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Sample records for schematic wiring diagram

  1. Ten Triangles around Cavernous Sinus for Surgical Approach, Described by Schematic Diagram and Three Dimensional Models with the Sectioned Images.

    PubMed

    Chung, Beom Sun; Ahn, Young Hwan; Park, Jin Seo

    2016-09-01

    For the surgical approach to lesions around the cavernous sinus (CS), triangular spaces around CS have been devised. However, educational materials for learning the triangles were insufficient. The purpose of this study is to present educational materials about the triangles, consisting of a schematic diagram and 3-dimensional (3D) models with sectioned images. To achieve the purposes, other studies were analyzed to establish new definitions and names of the triangular spaces. Learning materials including schematic diagrams and 3D models with cadaver's sectioned images were manufactured. Our new definition was attested by observing the sectioned images and 3D models. The triangles and the four representative surgical approaches were stereoscopically indicated on the 3D models. All materials of this study were put into Portable Document Format file and were distributed freely at our homepage (anatomy.dongguk.ac.kr/triangles). By using our schematic diagram and the 3D models with sectioned images, ten triangles and the related structures could be understood and observed accurately. We expect that our data will contribute to anatomy education, surgery training, and radiologic understanding of the triangles and related structures. PMID:27510391

  2. 61. THREE LINE WIRING DIAGRAM, 33 KV & NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. THREE LINE WIRING DIAGRAM, 33 KV & NO. 1 TRANS BANK, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO PLANT, OCTOBER 27, 1958. SCE drawing no. 428058-1. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. The wiring diagram of a glomerular olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Berck, Matthew E; Khandelwal, Avinash; Claus, Lindsey; Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Si, Guangwei; Tabone, Christopher J; Li, Feng; Truman, James W; Fetter, Rick D; Louis, Matthieu; Samuel, Aravinthan Dt; Cardona, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell enables animals to react to long-distance cues according to learned and innate valences. Here, we have mapped with electron microscopy the complete wiring diagram of the Drosophila larval antennal lobe, an olfactory neuropil similar to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We found a canonical circuit with uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) relaying gain-controlled ORN activity to the mushroom body and the lateral horn. A second, parallel circuit with multiglomerular projection neurons (mPNs) and hierarchically connected local neurons (LNs) selectively integrates multiple ORN signals already at the first synapse. LN-LN synaptic connections putatively implement a bistable gain control mechanism that either computes odor saliency through panglomerular inhibition, or allows some glomeruli to respond to faint aversive odors in the presence of strong appetitive odors. This complete wiring diagram will support experimental and theoretical studies towards bridging the gap between circuits and behavior. PMID:27177418

  4. Beyond the wiring diagram: signalling through complex neuromodulator networks

    PubMed Central

    Brezina, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    During the computations performed by the nervous system, its ‘wiring diagram’—the map of its neurons and synaptic connections—is dynamically modified and supplemented by multiple actions of neuromodulators that can be so complex that they can be thought of as constituting a biochemical network that combines with the neuronal network to perform the computation. Thus, the neuronal wiring diagram alone is not sufficient to specify, and permit us to understand, the computation that underlies behaviour. Here I review how such modulatory networks operate, the problems that their existence poses for the experimental study and conceptual understanding of the computations performed by the nervous system, and how these problems may perhaps be solved and the computations understood by considering the structural and functional ‘logic’ of the modulatory networks. PMID:20603357

  5. The wiring diagram of a glomerular olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Berck, Matthew E; Khandelwal, Avinash; Claus, Lindsey; Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Si, Guangwei; Tabone, Christopher J; Li, Feng; Truman, James W; Fetter, Rick D; Louis, Matthieu; Samuel, Aravinthan DT; Cardona, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell enables animals to react to long-distance cues according to learned and innate valences. Here, we have mapped with electron microscopy the complete wiring diagram of the Drosophila larval antennal lobe, an olfactory neuropil similar to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We found a canonical circuit with uniglomerular projection neurons (uPNs) relaying gain-controlled ORN activity to the mushroom body and the lateral horn. A second, parallel circuit with multiglomerular projection neurons (mPNs) and hierarchically connected local neurons (LNs) selectively integrates multiple ORN signals already at the first synapse. LN-LN synaptic connections putatively implement a bistable gain control mechanism that either computes odor saliency through panglomerular inhibition, or allows some glomeruli to respond to faint aversive odors in the presence of strong appetitive odors. This complete wiring diagram will support experimental and theoretical studies towards bridging the gap between circuits and behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14859.001 PMID:27177418

  6. Solar Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

  7. Nano-Resolution X-ray Tomography for Deciphering Wiring Diagram of Mammalian Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, H.; Sagara, H.; Takeuchi, A.; Ohigashi, T.; Yashiro, W.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Momose, A.; Takagi, T.

    2011-09-01

    Neural circuits in the central nervous system are the substrate of various high-order brain functions. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying neuronal information processing in the brain. Anatomical and functional graph structures of neural networks with actual connections will provide us with perspectives to elucidate the brain complexity. Here, we aim to develop a three-dimensional mouse brain atlas of neural circuits using nano-resolution x-ray tomography by synchrotron radiation. In addition to identifying a large number of synapses, our research will also clarify the structure of neuronal networks for understanding the most complex organ in the body. In this study, we observed metal-stained biological tissues of the mouse brain using hard x-ray Zernike-type phase-contrast microscopy with 60-nm resolution at SPring-8. As a result, the nano-resolution hard x-ray phase-contrast microscope revealed nerve fibers and organelles including mitochondria and synapses in the neural tissue. In the near future, this information will be utilized to begin deciphering the wiring diagram of the brain by using nano-resolution x-ray tomography.

  8. Realistic and Schematic Visuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuvelman, Ard

    1996-01-01

    A study examined three different visual formats (studio presenter only, realistic visuals, or schematic visuals) of an educational television program. Recognition and recall of the abstract subject matter were measured in 101 adult viewers directly after the program and 3 months later. The schematic version yielded better recall of the program,…

  9. Actuator Response of Improved Two-Way Memory TiNi Wires Evaluated by Weight Fraction Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, C.; De la Flor, S.; Gispert-Guirado, F.; Ferrando, F.

    2014-05-01

    This paper experimentally studies the improvement in the actuator response of TiNi shape memory wires brought about by thermal treatments. Heat-treated TiNi wires were thermally cycled at zero stress before being trained by constant stress to develop the two-way shape memory effect. Subsequently, the work output of these two-way memory TiNi shape memory alloys are measured during repeated thermomechanical cycling under various levels of constant stress. Changes in the phase transformation behavior in two-way memory and thermomechanically cycled TiNi shape memory alloy wires are quantified by x-ray diffraction as a function of temperature. The weight fraction diagrams of TiNi wires thermally cycled at zero stress before they were trained suggests that during constant stress training they develop a lower quantity of R-phase than samples that have not been thermally cycled at zero stress before being trained. This gives thermally cycled TiNi samples higher levels of transformation strain and work output during thermomechanical cycling than samples that have not been thermally cycled before training. These results suggest that for the best material performance—that is, significant transformation strain and, consequently, substantial work output—the TiNi wire should be thermally cycled at zero stress before training.

  10. Foundational model of structural connectivity in the nervous system with a schema for wiring diagrams, connectome, and basic plan architecture.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Larry W; Bota, Mihail

    2010-11-30

    The nervous system is a biological computer integrating the body's reflex and voluntary environmental interactions (behavior) with a relatively constant internal state (homeostasis)-- promoting survival of the individual and species. The wiring diagram of the nervous system's structural connectivity provides an obligatory foundational model for understanding functional localization at molecular, cellular, systems, and behavioral organization levels. This paper provides a high-level, downwardly extendible, conceptual framework--like a compass and map--for describing and exploring in neuroinformatics systems (such as our Brain Architecture Knowledge Management System) the structural architecture of the nervous system's basic wiring diagram. For this, the Foundational Model of Connectivity's universe of discourse is the structural architecture of nervous system connectivity in all animals at all resolutions, and the model includes two key elements--a set of basic principles and an internally consistent set of concepts (defined vocabulary of standard terms)--arranged in an explicitly defined schema (set of relationships between concepts) allowing automatic inferences. In addition, rules and procedures for creating and modifying the foundational model are considered. Controlled vocabularies with broad community support typically are managed by standing committees of experts that create and refine boundary conditions, and a set of rules that are available on the Web. PMID:21078980

  11. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. Schematic driven silicon photonics design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrostowski, Lukas; Lu, Zeqin; Flückiger, Jonas; Pond, James; Klein, Jackson; Wang, Xu; Li, Sarah; Tai, Wei; Hsu, En Yao; Kim, Chan; Ferguson, John; Cone, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Electronic circuit designers commonly start their design process with a schematic, namely an abstract representation of the physical circuit. In integrated photonics on the other hand, it is very common for the design to begin at the physical component level. In order to build large integrated photonic systems, it is crucial to design using a schematic-driven approach. This includes simulations based on schematics, schematic-driven layout, layout versus schematic verification, and post-layout simulations. This paper describes such a design framework implemented using Mentor Graphics and Lumerical Solutions design tools. In addition, we describe challenges in silicon photonics related to manufacturing, and how these can be taken into account in simulations and how these impact circuit performance.

  13. Language, Perception, and the Schematic Representation of Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorapanth, Prin; Kranjec, Alexander; Bromberger, Bianca; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Woods, Adam J.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Schemas are abstract nonverbal representations that parsimoniously depict spatial relations. Despite their ubiquitous use in maps and diagrams, little is known about their neural instantiation. We sought to determine the extent to which schematic representations are neurally distinguished from language on the one hand, and from rich perceptual…

  14. Schematic displays for the Space Shuttle Orbiter multifunction cathode-ray-tube display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, W.

    1979-01-01

    A standardized procedure for developing cathode ray tube displayed schematic diagrams. The displaying of Spacelab information on the space shuttle orbiter multifunction cathode ray tube display system is used to illustrate this procedure. Schematic displays with the equivalent tabular displays are compared.

  15. Language, perception, and the schematic representation of spatial relations

    PubMed Central

    Amorapanth, Prin; Kranjec, Alexander; Bromberger, Bianca; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Woods, Adam J.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2011-01-01

    Schemas are abstract nonverbal representations that parsimoniously depict spatial relations. Despite their ubiquitous use in maps and diagrams, little is known about their neural instantiation. We sought to determine the extent to which schematic representations are neurally distinguished from language on the one hand, and from rich perceptual representations on the other. In patients with either left hemisphere damage or right hemisphere damage, a battery of matching tasks depicting categorical spatial relations was used to probe for the comprehension of basic spatial concepts across distinct representational formats (words, pictures, and schemas). Left hemisphere patients underperformed right hemisphere patients across all tasks. However, focused residual analyses using VLSM (voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping) suggest that (1) left hemisphere deficits in the representation of categorical spatial relations are difficult to distinguish from deficits in naming these relations and (2) the right hemisphere plays a special role in extracting schematic representations from richly textured pictures. PMID:22070948

  16. Language, perception, and the schematic representation of spatial relations.

    PubMed

    Amorapanth, Prin; Kranjec, Alexander; Bromberger, Bianca; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Woods, Adam J; Kimberg, Daniel Y; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-03-01

    Schemas are abstract nonverbal representations that parsimoniously depict spatial relations. Despite their ubiquitous use in maps and diagrams, little is known about their neural instantiation. We sought to determine the extent to which schematic representations are neurally distinguished from language on the one hand, and from rich perceptual representations on the other. In patients with either left hemisphere damage or right hemisphere damage, a battery of matching tasks depicting categorical spatial relations was used to probe for the comprehension of basic spatial concepts across distinct representational formats (words, pictures, and schemas). Left hemisphere patients underperformed right hemisphere patients across all tasks. However, focused residual analyses using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) suggest that (1) left hemisphere deficits in the representation of categorical spatial relations are difficult to distinguish from deficits in naming these relations and (2) the right hemisphere plays a special role in extracting schematic representations from richly textured pictures. PMID:22070948

  17. Assessing Schematic Knowledge of Introductory Probability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birney, Damian P.; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Plank, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    The ability to identify schematic knowledge is an important goal for both assessment and instruction. In the current paper, schematic knowledge of statistical probability theory is explored from the declarative-procedural framework using multiple methods of assessment. A sample of 90 undergraduate introductory statistics students was required to…

  18. Schematic driven layout of Reed Solomon encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arave, Kari; Canaris, John; Miles, Lowell; Whitaker, Sterling

    1992-01-01

    Two Reed Solomon error correcting encoders are presented. Schematic driven layout tools were used to create the encoder layouts. Special consideration had to be given to the architecture and logic to provide scalability of the encoder designs. Knowledge gained from these projects was used to create a more flexible schematic driven layout system.

  19. Semiotic Activity of Young Children in Play: The Construction and Use of Schematic Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oers, Bert

    1994-01-01

    Examined four- through six-year olds' ability to diagram the configuration of a toy railway set they had assembled and to reconstruct the railway based on drawings. Found that motivation had a significant influence on the accuracy of drawings. Results suggest that semiotic activity with the help of schematic representations or drawings is in the…

  20. Project TAPS. Teaching Anatomy with Programmed Schematics. Progress Report Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desch, S. H.; Stolurow, L. M.

    Experimental Programed Instruction of the anatomy of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve is being conducted by the Harvard Computer-Aided Instruction Laboratory in cooperation with Tufts University Dental School. Two nearly identical programs are presented, one (PF) using representational diagrams and the other (PD) a schematic diagram…

  1. Platform-independent method for computer aided schematic drawings

    DOEpatents

    Vell, Jeffrey L.; Siganporia, Darius M.; Levy, Arthur J.

    2012-02-14

    A CAD/CAM method is disclosed for a computer system to capture and interchange schematic drawing and associated design information. The schematic drawing and design information are stored in an extensible, platform-independent format.

  2. ISS EPS Orbital Replacement Unit Block Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2001-01-01

    The attached documents are being provided to Switching Power Magazine for information purposes. This magazine is writing a feature article on the International Space Station Electrical Power System, focusing on the switching power processors. These units include the DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU), the Bi-directional Charge/Discharge Unit (BCDU), and the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU). These diagrams are high-level schematics/block diagrams depicting the overall functionality of each unit.

  3. Neural Schematics as a unified formal graphical representation of large-scale Neural Network Structures.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, Matthias; Schüffny, René

    2013-01-01

    One of the major outcomes of neuroscientific research are models of Neural Network Structures (NNSs). Descriptions of these models usually consist of a non-standardized mixture of text, figures, and other means of visual information communication in print media. However, as neuroscience is an interdisciplinary domain by nature, a standardized way of consistently representing models of NNSs is required. While generic descriptions of such models in textual form have recently been developed, a formalized way of schematically expressing them does not exist to date. Hence, in this paper we present Neural Schematics as a concept inspired by similar approaches from other disciplines for a generic two dimensional representation of said structures. After introducing NNSs in general, a set of current visualizations of models of NNSs is reviewed and analyzed for what information they convey and how their elements are rendered. This analysis then allows for the definition of general items and symbols to consistently represent these models as Neural Schematics on a two dimensional plane. We will illustrate the possibilities an agreed upon standard can yield on sampled diagrams transformed into Neural Schematics and an example application for the design and modeling of large-scale NNSs. PMID:24167490

  4. Neural Schematics as a unified formal graphical representation of large-scale Neural Network Structures

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Matthias; Schüffny, René

    2013-01-01

    One of the major outcomes of neuroscientific research are models of Neural Network Structures (NNSs). Descriptions of these models usually consist of a non-standardized mixture of text, figures, and other means of visual information communication in print media. However, as neuroscience is an interdisciplinary domain by nature, a standardized way of consistently representing models of NNSs is required. While generic descriptions of such models in textual form have recently been developed, a formalized way of schematically expressing them does not exist to date. Hence, in this paper we present Neural Schematics as a concept inspired by similar approaches from other disciplines for a generic two dimensional representation of said structures. After introducing NNSs in general, a set of current visualizations of models of NNSs is reviewed and analyzed for what information they convey and how their elements are rendered. This analysis then allows for the definition of general items and symbols to consistently represent these models as Neural Schematics on a two dimensional plane. We will illustrate the possibilities an agreed upon standard can yield on sampled diagrams transformed into Neural Schematics and an example application for the design and modeling of large-scale NNSs. PMID:24167490

  5. Proposed Schematics for an Advanced Development Lunar Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, Bruce; Chullen, Cinda; Barnes, Bruce; Leavitt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The latest development of the NASA space suit is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a Pressure Garment System (PGS) and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen (O2) subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. This paper baselines a detailed schematic of the PLSS to provide a basis for current and future PLSS development efforts. Both context diagrams and detailed schematics describe the hardware components and overall functions for all three of the PLSS subsystems. The various modes of operations for the PLSS are also presented. A comparison of the proposed PLSS to the Apollo and Shuttle PLSS designs is presented, highlighting several anticipated improvements over the historical PLSS architectures.

  6. Schematic representation of residue-based protein context-dependent data: an application to transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Campagne, F; Weinstein, H

    1999-01-01

    An algorithmic method for drawing residue-based schematic diagrams of proteins on a 2D page is presented and illustrated. The method allows the creation of rendering engines dedicated to a given family of sequences, or fold. The initial implementation provides an engine that can produce a 2D diagram representing secondary structure for any transmembrane protein sequence. We present the details of the strategy for automating the drawing of these diagrams. The most important part of this strategy is the development of an algorithm for laying out residues of a loop that connects to arbitrary points of a 2D plane. As implemented, this algorithm is suitable for real-time modification of the loop layout. This work is of interest for the representation and analysis of data from (1) protein databases, (2) mutagenesis results, or (3) various kinds of protein context-dependent annotations or data. PMID:10736778

  7. A GIS Tool for simulating Nitrogen transport along schematic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoly, A. A.; Maidment, D. R.; Yang, Z.; Whiteaker, T.; David, C. H.; Johnson, S.

    2012-12-01

    An automated method called the Arc Hydro Schematic Processor has been developed for water process computation on schematic networks formed from the NHDPlus and similar GIS river networks. The sechemtaic network represents the hydrologic feature on the ground and is a network of links and nodes. SchemaNodes show hydrologic features, such as catchments or stream junctions. SchemaLinks prescripe the connections between nodes. The schematic processor uses the schematic network to pass informatin through a watershed and move water or pollutants dwonstream. In addition, the schematic processor has a capability to use additional programming applied to the passed and/or received values and manipulating data trough network. This paper describes how the schemtic processor can be used to simulate nitrogen transport and transformation on river networks. For this purpose the nitrogen loads is estimated on the NHDPlus river network using the Schematic Processor coupled with the river routing model for the Texas Gulf Coast Hydrologic Region.

  8. Browsing schematics: Query-filtered graphs with context nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciccarelli, Eugene C.; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1988-01-01

    The early results of a research project to create tools for building interfaces to intelligent systems on the NASA Space Station are reported. One such tool is the Schematic Browser which helps users engaged in engineering problem solving find and select schematics from among a large set. Users query for schematics with certain components, and the Schematic Browser presents a graph whose nodes represent the schematics with those components. The query greatly reduces the number of choices presented to the user, filtering the graph to a manageable size. Users can reformulate and refine the query serially until they locate the schematics of interest. To help users maintain orientation as they navigate a large body of data, the graph also includes nodes that are not matches but provide global and local context for the matching nodes. Context nodes include landmarks, ancestors, siblings, children and previous matches.

  9. Elevations, Major Component Isometric, Propellant Flow Schematic, and External Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations, Major Component Isometric, Propellant Flow Schematic, and External Tank Connection to Shuttle Main Engines - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Application note : using open source schematic capture tools with Xyce.

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  11. Energy Diagram for the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Drawing a schematic energy diagram for the decomposition of H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] catalyzed by MnO[subscript 2] through a simple thermometric measurement outlined in this study is intended to integrate students' understanding of thermochemistry and kinetics of chemical reactions. The reaction enthalpy, delta[subscript r]H, is…

  12. Thermodynamic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaston, Scot

    1999-02-01

    Thermodynamic data such as equilibrium constants, standard cell potentials, molar enthalpies of formation, and standard entropies of substances can be a very useful basis for an organized presentation of knowledge in diverse areas of applied chemistry. Thermodynamic data can become particularly useful when incorporated into thermodynamic diagrams that are designed to be easy to recall, to serve as a basis for reconstructing previous knowledge, and to determine whether reactions can occur exergonically or only with the help of an external energy source. Few students in our chemistry-based courses would want to acquire the depth of knowledge or rigor of professional thermodynamicists. But they should nevertheless learn how to make good use of thermodynamic data in their professional occupations that span the chemical, biological, environmental, and medical laboratory fields. This article discusses examples of three thermodynamic diagrams that have been developed for this purpose. They are the thermodynamic energy account (TEA), the total entropy scale, and the thermodynamic scale diagrams. These diagrams help in the teaching and learning of thermodynamics by bringing the imagination into the process of developing a better understanding of abstract thermodynamic functions, and by allowing the reader to keep track of specialist thermodynamic discourses in the literature.

  13. On d-Regular Schematization of Embedded Paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemsa, Andreas; Nöllenburg, Martin; Pajor, Thomas; Rutter, Ignaz

    In the d-regular path schematization problem we are given an embedded path P (e.g., a route in a road network) and an integer d. The goal is to find a d-schematized embedding of P in which the orthogonal order of all vertices in the input is preserved and in which every edge has a slope that is an integer multiple of 90°/d. We show that deciding whether a path can be d-schematized is NP-hard for any integer d. We further model the problem as a mixed-integer linear program. An experimental evaluation indicates that this approach generates reasonable route sketches for real-world data.

  14. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  15. Simple procedure for schematic design of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Kosiewicz, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple procedure for use during the schematic phase of passive solar building design is presented in this article. The procedure is quantitative and accurate enough to insure that designs based on the provided starting point values of the primary building parameters will be cost effective.

  16. Internalization of Filmic Schematic Operations in Relation to Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavrial

    Two major hypotheses were tested in three experiments. The first hypothesis proposed that students can imitate and internalize filmic codes, to be used subsequently as covert schematized mediators. The second hypothesis was that subjects with low relevant aptitude scores would profit more than better able subjects from films which model for them…

  17. Schematic Structure of Scientific Concepts: The Case of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halloun, Ibrahim

    Schematism is proposed as part of an epistemological framework for constructing and employing scientific knowledge. Within this framework, it is proposed that a concept of physics can be explicitly defined in a scientific theory by a schema that includes: (1) the domain of the concept; (2) its organization, i.e., the relationships between this…

  18. Health-Promoting School Indicators: Schematic Models from Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Sixsmith, Jane; Delaney, Ellen-Nora; Moore, Miriam; Inchley, Jo; O'Higgins, Siobhan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a three-stage process for engaging with students to develop school level indicators of health in sequential class groups students first generated, then categorised indicators and finally developed schematic representations of their analyses. There is a political and practical need to develop…

  19. 10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS PRODUCER PROCESS, BUILDING 10A.' Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Holston Defense Corporation. August 29, 1974. Delineator: G. A. Horne. Drawing # SK-1942. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  20. The Schematic Structure of Computer Science Research Articles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posteguillo, Santiago

    1999-01-01

    Presents a linguistic description of the schematic organization of 40 journal articles from three academic journals in computing research. Results indicate the introduction-methods-results-discussion research reporting pattern can not be applied to computer science articles, with the central part (methods- results) departing most from the…

  1. Mechanical verification of a schematic Byzantine clock synchronization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, Natarajan

    1991-01-01

    Schneider generalizes a number of protocols for Byzantine fault tolerant clock synchronization and presents a uniform proof for their correctness. The authors present a machine checked proof of this schematic protocol that revises some of the details in Schneider's original analysis. The verification was carried out with the EHDM system developed at the SRI Computer Science Laboratory. The mechanically checked proofs include the verification that the egocentric mean function used in Lamport and Melliar-Smith's Interactive Convergence Algorithm satisfies the requirements of Schneider's protocol.

  2. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  3. Residential Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark

    The second in a series of three curriculum packages on wiring, these materials for a five-unit course were developed to prepare postsecondary students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The five units are: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) rough-in; (3) service; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; and (5) load…

  4. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  5. Design and simulation of silicon photonic schematics and layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrostowski, Lukas; Lu, Zeqin; Flueckiger, Jonas; Wang, Xu; Klein, Jackson; Liu, Amy; Jhoja, Jaspreet; Pond, James

    2016-05-01

    Electronic circuit designers commonly start their design process with a schematic, namely an abstract representation of the physical circuit. In integrated photonics on the other hand, it is common for the design to begin at the physical component level, and create a layout by connecting components with interconnects. In this paper, we discuss how to create a schematic from the physical layout via netlist extraction, which enables circuit simulations. Post-layout extraction can also be used to predict how fabrication variability and non-uniformity will impact circuit performance. This is based on the component position information, compact models that are parameterized for dimensional variations, and manufacturing variability models such as a simulated wafer thickness map. This final step is critical in understanding how real-world silicon photonic circuits will behave. We present an example based on treating the ring resonator as a circuit. A silicon photonics design kit, as described here, is available for download at http://github.com/lukasc-ubc/SiEPIC_EBeam_PDK.

  6. Technological Literacy Learning with Cumulative and Stepwise Integration of Equations into Electrical Circuit Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozogul, G.; Johnson, A. M.; Moreno, R.; Reisslein, M.

    2012-01-01

    Technological literacy education involves the teaching of basic engineering principles and problem solving, including elementary electrical circuit analysis, to non-engineering students. Learning materials on circuit analysis typically rely on equations and schematic diagrams, which are often unfamiliar to non-engineering students. The goal of…

  7. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  8. Recognition and processing of logic diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Ahmed M.; Bashandy, Ahmed R.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we present a vision system that is capable of interpreting schematic logic diagrams, i.e. determine the output as a logic function of the inputs. The system is composed of a number of modules each designed to perform a specific subtask. Each module bears a minor contribution in the form of a new mixture of known algorithms or extensions to handle actual real life image imperfections which researchers tend to ignore when they develop their theoretical foundations. The main contribution, thus, is not in any individual module, it is rather in their integration to achieve the target job. The system is organized more or less in a classical fashion. Aside from the image acquisition and preprocessing modules, interesting modules include: the segmenter, the identifier, the connector and the grapher. A good segmentation output is one reason for the success of the presented system. Several novelties exist in the presented approach. Following segmentation the type of each logic gate is determined and its topological connectivity. The logic diagram is then transformed to a directed acyclic graph in which the final node is the output logic gate. The logic function is then determined by backtracking techniques. The system is not only aimed at recognition applications. In fact its main usage may be to target other processing applications such as storage compression and graphics modification and manipulation of the diagram as is explained.

  9. A Comparison of Schematic Processes in Memory for a Television, Text, and Radio Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Ariella; Pezdek, Kathy

    A study examined the nature of the schematic processes for a story presented in television, text, and radio form and for a story presented to above average and average readers. The story was parsed according to J. M. Mandler and N. S. Johnson's story grammar. Schematic processing was inferred from the pattern of node memorability for the different…

  10. Schematic Pedagogy: Supporting One Child's Learning at Home and in a Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherton, Frances; Nutbrown, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify ways in which the learning of very young children can be supported by practitioners developing a schematic pedagogy which focuses on structures of children's thinking. First, we provide a critical overview of relevant literature on schemas and schematic approaches to pedagogy. We then outline an original study undertaken…

  11. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  12. Modeling biomass competition and invasion in a schematic wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, N.

    2010-08-01

    Plants growing along hydrologic gradients adjust their biomass allocation and distribution in response to interspecific competition. Furthermore, susceptibility of a community to invasion is to some extent mediated by differences in growth habit, including root architecture and canopy hight. With reference to the study of a schematic wetland, the aim of this paper is (1) to test, via numerical modeling, the capacity of native plants to counteract an alien dominant species and cause eco-hydrological shifts of the ecosystem by changing their growth habit (e.g. allocating biomass below ground and by so doing changing the evapotranspiration locally) and (2) to test the impact on biodiversity of management practices that alter nutrient supply. The results demonstrated that unique combinations of vegetation types characterized by different growth habits may lead to different vegetation patterns under the same hydrologic forcing, and additionally, the vegetation patterns may change in response to major hydrological shifts, which could be related to diverse wetland management and restoration practices.

  13. Not just another face in the crowd: detecting emotional schematic faces during continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; Sterzer, Philipp

    2012-10-01

    To test whether threatening visual information receives prioritized processing, many studies have examined visual search for emotional schematic faces. Still, it has remained unclear whether negative or positive schematic faces are processed more efficiently. We used continuous flash suppression, a variant of binocular rivalry, to render single emotional schematic faces invisible and measured whether negative or positive faces have an advantage in accessing awareness. Across three experiments, positive faces were detected more quickly than negative faces. A fourth experiment indicated that this positive face advantage was unrelated to the valence of the face stimuli but due to the relative orientation of the mouth curvature and the face contour. These findings demonstrate the impact of configural stimulus properties on perceptual suppression during binocular rivalry and point to a perceptual confound present in emotional schematic faces that might account for some ambiguous results obtained with schematic face stimuli in previous studies. PMID:22309728

  14. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  15. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  16. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  17. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  18. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  19. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiosi, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HR-diagram), pioneered independently by EJNAR HERTZSPRUNG and HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL, is a plot of the star luminosity versus the surface temperature. It stems from the basic relation for an object emitting thermal radiation as a black body: ...

  20. 10 CFR 434.403 - Building mechanical systems and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Design Requirements-Electric Systems and Equipment... wiring diagrams, schematics, and control sequence descriptions. Desired or field determined...

  1. Square Source Type Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

  2. Impact of Schematic Designs on the Cognition of Underground Tube Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Zhilin

    2016-06-01

    Schematic maps have been popularly employed to represent transport networks, particularly underground tube lines (or metro lines), since its adoption by the Official London Underground in early 1930s. Such maps employ straightened lines along horizontal, vertical and diagonal directions. Recently, some researchers started to argue that the distortion in such a schematization may cause big distortion and some new designs are proposed. This project aims to make a comparative analysis of such a schematic design with a new design proposed by Mark Noad in 2011, which makes use of lines along 30º and 60º directions instead of the 45º direction. Tasks have been designed for evaluating the effect of schematic designs on route planning by travellers. The participant was asked to choose the route s/he would take among two or three possible route options and then read the name of the selected transfer station. Eye-tracking technique has been employed to track the map recognition process. Total travel time is used as criterion for effectiveness; completion time and mental work cost are used for efficiency evaluation. It has been found that (1) the design of map style has significant impact on users' travel decision making, especially map distance and transfer station symbol designs, and (2) the design style of a schematic map will have great impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of map recognition.

  3. xVis: a web server for the schematic visualization and interpretation of crosslink-derived spatial restraints

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Maximilian; Zimniak, Tomasz; Kahraman, Abdullah; Herzog, Franz

    2015-01-01

    The identification of crosslinks by mass spectrometry has recently been established as an integral part of the hybrid structural analysis of protein complexes and networks. The crosslinking analysis determines distance restraints between two covalently linked amino acids which are typically summarized in a table format that precludes the immediate and comprehensive interpretation of the topological data. xVis displays crosslinks in clear schematic representations in form of a circular, bar or network diagram. The interactive graphs indicate the linkage sites and identification scores, depict the spatial proximity of structurally and functionally annotated protein regions and the evolutionary conservation of amino acids and facilitate clustering of proteins into subcomplexes according to the crosslink density. Furthermore, xVis offers two options for the qualitative assessment of the crosslink identifications by filtering crosslinks according to identification scores or false discovery rates and by displaying the corresponding fragment ion spectrum of each crosslink for the manual validation of the mass spectrometric data. Our web server provides an easy-to-use tool for the fast topological and functional interpretation of distance information on protein complex architectures and for the evaluation of crosslink fragment ion spectra. xVis is available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license at http://xvis.genzentrum.lmu.de/. PMID:25956653

  4. Jupiter Torus Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of Jupiter's space environment shows magnetically trapped radiation ions (in red), the neutral gas torus of the volcanic moon Io (green) and the newly discovered neutral gas torus of the moon Europa (blue). The white lines represent magnetic field lines.

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENA) are emitted from the Europa torus regions because of the interaction between the trapped ions and the neutral gases. The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument on NASA's Cassini spacecraft imaged those energetic neutral atoms in early 2001 during Cassini's flyby of Jupiter. Energetic neutral atoms also come from Jupiter when radiation ions impinge onto Jupiter's upper atmosphere.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  5. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  6. Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

    2014-04-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

  7. Trace element indiscrimination diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Tang, Qingyan; Ripley, Edward M.

    2015-09-01

    We tested the accuracy of trace element discrimination diagrams for basalts using new datasets from two petrological databases, PetDB and GEOROC. Both binary and ternary diagrams using Zr, Ti, V, Y, Th, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sm, and Sc do a poor job of discriminating between basalts generated in various tectonic environments (continental flood basalt, mid-ocean ridge basalt, ocean island basalt, oceanic plateau basalt, back-arc basin basalt, and various types of arc basalt). The overlaps between the different types of basalt are too large for the confident application of such diagrams when used in the absence of geological and petrological constraints. None of the diagrams we tested can clearly discriminate between back-arc basin basalt and mid-ocean ridge basalt, between continental flood basalt and oceanic plateau basalt, and between different types of arc basalt (intra-oceanic, island and continental arcs). Only ocean island basalt and some mid-ocean ridge basalt are generally distinguishable in the diagrams, and even in this case, mantle-normalized trace element patterns offer a better solution for discriminating between the two types of basalt.

  8. Weyl card diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Gregory; Wang, John E.

    2005-06-15

    To capture important physical properties of a spacetime we construct a new diagram, the card diagram, which accurately draws generalized Weyl spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions by encoding their global spacetime structure, singularities, horizons, and some aspects of causal structure including null infinity. Card diagrams draw only nontrivial directions providing a clearer picture of the geometric features of spacetimes as compared to Penrose diagrams, and can change continuously as a function of the geometric parameters. One of our main results is to describe how Weyl rods are traversable horizons and the entirety of the spacetime can be mapped out. We review Weyl techniques and as examples we systematically discuss properties of a variety of solutions including Kerr-Newman black holes, black rings, expanding bubbles, and recent spacelike-brane solutions. Families of solutions will share qualitatively similar cards. In addition we show how card diagrams not only capture information about a geometry but also its analytic continuations by providing a geometric picture of analytic continuation. Weyl techniques are generalized to higher dimensional charged solutions and applied to generate perturbations of bubble and S-brane solutions by Israel-Khan rods.

  9. Weyl card diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gregory; Wang, John E.

    2005-06-01

    To capture important physical properties of a spacetime we construct a new diagram, the card diagram, which accurately draws generalized Weyl spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions by encoding their global spacetime structure, singularities, horizons, and some aspects of causal structure including null infinity. Card diagrams draw only nontrivial directions providing a clearer picture of the geometric features of spacetimes as compared to Penrose diagrams, and can change continuously as a function of the geometric parameters. One of our main results is to describe how Weyl rods are traversable horizons and the entirety of the spacetime can be mapped out. We review Weyl techniques and as examples we systematically discuss properties of a variety of solutions including Kerr-Newman black holes, black rings, expanding bubbles, and recent spacelike-brane solutions. Families of solutions will share qualitatively similar cards. In addition we show how card diagrams not only capture information about a geometry but also its analytic continuations by providing a geometric picture of analytic continuation. Weyl techniques are generalized to higher dimensional charged solutions and applied to generate perturbations of bubble and S-brane solutions by Israel-Khan rods.

  10. Identifying the best scenario for using schematic organizers as integration tools for alcohol-related information.

    PubMed

    Peel, J L; Dansereau, D F; Dees, S

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine scenarios for using two schematic organizers--schematic knowledge maps and conceptual matrices--in integrating episodic and semantic knowledge about alcohol. Seventy students from undergraduate general psychology classes participated for course credit. Participants were assigned to either a schematic organizer group or an essay writing group. These groups were subdivided further into two treatment sequences: episodic/semantic and semantic/episodic. The episodic activity required participants to complete materials using their own alcohol-related experiences, whereas the semantic activity required participants to annotate expert materials. Assessment measures used were consumer-satisfaction questionnaires and free-recall tests. While no preferences were established for any one scenario, the episodic activities were rated higher than the semantic activities regardless of integration sequence. The semantic/episodic integration scenario did produce higher recall scores for the expert information. PMID:8487138

  11. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  12. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

  13. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  14. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard...

  18. Perceptual Grouping, Not Emotion, Accounts for Search Asymmetries with Schematic Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stefanie I.; Horstmann, Gernot; Remington, Roger W.

    2011-01-01

    Several different explanations have been proposed to account for the search asymmetry (SA) for angry schematic faces (i.e., the fact that an angry face target among friendly faces can be found faster than vice versa). The present study critically tested the perceptual grouping account, (a) that the SA is not due to emotional factors, but to…

  19. Recognition of Schematic Facial Displays of Emotion in Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Mark T.; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Barbati, Giulia; Intelligente, Fabio; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Performance on an emotional labeling task in response to schematic facial patterns representing five basic emotions without the concurrent presentation of a verbal category was investigated in 40 parents of children with autism and 40 matched controls. "Autism fathers" performed worse than "autism mothers," who performed worse than controls in…

  20. Cortical responses to consciousness of schematic emotional facial expressions: a high-resolution EEG study.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Buffo, Paola; Buttiglione, Maura; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2010-10-01

    Is conscious perception of emotional face expression related to enhanced cortical responses? Electroencephalographic data (112 channels) were recorded in 15 normal adults during the presentation of cue stimuli with neutral, happy or sad schematic faces (duration: "threshold time" inducing about 50% of correct recognitions), masking stimuli (2 s), and go stimuli with happy or sad schematic faces (0.5 s). The subjects clicked left (right) mouse button in response to go stimuli with happy (sad) faces. After the response, they said "seen" or "not seen" with reference to previous cue stimulus. Electroencephalographic data formed visual event-related potentials (ERPs). Cortical sources of ERPs were estimated by LORETA software. Reaction time to go stimuli was generally shorter during "seen" than "not seen" trials, possibly due to covert attention and awareness. The cue stimuli evoked four ERP components (posterior N100, N170, P200, and P300), which had similar peak latency in the "not seen" and "seen" ERPs. Only N170 amplitude showed differences in amplitude in the "seen" versus "not seen" ERPs. Compared to the "not seen" ERPs, the "seen" ones showed prefrontal, premotor, and posterior parietal sources of N170 higher in amplitude with the sad cue stimuli and lower in amplitude with the neutral and happy cue stimuli. These results suggest that nonconscious and conscious processing of schematic emotional facial expressions shares a similar temporal evolution of cortical activity, and conscious processing induces an early enhancement of bilateral cortical activity for the schematic sad facial expressions (N170). PMID:20143385

  1. Schematic Representations in Arithmetical Problem Solving: Analysis of Their Impact on Grade 4 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnant, Annick; Vlassis, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    While the value of "schematic representations" in problem solving requires no further demonstration, the way in which students should be taught how to construct these representations invariably gives rise to various debates. This study, conducted on 146 grade 4 students in Luxembourg, analyzes the effect of two types of "schematic…

  2. Wire Test Grip Fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Wire-testing issues, such as the gripping strains imposed on the wire, play a critical role in obtaining clean data. In a standard test frame fitted with flat wedge grips, the gripping action alone creates stresses on the wire specimen that cause the wire to fail at the grip location. A new test frame, which is outfitted with a vacuum chamber, negated the use of any conventional commercially available wire test fixtures, as only 7 in. (17.8 cm) existed between the grip faces. An innovative grip fixture was designed to test thin gauge wire for a variety of applications in an existing Instron test frame outfitted with a vacuum chamber.

  3. Tectonic discrimination diagrams revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2006-06-01

    The decision boundaries of most tectonic discrimination diagrams are drawn by eye. Discriminant analysis is a statistically more rigorous way to determine the tectonic affinity of oceanic basalts based on their bulk-rock chemistry. This method was applied to a database of 756 oceanic basalts of known tectonic affinity (ocean island, mid-ocean ridge, or island arc). For each of these training data, up to 45 major, minor, and trace elements were measured. Discriminant analysis assumes multivariate normality. If the same covariance structure is shared by all the classes (i.e., tectonic affinities), the decision boundaries are linear, hence the term linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In contrast with this, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) allows the classes to have different covariance structures. To solve the statistical problems associated with the constant-sum constraint of geochemical data, the training data must be transformed to log-ratio space before performing a discriminant analysis. The results can be mapped back to the compositional data space using the inverse log-ratio transformation. An exhaustive exploration of 14,190 possible ternary discrimination diagrams yields the Ti-Si-Sr system as the best linear discrimination diagram and the Na-Nb-Sr system as the best quadratic discrimination diagram. The best linear and quadratic discrimination diagrams using only immobile elements are Ti-V-Sc and Ti-V-Sm, respectively. As little as 5% of the training data are misclassified by these discrimination diagrams. Testing them on a second database of 182 samples that were not part of the training data yields a more reliable estimate of future performance. Although QDA misclassifies fewer training data than LDA, the opposite is generally true for the test data. Therefore LDA is a cruder but more robust classifier than QDA. Another advantage of LDA is that it provides a powerful way to reduce the dimensionality of the multivariate geochemical data in a similar

  4. Controlled localized buckling responses of orthodontic arch wires.

    PubMed

    Nikolai, R J; Chung, A Y

    1999-09-01

    The orthodontic arch wire is often activated locally, in transverse bending and/or longitudinal torsion, to engage an individual malaligned tooth. Arch wires with substantial flexibilities and elastic ranges in bending are available. Several clinical reports of distal displacements of molars with appliances activated by locally buckling the arch wire have appeared in the recent published literature. This article contains an explanation of buckling or "column" action and the postbuckling response of a wire, and a report of the results of a controlled, in-vitro study of a sample of 256 wire segments subjected to activation-deactivation, buckling-postbuckling-unbuckling cycles. Continuous force-displacement diagrams were obtained from mechanical tests run at oral temperature. Four orthodontics-relevant, mechanical characteristics were quantified from each diagram, and each specimen was subjected to posttest evaluation for inelastic behavior. Although the deformation of the buckled wire is, in fact, bending, the force-displacement diagrams obtained differed substantially from their familiar counterparts generated in transverse bending. Judging from the force magnitudes induced as the deactivation half-cycles commenced as well as the deactivation rates, not all of the 8 wires seem to be clinically suitable for activation initiated by buckling. Magnitudes of springback were substantial from activations as large as 6 mm, and only 2 of the 8 wires exhibited full deactivations less than 80% of their activating displacements. This relatively new mode of arch wire activation that enables delivery to the dentition of mesiodistal pushing forces has substantial potential for clinical application from several biomechanical standpoints. PMID:10474103

  5. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists.2 These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams,3 energy bar charts,4 electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and animations.5 However, instructors have limited choices when they want to help their students understand impulse and momentum. One of the only available options is the impulse-momentum bar chart.6 The bar charts can effectively show the magnitude of the momentum as well as help students understand conservation of momentum, but they do not easily show the actual direction. This paper highlights a new representation instructors can use to help their students with momentum and impulse—the impulse-momentum diagram (IMD).

  6. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  7. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: 3.7 amps per wire, bundle of 15 or more wires, 70 C environment, and vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  8. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  9. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1999-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 degree C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire (2) bundle of 15 or more wires (3) 70 C environment (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  10. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  11. Schematic and realistic biological motion identification in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kristyn; Kelley, Elizabeth; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating biological motion perception in children with ASD has revealed conflicting findings concerning whether impairments in biological motion perception exist. The current study investigated how children with high-functioning ASD (HF-ASD) performed on two tasks of biological motion identification: a novel schematic motion identification task and a point-light biological motion identification task. Twenty-two HFASD children were matched with 21 TD children on gender, non-verbal mental, and chronological, age (M years = 6.72). On both tasks, HF-ASD children performed with similar accuracy as TD children. Across groups, children performed better on animate than on inanimate trials of both tasks. These findings suggest that HF-ASD children's identification of both realistic and schematic biological motion identification is unimpaired. PMID:25395988

  12. Schematic and realistic biological motion identification in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kristyn; Kelley, Elizabeth; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2014-10-01

    Research investigating biological motion perception in children with ASD has revealed conflicting findings concerning whether impairments in biological motion perception exist. The current study investigated how children with high-functioning ASD (HF-ASD) performed on two tasks of biological motion identification: a novel schematic motion identification task and a point-light biological motion identification task. Twenty-two HFASD children were matched with 21 TD children on gender, non-verbal mental, and chronological, age (M years = 6.72). On both tasks, HF-ASD children performed with similar accuracy as TD children. Across groups, children performed better on animate than on inanimate trials of both tasks. These findings suggest that HF-ASD children's identification of both realistic and schematic biological motion identification is unimpaired. PMID:25395988

  13. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, a Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  14. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  15. Wilson Loop Diagrams and Positroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwala, Susama; Marin-Amat, Eloi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we study a new application of the positive Grassmannian to Wilson loop diagrams (or MHV diagrams) for scattering amplitudes in N= 4 Super Yang-Mill theory (N = 4 SYM). There has been much interest in studying this theory via the positive Grassmannians using BCFW recursion. This is the first attempt to study MHV diagrams for planar Wilson loop calculations (or planar amplitudes) in terms of positive Grassmannians. We codify Wilson loop diagrams completely in terms of matroids. This allows us to apply the combinatorial tools in matroid theory used to identify positroids (non-negative Grassmannians) to Wilson loop diagrams. In doing so, we find that certain non-planar Wilson loop diagrams define positive Grassmannians. While non-planar diagrams do not have physical meaning, this finding suggests that they may have value as an algebraic tool, and deserve further investigation.

  16. vMMN for schematic faces: automatic detection of change in emotional expression

    PubMed Central

    Kreegipuu, Kairi; Kuldkepp, Nele; Sibolt, Oliver; Toom, Mai; Allik, Jüri; Näätänen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    Our brain is able to automatically detect changes in sensory stimulation, including in vision. A large variety of changes of features in stimulation elicit a deviance-reflecting event-related potential (ERP) component known as the mismatch negativity (MMN). The present study has three main goals: (1) to register vMMN using a rapidly presented stream of schematic faces (neutral, happy, and angry; adapted from Öhman etal., 2001); (2) to compare elicited vMMNs to angry and happy schematic faces in two different paradigms, in a traditional oddball design with frequent standard and rare target and deviant stimuli (12.5% each) and in an version of an optimal multi-feature paradigm with several deviant stimuli (altogether 37.5%) in the stimulus block; (3) to compare vMMNs to subjective ratings of valence, arousal and attention capture for happy and angry schematic faces, i.e., to estimate the effect of affective value of stimuli on their automatic detection. Eleven observers (19–32 years, six women) took part in both experiments, an oddball and optimum paradigm. Stimuli were rapidly presented schematic faces and an object with face-features that served as the target stimulus to be detected by a button-press. Results show that a vMMN-type response at posterior sites was equally elicited in both experiments. Post-experimental reports confirmed that the angry face attracted more automatic attention than the happy face but the difference did not emerge directly at the ERP level. Thus, when interested in studying change detection in facial expressions we encourage the use of the optimum (multi-feature) design in order to save time and other experimental resources. PMID:24191149

  17. Warped penguin diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, Csaba; Grossman, Yuval; Tanedo, Philip; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2011-04-01

    We present an analysis of the loop-induced magnetic dipole operator in the Randall-Sundrum model of a warped extra dimension with anarchic bulk fermions and an IR brane-localized Higgs. These operators are finite at one-loop order and we explicitly calculate the branching ratio for {mu}{yields}e{gamma} using the mixed position/momentum space formalism. The particular bound on the anarchic Yukawa and Kaluza-Klein (KK) scales can depend on the flavor structure of the anarchic matrices. It is possible for a generic model to either be ruled out or unaffected by these bounds without any fine-tuning. We quantify how these models realize this surprising behavior. We also review tree-level lepton flavor bounds in these models and show that these are on the verge of tension with the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} bounds from typical models with a 3 TeV Kaluza-Klein scale. Further, we illuminate the nature of the one-loop finiteness of these diagrams and show how to accurately determine the degree of divergence of a five-dimensional loop diagram using both the five-dimensional and KK formalism. This power counting can be obfuscated in the four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein formalism and we explicitly point out subtleties that ensure that the two formalisms agree. Finally, we remark on the existence of a perturbative regime in which these one-loop results give the dominant contribution.

  18. Schematic knowledge changes what judgments of learning predict in a source memory task

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Agnieszka E.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2009-01-01

    Source monitoring can be influenced by information external to the study context, such as beliefs and general knowledge (Johnson, Hashtroudi, & Lindsay, 1993). We investigated the extent to which metamnemonic judgments predict memory for items and sources when schematic information about the sources is or is not provided at encoding. Participants made judgments of learning (JOLs) to statements presented by two speakers, and were informed of the occupation of each speaker either before or after the encoding session. Prior knowledge decreased participants’ tendency to erroneously attribute statements to schematically consistent but episodically incorrect speakers, replicating earlier work. The origin of this effect can be understood by examining the relationship between JOLs and performance: In the absence of prior knowledge, JOLs were equally predictive of item and source memory, but were exclusively predictive of source memory when participants knew of the relationship between speakers and statements during study. Background knowledge determines the information that people solicit in service of metamnemonic judgments, suggesting that these judgments reflect control processes during encoding that reduce schematic errors. PMID:19103974

  19. Utilizing the eigenvectors of freeway loop data spatiotemporal schematic for real time crash prediction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shou'en; Xie, Wenjing; Wang, Junhua; Ragland, David R

    2016-09-01

    The concept of crash precursor identification is gaining more practicality due to the recent advancements in Advanced Transportation Management and Information Systems. Investigating the shortcomings of the existing models, this paper proposes a new method to model the real time crash likelihood based on loop data through schematic eigenvectors. Firstly, traffic volume, occupancy and density spatiotemporal schematics in certain duration before an accident occurrence were constructed to describe the traffic flow status. Secondly, eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the spatiotemporal schematics were extracted to represent traffic volume, occupancy and density situation before the crash occurrence. Thirdly, by setting the vectors in crash time as case and those at crash free time as control, a logistic model is constructed to identify the crash precursors. Results show that both the eigenvectors and eigenvalues can significantly impact the accident likelihood compared to the previous study, the proposed model has the advantage of avoiding multicollinearity, better reflection of the overall traffic flow status before the crash, and improving missing data problem of loop detectors. PMID:27258946

  20. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  10. Thin wire pointing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, G.; Mattauch, R. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for forming sharp tips on thin wires, in particular phosphor bronze wires of diameters such as one-thousandth inch used to contact micron size Schottky barrier diodes, which enables close control of tip shape and which avoids the use of highly toxic solutions. The method includes dipping an end of a phosphor bronze wire into a dilute solution of sulfamic acid and applying a current through the wire to electrochemically etch it. The humidity in the room is controlled to a level of less than 50%, and the voltage applied between the wire and another electrode in the solutions is a half wave rectified voltage. The current through the wire is monitored, and the process is stopped when the current falls to a predetermined low level.

  11. Argument Diagramming: The Araucaria Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Glenn; Reed, Chris

    Formal arguments, such as those used in science, medicine and law to establish a conclusion by providing supporting evidence, are frequently represented by diagrams such as trees and graphs. We describe the software package Araucaria which allows textual arguments to be marked up and represented as standard, Toulmin or Wigmore diagrams. Since each of these diagramming techniques was devised for a particular domain or argumentation, we discuss some of the issues involved in translating between diagrams. The exercise of translating between different diagramming types illustrates that any one diagramming system often cannot capture all of the nuances inherent in an argument. Finally, we describe some areas, such as critical thinking courses in colleges and universities and the analysis of evidence in court cases, where Araucaria has been put to practical use.

  12. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  13. Zinc wired rebar

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.G.; Hwang, J.

    1997-02-01

    A novel method for corrosion protection of rebar in concrete is reported wherein it is galvanically protected by attaching a zinc wire along its length. The self-corrosion and galvanic-corrosion loss of the zinc wire is dependent on the water/cement ratio, the size of the cathode, and the concrete cover thickness. The wire acts as a sacrificial anode when the rebar embedded in concrete is exposed to corrosive environments.

  14. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  15. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  16. Weld Wire Investigation Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.A.

    1999-03-22

    After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).

  17. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  18. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  19. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  20. Numerical simulations of heavily polluted fine-grained sediment remobilization using 1D, 1D+, and 2D channel schematization.

    PubMed

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar

    2015-03-01

    This article used various hydrodynamic and sediment transport models to analyze the potential and the limits of different channel schematizations. The main aim was to select and evaluate the most suitable simulation method for fine-grained sediment remobilization assessment. Three types of channel schematization were selected to study the flow potential for remobilizing fine-grained sediment in artificially modified channels. Schematization with a 1D cross-sectional horizontal plan, a 1D+ approach, splitting the riverbed into different functional zones, and full 2D mesh, adopted in MIKE by the DHI modeling suite, was applied to the study. For the case study, a 55-km stretch of the Bílina River, in the Czech Republic, Central Europe, which has been heavily polluted by the chemical and coal mining industry since the mid-twentieth century, was selected. Long-term exposure to direct emissions of toxic pollutants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) resulted in deposits of pollutants in fine-grained sediments in the riverbed. Simulations, based on three hydrodynamic model schematizations, proved that for events not exceeding the extent of the riverbed profile, the 1D schematization can provide comparable results to a 2D model. The 1D+ schematization can improve accuracy while keeping the benefits of high-speed simulation and low requirements of input DEM data, but the method's suitability is limited by the channel properties. PMID:25687259

  1. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  2. Miniaturized Linear Wire Ion Trap Mass Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinghao; Li, Ailin; Tian, Yuan; Zare, Richard N; Austin, Daniel E

    2016-08-01

    We report a linear ion trap (LIT) in which the electric field is formed by fine wires held under tension and accurately positioned using holes drilled in two end plates made of plastic. The coordinates of the hole positions were optimized in simulation. The stability diagram and mass spectra using boundary ejection were compared between simulation and experiment and good agreement was found. The mass spectra from experiments show peak widths (fwhm) in units of mass-to-charge of around 0.38 Th using a scan rate of 3830 Th/s. The limits of detection are 137 ppbv and 401 ppbv for benzene and toluene, respectively. Different sizes of the wire ion trap can be easily fabricated by drilling holes in scaled positions. Other distinguishing features, such as high ion and photon transmission, low capacitance, high tolerance to mechanical and assembly error, and low weight, are discussed. PMID:27373557

  3. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  4. 2016 MOST WIRED.

    PubMed

    Barr, Paul; Butcher, Lola; Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2016-07-01

    This year's IT survey shows that hospitals are aggressively fighting cyber crime and looking for ways to use data to help in the transition to value-based care. Find out who made the 2016 lists of Most Wired, Most Advanced, Most Improved and Most Wired-Small and Rural. PMID:27526506

  5. The exploding wire phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, H.

    1985-02-01

    Graneau's recent interpretation of the exploding wire phenomenon as an electrodynamic effect verifying Ampère's classical formulation is questioned. Instead, it is shown that the rupturing force arising from the imbalance of the self-induced electromotive force and the ohmic potential during an explosive current surge will account for the wire breaking into several segments, as is observed.

  6. Contingency diagrams as teaching tools

    PubMed Central

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Contingency diagrams are particularly effective teaching tools, because they provide a means for students to view the complexities of contingency networks present in natural and laboratory settings while displaying the elementary processes that constitute those networks. This paper sketches recent developments in this visualization technology and illustrates approaches for using contingency diagrams in teaching. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:22478208

  7. Potential-pH Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    1982-01-01

    Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

  8. Water Desalination with Wires.

    PubMed

    Porada, S; Sales, B B; Hamelers, H V M; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-06-21

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode pairs in freshwater with and in brine without an applied cell voltage, we create an ion adsorption/desorption cycle. We show experimentally how in six subsequent cycles we can reduce the salinity of 20 mM feed (brackish) water by a factor of 3, while application of a cation exchange membrane on the cathode wires makes the desalination factor increase to 4. Theoretical modeling rationalizes the experimental findings, and predicts that system performance can be significantly enhanced by material modifications. To treat large volumes of water, multiple stacks of wire pairs can be used simultaneously in a "merry-go-round" operational mode. PMID:26285717

  9. International space station wire program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd

    1995-01-01

    Hardware provider wire systems and current wire insulation issues for the International Space Station (ISS) program are discussed in this viewgraph presentation. Wire insulation issues include silicone wire contamination, Tefzel cold temperature flexibility, and Russian polyimide wire insulation. ISS is a complex program with hardware developed and managed by many countries and hundreds of contractors. Most of the obvious wire insulation issues are known by contractors and have been precluded by proper selection.

  10. A Schematic Equivalent Topography Model of the Lower Paraná Basin based on Satellite Estimations and a Simulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruscantini, C. A.; Salvia, M.; Franco, M.; Grings, F. M.; Ferrazzoli, P.; Karszenbaum, H.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is a major concern in the Plata Basin. In particular, Paraná River has a long and wide floodplain, which has been settled and cultivated. Losses due to floods in Argentina during the 1983, 1992, 1998, 2007 and 2009-2010 floodings exceeded US$1 billion each. Therefore, providing information about the basin hydrologic condition in a systematic way is critical to the regional economies and society. In particular, monitoring basin fluvial wetlands' flood-drought cycles is of extreme importance. These ecosystems extend along the Paraná-Paraguay axis and have highly dynamic exchanges of water with the river, with large annual and interannual variations. Thus, both floodplain water level and flooded area become relevant proxies for the total volume of water inside the floodplain. Moreover, the dynamics of these variables will be a raw indicator of floodplain overall hydrological behavior. Therefore, estimating these variables in a systematic way using remote sensing data, it is possible to constrain the outputs of hydrological forecast models. The aim of this work is to construct an equivalent topography schema that can be incorporated to forecast and alert models of the basin. This is approached in three successive steps. First, we implement a methodology to estimate flooded area and water level inside the floodplain, based on active and passive microwave satellite data and a surface emissivity model. Then, we study the behavior of the flooding and low water phases through the analysis of the relationship between flooded area fraction and water level inside the floodplain obtained in the first step and between flooded area fraction and water level in adjacent water bodies obtained from hydrometric gauges and microwave altimetry. Finally, from the observed dynamics and a topographic simulation model we propose a schematic equivalent topography of the floodplain that represents the simplest topography that can explain the water dynamics observed during flooding

  11. Interpretative bias in spider phobia: Perception and information processing of ambiguous schematic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Filipp

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the interpretative bias in spider phobia with respect to rapid visuomotor processing. We compared perception, evaluation, and visuomotor processing of ambiguous schematic stimuli between spider-fearful and control participants. Stimuli were produced by gradually morphing schematic flowers into spiders. Participants rated these stimuli related to their perceptual appearance and to their feelings of valence, disgust, and arousal. Also, they responded to the same stimuli within a response priming paradigm that measures rapid motor activation. Spider-fearful individuals showed an interpretative bias (i.e., ambiguous stimuli were perceived as more similar to spiders) and rated spider-like stimuli as more unpleasant, disgusting, and arousing. However, we observed no differences between spider-fearful and control participants in priming effects for ambiguous stimuli. For non-ambiguous stimuli, we observed a similar enhancement for phobic pictures as has been reported previously for natural images. We discuss our findings with respect to the visual representation of morphed stimuli and to perceptual learning processes. PMID:26276153

  12. Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.

  13. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  14. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  15. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Janice

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom use of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to infer not only the properties of a star but also the star's probable stage in evolution, life span, and age of the cluster in which it is located. (ZWH)

  16. Atemporal diagrams for quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.; Wu Shengjun; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2006-05-15

    A system of diagrams is introduced that allows the representation of various elements of a quantum circuit, including measurements, in a form which makes no reference to time (hence 'atemporal'). It can be used to relate quantum dynamical properties to those of entangled states (map-state duality), and suggests useful analogies, such as the inverse of an entangled ket. Diagrams clarify the role of channel kets, transition operators, dynamical operators (matrices), and Kraus rank for noisy quantum channels. Positive (semidefinite) operators are represented by diagrams with a symmetry that aids in understanding their connection with completely positive maps. The diagrams are used to analyze standard teleportation and dense coding, and for a careful study of unambiguous (conclusive) teleportation. A simple diagrammatic argument shows that a Kraus rank of 3 is impossible for a one-qubit channel modeled using a one-qubit environment in a mixed state.

  17. Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.

  18. Dual wire weld feed proportioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Dual feed mechanism enables proportioning of two different weld feed wires during automated TIG welding to produce a weld alloy deposit of the desired composition. The wires are fed into the weld simultaneously. The relative feed rates of the wires and the wire diameters determine the weld deposit composition.

  19. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  20. Schematic for efficient computation of GC, GC3, and AT3 bias spectra of genome.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Ahsan Z; Venu Gopal, T; Bhattacharya, C

    2012-01-01

    Selection of synonymous codons for an amino acid is biased in protein translation process. This biased selection causes repetition of synonymous codons in structural parts of genome that stands for high N/3 peaks in DNA spectrum. Period-3 spectral property is utilized here to produce a 3-phase network model based on polyphase filterbank concepts for derivation of codon bias spectra (CBS). Modification of parameters in this model can produce GC, GC3, and AT3 bias spectra. Complete schematic in LabVIEW platform is presented here for efficient and parallel computation of GC, GC3, and AT3 bias spectra of genomes alongwith results of CBS patterns. We have performed the correlation coefficient analysis of GC, GC3, and AT3 bias spectra with codon bias patterns of CBS for biological and statistical significance of this model. PMID:22368390

  1. Schematic for efficient computation of GC, GC3, and AT3 bias spectra of genome

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Ahsan Z; Venu Gopal, T; Bhattacharya, C

    2012-01-01

    Selection of synonymous codons for an amino acid is biased in protein translation process. This biased selection causes repetition of synonymous codons in structural parts of genome that stands for high N/3 peaks in DNA spectrum. Period-3 spectral property is utilized here to produce a 3-phase network model based on polyphase filterbank concepts for derivation of codon bias spectra (CBS). Modification of parameters in this model can produce GC, GC3, and AT3 bias spectra. Complete schematic in LabVIEW platform is presented here for efficient and parallel computation of GC, GC3, and AT3 bias spectra of genomes alongwith results of CBS patterns. We have performed the correlation coefficient analysis of GC, GC3, and AT3 bias spectra with codon bias patterns of CBS for biological and statistical significance of this model. PMID:22368390

  2. Schematics and Energetics of Bucky Shuttle Memory on Graphene Nanoribbon Array.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Won; Lee, Kang Whan

    2016-03-01

    Conjugated carbon nanomaterials such as fullerene-nanotube, fullerene-graphene, and nanotube-graphene hybrids have great potential for various applications. This paper presents the schematics and energetics of a nonvolatile nanomemory element based on a fullerene-nanotube-graphene hybrid. The system proposed was composed of C60 fullerene and a nanotube placed on two graphene-nanoribbons with a gap. The C60 fullerene encapsulated in the nanotube can shuttle between two graphene-nanoribbons along the nanotube under the alternatively applied force fields. When the encapsulated C60 fullerene settles on the graphene-nanoribbons, the local energy minima are achieved from the attractive van der Waals potential energies. Since the C60 fullerene retains its position on the graphene-nanoribbon without external force fields, the proposed system can then operate a nonvolatile memory device. PMID:27455728

  3. Fort Bliss Geothermal Area Data: Temperature profile, logs, schematic model and cross section

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This dataset contains a variety of data about the Fort Bliss geothermal area, part of the southern portion of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. The dataset contains schematic models for the McGregor Geothermal System, a shallow temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area. The dataset also contains Century OH logs, a full temperature profile, and complete logs from well RMI 56-5, including resistivity and porosity data, drill logs with drill rate, depth, lithology, mineralogy, fractures, temperature, pit total, gases, and descriptions among other measurements as well as CDL, CNL, DIL, GR Caliper and Temperature files. A shallow (2 meter depth) temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area with 63 data points is also included. Two cross sections through the Fort Bliss area, also included, show well position and depth. The surface map included shows faults and well spatial distribution. Inferred and observed fault distributions from gravity surveys around the Fort Bliss geothermal area.

  4. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. II - Generic Modular Flow Schematic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farral, Joseph F.; Seshan, P. K.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS) architecture capable of encompassing all functional elements of a physical/chemical life support system (LSS). The GMFS can be implemented to synthesize, model, analyze, and quantitatively compare many configurations of LSSs, from a simple, completely open-loop to a very complex closed-loop. The GMFS model is coded in ASPEN, a state-of-the-art chemical process simulation program, to accurately compute the material, heat, and power flow quantities for every stream in each of the subsystem functional elements (SFEs) in the chosen configuration of a life support system. The GMFS approach integrates the various SFEs and subsystems in a hierarchical and modular fashion facilitating rapid substitutions and reconfiguration of a life support system. The comprehensive ASPEN material and energy balance output is transferred to a systems and technology assessment spreadsheet for rigorous system analysis and trade studies.

  5. Schematic way to find solution of the outcoupled matter wave with a source term

    SciTech Connect

    Prayitno, T. B.

    2013-09-09

    We propose a schematic way to obtain solution of the outcoupled atom laser beam wave function in the presence of a source term where the beam is influenced by gravity. In this case, we only focus on the external potentials inside the region of Bose-Einstein condensate that are generated by electromagnetic source and gravity. Since the evolution of the atom laser beam can be portrayed through the ordinary Schrödinger equation with a source, we are allowed to express the general solution as the superposition of the homogeneous solution and particular solution. With the given external potentials and ansatz solutions, we attain that the obtained energy depends on the parameter constituting to the ratio between the longitudinal frequency and transverse frequency.

  6. Open-Source Semantic and Schematic Mediation in Hydrogeologic Spatial Data Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, E.; Brodaric, B.

    2008-12-01

    A common task in cyber-based data environments, hydrogeologic or otherwise, is an initial search for data amongst distributed heterogeneous sources, followed by amalgamation of the multiple results into a single file organized using a common structure and perhaps standard content. For example, querying water well databases to obtain a list of the rock materials that occur beyond a certain ground depth, represented in some specific XML dialect. This task is often achieved with the aid of open geospatial technologies (OGC), which conveniently enable interoperability at the system and syntax levels by providing standard web service interfaces (WMS, WFS, WCS) and a standard data transfer language (GML). However, at present such technologies, which are mainly non-open source, provide minimal support for interoperating at the schematic and semantic levels, meaning it is difficult to query the data sources and obtain results in a common data structure populated with standard content. Classical data integration systems provide mediator and wrapper middleware to address this issue: mediators dispatch queries to distributed data repositories and integrate query results, while wrappers perform translation to common standards for both queries and results, and these actions are typically supported by ontologies. Under this classical scenario existing open geospatial services can be considered wrappers with minimal translation capacity, thus requiring a mediator to both integrate and translate. Consequently, we have used open source components to develop a re-usable mediator that operates as a virtual open geospatial web service (WFS), one that integrates and translates both query requests and results from OGC-wrapped data sources to common standards. The mediator is designed as a customizable XML processing pipeline that operates on declarative descriptions that support schematic and semantic translation. It is being implemented in virtual environments for hydrogeology to

  7. Automatically Assessing Graph-Based Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pete; Smith, Neil; Waugh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    To date there has been very little work on the machine understanding of imprecise diagrams, such as diagrams drawn by students in response to assessment questions. Imprecise diagrams exhibit faults such as missing, extraneous and incorrectly formed elements. The semantics of imprecise diagrams are difficult to determine. While there have been…

  8. Pseudohaptic interaction with knot diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Jianguang; Zhang, Hui

    2012-07-01

    To make progress in understanding knot theory, we need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots, which are continuous in three dimensions (3-D) but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal is to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch two-dimensional (2-D) knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress in this direction. Pseudohaptics that simulate haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. We outline one such pseudohaptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2-D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a physically reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudohaptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of which the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudohaptic four-dimensional (4-D) visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4-D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2-D knot diagrams of 3-D knots and 3-D projective images of 4-D mathematical objects.

  9. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, R.A.

    1993-08-31

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  10. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  11. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  12. Dielectric coated wire antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, J. H.; Newman, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrically thin dielectric insulating shell on an antenna composed of electrically thin circular cylindrical wires is examined. A moment method solution is obtained, and the insulating shell is modeled by equivalent volume polarization currents. These polarization currents are related in a simple manner to the surface charge density on the wire antenna. In this way the insulating shell causes no new unknowns to be introduced, and the size of the impedance matrix is the same as for the uninsulated wires. The insulation is accounted for entirely through a modification of the symmetric impedance matrix. This modification influences the current distribution, impedance, efficiency, field patterns, and scattering properties. The theory is compared with measurement for dielectric coated antennas in air.

  13. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION...

  17. Schematization and Sentence Processing by Foreign Language Learners: A Reading-Time Experiment and a Stimulated-Recall Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tode, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how learners of English as a foreign language process reduced relative clauses (RRCs) from the perspective of usage-based language learning, which posits that language knowledge forms a hierarchy from item-based knowledge consisting only of entrenched frequent exemplars to more advanced schematized knowledge. Twenty-eight…

  18. Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Three Learning Environments: Hyper-Realistic Virtual Simulations, Traditional Schematic Simulations and Traditional Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Guadalupe; Naranjo, Francisco L.; Perez, Angel L.; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the educational effects of computer simulations developed in a hyper-realistic virtual environment with the educational effects of either traditional schematic simulations or a traditional optics laboratory. The virtual environment was constructed on the basis of Java applets complemented with a photorealistic visual output.…

  19. Comparative study of the effectiveness of three learning environments: Hyper-realistic virtual simulations, traditional schematic simulations and traditional laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Guadalupe; Naranjo, Francisco L.; Pérez, Ángel L.; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2011-12-01

    This study compared the educational effects of computer simulations developed in a hyper-realistic virtual environment with the educational effects of either traditional schematic simulations or a traditional optics laboratory. The virtual environment was constructed on the basis of Java applets complemented with a photorealistic visual output. This new virtual environment concept, which we call hyper-realistic, transcends basic schematic simulation; it provides the user with a more realistic perception of a physical phenomenon being simulated. We compared the learning achievements of three equivalent, homogeneous groups of undergraduates—an experimental group who used only the hyper-realistic virtual laboratory, a first control group who used a schematic simulation, and a second control group who used the traditional laboratory. The three groups received the same theoretical preparation and carried out equivalent practicals in their respective learning environments. The topic chosen for the experiment was optical aberrations. An analysis of variance applied to the data of the study demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p value <0.05) between the three groups. The learning achievements attained by the group using the hyper-realistic virtual environment were 6.1 percentage points higher than those for the group using the traditional schematic simulations and 9.5 percentage points higher than those for the group using the traditional laboratory.

  20. Influences of Source-Item Contingency and Schematic Knowledge on Source Monitoring: Tests of the Probability-Matching Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayen, Ute J.; Kuhlmann, Beatrice G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated conditions under which judgments in source-monitoring tasks are influenced by prior schematic knowledge. According to a probability-matching account of source guessing (Spaniol & Bayen, 2002), when people do not remember the source of information, they match source-guessing probabilities to the perceived contingency…

  1. 2. TYPICAL OVERHEAD WIRE CONSTRUCTION CURVE GUY WIRE ARRANGEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TYPICAL OVERHEAD WIRE CONSTRUCTION - CURVE GUY WIRE ARRANGEMENT (ABANDONED WEST LEG OF WYE AT SIXTH AVENUE AND PINE STREET) - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Trackage, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  2. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Investigating the Neural Correlates of Schemas: Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Is Necessary for Normal Schematic Influence on Memory

    PubMed Central

    Spalding, Kelsey N.; Jones, Samuel H.; Duff, Melissa C.; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Schemas, as memory representations of typical contexts, allow for generalization from previous experiences while often improving memory organization and accuracy. However, these advantageous characteristics of schematic memory may come at the cost of episode-specific information. In the human brain, this tradeoff between general and specific knowledge has been linked to differential contributions of the medial temporal lobes (MTL) to episode-specific memory and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to generalized, schematic memory. Here, we used a neuropsychological approach to test whether participants with focal vmPFC damage (n = 6) would show a reduced influence of schematic memory relative to healthy normal comparison participants (n = 12) in a recognition task that presented schematically congruent or incongruent contexts at study. As predicted, normal comparison participants were more likely to identify items as old after studying them in congruent contexts, and this effect was reflected in increased true and false recognition. These effects of prior context on recognition were not observed in the vmPFC group, suggesting that vmPFC damage reduced the influence of schematic memory. These findings are consistent with the proposition that the vmPFC plays an important role in integrating previous experience into ongoing memory processes while acting as part of a larger memory network. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the human brain, new memories are strongly influenced by existing knowledge of relevant context (sometimes called “schemas”). Schemas can benefit memory by expediting learning and increasing capacity in familiar contexts, but these benefits may simultaneously reduce episode-specific memory. Here we show that damage to the human ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) reduced the influence of existing knowledge on new memories. Our findings suggest that the vmPFC plays a key role in schematic memory processes by integrating previous experiences and

  4. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  5. Wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammoud, Ahmad

    1994-01-01

    The insulation testing and analysis consists of: identifying and prioritizing NASA wiring requirements; selecting candidate wiring constructions; developing test matrix and formulating test program; managing, coordinating, and conducting tests; and analyzing and documenting data, establishing guidelines and recommendations.

  6. NewsWire, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

  7. Basic Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

  8. Improved wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  9. Caroviologens: Towards molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard-Desce, M.; Arrhenius, T. S.; Dvolaïtzky, M.; Kugimiya, S.-I.; Lazrak, T.; Lehn, J.-M.

    1992-07-01

    Bispyridinium conjugated polyenes of different lengths and charges have been synthesized. Since they combine the features of carotenoids and of viologens, they have been termed caroviologens. Such molecules, possessing an extended conjugated chain fitted with polar electroactive endgroups, and having a length sufficient to span a lipid membrane could function as transmembrane electron channels, i.e., as molecular wires.

  10. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  11. Residential Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

  12. Easily-wired toggle switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. T.; Stringer, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Crimp-type connectors reduce assembly and disassembly time. With design, no switch preparation is necessary and socket contracts are crimped to wires inserted in module attached to back of toggle switch engaging pins inside module to make electrical connections. Wires are easily removed with standard detachment tool. Design can accommodate wires of any gage and as many terminals can be placed on switch as wire gage and switch dimensions will allow.

  13. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  14. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a reference repository in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Meyer, D.; Coons, W.E.

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that man-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the straitigraphy of southeastern New Mexico. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as site-specific conceptual designs when a site for a repository in salt has been selected. The principal material used in the seal system is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate as the repository rooms creep close to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For southeastern New Mexico salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 1000 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 400 years for a seal located in an access tunnel within the repository. Bulkheads composed of contrete or salt bricks are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation.

  15. INCORPORATING ROUTINE ACTIVITIES, ACTIVITY SPACES, AND SITUATIONAL DEFINITIONS INTO THE SOCIAL SCHEMATIC THEORY OF CRIME*

    PubMed Central

    BARR, ASHLEY B.; LEI, MAN-KIT; STEWART, ERIC

    2014-01-01

    Simons and Burt’s (2011) social schematic theory (SST) of crime posits that adverse social factors are associated with offending because they promote a set of social schemas (i.e., a criminogenic knowledge structure) that elevates the probability of situational definitions favorable to crime. This study extends the SST model by incorporating the role of contexts for action. Furthermore, the study advances tests of the SST by incorporating a measure of criminogenic situational definitions to assess whether such definitions mediate the effects of schemas and contexts on crime. Structural equation models using 10 years of panel data from 582 African American youth provided strong support for the expanded theory. The results suggest that childhood and adolescent social adversity fosters a criminogenic knowledge structure as well as selection into criminogenic activity spaces and risky activities, all of which increase the likelihood of offending largely through situational definitions. Additionally, evidence shows that the criminogenic knowledge structure interacts with settings to amplify the likelihood of situational definitions favorable to crime. PMID:26392633

  16. A LAMP-based schematic prototype instrument for detection of microorganisms in human outer space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongfei; Liu, Zhiheng; Li, Junxiong; Zhu, Baoli

    One of the main tasks of human outer space exploration is to detect signs of life. Based on meteoritic evidence, common ancestry hypothesis has been posed. Therefore, searching for the fundamental molecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) that constitute life as we know on Earth is feasible and now the typical approach. To achieve this goal, portable, robust, and highly sensitive instrument is also needed. In this study, based on Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique that targets life information storage molecular, DNA, we designed a schematic prototype instrument for microorganism detection. First, we designed LAMP primers used for amplification of DNA markers of Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungus; then, we optimized the LAMP reaction system for space using; and finally, we designed a prototype instrument and operating software system that are compatible with the LAMP reaction system. The results of simulation experiments showed that our instrument performed well for detecting representative microorganisms and the device can achieve semi-automatization. The detection process, from sample preparation to signal visualization, was completed in 1.5 hour. Our study provides a new method and corresponding device for detection of DNA molecular, which has great potential for applications in outer space exploration. Besides, the instrument we designed can also been used for monitoring changes of terrestrial microorganisms in outer space, for example in aircraft.

  17. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  18. Production of hot-wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, S. C.

    1983-04-01

    Several methods for producing hot-wire probes are described. Discussion includes the manufacture of probe bodies, soldering plated wires to the prongs etching Walaston type wires, and finishing the probe. This report is written as an instruction manual for researchers who desire to produce or repair their own sensors.

  19. Spectral Determinants on Mandelstam Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, Luc; Kalvin, Victor; Kokotov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    We study the regularized determinant of the Laplacian as a functional on the space of Mandelstam diagrams (noncompact translation surfaces glued from finite and semi-infinite cylinders). A Mandelstam diagram can be considered as a compact Riemann surface equipped with a conformal flat singular metric {|ω|^2}, where {ω} is a meromorphic one-form with simple poles such that all its periods are pure imaginary and all its residues are real. The main result is an explicit formula for the determinant of the Laplacian in terms of the basic objects on the underlying Riemann surface (the prime form, theta-functions, the canonical meromorphic bidifferential) and the divisor of the meromorphic form {ω}. As an important intermediate result we prove a decomposition formula of the type of Burghelea-Friedlander-Kappeler for the determinant of the Laplacian for flat surfaces with cylindrical ends and conical singularities.

  20. Hero's journey in bifurcation diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, L. H. A.; Mustaro, P. N.

    2012-06-01

    The hero's journey is a narrative structure identified by several authors in comparative studies on folklore and mythology. This storytelling template presents the stages of inner metamorphosis undergone by the protagonist after being called to an adventure. In a simplified version, this journey is divided into three acts separated by two crucial moments. Here we propose a discrete-time dynamical system for representing the protagonist's evolution. The suffering along the journey is taken as the control parameter of this system. The bifurcation diagram exhibits stationary, periodic and chaotic behaviors. In this diagram, there are transition from fixed point to chaos and transition from limit cycle to fixed point. We found that the values of the control parameter corresponding to these two transitions are in quantitative agreement with the two critical moments of the three-act hero's journey identified in 10 movies appearing in the list of the 200 worldwide highest-grossing films.

  1. Silver-sheathed multifilament wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. T.; Goretta, K. C.; Shi, D.; Lanagan, M. T.; Poeppel, R. B.

    1991-01-01

    The process for manufacturing Ag-sheathed multifilament superconducting wires was investigated. Bi2Sr(1.7)CaCu2O(x), Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O(x), or YBa2Cu3O(x) powders were packed into Ag tubes and swaged into long wires. Pieces were cut from each wire, packed into a second Ag tube and swaged or rolled into multifilament wires. Each wire was then sintered to produce a superconductor. Processing considerations included the sheath workability, effects of compacting and residual stresses, and heat treatment schedules. The superconducting properties of the Bi-based wires were superior to those of the YBa2Cu3O(x) wires at 4.2 K, but not at 77 K.

  2. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

  3. Looking inside the butterfly diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, M.

    2007-12-01

    The suitability of Maunder's butterfly diagram to give a realistic picture of the photospheric magnetic flux large scale distribution is discussed. The evolution of the sunspot zone in cycle 20 through 23 is described. To reduce the noise which covers any structure in the diagram, a smoothing algorithm has been applied to the sunspot data. This operation has eliminated any short period fluctuation, and given visibility to long duration phenomena. One of these phenomena is the fact that the equatorward drift of the spot zone center of mass results from the alternation of several prograde (namely, equatorward) segments with other stationary or poleward segments. The long duration of the stationary/retrograde phases as well as the similarities among the spot zone alternating paths in the cycles under examination prevent us from considering these features as meaningless fluctuations, randomly superimposed on the continuous equatorward migration. On the contrary, these features should be considered physically meaningful phenomena, requiring adequate explanations. Moreover, even the smoothed spotted area markedly oscillates. The compared examination of area and spot zone evolution allows us to infer details about the spotted area distribution inside the butterfly diagram. Links between the changing structure of the spot zone and the tachocline rotation rate oscillations are proposed.

  4. From wires to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Baumann, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  5. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  6. Wire insulation defect detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greulich, Owen R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Wiring defects are located by detecting a reflected signal that is developed when an arc occurs through the defect to a nearby ground. The time between the generation of the signal and the return of the reflected signal provides an indication of the distance of the arc (and therefore the defect) from the signal source. To ensure arcing, a signal is repeated at gradually increasing voltages while the wire being tested and a nearby ground are immersed in a conductive medium. In order to ensure that the arcing occurs at an identifiable time, the signal whose reflection is to be detected is always made to reach the highest potential yet seen by the system.

  7. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  8. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  9. Twistor Diagrams and Quantum Field Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donald, Lewis

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis uses twistor diagram theory, as developed by Penrose (1975) and Hodges (1990c), to try to approach some of the difficulties inherent in the standard quantum field theoretic description of particle interactions. The resolution of these issues is the eventual goal of the twistor diagram program. First twistor diagram theory is introduced from a physical view-point, with the aim of studying larger diagrams than have been typically explored. Methods are evolved to tackle the double box and triple box diagrams. These lead to three methods of constructing an amplitude for the double box, and two ways for the triple box. Next this theory is applied to translate the channels of a Yukawa Feynman diagram, which has more than four external states, into various twistor diagrams. This provides a test of the skeleton hypothesis (of Hodges, 1990c) in these cases, and also shows that conformal breaking must enter into twistor diagrams before the translation of loop level Feynman diagrams. The issue of divergent Feynman diagrams is then considered. By using a twistor equivalent of the sum-over -states idea of quantum field theory, twistor translations of loop diagrams are conjectured. The various massless propagator corrections and vacuum diagrams calculated give results consistent with Feynman theory. Two diagrams are also found that give agreement with the finite parts of the Feynman "fish" diagrams of phi^4 -theory. However it is found that a more rigorous translation for the time-like fish requires new boundaries to be added to the twistor sum-over-states. The twistor diagram obtained is found to give the finite part of the relevant Feynman diagram.

  10. False Recall Is Reduced by Damage to the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex: Implications for Understanding the Neural Correlates of Schematic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Samuel H.; Duff, Melissa C.; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Schematic memory, or contextual knowledge derived from experience (Bartlett, 1932), benefits memory function by enhancing retention and speeding learning of related information (Bransford and Johnson, 1972; Tse et al., 2007). However, schematic memory can also promote memory errors, producing false memories. One demonstration is the “false memory effect” of the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995): studying words that fit a common schema (e.g., cold, blizzard, winter) often produces memory for a nonstudied word (e.g., snow). We propose that frontal lobe regions that contribute to complex decision-making processes by weighting various alternatives, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), may also contribute to memory processes by weighting the influence of schematic knowledge. We investigated the role of human vmPFC in false memory by combining a neuropsychological approach with the DRM task. Patients with vmPFC lesions (n = 7) and healthy comparison participants (n = 14) studied word lists that excluded a common associate (the critical item). Recall and recognition tests revealed expected high levels of false recall and recognition of critical items by healthy participants. In contrast, vmPFC patients showed consistently reduced false recall, with significantly fewer intrusions of critical items. False recognition was also marginally reduced among vmPFC patients. Our findings suggest that vmPFC increases the influence of schematically congruent memories, a contribution that may be related to the role of the vmPFC in decision making. These novel neuropsychological results highlight a role for the vmPFC as part of a memory network including the medial temporal lobes and hippocampus (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010). PMID:24872571

  11. Arrows in Comprehending and Producing Mechanical Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Julie; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical systems have structural organizations--parts, and their relations--and functional organizations--temporal, dynamic, and causal processes--which can be explained using text or diagrams. Two experiments illustrate the role of arrows in diagrams of mechanical systems. In Experiment 1, people described diagrams with or without arrows,…

  12. Differential Effectiveness of Two Science Diagram Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    Reported is an Aptitude Treatment Instruction (ATI) Study designed to evaluate the aptitude of verbal comprehension in terms of two unitary complex science diagram types: a single complex block word diagram and a single complex picture word diagram.. ATI theory and research indicate that different effective instructional treatments tend to help…

  13. Deconstructing the concept of the healthy eater self-schematic: relations to dietary intake, weight and eating cognitions.

    PubMed

    Holub, Shayla C; Haney, Ann M; Roelse, Holly

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated differences in dietary intake, weight status, food preoccupation, and attributions about healthy eating lapses between individuals classified as healthy eater self-schematics and nonschematics. The study also assessed whether the separate dimensions of the self-schema construct (self-description as a healthy eater and perceived importance of being a healthy eater to self-image) are related to these health outcomes. College students (N=125; 82% female) completed questionnaires assessing healthy eater self-schema status, dietary intake, weight status, food preoccupation, and lapse attributions. Results revealed that females who were classified as healthy eater self-schematics ate more fruits and vegetables, ate less junk food and had lower BMIs than nonschematics. Healthy eater self-schematics also engaged in more positive thoughts and fewer negative thoughts about food, made less stable attributions about lapses in healthy eating and endorsed more personal control over lapses. When the two dimensions of the self-schema were examined separately, self-description appeared to be more related to these outcomes than perceived importance. PMID:22365791

  14. Fluctuation of probe beam in thermolens schematics as potential indicator of cell metabolism, apoptosis, necrosis and laser impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Menyaev, Yulian A.; Shashkov, Evgeny V.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Scheludko, Andrei V.; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2006-02-01

    Recently we discovered that in developed integrated flow cytometry using combination high resolution transmission and two beam (pump-probe) of photothermal microscopy with flow module the temporal fluctuation of probe beam even without pump laser pulse are very sensitive to functional states of single cells (e.g. with 2-3 differences in average fluctuation amplitude for live and dead cells). In this paper we are focusing on theoretical and experimental studies of these new phenomena using thermolens schematics with highly stabilized continuous-wave He-Ne laser and photodiode/photomultiplier with pinhole. This scheme allows to study both random and laser-induced thermolens effects in passive and active mode including short and long term monitoring of scattered light fluctuation in trans-illumination mode at single cellular and even sub-cellular levels in vitro, and in vivo. We demonstrate these schematics has some potential to monitor intracellular dynamics including change in cell metabolism, and necrosis, especially, under pump laser impacts in vitro in stationary condition. Besides, we present some relevant data obtained with other similar schematics, including evaluation of bacterial motility by dynamic light scattering. We discuss further potential developing this approach for flow cytometry with fast speed photodetector and digital camera and the multi- wavelength statistical and correlation analysis of speckle-related signals in applications to analysis of complex motions and functional properties of cells in bioflows including the evaluation of the rotational and translational components of the motion of individual live and dead cells.

  15. Development and testing of laser Doppler system components for wake vortex monitoring. Volume 2: Scanner operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, B. B.; Coffey, E. W.

    1974-01-01

    The theory and operation of the scanner portion of the laser Doppler system for detecting and monitoring aircraft trailing vortices in an airport environment are discussed. Schematics, wiring diagrams, component values, and operation and checkout procedures are included.

  16. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOEpatents

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  17. Wire detecting apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  18. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  19. Understanding machines from text and diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegarty, Mary; Just, Marcel A.

    1987-12-01

    Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text, (2) to reactivate information that has already been represented, and (3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Using data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrams more often than high-ability text. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite for encoding new information from a diagram. Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text; (2) to reactivate information that was alsready represented, and *3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Uinsg data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrmas more often than high-ability tesxt. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite and encoding information on a diagram.

  20. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  1. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  2. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, Guido; Lusso, Elisabeta

    2015-09-01

    We present a new method to test the cosmological model at high z, and measure the cosmological parameters, based on the non-linear correlation between UV and X-ray luminosity in quasars. While the method can be successfully tested with the data available today, a deep X-ray survey matching the future LSST and Euclid quasar catalogs is needed to achieve a high precision. Athena could provide a Hubble diagram for quasar analogous to that available today for supernovae, but extending up to z>6.

  3. Optical generation of Voronoi diagram.

    PubMed

    Giavazzi, F; Cerbino, R; Mazzoni, S; Giglio, M; Vailati, A

    2008-03-31

    We present results of experiments of diffraction by an amplitude screen, made of randomly distributed circular holes. By careful selection of the experimental parameters we obtain an intensity pattern strongly connected to the Voronoi diagram (VD) generated by the centers of the apertures. With the help of simulations we give a description of the observed phenomenon and elucidate the optimal parameters for its observation. Finally, we also suggest how it can be used for a fast, all-optical generation of VDs. PMID:18542580

  4. Review of wire chamber aging

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Neural wiring optimization.

    PubMed

    Cherniak, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Combinatorial network optimization theory concerns minimization of connection costs among interconnected components in systems such as electronic circuits. As an organization principle, similar wiring minimization can be observed at various levels of nervous systems, invertebrate and vertebrate, including primate, from placement of the entire brain in the body down to the subcellular level of neuron arbor geometry. In some cases, the minimization appears either perfect, or as good as can be detected with current methods. One question such best-of-all-possible-brains results raise is, what is the map of such optimization, does it have a distinct neural domain? PMID:22230636

  6. Texture development in Galfenol wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

    2013-05-01

    Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (α) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

  7. Phase diagram and entanglement of two interacting topological Kitaev chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herviou, Loïc; Mora, Christophe; Le Hur, Karyn

    2016-04-01

    A superconducting wire described by a p -wave pairing and a Kitaev Hamiltonian exhibits Majorana fermions at its edges and is topologically protected by symmetry. We consider two Kitaev wires (chains) coupled by a Coulomb-type interaction and study the complete phase diagram using analytical and numerical techniques. A topological superconducting phase with four Majorana fermions occurs until moderate interactions between chains. For large interactions, both repulsive and attractive, by analogy with the Hubbard model, we identify Mott phases with Ising-type magnetic order. For repulsive interactions, the Ising antiferromagnetic order favors the occurrence of orbital currents spontaneously breaking time-reversal symmetry. By strongly varying the chemical potentials of the two chains, quantum phase transitions towards fully polarized (empty or full) fermionic chains occur. In the Kitaev model, the quantum critical point separating the topological superconducting phase and the polarized phase belongs to the universality class of the critical Ising model in two dimensions. When increasing the Coulomb interaction between chains, then we identify an additional phase corresponding to two critical Ising theories (or two chains of Majorana fermions). We confirm the existence of such a phase from exact mappings and from the concept of bipartite fluctuations. We show the existence of negative logarithmic corrections in the bipartite fluctuations, as a reminiscence of the quantum critical point in the Kitaev model. Other entanglement probes such as bipartite entropy and entanglement spectrum are also used to characterize the phase diagram. The limit of large interactions can be reached in an equivalent setup of ultracold atoms and Josephson junctions.

  8. Cell flipping in permutation diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golumbic, Martin Charles; Kaplang, Haim

    Permutation diagrams have been used in circuit design to model a set of single point nets crossing a channel, where the minimum number of layers needed to realize the diagram equals the clique number ω(G) of its permutation graph, the value of which can be calculated in O(n log n) time. We consider a generalization of this model motivated by "standard cell" technology in which the numbers on each side of the channel are partitioned into consecutive subsequences, or cells, each of which can be left unchanged or flipped (i.e., reversed). We ask, for what choice of fiippings will the resulting clique number be minimum or maximum. We show that when one side of the channel is fixed (no flipping), an optimal flipping for the other side can be found in O(n log n) time for the maximum clique number. We prove that the general problem is NP-complete for the minimum clique number and O(n 2) for the maximum clique number. Moreover, since the complement of a permutation graph is also a permutation graph, the same complexity results hold for the independence number.

  9. Phase Diagrams of Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Chuck; Berry, Don; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2016-03-01

    In the inner crust of neutrons stars, where matter is near the saturation density, protons and neutrons arrange themselves into complex structures called nuclear pasta. Early theoretical work predicted a simple graduated hierarchy of pasta phases, consisting of spheres, cylinders, slabs, and uniform matter with voids. Previous work has simulated these phases with a simple classical model and has shown that the formation of these structures is dependent on the temperature, density, and proton fraction. However, previous work only studied a limited range of these parameters due to computational limitations. Thanks to recent advances in computing it is now possible to survey the structure of nuclear pasta for a larger range of parameters. By simulating nuclear pasta with constant temperature and proton fraction in an expanding simulation volume we are able to study the phase transitions in nuclear pasta, and thus produce a set of phase diagrams. We report on these phase diagrams as well as newly identified phases of nuclear pasta and discuss their implications for neutron star observables.

  10. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  11. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  12. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  13. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  14. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  15. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from...

  16. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  17. Data management system CIU and DIU. Appendix A: CIU and DIU schematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Computer Interface Unit (CIU) and the Data Interface Unit (DIU) of the Data Management System (DMS) were described as to their functional location, purpose and function. This describes the CIU and DIU at the unit level illustrating their interface thru the Data Bus (DBUS) and to other DMS units. All unit level interfaces are defined as to function and characteristics. The controls, indicators, test points and connectors are listed and function, location and application are described for each. The mechanical configuration is defined and illustrated to provide card and component location for modification or repair purposes. Unique disassembly and assembly requirements are outlined where applicable. A unit internal functional block diagram level description is provided.

  18. Two-Wire to Four-Wire Audio Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, G. L., Jr; Seale, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple circuit provides interface between normally incompatible voicecommunication lines. Circuit maintains 40 dB of isolation between input and output halves of four-wire line permitting two-wire line to be connected. Balancing potentiometer, Rg, adjusts gain of IC2 to null feed through from input to output. Adjustment is done on workbench just after assembly.

  19. Soft magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, M.

    2001-06-01

    An overview of the present state of the art on the preparation techniques, outstanding magnetic properties and applications of soft magnetic micro and nanowires is presented. Rapid solidification techniques (in-rotating-water quenching and drawing methods) to fabricate amorphous microwires with diameter in the range from 100 down to 1 μm are first described. Electrodeposition is also employed to prepare composite microtubes (magnetic coatings) and to fill porous membranes (diameter of the order of 0.1 μm). Magnetic behaviours of interest are related to the different hysteresis loops of samples: square-shaped loops typical of bistable behaviour, and nearly non-hysteretic loop with well-defined transverse anisotropy field. The role played by magnetic dipolar interactions in the magnetic behaviour of arrays of micro and nanowires is described. A particular analysis is done on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect in the radio and microwave frequency ranges exhibited by ultrasoft microwires. Finally, a few examples of applications are introduced for magnetostrictive and non-magnetostrictive wires, they are: “magnetoelastic pens”, micromotors; DC current-sensors based on GMI, and sharpened amorphous wire tips in spin polarised scanning tunneling microscopy.

  20. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  1. Manufacture and quality control of interconnecting wire hardnesses, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A standard is presented for manufacture, installation, and quality control of eight types of interconnecting wire harnesses. The processes, process controls, and inspection and test requirements reflected are based on acknowledgment of harness design requirements, acknowledgment of harness installation requirements, identification of the various parts, materials, etc., utilized in harness manufacture, and formulation of a typical manufacturing flow diagram for identification of each manufacturing and quality control process, operation, inspection, and test. The document covers interconnecting wire harnesses defined in the design standard, including type 1, enclosed in fluorocarbon elastomer convolute, tubing; type 2, enclosed in TFE convolute tubing lines with fiberglass braid; type 3, enclosed in TFE convolute tubing; and type 5, combination of types 3 and 4. Knowledge gained through experience on the Saturn 5 program coupled with recent advances in techniques, materials, and processes was incorporated.

  2. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

  3. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  4. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  5. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  6. First Wire-Free Pacemaker Approved

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wire-Free Pacemaker Approved Treats irregular heartbeat without wired leads To use the sharing features on this ... said in a news release. In traditional pacemakers, wired leads may malfunction and require the device to ...

  7. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Timothy B. (Inventor); Milly, Peter F., Sr. (Inventor); White, J. Kevin (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  8. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Timothy B.; Milly, Peter F.; White, J. Kevin

    1993-05-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  9. Welding wire pressure sensor assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Timothy B.; Milly, Peter F., Sr.; White, J. Kevin

    1994-04-01

    The present invention relates to a device which is used to monitor the position of a filler wire relative to a base material being welded as the filler wire is added to a welding pool. The device is applicable to automated welding systems wherein nonconsumable electrode arc welding processes are utilized in conjunction with a filler wire which is added to a weld pool created by the electrode arc. The invention senses pressure deviations from a predetermined pressure between the filler wire and the base material, and provides electrical signals responsive to the deviations for actuating control mechanisms in an automatic welding apparatus so as to minimize the pressure deviation and to prevent disengagement of the contact between the filler wire and the base material.

  10. The Bouba-Kiki Phenomenon Tested via Schematic Drawings of Facial Expressions: Further Validation of the Internal Simulation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rammairone, Bianca; Ramachandra, Vijayachandra

    2016-01-01

    Sound-shape associations involving consistent matching of nonsense words such as ‘bouba’ and ‘kiki’ with curved and angular shapes, respectively, have been replicated in several studies. The purpose of the current study was to examine the robustness of previously noted sound-shape associations when shape variations (angular and curvy) are embedded in schematic expressions of emotions (sad and happy). Results revealed consistent matching tendencies based on sound-emotion expression mapping irrespective of the particular shape of the expressions. We suggest that internally simulating the facial expressions/oral gestures may have played a significant role in driving the matching preferences. PMID:27482373

  11. Apollo experience report: Electrical wiring subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The general requirements of the electrical wiring subsystems and the problem areas and solutions that occurred during the major part of the Apollo Program are detailed in this report. The concepts and definitions of specific requirements for electrical wiring; wire-connecting devices; and wire-harness fabrication, checkout, and installation techniques are discussed. The design and development of electrical wiring and wire-connecting devices are described. Mission performance is discussed, and conclusions and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  12. Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

  13. Internal wire guide for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a filler metal wire guide positioned within the torch, and within the shielding gas nozzle. The wire guide is adjacent to the tungsten electrode and has a ceramic liner through which the wire is fed. This reduces the size of the torch and eliminates the outside clearance problems that exit with external wire guides. Additionally, since the wire is always within the shielding gas, oxidizing of the wire is eliminated.

  14. The neptunium-iron phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. K.; Haire, R. G.; Beahm, E. C.; Gensini, M. M.; Maeda, A.; Ogawa, T.

    1994-08-01

    The phase relations in the Np-Fe alloy system have been elucidated using differential thermal analysis. A phase diagram for this system is postulated based upon the experimental results, regular-solution model calculations, and an expected correspondence to the U-Fe and Pu-Fe diagrams. The postulated Np-Fe diagram is characterized by limited terminal solid solubilities, two intermetallic solid phases, NpFe 2 and Np 6Fe, and two eutectics.

  15. Summation of time-dependent folded diagrams for effective interactions with a non-degenerate model space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, T. T. S.; Krmpotić, F.; Suzuki, K.; Okamoto, R.

    1995-02-01

    We analyze the diagrammatic structure of the effective interaction for the case of a non-degenerate model space. A time-dependent folded-diagram formulation is used. It is found that the valence-linked time-ordered diagrams contained in such effective interactions can also be expressed in terms of the multi-energy Q¯-boxes of the form overlineQn(ɛ 1ɛ 2…ɛ n+1), which were introduced by Suzuki et al. for a time-independent description of the effective interaction. A partial-fraction method for the evaluation of the multi-energy Q¯-box, in terms of valence-linked diagrams, is discussed. A generalized Krenciglowa-Kuo iteration method for summing up the folded-diagram series is also designed. A schematic mosel is solved to compare the non-degenerate theory with the usual degenerate theory. It is shown that the present approach makes a distinct improvement in the calculation of effective interactions.

  16. Sintered wire cathode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R.; Ives, R. Lawrence

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  17. Ion potential diagrams for electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Varsano, F. |; Cahen, D.; Decker, F.; Guillemoles, J.F. |; Masetti, E.

    1998-12-01

    Ion potential diagrams can facilitate the description of systems in which ionic species are mobile. They depict qualitatively the spatial dependence of the potential energy for mobile ions, somewhat akin to band diagrams for electrons. The authors construct ion potential diagrams for the mixed conducting (oxide), optically active electrodes of five-layer electrochromic devices, based on reversible Li{sup +} intercalation. These serve to analyze stability problems that arise in these systems. The authors then use them as building blocks to arrive at ion diagrams for complete devices. This allows analyses of (dis)coloration kinetics.

  18. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  19. Linking climate to population variability in marine ecosystems characterized by non-simple dynamics: Conceptual templates and schematic constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakun, Andrew

    2010-02-01

    The ability to abstract and symbolize ideas and knowledge as simplified schematic constructs is an important element of scientific creativity and communication. Availability of such generalized symbolic constructs may be particularly important when addressing a complex adaptive system such as a marine ecosystem. Various examples have appeared in the climate-fisheries literature, each more or less effectively integrating hypothesized effects of several interacting environmental and/or biological processes in controlling population dynamics of exploited fish species. A selection of these are herein presented and reviewed, including match-mismatch, connectivity, school trap, loopholes, ocean triads, stable ocean hypothesis, several classes of nonlinear feedback loops (e.g., ' P2P', school-mix feedback, predator pit), as well as several prominent large-scale integrative climatic index series ( SOI, NAO, PDO). The importance of considering the potential for adaptation and/or rapid evolution is stressed. An argument is offered for the potential utility of such widely recognizable schematic concepts in offering relatively well-understood, fairly well-defined frameworks for comparative identification and elaboration of important mechanistic linkages between climate variability and fishery dynamics, as well as in easing effective communication among scientists from different regions and disciplinary backgrounds. Certain difficulties in the application of the comparative method are discussed. It is suggested that alleviation of such difficulties may be one of the major benefits of international collaborative programs such as GLOBEC and IMBER.

  20. Requirements for printed wiring boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In order to maintain the high standards of the NASA printed wiring programs, this publication: prescribes NASA's requirements for assuring reliable rigid printed wiring boards; describes and incorporates basic considerations necessary to assure reliable rigid printed wiring boards; establishes the supplier's responsibility to train and certify personnel; provides for supplier documentation of the fabrication and inspection procedures to be used for NASA work, including supplier innovations and changes in technology; and provides visual workmanship standards to aid those responsible for determining quality conformance to the established requirements.

  1. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  2. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  3. Reading fitness landscape diagrams through HSAB concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneresse, Jean-Louis

    2014-10-01

    Fitness landscapes are conceived as range of mountains, with local peaks and valleys. In terms of potential, such topographic variations indicate places of local instability or stability. The chemical potential, or electronegativity, its value changed of sign, carries similar information. In addition to chemical descriptors defined through hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) concepts and computed through density functional theory (DFT), the principles that rule chemical reactions allow the design of such landscape diagrams. The simplest diagram uses electrophilicity and hardness as coordinates. It allows examining the influence of maximum hardness or minimum electrophilicity principles. A third dimension is introduced within such a diagram by mapping the topography of electronegativity, polarizability or charge exchange. Introducing charge exchange during chemical reactions, or mapping a third parameter (f.i. polarizability) reinforces the information carried by a simple binary diagram. Examples of such diagrams are provided, using data from Earth Sciences, simple oxides or ligands.

  4. Phase diagram of dilute polyelectrolytes: Collapse and redissolution by association of counterions and co-ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis, Francisco J.

    2002-11-01

    Dilute solutions of strongly charged polymer electrolytes undergo, upon addition of multivaltent salt to the solutions, a phase transition from extended to collapsed or bundled conformations. Upon further addition of salt they experience a second transition, a redissolution back into extended conformations. This paper presents a theoretical study of the structure and properties of the phase diagram of these solutions. On the basis of phenomenological observations a schematic phase diagram is constructed that allows a simple and explicit determination of the direction of the tie lines within the coexistence region. The actual shape of the coexistence boundary is determined by means of a model mean free energy functional that explicitly includes the possibility of association of both counterions and co-ions to the electrolytes. It is found that it is possible to redissolve the electrolytes into conformations where the bare charge of the electrolytes is overcompensated by the counterions but, due to the associated co-ions, can have either sign of total effective charge. When co-ion association is possible, the redissolution approximately coincides with the reassociation of the co-ions and counterions in the bulk of the solution.

  5. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  6. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    SciTech Connect

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  7. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  8. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-04-09

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  9. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2016-03-01

    Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT) zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model) on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL), which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → ) . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111) surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the <101> direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  10. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits,...

  11. 30 CFR 75.701-4 - Grounding wires; capacity of wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity of wires. 75.701-4... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-4 Grounding wires; capacity of wires. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits,...

  12. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  13. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  14. Systems biology in psychiatric research: from complex data sets over wiring diagrams to computer simulations.

    PubMed

    Tretter, Felix; Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The classification of psychiatric disorders has always been a problem in clinical settings. The present debate about the major systems in clinical practice, DSM-IV and ICD-10, has resulted in attempts to improve and replace those schemes by some that include more endophenotypic and molecular features. However, these disorders not only require more precise diagnostic tools, but also have to be viewed more extensively in their dynamic behaviors, which require more precise data sets related to their origins and developments. This enormous challenge in brain research has to be approached on different levels of the biological system by new methods, including improvements in electroencephalography, brain imaging, and molecular biology. All these methods entail accumulations of large data sets that become more and more difficult to interpret. In particular, on the molecular level, there is an apparent need to use highly sophisticated computer programs to tackle these problems. Evidently, only interdisciplinary work among mathematicians, physicists, biologists, and clinicians can further improve our understanding of complex diseases of the brain. PMID:22231839

  15. Fabrication of Pd-Cr wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, Sidney; Leach, Dennen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication of Pd-13 percent Cr alloy wires is described. Melting, casting, swaging and annealing processes are discussed. Drawing to reach two diameters (0.003 inch and 0.00176 inch) of wire is described. Representative micrographs of the Pd-Cr alloy at selected stages during wire fabrication are included. The resistance of the wire was somewhat lower, by about 15 to 20 percent, than comparable wire of other alloys used for strain gages.

  16. Experimental Results for Space-Wire-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; Gibson, David; Ferrer, Albert

    2015-09-01

    SpaceWire-D is a deterministic extension to SpaceWire that uses time-division multiplexing to schedule traffic within time-slots. It allows a single SpaceWire network to be used for both time-critical avionics control applications and asynchronous payload data-handling simultaneously using existing SpaceWire technology. In this paper we describe the services of SpaceWire-D and present experimental results for each service.

  17. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  18. Algorithmic Identification for Wings in Butterfly Diagrams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, E. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. Two algorithms of cluster analysis, namely DBSCAN and C-means, have demonstrated their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Here we generalize the method for continuous tracers, give results concerning the migration velocities and presented clusters for 12 - 20 cycles.

  19. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.; Lusso, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method to test the ΛCDM cosmological model and to estimate cosmological parameters based on the nonlinear relation between the ultraviolet and X-ray luminosities of quasars. We built a data set of 1138 quasars by merging several samples from the literature with X-ray measurements at 2 keV and SDSS photometry, which was used to estimate the extinction-corrected 2500 Å flux. We obtained three main results: (1) we checked the nonlinear relation between X-ray and UV luminosities in small redshift bins up to z˜ 6, confirming that the relation holds at all redshifts with the same slope; (2) we built a Hubble diagram for quasars up to z˜ 6, which is well matched to that of supernovae in the common z = 0-1.4 redshift interval and extends the test of the cosmological model up to z˜ 6; and (3) we showed that this nonlinear relation is a powerful tool for estimating cosmological parameters. Using the present data and assuming a ΛCDM model, we obtain {{{Ω }}}M = 0.22{}-0.08+0.10 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.92{}-0.30+0.18 ({{{Ω }}}M = 0.28 ± 0.04 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.73 +/- 0.08 from a joint quasar-SNe fit). Much more precise measurements will be achieved with future surveys. A few thousand SDSS quasars already have serendipitous X-ray observations from Chandra or XMM-Newton, and at least 100,000 quasars with UV and X-ray data will be made available by the extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array all-sky survey in a few years. The Euclid, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics surveys will further increase the sample size to at least several hundred thousand. Our simulations show that these samples will provide tight constraints on the cosmological parameters and will allow us to test for possible deviations from the standard model with higher precision than is possible today.

  20. Coulomb interaction effects on the Majorana states in quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Manolescu, A; Marinescu, D C; Stanescu, T D

    2014-04-30

    The stability of the Majorana modes in the presence of a repulsive interaction is studied in the standard semiconductor wire-metallic superconductor configuration. The effects of short-range Coulomb interaction, which is incorporated using a purely repulsive δ-function to model the strong screening effect due to the presence of the superconductor, are determined within a Hartree-Fock approximation of the effective Bogoliubov-De Gennes Hamiltonian that describes the low-energy physics of the wire. Through a numerical diagonalization procedure we obtain interaction corrections to the single particle eigenstates and calculate the extended topological phase diagram in terms of the chemical potential and the Zeeman energy. We find that, for a fixed Zeeman energy, the interaction shifts the phase boundaries to a higher chemical potential, whereas for a fixed chemical potential this shift can occur either at lower or higher Zeeman energies. These effects can be interpreted as a renormalization of the g-factor due to the interaction. The minimum Zeeman energy needed to realize Majorana fermions decreases with the increasing strength of the Coulomb repulsion. Furthermore, we find that in wires with multi-band occupancy this effect can be enhanced by increasing the chemical potential, i.e. by occupying higher energy bands. PMID:24722427

  1. Photoelastic analysis of stress generated by wires when conventional and self-ligating brackets are used: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Guilherme Caiado; Vedovello, Mário; Degan, Viviane Veroni; Santamaria, Milton

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: By means of a photoelastic model, this study analyzed the stress caused on conventional and self-ligating brackets with expanded arch wires. METHOD: Standard brackets were adhered to artificial teeth and a photoelastic model was prepared using the Interlandi 19/12 diagram as base. Successive activations were made with 0.014-in and 0.018-in rounded cross section Nickel-Titanium wires (NiTi) and 0.019 x 0.025-in rectangular stainless steel wires all of which made on 22/14 Interlandi diagram. The model was observed on a plane polariscope - in a dark field microscope configuration - and photographed at each exchange of wire. Then, they were replaced by self-ligating brackets and the process was repeated. Analysis was qualitative and observed stress location and pattern on both models analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Results identified greater stress on the region of the apex of premolars in both analyzed models. Upon comparing the stress between models, a greater amount of stress was found in the model with conventional brackets in all of its wires. Therefore, the present pilot study revealed that alignment of wires in self-ligating brackets produced lower stress in periodontal tissues in expansive mechanics. PMID:25715719

  2. A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

  3. The Art of Free-Body Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puri, Avinash

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of drawing free-body diagrams which only show forces exerted on a body from its neighbors. Presents three ways a body may be modeled: a particle, rigid extended, and nonrigid extended. (MKR)

  4. Phase diagram for passive electromagnetic scatterers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeng Yi; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2016-03-21

    With the conservation of power, a phase diagram defined by amplitude square and phase of scattering coefficients for each spherical harmonic channel is introduced as a universal map for any passive electromagnetic scatterers. Physically allowable solutions for scattering coefficients in this diagram clearly show power competitions among scattering and absorption. It also illustrates a variety of exotic scattering or absorption phenomena, from resonant scattering, invisible cloaking, to coherent perfect absorber. With electrically small core-shell scatterers as an example, we demonstrate a systematic method to design field-controllable structures based on the allowed trajectories in this diagram. The proposed phase diagram and inverse design can provide tools to design functional electromagnetic devices. PMID:27136839

  5. An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

    1989-01-01

    Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)

  6. SchemeLens: A Content-Aware Vector-Based Fisheye Technique for Navigating Large Systems Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Cohé, Aurélie; Liutkus, Bastien; Bailly, Gilles; Eagan, James; Lecolinet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    System schematics, such as those used for electrical or hydraulic systems, can be large and complex. Fisheye techniques can help navigate such large documents by maintaining the context around a focus region, but the distortion introduced by traditional fisheye techniques can impair the readability of the diagram. We present SchemeLens, a vector-based, topology-aware fisheye technique which aims to maintain the readability of the diagram. Vector-based scaling reduces distortion to components, but distorts layout. We present several strategies to reduce this distortion by using the structure of the topology, including orthogonality and alignment, and a model of user intention to foster smooth and predictable navigation. We evaluate this approach through two user studies: Results show that (1) SchemeLens is 16-27% faster than both round and rectangular flat-top fisheye lenses at finding and identifying a targ et alng one or several paths in a network diagram; (2) augmenting SchemeLens with a model of user intentions aids in learning the network topology. PMID:26390464

  7. Wire chambers revisited.

    PubMed

    Ott, R J

    1993-04-01

    Detectors used for radioisotope imaging have, historically, been based on scintillating crystal/photomultiplier combinations in various forms. From the rectilinear scanner through to modern gamma cameras and positron cameras, the basic technology has remained much the same. Efforts to overcome the limitations of this form of technology have foundered on the inability to reproduce the required sensitivity, spatial resolution and sensitive area at acceptable cost. Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. As gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of "gas only" photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera. The MWPC camera produces quantitative

  8. Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E{sub 4} diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, S{sub xyz}(r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 23}), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E{sub 4} diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid {sup 3}He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid {sup 3}He and Bethe`s homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v{sub 14} interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density.

  9. Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2008-10-13

    Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.

  10. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A method and a computer program are presented to calculate probability of system success from an arbitrary reliability block diagram. The class of reliability block diagrams that can be handled include any active/standby combination of redundancy, and the computations include the effects of dormancy and switching in any standby redundancy. The mechanics of the program are based on an extension of the probability tree method of computing system probabilities.

  11. Fluctuations and the QCD phase diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, B.-J.

    2012-06-15

    In this contribution the role of quantum fluctuations for the QCD phase diagram is discussed. This concerns in particular the importance of the matter back-reaction to the gluonic sector. The impact of these fluctuations on the location of the confinement/deconfinement and the chiral transition lines as well as their interrelation are investigated. Consequences of our findings for the size of a possible quarkyonic phase and location of a critical endpoint in the phase diagram are drawn.

  12. A universal structured-design diagramer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Program (FLOWCHARTER) generates standardized flowcharts and concordances for development and debugging of programs in any language. User describes programming-language grammar, providing syntax rules in Backus-Naur form (BNF), list of semantic rules, and set of concordance rules. Once grammar is described, user supplies only source code of program to be diagrammed. FLOWCHARTER automatically produces flow diagram and concordance. Source code for program is written for PASCAL Release 2 compiler, as distributed by University of Minnesota.

  13. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOEpatents

    Hooper, Frederick M

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  14. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jon D.

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  15. Class diagram based evaluation of software performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Huong V.; Nguyen, Binh N.

    2013-03-01

    The evaluation of software performance in the early stages of the software life cycle is important and it has been widely studied. In the software model specification, class diagram is the important object-oriented software specification model. The measures based on a class diagram have been widely studied to evaluate quality of software such as complexity, maintainability, reuse capability, etc. However the software performance evaluation based on Class model has not been widely studied, especially for object-oriented design of embedded software. Therefore, in this paper we propose a new approach to directly evaluate the software performance based on class diagrams. From a class diagram, we determine the parameters which are used to evaluate and build formula of the measures such as Size of Class Variables, Size of Class Methods, Size of Instance Variables, Size of Instance Methods, etc. Then, we do analysis of the dependence of performance on these measures and build the performance evaluation function from class diagram. Thereby we can choose the best class diagram based on this evaluation function.

  16. Pressure-enthalpy diagrams for alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Kruse, H.

    1996-10-01

    Thermodynamic diagrams, particularly log(p)-h diagrams, have become very convenient tools for refrigeration and air-conditioning industries. To promote alternative refrigerants-related development and application, it is urgently required to provide the industries with reliable engineering diagrams for the most promising candidate refrigerants. A computer program has been developed for automatically producing log(p)-h diagrams for alternative refrigerants. The Lee Kesler Ploecker (LKP) equation of state has been used to calculate thermodynamic data. Some modifications have been made to the LKP to improve the calculation convergency. In this paper three sample diagrams for R134a, a binary R410A and a ternary R407B which have been enclosed and analyzed. To investigate the LKP calculation accuracy details, an extensive deviation analysis has been made for R134a. For mixed refrigerants, good calculation accuracy was achieved by optimizing the binary interactive parameters. The system can produce log(p)-h diagrams with reliable accuracy, high quality, and flexibility to meet any size and color requirements.

  17. Sealed-tube synthesis and phase diagram of Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} (0 ≤ x ≤1)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ziping; Dong, Cheng; Guan, Chunlong; Yang, Lihong; Luo, Xiaoning; Li, Aolei

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: We reported a new method to prepare Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) at 600 °C in sealed tube using Li{sub 2}S aslithium source. A schematic phase diagram of the Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} system has been constructed based on the DTA and XRD data. - Abstract: We reported a new method to prepare Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) at 600 °C in sealed tube using Li{sub 2}S as lithium source. The Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and differential thermal analysis. The variations of the lattice parameters with lithium content x in Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} were determined by X-ray powder diffraction analysis for both 1T and 3R phases. The phase transition between low-temperature 1T phase and high-temperature 3R phase was confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on the differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction results, a schematic phase diagram of the Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} system has been constructed, providing a guideline to synthesize Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} in 1T structure or 3R structure.

  18. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsung-Yu; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W M; Reno, John L; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-29

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450 mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements. PMID:26191717

  19. Designing potentials by sculpturing wires

    SciTech Connect

    Della Pietra, Leonardo; Aigner, Simon; Groth, Soenke; Hagen, Christoph von; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Bar-Joseph, Israel; Lezec, Henri J.

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow in the chip wires. By modifying the shape of the conductor we can realize specialized current flow patterns and therefore microdesign the trapping potentials. We have demonstrated this by nano-machining an atom chip using the focused ion beam technique. We built a trap, a barrier, and using a Bose-Einstein Condensate as a probe we showed that by polishing the conductor edge the potential roughness on the selected wire can be reduced. Furthermore, we give different other designs and discuss the creation of a one-dimensional magnetic lattice on an atom chip.

  20. Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

    2002-01-01

    In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning

  1. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific…

  2. Back to the Future: Past and Future Era-Based Schematic Support and Associative Memory for Prices in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Alan D.; McGillivray, Shannon; Worden, Kendell M.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults typically display various associative memory deficits, but these deficits can be reduced when conditions allow for the use of prior knowledge or schematic support. To determine how era-specific schematic support and future simulation might influence associative memory, we examined how younger and older adults remember prices from the past as well as the future. Younger and older adults were asked to imagine the past or future, and then studied items and prices from approximately 40 years ago (market value prices from the 1970s) or 40 years in the future. In Experiment 1, all items were common items (e.g., movie ticket, coffee) and the associated prices reflected the era in question, whereas in Experiment 2, some item-price pairs were specific to the time period (e.g., typewriter, robot maid), to test different degrees of schematic support. After studying the pairs, participants were shown each item and asked to recall the associated price. In both experiments, older adults showed similar performance as younger adults in the past condition for the common items, whereas age-related differences were greater in the future condition and for the era-specific items. The findings suggest that in order for schematic support to be effective, recent (and not simply remote) experience is needed in order to enhance memory. Thus, whereas older adults can benefit from “turning back the clock,” younger adults better remember future-oriented information compared with older adults, outlining age-related similarities and differences in associative memory and the efficient use of past and future-based schematic support. PMID:24128073

  3. Anode wire aging tests with selected gases

    SciTech Connect

    Kadyk, J.; Wise, J.; Hess, D.; Williams, M. )

    1990-04-01

    As a continuation of earlier wire aging investigations, additional candidates for wire chamber gas and wire have been tested. These include the gases: argon/ethane, HRS gas, dimethyl ether, carbon dioxide/ethane, and carbon tetrafluoride/isobutane. Wires used were: gold- plated tungsten, Stablohm, Nicotin, and Stainless Steel. Measurements were made of the effects upon wire aging of impurities from plumbing materials or contamination from various types of oil. Attempts were made to induce wire aging by adding measured amounts of oxygen and halogen (methyl chloride) with negative results. In this paper, the possible role of electronegativity in the wire aging process is discussed, and measurements of electronegativity are made with several single carbon Freons, using both an electron capture detector and a wire chamber operating with dimethyl ether.

  4. Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Bich, George J.; Gupta, Tapan K.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  5. Quality control of microelectronic wire bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiel, R. A.; Schmidt, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Report evaluates ultrasonic bonding of small-diameter aluminum wire joined to ceramic substrates metalized with thin-film and thick-film gold. Quick testing technique for nondestructive location of poor wire bonds is also presented.

  6. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  7. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  8. A manually set magnetic wire counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic storage wire counter design principles are given. Magnetic storage wire was coupled with two phase propagational driver in manual set counter shift register. Time delay between magnetic counter domain insertion and corresponding output pulse provides counting functions.

  9. Technique for stripping Teflon insulated wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, B. D.

    1967-01-01

    Cryogenic stripping of Teflon insulated wire leaves no residue and produces no physical damage. After the wire is immersed in liquid nitrogen, bent slightly, and returned to room temperature, the Teflon is removed by fingernails or flat-nosed pliers.

  10. Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Gale

    1989-01-01

    Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

  11. Electrical Wire Insulation and Electromagnetic Coil

    SciTech Connect

    Bich, G. J.; Gupta, T. K.

    1984-01-31

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  12. Non-planar on-shell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Penante, Brenda; Wen, Congkao

    2015-06-01

    We initiate a systematic study of non-planar on-shell diagrams in SYM and develop powerful technology for doing so. We introduce canonical variables generalizing face variables, which make the d log form of the on-shell form explicit. We make significant progress towards a general classification of arbitrary on-shell diagrams by means of two classes of combinatorial objects: generalized matching and matroid polytopes. We propose a boundary measurement that connects general on-shell diagrams to the Grassmannian. Our proposal exhibits two important and non-trivial properties: positivity in the planar case and it matches the combinatorial description of the diagrams in terms of generalized matroid polytopes. Interestingly, non-planar diagrams exhibit novel phenomena, such as the emergence of constraints on Plücker coordinates beyond Plücker relations when deleting edges, which are neatly captured by the generalized matching and matroid polytopes. This behavior is tied to the existence of a new type of poles in the on-shell form at which combinations of Plücker coordinates vanish. Finally, we introduce a prescription, applicable beyond the MHV case, for writing the on-shell form as a function of minors directly from the graph.

  13. REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical format…

  14. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  15. Health care's 100 most wired.

    PubMed

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key." PMID:10081454

  16. Regeneration: New Neurons Wire Up.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Pamela A

    2016-09-12

    Functional repair of damage in the nervous system requires re-establishment of precise patterns of synaptic connectivity. A new study shows that after selective ablation, zebrafish retinal neurons regenerate and reconstruct some, although not all, of their stereotypic wiring. PMID:27623258

  17. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  18. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  19. Wire-Wrap Chatter Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisch, G. Z.; Borden, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Monitoring circuit responds to changes in resistance as little as 0.1 ohm. Has been used to detect defective wire-wrap connections during thermal and vibration tests. Defect is indicated to operator by light-emitting diode and by increase in count on a two-digit display.

  20. Ultrasonic Calibration Wire Test Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Fisher, K A; Werve, M; Chambers, D H

    2004-09-24

    We designed and built a phantom consisting of vertical wires maintained under tension to be used as an ultrasonic test, calibration, and reconstruction object for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory annular array scanner. We provide a description of the phantom, present example data sets, preliminary reconstructions, example metadata, and MATLAB codes to read the data.

  1. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

  2. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  3. Further Studies Of Hot-Wire Anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert; Logan, Pamela; Bershader, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses factors affecting readings of hot-wire anemometer in turbulent supersonic boundary layer. Represents extension of work described in "Hot-Wire Anemometry Versus Laser-Induced Fluorescence" (ARC-11802). Presents theoretical analysis of responses of hot-wire probe to changes in flow; also compares measurements by hot-wire probe with measurements of same flows by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF).

  4. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    PubMed Central

    Schummer, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1) Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2) developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3) evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N). We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°). All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1) Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2) EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3) and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3) all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold. PMID:26702209

  5. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  6. Students' Understanding of Diagrams for Solving Word Problems: A Framework for Assessing Diagram Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Apryl L.; van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A visual representation, such as a diagram, can be a powerful strategy for solving mathematical word problems. However, using a representation to solve mathematical word problems is not as simple as it seems! Many students with learning disabilities struggle to use a diagram effectively and efficiently. This article provides a framework for…

  7. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  8. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. 75.906 Section 75.906 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., ground wires, and ground check wires. Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain one or...

  9. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. 75.906 Section 75.906 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., ground wires, and ground check wires. Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain one or...

  10. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. 75.906 Section 75.906 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., ground wires, and ground check wires. Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain one or...

  11. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. 75.906 Section 75.906 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., ground wires, and ground check wires. Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain one or...

  12. 30 CFR 75.906 - Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trailing cables for mobile equipment, ground wires, and ground check wires. 75.906 Section 75.906 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., ground wires, and ground check wires. Trailing cables for mobile equipment shall contain one or...

  13. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit....

  14. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires. 57.12047 Section 57.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of...

  15. Getting "Wired" for McLuhan's Cyberculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurdo, George

    1995-01-01

    Examines the introduction of the computing magazine, "Wired", into the United Kingdom's (UK) market. Presents conversations with the founder and editorial staff of the UK edition, and discusses the accessibility of "Wired" via the World Wide Web. Describes 10 articles from United States "Wired" back-issues and presents critiques of a utopian…

  16. 49 CFR 393.28 - Wiring systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wiring systems. 393.28 Section 393.28 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Electrical Wiring § 393.28 Wiring...

  17. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  18. The Use of Computational Diagrams and Nomograms in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Richard K.; Simpson, William A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of computational diagrams and nomographs for the calculations that frequently occur in college administration is examined. Steps in constructing a nomograph and a four-dimensional computational diagram are detailed, and uses of three- and four-dimensional diagrams are covered. Diagrams and nomographs are useful in the following cases: (1)…

  19. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  20. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  1. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  2. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  3. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  4. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  5. Computationally useful bridge diagram series. II. Diagrams in h-bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkyns, John S.; Dyer, Kippi M.; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2002-06-01

    Equations for calculating accurate 4-point and 5-point bridge diagrams in terms of h-bonds have been presented and solved for various phase points of the Lennard-Jones fluid. A method of finding a self-consistent solution for the bridge function and the radial distribution function is demonstrated. The significance of this result over bridge diagrams expressed as f-bonds, in terms of its applicability to charged and dipolar models is discussed. Two very simple phenomenological bridge diagram forms for the bridge function for this model are examined and found to give results almost as accurate and in some cases more accurate than previous forms in the literature. This work represents the first use of directly calculated 5-point bridge diagrams in terms of h-bonds, and the many extra orders of f-bond diagrams which they include, in an integral equation result.

  6. Computationally Useful Bridge Diagram Series. II. Diagrams in H-Bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Perkyns, John S.; Dyer, Kippi M.; Pettitt, Bernard M.

    2002-06-01

    Equations for calculating accurate 4-point and 5-point bridge diagrams in terms of h-bonds have been presented and solved for various phase points of the Lennard-Jones fluid. A method of finding a self-consistent solution for the bridge function and the radial distribution function is demonstrated. The significance of this result over bridge diagrams expressed as f-bonds, in terms of its applicability to charged and dipolar models is discussed. Two very simple phenomenological bridge diagram forms for the bridge function for this model are examined and found to give results almost as accurate and in some cases more accurate than previous forms in the literature. This work represents the first use of directly calculated 5-point bridge diagrams in terms of h-bonds, and the many extra orders of f-bond diagrams which they include, in an integral equation result.

  7. A new method for diagramming pacemaker electrocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Hesselson, A B; Parsonnet, V

    1994-08-01

    Advancements in technology have made paced ECG interpretation increasingly difficult. A new method for depicting the complex pacemaker/heart interactions that eliminates the extensive use of symbols and repetitious use of refractory period and rate limit information of previous methods has been devised. The method uses a framework of parallel horizontal lines drawn on grid paper underneath the ECG. The lines are spaced apart by the actual programmed values (lower rate, AV, VA intervals) of the pacemaker in question. This framework allows the simultaneous use of the horizontal and vertical directions for the diagram of pacemaker timing intervals. Also, a single representation of refractory periods, upper rate intervals, and other variables can be labeled vertically and extrapolated horizontally across the entire diagram. Single chamber, dual chamber, and rate-modulated ECGs are readily represented. The diagram is easily plotted on standard ECG paper and flexible enough to represent complex ECGs. PMID:7526348

  8. The renormalon diagram in gauge theories on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Sulejmanpasic, Tin

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the renormalon diagram of gauge theories on . In particular, we perform exact one loop calculations for the vacuum polarization in QCD with adjoint matter and observe that all infrared logarithms, as functions of the external momentum, cancel between the vacuum part and finite volume part, which eliminates the IR renormalon problem. We argue that the singularities in the Borel plane, arising from the topological neutral bions, are not associated with the renormalon diagram, but with the proliferation of the Feynman diagrams. As a byproduct, we obtain, for the first time, an exact one-loop result of the vacuum polarization which can be adapted to the case of thermal compactification of QCD.

  9. The Butterfly diagram leopard skin pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    A time-latitude diagram where spotgroups are given proportional relevance to their area is presented. The diagram reveals that the spotted area distribution is higly dishomogeneous, most of it being concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the Butterfly Diagram; because of this structure, the BD may be properly described as a cluster of knots. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is challenged. Indeed, spots cluster around at as many latitudes as knots; a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the activity splits, in any hemisphere, into two or more distinct ``activity waves'', drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  10. Phase diagram of a truncated tetrahedral model.

    PubMed

    Krcmar, Roman; Gendiar, Andrej; Nishino, Tomotoshi

    2016-08-01

    Phase diagram of a discrete counterpart of the classical Heisenberg model, the truncated tetrahedral model, is analyzed on the square lattice, when the interaction is ferromagnetic. Each spin is represented by a unit vector that can point to one of the 12 vertices of the truncated tetrahedron, which is a continuous interpolation between the tetrahedron and the octahedron. Phase diagram of the model is determined by means of the statistical analog of the entanglement entropy, which is numerically calculated by the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method. The obtained phase diagram consists of four different phases, which are separated by five transition lines. In the parameter region, where the octahedral anisotropy is dominant, a weak first-order phase transition is observed. PMID:27627273

  11. A pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Weng, Jianguang; Hanson, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    To make progress in understanding knot theory, we will need to interact with the projected representations of mathematical knots which are of course continuous in 3D but significantly interrupted in the projective images. One way to achieve such a goal would be to design an interactive system that allows us to sketch 2D knot diagrams by taking advantage of a collision-sensing controller and explore their underlying smooth structures through a continuous motion. Recent advances of interaction techniques have been made that allow progress to be made in this direction. Pseudo-haptics that simulates haptic effects using pure visual feedback can be used to develop such an interactive system. This paper outlines one such pseudo-haptic knot diagram interface. Our interface derives from the familiar pencil-and-paper process of drawing 2D knot diagrams and provides haptic-like sensations to facilitate the creation and exploration of knot diagrams. A centerpiece of the interaction model simulates a "physically" reactive mouse cursor, which is exploited to resolve the apparent conflict between the continuous structure of the actual smooth knot and the visual discontinuities in the knot diagram representation. Another value in exploiting pseudo-haptics is that an acceleration (or deceleration) of the mouse cursor (or surface locator) can be used to indicate the slope of the curve (or surface) of whom the projective image is being explored. By exploiting these additional visual cues, we proceed to a full-featured extension to a pseudo-haptic 4D visualization system that simulates the continuous navigation on 4D objects and allows us to sense the bumps and holes in the fourth dimension. Preliminary tests of the software show that main features of the interface overcome some expected perceptual limitations in our interaction with 2D knot diagrams of 3D knots and 3D projective images of 4D mathematical objects.

  12. A schematic representation of the professional identity formation and socialization of medical students and residents: a guide for medical educators.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Boudreau, J Donald; Snell, Linda; Steinert, Yvonne

    2015-06-01

    Recent calls to focus on identity formation in medicine propose that educators establish as a goal of medical education the support and guidance of students and residents as they develop their professional identity. Those entering medical school arrive with a personal identity formed since birth. As they proceed through the educational continuum, they successively develop the identity of a medical student, a resident, and a physician. Each individual's journey from layperson to skilled professional is unique and is affected by "who they are" at the beginning and "who they wish to become."Identity formation is a dynamic process achieved through socialization; it results in individuals joining the medical community of practice. Multiple factors within and outside of the educational system affect the formation of an individual's professional identity. Each learner reacts to different factors in her or his own fashion, with the anticipated outcome being the emergence of a professional identity. However, the inherent logic in the related processes of professional identity formation and socialization may be obscured by their complexity and the large number of factors involved.Drawing on the identity formation and socialization literature, as well as experience gained in teaching professionalism, the authors developed schematic representations of these processes. They adapted them to the medical context to guide educators as they initiate educational interventions, which aim to explicitly support professional identity formation and the ultimate goal of medical education-to ensure that medical students and residents come to "think, act, and feel like a physician." PMID:25785682

  13. Cortical and subcortical contributions to sequence retrieval: Schematic coding of temporal context in the neocortical recollection network.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Liang-Tien; Ranganath, Charan

    2015-11-01

    Episodic memory entails the ability to remember what happened when. Although the available evidence indicates that the hippocampus plays a role in structuring serial order information during retrieval of event sequences, information processed in the hippocampus must be conveyed to other cortical and subcortical areas in order to guide behavior. However, the extent to which other brain regions contribute to the temporal organization of episodic memory remains unclear. Here, we examined multivoxel activity pattern changes during retrieval of learned and random object sequences, focusing on a neocortical "core recollection network" that includes the medial prefrontal cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and angular gyrus, as well as on striatal areas including the caudate nucleus and putamen that have been implicated in processing of sequence information. The results demonstrate that regions of the core recollection network carry information about temporal positions within object sequences, irrespective of object information. This schematic coding of temporal information is in contrast to the putamen, which carried information specific to objects in learned sequences, and the caudate, which carried information about objects, irrespective of sequence context. Our results suggest a role for the cortical recollection network in the representation of temporal structure of events during episodic retrieval, and highlight the possible mechanisms by which the striatal areas may contribute to this process. More broadly, the results indicate that temporal sequence retrieval is a useful paradigm for dissecting the contributions of specific brain regions to episodic memory. PMID:26209802

  14. Minkowski diagram in relativity and holography.

    PubMed

    Abramson, N

    1988-05-01

    Now that ultrashort laser pulses can be used in holography, the temporal and spatial resolution approach the same order of magnitude. In that case the limited speed of light sometimes causes large measuring errors if correction methods are not introduced. Therefore, we want to revive the Minkowski diagram, which was invented in 1908 to visualize relativistic relations between time and space. We show how this diagram in a modified form can be used to derive both the static holodiagram, used for conventional holography, including ultrahigh-speed recordings of wavefronts, and a dynamic holodiagram used for studying the apparent distortions of objects recorded at relativistic speeds. PMID:20531662

  15. B-Fe-U Phase Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Marta; Carvalho, Patrícia Almeida; Mardolcar, Umesh Vinaica; Tougait, Olivier; Noël, Henri; Gonçalves, António Pereira

    2014-04-01

    The liquidus projection of the U-rich corner of the B-Fe-U phase diagram is proposed based on X-ray powder diffraction measurements, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy observations complemented with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. Two ternary reactions in this U-rich region were observed and their approximate temperatures were established. In addition, an overview of the complete phase diagram is given, including the liquidus projection; isothermal sections at 1053 K, 1223 K, and 1373 K (780 °C, 950 °C, and 1100 °C); and a U:(Fe,B) = 1:5 isopleth.

  16. Frequency response in short thermocouple wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, L. J.; Meeks, E. L.; Ma, J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. The amplitude ratio at low frequency omega approaches 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) for a steady state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a nonuniform wire in the limit of infinite length l approaches infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties. Theoretical expressions are also derived for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire and a two material wire with unequal material properties across the junction. For the case of a one material supported wire, an exact solution is derived which compares favorably with an approximate expression that only matches temperatures at the support junction. Moreover, for the case of a two material supported wire, an analytical expression is derived that closely correlates numerical results. Experimental measurements are made for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire (type K) and a two material wire (type T) with unequal material properties across the junction. The data for the amplitude ratio and phase angle are correlated to within 10 pct. with the theoretical predictions of Forney and Fralick (1991). This is accomplished by choosing a natural frequency omega sub n for the wire data to correlate the first order response at large gas temperature frequencies. It is found that a large bead size, however, will increase the amplitude ratio at

  17. Wiring Viterbi decoders (splitting deBruijn graphs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, O.; Pollara, F.; Dolinar, S.; Statman, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new Viterbi decoder, capable of decoding convolutional codes with constraint lengths up to 15, is under development for the Deep Space Network (DSN). A key feature of this decoder is a two-level partitioning of the Viterbi state diagram into identical subgraphs. The larger subgraphs correspond to circuit boards, while the smaller subgraphs correspond to Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chips. The full decoder is built from identical boards, which in turn are built from identical chips. The resulting system is modular and hierarchical. The decoder is easy to implement, test, and repair because it uses a single VLSI chip design and a single board design. The partitioning is completely general in the sense that an appropriate number of boards or chips may be wired together to implement a Viterbi decoder of any size greater than or equal to the size of the module.

  18. The nucleation mechanism of wire explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, S. I.; Vorob'ev, V. S.; Malyshenko, S. P.

    2004-02-01

    This study deals with the nucleation mechanism of electric explosion of wires allowing estimation of wire parameters at the start of the explosion for a wide range of experimental conditions. We analyse the dependence of the limit value of the energy deposited during the initial resistive phase of heating of the wire on the parameters of the wire and circuit as well as the size distribution of metal particles formed on electrical explosion of the wire. We discuss the correspondence of these results with previously published experimental data.

  19. Electromagnetic scattering by a straight thin wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamansky, Harry T.; Dominek, Allen K.; Peters, Leon, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The traveling-wave energy, which multiply diffracts on a straight thin wire, is represented as a sum of terms, each with a distinct physical meaning, that can be individually examined in the time domain. Expressions for each scattering mechanism on a straight thin wire are cast in the form of four basic electromagnetic wave concepts: diffraction, attachment, launch, and reflection. Using the basic mechanisms from P. Ya. Ufimtsev (1962), each of the scattering mechanisms is included into the total scattered field for the straight thin wire. Scattering as a function of angle and frequency is then compared to the moment-method solution. These analytic expressions are then extended to a lossy wire with a simple approximate modification using the propagation velocity on the wire as derived from the Sommerfeld wave on a straight lossy wire. Both the perfectly conducting and lossy wire solutions are compared to moment-method results, and excellent agreement is found. As is common with asymptotic solutions, when the electrical length of wire is smaller than 0.2 lambda the results lose accuracy. The expressions modified to approximate the scattering for the lossy thin wire yield excellent agreement even for lossy wires where the wire radius is on the order of skin depth.

  20. SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

    2007-08-01

    The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.

  1. NASA wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

  2. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  3. High Tc superconductors - Composite wire fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, S.; Sherwood, R. C.; van Dover, R. B.; Tiefel, T. H.; Johnson, D. W., Jr.

    1987-07-01

    The fabrication of fine-wire, composite superconductors consisting of a high-conductivity normal metal shell, such as Ag or Cu/Ni/Au, and a superconducting core of Ba2YCu3O oxide is described. The functions of the normal metal shell and the importance of using the proper diffusion barrier metals are discussed. A resistivity-temperature curve for the composite wire Ag/Ba2YCu3O7 is examined, and the compound inside the finished wire is analyzed using X-ray diffraction. It is observed that the zero-field critical current density of the wire at 77 K is about 175 A/sq cm and the superconducting core is continuous and retains phase composition after wire drawing and heat treatment. The supplying of oxygen to the core of the long wire during heat treatments is studied. The data reveal that it is possible to process ceramic superconductors into a desirable composite wire form.

  4. NFHS Court and Field Diagram Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, John, Ed.

    This guide contains a comprehensive collection of diagrams and specifications of playing fields and courts used in interscholastic and recreational sports, along with information on how to set up various formats of tournament drawings, how to compute golf handicaps, and how to convert metric-to-English distances. Lists are provided of national…

  5. Journeys on the H-R diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Kaler, J.B.

    1988-05-01

    The evolution of various types of stars along the H-R diagram is discussed. Star birth and youth is addressed, and the events that occur due to core contraction, shell burning, and double-shell burning are described. The evolutionary courses of planetary nebulae, white dwarfs, and supernovas are examined.

  6. On phase diagrams of magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Cassak, P. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2013-06-15

    Recently, “phase diagrams” of magnetic reconnection were developed to graphically organize the present knowledge of what type, or phase, of reconnection is dominant in systems with given characteristic plasma parameters. Here, a number of considerations that require caution in using the diagrams are pointed out. First, two known properties of reconnection are omitted from the diagrams: the history dependence of reconnection and the absence of reconnection for small Lundquist number. Second, the phase diagrams mask a number of features. For one, the predicted transition to Hall reconnection should be thought of as an upper bound on the Lundquist number, and it may happen for considerably smaller values. Second, reconnection is never “slow,” it is always “fast” in the sense that the normalized reconnection rate is always at least 0.01. This has important implications for reconnection onset models. Finally, the definition of the relevant Lundquist number is nuanced and may differ greatly from the value based on characteristic scales. These considerations are important for applications of the phase diagrams. This is demonstrated by example for solar flares, where it is argued that it is unlikely that collisional reconnection can occur in the corona.

  7. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  8. Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan

    Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.

  9. Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

  10. Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

  11. The Binary Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Philip C.; Reeves, James H.; Messina, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The equations for the liquid and gas lines in the binary temperature-composition phase diagram are derived by approximating that delta(H)[subscript vap] of the two liquids are equal. It is shown that within this approximation, the resulting equations are not too difficult to present in an undergraduate physical chemistry lecture.

  12. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  13. Constructing Causal Diagrams to Learn Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems like "What should we do about global warming?" are ill-defined in large part because we do not agree on a system to represent them the way we agree Algebra problems should be represented by equations. As a first step toward building a policy deliberation tutor, we investigated: (a) whether causal diagrams help students learn to…

  14. Fine structure of the butterfly diagram revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Balázs

    The latitudinal time distribution of sunspots (butterfly diagram) was studied by Becker (1959) and Antalová & Gnevyshev (1985). Our goal is to revisit these studies. In the first case we check whether there is a poleward migration in sunspot activity. In the second case we confirm the results, and make more quantitative statements concerning their significance and the position of the activity peaks.

  15. Phase diagram of spiking neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Seyed-allaei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In computer simulations of spiking neural networks, often it is assumed that every two neurons of the network are connected by a probability of 2%, 20% of neurons are inhibitory and 80% are excitatory. These common values are based on experiments, observations, and trials and errors, but here, I take a different perspective, inspired by evolution, I systematically simulate many networks, each with a different set of parameters, and then I try to figure out what makes the common values desirable. I stimulate networks with pulses and then measure their: dynamic range, dominant frequency of population activities, total duration of activities, maximum rate of population and the occurrence time of maximum rate. The results are organized in phase diagram. This phase diagram gives an insight into the space of parameters – excitatory to inhibitory ratio, sparseness of connections and synaptic weights. This phase diagram can be used to decide the parameters of a model. The phase diagrams show that networks which are configured according to the common values, have a good dynamic range in response to an impulse and their dynamic range is robust in respect to synaptic weights, and for some synaptic weights they oscillates in α or β frequencies, independent of external stimuli. PMID:25788885

  16. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  17. Impersonal parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2003-10-01

    An objective process for estimation of star cluster parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams is introduced, with direct inclusion of multiple stars, a least-squares fitting criterion, and standard error estimates. No role is played by conventional isochrones. Instead the quantity compared between observation and theory is the density of points (areal ) as it varies over the diagram. With as the effective observable quantity, standard parameter adjustment theory can be brought to bear on HR diagram analysis. Here we use the method of differential corrections with a least-squares fitting criterion, but any of the many known fitting methods should be applicable to comparison of observed and theoretical distributions. Diverse numerical schemes were developed to make the overall algorithm workable, including two that improve differentiability of by rendering point distributions effectively equivalent to continuous distributions in certain respects. Statistics of distributions are handled not via Monte Carlo methods but by the Functional Statistics Algorithm (hereafter FSA), a statistical algorithm that has been developed for HR diagram fitting but should serve as an alternative to Monte Carlo in many other applications. FSA accomplishes the aims of Monte Carlo with orders of magnitude less computation. Analysis of luminosity functions is included within the HR diagram algorithm as a special case. Areal density analysis of HR diagrams is acceptably fast because we handle stellar evolution via approximation functions, whose output also is more precisely differentiable than that of a full stellar evolution program. Evolution by approximation functions is roughly a million times as fast as full evolution and has virtually no numerical noise. The algorithmic ideas that lead to objective solutions can be applied to many kinds of HR diagram analysis that are now done subjectively. The present solution program is limited by speed considerations to use of one evolution

  18. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  19. Parallel wire cable static load testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Gil, Isabella C.

    This report is the result of two evaluations for the analysis of parallel wire cables. The purpose of the first assessment was to evaluate the stiffness and strength of parallel wire cables. For the methodology, three test setups were executed utilizing single wires, seven wire parallel cables, and 100 wire parallel cables as specimens. The parallel wire cables were connected with molted zinc to their sockets. The cables were manufactured by Wilolamb Construction. The results indicate that the single, seven, and 100 wire specimens had similar performance in yield stress, yield strain, modulus, and ultimate strain. However, the amount of strain decreased as the number of wires increased. Because the mechanical properties of the multi wires specimens had not significant difference, it is suggested that the zinc sockets had insignificant impact on their performance. Comparing these results to a previous test executed for parallel wire cables, there were significant differences on the ultimate capacity. It is assumed that the fabrication method of the cables were different. The second evaluation had two purposes. First, it was intended to compare the results of the single wire test from OSU to the single wire test results from Sherry Laboratories. From the analysis, it was found that the ultimate and yield loads were similar between both laboratories procedures, but their strength capacity and ultimate strain were different. It was observed that the Sherry Lab used a different method to compute the mechanical properties of the wire and that the measurement of the elongation was different to the procedures from OSU. Second, the secondary analysis was to evaluate if there is any significant difference between wires sanded at the mid-length of the specimen and wires that were not sanded. From this analysis it was observed that there was no difference between the sanded and non-sanded wires, which indicated that cross-section reduction should not be necessary for the

  20. Students' different understandings of class diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  1. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spellman, G P

    2004-03-18

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there.

  2. Reduced-Wiring Tactile Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy R.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed tactile sensor on robot finger puts out multiplexed analog signals transmitted to control computer on fewer wires than needed to transmit equivalent digital signals. Analog output represents data on contact area of object being gripped, on position of object, and on direction and rate of slippage if any. Consists of chains of normally open switches and resistors on surface of finger. Each resistance double preceding resistance in each chain. Constant-current sources supply power to chains.

  3. Printed wiring board design and manufacture in Electronic Instrumentation Department 8450

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. J.; Schoeppe, H. E.; Franssen, R. L.; Kirchner, G. W.

    1991-05-01

    In order to successfully and efficiently produce printed wiring boards, the full progression from design concept through fabrication must be understood. Within Department 8450, this includes the utilization of Valid Logic Systems Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools to perform schematic capture, circuit simulation, and board layout. If the appropriate functions are not performed in the proper sequence, or if the essential materials are not available when needed, the time required to produce a printed wiring board will grow inordinately. This report details the process flow within Department 8450, starting with the initial design requirements and concluding with a completely fabricated and tested circuit board. Recommendations for improving the system are also presented. Design and manufacturing considerations that impact the process are identified, as are the input and output requirements for each stage. With this information as a guide, a design engineer will be able to utilize the CAE tools available for circuit board design more effectively and minimize the time interval from concept to final product.

  4. New Pinning Strategies for Second-Generation Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, VF; Li, Q; Rupich, M; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP

    2013-06-01

    In the last several years, second-generation (2G) superconducting wires have been considered for applications in rotating machines operating in the 20-40 K temperature range in 1-3 T magnetic fields. Here, we outline several novel strategies for improving the low-temperature performance of second-generation wires by utilizing the in-plane strain of thick YBCO layers manufactured by the reel-to-reel metal-organic deposition (MOD) method. First, we show that he strain-induced pinning mechanism analysis, based on the Eshelby model of the elastically-strained composites, predicts that small YBCO grain size is a critical component of a strong pinning architecture. Second, we describe how the in-plane strain can be controlled by processing parameters. Systematic changes of the in-plane structure and YBCO grain size are mapped with respect to the YBCO stability line and the Cu2O-CuO line on the Bormann-Hammond diagram. It is demonstrated that the optimum critical current density is the result of a trade-off between YBCO grain coupling and the strain-induced pinning.

  5. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  6. Method and apparatus for laying wire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Horowitz, Seymour M.; Nesbitt, Dale D.

    1986-01-01

    Wire arrays (11) having a continuous wire (12) which is formed into a predetermined pattern and adhered to a backing material or substrate (13) are fabricated by applying adhesive material (16a, 16b) along opposite edge portions (17, 18) of the substrate, positioning a row of winding spools (21) along each of the edge portions and repeatedly extending the wire between and around successive spools at the opposite edge portions. The wound wire is then traveled along each spool toward the substrate and into contact with the adhesive. The spools are then removed and a coating of hardenable material (54) is applied to secure the wound wire to the substrate. Tension in the wire is relieved prior to contact of the wire with the adhesive and a small amount of slack is introduced into the wire before the final coating step. Mechanism (32) is provided for lifting the spools away from the substrate without disturbing the wound wire. The method and apparatus enable manufacture of precisely configured wire arrays without complex or costly equipment and do not require structural alterations in the substrate for the purpose of accommodating to fabrication equipment.

  7. Analysis of Conical Wire Array Z-Pinch Stability with a Center Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, D.; Presura, R.; Wright, S.; Plechaty, C.; Neff, S.; Wanex, L.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2009-01-21

    Adding a center wire on the axis of a conical wire array produces conditions suitable for studying shear flow stabilization of the Z-pinch. The conical wire array produces and axial plasma flow while the center wire introduces a radial variation of the axial velocity. Experiments of this array configuration were preformed on the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch generator and showed stabilization of the kink instability when a center wire was present. Comparison with equivalent cylindrical wire arrays indicates that the shear flow stabilization plays a role in the stabilization of the kink instability.

  8. Thermal energy scavenger (rotating wire modules)

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, P.A.; Milton, H.W.; Pringle, W.L.

    1980-11-04

    A thermal energy scavenger assembly is is described including a plurality of temperature-sensitive wires made of material which exhibits shape memory due to a thermoelastic, martensitic phase transformation. The wires are placed in tension between fixed and movable plates which are, in turn, supported by a pair of wheels which are rotatably supported by a housing for rotation about a central axis. A pair of upper and lower cams are fixed to the housing and cam followers react with the respective cams. Each cam transmits forces through a pair of hydraulic pistons. One of the pistons is connected to a movable plate to which one end of the wires are connected whereby a stress is applied to the wires to strain the wires during a first phase and whereby the cam responds to the unstraining of the wires during a second phase. A housing defines fluid compartments through which hot and cold fluid passes and flows radially through the wires whereby the wires become unstrained and shorten in length when subjected to the hot fluid for causing a reaction between the cam followers and the cams to effect rotation of the wheels about the central axis of the assembly, which rotation of the wheels is extracted through beveled gearing. The wires are grouped into a plurality of independent modules with each module having a movable plate, a fixed plate and the associated hydraulic pistons and cam follower. The hydraulic pistons and cam follower of a module are disposed at ends of the wires opposite from the ends of the wires at which the same components of the next adjacent modules are disposed so that the cam followers of alternate modules react with one of the cams and the remaining cam followers of the remaining modules react with the other cam. There is also included stress limiting means in the form of coil springs associated with alternate ends of the wires for limiting the stress or strain in the wires.

  9. Drafting. Advanced Print Reading--Electrical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This document is a workbook for drafting students learning advanced print reading for electricity applications. The workbook contains seven units covering the following material: architectural working drawings; architectural symbols and dimensions; basic architectural electrical symbols; wiring symbols; riser diagrams; schematic diagrams; and…

  10. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method

  11. Wire ablation dynamics model and its application to imploding wire arrays of different geometries.

    PubMed

    Esaulov, A A; Kantsyrev, V L; Safronova, A S; Velikovich, A L; Shrestha, I K; Williamson, K M; Osborne, G C

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents an extended description of the amplified wire ablation dynamics model (WADM), which accounts in a single simulation for the processes of wire ablation and implosion of a wire array load of arbitrary geometry and wire material composition. To investigate the role of wire ablation effects, the implosions of cylindrical and planar wire array loads at the university based generators Cobra (Cornell University) and Zebra (University of Nevada, Reno) have been analyzed. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the wire mass ablation rate can be described as a function of the current through the wire and some coefficient defined by the wire material properties. The aluminum wires were found to ablate with the highest rate, while the copper ablation is the slowest one. The lower wire ablation rate results in a higher inward velocity of the ablated plasma, a higher rate of the energy coupling with the ablated plasma, and a more significant delay of implosion for a heavy load due to the ablation effects, which manifest the most in a cylindrical array configuration and almost vanish in a single-planar array configuration. The WADM is an efficient tool suited for wire array load design and optimization in wide parameter ranges, including the loads with specific properties needed for the inertial confinement fusion research and laboratory astrophysics experiments. The data output from the WADM simulation can be used to simplify the radiation magnetohydrodynamics modeling of the wire array plasma. PMID:23214697

  12. Wire ablation dynamics model and its application to imploding wire arrays of different geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esaulov, A. A.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Velikovich, A. L.; Shrestha, I. K.; Williamson, K. M.; Osborne, G. C.

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents an extended description of the amplified wire ablation dynamics model (WADM), which accounts in a single simulation for the processes of wire ablation and implosion of a wire array load of arbitrary geometry and wire material composition. To investigate the role of wire ablation effects, the implosions of cylindrical and planar wire array loads at the university based generators Cobra (Cornell University) and Zebra (University of Nevada, Reno) have been analyzed. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the wire mass ablation rate can be described as a function of the current through the wire and some coefficient defined by the wire material properties. The aluminum wires were found to ablate with the highest rate, while the copper ablation is the slowest one. The lower wire ablation rate results in a higher inward velocity of the ablated plasma, a higher rate of the energy coupling with the ablated plasma, and a more significant delay of implosion for a heavy load due to the ablation effects, which manifest the most in a cylindrical array configuration and almost vanish in a single-planar array configuration. The WADM is an efficient tool suited for wire array load design and optimization in wide parameter ranges, including the loads with specific properties needed for the inertial confinement fusion research and laboratory astrophysics experiments. The data output from the WADM simulation can be used to simplify the radiation magnetohydrodynamics modeling of the wire array plasma.

  13. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  14. Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael

    We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.

  15. Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Weonjong

    2005-01-01

    We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

  16. Direct Measurement of the Fluid Phase Diagram.

    PubMed

    Bao, Bo; Riordon, Jason; Xu, Yi; Li, Huawei; Sinton, David

    2016-07-19

    The thermodynamic phase of a fluid (liquid, vapor or supercritical) is fundamental to all chemical processes, and the critical point is particularly important for supercritical chemical extraction. Conventional phase measurement methods require hours to obtain a single datum on the pressure and temperature diagram. Here, we present the direct measurement of the full pressure-temperature phase diagram, with 10 000 microwells. Orthogonal, linear, pressure and temperature gradients are obtained with 100 parallel microchannels (spanning the pressure range), each with 100 microwells (spanning the temperature range). The phase-mapping approach is demonstrated with both a pure substance (CO2) and a mixture (95% CO2 + 5% N2). Liquid, vapor, and supercritical regions are clearly differentiated, and the critical pressure is measured at 1.2% error with respect to the NIST standard. This approach provides over 100-fold improvement in measurement speed over conventional methods. PMID:27331613

  17. Krajewski diagrams and the standard model

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, Christoph A.

    2009-04-15

    This paper provides a complete list of Krajewski diagrams representing the standard model of particle physics. We will give the possible representations of the algebra and the anomaly free lifts which provide the representation of the standard model gauge group on the fermionic Hilbert space. The algebra representations following from the Krajewski diagrams are not complete in the sense that the corresponding spectral triples do not necessarily obey to the axiom of Poincare duality. This defect may be repaired by adding new particles to the model, i.e., by building models beyond the standard model. The aim of this list of finite spectral triples (up to Poincare duality) is therefore to provide a basis for model building beyond the standard model.

  18. MHV diagrams in momentum twistor space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Mason, Lionel; Skinner, David

    2010-12-01

    We show that there are remarkable simplifications when the MHV diagram formalism for mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills is reformulated in momentum twistor space. The vertices are replaced by unity while each propagator becomes a dual superconformal `R-invariant' whose arguments may be read off from the diagram, and include an arbitrarily chosen reference twistor. The momentum twistor MHV rules generate a formula for the full, all-loop planar integrand for the super Yang-Mills S-matrix that is manifestly dual superconformally invariant up to the choice of a reference twistor. We give a general proof of this reformulation and illustrate its use by computing the momentum twistor NMHV and N2MHV tree amplitudes and the integrands of the MHV and NMHV 1-loop and the MHV 2-loop planar amplitudes.

  19. Band diagram of strained graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The influence of ripple waves on the band diagram of zigzag strained graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is analyzed by utilizing the finite element method. Such waves have their origin in electromechanical effects. With a novel model, we demonstrate that electron-hole band diagrams of GNRs are highly influenced (i.e. level crossing of the bands are possible) by two combined effects: pseudo-magnetic fields originating from electroelasticity theory and external magnetic fields. In particular, we show that the level crossing point can be observed at large external magnetic fields (B ≈ 100T ) in strained GNRs, when the externally applied tensile edge stress is on the order of -100 eV/nm and the amplitude of the out-of-plane ripple waves is on the order of 1nm.

  20. Ring-Diagram Analysis: Status and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F.

    Ring diagram analysis is now more than a decade old. While the details of the technique are still evolving, the application of the method to MDI, TON, Mt. Wilson, HLH, and GONG data is providing intriguing results. Thanks to the work of many people, it is now becoming possible to observationally infer the complicated dynamics in the outer 15 Mm of the solar convection zone, investigate the depth dependence of meridional flow, and get a closer look at zonal jet-stream structures in the mid-latitudes. We may soon be able to similarly investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of scalar fields. As ring diagrams and other local helioseismology methods such as time-distance and acoustic imaging continue to mature, the comparison of results from different techniques on common data sets will provide a useful reality check.

  1. Persistence diagrams of cortical surface data.

    PubMed

    Chung, Moo K; Bubenik, Peter; Kim, Peter T

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel framework for characterizing signals in images using techniques from computational algebraic topology. This technique is general enough for dealing with noisy multivariate data including geometric noise. The main tool is persistent homology which can be encoded in persistence diagrams. These diagrams visually show how the number of connected components of the sublevel sets of the signal changes. The use of local critical values of a function differs from the usual statistical parametric mapping framework, which mainly uses the mean signal in quantifying imaging data. Our proposed method uses all the local critical values in characterizing the signal and by doing so offers a completely new data reduction and analysis framework for quantifying the signal. As an illustration, we apply this method to a 1D simulated signal and 2D cortical thickness data. In case of the latter, extra homological structures are evident in an control group over the autistic group. PMID:19694279

  2. Extracting parameters from colour-magnitude diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatto, C.; Campos, F.; Kepler, S. O.; Bica, E.

    2015-07-01

    We present a simple approach for obtaining robust values of astrophysical parameters from the observed colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of star clusters. The basic inputs are the Hess diagram built with the photometric measurements of a star cluster and a set of isochrones covering wide ranges of age and metallicity. In short, each isochrone is shifted in apparent distance modulus and colour excess until it crosses over the maximum possible Hess density. Repeating this step for all available isochrones leads to the construction of the solution map, in which the optimum values of age and metallicity - as well as foreground/background reddening and distance from the Sun - can be searched for. Controlled tests with simulated CMDs show that the approach is efficient in recovering the input values. We apply the approach to the open clusters M 67, NGC 6791 and NGC 2635, which are characterized by different ages, metallicities and distances from the Sun.

  3. Phase Coexistence in a Dynamic Phase Diagram.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Luigi; Coppola, Luigi; Balog, Sandor; Mortensen, Kell; Ranieri, Giuseppe A; Olsson, Ulf

    2015-08-01

    Metastability and phase coexistence are important concepts in colloidal science. Typically, the phase diagram of colloidal systems is considered at the equilibrium without the presence of an external field. However, several studies have reported phase transition under mechanical deformation. The reason behind phase coexistence under shear flow is not fully understood. Here, multilamellar vesicle (MLV)-to-sponge (L3 ) and MLV-to-Lα transitions upon increasing temperature are detected using flow small-angle neutron scattering techniques. Coexistence of Lα and MLV phases at 40 °C under shear flow is detected by using flow NMR spectroscopy. The unusual rheological behavior observed by studying the lamellar phase of a non-ionic surfactant is explained using (2) H NMR and diffusion flow NMR spectroscopy with the coexistence of planar lamellar-multilamellar vesicles. Moreover, a dynamic phase diagram over a wide range of temperatures is proposed. PMID:26083451

  4. Phase diagram of superconductor-ferromagnet superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Radovic, Z.; Dobrosavljevic-Grujic, L.

    1994-12-31

    Recent progress in the proximity effect theory of superconductor-ferromagnet superlattices is reviewed. The phase diagram calculations, transition temperature {Tc} and upper critical fields H{sub c2}, are presented. Characteristic features in {Tc} and H{sub c2}(T) dependence on layers thicknesses, including the predicted unusual oscillatory variations and new inhomogeneous superconducting state with nontrivial phase difference between neighboring superconducting layers, are discussed and compared with experimental data for V/Fe and Nb/Gd superlattices.

  5. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  6. Displaying multimedia environmental partitioning by triangular diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Mackay, D.

    1995-11-01

    It is suggested that equilateral triangular diagrams are a useful method of depicting the equilibrium partitioning of organic chemicals among the three primary environmental media of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the organosphere (natural organic matter and biotic lipids and waxes). The technique is useful for grouping chemicals into classes according to their partitioning tendencies, for depicting the incremental effects of substituents such as alkyl groups and chlorine, and for showing how partitioning changes in response to changes in temperature.

  7. Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

    2005-12-15

    We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong <111> fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed. PMID:16138359

  8. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  9. Regime Diagrams for K-Theory Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ronald B.

    2011-06-01

    In atmospheric dispersion, the "non-Gaussian" effects of gravitational settling, the vertical gradient in diffusivity and the surface deposition do not enter uniformly but rather break up parameter space into several discrete regimes. Here, we describe regime diagrams that are constructed for K-theory dispersion of effluent from a surface line source in unsheared inhomogeneous turbulence, using a previously derived Fourier-Hankel method. This K-theory formulation differs from the traditional one by keeping a non-zero diffusivity at the ground. This change allows for turbulent exchange between the canopy and the atmosphere and allows new natural length scales to emerge. The axes on the regime diagrams are non-dimensional distance defined as the ratio of downwind distance to the characteristic length scale for each effect. For each value of the ratio of settling speed to the K gradient, two to four regimes are found. Concentration formulae are given for each regime. The regime diagrams allow real dispersion problems to be categorized and the validity of end-state concentration formulae to be judged.

  10. Phase diagram and dynamics of Yukawa systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Mark. O.; Kremer, Kurt; Grest, Gary S.

    1988-03-01

    The phase diagram and dynamical properties of systems of particles interacting through a repulsive screened Coulomb (Yukawa) potential have been calculated using molecular and lattice dynamics techniques. The phase diagram contains both a melting transition and a transition from fcc to bcc crystalline phases. These phase transitions have been studied as a function of potential shape (screening length) and compared to phenomenological criteria for transition temperatures such as those of Lindemann and of Hansen and Verlet. The transition from fcc to bcc with increasing temperature is shown to result from a higher entropy in the bcc phase because of its softer shear modes. Even when the stable solid phase below the melting temperature is fcc, bcc-like local order is found in the liquid phase. This may substantially slow crystallization. The calculated phase diagram and shear modulus are in good agreement with experiments on colloidal suspensions of polystyrene spheres. The single particle dynamics of Yukawa systems show several unusual features. There is a pronounced subdiffusive regime in liquids near and below the melting temperature. This regime reflects the existence of two time scales: a typical phonon period, and the time for a particle to feel a new environment. The second time scale becomes longer as the temperature is lowered or the range of interaction (screening length) increases.

  11. The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2013-04-01

    The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shapley did not believe in the cosmological distances of Heber Curtis' spiral nebulae. It is not so well known that in 1920 Curtis' plot of the period-luminosity relation suggests that he didn't believe it was a physical relation and also he failed to appreciate the significance of the Russell diagram for understanding the large size of the Milky Way.

  12. Wire Whip Keeps Spray Nozzle Clean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Air-turbine-driven wire whip is clamped near spray-gun mount. When spray gun is installed, wire whip is in position to remove foam buildup from nozzle face. Two lengths of wire 1 to 2 inches long and about 0.03 inch in thickness are used. Foam spray would be prevented from accumulating on nozzle face by increasing purge flow and cutting vortex-generating grooves inside cap and on nozzle flats.

  13. Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

  14. Radiofrequency Wire Recanalization of Chronically Thrombosed TIPS.

    PubMed

    Majdalany, Bill S; Elliott, Eric D; Michaels, Anthony J; Hanje, A James; Saad, Wael E A

    2016-07-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) guide wires have been applied to cardiac interventions, recanalization of central venous thromboses, and to cross biliary occlusions. Herein, the use of a RF wire technique to revise chronically occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is described. In both cases, conventional TIPS revision techniques failed to revise the chronically thrombosed TIPS. RF wire recanalization was successfully performed through each of the chronically thrombosed TIPS, demonstrating initial safety and feasibility in this application. PMID:26902703

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  16. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  17. Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

  18. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  19. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...

  20. Placing the Forces on Free-Body Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Willard

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the problem of drawing free-body diagrams to analyze the conditions of static equilibrium. Presents a method based on the correct placement of the normal force on the body. Includes diagrams. (MVL)

  1. Teaching Verbal Chains Using Flow Diagrams and Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of the recent diagram and attention theory and research surprisingly suggests that a single flow diagram with instructive questions constitutes an effective learning medium in terms of verbal chaining. (Author)

  2. Development of the Axial Instability in Low Wire Number Wire Array Z-Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, P. F.; Bell, K. S.; Blesener, I. C.; Chalenski, D. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Martin, M. R.; McBride, R. D.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Hall, G. N.

    2009-01-21

    We are investigating the development of the axial instability, a modulation of the size of the coronal plasma that develops around each wire in wire-array Z-pinches. The modulation is a result of nonuniform ablation of material from the relatively cold wire core. It has long been known that the wavelength of this modulation is constant late in time and, since it is unique to different materials, it has come to be known as the fundamental mode. In these experiments we imaged individual wires with laser shadowgraphy early in time primarily in low wire number, large wire diameter aluminum arrays for ease of viewing. We Observe the development of this modulation from the time of initiation of coronal plasma, obtaining its dominant wavelength and amplitude growth as a function of time. We also studied the instability on coiled wires, which modify the wire ablation mechanism and completely suppress the fundamental mode[Hall2008]. time is discussed.

  3. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  4. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  5. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  6. Wired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Every American grade school and library ought to have free access to the Internet, and universities and institutions ought to have better access, according to the Clinton Administration.In an October 10 speech in Knoxville, Tennessee, President Clinton proposed that all of the nation's 100,000 public schools and 9,000 libraries receive a two-tiered E-rate (education rate) for access to Internet services. All schools and libraries should receive basic connections for free, as well as deep discounts on video conferencing and highspeed connections (with prices influenced by how much the school can afford to pay). The basic connections (and part of the cost of the more sophisticated connections) would be paid from a special federal fund that currently provides below-cost phone service to households in poor and rural areas. That fund is currently drawn from fees assessed on local and long-distance telephone providers; the Clinton Administration would have cable operators and cellular service providers contribute as well. Companies that provide Internet services would be paid at the best available commercial rate.

  7. Wired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Aaron R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses technology's impact on scoreboard design: the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) display. How the LED system works is explained, as are the advantages and disadvantages of LED compared with incandescent lamp boards. Final comments address deciding on materials for scoreboard casings. (GR)

  8. Superconducting-wire fabrication. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glad, W.E.; Chase, G.G.

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were done leading to the fabrication of high-temperature superconducting composite wire. Bulk superconductor was characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The chemical compatibility of superconducting materials with a number of metal sheathing candidates was tested, with silver offering the best compatibility. Wire was fabricated by drawing 0.250-inch-diameter silver tubing packed with superconducting powder. Single core wires were drawn to 0.037-inch diameter. The best critical current performance (660 A/cm2) for leaded bismuth 2-2-2-3 material was achieved by flattening single-core wire before heat treatment.

  9. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-01

    The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.

  10. Effect of an Axial Wire on Conical Wire Array Z-Pinch Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Presura, R.; Martinez, D.; Wright, S.; Plechaty, C.; Neff, S.; Wanex, L.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2009-01-21

    Adding a wire on the axis of wire arrays significantly affects the x-ray emission of the conical arrays, and much less that of the cylindrical ones. The radiation of the conical wire arrays increases with the thickness of the central wire, surpassing that of the equivalent cylindrical arrays. Significant energy is emitted early on, around the time of the conical shock formation, before the pinch stagnation.

  11. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  12. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  13. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Disposition of home run wiring. 76.804 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Inside Wiring § 76.804 Disposition of home run wiring. (a) Building-by-building disposition of home run wiring. (1) Where an MVPD owns the home run wiring in an...

  14. 46 CFR 129.340 - Cable and wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.340 Cable and wiring. (a) If individual wires, rather than... tank, unless it supplies power to equipment in the tank; and (9) Have sheathing or wire insulation...) Cable and wire in power and lighting circuits must be #14 AWG or larger. Cable and wire in control...

  15. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  16. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P.; Steffani, Christopher P.; Gonfiotti, Ray A.

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.

  18. The Classroom as Rhizome: New Strategies for Diagramming Knotted Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article calls attention to the unexamined role of diagrams in educational research and offers examples of alternative diagramming practices or tools that shed light on classroom interaction as a rhizomatic process. Drawing extensively on the work of Latour, Deleuze and Guattari, and Chatelet, this article explores the power of diagramming as…

  19. Differential Cognitive and Affective Responses to Flow Diagrams in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes a study in which tenth-grade biology students who were low verbal performers scored significantly higher on achievement tests when provided with picture-word diagrams of biological concepts than when provided with block-word diagrams. Students and teachers also preferred picture-word diagrams as indicated by a questionnaire. (MLH)

  20. 30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section 256.8..., General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately platted as... 12(d) of the Act. (b) The MMS shall prepare leasing maps and official protraction diagrams of...

  1. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  2. Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram…

  3. The Problem of Labels in E-Assessment of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayal, Ambikesh; Shepperd, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore a problematic aspect of automated assessment of diagrams. Diagrams have partial and sometimes inconsistent semantics. Typically much of the meaning of a diagram resides in the labels; however, the choice of labeling is largely unrestricted. This means a correct solution may utilize differing yet semantically equivalent…

  4. Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

  5. Provision of IR-UWB wireless and baseband wired services over a WDM-PON.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shilong; Yao, Jianping

    2011-12-12

    A simple scheme to simultaneously generate an on-off keying or bi-phase modulation (BPM) impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signal and a baseband wired signal in the optical domain using a dual-drive modulator is proposed and demonstrated. Although the two signals have spectral overlap in the optical spectrum, they are located at different frequency bands when converted to electrical signals at a photodetector (PD), which can be well separated by an electrical filter. An experiment is carried out. Eye diagrams, electrical spectra and BER measurements show that the co-channel interference between the UWB and the wired signals is small for a single-channel 36-km fiber link to provide 1.25-Gb/s UWB wireless and 1.25-Gb/s baseband wired services. The inter-channel interference is also small and negligible when the link is operated together with two other 1.25 Gb/s baseband wired links, which demonstrates that a conventional WDM-PON can be upgraded to provide additional UWB services without affecting the existing services by modifying the modulators in the center office and inserting UWB antennas in the optical network units. PMID:22274021

  6. Thermal conductivity measurement in clay dominant consolidated material by Transient Hot-Wire method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, J. P.; Gallier, J.; Mercx, B.; Dudoignon, P.; Milcent, D.

    2010-06-01

    The transient hot-wire (THW) technique is widely used for measurements of the thermal-conductivity of most fluids and some attempts have also been carried out for simultaneous measurements of the thermal-diffusivity with the same hot wire. This technique was also tried to determine thermal properties of soils by the mean of probes which can be considered as wire with some assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to validate the thermal conductivity measurement by the THW technique in geomaterials, composed of compacted sand + clay mineral that can be used for earth construction (Compacted Earth Brick). The thermal transfer behaviors are mainly governed by the texture and moisture of the geomaterials. Thus the investigations were performed (1) in media made of glass beads of different diameters in dry and saturated state in order to observe the role of grain sizes and saturation state on the wire temperature (Δt) measurements and (2) in the compacted clay-geomaterial at different moisture states. The Δt / ln(t) diagrams allow the calculation of two thermal conductivities. The first one, measured in the short time acquisition (< 1s), characterizes the microtexture of the material and its hydrated state. The second one, measured for longer time acquisitions, characterizes the mean thermal conductivity of the material.

  7. Generic Phase Diagram of Binary Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Alexei

    Emergence of a large variety of self-assembled superlattices is a dramatic recent trend in the fields of nanoparticle and colloidal sciences. Motivated by this development, we propose a model that combines simplicity with a remarkably rich phase behavior, applicable to a wide range of such self-assembled systems. Those include nanoparticle and colloidal assemblies driven by DNA-mediated interactions, electrostatics, and possibly, by controlled drying. In our model, a binary system of Large and Small hard sphere (L and S)interact via selective short-range (''sticky'') attraction. In its simplest version, this Binary Sticky Sphere model features attraction only between 'S' and 'L' particles, respectively. We demonstrate that in the limit when this attraction is sufficiently strong compared to kT, the problem becomes purely geometrical: the thermodynamically preferred state should maximize the number of S-L contacts. A general procedure for constructing the phase diagram as a function of system composition f, and particle size ratio r, is outlined. In this way, the global phase behavior can be calculated very efficiently, for a given set of plausible candidate phases. Furthermore, the geometric nature of the problem enables us to generate those candidate phases through a well defined and intuitive construction. We calculate the phase diagrams both for 2D and 3D systems, and compare the results with existing experiments. Most of the 3D superlattices observed to date are featured in our phase diagram, while several more are yet to be discovered. The research was carried out at the CFN, DOE Office of Science Facility, at BNL, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.

  8. State-transition diagrams for biologists.

    PubMed

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

  9. State-Transition Diagrams for Biologists

    PubMed Central

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

  10. Dual fermionic variables and renormalization group approach to junctions of strongly interacting quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, Domenico; Nava, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Making a combined use of bosonization and fermionization techniques, we build nonlocal transformations between dual fermion operators, describing junctions of strongly interacting spinful one-dimensional quantum wires. Our approach allows for trading strongly interacting (in the original coordinates) fermionic Hamiltonians for weakly interacting (in the dual coordinates) ones. It enables us to generalize to the strongly interacting regime the fermionic renormalization group approach to weakly interacting junctions. As a result, on one hand, we are able to pertinently complement the information about the phase diagram of the junction obtained within the bosonization approach; on the other hand, we map out the full crossover of the conductance tensors between any two fixed points in the phase diagram connected by a renormalization group trajectory.

  11. Improved Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: Superconducting Wires for Direct-Drive Wind Generators

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a low-cost superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a high-performance superconducting wire that can handle significantly more electrical current, and will demonstrate an advanced manufacturing process that has the potential to yield a several-fold reduction in wire costs while using a using negligible amount of rare earth material. This design has the potential to make a wind turbine generator lighter, more powerful, and more efficient, particularly for offshore applications.

  12. Massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermayer, F.; Weisz, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses the methods and the results used in an accompanying paper describing the matching of effective chiral Lagrangians in dimensional and lattice regularizations. We present methods to compute 2-loop massless sunset diagrams in finite asymmetric volumes in the framework of these regularizations. We also consider 1-loop sums in both regularizations, extending the results of Hasenfratz and Leutwyler for the case of dimensional regularization and we introduce a new method to calculate precisely the expansion coefficients of the 1-loop lattice sums.

  13. Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).

  14. Toward a phase diagram for stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, K.

    1999-08-01

    A display of the tentatively basic parameters of stocks, i.e. the daily closing price and the daily transaction volume is presented eliminating the time variable between them. The “phase diagram” looks like a triangular region similar to the two-phase region of traffic diagrams. The data is taken for two companies (SGP and OXHP) which present different long-range correlations in the closing price value as examined by the linearly Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) statistical method. Substructures are observed in the “phase diagram” as due to changes in management policy, e.g. stock splits.

  15. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  16. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  17. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Maestas, Alfred J.; Pillai, Chandra; Raybun, Joseph L.; Sattler, F. D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  18. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

  19. Welding torch and wire feed manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    Welding torch and wire feed manipulator increase capability for performing automatic welding operations. The manipulator rotates on its horizontal axis to avoid obstacles as they approach the torch. The initial individual attitudes of the torch and wire guide are set with respect to the general configuration of the part.

  20. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  1. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, T.; Klamut, C.J.; Suenaga, M.; Welch, D.

    1979-12-19

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  2. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Klamut, Carl J.; Suenaga, Masaki; Welch, David

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  3. Wire-Guide Manipulator For Automated Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Tim; White, Kevin; Gordon, Steve; Emerich, Dave; Richardson, Dave; Faulkner, Mike; Stafford, Dave; Mccutcheon, Kim; Neal, Ken; Milly, Pete

    1994-01-01

    Compact motor drive positions guide for welding filler wire. Drive part of automated wire feeder in partly or fully automated welding system. Drive unit contains three parallel subunits. Rotations of lead screws in three subunits coordinated to obtain desired motions in three degrees of freedom. Suitable for both variable-polarity plasma arc welding and gas/tungsten arc welding.

  4. Flywheel system using wire-wound rotor

    DOEpatents

    Chiao, Edward Young; Bender, Donald Arthur; Means, Andrew E.; Snyder, Philip K.

    2016-06-07

    A flywheel is described having a rotor constructed of wire wound onto a central form. The wire is prestressed, thus mitigating stresses that occur during operation. In another aspect, the flywheel incorporates a low-loss motor using electrically non-conducting permanent magnets.

  5. Glidden's Patent Application for Barbed Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Emily; Schamel, Wynell

    1997-01-01

    Describes a series of teaching activities to be used in conjunction with a reproduction of Joseph Glidden's patent for barbed wire fencing. These include document analysis, creative interpretation, and personal experience. Presents a brief history of the social and economic effects of the introduction of barbed wire to the West. (MJP)

  6. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

    2008-10-01

    Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

  7. Add-On Shielding for Unshielded Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, J. C.; Billitti, J. W.; Tallon, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Fabrication sequence used to produce compact shields slipped into place from free ends of wires already soldered into connectors at other ends. Single shields are formed into harnesses by connecting grounding jumpers. Technique is especially useful for small diameter wire attached to microminiature connectors.

  8. Twisted Pair Of Insulated Wires Senses Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G.; Stephens, James B.

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity of electronic moisture sensor to low levels of moisture increased by new electrode configuration. Moisture-sensing circuit described in "Low-Cost Humidity Sensor" (NPO-16544). New twisted pair of wires takes place of flat-plate capacitor in circuit. Configuration allows for thermal expansion and contraction of polymer while maintaining nearly constant area of contact between polymer and wires.

  9. Wire ageing with the TEA photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-06-01

    Recently several RICH protypes successfully tested a gaseous TEA photocathode. However, its wire ageing behavior is unknown. In principle, TEA is a more strongly bonded molecule than TMAE, and, as a result, one would expect better wire ageing behavior. This paper explores this question.

  10. SpaceWire Architectures: Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glen Parker

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on current and future spacewire architectures is shown. The topics include: 1) Current Spacewire Architectures: Swift Data Flow; 2) Current SpaceWire Architectures : LRO Data Flow; 3) Current Spacewire Architectures: JWST Data Flow; 4) Current SpaceWire Architectures; 5) Traditional Systems; 6) Future Systems; 7) Advantages; and 8) System Engineer Toolkit.

  11. Long-Wearing Wire Guide For Welding Torch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Fogel, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Insert for wire-guide tube on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus extends life of guide tube and increases accuracy of weld. Hardened insert resists wear by sliding tungsten wire. Chamfer guides wire into insert.

  12. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wiring. The incumbent provider that has elected to abandon its home run wiring may remove its amplifiers... amplifiers or other active devices used in the wiring if an equivalent replacement can easily be...

  13. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wiring. The incumbent provider that has elected to abandon its home run wiring may remove its amplifiers... amplifiers or other active devices used in the wiring if an equivalent replacement can easily be...

  14. VIEW NORTHEASTLEFTBUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHTBUILDING 4 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTHEAST-LEFT-BUILDING 9 NO 3 WIRE MILL (1876) RIGHT-BUILDING 4 NO 1 WIRE MILL (1871) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  15. VIEW WESTLEFTNO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHTNO 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST-LEFT-NO 1 WIRE MILL BUILDING 4 (1871) RIGHT-NO 3 WIRE MILL BUILDING 9 (1876) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  16. Wiring harnesses documented by punched-card technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, W. W.; Kloezeman, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Cards representing a connector are punched, sorted, and then used to printout wiring documentation for that connector. When wiring changes are made, new cards are punched and the wiring documentation is reprinted to reflect the latest configuration.

  17. Unusual Conductance in Cumulene Molecular Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasongkit, Jariyanee; Grigoriev, Anton; Wendin, Göran; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2009-03-01

    We report current-voltage curves and conductance of cumulene molecular wire suspended between Au(111) surfaces via thiolate bonds with full self-consistent ab initio calculation under external bias. The conductance of cumulene wires shows oscillatory behavior depending on the number of carbon atoms. Among all conjugated oligomers, we find that odd-number cumulene wires yield the highest conductance and present ballistic-like transport behavior. The reason has been traced to two factors: high density of state at the Fermi level, and the alignment of molecular orbital closed to Fermi level. Since the conductance depends weakly on applied bias, and the current voltage characteristic is linear under bias region -0.9 to 0.9 V, odd-number cumulene wire is a possible candidate as a near- perfect, ballistic one-dimensional molecular wire.

  18. Improved method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.; Finnemore, D.K.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schmidt, F.A.; Owen, C.V.

    1979-10-17

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb/sub 3/Sn in a copper matrix eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb/sub 3/Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  19. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Finnemore, Douglas K.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Schmidt, Frederick A.; Owen, Charles V.

    1985-08-06

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  20. Realization of a Strained Atomic Wire Superlattice.

    PubMed

    Song, Inkyung; Goh, Jung Suk; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Sung Won; Shin, Jin Sung; Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Yeom, Han Woong

    2015-11-24

    A superlattice of strained Au-Si atomic wires is successfully fabricated on a Si surface. Au atoms are known to incorporate into the stepped Si(111) surface to form a Au-Si atomic wire array with both one-dimensional (1D) metallic and antiferromagnetic atomic chains. At a reduced density of Au, we find a regular array of Au-Si wires in alternation with pristine Si nanoterraces. Pristine Si nanoterraces impose a strain on the neighboring Au-Si wires, which modifies both the band structure of metallic chains and the magnetic property of spin chains. This is an ultimate 1D version of a strained-layer superlattice of semiconductors, defining a direction toward the fine engineering of self-assembled atomic-scale wires. PMID:26446292

  1. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  2. Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Walter, III

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.

  3. The aging of wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether: wire and construction materials and freon impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibaly, Mohammed; Majewski, Stan; Chrusch, Peter; Wojcik, Randolph; Sauli, Fabio; Gaudaen, Jan

    1989-11-01

    This is a complete summary of our study of the aging of different types of wire chambers, with a variety of construction materials and wires, filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. The resistive Nicotin and Stablohm wires were corroded by DME, producing fast aging. The moderately resistive stainless steel wires were able to withstand extended irradiation (up to 1 C/cm) in high-purity DME without any apparent damage; and gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires exhibited a comparable behavior. Many construction materials were tested and recommendations are thus reached as to what kinds of materials are safe in building DME-operated wire chambers. Among many different Freon and hydrocarbon impurities detected in DME by means of gas chromatography (GC), Freon-11 was found to be mostly responsible for the aging, even with noncorrosive stainless steel or gold-plated wires. The availability and feasibility of obtaining Freon-free DME is reported as well.

  4. Magnetic field-assisted synthesis of wire-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures: Electrochemical and photocatalytic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiubin; Pang, Zhanwen; Wu, Mingzai; Liu, Xiansong; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Yongqing; Sun, Zhaoqi; Zhang, Lide; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the magnetic field-assisted growth of wire-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires are prepared by magnetic field hydrothermal reduction and annealing. ► These Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires possess enhanced capacitance. ► The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires have a good photocatalytic activity for methyl orange. -- Abstract: Wire-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures were prepared by the combination of magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal reduction of cobalt ions and the subsequent ambient annealing at 500 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphological evolution of the products. The results show that the wire-like nanostructures possess diameters about 250 nm and lengths over 10 μm. The possible formation mechanism of the wire-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures is also proposed based on the SEM results. Galvanostatic methods were used to characterize the electrochemical properties. The measurements indicate that the wire-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures show larger discharge and charge capacities than that of spherical Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared in the absence of magnetic field. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of the products was investigated by measuring the photodegradation of methyl orange solution under ultraviolet radiation, which shows that both the wire-like and spherical products have a good photocatalytic activity.

  5. Strain tolerant microfilamentary superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, D.K.; Miller, T.A.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schwartzkopf, L.A.; Sanders, S.C.

    1993-02-23

    A strain tolerant microfilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments.

  6. Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

  7. Non-equilibrium phases and phase diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Massalski, T.B.; Rizzo, H.F.

    1988-03-01

    In this paper we consider the degree of usefulness of the phase diagram and the related thermodynamics in predicting and understanding the formation of metastable phases during quenching, or during low-temperature solid-state interdiffusion, or during co-deposition. Recent research has demonstrated that many of such metastable phases are formed because the more stable intermediate phases that are favored thermodynamically are nevertheless bypassed kinetically. The kinetic elimination of intermediate phases provides conditions where a metastable equilibrium can be established at low temperatures between the supercooled liquid and the terminal solid solutions, leading to metastable partitioned two-phase regions. Alternatively, the range of the metastable phases may be governed by the T/sub 0/ principle related to the crossover of the respective free energy curves, or may be controlled mainly by kinetic considerations. Which particular thermodynamic conditions apply appears to depend on the initial form of the phase diagram and the specific technique used. The occurrence of massive transformations also is discussed. 34 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Preliminary Master Logic Diagram for ITER operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Taylor, N.P.; Poucet, A.E.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes the work performed to develop a Master Logic Diagram (MLD) for the operations phase of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The MLD is a probabilistic risk assessment tool used to identify the broad set of potential initiating events that could lead to an offsite radioactive or toxic chemical release from the facility under study. The MLD described here is complementary to the failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) that have been performed for ITER`s major plant systems in the engineering evaluation of the facility design. While the FMEAs are a bottom-up or component level approach, the MLD is a top-down or facility level approach to identifying the broad spectrum of potential events. Strengths of the MLD are that it analyzes the entire plant, depicts completeness in the accident initiator process, provides an independent method for identification, and can also identify potential system interactions. MLDs have been used successfully as a hazard analysis tool. This paper describes the process used for the ITER MLD to treat the variety of radiological and toxicological source terms present in the ITER design. One subtree of the nineteen page MLD is shown to illustrate the levels of the diagram.

  9. Phase diagrams of disordered Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapourian, Hassan; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2016-02-01

    Weyl semimetals are gapless quasitopological materials with a set of isolated nodal points forming their Fermi surface. They manifest their quasitopological character in a series of topological electromagnetic responses including the anomalous Hall effect. Here, we study the effect of disorder on Weyl semimetals while monitoring both their nodal/semimetallic and topological properties through computations of the localization length and the Hall conductivity. We examine three different lattice tight-binding models which realize the Weyl semimetal in part of their phase diagram and look for universal features that are common to all of the models, and interesting distinguishing features of each model. We present detailed phase diagrams of these models for large system sizes and we find that weak disorder preserves the nodal points up to the diffusive limit, but does affect the Hall conductivity. We show that the trend of the Hall conductivity is consistent with an effective picture in which disorder causes the Weyl nodes move within the Brillouin zone along a specific direction that depends deterministically on the properties of the model and the neighboring phases to the Weyl semimetal phase. We also uncover an unusual (nonquantized) anomalous Hall insulator phase which can only exist in the presence of disorder.

  10. Isolated pulsar spin evolution on the diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, J. P.; Lorimer, D. R.

    2010-05-01

    We look at two contrasting spin-down models for isolated radio pulsars and, accounting for selection effects, synthesize observable populations. While our goal is to reproduce all of the observable characteristics, in this paper we pay particular attention to the form of the spin period versus period derivative () diagram and its dependence on various pulsar properties. We analyse the initial spin period, the braking index, the magnetic field, various beaming models as well as the pulsar's luminosity. In addition to considering the standard magnetic dipole model for pulsar spin-down, we also consider the recent hybrid model proposed by Contopoulos and Spitkovsky. The magnetic dipole model, however, does a better job of reproducing the observed pulsar population. We conclude that random alignment angles and period-dependent luminosity distributions are essential to reproduce the observed diagram. We also consider the time decay of alignment angles and attempt to reconcile various models currently being studied. We conclude that in order to account for recent evidence for the alignment found by Weltevrede and Johnston, the braking torque on a neutron star should not depend strongly on the inclination. Our simulation code is publicly available and includes a web-based interface to examine the results and make predictions for yields of current and future surveys.

  11. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985), 10.1080/00268978500101971] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases.

  12. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985)] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases. PMID:22482570

  13. Automated D/3 to Visio Analog Diagrams

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-08-10

    ADVAD1 reads an ASCII file containing the D/3 DCS MDL input for analog points for a D/3 continuous database. It uses the information in the files to create a series of Visio files representing the structure of each analog chain, one drawing per Visio file. The actual drawing function is performed by Visio (requires Visio version 4.5+). The user can configure the program to select which fields in the database are shown on the diagrammore » and how the information is to be presented. This gives a visual representation of the structure of the analog chains, showing selected fields in a consistent manner. Updating documentation can be done easily and the automated approach eliminates human error in the cadding process. The program can also create the drawings far faster than a human operator is capable, able to create approximately 270 typical diagrams in about 8 minutes on a Pentium II 400 MHz PC. The program allows for multiple option sets to be saved to provide different settings (i.e., different fields, different field presentations, and /or different diagram layouts) for various scenarios or facilities on one workstation. Option sets may be exported from the Windows registry to allow duplication of settings on another workstation.« less

  14. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy Puspita, Dila Sidarto, Kuntjoro A. Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  15. Recent Results in Ring-Diagram Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The ring-diagram technique was developed by Frank Hill 25 years ago and matured quickly during the late 1990s. It is nowadays one of the most commonly used techniques in local helioseismology. The method consists in the power spectral analysis of solar acoustic oscillations on small regions (2° to 30°) of the solar surface. The power spectrum resembles a set of trumpets nested inside each other and for a given frequency, it looks like a ring, hence the technique's name. It provides information on the horizontal flow field and thermodynamic structure in the layers immediately below the photosphere. With data regularly provided by MDI, GONG, and more recently HMI, many important results have been achieved. In recently years, these results include estimations of the meridional circulation and its evolution with solar cycle; flows associated with active regions, as well as, flow divergence and vorticity, and thermal structure beneath and around active regions. Much progress is expected with data now provided by HMI's high spatial resolution observations and high duty cycle. There are two data processing pipelines (GONG and HMI) providing free access to the data and the results of the ring-diagram analysis. Here we will discuss the most recent results and improvements in the technique, as well as, the many challenges that still remain.

  16. Phase diagram of quantum square ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Louis-Paul; Holdsworth, Peter; Mila, Frederic; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2013-03-01

    We have investigated the ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagram of quantum square ice - realized by the transverse-field Ising model on a checkerboard lattice - using both linear spin-wave (LSW) theory and quantum Monte Carlo (QMC). We generalize the model with different couplings between nearest (J1) and next-to-nearest (J2) neighbors on the checkerboard lattice. Our QMC approach generalizes the loop algorithm - very efficient in the study of constrained classical systems - to a ``brane algorithm'' for quantum systems. At the LSW level the vast degeneracy of the ground-state for J1 =J2 and J2 >J1 remains intact; moreover LSW theory breaks down in extended regions of the phase diagram, pointing at non-classical states. Our QMC study goes beyond perturbative schemes and addresses directly the nature of the low-temperature phases. We have critically examined the possibility of a resonating-plaquette state for J1 =J2 , suggested by degenerate perturbation theory on the ice-rule manifold for weak fields. Our QMC results for finite fields confirm the absence of Néel or collinear order, but they do not confirm the presence of resonating-plaquette order, pointing at a possibly more complex non-classical state.

  17. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  18. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236.76 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise so... apparatus. Inspections and Tests; All Systems...

  19. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236.76 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise so... apparatus. Inspections and Tests; All Systems...

  20. 500 kV shield wires; Sectionalize or ground everywhere

    SciTech Connect

    Tuominen, M.W. )

    1992-01-01

    The primary purpose of shield wires on transmission lines in lightning protection. Development of fiber-optic shied wires added communications capabilities. Schemes for adapting fiber-optic shield wires to sectionalized shield wire designs remain untested. It is a present policy to segment and insulate 500 kV shield wires. Computer modeling and supportive field measurements have revealed a characteristic distribution of grounded tower voltage versus distance for long lines. The intent of this paper is to report these results plus predict the outcome of grounding shield wires on transmission lines already in place. Shield wires are often called overhead ground wires and abbreviated OHGW.

  1. The Diagram as Story: Unfolding the Event-Structure of the Mathematical Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of narrative in decoding diagrams. I focus on two fundamental facets of narrative: (1) the recounting of causally related sequences of events, and (2) the positioning of the narrator through point-of-view and voice. In the first two sections of the paper I discuss philosophical and semiotic frameworks for making sense…

  2. Diagrams: A Visual Survey of Graphs, Maps, Charts and Diagrams for the Graphic Designer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Arthur

    Since the ultimate success of any diagram rests in its clarity, it is important that the designer select a method of presentation which will achieve this aim. He should be aware of the various ways in which statistics can be shown diagrammatically, how information can be incorporated in maps, and how events can be plotted in chart or graph form.…

  3. In Situ Electrochemical Deposition of Microscopic Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Myung, Nosang; Vasquez, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A method of fabrication of wires having micron and submicron dimensions is built around electrochemical deposition of the wires in their final positions between electrodes in integrated circuits or other devices in which the wires are to be used. Heretofore, nanowires have been fabricated by a variety of techniques characterized by low degrees of controllability and low throughput rates, and it has been necessary to align and electrically connect the wires in their final positions by use of sophisticated equipment in expensive and tedious post-growth assembly processes. The present method is more economical, offers higher yields, enables control of wire widths, and eliminates the need for post-growth assembly. The wires fabricated by this method could be used as simple electrical conductors or as transducers in sensors. Depending upon electrodeposition conditions and the compositions of the electroplating solutions in specific applications, the wires could be made of metals, alloys, metal oxides, semiconductors, or electrically conductive polymers. In this method, one uses fabrication processes that are standard in the semiconductor industry. These include cleaning, dry etching, low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, lithography, dielectric deposition, electron-beam lithography, and metallization processes as well as the electrochemical deposition process used to form the wires. In a typical case of fabrication of a circuit that includes electrodes between which microscopic wires are to be formed on a silicon substrate, the fabrication processes follow a standard sequence until just before the fabrication of the microscopic wires. Then, by use of a thermal SiO-deposition technique, the electrodes and the substrate surface areas in the gaps between them are covered with SiO. Next, the SiO is electron-beam patterned, then reactive-ion etched to form channels having specified widths (typically about 1 m or less) that define the widths of the wires to be formed. Drops

  4. Development of a precision wire feeder for small-diameter wire

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.D.

    1995-03-01

    At Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, the author designed and fabricated a precision wire feeder to be used with high energy density (electron beam and laser beam) welding for weld joints where filler wire might be needed to fill a gap or to adjust the chemical composition so that a crack-free weld could be made. The wire feeder incorporates a 25,000 step-per-revolution motor to power a urethane-coated drive roll. A microprocessor-based controller provides precise control of the motor and allows both continuous and pulsed feeding of the wire. A unidirectional 0.75-in.-dia ball bearing is used to press the wire against the drive roll. A slight constant backward tension is maintained on the wire spool by a Bodine torque motor. A Teflon tube is used to guide the wire from the drive roll to the vicinity of the weld, where a hypodermic needle is used to aim the wire into the weld pool. The operation of the wire feeder was demonstrated by feeding a 10-mil-dia, Type 304 stainless steel wire into a variety of CO{sub 2} laser beam welds. The resulting welds are smooth and continuous, and the welds are considered to be completely satisfactory for a variety of applications.

  5. LANSCE wire scanning diagnostics device mechanical design

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is one of the major experimental science facilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The core of LANSCE's work lies in the operation of a powerful linear accelerator, which accelerates protons up to 84% the speed oflight. These protons are used for a variety of purposes, including materials testing, weapons research and isotopes production. To assist in guiding the proton beam, a series of over one hundred wire scanners are used to measure the beam profile at various locations along the half-mile length of the particle accelerator. A wire scanner is an electro-mechanical device that moves a set of wires through a particle beam and measures the secondary emissions from the resulting beam-wire interaction to obtain beam intensity information. When supplemented with data from a position sensor, this information is used to determine the cross-sectional profile of the beam. This measurement allows beam operators to adjust parameters such as acceleration, beam steering, and focus to ensure that the beam reaches its destination as effectively as possible. Some of the current wire scanners are nearly forty years old and are becoming obsolete. The problem with current wire scanners comes in the difficulty of maintenance and reliability. The designs of these wire scanners vary making it difficult to keep spare parts that would work on all designs. Also many of the components are custom built or out-dated technology and are no longer in production.

  6. Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

  7. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  8. Failure analysis of explanted sternal wires.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ming; Su, Yea-Yang; Lin, Shing-Jong; Shih, Chun-Che

    2005-05-01

    To classify and understand the mechanisms of surface damages and fracture mechanisms of sternal wires, explanted stainless steel sternal wires were collected from patients with sternal dehiscence following open-heart surgery. Surface alterations and fractured ends of sternal wires were examined and analyzed. Eighty fractured wires extracted from 25 patients from January 1999 to December 2003, with mean implantation interval of 55+/-149 days (range 5-729 days) after cardiac surgery, were studied by various techniques. The extracted wires were cleaned and the fibrotic tissues were removed. Irregularities and fractured ends were assayed by a scanning electron microscopy. After stereomicroscopy and documentation, the explants were cleaned with 1% sodium hypochlorite to remove the blood and tissues and was followed by cleaned with deionized water and alcohol. The explants were examined by stereomicroscopy, and irregularities on surface and fracture surfaces of sternal wires were assayed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray mapping. The explants with surrounding fibrotic tissue were stained and examined with stereomicroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Corrosion pits were found on the surface of explanted sternal wires. EDAX and X-ray mapping examinations revealed diminution of nickel concentration in the severely corroded pits on sternal wires. A feature of transgranular cracking was observed for stress corrosion cracking and striation character for typical corrosion fatigue was also identified. TEM examination of tissue showed the metallic particles in phagolysosomes of macrophages inside the surrounding sternal tissue. The synergic effect of hostile environment and the stress could be the precursors of failures for sternal wires. PMID:15576179

  9. Copper Wire Bonding Concerns and Best Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Preeti; Zhong, Z. W.; Pecht, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Copper wire bonding of microelectronic parts has developed as a means to cut the costs of using the more mature technology of gold wire bonding. However, with this new technology, changes in the bonding processes as well as bonding metallurgy can affect product reliability. This paper discusses the challenges associated with copper wire bonding and the solutions that the industry has been implementing. The paper also provides information to enable customers to conduct qualification and reliability tests on microelectronic packages to facilitate adoption in their target applications.

  10. Transient scattering from a thin arbitrary wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, S. Ananda; Rao, Sadasiva M.

    1988-08-01

    The conjugate gradient (CG) method is applied to solve the problem of transient scattering from a thin arbitrary wire. The method is simple, efficient, and yields more accurate results than the marching-on-in-time procedure. Numerical examples for the case of a bent wire, a wire with discontinuous radii, and a circular loop are presented to highlight the advantages of this procedure. It is concluded that the occurrence of late-time oscillations may not be due to the accumulation of truncation of roundoff errors. These oscillations may be attributed to the insufficient sampling of the structure.

  11. Transport in partially equilibrated inhomogeneous quantum wires.

    SciTech Connect

    Levchenko, A.; Micklitz, T.; Rech, J.; Matveev, K. A.; Materials Science Division; Freie Univ. Berlin; Centre de Physique Theorique

    2010-01-01

    We study transport properties of weakly interacting one-dimensional electron systems including on an equal footing thermal equilibration due to three-particle collisions and the effects of large-scale inhomogeneities. We show that equilibration in an inhomogeneous quantum wire is characterized by the competition of interaction processes which reduce the electrons total momentum and such which change the number of right- and left-moving electrons. We find that the combined effect of interactions and inhomogeneities can dramatically increase the resistance of the wire. In addition, we find that the interactions strongly affect the thermoelectric properties of inhomogeneous wires and calculate their thermal conductance, thermopower, and Peltier coefficient.

  12. Pulse speed on a plucked wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odekirk, Tristan; Slaton, William V.

    2012-04-01

    This paper serves to update an elegant experiment published in The Physics Teacher to measure the speed of a pulse on a taut metal wire. Unfortunately, commercially available units2 that serve the same purpose are priced outside the range of most high school or college physics teaching laboratories. Wakeland et al. show how an affordable adaptation of the traditional standing wave apparatus using taut metal wire and horseshoe magnets can be used to measure the speed of a pulse by using an oscilloscope to measure an induced voltage in the wire as the pulse transverses the middle of the magnets, which are a known distance apart.

  13. Wire-rope emplacement of diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, W.L.

    1982-05-07

    The study reported here was initiated to determine if, with the Cable Downhole System (CDS) currently under development, there is an advantage to using continuous wire rope to lower the emplacement package to the bottom of the hole. A baseline design using two wire ropes as well as several alternatives are discussed in this report. It was concluded that the advantages of the wire-rope emplacement system do not justify the cost of converting to such a system, especially for LLNL's maximum emplacement package weights.

  14. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    SciTech Connect

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described.

  15. Detectors Ensure Function, Safety of Aircraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Pedro Medelius waited patiently in his lab at Kennedy Space Center. He had just received word that a colleague was bringing over a cable from a Space Shuttle solid rocket booster to test Medelius new invention. Medelius was calm until his colleague arrived, with about 30 other people. "Talk about testing under pressure," says Medelius. "There were people there from the Navy, the Air Force, and the Federal Aviation Administration." After the group s arrival, Medelius took a deep breath and connected his Standing Wave Reflectometer (SWR) to the cable. He wiggled the cable around, and the display showed a fault (a short or open circuit in wire) about an inch and a half inside the connector on the cable. His colleague questioned the results, because he had already checked that area on the cable. Medelius used the SWR to check again but got the same result. "That is when we took the cable apart and looked inside," Medelius says. "Lo and behold, that was exactly where the fault was." The impetus for Medelius new wire inspection technology came about in 1999 when one of the space shuttles lost power due to a fault somewhere in its more than 200 miles of electrical wiring. "The backup circuit was activated and prevented a major dysfunction, but nevertheless, there was a problem with the wiring," Medelius describes. Even though technicians used a device called a multimeter to measure the electrical current to find which wire had a fault, it could not pinpoint exactly where on the wire the fault was located. For that, technicians had to visually inspect the wire. "Sometimes they would have to remove the whole wire assembly and visually inspect every single wire. It was a very tedious operation because the wires are behind cabinets. They go all over the place in the shuttle," says Medelius. "NASA needed an instrument capable of telling them exactly where the faults were occurring." To meet NASA s needs for a highly precise device to inspect electrical power bundles, wires

  16. Colloidally deposited nanoparticle wires for biophysical detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Sophie C.; Liu, Wen-Tao; Diao, Jia-Jie

    2015-12-01

    Among the techniques developed to prepare nanoparticle wires for multiple applications, the colloidal deposition method at interface has been regarded as cost-efficient and eco-friendly, and hence has attracted an increasing amount of research attention. In this report, the recent developments in preparing nanoparticle wires and integrated nanoparticle wire arrays using this technique have been reviewed. Furthermore, we have also discussed the application of these nanoparticle structures in detecting chemical and biological molecules. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities through Xi’an Jiaotong University and the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB856304).

  17. Unmodulated spin chains as universal quantum wires

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Antoni; Kurzynski, Pawel; Grudka, Andrzej; Luczak, Tomasz; Gdala, Tomasz; Bednarska, Malgorzata

    2005-09-15

    We study a quantum state transfer between two qubits interacting with the ends of a quantum wire consisting of linearly arranged spins coupled by an excitation conserving, time-independent Hamiltonian. We show that, if we control the coupling between the source and the destination qubits and the ends of the wire, the evolution of the system can lead to an almost perfect transfer even in the case in which all nearest-neighbour couplings between the internal spins of the wire are equal.

  18. Filter line wiring designs in aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Richard M.

    1990-10-01

    The paper presents a harness design using a filter-line wire technology and appropriate termination methods to help meet high-energy radiated electromagnetic field (HERF) requirements for protection against the adverse effects of EMI on electrical and avionic systems. Filter-line interconnect harnessing systems discussed consist of high-performance wires and cables; when properly wired they suppress conducted and radiated EMI above 100 MHz. Filter-line termination devices include backshell adapters, braid splicers, and shield terminators providing 360-degree low-impedance terminations and enhancing maintainability of the system.

  19. Global Phase Diagram in Layered Organic Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Guo, Yaowu

    2014-03-01

    Layered organic superconductors serve as model systems for Mott physics with geometrical frustration. The global phase diagram of such system is obtained by using Gutzwiller variational method to study a Hubbard model including a spin exchange coupling term. Five possible candidates of ground state are obtained respectively, including a spin liquid insulating state at large on-site Coulomb repulsion U and large lattice frustration t'/t, an antiferromagnetic state at large U and small t'/t , two Gossamer superconducting states at medium U with either gapless dx 2 - y 2-wave (small t'/t) or gapped d +id-wave symmetry (large t'/t) , and a metallic Fermi liquid state at small U. Moreover, we study the evolution of double occupancy number d in terms of different U and t'/t parameters mimicking the pressure effect. Our results are qualitatively consistent with main experimental results in organic superconductors. -/abstract- Billing ID: 814549 Member I

  20. Phase diagrams of bosonic ABn chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, G. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.

    2016-04-01

    The A B N - 1 chain is a system that consists of repeating a unit cell with N sites where between the A and B sites there is an energy difference of λ. We considered bosons in these special lattices and took into account the kinetic energy, the local two-body interaction, and the inhomogenous local energy in the Hamiltonian. We found the charge density wave (CDW) and superfluid and Mott insulator phases, and constructed the phase diagram for N = 2 and 3 at the thermodynamic limit. The system exhibited insulator phases for densities ρ = α/ N, with α being an integer. We obtained that superfluid regions separate the insulator phases for densities larger than one. For any N value, we found that for integer densities ρ, the system exhibits ρ + 1 insulator phases, a Mott insulator phase, and ρ CDW phases. For non-integer densities larger than one, several CDW phases appear.