extrusion conditions, reduction ratios, and hot-pressing conditions of the intermetallics and their composites are discussed.

Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

1994-12-31

282

TANAMI Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The TANAMI (Tracking AGN with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry) program provides comprehensive VLBI monitoring of extragalactic gamma-ray sources south of declination -30 degrees. Operating at two radio frequencies (8 and 22 GHz), this program is a c...

C. Mueller F. Hungwe M. Boeck M. Kadler R. Ojha

2010-01-01

283

Flexibility Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These brief guidelines for a muscular flexibility program state that the purpose of such a program is to increase the range of motion in order to avoid injuries and eliminate awkwardness in physical activities. A flexibility program is described as an extension of the warm-up period and should be an ongoing, permanent effort to lengthen muscles. A…

Connors, G. Patrick

284

MEXUS Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The MEXUS program, a transnational, undergraduate, dual-degree program in the United States and Mexico, addresses the problem of how universities can better prepare students to manage business in an interdependent global marketplace. The program was initiated as a consortium of four institutions (San Diego State University and Southwestern College…

Branan, Alvord; Hergert, Michael

285

Sponsored Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

General administrative principles and procedures applicable to any type of program sponsored by external funds, including the federal government, are examined. Contracts, grants, and cooperative agreements are the devices for authorizing sponsored programs. Since the institutions assume full legal responsibility for the programs and for fulfilling…

College and University Business Administration, 1980

1980-01-01

286

Cell-free protein synthesis: the state of the art  

PubMed Central

Cell-free protein synthesis harnesses the synthetic power of biology, programming the ribosomal translational machinery of the cell to create macromolecular products. Like PCR, which uses cellular replication machinery to create a DNA amplifier, cell-free protein synthesis is emerging as a transformative technology with broad applications in protein engineering, biopharmaceutical development, and post-genomic research. By breaking free from the constraints of cell-based systems, it takes the next step towards synthetic biology. Recent advances in reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis (Protein synthesis Using Recombinant Elements (PURE) expression systems) are creating new opportunities to tailor the reactions for specialized applications including in vitro protein evolution, printing protein microarrays, isotopic labeling, and incorporating nonnatural amino acids.

Whittaker, James W.

2012-01-01

287

Cell-free protein synthesis: the state of the art.  

PubMed

Cell-free protein synthesis harnesses the synthetic power of biology, programming the ribosomal translational machinery of the cell to create macromolecular products. Like PCR, which uses cellular replication machinery to create a DNA amplifier, cell-free protein synthesis is emerging as a transformative technology with broad applications in protein engineering, biopharmaceutical development, and post-genomic research. By breaking free from the constraints of cell-based systems, it takes the next step towards synthetic biology. Recent advances in reconstituted cell-free protein synthesis (Protein synthesis Using Recombinant Elements expression systems) are creating new opportunities to tailor the reactions for specialized applications including in vitro protein evolution, printing protein microarrays, isotopic labeling, and incorporating nonnatural amino acids. PMID:23086573

Whittaker, James W

2013-02-01

288

Computer program for design and performance analysis of navigation-aid power systems. Program documentation. Volume 1: Software requirements document  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computer program has been developed for designing and analyzing the performance of solar array/battery power systems for the U.S. Coast Guard Navigational Aids. This program is called the Design Synthesis/Performance Analysis (DSPA) Computer Program. The basic function of the Design Synthesis portion of the DSPA program is to evaluate functional and economic criteria to provide specifications for viable solar array/battery power systems. The basic function of the Performance Analysis portion of the DSPA program is to simulate the operation of solar array/battery power systems under specific loads and environmental conditions. This document establishes the software requirements for the DSPA computer program, discusses the processing that occurs within the program, and defines the necessary interfaces for operation.

Goltz, G.; Kaiser, L. M.; Weiner, H.

1977-01-01

289

Ocean Drilling Program (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... FOR GEOSCIENCES (GEO) OCEAN SCIENCES (OCE) Ocean Drilling Program The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP ... scale, the Earth's crust beneath the ocean in order to learn more about the composition, structure ...

290

Occupational Safety and Health Programs in Career Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide was developed in response to the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and is intended to assist teachers in implementing courses in occupational safety and health as part of a career education program. The material is a synthesis of films, programed instruction, slides and narration, case studies, safety pamphlets,…

DiCarlo, Robert D.; And Others

291

Exemplary Career Guidance Programs 1995: Secondary and Postsecondary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents nine exemplary career guidance and counseling programs identified by the National Center for Research in Vocational Education's Office of Student Services. Chapter 1 presents a synthesis of the nationally recognized career guidance programs successful in assisting students in their career development. It provides a…

Cunanan, Esmeralda S.; Maddy-Bernstein, Carolyn

292

Retrofit of buses to meet clean air regulations. A synthesis of transit practice 8  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis will be of interest to transit agency general managers, as well as operations, maintenance, and planning personnel. It will also be of interest to environmental agency officials, equipment suppliers, consultants, and others concerned with bus operations planning and design. This synthesis summarizes the options available under the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Urban Bus Retrofit/Rebuild Program for heavy-duty diesel bus engines and clarifies the information in the regulations for transit agencies developing their own strategies for compliance. This synthesis also provides an overview of transit agency programs already in place to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions.

NONE

1994-12-31

293

Cultural Voucher Program; Program Abstract.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the Museums Collaborative Voucher Program, a system through which cultural institutions conduct programs with large, heterogeneous, adult populations in New York City is provided in this paper. The program began with two goals: to broaden the audience served by New York City's cultural institutions and to provide the institutions…

Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, NY.

294

Non-Formal Education in Ethiopia: Literacy Programs. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education Discussion Papers, No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion paper synthesizes the individual investigations of nonformal education activities in the following four groups of programs in Ethiopia: rural/traditional, urban/modern, literacy, and miscellaneous (programs which do not fit into other classifications). The synthesis of the investigations into a country-wide study was undertaken to…

Niehoff, Richard O.; Wilder, Bernard

295

Key scientific findings and policy- and health-relevant insights from the US. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies: an integration and synthesis of results  

SciTech Connect

Over 400 peer-reviewed journal articles and likely more than 1000 presentations resulted from the research conducted through EPA's PM Supersites Program. From the start, the program was developed with a policy focus - providing new information on the accumulation and sources of PM in air on urban and regional scales that might allow for the development of more effective approaches to reducing ambient concentrations of PM to below NAAQS levels. This paper synthesizes and integrates the atmospheric sciences findings from which are interpreted a series of policy-relevant and health-relevant insights developed to support policy decisions on approaches to reduce PM in air and to assist the health-effects and exposure science communities with future research planning. 548 refs., 10 figs., 13 tabs.

Paul A. Solomon; Philip K. Hopke; John Froines; Richard Scheffe [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Office of Research and Development

2008-12-15

296

Synthesis of novel magnetic iron metal silica (Fe SBA15) and magnetite silica (Fe3O4 SBA15) nanocomposites with a high iron content using temperature-programed reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic iron metal-silica and magnetite-silica nanocomposites have been prepared via temperature-programed reduction (TPR) of an iron oxide-SBA-15 (SBA: Santa Barbara Amorphous) composite. TPR of the starting SBA-15 supported Fe2O3 generated Fe3O4 and FeO as stepwise intermediates in the ultimate formation of Fe-SBA-15. The composite materials have been characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and SQUID

H. H. P. Yiu; M. A. Keane; Z. A. D. Lethbridge; M. R. Lees; A. J. El Haj; J. Dobson

2008-01-01

297

Synthesis of novel magnetic iron metal–silica (Fe–SBA15) and magnetite–silica (Fe3O4–SBA15) nanocomposites with a high iron content using temperature-programed reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic iron metal–silica and magnetite–silica nanocomposites have been prepared via temperature-programed reduction (TPR) of an iron oxide–SBA-15 (SBA: Santa Barbara Amorphous) composite. TPR of the starting SBA-15 supported Fe2O3 generated Fe3O4 and FeO as stepwise intermediates in the ultimate formation of Fe–SBA-15. The composite materials have been characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and SQUID

H H P Yiu; M A Keane; Z A D Lethbridge; M R Lees; A J El Haj; J Dobson

2008-01-01

298

Intelligent design synthesis: an object-oriented approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual design is a process of converting design requirements into an acceptable design solution. An object-oriented system for conceptual design is presented. The process of component synthesis is guided by production rules. An object-oriented programming paradigm is chosen since it simulates the designer's way of thinking during conceptual design. The system is implemented in Smalltalk-80 programming language and environment. Besides

ANDREW KUSIAK; EDWARD SZCZERBICKI; RANKO VUJOSEVIC

1991-01-01

299

Synthesis of Cruentaren A  

PubMed Central

Cruentaren A, an antifungal benzolactone produced by the myxobacterium Byssovorax cruenta, is highly cytotoxic against various human cancer cell lines and a highly selective inhibitor of mitochondrial F-ATPase. A convergent and efficient synthesis of cruentaren A is reported, based upon a diastereoselective alkylation, a series of stereoselective aldol reactions utilizing Myers’ pseudoephedrine propionamide, an acyl bromide–mediated esterification and a ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as the key steps. The RCM reaction was applied for the first time towards the total synthesis of cruentaren A, which led to a convergent and efficient synthesis of the natural product.

Kusuma, Bhaskar Reddy; Brandt, Gary E. L.

2012-01-01

300

Mechanochemical organic synthesis.  

PubMed

Recently, mechanical milling using a mixer mill or planetary mill has been fruitfully utilized in organic synthesis under solvent-free conditions. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of various solvent-free mechanochemical organic reactions, including metal-mediated or -catalyzed reactions, condensation reactions, nucleophilic additions, cascade reactions, Diels-Alder reactions, oxidations, reductions, halogenation/aminohalogenation, etc. The ball milling technique has also been applied to the synthesis of calixarenes, rotaxanes and cage compounds, asymmetric synthesis as well as the transformation of biologically active compounds. PMID:23660585

Wang, Guan-Wu

2013-09-21

301

Unconventional Cellulose Esters: Synthesis, Characterization and Structure–Property Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes selected results obtained during a two-year research project in the framework of the focus program ‘Cellulose and cellulose derivatives’ (SPP 1011), sponsored by the German Science Foundation (DFG). New synthesis paths for the preparation of the most important cellulose ester, cellulose acetate, were investigated. In contrast to conventional methods, cellulose was converted in a homogeneous phase reaction

Thomas Heinze; Tim F. Liebert; Katy S. Pfeiffer; Muhammad A. Hussain

2003-01-01

302

Toward a new synthesis: population genetics and evolutionary developmental biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the recent synthesis of developmental genetics and evolutionary biology, current theories of adaptation are still strictly phenomenological and do not yet consider the implications of how phenotypes are constructed from genotypes. Given the ubiquity of regulatory genetic pathways in developmental processes, we contend that study of the population genetics of these pathways should become a major research program. We

Norman A. Johnson; Adam H. Porter

2001-01-01

303

Automatic Synthesis of Fine-Motion Strategies for Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active compliance enables robots to carry out tasks in the presence of significant sensing and control errors. Compliant motions are quite difficult for humans to specify, however. Furthermore, robot programs are quite sensitive to details of geometry and to error characteristics and must, therefore, be constructed anew for each task. These factors motivate the search for automatic synthesis tools for

Tomás Lozano-Pérez; Matthew T. Mason; Russell H. Taylor

1984-01-01

304

Synthesis of Feedback Controller for Chaotic Systems by Means of Evolutionary Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with a synthesis of control law for three selected discrete chaotic systems by means of analytic programming. The novality of the approach is that a tool for symbolic regression--analytic programming--is used for such kind of difficult problem. The paper consists of the descriptions of analytic programming as well as chaotic systems and used cost function. For experimentation, Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) with analytic programming was used.

Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Zelinka, Ivan; Davendra, Donald; Jasek, Roman

2011-06-01

305

Fourier Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Fourier program displays the Fourier transform of a user-defined complex spatial function of position. The default spatial function is a complex Gaussian. Additional parameters can be specified using the Display | Switch GUI menu item. Fourier is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of mathematical methods in the sciences. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the math_fourier.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other mathematical methods programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Math.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-14

306

Wait Program!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After completing the associated lesson, students test their understanding in two programming tasks that utilize LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots and sound/touch sensors. In the first challenge, students become acquainted with wait blocks by designing programs to simply make robots move forward until "hearing" a noise, and then turn left. The second, more challenging activity pushes students to fully understand the potential of wait blocks. They create programs that make the robots change speed several times when a touch sensor is pressed. Students gain practice in the iterative design-program-test-redesign process. A PowerPoint® presentation, pre/post quizzes and worksheet are provided.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

307

Jones Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Optics Jones program displays a traveling electromagnetic wave. The default electromagnetic wave is right-circularly polarized but this polarization can be changed by specifying the components of the waveâs Jones vector using the input fields. Jones is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of optics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the optics_jones.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other optics programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Optics.

Simov, Kiril; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-20

308

SAVEnergy Program  

SciTech Connect

This program overview describes elements of the U.S. Department of Energy's SAVEnergy Program, which is managed by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program. The SAVEnergy Program helps agencies meet Federal goals for greater energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of renewable energy by contracting with expert engineering firms to conduct energy and water use audits at Federal facilities. To qualify for this assistance, agencies or facilities must request audits from FEMP and assure FEMP that they will implement some of the energy and water efficiency measures recommended in the auditor's report.

Not Available

2002-05-01

309

Synthesis of Polynitrocubanes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research is to prepare polynitrocubanes for possible application as either explosives or propellants. During this reporting period, we have explored the synthesis of fluorodinitroethyl and trinitroethyl substituted cubane esters and ...

R. J. Schmitt J. C. Bottaro

1987-01-01

310

Total synthesis of (+)-angelmarin.  

PubMed

An efficient 8-step enantioselective total synthesis of (+)-angelmarin, starting from commercially available umbelliferone, has been achieved. Key reactions include olefin cross-metathesis and a Shi epoxidation-cyclization sequence. PMID:19459593

Magolan, Jakob; Coster, Mark J

2009-07-17

311

Verifiable Hardware Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Elf system is a production based hardware synthesis system that generates data paths and complex finite state machine descriptions. It uses productions that describe the behavior of cells ranging in complexity from a simple inverter to complex nodule ...

J. B. Hammerlindl E. F. Girczyc

1989-01-01

312

Synthesis of Fluorotrinitromethane.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the synthesis of fluorotrinitromethane by reacting tetranitromethane with an adduct of an alkali metal fluoride and a fluorinated or chlorofluorinated acetone in an aprotic dipolar solvent, chlorine or bromine is added during the reaction so as to elim...

D. Pilipovich

1977-01-01

313

Formal Synthesis of (?)-Roseophilin  

PubMed Central

A formal synthesis of (±)-roseophilin is described. Scandium(III)-catalyzed Nazarov cyclization of 2,5-disubstituted N-tosylpyrrole 19 gives a 5,5’-fused ketopyrrole, and ansa-bridge formation via ?-allyl palladium macrocyclization gives 21.

Bitar, Abdallah Y.; Frontier, Alison J.

2009-01-01

314

Speech Compression and Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reports on work towards a very low rate phonetic vocoder, text to speech, and multirate speech compression. This work included improvement of the phonetic synthesis algorithms and continued gathering of the diphone templates data base for ph...

M. Berouti J. Klovstad J. Makhoul R. Schwartz J. Sorensen

1979-01-01

315

Total synthesis of myriocin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concise, stereocontrolled synthesis of myriocin was achieved. Key features involve diastereoselective oxazoline formation catalyzed by palladium(0), MgBr2-promoted allylic stannane addition, and palladium(0)-catalyzed coupling of a vinyl iodide with an organozinc reagent.

Kee-Young Lee; Chang-Young Oh; Yong-Hyun Kim; Jae-Eun Joo; Won-Hun Ham

2002-01-01

316

Modern Evolutionary Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Wickipedia describes the modern evolutionary synthesis. This theory brings together Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendel's theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. Essentially, the modern synthesis (or neo-Darwinism) introduces the connection between two important discoveries; the units of evolution (genes) with the mechanism of evolution (selection). The site features links to any of the topics discussed.

Wikipedia

317

Total Synthesis of (+)-Asperazine  

PubMed Central

The first total synthesis of the structurally novel cyclotryptophan alkaloid asperazine is reported. The central step in the synthetic sequence is a diastereoselective intramolecular Heck reaction in which the substituent controlling stereoselection is external to the ring being formed. This synthesis confirmed the structure of (+)-asperazine (1) proposed by Crews and co-workers and provided material for additional biological studies. The in vitro cytotoxicity originally reported for the marine isolate was not confirmed with synthetic (+)-asperazine.

Govek, Steven P.; Overman, Larry E.

2007-01-01

318

Instrument Modeling and Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

319

Alcohol Medical Scholars Program--A Mentorship Program for Improving Medical Education regarding Substance Use Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Alcohol Medical Scholars Program (AMSP) is designed to improve medical education related to substance use disorders (SUDs) through mentorship of junior, full-time academic faculty from medical schools across the United States. Scholarship focuses on literature review and synthesis, lecture development and delivery, increasing SUD education in…

Neufeld, Karin J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

320

Gifted Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Descriptions of four gifted programs are offered in articles titled "Career Education for Gifted Students in Illinois" (J. Ellis and B. Ford); "Interage Program for Critical Thinking" (H. Masterson); "Talcott Mountain Science Center" (D. LaSalle); and "Project L.O.G.I.C.--Nurturing the Mathematically Gifted" (W. Foley and B. Spack). (SBH)

Roeper Review, 1979

1979-01-01

321

Programs & Resources  

Cancer.gov

Small Animal Imaging Resource Program (SAIRP) The Interagency Council on Biomedical Imaging in Oncology (ICBIO) was developed as a means for developers of new imaging techniques to seek advice on the best way to proceed to commercialize their ideas, and Development of Preclinical Drugs and Enhancers (DCIDE) program.

322

Adventure Programming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adventure programming is the deliberate use of adventurous experiences to create learning in individuals or groups, often with the goal of improving society or communities. Adventure programming may focus on recreation, education, individual or group development, or therapy, or on a combination of these. This second edition contains 61 chapters by…

Miles, John C., Ed.; Priest, Simon, Ed.

323

Reading Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reading program (K-12) of the Bloomington Public Schools, Bloomington, Minnesota, is defined and described. The program revolves around four major divisions: developmental reading, supplementary reading, library reading, and remedial reading. These major divisions are discussed relative to specific purposes, organization, materials, and…

Bloomington Public Schools, MN.

324

Programming Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

Tesler, Lawrence G.

1984-01-01

325

Programming environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper covers the implementation part of the software life cycle. It gives a survey of important tools and their user interface to assist the software developer. With these tools, programs can be edited, compiled and tested, and the various documents and finished programs can be managed in library systems. Programs have to be developed and modified by editors. The different kinds of editors, such as text editors, syntax oriented editors and syntax directed editors, are described and their advantages and current limitations for program development are discussed in the second part of this paper. Developed software has to be tested. Debuggers are tools which assist the software developer by discovering errors in a program. Therefore, requirement for such debuggers, their user interface and different realization approaches are described in the third part. The development of software systems leads to several versions and variants of the program. For each version, extensive documents such as design and specification documents as well as software modules will be produced. They are managed by library systems as they are described in the fourth part. The survey ends with the description of three examples of integrated programming environments: the GANDALF System, the Cornell Program Synthesizer and the Siemens Pascal-XT System

Kolb, Dieter; Sommer, Manfred; Stadel, Manfred

1986-08-01

326

PROGRAM OVERVIEW  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Cancer Centers Program Program Overview – St. Joseph’s / Candler 1 A. Hospital: St. Joseph’s/Candler (SJ/C) health system is comprised of two hospitals, Candler Hospital and St. Joseph’s. Candler Hospital is centrally

327

Computer Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides information on development and use of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) software program that seeks to link literacy skills education, safety training, and human-centered design. Section 1 discusses the development of the software program that helps workers understand the MSDSs that accompany the chemicals with which they…

Anderson, Tiffoni

328

Hepatic Ploidy, Nuclearity, and Distribution of DNA Synthesis: A Comparison of Nongenotoxic Hepatocarcinogens with Noncarcinogenic Liver Mitogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens such as diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and chlorendic acid (CEA) induce hepatocyte replicative DNA synthesis. However, not all mitogens are carcinogenic; in National Toxicology Program (NTP) studies 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB) was not hepatocarcinogenic in the rat despite the induction of substantial hepatic DNA synthesis. We have examined the hypothesis that the profile of hepatocyte labeling index (LI) may dictate

Susan C. Hasmall; Ruth A. Roberts

1997-01-01

329

Detonation-synthesis nanodiamonds: synthesis, structure, properties and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review outlines the theoretical foundations and industrial implementations of modern detonation synthesis of nanodiamonds and chemical purification of the nanodiamonds thus obtained. The structure, key properties and promising fields of application of detonation-synthesis nanodiamonds are considered.

Valerii Yu Dolmatov

2007-01-01

330

THE SEARCH FOR THERAPEUTIC CELL CONTROLS BY THE CHEMOTHERAPY PROGRAM OF THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemotherapy program of the National Cancer Institute functions in a major part as a drug development program. The program screens large numbers of compounds each year in a predominately in vivo screen utilizing mouse leukemia L1210 as its most important component. Input to the screen comes from the synthesis of cogeners of known active chemicals (rational base) and from

Stephen K. Carter

1972-01-01

331

Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A structural synthesis methodology for the minimum mass design of 3-dimensionall frame-truss structures under multiple static loading conditions and subject to limits on displacements, rotations, stresses, local buckling, and element cross-sectional dimensions is presented. A variety of approximation concept options are employed to yield near optimum designs after no more than 10 structural analyses. Available options include: (A) formulation of the nonlinear mathematcal programming problem in either reciprocal section property (RSP) or cross-sectional dimension (CSD) space; (B) two alternative approximate problem structures in each design space; and (C) three distinct assumptions about element end-force variations. Fixed element, design element linking, and temporary constraint deletion features are also included. The solution of each approximate problem, in either its primal or dual form, is obtained using CONMIN, a feasible directions program. The frame-truss synthesis methodology is implemented in the COMPASS computer program and is used to solve a variety of problems. These problems were chosen so that, in addition to exercising the various approximation concepts options, the results could be compared with previously published work.

Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

1985-01-01

332

Morphology and composition controllable synthesis of Mg–Al–CO 3 hydrotalcites by tuning the synthesis pH and the CO 2 capture capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to achieve a controllable synthesis of hydrotalcites (HTs), a systematic investigation on the synthesis of Mg–Al HTs at different pH values was performed. The physical and chemical properties of the synthesized HTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, temperature programmed desorption, and BET. The chemical compositions were determined by inductively coupled

Qiang Wang; Hui Huang Tay; Zhanhu Guo; Luwei Chen; Yan Liu; Jie Chang; Ziyi Zhong; Jizhong Luo; Armando Borgna

333

The Synthesis of Lepidoptera Pheromones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review surveys the data in numerous publications of the synthesis of the pheromones of scale-winged insects (Lepidoptera). Attention is concentrated on problems of the sterospecific synthesis of pheromones. The bibliography includes 217 references.

Matveeva, Elena D.; Kurts, A. L.; Bundel', Yurii G.

1986-07-01

334

Foster Care in Five States: A Synthesis and Analysis of Studies from Arizona, California, Iowa, Massachusetts, and Vermont.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a synthesis of data and major recommendations from studies undertaken by Arizona, California, Iowa, Massachusetts, and Vermont to evaluate their programs for the care of foster children and their families. Synopses of the purposes, methods,...

S. M. Vasaly

1976-01-01

335

Design and Synthesis of Candidate Prophylactic and Therapeutic Compounds for Use in the Management of Organophosphorus Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program is directed at the design and synthesis of new compounds for use in the management of organophosphorus poisoning. In the past year 24 compounds were submitted: 12 organophosphinates, one organophosphinic acid, one organophosphinothioate, one o...

P. Blumbergs P. L. Knutson M. A. Priest R. L. Kalamas G. P. Vonk

1985-01-01

336

Design and Synthesis of Candidate Prophylactic and Therapeutic Compounds for use in the Management of Organophosphorus Poisoning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program is directed at the design and synthesis of new compounds for use in the management of organophosphorus poisoning. In the past three years, 48 compounds were submitted: 26 organophosphinates, one organophosphinothioate, 2 organophosphonates, 2 ...

P. Blumbergs P. L. Knutson M. A. Priest J. P. Pease C. L. Stevens

1986-01-01

337

What Does Career Education Do for Kids? A Synthesis of 1975-76 Evaluation Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report synthesizes the evaluation results of forty-five federally funded K-12 career education programs. Although, according to the author, diversity in individual program goals and evaluation procedures made the synthesis difficult and inconclusive, the tabulated evaluations are used to provide a status report on career education's progress…

New Educational Directions, Crawfordsville, IN.

338

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Fourth quarterly report, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts.

NONE

1997-10-01

339

77 FR 12228 - Idaho: Proposed Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program; Revision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...authorization for its hazardous waste management program effective...delegable Federal hazardous waste regulations codified as of...Secondary Materials Processed in a Gasification System to Produce Synthesis...Final Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors (Phase I...

2012-02-29

340

A satellite system synthesis model for orbital arc allotment optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixed integer programming formulation of a satellite system synthesis problem if presented, which is referred to as the arc allotment problem (AAP). Each satellite administration is to be allotted a weighted-length segment of the geostationary orbital arc within which its satellites may be positioned at any longitudes. The objective function maximizes the length of the unweighted arc segment allotted to every administration, subject to single-entry co-channel interference restrictions and constraints imposed by the visible arc for each administration. Useful relationships between special cases of AAP and another satellite synthesis problem are established. Solutions to two example problems are presented.

Reilly, Charles H.

1987-01-01

341

IFELS Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FELS (Free Electron Laser Simulation) program was conducted at Battelle, Columbus Division, using a modified Nd glass laser to obtain - experimental data on the interaction of a FEL with composite materials. A simultaneous effort at PSI was directed t...

A. W. Bailey D. Resendes G. A. Simons J. C. Person P. E. Nebolsine

1989-01-01

342

Histogram Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Histogram computer program performs the following data analysis functions: Computes basic statistics (mean, variance, standard deviation, minimum, maximum, third and fourth moments); Generates and plots a histogram; Calculates autocorrelation function...

1977-01-01

343

Polarizer Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Polarizer program displays the effect of a plane polarizer on an incident electromagnetic wave. The default electromagnetic wave is plane polarized but this polarization can be changed by specifying the components of the waveâs Jones vector using the input fields. The slider can be used to rotate the polarizer to change its orientation. Polarizer is an Open Source Physics program written for the teaching of optics. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the optics_polarizer.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other optics programs are also available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Optics.

Simov, Kiril; Christian, Wolfgang

2008-05-20

344

Programming models  

SciTech Connect

A programming model is a set of software technologies that support the expression of algorithms and provide applications with an abstract representation of the capabilities of the underlying hardware architecture. The primary goals are productivity, portability and performance.

Daniel, David J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Pherson, Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thorp, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barrett, Richard [SNL; Clay, Robert [SNL; De Supinski, Bronis [LLNL; Dube, Evi [LLNL; Heroux, Mike [SNL; Janssen, Curtis [SNL; Langer, Steve [LLNL; Laros, Jim [SNL

2011-01-14

345

Alternative approximation concepts for space frame synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for space frame synthesis based on the application of a full gamut of approximation concepts is presented. It is found that with the thoughtful selection of design space, objective function approximation, constraint approximation and mathematical programming problem formulation options it is possible to obtain near minimum mass designs for a significant class of space frame structural systems while requiring fewer than 10 structural analyses. Example problems are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for frame structures subjected to multiple static loading conditions with limits on structural stiffness and strength.

Lust, R. V.; Schmit, L. A.

1985-01-01

346

Synthesis of stiffened shells of revolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs for the synthesis of shells of various configurations were developed. The conditions considered are: (1) uniform shells (mainly cones) using a membrane buckling analysis, (2) completely uniform shells (cones, spheres, toroidal segments) using linear bending prebuckling analysis, and (3) revision of second design process to reduce the number of design variables to about 30 by considering piecewise uniform designs. A perturbation formula was derived and this allows exact derivatives of the general buckling load to be computed with little additional computer time.

Thornton, W. A.

1974-01-01

347

Big6 Turbotools and Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The different tools that are helpful during the Synthesis stage, their role in boosting students abilities in Synthesis and the way in which it can be customized to meet the needs of each group of students are discussed. Big6 TurboTools offers several tools to help complete the task. In Synthesis stage, these same tools along with Turbo Report and…

Tooley, Melinda

2005-01-01

348

Total synthesis of (+)-lysergic acid.  

PubMed

A stereocontrolled total synthesis of (+)-lysergic acid (1) is achieved using three metal-catalyzed methodologies for the construction of three key rings. Highlights of the synthesis include Pd-catalyzed indole synthesis to form the B ring, a RCM reaction to form the D ring, and an intramolecular Heck reaction to form the C ring. PMID:21866948

Liu, Qiang; Jia, Yanxing

2011-09-16

349

Synthesis of New Energetic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work on the synthesis of new hydrocarbon fuel systems involved: (a) a study of the synthesis and acid-promoted rearrangement of PCU-derived pinacols; (b) synthesis of an HCTD-derived pinacol; (c) a study of the generation and trapping of a PCU-derived vin...

A. P. Marchand

1997-01-01

350

Synthesis of VHDL concurrent processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents two methoals for synthesis of VHDL siecijications containing concurrent processes. Our main objective is to preserve simulation\\/synthesis correspondence during high-level synthesis and to produce hardware that operates with a high degree of parallelism. The first method supports an unrestricted use of signals and wait statements and synthesizes synchronous hardware with global control of process synchronization for signal

Petru Eles; Marius Minea; Krzysztof Kuchcinski; Zebo Peng

1994-01-01

351

Users manual for flight control design programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer programs for the design of analog and digital flight control systems are documented. The program DIGADAPT uses linear-quadratic-gaussian synthesis algorithms in the design of command response controllers and state estimators, and it applies covariance propagation analysis to the selection of sampling intervals for digital systems. Program SCHED executes correlation and regression analyses for the development of gain and trim schedules to be used in open-loop explicit-adaptive control laws. A linear-time-varying simulation of aircraft motions is provided by the program TVHIS, which includes guidance and control logic, as well as models for control actuator dynamics. The programs are coded in FORTRAN and are compiled and executed on both IBM and CDC computers.

Nalbandian, J. Y.

1975-01-01

352

Program It!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is about robotic programming. Learners will simulate the experience of operating a rover on Mars, by giving specific commands to construct a Lego model with their partners. This will introduce students to the fundamental communication skills necessary for successful robotic programming. This is lesson 11 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module. This lesson is adapted from the Write It, Do It event, which is part of Science Olympiad.

353

SPOT Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

2010-01-01

354

MARGINS Program  

NSF Publications Database

Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that deviates from the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Website at http://www.nsf.gov/publications/pub_summ.jsp?ods_key=gpm. Any changes in NSF's fiscal year programs occurring after press time for the Guide to Programs will be ...

355

Efficiency of software and algorithms of aperture synthesis in passive sonar devices on test and real signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A SynApp program is developed for studying the algorithms of processing data obtained by arrays with a synthesized aperture\\u000a in passive sonar devices. Various synthesis algorithms are compared, and the best algorithm is chosen on the basis of particular\\u000a criteria. Inspection of program operation with signals obtained by a real array demonstrates the efficiency of synthesis with\\u000a the use of

O. Yu. Dashevskii; E. S. Nezhevenko

2009-01-01

356

Synthesis of organosilicon compounds  

SciTech Connect

Silicon-containing polymers have been a focus of synthesis and study in Dr. Barton`s group because of their chemistry and properties which are not offered by other systems or materials. For example, the polymer -[-SiMe{sub 2}C{triple_bond}C-]{sub n}-can be easily processed to films or fibers from melt or solution, and thermally converted to a SiC-containing ceramic in high yield at high temperature. In recent years, carbosilane dendritic polymers have been of great interests in many research groups. However, no synthesis of carbosilane dendrimers with functionalties both inside and outside the dendrimer has been reported. Functionality is very important in the synthesis of preceramic polymers. This thesis will be devoted to exploring several new organosilicon polymer systems.

Zhao, G.

1996-12-31

357

A synthesis of (+/-)-sparteine.  

PubMed

In a synthesis of racemic sparteine, Diels-Alder reaction between dimethyl bromomesaconate 14 and dicyclopentenyl 4, followed by cyclopropane formation, set up the stereochemistry at C-1 and C-5 as S and R, respectively, in a meso intermediate 8. The stereochemistry at C-2 and C-4 was then secured by a moderately diastereoselective protonation of the bis-enolate 17 derived from the diester 8 by reductive cleavage with lithium in liquid ammonia. The C=C in the racemic diester 19 was ozonolysed and the diketone converted by Beckmann rearrangement into the bis-lactam . Reduction of the bis-lactam with lithium aluminium hydride and intramolecular nucleophilic displacement gave racemic sparteine 1. Some ideas for making this synthesis amenable to a synthesis of enantiomerically enriched sparteine are presented. PMID:15827657

Buttler, Thomas; Fleming, Ian; Gonsior, Sabine; Kim, Bo-Hye; Sung, A-Young; Woo, Hee-Gweon

2005-04-21

358

Evidence Synthesis for Decision Making 2  

PubMed Central

We set out a generalized linear model framework for the synthesis of data from randomized controlled trials. A common model is described, taking the form of a linear regression for both fixed and random effects synthesis, which can be implemented with normal, binomial, Poisson, and multinomial data. The familiar logistic model for meta-analysis with binomial data is a generalized linear model with a logit link function, which is appropriate for probability outcomes. The same linear regression framework can be applied to continuous outcomes, rate models, competing risks, or ordered category outcomes by using other link functions, such as identity, log, complementary log-log, and probit link functions. The common core model for the linear predictor can be applied to pairwise meta-analysis, indirect comparisons, synthesis of multiarm trials, and mixed treatment comparisons, also known as network meta-analysis, without distinction. We take a Bayesian approach to estimation and provide WinBUGS program code for a Bayesian analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. An advantage of this approach is that it is straightforward to extend to shared parameter models where different randomized controlled trials report outcomes in different formats but from a common underlying model. Use of the generalized linear model framework allows us to present a unified account of how models can be compared using the deviance information criterion and how goodness of fit can be assessed using the residual deviance. The approach is illustrated through a range of worked examples for commonly encountered evidence formats.

Sutton, Alex J.; Ades, A. E.; Welton, Nicky J.

2013-01-01

359

Synthesis of Chemiluminescent Esters: A Combinatorial Synthesis Experiment for Organic Chemistry Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of techniques aimed at synthesizing a large number of structurally diverse compounds is called combinatorial synthesis. Synthesis of chemiluminescence esters using parallel combinatorial synthesis and mix-and-split combinatorial synthesis is experimented.

Duarte, Robert; Nielson, Janne T.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2004-01-01

360

Total synthesis of (+)-crotogoudin.  

PubMed

Fellowship of the ring: The first total synthesis of (+)-crotogoudin, a 3,4-seco-atisane diterpenoid natural product, is reported. Asymmetric access to the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane core is achieved through a desymmetrization of a meso-diketone with baker's yeast (LG=leaving group, PG=protecting group). A SmI2 -induced radical cyclopropane-opening/annulation/elimination cascade affords the suitably decorated tetracyclic structure of (+)-crotogoudin. The synthesis led to revision of the reported optical rotation of the natural product and to assignment of its absolute configuration as an ent-atisane (5R,10R). PMID:24039092

Breitler, Simon; Carreira, Erick M

2013-10-11

361

Supercritical synthesis of biodiesel.  

PubMed

The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats) has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs) for biodiesel synthesis. PMID:22825622

Bernal, Juana M; Lozano, Pedro; García-Verdugo, Eduardo; Burguete, M Isabel; Sánchez-Gómez, Gregorio; López-López, Gregorio; Pucheault, Mathieu; Vaultier, Michel; Luis, Santiago V

2012-01-01

362

Multi-line split DNA synthesis: a novel combinatorial method to make high quality peptide libraries  

PubMed Central

Background We developed a method to make a various high quality random peptide libraries for evolutionary protein engineering based on a combinatorial DNA synthesis. Results A split synthesis in codon units was performed with mixtures of bases optimally designed by using a Genetic Algorithm program. It required only standard DNA synthetic reagents and standard DNA synthesizers in three lines. This multi-line split DNA synthesis (MLSDS) is simply realized by adding a mix-and-split process to normal DNA synthesis protocol. Superiority of MLSDS method over other methods was shown. We demonstrated the synthesis of oligonucleotide libraries with 1016 diversity, and the construction of a library with random sequence coding 120 amino acids containing few stop codons. Conclusions Owing to the flexibility of the MLSDS method, it will be able to design various "rational" libraries by using bioinformatics databases.

Tabuchi, Ichiro; Soramoto, Sayaka; Ueno, Shingo; Husimi, Yuzuru

2004-01-01

363

Selective 'in synthesis' labeling of peptides with biotin and rhodamine.  

PubMed

A new method is described for the selective 'in synthesis' labeling of peptides by rhodamine or biotin at a single, predetermined epsilon-amino group of a lysine residue. The alpha-amino group and other lysyl residues of the peptide remain unmodified. Peptides are assembled by the Fmoc approach, which requires mild operative conditions for the final deprotection and cleavage, and ensures little damage of the reporter group. The labeling technique involves the previous preparation of a suitable Lysine derivative, easily obtained from commercially-available protected amino acids. This new derivative, where the reporter group (biotin, or rhodamine) acts now as permanent protection of lysyl side chain functions, is then inserted into the synthesis program as a conventional protected amino acid, and linked to the preceding residue by aid of carbodiimide. A simpler, alternative method is also described for the selective 'in synthesis' labeling of peptides with N-terminal lysyl residues. Several applications of labeled peptides are reported. PMID:10742599

Chersi, A; Giommi, S; Rosanò, L

2000-04-01

364

Interactive systems design and synthesis of future spacecraft concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze and conduct parametric studies and modify Earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

1984-01-01

365

ASCENT Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ASCENT program solves the three-dimensional motion and attendant structural loading on a flexible vehicle incorporating, optionally, an active analog thrust control system, aerodynamic effects, and staging of multiple bodies. ASCENT solves the technical problems of loads, accelerations, and displacements of a flexible vehicle; staging of the upper stage from the lower stage; effects of thrust oscillations on the vehicle; a payload's relative motion; the effect of fluid sloshing on vehicle; and the effect of winds and gusts on the vehicle (on the ground or aloft) in a continuous analysis. The ATTACH ASCENT Loads program reads output from the ASCENT flexible body loads program, and calculates the approximate load indicators for the time interval under consideration. It calculates the load indicator values from pre-launch to the end of the first stage.

Brown, Richard; Collier, Gary; Heckenlaible, Richard; Dougherty, Edward; Dolenz, James; Ross, Iain

2012-01-01

366

Discrete Dynamic Programming and Capital Allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic programming algorithms are developed for optimal capital allocation subject to budget constraints. We extend the work of Weingartner [Weingartner, H. M. 1966. Capital budgeting of interrelated projects: Survey and synthesis. Management Sci. 12(7, March) 485-516.] and Weingartner and Ness [Weingartner, H. M., D. N. Ness. 1967. Methods for the solution of the multi-dimensional 0\\/1 knapsack problem. Oper. Res. 15(1,

G. L. Nemhauser; Z. Ullmann

1969-01-01

367

Agroenergy program  

SciTech Connect

The Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development has started the Agroenergy Program described in this paper. The first part deals with the socioeconomic factors that gave rise to the program. The second part describes the main factors at the level of the Brazilian science and technology system that favor the development of integrated rural energy systems in the country. Finally comments are made on the future perspectives opened by the diffusion of rural energy systems in Brazil and other Third World countries. 20 references.

Not Available

1985-01-01

368

Semi-vectorization: an efficient technique for synthesis and analysis of gravity gradiometry data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harmonic synthesis and analysis of the elements of gravitational tensor can be done in few minutes if a suitable programming\\u000a algorithm is used. Vectorization is an efficient technique for such processes, but the size of matrices will increase when\\u000a the resolution of synthesis or analysis is high; say higher than 0.5°?×?0.5°. Here, we present a technique to manage the

Mehdi Eshagh; Makan Abdollahzadeh

2010-01-01

369

Automatic mapping of C to FPGAs with the DEFACTO compilation and synthesis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DEFACTO compilation and synthesis system is capable of automatically mapping computations expressed in high-level imperative programming languages as C to FPGA-based systems. DEFACTO combines parallelizing compiler technology with behavioral VHDI, synthesis tools to guide the application of high-level compiler transformations in the search of high-quality hardware designs. In this article we illustrate the effectiveness of this approach in automatically

Pedro C. Diniz; Mary W. Hall; Byoungro So; Heidi E. Ziegler

2005-01-01

370

Synthesis of nanoporous carbide-derived carbon by chlorination of titanium silicon carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of nanoporous carbide-derived carbon, CDC, by extraction of titanium and silicon from Ti3SiC2 by chlorine is discussed in this work. Thermodynamic simulations using a Gibbs free energy minimization program provided general guidelines to the experimental design. Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy studies showed that the structure of CDC depends on the chlorination temperature. The low temperature synthesis

Gleb N. Yushin; Elizabeth N. Hoffman; Alexei Nikitin; Haihui Ye; Michel W. Barsoum; Yury Gogotsi

2005-01-01

371

Formes: An object and time oriented system for music composition and synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known [Winograd79] that the development and use of complex systems was stifled by the inadequacy of ordinary programming languages. Music Composition and Synthesis (MCS) by computer offers an appropriate example of this “complexity barrier”. Object-Oriented programming matches a lot of MCS requirements: an object-oriented programming environment, called Formes, has been developed at IRCAM, including original features like

Pierre Cointe; Xavier Rodet

1984-01-01

372

Pesticide National Synthesis Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pesticide National Synthesis Project homepage offers a number of publications and reports on pesticides in the Hydrologic System. The site also features data sets, national maps of pesticide use, and some special topic reports, as well as information on the Project and its staff.

373

Asymmetric synthesis of umuravumbolide.  

PubMed

[figure: see text] This first asymmetric synthesis of enantiopure desacetylumuravumbolide and umuravumbolide via asymmetric reduction, allylboration, and ring-closing metathesis confirms their revised structures and configurations. A convenient procedure to upgrade the enantiopurity of alpha,beta-acetylenic alcohols is also described. PMID:11429860

Reddy, M V; Rearick, J P; Hoch, N; Ramachandran, P V

2001-01-11

374

Radiation Synthesis Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives a summary of all the work completed and under way under this contract covering the period from March 1968 to March 1971. The work covers a broad spectrum including high gain, scanning and multibeam antennas, synthesis of antenna array sca...

A. Ishimaru

1971-01-01

375

Reactions of synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of synthesis gas (syngas) offers the opportunity to furnish a broad range of environmentally clean fuels and chemicals. There has been steady growth in the traditional uses of syngas. Almost all hydrogen gas is manufactured from syngas and there has been a tremendous spurt in the demand for this basic chemical; indeed, the chief use of syngas is

Irving Wender

1996-01-01

376

The synthesis of gemcitabine.  

PubMed

Gemcitabine is a fluorinated nucleoside currently administered against a number of cancers. It consists of a cytosine base and a 2-deoxy-2,2-difluororibose sugar. The synthetic challenges associated with the introduction of the fluorine atoms, as well as with nucleobase introduction of 2,2-difluorinated sugars, combined with the requirement to have an efficient process suitable for large scale synthesis, have spurred significant activity towards the synthesis of gemcitabine exploring a wide variety of synthetic approaches. In addition, many methods have been developed for selective crystallisation of diastereomeric (including anomeric) mixtures. In that regard, the 2-deoxy-2,2-difluororibose sugar is one of the most investigated fluorinated carbohydrates in terms of its synthesis. The versatility of synthetic methods employed is illustrative of the current state of the art of fluorination methodology for the synthesis of CF2-containing carbohydrates, and involves the use of fluorinated building blocks, as well as nucleophilic and electrophilic fluorination of sugar precursors. PMID:24636495

Brown, Kylie; Dixey, Michael; Weymouth-Wilson, Alex; Linclau, Bruno

2014-03-31

377

Synthesis of Spiro Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Synthesis of the first totally organic spiro polymer was accomplished by the reaction of 1,4-cyclohexanedione and pentaerythritol in benzene plus a trace of p-toluenesulfonic acid to produce the polyspiroketal. The polymer did not melt, but began to decom...

A. A. Volpe W. J. Bailey

1970-01-01

378

Total synthesis of (±)-davanone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total synthesis of the sesquiterpene (±)-davanone is described. A Lewis acid catalyzed [3+4] annulation reaction of 1,4-pentanedione with bis(trimethylsilyl) enol ether 2 is the key synthetic step. The resulting oxabicyclo[3.2.1]heptanone system can be selectively ring-opened and then elaborated further to (±)-davanone.

Gary A. Molander; Julia Haas

1999-01-01

379

Synthesis and Summary  

Cancer.gov

Cancer Imaging Informatics:Synthesis, Summary and DiscussionRonald M. Summers, M.D., Ph.D.Clinical CenterDiagnostic Radiology DepartmentNational Institutes of HealthBethesda, MDwww.cc.nih.gov/drd/summers.html Overview Review of the Meeting Perspective

380

Synthesis in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses various techniques that scientists and other professionals can use to keep current in their field despite the large amount of available information, such as consulting abstracts, indexes, reviews, and catalogues. It also examines specific language patterns that are used in the sciences to produce synthesis and abridgement,…

Horsella, Maria

381

Synthesis from VHDL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VHDL Synthesis System (VSS) uses VHDL dataflow or behavioral descriptions as input and outputs a structural description of generic components. This structural description is converted into a schematic and captured by the microarchitecture and logic optimization system for technology mapping and constraint-driven optimization. VSS allows a designer to modify the compiled design by changing the input description, selecting optimization

Joseph S. Lis; Daniel D. Gajski

1988-01-01

382

Total Synthesis of Kopsinine  

PubMed Central

The use of a powerful intramolecular [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloaddition cascade of an 1,3,4-oxadiazole in the divergent total synthesis of kopsinine (1), featuring an additional unique SmI2-promoted transannular cyclization reaction for formation of the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane central to its hexacyclic ring system, is detailed.

Xie, Jian; Wolfe, Amanda L.; Boger, Dale L.

2013-01-01

383

Synthesis of multisubstituted pyridines.  

PubMed

By utilizing amino allenes, aldehydes, and aryl iodides as readily available building blocks, a simple and modular synthesis of multisubstituted pyridines with flexible control over the substitution pattern has been achieved. The method employs a two-step procedure involving the preparation of "skipped" allenyl imines and a subsequent palladium-catalyzed cyclization. PMID:23273041

He, Zhi; Dobrovolsky, Dennis; Trinchera, Piera; Yudin, Andrei K

2013-01-18

384

3D Shape Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a novel approach to 3D shape synthesis of closed surfaces. A curved or polyhedral 3D object of genus zero is represented by a curvature distribution on a spherical mesh that has nearly uniform distribution with known connectivity among mesh nod...

H. Y. Shum M. Hebert K. Ikeuchi

1995-01-01

385

Total synthesis of adicardin.  

PubMed

The first synthesis of adicardin, a compound with anti-chronic renal failure activity isolated from Hydrangea macrophylla, has been described. The structures of the target compound and intermediates have been validated by MS, NMR, and identical with the natural product. PMID:20183314

Li, Wei; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Tong, Yuan-Feng; Hao, Ling-Hua; Yang, Qing-Yun; Qi, Yan; Wu, Song

2009-08-01

386

Asymmetric synthesis of hydroxyphosphonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyphosphonates have attracted considerable attention as biologically active compounds, enzyme inhibitors, and drugs. Over the last few years significant interest in the asymmetric synthesis and practical application of chiral hydroxyphosphonates has been reported, which shows the theoretical interest and the practical importance of hydroxyphosphonates. An overview of recent synthetic approaches to chiral hydroxyphosphonates and determinations of their absolute configuration is

Oleg I. Kolodiazhnyi

2005-01-01

387

Physical Modeling Synthesis Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research in physical modeling of musical instruments for purposes of sound synthesis is reviewed. Recent references, results, and outstanding problems are highlighted for models of strings, winds, brasses, percussion, and acoustic spaces. Emphasis is placed on digital waveguide models and the musical acoustics research on which they are based.

Julius O. Smith

1996-01-01

388

Synthesis of (?)-Eusynstyelamide A  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of (±)-eusynstyelamide A has been accomplished in six steps in 13% overall yield from 6-bromoindole, methyl glycidate, and Boc-protected agmatine. If oxygen is carefully excluded from the reaction, the key NaOH-catalyzed aldol dimerization of the ?-ketoamide proceeded efficiently to give Boc-protected eusynstyelamide A.

Barykina, Olga V.; Snider, Barry B.

2010-01-01

389

Materials sciences programs: Fiscal year 1995  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Science Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

NONE

1996-05-01

390

Exemplary Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the social studies program at Walker Junior High School (La Palma, CA). Uses student research and role playing to make areas of history, geography, and government more meaningful. Includes colonial period, slavery, medieval life, and city government. Suggests themes, methods, and telecommunication and computer use. Reports that the…

Southern Social Studies Journal, 1991

1991-01-01

391

Program Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine if a deficiency, or learning gap, existed in a particular working environment. To determine if an assessment was to be conducted, a program proposal would need to be developed to explore this situation. In order for a particular environment to react and grow with other environments, it must be able to take on…

Baskas, Richard S.

2012-01-01

392

Program differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile electronics are undergoing a convergence of formerly multiple dedicated-application devices into a single programmable device -- the smart phone. The programmability of these devices increases their vulnerability to malicious attack. In this paper, we propose a new malware management system that seeks to use program differentiation to reduce the propagation of malware when a software vulnerability exists. By modifying

Daniel Chang; Stephen Hines; Paul West; Gary Tyson; David Whalley

2010-01-01

393

Method for formal design synthesis of autostereoscopic displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article is described a method for formal engineering design synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) autostereoscopic displays. A formal description of the design synthesis in question is provided, that converges toward completely automated design synthesis. In order to estimate whether the computer program and/or human designer, using the methodology described in this article, would be able to synthesize one or more designs of 3D displays of satisfactory quality, in reasonable time, the example of design synthesis, that describes several iterations of it, has been provided, that demonstrates that there is enough convergence in the merit function of the designs during the synthesis, and that the quality of the best design solutions that the methodology has generated is satisfactory. The optimization was performed with the goal of minimization of crosstalk and aberrations in the displayed image and maximization of the number of different views of the 3D image. Several 3D displays are designed as a result of this effort. The improvement of the image quality of one class of 3D displays, as a result of the decrease of the size of the samples in 3D image without increased crosstalk in the 3D image is also achieved in this article.

Mihajlovic, Zoran

2004-10-01

394

Kinetics and modelling of dimethyl ether synthesis from synthesis gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the dual catalytic methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis process over a commercial CuO\\/ZnO\\/Al2O3 (methanol forming) and a ?-alumina (dehydration) catalyst have been investigated at 250°C and 5 MPa using a gradientless, internal-recycle-type reactor. A kinetic model for the combined methanol+DME synthesis based on a methanol synthesis model proposed by Vanden Bussche and Froment (1996) J. Catal.,

K. L. Ng; D. Chadwick; B. A. Toseland

1999-01-01

395

Deductive Glue Code Synthesis for Embedded Software Systems Based on Code Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Automated code synthesis is a constructive process that can be used to generate programs from specifications. It can, thus, greatly reduce the software development cost and time. The use of formal code synthesis approach for software generation further increases the dependability of the system. Though code synthesis has many potential benefits, the synthesis techniques are still limited. Meanwhile, components are widely used in embedded system development. Applying code synthesis to component based software development (CBSD) process can greatly enhance the capability of code synthesis while reducing the component composition efforts. In this paper, we discuss the issues and techniques for applying deductive code synthesis techniques to CBSD. For deductive synthesis in CBSD, a rule base is the key for inferring appropriate component composition. We use the code patterns to guide the development of rules. Code patterns have been proposed to capture the typical usages of the components. Several general composition operations have been identified to facilitate systematic composition. We present the technique for rule development and automated generation of new patterns from existing code patterns. A case study of using this method in building a real-time control system is also presented.

Liu, Jian; Fu, Jicheng; Zhang, Yansheng; Bastani, Farokh; Yen, I-Ling; Tai, Ann; Chau, Savio N.

2006-01-01

396

Direct Sound Enhancement by Wave Field Synthesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Preface; Introduction to wave field synthesis; Synthesis operators for line arrays in a 3D space; Finite secondary source distributions; Discretization of the synthesis operators; Psycho-acoustical aspects of synthesized sound fields; Design of ...

E. W. Start

1997-01-01

397

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of synthesis gas to oxygenated and hydrocarbon fuels and industrial chemicals, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). The program will involve a continuation of the work performed under the Alternative Fuels from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas Program and will draw upon information and technologies generated in parallel current and future DOE-funded contracts. The paper reports the progress on the following tasks: engineering and modifications: AFDU shakedown, operations, deactivation and disposal; and research and development on new processes for DME, chemistry and catalyst development, and oxygenates via synthesis gas.

NONE

1995-12-31

398

Analysis and synthesis of abstract data types through generalization from examples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of general patterns of behavior from a set of input/output examples can be a useful technique in the automated analysis and synthesis of software systems. These generalized descriptions of the behavior form a set of assertions which can be used for validation, program synthesis, program testing, and run-time monitoring. Describing the behavior is characterized as a learning process in which the set of inputs is mapped into an appropriate transform space such that general patterns can be easily characterized. The learning algorithm must chose a transform function and define a subset of the transform space which is related to equivalence classes of behavior in the original domain. An algorithm for analyzing the behavior of abstract data types is presented and several examples are given. The use of the analysis for purposes of program synthesis is also discussed.

Wild, Christian

1987-01-01

399

Analysis and synthesis of abstract data types through generalization from examples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of general patterns of behavior from a set of input/output examples can be a useful technique in the automated analysis and synthesis of software systems. These generalized descriptions of the behavior form a set of assertions which can be used for validation, program synthesis, program testing and run-time monitoring. Describing the behavior is characterized as a learning process in which general patterns can be easily characterized. The learning algorithm must choose a transform function and define a subset of the transform space which is related to equivalence classes of behavior in the original domain. An algorithm for analyzing the behavior of abstract data types is presented and several examples are given. The use of the analysis for purposes of program synthesis is also discussed.

Wild, Christian

1987-01-01

400

Prolog programming  

SciTech Connect

A volume in the Artificial Intelligence Texts series, this book teaches Prolog programming by following a series of sample programs. New concepts are introduced step-by-step in order to present solutions to problems, each problem being chosen so that its solution exposes one of the features of Prolog. The examples are chosen from areas which are of practical use to readers, such as data base query, expert system design, natural language interfacing, knowledge representation, computer simulation, and planning of problem solving. Contents: Prolog as a database query language; Writing an expert system; Natural language processing; Knowledge representation; List processing and pattern matching; Planning, problem solving and simulation; Extending Prolog; A model of Prolog virtual machine.

Yazdani, M.

1986-01-01

401

Out-of-School-Time Programs: A Meta-Analysis of Effects for At-Risk Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools and districts are adopting out-of-school-time (OST) programs such as after-school programs and summer schools to supplement the education of low-achieving students. However, research has painted a mixed picture of their effectiveness. To clarify OST impacts, this synthesis examined research on OST programs for assisting at-risk students in…

Lauer, Patricia A.; Akiba, Motoko; Wilkerson, Stephanie B.; Apthorp, Helen S.; Snow, David; Martin-Glenn, Mya L.

2006-01-01

402

Implementing successful intimate partner violence screening programs in health care settings: Evidence generated from a realist-informed systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

We undertook a synthesis of existing studies to re-evaluate the evidence on program mechanisms of intimate partner violence (IPV) universal screening and disclosure within a health care context by addressing how, for whom, and in what circumstances these programs work. Our review is informed by a realist review approach, which focuses on program mechanisms. Systematic, realist reviews can help reveal

Patricia O’Campo; Maritt Kirst; Charoula Tsamis; Catharine Chambers; Farah Ahmad

2011-01-01

403

SAMPLES Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of the SAMPLES (Sandia Agile MEMS Prototyping, Layout Tools, Education and Services) Program is to enable customers to develop their own innovative products by leveraging advanced design, fabrication, and characterization technologies originally developed for National Laboratory applications. Participants can attend short courses, design new devices, and have those designs fabricated in our state-of-the-art fabrication facility. Additional cost-effective services are also available.

Hanselmann, Kathryn

2009-07-21

404

Libraries program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Congress authorized a library for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1879. The library was formally established in 1882 with the naming of the first librarian and began with a staff of three and a collection of 1,400 books. Today, the USGS Libraries Program is one of the world's largest Earth and natural science repositories and a resource of national significance used by researchers and the public worldwide.

2011-01-01

405

Mississippi/Alabama Pinnacle Trend Ecosystem Monitoring Final Synthesis Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This Final Synthesis Report summarizes a four-year program to characterize and monitor carbonate mounds on the Mississippi/Alabama outer continental shelf (OCS). The study area is shown in Fig.ES.1. The study was conducted by Continental Shelf Associates, Inc. and the Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) of Texas A&M University (TAMU), for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Biological Resources Division.

Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.; Texas A&M University, Geochemical and Environmental Research Group

2001-01-01

406

Thresholds of Climate Change in Ecosystems - Synthesis and Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Change Research Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-606) calls for the periodic assessment of the impacts of global environmental change in the U.S. The U.S. Climate Change Science Program is helping to meet the fundamental need of providing a periodic synthesis and assessment of cumulative knowledge and the evaluation of the implication of that knowledge for scientific research and

C. Charles; D. Fagre

2007-01-01

407

Investigation on Evolutionary Chaos Controller Synthesis for Hénon Map Stabilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with the synthesis of control law by means of Analytic Programming (AP) for the Hénon Map, which is discrete chaotic system. The tool for symbolic regression (AP) is used for the purpose of stabilization of stable state and higher periodic orbits, which represent oscillations between several values of chaotic system. For experimentation, Self-Organizing Migrating Algorithm (SOMA) with AP and Differential Evolution (DE) as the second algorithm for meta-evolution were used.

Senkerik, Roman; Oplatkova, Zuzana; Zelinka, Ivan

2011-09-01

408

Toward a new synthesis: Population genetics and evolutionary developmental biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite the recent synthesis of developmental genetics and evolutionary biology, current theories of adaptation are still\\u000a strictly phenomenological and do not yet consider the implications of how phenotypes are constructed from genotypes. Given\\u000a the ubiquity of regulatory genetic pathways in developmental processes, we contend that study of the population genetics of\\u000a these pathways should become a major research program. We

Norman A. Johnson; Adam H. Porter

409

Convergent synthesis of aminomethylene peptidomimetics.  

PubMed

This protocol describes a convergent synthesis of reduced amide bond peptidomimetics using thioacid-terminated peptides and aziridine-containing peptide conjugates. This approach could be used to produce peptides and proteins with modified backbones. The peptide conjugates are made using readily available aziridine aldehydes. The convergent synthesis of peptidomimetics is demonstrated through the preparation of long and short peptide fragments with an aminomethylene group incorporated within them. This transformation is amenable to the synthesis of peptides with reduced amide bonds at cysteine and alanine. The procedure describes the preparation of each component used and highlights the ease of synthesis of aminomethylene peptidomimetics, and takes about 3 d to complete. PMID:22722368

Assem, Naila; Yudin, Andrei K

2012-07-01

410

Model-based programming and diagnosis for programmable logical controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In control engineering models of the controlled systems are the basis for controller synthesis as well as for analytical or simulated examination of open or closed-loop behaviour. This model-based methodology is being transferred into automation engineering by means of a development environment for the programming of logical controllers. Petri net models of the controlled system allow an automatic computation of

Karsten Lemmer; Bernhard Ober; Eckehard Schnieder

1995-01-01

411

Model-Based Programming for Parallel Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a programming environment which is being developed for the automatic generation of parallel image processing applications. Through the use of model-based software synthesis, we transparently create large grained data parallel applications which can be executed on arbitrary processor networks. The high-level abstractions provided by the modeling paradigm isolates the user from the complexity of the underlying implementation, allowing

Michael S. Moore; Gabor Karsai; Janos Sztipanovits

1994-01-01

412

Prebiotic synthesis of histidine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prebiotic formation of histidine (His) has been accomplished experimentally by the reaction of erythrose with formamidine followed by a Strecker synthesis. In the first step of this reaction sequence, the formation of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde took place by the condensation of erythrose and formamidine, two compounds that are known to be formed under prebiotic conditions. In a second step, the imidazole-4-acetaldehyde was converted to His, without isolation of the reaction products by adding HCN and ammonia to the reaction mixture. LC, HPLC, thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the product, which was obtained in a yield of 3.5% based on the ratio of His/erythrose. This is a new chemical synthesis of one of the basic amino acids which had not been synthesized prebiotically until now.

Shen, C.; Yang, L.; Miller, S. L.; Oro, J.

1990-01-01

413

Enantioselective synthesis of xanthatin.  

PubMed

The enantioselective synthesis of cytostatic and antibiotic xanthatin (1?a) is reported. As a key intermediate, a bicyclic compound 2 was identified, which can be readily synthesized from methyl-2-furoic acid in diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form. Compound 2 can be functionalized regio- and stereoselectively at C-6 and C-7, allowing the facile introduction of the functionalities found in xanthatin, as well as the synthesis of derivatives thereof. Moreover, a robust strategy for the introduction of the exo-methylene group at C-3, commonly found in many sesquiterpenes, was developed that makes use of masking the alkene in the ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl system by O-pivaoyl, which is stable under acidic and mild basic conditions but eliminated upon treatment with strong bases. PMID:24823713

Bergmann, Andreas; Reiser, Oliver

2014-06-16

414

NTNU Java: Fourier Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet demonstrates fourier synthesis. The user can left click and drag the circles to change the magnitude of each Fourier function. Then, they can right click the mouse button to change the magnitude between 0 and 1.0. The coefficient of sin(0f) is used as the amplification factor for all modes. It can be used to change the sound level. The coefficient of cos(0f) is the DC component.

Hwang, Fu-Kwun

2008-09-13

415

Synthesis of crystalline polyaniline  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of crystalline polyaniline base using a water-in-oil type microemulsion as a medium of polymerization is reported. The polymer exhibits well defined crystalline phase whose observed orthorhombic lattice parameters are a = 7.65, b = 5.75, c = 10.22{angstrom} and V = 450{angstrom}{sup 3}. The polymer obtained has been characterized by XRD, FTIR, UV and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) confirming the crystalline phase, surfactant stabilized nature, base form and dopability.

Selvan, S.T.; Mani, A.; Athinarayanasamy, K.; Phani, K.L.N.; Pitchumani, S. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India)] [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India)

1995-06-01

416

Drugs affecting lipid synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent direct casual relationship of elevated blood lipids to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis has resulted in many\\u000a lines of investigation directed toward the control of lipids, particularly cholesterol, in blood and tissues. Much of this\\u000a work during the past decade has been concerned with the regulation of endogenous synthesis of cholesterol. No attempt has\\u000a been made herein to discuss

W. L. Holmes; Smith Kline

1964-01-01

417

Synthesis of trimecaine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to improve the technological processes of the trimecaine synthesis have been undertaken. Thus, Hach [3] prepared ~-diethylaminoac etmesidide (II) without isolating ~-chloroacetmesi dide (I)using mesidine to take up the hydrogen chloride. In 1964, Katsnel'son and co-workers [9] prepared chloroacetylchloride from chloroacetic acid and phosphorous oxychloride, and introduced mesidine into it without isolating it from the reaction mixture. The ~-chloroacetmesi

E. A. Kuznetsova; S. V. Zhuravlev; N. T. Pryanishnikova

1969-01-01

418

Total synthesis of (-)-teucvidin.  

PubMed

A concise enantioselective synthesis of (-)-teucvidin has been achieved. Our synthetic strategy involved the diastereoselective Michael/Conia-ene cascade cyclization reaction for rapid establishment of the cis-decalin skeleton with three new stereogenic centers in one pot (72%, single diastereomer), the epoxidation/dealkoxycarbonylation protocol for construction of the fused furanone moiety, and the O-allylation/Claisen rearrangement protocol for construction of the all-carbon quaternary center at C9 of the clerodane skeleton. PMID:22594711

Liu, Xiaozu; Lee, Chi-Sing

2012-06-01

419

Total synthesis of (-)-borrelidin.  

PubMed

The total synthesis of borrelidin has been achieved. The best feature of our synthetic route is SmI(2)-mediated intramolecular Reformatsky-type reaction for macrocyclization after esterification between two segments. The two key segments were synthesized through chelation-controlled carbotitanation, chelation-controlled hydrogenation, stereoselective Reformatsky reaction, and MgBr(2).Et(2)O-mediated chelation-controlled allylation. [reaction: see text] PMID:15151434

Nagamitsu, Tohru; Takano, Daisuke; Fukuda, Takeo; Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Kuwajima, Isao; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Omura, Satoshi

2004-05-27

420

Chemical Synthesis Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database provides information on thousands of chemical compounds, including synthesis references and physical properties. The database is searchable by keyword and browseable by journal title. For each compound, the information includes molecular formula and weight, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) numbers, International Chemical Identifier (InChIKey), and Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry System (SMILES) notation. There is also information on synonyms, physical properties (boiling and melting points, density), an illustration of chemical structure, spectral data, and links to additional data.

421

Extended cooperative control synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on research for extending the Cooperative Control Synthesis methodology to include a more accurate modeling of the pilot's controller dynamics. Cooperative Control Synthesis (CCS) is a methodology that addresses the problem of how to design control laws for piloted, high-order, multivariate systems and/or non-conventional dynamic configurations in the absence of flying qualities specifications. This is accomplished by emphasizing the parallel structure inherent in any pilot-controlled, augmented vehicle. The original CCS methodology is extended to include the Modified Optimal Control Model (MOCM), which is based upon the optimal control model of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison in 1970. This model provides a modeling of the pilot's compensation dynamics that is more accurate than the simplified pilot dynamic representation currently in the CCS methodology. Inclusion of the MOCM into the CCS also enables the modeling of pilot-observation perception thresholds and pilot-observation attention allocation affects. This Extended Cooperative Control Synthesis (ECCS) allows for the direct calculation of pilot and system open- and closed-loop transfer functions in pole/zero form and is readily implemented in current software capable of analysis and design for dynamic systems. Example results based upon synthesizing an augmentation control law for an acceleration command system in a compensatory tracking task using the ECCS are compared with a similar synthesis performed by using the original CCS methodology. The ECCS is shown to provide augmentation control laws that yield more favorable, predicted closed-loop flying qualities and tracking performance than those synthesized using the original CCS methodology.

Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

1994-01-01

422

Laser pulse synthesis system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A laser pulse synthesis system is provided. A further aspect of the present system uses a phase-only modulator to measure ultrashort laser pulses. An additional aspect achieves interferences between split subpulses even though the subpulses have different frequencies. Yet another aspect of a laser system employs multi-comb phase shaping of a laser pulse. In another aspect, a laser system includes pulse characterization and arbitrary or variable waveform generation through spectral phase comb shaping.

2014-03-18

423

Parent Infant Program: Program Manager's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document consists of a program manager's manual for the Parent Infant Program (PIP), an early intervention program designed to foster effective parenting of infants with developmental disabilities and delays. Section 1 provides a program overview. Three program goals are: to build parental confidence as primary teachers/facilitators of their…

Wnek, Linda; And Others

424

Synthesis of mercury cuprates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury cuprates have very interesting potential applications that have not been thoroughly explored until now because of the complexity of their synthesis. This paper presents an overview of recent results concerning their processing. At first, a simple sol-gel technique is described that permits one to easily and intimately mix the precursors. The method uses the gelification of an inorganic solution of the cations by acrylamide polymerization. Mercuration of the precursor at moderate pressures (<2-5 MPa) is then discussed. The control of the total pressure during the synthesis by a simple method is shown, and this enables one to quantify some important parameters of the synthesis and to optimize the superconducting properties. This method has been also used successfully to incorporate mercury into layers of precursors and then to form thick layers of superconducting (Hg, Re)-1223, c-axis oriented. Finally, mercuration at higher pressures (up to 6 GPa) is considered and the case of the double mercury layer Hg-2212 is discussed in connection with the oxygen content of the reactants.

Odier, P.; Sin, A.; Toulemonde, P.; Bailly, A.; LeFloch, S.

2000-08-01

425

REGULATION OF GLUTATHIONE SYNTHESIS  

PubMed Central

Glutathione (GSH) is a ubiquitous intracellular peptide with diverse functions that include detoxification, antioxidant defense, maintenance of thiol status, and modulation of cell proliferation. GSH is synthesized in the cytosol of all mammalian cells in a tightly regulated manner. The major determinants of GSH synthesis are the availability of cysteine, the sulfur amino acid precursor, and the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL). GCL is composed for a catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunit and they are regulated at multiple levels and at times differentially. The second enzyme of GSH synthesis, GSH synthase (GS) is also regulated in a coordinated manner as GCL subunits and its up-regulation can further enhance the capacity of the cell to synthesize GSH. Oxidative stress is well known to induce the expression of GSH synthetic enzymes. Key transcription factors identified thus far include Nrf2/Nrf1 via the antioxidant response element (ARE), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor ? B (NF?B). Dysregulation of GSH synthesis is increasingly being recognized as contributing to the pathogenesis of many pathological conditions. These include diabetes mellitus, pulmonary fibrosis, cholestatic liver injury, endotoxemia and drug-resistant tumor cells. Manipulation of the GSH synthetic capacity is an important target in the treatment of many of these disorders.

Lu, Shelly C.

2009-01-01

426

Combustion synthesis and engineering of nanoparticles for electronic, structural and superconductor applications. Annual progress report, August 20, 1993--May 30, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fully dense, nanocrystalline ceramic articles were prepared by the new nanofabrication process developed in this research program. The process consists of two steps: synthesis of ceramic nanoparticles and fabrication of dense, nanocrystalline ceramic part...

G. C. Stangle V. R. W. Amarakoon W. A. Schulze

1994-01-01

427

Synthesis of Model Polymers and Related Structures in Support of Vinyl Monomer Grafting Studies: Progress Report, July 1, 1987-June 30, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives of the present program include the synthesis, structural characterization and properties, of cellulose-based water-soluble graft copolymers and other copolymers capable of effectively enhancing the viscosity of their aqueous solutions. In suppo...

T. E. Hogen-Esch G. B. Butler

1988-01-01

428

Synthesis of Model Polymers and Related Structures in Support of Vinyl Monomer Grafting Studies: Progress Report, 7/1/86-6/30/87.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of the present program include the synthesis, structural characterization and properties, of cellulose-based water-soluble graft copolymers capable of effectively enhancing the viscosity of their aqueous solutions. In support of this progra...

T. E. Hogen-Esch

1987-01-01

429

RADARSAT program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work on the RADARSAT system is progressing towards the currently scheduled launch date of early 1995. The spacecraft bus and the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) payload are at various stages of development. Requirements for the ground segment have been mostly established. The design of the ground elements such as the mission control facility and the SAR data processor is underway. The SAR applications development work is continuing and the chosen distributor, RADARSAT International Inc. (RSI) is making preparations to market RADARSAT data internationally. A plan for the follow-on to RADARSAT 1 is being finalized to ensure continuity of SAR data under the Radarsat program.

Mcnally, J.; Parashar, S.

1993-01-01

430

Site Support Program Plan Infrastructure Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fiscal Year 1996 Infrastructure Program Site Support Program Plan addresses the mission objectives, workscope, work breakdown structures (WBS), management approach, and resource requirements for the Infrastructure Program. Attached to the plan are app...

1995-01-01

431

The MSFC Program Control Development Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is the policy of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that employees be given the opportunity to develop their individual skills and realize their full potential consistent with their selected career path and with the overall Center's needs and objectives. The MSFC Program Control Development Program has been designed to assist individuals who have selected Program Control or Program Analyst Program Control as a career path to achieve their ultimate career goals. Individuals selected to participate in the MSFC Program Control Development Program will be provided with development training in the various Program Control functional areas identified in the NASA Program Control Model. The purpose of the MSFC Program Control Development Program is to develop individual skills in the various Program Control functions by on-the-job and classroom instructional training on the various systems, tools, techniques, and processes utilized in these areas.

1994-01-01

432

Doctoral Programs in Educational Leadership: A Duality Framework of Commonality and Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, doctoral programs in education leadership have been subject to notable criticism and proposals for reform. Starting with a synthesis of this criticism, this article focuses on the two primary constituencies--university faculty members who teach in such programs, and school superintendents, who are the leading practitioners such…

Zirkel, Perry A.

2012-01-01

433

New Roles to Meet Industry Needs: A Look at the Advanced Technological Education Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program, sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is presented as a model for business and education collaboration to develop technical degree programs for producing more and better technicians. The new roles of industry and college leaders are discussed through a synthesis of literature on skill…

Zinser, Richard; Lawrenz, Frances

2004-01-01

434

FWP executive summaries. Basic Energy Sciences/Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)  

SciTech Connect

This report is divided into: budget, capital equipment requests, general programmatic overview and institutional issues, DOE center of excellence for synthesis and processing of advanced materials, industrial interactions and technology transfer, and research program summaries (new proposals, existing programs). Ceramics, semiconductors, superconductors, interfaces, CVD, tailored surfaces, adhesion, growth and epitaxy, boron-rich solids, nanoclusters, etc. are covered.

Samara, G.A.

1994-01-01

435

Civic Engagement Programs and Youth Development: A Synthesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Civic engagement that is, community service, political activism, environmentalism, and other volunteer activities provide needed services to community residents and psychological, social, and intellectual benefits to participants. A small but growing body of research suggests the likelihood that active involvement leads to healthy, active…

Michelsen, Erik; Zaff, Jonathan F.; Hair, Elizabeth C.

436

Effective Programs for Struggling Readers: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on the achievement outcomes of alternative approaches for struggling readers ages 5-10 (US grades K-5): One-to-one tutoring, small-group tutorials, classroom instructional process approaches, and computer-assisted instruction. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or well-matched control groups, study…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Davis, Susan; Madden, Nancy A.

2011-01-01

437

Automated synthesis of computational circuits using genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analog electrical circuits that perform mathematical functions (e.g., cube root, square) are called computational circuits. Computational circuits are of special practical importance when the small number of required mathematical functions does not warrant converting an analog signal into a digital signal, performing the mathematical function in the digital domain, and then converting the result back to the analog domain. The

John R. Koza; Forrest H Bennett; Jason Lohn; Frank Dunlap; Martin A. Keane; David Andre

1997-01-01

438

GASP- General Aviation Synthesis Program. Volume 5: Weight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subroutines for determining the weights of propulsion system related components and the airframe components of an aircraft configuration are presented. Subroutines that deal with design load conditions, aircraft balance, and tail sizing are included. Options for turbine and internal combustion engines are provided.

Hague, D.

1978-01-01

439

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry compete in the rapidly expanding global advanced materials marketplace. Breakthroughs in solar technology over the last 5 years have created exceptional new

A. Lewandowski

1992-01-01

440

Solar synthesis of advanced materials: A solar industrial program initiative.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is an initiative for accelerating the use of solar energy in the advanced materials manufacturing industry in the United States. The initiative will be based on government-industry collaborations that will develop the technology and help US industry ...

A. Lewandowski

1992-01-01

441

Effective Programs for Elementary Science: A Best-Evidence Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a systematic review of research on the achievement outcomes of all types of approaches to teaching science in elementary schools. Study inclusion criteria included use of randomized or matched control groups, a study duration of at least 4 weeks, and use of achievement measures independent of the experimental treatment. A…

Slavin, Robert E.; Lake, Cynthia; Hanley, Pam; Thurston, Allen

2012-01-01

442

Synthesis of Cloud Applications using Logic Programming: BAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud applications are web-based distributed systems deployed over a fluctuating set of computing nodes and ser- vices. The design of cloud applications is particularly chal- lenging because few assumptions can be made about the connectivity of nodes, the availability of services, as well as how the computing fabric will evolve in the long term. In this paper we show that

Ethan K. Jackson; Wolfram Schulte; Daniel Lucrdio

443

Chemical Synthesis of Elemental Fluorine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this communication is to report the first purely chemical synthesis of elemental fluorine in significant yield and concentration. This synthesis is based on the fact that thermo-dynamically unstable high-oxidation-state transition-metal flu...

K. O. Christe

1986-01-01

444

Protein synthesis by isolated chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated chloroplasts show substantial rates of protein synthesis when illuminated. This ‘in organello’ protein synthesis system has been advantageously utilised to elucidate the coding capacity of chloroplast and the regulation of chloroplast genes. The system is also being used recently to transcribe and translate homologous and heterologous templates. In this mini-review, we attempt to critically ecaluate the available literature and

A. Gnanam; C. C. Subbaiah; R. Mannar Mannan

1988-01-01

445

Levulinic acid in organic synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data concerning the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and application of levulinic acid are analysed and generalised. The wide synthetic potential of levulinic acid, particularly as a key compound in the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems, saturated and unsaturated ketones and diketones, difficultly accessible acids and other compounds is demonstrated. The accessibility of levulinic acid from hexose-containing wood-processing and agricultural

Boris V Timokhin; V A Baransky; G D Eliseeva

1999-01-01

446

First total synthesis of (+)-indicanone.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of the guaiane-type sesquiterpene, (+)-indicanone (1), isolated from the root of Wikstroemia indica, was accomplished based on the rhodium(I)-catalyzed Pauson-Khand-type reaction of the allenyne derivative, which was derived from (+)-limonene. This total synthesis unambiguously confirmed the complete structure of (+)-indicanone involving its absolute stereochemistry. PMID:22588646

Hayashi, Yujiro; Ogawa, Kumiko; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Mukai, Chisato

2012-06-28

447

Synthesis of (±)-desamino huperzine A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first synthesis of desamino huperzine A 2 is described. Key steps are a double Michael addition into benzoquinone monoketal 4, a regiocontrolled double bond isomerisation and a novel pyridone synthesis involving a Michael addition of a ?-keto ester into acrylonitrile.

Klemens Högenauer; Karl Baumann; Johann Mulzer

2000-01-01

448

VHDL synthesis using structured modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of VHDL in a behavioral synthesis system. A structured modeling methodology is presented which suggests standard practices for writing VHDL descriptions which span a variety of design models. The VHDL Synthesis System (VSS) processes each of these input descriptions and produces a structural description of generic components.

Joseph S. Li; Daniel D. Gajski

1989-01-01

449

Combustion synthesis of complex oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced ceramic materials have numerous applications in electronic engineering, chemical engineering, and semiconductor industry. The synthesis of these materials at an economical cost is the bottleneck in the application of these materials. Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) is a new technique for producing these materials for exothermic systems by a combustion wave that propagates and produces high purity products. The full

Qimin Ming

1999-01-01

450

Total synthesis of batatoside L.  

PubMed

The total synthesis of batatoside L (1), a resin glycoside possessing cytotoxicity against laryngeal carcinoma cells, has been completed in a highly convergent manner. The most crucial step in this total synthesis was the efficient construction of the 18-membered macrolactone framework through the Corey-Nicolaou macrolactonization approach. PMID:20666429

Xie, Lin; Zhu, San-Yong; Shen, Xiao-Qiu; He, Li-Li; Yang, Jin-Song

2010-08-20

451

Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide E  

PubMed Central

A convergent and highly stereocontrolled synthesis of amphidinolide E (1) has been accomplished. The synthesis features a highly diastereoselective (>20:1) BF3·Et2O promoted [3+2] annulation reaction between aldehyde 3 and allylsilane 4 to afford substituted tetrahydrofuran 2.

Va, Porino; Roush, William R.

2008-01-01

452

Biota of North America Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Biota of North America Program (BONAP) is to develop a unified digital system for assessing the North American biota. BONAP's database now includes assessment for all vascular plants and vertebrate animals (native, naturalized, and adventive) of North America north of Mexico, and it maintains the most current taxonomy, nomenclature, and biogeographic data for all members of the biota. The Synthesis of the North American Flora, published in 1999, is available for purchase as a CD-ROM (ordering information is provided); a 1mb demonstration version for Windows is available through the BONAP site. The Synthesis includes taxonomic, nomenclatural, and biogeographic data and images, enabling users to produce species checklists, distribution summaries, and species assessments for morphology, rarity, endemism, nativity, and other biological attributes. It consists of three parts: the "Lexicon," which provides the underlying nomenclature and taxonomy; the "Atlas," which displays distribution maps for each of the accepted taxa; and the "Biological Attributes," which provides summaries of morphological and other specialized data (rarity and endemism, nativity, weediness, habit, habitat, and others).

453

SEASAT B orbit synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Addition were made to Battelle's Interactive Graphics Orbit Selection (IGOS) program; IGOS was exercised via telephone lines from JPL, and candidate SEASAT orbits were analyzed by Battelle. The additions to the program enable clear understanding of the implications of a specific orbit to the diverse desires of the SEASAT user community.

Rea, F. G.; Warmke, J. M.

1976-01-01

454

Synthesis and Summary  

Cancer.gov

R. Summers, NIH CC DRD 25-27 September 2002 Biomed ical Imaging Program 20 CT Colonography CAD R. Summers, D. J o hns on et al. Radiology 2001 Three polyps in the sigmoid colon of a 68 year old male (1.0, 1.5, 1.0 cm) 25-27 September 2002 Biomed ical Imaging Program 21 R.

455

Transformational derivation of programs using the Focus system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program derivation support system called Focus is being constructed. It will formally derive programs using the paradigm of program transformation. The following issues are discussed: (1) the integration of validation and program derivation activities in the Focus system; (2) its tree-based user interface; (3) the control of search spaces in program derivation; and (4) the structure and organization of program derivation records. The inference procedures of the system are based on the integration of functional and logic programming principles. This brings about a synthesis of paradigms that were heretofore considered far apart, such as logical and executable specifications and constructive and transformational approaches to program derivation. A great emphasis has been placed, in the design of Focus, on achieving small search spaces during program derivation. The program manipulation operations such as expansion, simplification and rewriting were designed with this objective. The role of operations that are expensive in search spaces, such as folding, has been reduced. Program derivations are documented in Focus in a way that the high level descriptions of derivations are expressed only using program level information. All the meta-level information, together with dependencies between derivations of program components, is automatically recorded by the system at a lower level of description for its own use in replay.

Reddy, Uday S.

1988-01-01

456

Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

2012-01-01

457

Exergy analysis of industrial ammonia synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exergy consumption of ammonia production plants depends strongly on the ammonia synthesis loop design. Due to the thermodynamically limited low degree of conversion of hydrogen–nitrogen mixture to ammonia, industrial ammonia synthesis is implemented as recycle process (so-called “ammonia synthesis loop”). Significant quantities of reactants are recycled back to reactor, after the removal of ammonia at low temperatures. Modern ammonia synthesis

Zornitza Kirova-Yordanova

2004-01-01

458

Telemedicine Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the 1970s, NASA has been involved in the research and demonstration of telemedicine for its potential in the care of astronauts in flight and Earth-bound applications. A combination of NASA funding, expertise and off-the-shelf computer and networking systems made telemedicine possible for a medically underserved hospital in Texas. Through two-way audio/video relay, the program links pediatric oncology specialists at the University of Texas Health Science Center in San Antonio to South Texas Hospital in Harlingen, providing easier access and better care to children with cancer. Additionally, the hospital is receiving teleclinics on pediatric oncology nursing, family counseling and tuberculosis treatment. VTEL Corporation, Sprint, and the Healthcare Open Systems and Trials Consortium also contributed staff and hardware.

1996-01-01

459

Apollo Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 3: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1963-01-01

460

Apollo Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of Model 2 used in the LOLA simulator: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1963-01-01

461

Apollo Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 2. Technicians work on Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1963-01-01

462

Apollo Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1963-01-01

463

Modern Beginning Programming Course.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A beginning programing course is described. It represents an approach to the ''right way'' to teach programing, independent of any programing language. This is accomplished by thinking of programing as a two-part process, constructing an algorithm and tra...

R. F. Keller

1975-01-01

464

NIH Minority Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains brief descriptions of National Institutes of Health programs for underrepresented minorities, including fellowships, programs for high school students, graduate research assistantships, postdoctoral training, and programs for college students. The publication provides a description of each program, eligibility…

National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

465

Human Reliability Program Overview  

SciTech Connect

This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

Bodin, Michael

2012-09-25

466

Aspartate Transcarbamylase Synthesis Ceases Prior to Inactivation of the Enzyme in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Aspartate transcarbamylase is synthesized during exponential growth of Bacillus subtilis and is inactivated when the cells enter the stationary phase. This work is a study of the regulation of aspartate transcarbamylase synthesis during growth and the stationary phase. Using specific immunoprecipitation of aspartate transcarbamylase from extracts of cells pulse-labeled with tritiated leucine, we showed that the synthesis of the enzyme decreased very rapidly at the end of exponential growth and was barely detectable during inactivation of the enzyme. Synthesis of most cell proteins continued during this time. When the cells ceased growing because of pyrimidine starvation of a uracil auxotroph, however, synthesis and inactivation occurred simultaneously. Measurement of pools of pyrimidine nucleotides and guanosine tetra- and pentaphosphate demonstrated that failure to synthesize aspartate transcarbamylase in the stationary phase was not explained by simple repression by these compounds. The cessation of aspartate transcarbamylase synthesis may reflect the shutting off of a “vegetative gene” as part of the program of differential gene expression during sporulation. However, aspartate transcarbamylase synthesis decreased normally at the end of exponential growth at the nonpermissive temperature in a mutant strain that is temperature-sensitive in sporulation and RNA polymerase function. Cessation of aspartate transcarbamylase synthesis appeared to be normal in three other temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase mutants and in several classes of spo0 mutants.

Maurizi, Michael R.; Switzer, Robert L.

1978-01-01

467

Lung epinephrine synthesis  

SciTech Connect

We studied in vitro and in vivo epinephrine (E) synthesis by rat lung. Nine days after removal of the adrenal medullas, circulating E was reduced to 7% of levels found in sham-operated rats but 30% of lung E remained. Treatment of demedullated rats with 6 hydroxydopamine plus reserpine did not further reduce lung E. In the presence of S-(3H)adenosylmethionine lung homogenates readily N-methylated norepinephrine (NE) to form (3H)E. The rate of E synthesis by lung homogenates was progressively more rapid with increasing NE up to a concentration of 3 mM, above which it declined. The rate of E formation was optimal at an incubation pH of 8 and at temperatures of approximately 55 degrees C. We compared the E-forming enzyme(s) of lung homogenates with those of adrenal and cardiac ventricle. The adrenal contains mainly phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), which is readily inhibited by SKF 29661 and methylates dopamine (DA) very poorly. Cardiac ventricles contain mainly nonspecific N-methyltransferase (NMT), which is poorly inhibited by SKF 29661 and readily methylates both DA and NE. Lung homogenates were inhibited by SKF 29661 about half as well as adrenal but more than ventricle. We used the rate of E formation from NE as an index of PNMT-like activity and deoxyepinephrine synthesis from DA as an index of NMT-like activity. PNMT and NMT activity in rat lung homogenates were not correlated with each other, displayed different responses to change in temperature, and were affected differently by glucocorticoids.

Kennedy, B.; Elayan, H.; Ziegler, M.G. (Univ. of California Medical Center, San Diego (USA))

1990-04-01

468

Effective use of park-and-ride facilities. A synthesis of highway practice. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis will be of interest to traffic planners and engineers, as well as to transit planners and operations personnel, design and construction contractors, and municipal, transit, and highway agencies. Security and management officials who are responsible for safe and efficient operation of park-and-ride facilities will also find the synthesis useful. The synthesis provides an assessment of the current status of park-and-ride facilities in the United States. The various aspects of park-and-ride facilities, including conceptual issues, location, design, administration, operation, maintenance, and other supporting elements are addressed in this synthesis. The report of the Transportation Research Board also provides information on the current usage of park-and-ride facilities throughout the nation, operating and maintenance practices at selected sites, descriptions of safety and security measures used at various facilities, and the relationship of ridesharing and travel demand management (TDM) programs to the success of park-and-ride facilities.

Turnbull, K.F.

1995-08-01

469

Natural Products Synthesis: Enabling Tools to Penetrate Nature's Secrets of Biogenesis and Biomechanism†  

PubMed Central

Selected examples from our laboratory of how synthetic technology platforms developed for the total synthesis of several disparate families of natural products was harnessed to penetrate biomechanistic and/or biosynthetic queries is discussed. Unexpected discoveries of biomechanistic reactivity and/or penetrating the biogenesis of naturally occurring substances were made possible through access to substances available only through chemical synthesis. Hypothesis-driven total synthesis programs are emerging as very useful conceptual templates for penetrating and exploiting the inherent reactivity of biologically active natural substances. In many instances, new enabling synthetic technologies were required to be developed. The examples demonstrate the often un-tapped richness of complex molecule synthesis to provide powerful tools to understand, manipulate and exploit Nature’s vast and creative palette of secondary metabolites.

Williams, Robert M.

2011-01-01

470

Total synthesis of lodopyridone.  

PubMed

A convergent total synthesis of the structurally unprecedented alkaloid lodopyridone was achieved using a cross-coupling of an iodopyridone fragment with a quinolinethiazolylstannane. Key features of the syntheses of the pentasubstituted 4-pyridone were a regioselective bromination of a 4-pyridone derived from kojic acid, a subsequent Cu-mediated introduction of the thioether, and a directed lithiation/iodination step. A chemoselective Negishi cross-coupling of a dibromothiazole and a quinolinylzinc reagent was used to assemble the chloroquinolinethiazol moiety. PMID:22909023

Burckhardt, Tobias; Harms, Klaus; Koert, Ulrich

2012-09-01

471

Enzymatic fatty ester synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty ester synthesis with immobilized 1,3-specific lipase fromMucor miehei is described. 1,2-Isopropylidene glycerol produced by condensation of glycerol with acetone was esterified with oleic acid\\u000a in the presence of aMucor miehei lipase (Lipozyme™) to obtain 1,2-isopropylidene-3-oleoyl glycerol. The effects of various process parameters (temperature\\u000a and pressure) and various ratios (enzyme\\/substrate) have been investigated to determine optimal conditions for the esterification

Simona Pecnik; Zeljko Knez

1992-01-01

472

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of videos, presented by the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The experiment allows students to view the formation of silver nanoparticles that can be detected by the reflection of a laser beam. Silver nanoparticles are used in the creation of yellow stained glass in churches around the country, an interesting, but little known fact. This is a fairly inexpensive activity as it involves stock solutions, and equipment present in any science laboratory. Overall, students will enjoy this basic, but still challenging, experiment.

Johnson, Chris; Ng, Steve

2009-01-21

473

Total synthesis of borrelidin.  

PubMed

The total synthesis of borrelidin has been achieved. The best feature of our synthetic route is macrocyclization at C11-C12 for the construction of an 18-membered ring after esterification between two segments. A detailed examination of the macrocyclization led us to the samarium(II) iodide-mediated intramolecular Reformatsky-type reaction as the most efficient synthetic approach. The two key segments were synthesized through regioselective methylation, directed hydrogenation, stereoselective Reformatsky-type reaction, and MgBr2.Et2O-mediated chelation-controlled allylation. PMID:17355148

Nagamitsu, Tohru; Takano, Daisuke; Marumoto, Kaori; Fukuda, Takeo; Furuya, Kentaro; Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Kuwajima, Isao; Harigaya, Yoshihiro; Omura, Satoshi

2007-04-13

474

Workforce Development Education Program. Program Review. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The performance of Florida's Workforce Development Education Program was reviewed. The following were among the data considered: (1) data on program enrollment, program completion, and earnings; (2) data on workforce programs provided from 1992-1993 to 1998-1999; and (3) the 97 responses obtained in a telephone survey of 418 Florida businesses…

Gray, Dorothy; Harkreader, Steve; Wagar, Deborah

475

Appalachia Preschool Education Program. Program Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the tenth in a series of 12 early childhood program descriptions compiled by the Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development. The program described here is the Appalachia Preschool Education Program developed by the Appalachia Educational Laboratory. The Appalachia Preschool Program is a demonstration project…

Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

476

NASA's educational programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

Brown, Robert W.

1990-01-01

477

Parallel Programming with Polaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel programming tools are limited, making effective parallel programming difficult and cumbersome. Compilers that translate conventional sequential programs into parallel form would liberate programmers from the complexities of explicit, machine oriented parallel programming. The paper discusses parallel programming with Polaris, an experimental translator of conventional Fortran programs that target machines such as the Cray T3D

William Blume; Ramon Doallo; Rudolf Eigenmann; John Grout; Jay Hoeflinger; Thomas Lawrence; Jaejin Lee; David A. Padua; Yunheung Paek; William M. Pottenger; Lawrence Rauchwerger; Peng Tu

1996-01-01

478

Electrical and Mechanical Passive Network Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The context of this paper is the application of electrical circuit synthesis to problems of mechanical control. The use of\\u000a the electrical-mechanical analogy and the inerter mechanical element is briefly reviewed. Classical results from passive network\\u000a synthesis are surveyed including Brune’s synthesis, Bott-Duffin’s procedure, Darlington’s synthesis, minimum reactance extraction\\u000a and the synthesis of biquadratic functions. New results are presented on

Michael Chen; Malcolm Smith

479

A Program Certification Assistant Based on Fully Automated Theorem Provers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a certification assistant to support formal safety proofs for programs. It is based on a graphical user interface that hides the low-level details of first-order automated theorem provers while supporting limited interactivity: it allows users to customize and control the proof process on a high level, manages the auxiliary artifacts produced during this process, and provides traceability between the proof obligations and the relevant parts of the program. The certification assistant is part of a larger program synthesis system and is intended to support the deployment of automatically generated code in safety-critical applications.

Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

2005-01-01

480

Synthesis of perfluoroalkylene dianilines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this contrast was to optimize and scale-up the synthesis of 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)-hexafluoropropane and 1,3-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, as well as to explore avenues to other perfluoroalkyl-bridged dianilines. Routes other than Friedel-Crafts reaction leading to 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane were investigated. The processes utilizing bisphenol-AF were all unsuccessful; reactions aimed at the production of 4-(hexafluoro-2-halo-isopropyl)aniline from the hydroxyl intermediate failed to yield the desired products. Tailoring the conditions of the Friedel-Crafts reaction of 4-(hexafluoro-2-hydroxyisopropyl)aniline, aniline, and aluminum chloride by using hydrochloride salts and selecting optimum reagent ratios, reaction times, and temperature resulted in approx. 20% yield of pure crystallized 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane in 0.2 mole reaction batches. Yields up to approx. 40% were realized in small, approx. 0.01 mole, batches. The synthesis of 1,3-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane starting with perfluoroglutarimidine was reinvestigated. The yield of the 4-step reaction sequence giving 1,3-bis(4-acetamidophenyl)hexafluoropropane was raised to 44%. The yield of the subsequent hydrolysis process was improved by a factor of approx. 2. Approaches to prepare other perfluoroalkyl-bridged dianilines were unsuccessful. Reactions reported to proceed readily with trifluoromethyl substituents failed when longer chain perfluoroalkyl groups were employed.

Paciorek, K. L.; Ito, T. I.; Harris, D. H.; Beechan, C. M.; Nakaham, J. H.; Kratzer, R. H.

1981-01-01

481

Synthesis of (?)-7-Hydroxylycopodine  

PubMed Central

A seven-step synthesis of (±)-7-hydroxylycopodine that proceeds in 5% overall yield has been achieved. The key step is a Prins reaction in 60% sulfuric acid that gave the key tricyclic intermediate with complete control of the ring fusion stereochemistry. A one-pot procedure orthogonally protected the primary alcohol as an acetate and the tertiary alcohol as a methylthiomethyl ether. The resulting product was converted to 7-hydroxydehydrolycopodine by heating with KO-t-Bu and benzophenone in benzene followed by acidic workup. During unsuccessful attempts to make optically pure starting material, we observed the selective Pt-catalyzed hydrogenation of the 5-phenyl group of a 4,5-diphenyloxazolidine under acidic conditions and the Pt-catalyzed isomerization of the oxazolidine to an amide under neutral conditions. In attempts to hydroxylate the starting material so that we could adapt this synthesis to the preparation of (±)-7,8-dihydroxylycopodine (sauroine) we observed the novel oxidation of a bicyclic vinylogous amide to a keto pyridine with Mn(OAc)3 and to an amino phenol with KHMDS and oxygen.

Lin, Hong-Yu; Causey, Robert; Garcia, Gregory E.

2012-01-01

482

Programmed Death in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) in bacteria plays an important role in developmental processes, such as lysis of the mother cell during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis and lysis of vegetative cells in fruiting body formation of Myxococcus xanthus. The signal transduction pathway leading to autolysis of the mother cell includes the terminal sporulation sigma factor E?K, which induces the synthesis of autolysins CwlC and CwlH. An activator of autolysin in this and other PCD processes is yet to be identified. Autolysis plays a role in genetic exchange in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the gene for the major autolysin, lytA, is located in the same operon with recA. DNA from lysed cells is picked up by their neighbors and recombined into the chromosome by RecA. LytA requires an unknown activator controlled by a sensory kinase, VncS. Deletion of vncS inhibits autolysis and also decreases killing by unrelated antibiotics. This observation suggests that PCD in bacteria serves to eliminate damaged cells, similar to apoptosis of defective cells in metazoa. The presence of genes affecting survival without changing growth sensitivity to antibiotics (vncS, lytA, hipAB, sulA, and mar) indicates that bacteria are able to control their fate. Elimination of defective cells could limit the spread of a viral infection and donate nutrients to healthy kin cells. An altruistic suicide would be challenged by the appearance of asocial mutants without PCD and by the possibility of maladaptive total suicide in response to a uniformly present lethal factor or nutrient depletion. It is proposed that a low rate of mutation serves to decrease the probability that asocial mutants without PCD will take over the population. It is suggested that PCD is disabled in persistors, rare cells that are resistant to killing, to ensure population survival. It is suggested that lack of nutrients leads to the stringent response that suppresses PCD, producing a state of tolerance to antibiotics, allowing cells to discriminate between nutrient deprivation and unrepairable damage. High levels of persistors are apparently responsible for the extraordinary survival properties of bacterial biofilms, and genes affecting persistence appear to be promising targets for development of drugs aimed at eradicating recalcitrant infections. PCD in unicellular eukaryotes is also considered, including aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Apoptosis-like elimination of defective cells in S. cerevisiae and protozoa suggests that all unicellular life forms evolved altruistic programmed death that serves a variety of useful functions.

Lewis, Kim

2000-01-01

483

Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 46: Diversity Training Initiatives. A Synthesis of Transit Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transit agencies all over America are increasingly recognizing the importance of diversity within their workplaces and the communities they serve. Transits customers and employees tend to reflect the different lifestyles, mobility needs, cultural backgrou...

2003-01-01

484

Total synthesis of jerangolid A.  

PubMed

The first total synthesis of the antifungal polyketide jerangolid A has been accomplished. Starting with the readily available (R)-Roche ester and (S)-glycidol as chirons, the synthesis involved a highly syn-selective Lewis acid catalyzed 6-endo-trig cyclization for the construction of the dihydropyran subunit. The lactone segment was built through a tandem NaOMe conjugate addition-lactonization reaction, and further functionalized through a sequence consisting of iodination, I-Mg exchange, and hydroxymethylation. Other key steps in the synthesis featured a novel application of a phosphonamide-anion based olefination and a Julia-Kocienski reaction. PMID:20565089

Hanessian, Stephen; Focken, Thilo; Oza, Rupal

2010-07-16

485

Polymer synthesis by enzymatic catalysis.  

PubMed

Using biocatalysts as enzymes for in vitro polymer synthesis is a relatively new (third) stream that has become popular in the past two decades, following a first stream using catalysts of acids, bases, radical species, and so on, used since 1920s, and a second stream using catalysts of transition metals and rare metals since 1950s. Enzymatic catalysis is environmentally benign, yet allows the synthesis of various natural and unnatural polymers that have well-defined structures with controlled stereochemistry, regioselectivity, and chemoselectivity. This review will focus on recent developments in enzyme-catalyzed polymer synthesis in the areas of polysaccharides, polyesters, and polyaromatics, as well as polymer modification. PMID:20022287

Kadokawa, Jun-ichi; Kobayashi, Shiro

2010-04-01

486

L2 Earth atmosphere observatory : formation guidance, metrology, and control synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses the results of research sponsored by the NASA Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) program, and includes the synthesis and analysis of the guidance, metrology and control for a two-spacecraft formation in a unique continuously powered orbit near the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point observing the illuminated atmosphere of the Earth while it is continuously occulting the Sun.

Acikmese, Behcet A.; Mettler, Edward; Breckenridge, William G.; Macenka, Steven A.; Tubbs, Eldred F.

2004-01-01

487

Suspension process for cement synthesis. Final report, November 1986March 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gas Research Institute has initiated a program to develop an advanced gas-fired cement synthesis process which will markedly reduce product processing time, lower maintenance and initial capital costs, minimize alkali sulfate formation, and mitigate greenhouse gaseous emissions compared to conventional cement pyroprocessing technology. In the advanced process, pellets of agglomerated batch enter at the top of a vertical shaft

Zappa

1989-01-01

488

REGIONAL CENTER FOR COLLECTION, SYNTHESIS AND DISSEMINATION OF CAREER INFORMATION FOR SCHOOLS OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS REGIONAL CENTER IS TO DEVELOP AN EFFICIENT SYSTEM OF PROVIDING CAREER INFORMATION TO SAN DIEGO COUNTY SCHOOLS. SIX JUNIOR COLLEGES ARE PARTICIPATING IN THE PILOT PROJECT. THE PROGRAM IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PHASES. THE FIRST IS THE COLLECTION AND SYNTHESIS OF OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION BASED UPON STUDENT AND COUNSELOR PERCEPTIONS OF…

GERSTEIN, MARTIN; HOOVER, RICHARD

489

The synthesis of optimal controls for linear, time-optimal problems with retarded controls.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimization problems involving linear systems with retardations in the controls are studied in a systematic way. Some physical motivation for the problems is discussed. The topics covered are: controllability, existence and uniqueness of the optimal control, sufficient conditions, techniques of synthesis, and dynamic programming. A number of solved examples are presented.

Banks, H. T.; Jacobs, M. Q.; Latina, M. R.

1971-01-01

490

Experience with a new type of reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circulating fluidised bed (CFB) reactors have traditionally been used for the high temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis-Synthol process. A development program undertaken by Sasol with the assistance of The Badger Company recently led to the successful commissioning of a commercial scale conventional, fixed fluidised bed (FFB) reactor as an alternative to the CFB reactor.

B. Jager; M. E. Dry; T. Shingles; A. P. Steynberg

1990-01-01

491

Spherical harmonic synthesis and least squares computations in satellite gravity gradiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational requirements in the simulations of geopotential estimation from satellite gravity gradiometry are discussed. Fast algorithms for spherical harmonic synthesis and least squares accumulation on a vectorizing supercomputers are presented. Using these methods, in a test case estimation of 2595 coefficients of a degree and order 50 gravity field, sustained program execution speeds of 275 Mflops on a single

Srinivas V. Bettadpur; Bob E. Schutz; John B. Lundberg

1992-01-01

492

Spherical harmonic synthesis and least squares computations in satellite gravity gradiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computational requirements in the simulations of geopotential estimation from satellite gravity gradiometry are discussed. Fast algorithms for spherical harmonic synthesis and least squares accumulation on a vectorizing supercomputers are presented. Using these methods, in a test case estimation of 2595 coefficients of a degree and order 50 gravity field, sustained program execution speeds of 275 Mflops (87 % peak

Srinivas V. Bettadpur; Bob E. Schutz; John B. Lundberg

1992-01-01

493

ANALYSIS OF THE FIELD SYNTHESIS ALGORITHM, VARIABLE FIELD GENERATION, USING MAGNETOSTATIC FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND OPTIMIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the magnetostatic field synthesis method, Variable Field Generation (VFG), and results from applying it to a test case to design magneto-plasma-aerodynamic (MPAD) devices to observe algorithm performance in the MATLAB programming environment are presented in this paper. The algorithm applied to this test case included integrating the Magnetostatic module of the finite element software package, Maxwell 3D

N. BROOKS; F. GROSS; T. BALDWIN

494

Synthesis of calculational methods for design and analysis of radiation shields for nuclear rocket systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eight computer programs make up a nine volume synthesis containing two design methods for nuclear rocket radiation shields. The first design method is appropriate for parametric and preliminary studies, while the second accomplishes the verification of a final nuclear rocket reactor design.

Capo, M. A.; Disney, R. K.; Jordan, T. A.; Soltesz, R. G.; Woodsum, H. C.

1969-01-01

495

Symbolic integration of logic in MILP branch and bound methods for the synthesis of process networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the branch and bound solution of process synthesis problems that are modelled as mixed-integer linear <