Science.gov

Sample records for schematic wiring diagram

  1. Schematic diagram of (VDT) - open throat design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    Schematic diagram of Variable-Density Tunnel (VDT) - open throat design. Eastman Jacobs and Ira Abbott note in NACA TR 416 (p. 305) that a serious fire destroyed the tunnel (not the steel shell) in August 1927. The original design had a closed-throat test section five feet in diameter. After the fire it was decided to convert to an open throat design as depicted here. Jacobs and Abbott reported that this design was not satisfactory. 'The difficulties, which included excessive vibration, unsteady velocity at the test section, a rather large pressure gradient along the axis of the test section, and excessive effects of extraneous air currents on the balance, were overcome by rebuilding parts of the tunnel.' L2742.03: After a fire in August 1927 destroyed the VDT (not the steel shell), engineers decided to replace the original closed throat design with an open throat test section. This was wholly unsatisfactory and was immediately replaced with a new closed-throat design. Eastman Jacobs and Ira Abbott wrote: 'The whole interior structure was changed to the closed-throat type. A new exit cone having a smaller divergence angle and a new entrance cone having a better form were built. The synchronous-drive motor was replaced by a direct-current motor. These changes were completed in December, 1930.' (NACA TR No. 416, p. 305)

  2. On the history of meridional overturning circulation schematic diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Philip L.

    2008-03-01

    Recent global warming caused by humans and the prediction of a reduced Atlantic Ocean meridional overturning circulation in the future has increased interest in the role of the overturning circulation in climate change. A schematic diagram of the overturning circulation called the "Great Ocean Conveyor Belt," published by Wallace Broecker in 1987, has become a popular image that emphasizes the inter-connected ocean circulation and the northward flux of heat in the Atlantic. This seems a good time to review the development of the conveyor belt concept and summarize the history of overturning circulation schematics. In the 19th century it was thought that symmetric overturning circulation cells were located on either side of the equator in the Atlantic. As new hydrographic measurements were obtained, circulation schematics in the early 20th century began to show the inter-hemispheric overturning circulation in the Atlantic. In the second half of the 20th century schematics showed the global ocean overturning circulation including connections between the Atlantic and the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Some recent schematics of the overturning circulation show its complexities, but as more information is included these schematics have also become complex and not as easy to understand as the simple Broecker 1987 version. However, these complex schematics, especially the quantitative ones, represent valuable syntheses of our developing knowledge of the overturning circulation.

  3. Schematic diagram of light path in Wide Field Planetary Camera 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    An optical schematic diagram of one of the four channels of the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2(WFPC-2) shows the path taken by beams from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) before an image is formed at the camera's chargecoupled devices.

  4. Phase diagram of a quantum Coulomb wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, G.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Boronat, J.

    2015-12-01

    We report the quantum phase diagram of a one-dimensional Coulomb wire obtained using the path-integral Monte Carlo method. The exact knowledge of the nodal points of this system permits us to find the energy in an exact way, solving the sign problem which spoils fermionic calculations in higher dimensions. The results obtained allow for the determination of the stability domain, in terms of density and temperature, of the one-dimensional Wigner crystal. At low temperatures, the quantum wire reaches the quantum-degenerate regime, which is also described by the diffusion Monte Carlo method. Increasing the temperature, the system transforms to a classical Boltzmann gas, which we simulate using classical Monte Carlo. At large enough density, we identify a one-dimensional ideal Fermi gas which remains quantum up to higher temperatures than in two- and three-dimensional electron gases. The obtained phase diagram and the energetic and structural properties of this system are relevant to experiments with electrons in quantum wires and to Coulomb ions in one-dimensional confinement.

  5. The wiring diagram for plant G signaling.

    PubMed

    Colaneri, Alejandro C; Jones, Alan M

    2014-12-01

    Like electronic circuits, the modular arrangement of cell-signaling networks decides how inputs produce outputs. Animal heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) operate as switches in the circuits that signal between extracellular agonists and intracellular effectors. There still is no biochemical evidence for a receptor or its agonist in the plant G-protein pathways. Plant G-proteins deviate in many important ways from the animal paradigm. This review covers important discoveries from the last two years that enlighten these differences and ends describing alternative wiring diagrams for the plant signaling circuits regulated by G-proteins. We propose that plant G-proteins are integrated in the signaling circuits as variable resistor rather than switches, controlling the flux of information in response to the cell's metabolic state. PMID:25282586

  6. 61. THREE LINE WIRING DIAGRAM, 33 KV & NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. THREE LINE WIRING DIAGRAM, 33 KV & NO. 1 TRANS BANK, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO PLANT, OCTOBER 27, 1958. SCE drawing no. 428058-1. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. The dream and reality of automated wiring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Manno, R.; Dugan, D.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the use of computer programs for automated substation/switchgear wiring in order to cut production costs associated with wiring diagrams and documentation. The topics of the article include automating the process, schematic capture editor, wiring diagram editor, design aids and documentation, display formats, and system benefits.

  8. Solar Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The home shown at right is specially designed to accommodate solar heating units; it has roof planes in four directions, allowing placement of solar collectors for best exposure to the sun. Plans (bottom) and complete working blueprints for the solar-heated house are being marketed by Home Building Plan Service, Portland, Oregon. The company also offers an inexpensive schematic (center) showing how a homeowner only moderately skilled in the use of tools can build his own solar energy system, applicable to new or existing structures. The schematic is based upon the design of a low-cost solar home heating system built and tested by NASA's Langley Research Center; used to supplement a warm-air heating system, it can save the homeowner about 40 percent of his annual heating bill for a modest investment in materials and components. Home Building Plan Service saved considerable research time by obtaining a NASA technical report which details the Langley work. The resulting schematic includes construction plans and simplified explanations of solar heat collection, collectors and other components, passive heat factors, domestic hot water supply and how to work with local heating engineers.

  9. Determination of the Superconductor-Insulator Phase Diagram for One-Dimensional Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, A. T.; Dinsmore, R. C., III; Rogachev, A.; Bezryadin, A.

    2008-11-01

    We establish the superconductor-insulator phase diagram for quasi-one-dimensional wires by measuring a large set of MoGe nanowires. This diagram is roughly consistent with the Chakravarty-Schmid-Bulgadaev phase boundary, namely, with the critical resistance being equal to RQ=h/4e2. Deviations from this boundary for a small fraction of the samples prompt us to suggest an alternative phase diagram, which matches the data exactly. Transport properties of wires in the superconducting phase are dominated by phase slips, whereas insulating nanowires exhibit a weak Coulomb blockade behavior.

  10. Fluctuation diagrams for hot-wire anemometry in subsonic compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stainback, P. C.; Nagabushana, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of using 'fluctuation diagrams' for describing basic fluctuations in compressible flows was reported by Kovasznay in the 1950's. The application of this technique, for the most part, was restricted to supersonic flows. Recently, Zinovev and Lebiga published reports where they considered the fluctuation diagrams in subsonic compressible flows. For the above studies, the velocity and density sensitivities of the heated wires were equal. However, there are considerable data, much taken in the 1950's, which indicate that under some conditions the velocity and density sensitivities are not equal in subsonic compressible flows. Therefore, possible fluctuation diagrams are described for the cases where the velocity and density sensitivities are equal and the more general cases where they are unequal.

  11. Small Explorer WIRE Failure Investigation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Richard B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the Small Explorer WIRE Failure Investigation Report in viewgraph form. Some of the diagrams include: 1) Overview of the Pyro Box and key interfaces; 2) Schematic Diagram of the A1020 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) inputs; 3) Three critical FPGA reset signals shown in detail; 4) State machines for firing the cover pyrotechnic devices; 5) Oscillator Overview; and 6) General Crystal Oscillator Startup Characteristics.

  12. MIDAS, prototype Multivariate Interactive Digital Analysis System, phase 1. Volume 3: Wiring diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Christenson, D.; Gordon, M.; Kistler, R.; Lampert, S.; Marshall, R.; Mclaughlin, R.

    1974-01-01

    The Midas System is a third-generation, fast, multispectral recognition system able to keep pace with the large quantity and high rates of data acquisition from present and projected sensors. A principal objective of the MIDAS Program is to provide a system well interfaced with the human operator and thus to obtain large overall reductions in turn-around time and significant gains in throughput. The hardware and software generated in Phase I of the overall program are described. The system contains a mini-computer to control the various high-speed processing elements in the data path and a classifier which implements an all-digital prototype multivariate-Gaussian maximum likelihood decision algorithm operating at 2 x 100,000 pixels/sec. Sufficient hardware was developed to perform signature extraction from computer-compatible tapes, compute classifier coefficients, control the classifier operation, and diagnose operation. The MIDAS construction and wiring diagrams are given.

  13. Nano-Resolution X-ray Tomography for Deciphering Wiring Diagram of Mammalian Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, H.; Sagara, H.; Takeuchi, A.; Ohigashi, T.; Yashiro, W.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Momose, A.; Takagi, T.

    2011-09-01

    Neural circuits in the central nervous system are the substrate of various high-order brain functions. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying neuronal information processing in the brain. Anatomical and functional graph structures of neural networks with actual connections will provide us with perspectives to elucidate the brain complexity. Here, we aim to develop a three-dimensional mouse brain atlas of neural circuits using nano-resolution x-ray tomography by synchrotron radiation. In addition to identifying a large number of synapses, our research will also clarify the structure of neuronal networks for understanding the most complex organ in the body. In this study, we observed metal-stained biological tissues of the mouse brain using hard x-ray Zernike-type phase-contrast microscopy with 60-nm resolution at SPring-8. As a result, the nano-resolution hard x-ray phase-contrast microscope revealed nerve fibers and organelles including mitochondria and synapses in the neural tissue. In the near future, this information will be utilized to begin deciphering the wiring diagram of the brain by using nano-resolution x-ray tomography.

  14. Foundational model of structural connectivity in the nervous system with a schema for wiring diagrams, connectome, and basic plan architecture

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Larry W.; Bota, Mihail

    2010-01-01

    The nervous system is a biological computer integrating the body's reflex and voluntary environmental interactions (behavior) with a relatively constant internal state (homeostasis)—promoting survival of the individual and species. The wiring diagram of the nervous system's structural connectivity provides an obligatory foundational model for understanding functional localization at molecular, cellular, systems, and behavioral organization levels. This paper provides a high-level, downwardly extendible, conceptual framework—like a compass and map—for describing and exploring in neuroinformatics systems (such as our Brain Architecture Knowledge Management System) the structural architecture of the nervous system's basic wiring diagram. For this, the Foundational Model of Connectivity's universe of discourse is the structural architecture of nervous system connectivity in all animals at all resolutions, and the model includes two key elements—a set of basic principles and an internally consistent set of concepts (defined vocabulary of standard terms)—arranged in an explicitly defined schema (set of relationships between concepts) allowing automatic inferences. In addition, rules and procedures for creating and modifying the foundational model are considered. Controlled vocabularies with broad community support typically are managed by standing committees of experts that create and refine boundary conditions, and a set of rules that are available on the Web. PMID:21078980

  15. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. Language, Perception, and the Schematic Representation of Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorapanth, Prin; Kranjec, Alexander; Bromberger, Bianca; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Woods, Adam J.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Schemas are abstract nonverbal representations that parsimoniously depict spatial relations. Despite their ubiquitous use in maps and diagrams, little is known about their neural instantiation. We sought to determine the extent to which schematic representations are neurally distinguished from language on the one hand, and from rich perceptual…

  17. Language, Perception, and the Schematic Representation of Spatial Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amorapanth, Prin; Kranjec, Alexander; Bromberger, Bianca; Lehet, Matthew; Widick, Page; Woods, Adam J.; Kimberg, Daniel Y.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2012-01-01

    Schemas are abstract nonverbal representations that parsimoniously depict spatial relations. Despite their ubiquitous use in maps and diagrams, little is known about their neural instantiation. We sought to determine the extent to which schematic representations are neurally distinguished from language on the one hand, and from rich perceptual…

  18. Schematic displays for the Space Shuttle Orbiter multifunction cathode-ray-tube display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, W.

    1979-01-01

    A standardized procedure for developing cathode ray tube displayed schematic diagrams. The displaying of Spacelab information on the space shuttle orbiter multifunction cathode ray tube display system is used to illustrate this procedure. Schematic displays with the equivalent tabular displays are compared.

  19. Schematic eyes for domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Coile, D C; O'Keefe, L P

    1988-01-01

    Schematic and reduced eyes for the horse, cow, sheep, pig, cat, and dog were calculated from optical parameter values obtained from the literature. Calculations were performed with the aid of a computer program using standard Gaussian equations and a homogeneous lens model. Calculated schematic eyes had refractive states within 1.5 D of emmetropia; retinal image sizes ranged from 0.22 (cat and dog) to 0.44 (horse) mm/deg. The cat eye presented here is more nearly emmetropic than a previously published cat schematic eye. The effects of altering refractive indices, radii of curvature, and thicknesses of refractive components upon refractive state and retinal image size are examined. The largest differences resulted from changes made to refractive indices of the lens and vitreous and to the vitreous depth. PMID:3211562

  20. Schematic driven layout of Reed Solomon encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arave, Kari; Canaris, John; Miles, Lowell; Whitaker, Sterling

    1992-01-01

    Two Reed Solomon error correcting encoders are presented. Schematic driven layout tools were used to create the encoder layouts. Special consideration had to be given to the architecture and logic to provide scalability of the encoder designs. Knowledge gained from these projects was used to create a more flexible schematic driven layout system.

  1. Assessing Schematic Knowledge of Introductory Probability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birney, Damian P.; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Plank, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    The ability to identify schematic knowledge is an important goal for both assessment and instruction. In the current paper, schematic knowledge of statistical probability theory is explored from the declarative-procedural framework using multiple methods of assessment. A sample of 90 undergraduate introductory statistics students was required to…

  2. Knowledge Based Schematization of Route Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Samvith; Hirtle, Stephen C.

    It is common for a wayfinding task to involve travel across a familiar and an unfamiliar region that encompass different parts of the same route. Routes of this kind would entail schematized descriptions and the schematization would directly depend on the familiarity of the region being described. This paper presents a new formalization that identifies key conceptual elements of such routes and introduces a principle of "knowledge chunking" that enables their schematization. This is followed by empirical evidence that supports this schematization of route directions for wayfinder's who may perform such a task. The evidence suggests the need for future wayfinding systems to produce schematized route descriptions based on the user's prior knowledge of a route. The formal approach presented is useful in implementing such a system and possible methods for its implementation are discussed.

  3. Project TAPS. Teaching Anatomy with Programmed Schematics. Progress Report Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desch, S. H.; Stolurow, L. M.

    Experimental Programed Instruction of the anatomy of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve is being conducted by the Harvard Computer-Aided Instruction Laboratory in cooperation with Tufts University Dental School. Two nearly identical programs are presented, one (PF) using representational diagrams and the other (PD) a schematic diagram…

  4. Schematic eye with a gradient-index lens and aspheric surfaces.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Damian; Kasprzak, Henryk; Pierscionek, Barbara K

    2004-06-01

    A new schematic eye with aspheric surfaces and a radially varying refractive-index distribution lens is proposed. Image quality and spherical aberration are determined by use of ray tracing, and the results are presented as spot diagrams and compared with five existing model eyes. The proposed model provides the best image quality and lowest spherical aberration. PMID:15209245

  5. Semiotic Activity of Young Children in Play: The Construction and Use of Schematic Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oers, Bert

    1994-01-01

    Examined four- through six-year olds' ability to diagram the configuration of a toy railway set they had assembled and to reconstruct the railway based on drawings. Found that motivation had a significant influence on the accuracy of drawings. Results suggest that semiotic activity with the help of schematic representations or drawings is in the…

  6. The Effect of Functional Flow Diagrams on the Technical System Understanding of Apprentice Aircraft Maintenance Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott D.; Satchwell, Richard E.

    A quasiexperimental study involved 18 male students enrolled in an aircraft systems course at the University of Illinois. The control group of 10 students studied 39 schematic diagrams of aircraft systems. The treatment group of eight students studied the same schematic diagrams plus conceptual diagrams of the systems. Otherwise, the instruction…

  7. Platform-independent method for computer aided schematic drawings

    DOEpatents

    Vell, Jeffrey L. (Slingerlands, NY); Siganporia, Darius M. (Clifton Park, NY); Levy, Arthur J. (Fort Lauderdale, FL)

    2012-02-14

    A CAD/CAM method is disclosed for a computer system to capture and interchange schematic drawing and associated design information. The schematic drawing and design information are stored in an extensible, platform-independent format.

  8. Neural Schematics as a unified formal graphical representation of large-scale Neural Network Structures

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Matthias; Schüffny, René

    2013-01-01

    One of the major outcomes of neuroscientific research are models of Neural Network Structures (NNSs). Descriptions of these models usually consist of a non-standardized mixture of text, figures, and other means of visual information communication in print media. However, as neuroscience is an interdisciplinary domain by nature, a standardized way of consistently representing models of NNSs is required. While generic descriptions of such models in textual form have recently been developed, a formalized way of schematically expressing them does not exist to date. Hence, in this paper we present Neural Schematics as a concept inspired by similar approaches from other disciplines for a generic two dimensional representation of said structures. After introducing NNSs in general, a set of current visualizations of models of NNSs is reviewed and analyzed for what information they convey and how their elements are rendered. This analysis then allows for the definition of general items and symbols to consistently represent these models as Neural Schematics on a two dimensional plane. We will illustrate the possibilities an agreed upon standard can yield on sampled diagrams transformed into Neural Schematics and an example application for the design and modeling of large-scale NNSs. PMID:24167490

  9. A GIS Tool for simulating Nitrogen transport along schematic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoly, A. A.; Maidment, D. R.; Yang, Z.; Whiteaker, T.; David, C. H.; Johnson, S.

    2012-12-01

    An automated method called the Arc Hydro Schematic Processor has been developed for water process computation on schematic networks formed from the NHDPlus and similar GIS river networks. The sechemtaic network represents the hydrologic feature on the ground and is a network of links and nodes. SchemaNodes show hydrologic features, such as catchments or stream junctions. SchemaLinks prescripe the connections between nodes. The schematic processor uses the schematic network to pass informatin through a watershed and move water or pollutants dwonstream. In addition, the schematic processor has a capability to use additional programming applied to the passed and/or received values and manipulating data trough network. This paper describes how the schemtic processor can be used to simulate nitrogen transport and transformation on river networks. For this purpose the nitrogen loads is estimated on the NHDPlus river network using the Schematic Processor coupled with the river routing model for the Texas Gulf Coast Hydrologic Region.

  10. Browsing schematics: Query-filtered graphs with context nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciccarelli, Eugene C.; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1988-01-01

    The early results of a research project to create tools for building interfaces to intelligent systems on the NASA Space Station are reported. One such tool is the Schematic Browser which helps users engaged in engineering problem solving find and select schematics from among a large set. Users query for schematics with certain components, and the Schematic Browser presents a graph whose nodes represent the schematics with those components. The query greatly reduces the number of choices presented to the user, filtering the graph to a manageable size. Users can reformulate and refine the query serially until they locate the schematics of interest. To help users maintain orientation as they navigate a large body of data, the graph also includes nodes that are not matches but provide global and local context for the matching nodes. Context nodes include landmarks, ancestors, siblings, children and previous matches.

  11. Proposed Schematics for an Advanced Development Lunar Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, Bruce; Chullen, Cinda; Barnes, Bruce; Leavitt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The latest development of the NASA space suit is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a Pressure Garment System (PGS) and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen (O2) subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. This paper baselines a detailed schematic of the PLSS to provide a basis for current and future PLSS development efforts. Both context diagrams and detailed schematics describe the hardware components and overall functions for all three of the PLSS subsystems. The various modes of operations for the PLSS are also presented. A comparison of the proposed PLSS to the Apollo and Shuttle PLSS designs is presented, highlighting several anticipated improvements over the historical PLSS architectures.

  12. Schematic representation of residue-based protein context-dependent data: an application to transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Campagne, F; Weinstein, H

    1999-01-01

    An algorithmic method for drawing residue-based schematic diagrams of proteins on a 2D page is presented and illustrated. The method allows the creation of rendering engines dedicated to a given family of sequences, or fold. The initial implementation provides an engine that can produce a 2D diagram representing secondary structure for any transmembrane protein sequence. We present the details of the strategy for automating the drawing of these diagrams. The most important part of this strategy is the development of an algorithm for laying out residues of a loop that connects to arbitrary points of a 2D plane. As implemented, this algorithm is suitable for real-time modification of the loop layout. This work is of interest for the representation and analysis of data from (1) protein databases, (2) mutagenesis results, or (3) various kinds of protein context-dependent annotations or data. PMID:10736778

  13. ISS EPS Orbital Replacement Unit Block Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2001-01-01

    The attached documents are being provided to Switching Power Magazine for information purposes. This magazine is writing a feature article on the International Space Station Electrical Power System, focusing on the switching power processors. These units include the DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU), the Bi-directional Charge/Discharge Unit (BCDU), and the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU). These diagrams are high-level schematics/block diagrams depicting the overall functionality of each unit.

  14. Schematic transportation network maps for wayfinding in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Weihua; Liu, Jiping; Guo, Qingsheng

    2008-10-01

    Schematic maps are effective tools for representing information about the physical environment and make user easy navigate for wayfinding. Evidence have shown that identifying how many categories of directions in urban street network environments, building taxonomy of branching points, and establishing a hierarchy of connecting roads will help produce effective schematic maps to ease wayfinding. Taking road semantic information and user demands into account, we first build the vector data model of hierarchy of connecting roads. Then we propose the four generalization algorithm and show the framework of how to generate schematic maps. Finally, schematic map on demand is designed in a concrete experiment, while keeping the topological consistency of the road network between original and schematic map.

  15. Elevations, Major Component Isometric, Propellant Flow Schematic, and External Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations, Major Component Isometric, Propellant Flow Schematic, and External Tank Connection to Shuttle Main Engines - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  16. Application note : using open source schematic capture tools with Xyce.

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  17. Development and Application of a Rubric for Analysis of Novice Students' Laboratory Flow Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidowitz, Bette; Rollnick, Marissa; Fakudze, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a scheme for the analysis of flow diagrams. The flow diagrams in question are a schematic representation of written instructions that require students to process the text of their practical manual. It was hoped that an analysis of the flow diagrams would provide insight into students'…

  18. Positioning instructive captions to improve learning from process diagrams in unfamiliar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latz, Rachel Dubois

    2000-10-01

    Process diagrams play an important role in developing the individual learner's meaningful understanding and interpretation of scientific knowledge. However, researchers suggest that learners may not appreciate the diagram's importance as a learning tool. The primary purpose of this experiment was to contribute to the existing body of knowledge about how to enhance learning from process diagrams. In particular, this experiment explored the effect of an instructive caption when learning from a particular process diagram, identified in this experiment as a step schematic. The instructive caption emphasized the meaningful organization and integration of the to be learned information. The experiment compared the effects of learning on three instructional treatments: an instructive caption placed prior to a step schematic, a step schematic with no instructive caption, and an instructive caption placed after the step schematic. One hundred and twenty-eight college students, with little or no advanced formal knowledge of meteorology (weather systems), participated in the experiment. The results of this experiment indicated that an instructive caption does not significantly affect the free recall of explanative information or the generation of problem solutions when learning from a step schematic. However, results of this experiment found a significant relationship between the recall of explanative idea units and problem solving performance. Further exploratory data analysis revealed a significant treatment-preference interaction for recall and problem solving criterion measures. Those learners preferring not to use diagrams performed better with an instructive caption placed prior to the step schematic than an instructive caption placed after the step schematic. The opposite pattern was true for those subjects preferring to use diagrams. Further research is required to determine the role of instructive captions when learning from process diagrams. In addition, learner preference for diagrams may contribute to the learner's cognitive processing of the information portrayed in process diagrams.

  19. ApiNATOMY: a novel toolkit for visualizing multiscale anatomy schematics with phenotype-related information.

    PubMed

    de Bono, Bernard; Grenon, Pierre; Sammut, Stephen John

    2012-05-01

    A significant proportion of biomedical resources carries information that cross references to anatomical structures across multiple scales. To improve the visualization of such resources in their anatomical context, we developed an automated methodology that produces anatomy schematics in a consistent manner,and provides for the overlay of anatomy-related resource information onto the same diagram. This methodology, called ApiNATOMY, draws upon the topology of ontology graphs to automatically lay out treemaps representing body parts as well as semantic metadata linking to such ontologies. More generally, ApiNATOMY treemaps provide an efficient and manageable way to visualize large biomedical ontologies in a meaningful and consistent manner. In the anatomy domain, such treemaps will allow epidemiologists, clinicians, and biomedical scientists to review, and interact with, anatomically aggregated heterogeneous data and model resources. Such an approach supports the visual identification of functional relations between anatomically colocalized resources that may not be immediately amenable to automation by ontology-based inferencing. We also describe the application of ApiNATOMY schematics to integrate, and add value to, human phenotype-related information—results are found at http://apinatomy.org. The long-term goal for the ApiNATOMY toolkit is to support clinical and scientific graphical user interfaces and dashboards for biomedical resource management and data analytics. PMID:22616108

  20. Proposed Schematics and Modeling Results for a Lunar Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conger, Bruce; Chullen, Cinda

    2009-01-01

    The Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) is an integrated assembly made up of primarily a Pressure Garment System (PGS) and a Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The PLSS is further composed of an oxygen (O2) subsystem, a ventilation subsystem, and a thermal subsystem. This paper baselines a detailed schematic of the CSSE PLSS to provide a basis for current and future CSSE PLSS development efforts. Both context diagrams and detailed schematics describe the hardware components and overall functions for all three of the PLSS subsystems. Additionally, PLSS functions are presented for multiple operational scenarios as follows: 1) Nominal Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Mode; 2) Umbilical Modes; a) No Recharge, b) With Recharge; 3) Decompression Sickness (DCS) Treatment Mode; 4) Buddy Mode; 5) Secondary O2 Modes; a) Helmet Purge; b) Suit Purge; c) Operational; and 5) PLSS Removed Umbilical Mode. A performance modeling effort is being performed to provide a preliminary confirmation of this layout and the current state of the thermal hydraulic modeling efforts being conducted for the PLSS is presented. The goal of these efforts is to provide realistic simulations of the PLSS under various modes of operation. Modeling approaches and assumptions are discussed as well as component model descriptions. Results from the models are included that show PLSS operations at steady-state and transient conditions. Finally, conclusions and recommendations are offered that summarize results, identify PLSS design weaknesses uncovered during review of the analysis results, and propose areas for improvement to increase model fidelity and accuracy.

  1. Concept Maps & Schematic Diagrams as Devices for Documenting the Growth of Mathematical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowen, Mercedes; Tall, David

    The major focus of this study is to trace the cognitive development of students throughout a mathematics course and to seek the qualitative differences between those of different levels of achievement. The aspect of the project described here concerns the use of concept maps constructed by the students at intervals during the course. From these…

  2. Simple procedure for schematic design of passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Kosiewicz, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple procedure for use during the schematic phase of passive solar building design is presented in this article. The procedure is quantitative and accurate enough to insure that designs based on the provided starting point values of the primary building parameters will be cost effective.

  3. 10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a line drawing. 'PROCESS FLOW SCHEMATIC, GAS PRODUCER PROCESS, BUILDING 10A.' Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Holston Defense Corporation. August 29, 1974. Delineator: G. A. Horne. Drawing # SK-1942. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  4. Health-Promoting School Indicators: Schematic Models from Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Sixsmith, Jane; Delaney, Ellen-Nora; Moore, Miriam; Inchley, Jo; O'Higgins, Siobhan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a three-stage process for engaging with students to develop school level indicators of health in sequential class groups students first generated, then categorised indicators and finally developed schematic representations of their analyses. There is a political and practical need to develop…

  5. Health-Promoting School Indicators: Schematic Models from Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Sixsmith, Jane; Delaney, Ellen-Nora; Moore, Miriam; Inchley, Jo; O'Higgins, Siobhan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline a three-stage process for engaging with students to develop school level indicators of health in sequential class groups students first generated, then categorised indicators and finally developed schematic representations of their analyses. There is a political and practical need to develop…

  6. Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  7. Energy Diagram for the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Drawing a schematic energy diagram for the decomposition of H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] catalyzed by MnO[subscript 2] through a simple thermometric measurement outlined in this study is intended to integrate students' understanding of thermochemistry and kinetics of chemical reactions. The reaction enthalpy, delta[subscript r]H, is…

  8. Energy Diagram for the Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsuoka, Tomoyuki; Koga, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Drawing a schematic energy diagram for the decomposition of H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] catalyzed by MnO[subscript 2] through a simple thermometric measurement outlined in this study is intended to integrate students' understanding of thermochemistry and kinetics of chemical reactions. The reaction enthalpy, delta[subscript r]H, is…

  9. Basic Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This module is the first in a series of three wiring publications; it serves as the foundation for students enrolled in a wiring program. It is a prerequisite to either "Residential Wiring" or "Commercial and Industrial Wiring." The module contains 16 instructional units that cover the following topics: occupational introduction; general safety;…

  10. Mechanical verification of a schematic Byzantine clock synchronization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, Natarajan

    1991-01-01

    Schneider generalizes a number of protocols for Byzantine fault tolerant clock synchronization and presents a uniform proof for their correctness. The authors present a machine checked proof of this schematic protocol that revises some of the details in Schneider's original analysis. The verification was carried out with the EHDM system developed at the SRI Computer Science Laboratory. The mechanically checked proofs include the verification that the egocentric mean function used in Lamport and Melliar-Smith's Interactive Convergence Algorithm satisfies the requirements of Schneider's protocol.

  11. Hubble Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, S.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Initially introduced as a way to demonstrate the expansion of the universe, and subsequently to determine the expansion rate (the HUBBLE CONSTANT H0), the Hubble diagram is one of the classical cosmological tests. It is a plot of apparent fluxes (usually expressed as magnitudes) of some types of objects at cosmological distances, against their REDSHIFTS. It is used as a tool to measure the glob...

  12. Wire stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economu, M. A. (inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An insulation stripper is described which is especially useful for shielded wire, the stripper including a first pair of jaws with blades extending substantially perpendicular to the axis of the wire, and a second pair of jaws with blades extending substantially parallel to the axis of the wire. The first pair of jaws is pressed against the wire so the blades cut into the insulation, and the device is turned to form circumferential cuts in the insulation. Then the second pair of jaws is pressed against the wire so the blades cut into the insulation, and the wire is moved through the device to form longitudinal cuts that permit easy removal of the insulation. Each of the blades is located within the concave face of a V-block, to center the blades on the wire and to limit the depth of blade penetration.

  13. Off-axis aberrations of a wide-angle schematic eye model.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Sanz, I; Navarro, R

    1999-08-01

    A schematic eye model based on anatomical data, which had been previously designed to reproduce image quality on axis, has been transformed into a wide-angle model by simply adding a spherical image surface that plays the role of the retina. This model captures the main features of the wide-angle optical design of the human eye with minimum complexity: four conic optical surfaces plus a spherical image surface. Seidel aberrations (spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism, field curvature, and distortion), longitudinal and transverse chromatic aberrations, and overall monochromatic spot diagrams have been computed for this eye model and for field angles ranging from 0 degree to 60 degrees by both finite and third-order ray tracing. The modulation transfer function for each field angle has been computed as well. In each case our results have been compared with average experimental data found in the literature, showing a reasonably good agreement. The agreement between the model and experimental data is better off axis, mainly at moderate (10 degrees-40 degrees) field angles, than on axis. The model has been applied to simulate a variety of experimental methods in which image aberrations are estimated from measurements taken in the object space. Our results suggest that for some types of aberration, these methods may yield biased estimates. PMID:10435267

  14. Schematic of space-borne lidar surveying neritic seabed terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Qiang; Zhang, Shuangna; Wang, Shaobo

    2013-09-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a kind of new technical fast developing from 1960s especially in last 30 years. This technical processes high measurement accuracy, high resolution, powerful recognition capability and anti-interference capability. Space-Borne LiDAR which had wide field of view caused the big astronautic countries more attention, and it became an important part of global 3-D terrain detection, aerosphere detection, wind velocity detection, imagination and rendezvous and docking. In this paper, water depth measurement technology with airborne LiDAR was summarized. Neritic seabed terrain detection schematic was put forward, and then the key components and the different points of the schematic were analyzed. Pertinence suggestions were described in this paper which could supply further research on space-borne LiDAR.The space-borne laser emits several beams which form laser array, and detects the ground target by one dimension scanning. The laser includes multiple-beam emission system and multiple-signal reception system, but no flexible components in order to increasing the system dependability. The multiple-beam mode can make an observably increase of detection efficiency comparing with the single-beam mode. Each single laser pulse can return several different distance signals, so the repeat frequency can be lower. The laser pulse can be reflected by the sea surface and neritic seabed, so the depth can be calculated by the two reflection signals. The space-borne LiDAR data can be used to analyze sea gravitational field, change of the sea level and tide, sea weather and thickness of ice band.

  15. Mapping out the Superconductor-Insulator Phase Diagram for Nanowires.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogachev, Andrey

    2009-03-01

    We establish the superconductor-insulator phase diagram for quasi-one-dimensional wires by measuring about 100 MoGe nanowires with length in a range 30-500 nm. All wires can be clearly separated into two groups: superconducting ones with the wire resistance dropping rapidly with cooling, roughly following the Arrhenius activation law, and insulating wires, which exhibit a weak Coulomb blockade behavior. The phase boundary between superconducting and insulating wires is consistent with the Chakravarty-Schmid-Bulgadaev criteria, namely with the critical resistance of a wire being equal to quantum resistance, i.e. 6.5 kOhms. We argue that small deviations from this phase boundary in short thin wires are caused by magnetic moments that forms on a wire surface. The evidence for the presence of the moments comes from an anomalous enhancement of the critical current by magnetic field detected at low temperatures.

  16. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  17. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. H.

    1974-01-01

    The design, construction, and test history of a 4096 word by 18 bit random access NDRO Plated Wire Memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft input/output and central processing unit is reported. A technical and functional description is given along with diagrams illustrating layout and systems operation. Test data is shown on the procedures and results of system level and memory stack testing, and hybrid circuit screening. A comparison of the most significant physical and performance characteristics of the memory unit versus the specified requirements is also included.

  18. Modeling biomass competition and invasion in a schematic wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, N.

    2010-08-01

    Plants growing along hydrologic gradients adjust their biomass allocation and distribution in response to interspecific competition. Furthermore, susceptibility of a community to invasion is to some extent mediated by differences in growth habit, including root architecture and canopy hight. With reference to the study of a schematic wetland, the aim of this paper is (1) to test, via numerical modeling, the capacity of native plants to counteract an alien dominant species and cause eco-hydrological shifts of the ecosystem by changing their growth habit (e.g. allocating biomass below ground and by so doing changing the evapotranspiration locally) and (2) to test the impact on biodiversity of management practices that alter nutrient supply. The results demonstrated that unique combinations of vegetation types characterized by different growth habits may lead to different vegetation patterns under the same hydrologic forcing, and additionally, the vegetation patterns may change in response to major hydrological shifts, which could be related to diverse wetland management and restoration practices.

  19. Technological Literacy Learning with Cumulative and Stepwise Integration of Equations into Electrical Circuit Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozogul, G.; Johnson, A. M.; Moreno, R.; Reisslein, M.

    2012-01-01

    Technological literacy education involves the teaching of basic engineering principles and problem solving, including elementary electrical circuit analysis, to non-engineering students. Learning materials on circuit analysis typically rely on equations and schematic diagrams, which are often unfamiliar to non-engineering students. The goal of…

  20. Technological Literacy Learning with Cumulative and Stepwise Integration of Equations into Electrical Circuit Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozogul, G.; Johnson, A. M.; Moreno, R.; Reisslein, M.

    2012-01-01

    Technological literacy education involves the teaching of basic engineering principles and problem solving, including elementary electrical circuit analysis, to non-engineering students. Learning materials on circuit analysis typically rely on equations and schematic diagrams, which are often unfamiliar to non-engineering students. The goal of…

  1. Wire Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how today's technology is encouraging schools to invest in furnishings that are adaptable to computer use and telecommunications access. Explores issues concerning modularity, wiring management, ergonomics, durability, price, and aesthetics. (GR)

  2. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  3. Space Station Freedom secondary power wiring requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, C. R.

    1994-09-01

    Secondary power is produced by DDCU's (direct current to direct current converter units) and routed to and through secondary power distribution assemblies (SPDA's) to loads or tertiary distribution assemblies. This presentation outlines requirements of Space Station Freedom (SSF) EEE (electrical, electronic, and electromechanical) parts wire and the approved electrical wire and cable. The SSF PDRD (Program Definition and Requirements Document) language problems and resolution are reviewed. The cable routing to and from the SPDA's is presented as diagrams and the wire recommendations and characteristics are given.

  4. No Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoughry, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    The University of California at Santa Cruz has completed a successful test of a wireless computer network that would enable students and professors to get on line from anywhere on campus. The network, linked by radio waves, could save millions of dollars in campus wiring costs and would better meet student and faculty information needs. (MSE)

  5. Caution: Venn Diagrams Ahead!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmins, Dovie L.; Winters, J. Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Two perspectives of the term "Venn diagram" reflect the typical differences in the uses of Venn diagrams in the subject areas of mathematics and language arts. These differences are subtle; nevertheless, they can potentially be confusing. In language arts, the circles in a Venn diagram typically represent things that can be compared and…

  6. Caution: Venn Diagrams Ahead!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmins, Dovie L.; Winters, J. Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Two perspectives of the term "Venn diagram" reflect the typical differences in the uses of Venn diagrams in the subject areas of mathematics and language arts. These differences are subtle; nevertheless, they can potentially be confusing. In language arts, the circles in a Venn diagram typically represent things that can be compared and…

  7. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  8. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, Eldon D.; Hooper, Frederick M.; Reichenbach, Marvin L.

    1992-01-01

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut.

  9. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    DOEpatents

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1992-08-11

    A device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than 0.04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 figure.

  10. xVis: a web server for the schematic visualization and interpretation of crosslink-derived spatial restraints.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Maximilian; Zimniak, Tomasz; Kahraman, Abdullah; Herzog, Franz

    2015-07-01

    The identification of crosslinks by mass spectrometry has recently been established as an integral part of the hybrid structural analysis of protein complexes and networks. The crosslinking analysis determines distance restraints between two covalently linked amino acids which are typically summarized in a table format that precludes the immediate and comprehensive interpretation of the topological data. xVis displays crosslinks in clear schematic representations in form of a circular, bar or network diagram. The interactive graphs indicate the linkage sites and identification scores, depict the spatial proximity of structurally and functionally annotated protein regions and the evolutionary conservation of amino acids and facilitate clustering of proteins into subcomplexes according to the crosslink density. Furthermore, xVis offers two options for the qualitative assessment of the crosslink identifications by filtering crosslinks according to identification scores or false discovery rates and by displaying the corresponding fragment ion spectrum of each crosslink for the manual validation of the mass spectrometric data. Our web server provides an easy-to-use tool for the fast topological and functional interpretation of distance information on protein complex architectures and for the evaluation of crosslink fragment ion spectra. xVis is available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International license at http://xvis.genzentrum.lmu.de/. PMID:25956653

  11. Wiring optimization can relate neuronal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Beth L.; Hall, David H.; Chklovskii, Dmitri B.

    2006-01-01

    We pursue the hypothesis that neuronal placement in animals minimizes wiring costs for given functional constraints, as specified by synaptic connectivity. Using a newly compiled version of the Caenorhabditis elegans wiring diagram, we solve for the optimal layout of 279 nonpharyngeal neurons. In the optimal layout, most neurons are located close to their actual positions, suggesting that wiring minimization is an important factor. Yet some neurons exhibit strong deviations from “optimal” position. We propose that biological factors relating to axonal guidance and command neuron functions contribute to these deviations. We capture these factors by proposing a modified wiring cost function. PMID:16537428

  12. Schematic Representations in Arithmetical Problem Solving: Analysis of Their Impact on Grade 4 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnant, Annick; Vlassis, Joëlle

    2013-01-01

    While the value of "schematic representations" in problem solving requires no further demonstration, the way in which students should be taught how to construct these representations invariably gives rise to various debates. This study, conducted on 146 grade 4 students in Luxembourg, analyzes the effect of two types of "schematic…

  13. Recognition of Schematic Facial Displays of Emotion in Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Mark T.; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Barbati, Giulia; Intelligente, Fabio; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Performance on an emotional labeling task in response to schematic facial patterns representing five basic emotions without the concurrent presentation of a verbal category was investigated in 40 parents of children with autism and 40 matched controls. "Autism fathers" performed worse than "autism mothers," who performed worse than controls in…

  14. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard...

  15. Perceptual Grouping, Not Emotion, Accounts for Search Asymmetries with Schematic Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stefanie I.; Horstmann, Gernot; Remington, Roger W.

    2011-01-01

    Several different explanations have been proposed to account for the search asymmetry (SA) for angry schematic faces (i.e., the fact that an angry face target among friendly faces can be found faster than vice versa). The present study critically tested the perceptual grouping account, (a) that the SA is not due to emotional factors, but to…

  16. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Tester Schematic Side Elevation 3 Figure 3 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard...

  19. Recognition of Schematic Facial Displays of Emotion in Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Mark T.; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Barbati, Giulia; Intelligente, Fabio; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Performance on an emotional labeling task in response to schematic facial patterns representing five basic emotions without the concurrent presentation of a verbal category was investigated in 40 parents of children with autism and 40 matched controls. "Autism fathers" performed worse than "autism mothers," who performed worse than controls in…

  20. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiosi, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HR-diagram), pioneered independently by EJNAR HERTZSPRUNG and HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL, is a plot of the star luminosity versus the surface temperature. It stems from the basic relation for an object emitting thermal radiation as a black body: ...

  1. Integrating Diagrams and Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Patricia; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on diagrams giving overviews of complex technical information as facilitators for adult subjects using computers to learn about the business activities of a fictitious family. Finds that features of the author's control over the reader's encounter with the diagram influences whether readers will interrupt their reading to study the…

  2. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation EC03OC91.034...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation EC03OC91.034...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation EC03OC91.034...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation EC03OC91.034...

  6. Precision wire feeder for small diameter wire

    SciTech Connect

    Brandon, E.D.; Hooper, F.M.; Reichenbach, M.L.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a device for feeding small diameter wire having a diameter less than .04 mm (16 mil) to a welding station which includes a driving wheel for controllably applying a non-deforming driving force to the wire to move the free end of the wire towards the welding station; and a tension device such as a torque motor for constantly applying a reverse force to the wire in opposition to the driving force to keep the wire taut. 1 fig.

  7. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. Trolley wires, trolley feeder wires, and bare signal wires shall be...

  8. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  9. Windows: Life after Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razwick, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Although wired glass is extremely common in school buildings, the International Building Code adopted new standards that eliminate the use of traditional wired glass in K-12 schools, daycare centers, and athletic facilities. Wired glass breaks easily, and the wires can cause significant injuries by forming dangerous snags when the glass breaks.…

  10. Stretched Wire Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Gordon; /SLAC

    2005-09-06

    Stretched wires are beginning to play an important role in the alignment of accelerators and synchrotron light sources. Stretched wires are proposed for the alignment of the 130 meter long LCLS undulator. Wire position technology has reached sub-micron resolution yet analyses of perturbations to wire straightness are hard to find. This paper considers possible deviations of stretched wire from the simple 2-dimensional catenary form.

  11. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, A Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2011-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  12. Memory effects in schematic models of glasses subjected to oscillatory deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocco, Davide; Foffi, Giuseppe; Sastry, Srikanth

    2015-05-01

    We consider two schematic models of glasses subjected to oscillatory shear deformation, motivated by the observations, in computer simulations of a model glass, of a nonequilibrium transition from a localized to a diffusive regime as the shear amplitude is increased, and of persistent memory effects in the localized regime. The first of these schematic models is the NK model, a spin model with disordered multi-spin interactions previously studied as a model for sheared amorphous solids. The second model, a transition matrix model, is an abstract formulation of the manner in which occupancy of local energy minima evolves under oscillatory deformation cycles. In both of these models, we find a behavior similar to that of an atomic model glass studied earlier. We discuss possible further extensions of the approaches outlined.

  13. Schematic and realistic biological motion identification in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kristyn; Kelley, Elizabeth; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating biological motion perception in children with ASD has revealed conflicting findings concerning whether impairments in biological motion perception exist. The current study investigated how children with high-functioning ASD (HF-ASD) performed on two tasks of biological motion identification: a novel schematic motion identification task and a point-light biological motion identification task. Twenty-two HFASD children were matched with 21 TD children on gender, non-verbal mental, and chronological, age (M years = 6.72). On both tasks, HF-ASD children performed with similar accuracy as TD children. Across groups, children performed better on animate than on inanimate trials of both tasks. These findings suggest that HF-ASD children's identification of both realistic and schematic biological motion identification is unimpaired. PMID:25395988

  14. Memory effects in schematic models of glasses subjected to oscillatory deformation.

    PubMed

    Fiocco, Davide; Foffi, Giuseppe; Sastry, Srikanth

    2015-05-20

    We consider two schematic models of glasses subjected to oscillatory shear deformation, motivated by the observations, in computer simulations of a model glass, of a nonequilibrium transition from a localized to a diffusive regime as the shear amplitude is increased, and of persistent memory effects in the localized regime. The first of these schematic models is the NK model, a spin model with disordered multi-spin interactions previously studied as a model for sheared amorphous solids. The second model, a transition matrix model, is an abstract formulation of the manner in which occupancy of local energy minima evolves under oscillatory deformation cycles. In both of these models, we find a behavior similar to that of an atomic model glass studied earlier. We discuss possible further extensions of the approaches outlined. PMID:25923880

  15. Advanced EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and Shuttle/ISS EMU Schematics, a Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In order to be able to adapt to differing vehicle interfaces such as suitport and airlock, adjust to varying vehicle pressure schedules, tolerate lower quality working fluids, and adapt to differing suit architectures as dictated by a range of mission architectures, the next generation space suit requires more adaptability and robustness over that of the current Shuttle/ISS Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). While some features have been added to facilitate interfaces to differing vehicle and suit architectures, the key performance gains have been made via incorporation of new technologies such as the variable pressure regulators, Rapid Cycle Amine swing-bed, and Suit Water Membrane Evaporator. This paper performs a comparison between the Shuttle/ISS EMU PLSS schematic and the Advanced EMU PLSS schematic complete with a discussion for each difference.

  16. Square Source Type Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density function of moment tensor's eigenvalues P(λ1, λ2, λ3) depends only on the scalar moment [(λ12+λ22+λ32)/2]0.5. Even if this is not the real case, the easiness of calculating the areal density is useful when we compare the results of analyzing real data with that of analyzing background noise.

  17. Isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections to superallowed Fermi {beta} decay: Formalism and schematic models

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G. A.; Schwenk, A.

    2008-09-15

    We study the formalism to include isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections when extracting the up-down Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element from superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} nuclear {beta} decay. We show that there are no first-order isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections to the relevant nuclear matrix elements. We find corrections to the treatment of Towner and Hardy, and assess these using schematic models of increasing complexity.

  18. Spontaneous spin polarization in quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilchenko, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The total energy of a quasi-one-dimensional electron system was calculated using the density functional theory. In the absence of a magnetic field, we have found that ferromagnetic state occurs in the quantum wires. The phase diagram of the transition into the spin-polarized state is constructed. The critical electron density below which electrons are in spin-polarized state is estimated analytically.

  19. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  20. Jupiter Torus Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A cut-away schematic of Jupiter's space environment shows magnetically trapped radiation ions (in red), the neutral gas torus of the volcanic moon Io (green) and the newly discovered neutral gas torus of the moon Europa (blue). The white lines represent magnetic field lines.

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENA) are emitted from the Europa torus regions because of the interaction between the trapped ions and the neutral gases. The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument on NASA's Cassini spacecraft imaged those energetic neutral atoms in early 2001 during Cassini's flyby of Jupiter. Energetic neutral atoms also come from Jupiter when radiation ions impinge onto Jupiter's upper atmosphere.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Calif., manages Cassini for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  1. [Columbia Sensor Diagrams]. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A two dimensional graphical event sequence of the time history of relevant sensor information located in the left wing and wheel well areas of the Space Shuttle Columbia Orbiter is presented. Information contained in this graphical event sequence include: 1) Sensor location on orbiter and its associated wire bindle in X-Y plane; 2) Wire bundle routing; 3) Description of each anomalous sensor event; 4) Time annotation by (a) GMT, (b) time relative to LOS, (c) time history bar, and (d) ground track; and 5) Graphical display of temperature rise (based on delta temperature from point it is determined to be anomalous).

  2. Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

    2014-04-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

  3. Trace element indiscrimination diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chusi; Arndt, Nicholas T.; Tang, Qingyan; Ripley, Edward M.

    2015-09-01

    We tested the accuracy of trace element discrimination diagrams for basalts using new datasets from two petrological databases, PetDB and GEOROC. Both binary and ternary diagrams using Zr, Ti, V, Y, Th, Hf, Nb, Ta, Sm, and Sc do a poor job of discriminating between basalts generated in various tectonic environments (continental flood basalt, mid-ocean ridge basalt, ocean island basalt, oceanic plateau basalt, back-arc basin basalt, and various types of arc basalt). The overlaps between the different types of basalt are too large for the confident application of such diagrams when used in the absence of geological and petrological constraints. None of the diagrams we tested can clearly discriminate between back-arc basin basalt and mid-ocean ridge basalt, between continental flood basalt and oceanic plateau basalt, and between different types of arc basalt (intra-oceanic, island and continental arcs). Only ocean island basalt and some mid-ocean ridge basalt are generally distinguishable in the diagrams, and even in this case, mantle-normalized trace element patterns offer a better solution for discriminating between the two types of basalt.

  4. Cable Bundle Wire Derating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Ray A.; Leidecker, Henning

    1998-01-01

    The allowable operating currents of electrical wiring when used in the space vacuum environment is predominantly determined by the maximum operating temperature of the wire insulation. For Kapton insulated wire this value is 200 C. Guidelines provided in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Preferred Parts List (PPL) limit the operating current of wire within vacuum to ensure the maximum insulation temperature is not exceeded. For 20 AWG wire, these operating parameters are: (1) 3.7 amps per wire; (2) bundle of 15 or more wires; (3) 70 C environment: and (4) vacuum of 10(exp -5) torr or less. To determine the behavior and temperature of electrical wire at different operating conditions, a thermal vacuum test was performed on a representative electrical harness of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) power distribution system. This paper describes the test and the results.

  5. Addressing water vaporization in the vicinity of an exploding wire

    SciTech Connect

    Grinenko, A.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Dolinsky, Yu.

    2006-12-01

    The phase state of thin ({approx}1 {mu}m) layer of water adjacent to the surface of rapidly heated thin wire 100{+-}50 {mu}m in radius is analyzed by computer hydrodynamic calculation. It is shown that when heating of a wire to a temperature of 420 deg. C is achieved in less than {approx}500 ns, the trajectory of the phase state is contained in the liquid part of the phase diagram. This suggests additional proof of and an explanation for the absence of shunting plasma discharge in fast underwater electrical wire explosions.

  6. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A new method of obtaining power spectral distribution of gravity waves as a function of ground-based horizontal phase speed and propagation direction from airglow observations has recently been proposed. To explain gravity wave power spectrum anisotropy, a new gravity wave transmission diagram was developed in this study. Gravity wave transmissivity depends on the existence of critical and turning levels for waves that are determined by background horizontal wind distributions. Gravity wave transmission diagrams for different horizontal wavelengths in simple background horizontal winds with constant vertical shear indicate that the effects of the turning level reflection are significant and strongly dependent on the horizontal wavelength.

  7. Wire harness twisting aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, E. J.; Commadore, C. C.; Ingles, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Long wire bundles twist into uniform spiral harnesses with help of simple apparatus. Wires pass through spacers and through hand-held tool with hole for each wire. Ends are attached to low speed bench motor. As motor turns, operator moves hand tool away forming smooth twists in wires between motor and tool. Technique produces harnesses that generate less radio-frequency interference than do irregularly twisted cables.

  8. Laser Wire Stripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASA-developed space shuttle technology is used in a laser wire stripper designed by Raytheon Company. Laser beams cut through insulation on a wire without damaging conductive metal, because laser radiation that melts plastic insulation is reflected by the metal. The laser process is fast, clean, precise and repeatable. It eliminates quality control problems and the expense of rejected wiring.

  9. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

  10. Understanding Network Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Robert

    A survey of a range of introductory university level textbooks in the social sciences found little use of network diagrams (NDs), i.e., graphic representations of processes, organizations, systems, and mechanisms. NDs can be viewed as a text/picture hybrid medium with titles and captions serving to qualify and identify the meaning and status of…

  11. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

  12. Reading Diagrams. Pipefitter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the occupational area of pipefitting contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. Three types of problems are provided in each exercise: "try it,""apply it," and "go…

  13. Reading Diagrams. E & I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the area of electrical and instrumentation contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. The objective for the lesson is for the student to learn to locate and apply…

  14. Reading Diagrams. Millwright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greater Baton Rouge Chamber of Commerce, LA.

    Developed by the ABCs of Construction National Workplace Literacy Project, these curriculum materials for the occupational area of millwright contain a lesson that deals with reading diagrams. The lesson consists of an objective, instruction, and 10 exercises. Three types of problems are provided in each exercise: "try it,""apply it," and "go with…

  15. Wide-field schematic eye models with gradient-index lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, Alexander V.; Dainty, Chris

    2007-08-01

    We propose a wide-field schematic eye model, which provides a more realistic description of the optical system of the eye in relation to its anatomical structure. The wide-field model incorporates a gradient-index (GRIN) lens, which enables it to fulfill properties of two well-known schematic eye models, namely, Navarro's model for off-axis aberrations and Thibos's chromatic on-axis model (the Indiana eye). These two models are based on extensive experimental data, which makes the derived wide-field eye model also consistent with that data. A mathematical method to construct a GRIN lens with its iso-indicial contours following the optical surfaces of given asphericity is presented. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated with three variants related to different age groups. The role of the GRIN structure in relation to the lens paradox is analyzed. The wide-field model with a GRIN lens can be used as a starting design for the eye inverse problem, i.e., reconstructing the optical structure of the eye from off-axis wavefront measurements. Anatomically more accurate age-dependent optical models of the eye could ultimately help an optical designer to improve wide-field retinal imaging.

  16. Interpretative bias in spider phobia: Perception and information processing of ambiguous schematic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Haberkamp, Anke; Schmidt, Filipp

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the interpretative bias in spider phobia with respect to rapid visuomotor processing. We compared perception, evaluation, and visuomotor processing of ambiguous schematic stimuli between spider-fearful and control participants. Stimuli were produced by gradually morphing schematic flowers into spiders. Participants rated these stimuli related to their perceptual appearance and to their feelings of valence, disgust, and arousal. Also, they responded to the same stimuli within a response priming paradigm that measures rapid motor activation. Spider-fearful individuals showed an interpretative bias (i.e., ambiguous stimuli were perceived as more similar to spiders) and rated spider-like stimuli as more unpleasant, disgusting, and arousing. However, we observed no differences between spider-fearful and control participants in priming effects for ambiguous stimuli. For non-ambiguous stimuli, we observed a similar enhancement for phobic pictures as has been reported previously for natural images. We discuss our findings with respect to the visual representation of morphed stimuli and to perceptual learning processes. PMID:26276153

  17. How Much Information Do You Need? Schematic Maps in Wayfinding and Self Localisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilinger, Tobias; Hölscher, Christoph; Büchner, Simon J.; Brösamle, Martin

    The paper is concerned with the empirical investigation of different types of schematised maps. In two experiments a standard floor plan was compared to three strongly schematised maps providing only route knowledge. With the help of one of the maps, the participants had to localise themselves in two tasks and performed two wayfinding tasks in a multi-level building they didn't know before. We recorded map usage time and a range of task performance measures. Although the map provided much less information, participants performed better in wayfinding with an unambiguous schematic map than with a floor plan. In the self localisation tasks, participants performed equally well with the detailed floor plan and with the schematised map versions. Like the users of a schematic map, users of a floor map presumably oriented on the network structure rather than on local geometric features. This allows them to limit the otherwise potentially very large search space in map-based self localisation. In both types of tasks participants looked at the schematised maps for a shorter time. Providing less than standard information like in a highly schematised map can lead to better performance. We conclude that providing unambiguous turning information (route knowledge) rather than survey knowledge is most crucial for wayfinding in unknown environments.

  18. Spider phobics more easily see a spider in morphed schematic pictures

    PubMed Central

    Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Buchmann, Arlette; Lauche, Romy; Kolassa, Stephan; Partchev, Ivailo; Miltner, Wolfgang HR; Musial, Frauke

    2007-01-01

    Background Individuals with social phobia are more likely to misinterpret ambiguous social situations as more threatening, i.e. they show an interpretive bias. This study investigated whether such a bias also exists in specific phobia. Methods Individuals with spider phobia or social phobia, spider aficionados and non-phobic controls saw morphed stimuli that gradually transformed from a schematic picture of a flower into a schematic picture of a spider by shifting the outlines of the petals until they turned into spider legs. Participants' task was to decide whether each stimulus was more similar to a spider, a flower or to neither object while EEG was recorded. Results An interpretive bias was found in spider phobia on a behavioral level: with the first opening of the petals of the flower anchor, spider phobics rated the stimuli as more unpleasant and arousing than the control groups and showed an elevated latent trait to classify a stimulus as a spider and a response-time advantage for spider-like stimuli. No cortical correlates on the level of ERPs of this interpretive bias could be identified. However, consistent with previous studies, social and spider phobic persons exhibited generally enhanced visual P1 amplitudes indicative of hypervigilance in phobia. Conclusion Results suggest an interpretive bias and generalization of phobia-specific responses in specific phobia. Similar effects have been observed in other anxiety disorders, such as social phobia and posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:18021433

  19. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists.2 These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams,3 energy bar charts,4 electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and animations.5 However, instructors have limited choices when they want to help their students understand impulse and momentum. One of the only available options is the impulse-momentum bar chart.6 The bar charts can effectively show the magnitude of the momentum as well as help students understand conservation of momentum, but they do not easily show the actual direction. This paper highlights a new representation instructors can use to help their students with momentum and impulse—the impulse-momentum diagram (IMD).

  20. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  1. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare..., and bare signal wires shall be adequately guarded: (a) At all points where men are required to work...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1802 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 77.1802 Section 77.1802... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1802 Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1003 - Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires and trolley feeder wires. 75.1003 Section 75.1003... Insulation of trolley wires, trolley feeder wires and bare signal wires; guarding of trolley wires...

  10. Resistance of streamline wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defoe, George L

    1928-01-01

    This note contains the results of tests to determine the resistance of four sizes of streamline wire. The investigation was conducted in the six-inch wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made at various velocities and it was found that the resistance of streamline wires was considerably less than that of round wires of equivalent strength. Scale effect was also found since, with an increase of Reynolds Number, a decrease in the resistance coefficient was obtained.

  11. Sintered wire annode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R. (Surprise, AZ); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

    2007-12-25

    A plurality of high atomic number wires are sintered together to form a porous rod that is parted into porous disks which will be used as x-ray targets. A thermally conductive material is introduced into the pores of the rod, and when a stream of electrons impinges on the sintered wire target and generates x-rays, the heat generated by the impinging x-rays is removed by the thermally conductive material interspersed in the pores of the wires.

  12. Wire-inhomogeneity detector

    DOEpatents

    Gibson, G.H.; Smits, R.G.; Eberhard, P.H.

    1982-08-31

    A device for uncovering imperfections in electrical conducting wire, particularly superconducting wire, by detecting variations in eddy currents. Eddy currents effect the magnetic field in a gap of an inductor, contained in a modified commercial ferrite core, through which the wire being tested is passed. A small increase or decrease in the amount of conductive material, such as copper, in a fixed cross section of wire will unbalance a bridge used to measure the impedance of the inductor, tripping a detector and sounding an alarm.

  13. Weld Wire Investigation Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, M.A.

    1999-03-22

    After GTA welding reservoir A production/process prove-in assemblies, X-ray examination detected a lack of sidewall fusion. After examining several possible causes, it was determined that the weld wire filler metal was responsible, particularly the wire cleaning process. The final conclusion was that the filler wire must be abrasively cleaned in a particular manner to perform as required. The abrasive process was incorporated into the wire material specification, ensuring consistency for all reservoir GTA welding at AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T).

  14. Concealed wire tracing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    An apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface is disclosed. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receivers position with respect to the wiring. The receivers audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receivers coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring's concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest. 4 figs.

  15. Magnetic uniaxial wire medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Tiago A.; Costa, João T.; Silveirinha, Mário G.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that a racemic array of helical-shaped metallic wires may have a dual electromagnetic response, such that for arbitrarily large wavelengths it concurrently supports two modes with hyperbolic- and elliptical-type dispersions. Importantly, one of the eigenwaves is nearly dispersionless and sees the metamaterial as a medium with extreme magnetic anisotropy. The metamaterial may thus behave as the magnetic analog of the conventional wire medium formed by a set of parallel straight metallic wires. It is demonstrated that the magnetic wire medium enables channeling the subwavelength details of transverse electric (TE) polarized waves.

  16. Superconducting wire fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glad, W. E.; Chase, G. G.

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were done leading to the fabrication of high-temperature superconducting composite wire. Bulk superconductor was characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x ray spectroscopy. The chemical compatibility of superconducting materials with a number of metal sheathing candidates was tested, with silver offering the best compatibility. Wire was fabricated by drawing 0.250-inch-diameter silver tubing packed with superconducting powder. Single core wires were drawn to 0.037-inch diameter. The best critical current performance (660 A/sq cm) for leaded bismuth 2-2-2-3 material was achieved by flattening single-core wire before heat treatment.

  17. 1998 wire development workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report consists of vugraphs of the presentations at the conference. The conference was divided into the following sessions: (1) First Generation Wire Development: Status and Issues; (2) First Generation Wire in Pre-Commercial Prototypes; (3) Second Generation Wire Development: Private Sector Progress and Issues; (4) Second Generation Wire Development: Federal Laboratories; and (5) Fundamental Research Issues for HTS Wire Development.

  18. Enhancement factor for two-neutron transfer reactions with a schematic coupled-channels model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, K.; Scamps, G.

    2015-12-01

    Probabilities for heavy-ion two-neutron transfer reactions P2 n are often discussed in comparison with the square of the corresponding probabilities for the one-neutron transfer process (P1n) 2, implicitly assuming that (P1n) 2 provides the probability of two-neutron transfer reactions in the absence of the pairing correlation. We use a schematic coupled-channels model, in which the transfers are treated as effective inelastic channels, and demonstrate that this model leads to P2 n=(P1n) 2/4 , rather than P2 n=(P1n) 2 , in the pure sequential limit. We argue that a simple model with spin-up and spin-down neutrons in a single-particle orbital also leads to the same conclusion.

  19. Schematic way to find solution of the outcoupled matter wave with a source term

    SciTech Connect

    Prayitno, T. B.

    2013-09-09

    We propose a schematic way to obtain solution of the outcoupled atom laser beam wave function in the presence of a source term where the beam is influenced by gravity. In this case, we only focus on the external potentials inside the region of Bose-Einstein condensate that are generated by electromagnetic source and gravity. Since the evolution of the atom laser beam can be portrayed through the ordinary Schrödinger equation with a source, we are allowed to express the general solution as the superposition of the homogeneous solution and particular solution. With the given external potentials and ansatz solutions, we attain that the obtained energy depends on the parameter constituting to the ratio between the longitudinal frequency and transverse frequency.

  20. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. II - Generic Modular Flow Schematic modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farral, Joseph F.; Seshan, P. K.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS) architecture capable of encompassing all functional elements of a physical/chemical life support system (LSS). The GMFS can be implemented to synthesize, model, analyze, and quantitatively compare many configurations of LSSs, from a simple, completely open-loop to a very complex closed-loop. The GMFS model is coded in ASPEN, a state-of-the-art chemical process simulation program, to accurately compute the material, heat, and power flow quantities for every stream in each of the subsystem functional elements (SFEs) in the chosen configuration of a life support system. The GMFS approach integrates the various SFEs and subsystems in a hierarchical and modular fashion facilitating rapid substitutions and reconfiguration of a life support system. The comprehensive ASPEN material and energy balance output is transferred to a systems and technology assessment spreadsheet for rigorous system analysis and trade studies.

  1. VIEW SOUTHEASTBUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTHEAST-BUILDING 4 NO. 1 WIRE MILL (1871) WIRE DRAWING MACHINE - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  2. Quantum Mhv Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandhuber, A.; Travaglini, G.

    2007-03-01

    Over the past two years, the use of on-shell techniques has deepened our understanding of the S-matrix of gauge theories and led to the calculation of many new scattering amplitudes. In these notes we review a particular on-shell technique developed recently, the quantum MHV diagrams, and discuss applications to one-loop amplitudes. Furthermore, we briefly discuss the application of D-dimensional generalised unitarity to the calculation of scattering amplitudes in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills.

  3. Diagrams of airplane stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batemen, H

    1921-01-01

    In this report a study is made of the effect on longitudinal and lateral oscillations of an airplane of simultaneous variations in two resistance derivatives while the remainder of the derivatives are constant. The results are represented by diagrams in which the two variable resistance derivatives are used as coordinates, and curves are plotted along which the modulus of decay of a long oscillation has a constant value. The same type of analysis is also carried out for the stability of the parachute. In discussing the stability of the helicopter it is concluded that the gyroscopic effect on stability will be greater than in the case of the airplane.

  4. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction arrays. These devices offer potential efficiencies of 34%, as demonstrated through an analytical model and optoelectronic simulations. SiGe and Ge wires were fabricated via chemical-vapor deposition and reactive ion etching. GaAs was then grown on these substrates at the National Renewable Energy Lab and yielded ns lifetime components, as required for achieving high efficiency devices.

  5. Impact decision support diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boslough, Mark

    2014-10-01

    One way to frame the job of planetary defense is to “find the optimal approach for finding the optimal approach” to NEO mitigation. This requires a framework for defining in advance what should be done under various circumstances. The two-dimensional action matrix from the recent NRC report “Defending Planet Earth” can be generalized to a notional “Impact Decision Support Diagram” by extending it into a third dimension. The NRC action matrix incorporated two important axes: size and time-to-impact, but probability of impact is also critical (it is part of the definitions of both the Torino and Palermo scales). Uncertainty has been neglected, but is also crucial. It can be incorporated by subsuming it into the NEO size axis by redefining size to be three standard deviations greater than the best estimate, thereby providing a built-in conservative margin. The independent variable is time-to-impact, which is known with high precision. The other two axes are both quantitative assessments of uncertainty and are both time dependent. Thus, the diagram is entirely an expression of uncertainty. The true impact probability is either one or zero, and the true size does not change. The domain contains information about the current uncertainty, which changes with time (as opposed to reality, which does not change).

  6. Warped penguin diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, Csaba; Grossman, Yuval; Tanedo, Philip; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2011-04-01

    We present an analysis of the loop-induced magnetic dipole operator in the Randall-Sundrum model of a warped extra dimension with anarchic bulk fermions and an IR brane-localized Higgs. These operators are finite at one-loop order and we explicitly calculate the branching ratio for {mu}{yields}e{gamma} using the mixed position/momentum space formalism. The particular bound on the anarchic Yukawa and Kaluza-Klein (KK) scales can depend on the flavor structure of the anarchic matrices. It is possible for a generic model to either be ruled out or unaffected by these bounds without any fine-tuning. We quantify how these models realize this surprising behavior. We also review tree-level lepton flavor bounds in these models and show that these are on the verge of tension with the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} bounds from typical models with a 3 TeV Kaluza-Klein scale. Further, we illuminate the nature of the one-loop finiteness of these diagrams and show how to accurately determine the degree of divergence of a five-dimensional loop diagram using both the five-dimensional and KK formalism. This power counting can be obfuscated in the four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein formalism and we explicitly point out subtleties that ensure that the two formalisms agree. Finally, we remark on the existence of a perturbative regime in which these one-loop results give the dominant contribution.

  7. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  8. Wire Weight with Housing

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. In the background there is housing protected with dikes along the Missouri River in Mandan, ND....

  9. Water Desalination with Wires.

    PubMed

    Porada, S; Sales, B B; Hamelers, H V M; Biesheuvel, P M

    2012-06-21

    We show the significant potential of water desalination using a novel capacitive wire-based technology in which anode/cathode wire pairs are constructed from coating a thin porous carbon electrode layer on top of electrically conducting rods (or wires). By alternately dipping an array of electrode pairs in freshwater with and in brine without an applied cell voltage, we create an ion adsorption/desorption cycle. We show experimentally how in six subsequent cycles we can reduce the salinity of 20 mM feed (brackish) water by a factor of 3, while application of a cation exchange membrane on the cathode wires makes the desalination factor increase to 4. Theoretical modeling rationalizes the experimental findings, and predicts that system performance can be significantly enhanced by material modifications. To treat large volumes of water, multiple stacks of wire pairs can be used simultaneously in a "merry-go-round" operational mode. PMID:26285717

  10. Wire Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Cole, A.G.

    1983-03-01

    The Wire Transport Code was developed to study the dynamics of relativistic-electron-beam propagation in the transport tube in which a wire-conditioning zone is present. In order for the beam to propagate successfully in the transport section it must be matched onto the wire by focusing elements. The beam must then be controlled by strong lenses as it exits the wire zone. The wire transport code was developed to model this process in substantial detail. It is able to treat axially symmetric problems as well as those in which the beam is transversely displaced from the axis of the transport tube. The focusing effects of foils and various beamline lenses are included in the calculations.

  11. Wire tension versus wire frequency: an experimental Ilizarov frame study.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Valentina; Skallerud, Bjørn; Klaksvik, Jomar; Foss, Olav A

    2010-08-26

    Stability of an Ilizarov frame highly depends on maintenance of adequate tension in the wires. Wire tension should be measured accurately in experimental laboratory studies when new types of wire fixators are tested. In this study, 20 wires were tested using two different wire fixators. The wires were sequentially tensioned from 0 to 1275 N in 50 N intervals. For each tension value, corresponding vibration frequency was recorded. We then described the relationship between wire tension and wire vibration frequency in an empirical equation (R(2)=99.8). Wire vibration frequency can also be described theoretically by the Euler-Bernoulli equation for a thin beam. Theoretical frequencies were calculated and compared with corresponding experimental frequencies. A close agreement was found (95% limits of agreement, +/-3.2 Hz). This empirical equation represents a simple tool, applicable when investigating the effect of new wire fixators, pre-tensioning and frame constructions on wire tension. PMID:20472242

  12. Argument Diagramming: The Araucaria Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Glenn; Reed, Chris

    Formal arguments, such as those used in science, medicine and law to establish a conclusion by providing supporting evidence, are frequently represented by diagrams such as trees and graphs. We describe the software package Araucaria which allows textual arguments to be marked up and represented as standard, Toulmin or Wigmore diagrams. Since each of these diagramming techniques was devised for a particular domain or argumentation, we discuss some of the issues involved in translating between diagrams. The exercise of translating between different diagramming types illustrates that any one diagramming system often cannot capture all of the nuances inherent in an argument. Finally, we describe some areas, such as critical thinking courses in colleges and universities and the analysis of evidence in court cases, where Araucaria has been put to practical use.

  13. Box diagram in Yukawa theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bakker, Bernard L. G.; Boomsma, Jorn K.; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2007-03-15

    We present a light-front calculation of the box diagram in Yukawa theory. The covariant box diagram is finite for the case of spin-1/2 constituents exchanging spin-0 particles. In light-front dynamics, however, individual time-ordered diagrams are divergent. We analyze the corresponding light-front singularities and show the equivalence between the light-front and covariant results by taming the singularities.

  14. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  15. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart A of... - Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flooring Radiant Panel Tester Schematic Low Flux End, Elevation 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Flooring Radiant Panel...

  16. Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Three Learning Environments: Hyper-Realistic Virtual Simulations, Traditional Schematic Simulations and Traditional Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Guadalupe; Naranjo, Francisco L.; Perez, Angel L.; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the educational effects of computer simulations developed in a hyper-realistic virtual environment with the educational effects of either traditional schematic simulations or a traditional optics laboratory. The virtual environment was constructed on the basis of Java applets complemented with a photorealistic visual output.…

  17. Influences of Source-Item Contingency and Schematic Knowledge on Source Monitoring: Tests of the Probability-Matching Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayen, Ute J.; Kuhlmann, Beatrice G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated conditions under which judgments in source-monitoring tasks are influenced by prior schematic knowledge. According to a probability-matching account of source guessing (Spaniol & Bayen, 2002), when people do not remember the source of information, they match source-guessing probabilities to the perceived contingency…

  18. Influences of Source-Item Contingency and Schematic Knowledge on Source Monitoring: Tests of the Probability-Matching Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayen, Ute J.; Kuhlmann, Beatrice G.

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated conditions under which judgments in source-monitoring tasks are influenced by prior schematic knowledge. According to a probability-matching account of source guessing (Spaniol & Bayen, 2002), when people do not remember the source of information, they match source-guessing probabilities to the perceived contingency…

  19. Comparative study of the effectiveness of three learning environments: Hyper-realistic virtual simulations, traditional schematic simulations and traditional laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Guadalupe; Naranjo, Francisco L.; Pérez, Ángel L.; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2011-12-01

    This study compared the educational effects of computer simulations developed in a hyper-realistic virtual environment with the educational effects of either traditional schematic simulations or a traditional optics laboratory. The virtual environment was constructed on the basis of Java applets complemented with a photorealistic visual output. This new virtual environment concept, which we call hyper-realistic, transcends basic schematic simulation; it provides the user with a more realistic perception of a physical phenomenon being simulated. We compared the learning achievements of three equivalent, homogeneous groups of undergraduates—an experimental group who used only the hyper-realistic virtual laboratory, a first control group who used a schematic simulation, and a second control group who used the traditional laboratory. The three groups received the same theoretical preparation and carried out equivalent practicals in their respective learning environments. The topic chosen for the experiment was optical aberrations. An analysis of variance applied to the data of the study demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p value <0.05) between the three groups. The learning achievements attained by the group using the hyper-realistic virtual environment were 6.1 percentage points higher than those for the group using the traditional schematic simulations and 9.5 percentage points higher than those for the group using the traditional laboratory.

  20. Effects of Analogical vs. Schematic Illustrations on Initial Learning and Retention of Technical Material by Eighth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Brian K.

    The effects of analogical and schematic illustrations on the comprehension and retention of expository prose were compared. The population was 191 eighth-grade students at Mahomet Junior High School, Illinois; 134 students' scores were used. Subjects were assigned to two groups through the random distribution of treatment booklets that included a…

  1. Next Generation Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Petro; Jolley, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Lilliana; Vinje, Rubiela; Williams, Martha; Clayton, LaNetra; Roberson, Luke; Smith, Trent; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2007-01-01

    Wiring is a major operational component on aerospace hardware that accounts for substantial weight and volumetric space. Over time wire insulation can age and fail, often leading to catastrophic events such as system failure or fire. The next generation of wiring must be reliable and sustainable over long periods of time. These features will be achieved by the development of a wire insulation capable of autonomous self-healing that mitigates failure before it reaches a catastrophic level. In order to develop a self-healing insulation material, three steps must occur. First, methods of bonding similar materials must be developed that are capable of being initiated autonomously. This process will lead to the development of a manual repair system for polyimide wire insulation. Second, ways to initiate these bonding methods that lead to materials that are similar to the primary insulation must be developed. Finally, steps one and two must be integrated to produce a material that has no residues from the process that degrades the insulating properties of the final repaired insulation. The self-healing technology, teamed with the ability to identify and locate damage, will greatly improve reliability and safety of electrical wiring of critical systems. This paper will address these topics, discuss the results of preliminary testing, and remaining development issues related to self-healing wire insulation.

  2. Towards plant wires.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. PMID:24928068

  3. Diagonal Slices of 3D Young Diagrams in the Approach of Maya Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    According to the correspondence between 2D Young diagrams and Maya diagrams and the relation between 2D and 3D Young diagrams, we construct 3D Young diagrams in the approach of Maya diagrams. Moreover, we formulate the generating function of 3D Young diagrams, which is the MacMahon function in terms of Maya diagrams.

  4. INCORPORATING ROUTINE ACTIVITIES, ACTIVITY SPACES, AND SITUATIONAL DEFINITIONS INTO THE SOCIAL SCHEMATIC THEORY OF CRIME*

    PubMed Central

    BARR, ASHLEY B.; LEI, MAN-KIT; STEWART, ERIC

    2014-01-01

    Simons and Burt’s (2011) social schematic theory (SST) of crime posits that adverse social factors are associated with offending because they promote a set of social schemas (i.e., a criminogenic knowledge structure) that elevates the probability of situational definitions favorable to crime. This study extends the SST model by incorporating the role of contexts for action. Furthermore, the study advances tests of the SST by incorporating a measure of criminogenic situational definitions to assess whether such definitions mediate the effects of schemas and contexts on crime. Structural equation models using 10 years of panel data from 582 African American youth provided strong support for the expanded theory. The results suggest that childhood and adolescent social adversity fosters a criminogenic knowledge structure as well as selection into criminogenic activity spaces and risky activities, all of which increase the likelihood of offending largely through situational definitions. Additionally, evidence shows that the criminogenic knowledge structure interacts with settings to amplify the likelihood of situational definitions favorable to crime. PMID:26392633

  5. Historical evolution of a micro-tidal lagoon simulated by a 2-D schematic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaldo, D.; Di Silvio, G.

    2013-11-01

    Coastal transitional environments such as estuaries, coastal inlets and tidal lagoons are the result of the interaction of several exogenous forcing factors (e.g. tidal regime, local wind and wave climate, sea-level rise, sediment supply) many of which are, in principle, variable in time over historical and geological timescales. Besides the natural variability of the external constraints, human interventions in some components of the system can either directly or indirectly affect long-term sediment dynamics in the whole system. In this paper the evolution of a schematic tidal basin, with non-uniform sediments and subject to geological and anthropogenic processes, is reproduced by means of a two dimensional morphodynamic model and qualitatively compared to the events which historically took place in the Venice Lagoon during the last four centuries; the trend for the next 200 years is also investigated. In particular, the effect on both morphology and bottom composition of river diversion, jetty construction, human-induced subsidence and channel dredging are presented and discussed.

  6. Schematic and realistic model calculations of the isovector spin monopole excitations in 116In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bes, D. R.; Civitarese, O.; Suhonen, J.

    2012-08-01

    The excitation of Gamow-Teller (GT) and isovector spin monopole (IVSM) Jπ=1+ modes in 116In by (p,n) and (n,p) charge-exchange reactions on 116Cd and on 116Sn, respectively, is studied within the framework of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The calculations have been performed both for schematic and realistic model situations. It appears that the calculated admixture of the IVSM and Gamow-Teller (GT) Jπ=1+ excitations is negligible and that the contribution to the strength above 20 MeV of excitation energy, in 116In, is due to the IVSM (σr2t±) mode. This result is compared with the recent experimental work that reported a large amount of both (p,n) and (n,p) strength beyond 10 MeV of excitation energy in 116In. This measured excess strength has led to speculations about its importance for the double beta decay rate of 116Cd.

  7. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a repository in the Permian Basin. [Deaf Smith County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Coons, W.E.; Franzone, J.G.; Meyer, D.

    1985-12-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that human-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the stratigraphy of the Permian Basin. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as conceptual designs if the Permian Basin is selected as a candidate repository site. The principal material used in the seal system in the repository-level rooms and tunnels is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate in response to closure of the repository rooms, to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For Permian Basin Unit 4 salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 700 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 200 years for a seal located in a main passageway within the repository. These analyses are based on uncertain laboratory data regarding intact salt creep rates and crushed salt consolidation characteristics, and must be regarded as preliminary. Bulkheads composed of concrete, as well as bentonite-rich earth fill, are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation.

  8. Lagrangian particle simulation of tracer dispersion in the lee of a schematic two-dimensional hill

    SciTech Connect

    Tinarelli, G.; Anfossi, D.; Brusasca, G.; Ferrero, E.; Giostra, U.; Morselli, M.G.; Moussafir, J.; Tampieri, F.; Trombetti, F. CNR, Turin Universita di Alessandria CNR, Bologna ARIA, Paris )

    1994-06-01

    Spray, a 3D Langrangian particle model for the simulation of complex flow dispersion, is presented. Its performance is tested against the Environmental Protection Agency wind tunnel concentration distribution of passive tracer released from elevated point sources, located in the lee region of a two-dimensional schematic hill, in a neutrally stratified boundary layer. Based on the measured values of the first two moments of the turbulent flow velocity, the mean fields are computed over a regular grid using a mass-consistent model, whereas the turbulence structure is simply interpolated. From these fields, trajectories of tracer particles are computed using a linear formulation of the Langevin equation, with a correlated, skewed forcing. The self-consistence test (well-mixed condition), aimed at maintaining an initially well-mixed particle distribution uniform in time, has shown satisfactory results in the region under study. The computed concentration field turns out to be in good agreement with the observed one. In detail, ground-level profiles and vertical cross sections of concentration are compared showing the important effects resulting from the topographic influence on the flow structure.

  9. Schematic designs for penetration seals for a reference repository in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsall, P.C.; Case, J.B.; Meyer, D.; Coons, W.E.

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that man-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes are adequately sealed. This report describes schematic seal designs for a repository in bedded salt referenced to the straitigraphy of southeastern New Mexico. The designs are presented for extensive peer review and will be updated as site-specific conceptual designs when a site for a repository in salt has been selected. The principal material used in the seal system is crushed salt obtained from excavating the repository. It is anticipated that crushed salt will consolidate as the repository rooms creep close to the degree that mechanical and hydrologic properties will eventually match those of undisturbed, intact salt. For southeastern New Mexico salt, analyses indicate that this process will require approximately 1000 years for a seal located at the base of one of the repository shafts (where there is little increase in temperature due to waste emplacement) and approximately 400 years for a seal located in an access tunnel within the repository. Bulkheads composed of contrete or salt bricks are also included in the seal system as components which will have low permeability during the period required for salt consolidation.

  10. A LAMP-based schematic prototype instrument for detection of microorganisms in human outer space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yongfei; Liu, Zhiheng; Li, Junxiong; Zhu, Baoli

    One of the main tasks of human outer space exploration is to detect signs of life. Based on meteoritic evidence, common ancestry hypothesis has been posed. Therefore, searching for the fundamental molecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) that constitute life as we know on Earth is feasible and now the typical approach. To achieve this goal, portable, robust, and highly sensitive instrument is also needed. In this study, based on Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique that targets life information storage molecular, DNA, we designed a schematic prototype instrument for microorganism detection. First, we designed LAMP primers used for amplification of DNA markers of Bacteria, Archaea, and Fungus; then, we optimized the LAMP reaction system for space using; and finally, we designed a prototype instrument and operating software system that are compatible with the LAMP reaction system. The results of simulation experiments showed that our instrument performed well for detecting representative microorganisms and the device can achieve semi-automatization. The detection process, from sample preparation to signal visualization, was completed in 1.5 hour. Our study provides a new method and corresponding device for detection of DNA molecular, which has great potential for applications in outer space exploration. Besides, the instrument we designed can also been used for monitoring changes of terrestrial microorganisms in outer space, for example in aircraft.

  11. Morphodynamic reaction of a schematic river to sediment input changes: Analytical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Silvio, G.; Nones, M.

    2014-06-01

    The paper investigates the morphodynamic reaction of a schematic river to a perturbation of the sediment input imposed at its upstream end. The consequent evolution of the initially equilibrium river can be studied by means of various models (0-dimensional; 1-D parabolic and 1-D hyperbolic with uniform sediments; 1-D hyperbolic with graded sediments), depending on the more or less simplified differential equations applied for describing the water and sediment motion. The paper discusses a number of analytical solutions obtained with two types of boundary conditions, namely: (i) stepwise change of the sediment input, very often connected to anthropogenic actions, and (ii) sinusoidal input variation with prescribed period, typically associated to the meteorological cycles (short period) or to the geological and climate change (long period). The solutions provide an explicit expression for the Response Time of the river for the condition (i) and the Attenuation Length of the river for the condition (ii). The two quantities as defined in this paper do have a specific physical meaning, strictly connected with the corresponding boundary conditions, which measures the reactivity of the river to external disturbances. A comparative application of the analytical solutions to various (prevalently large) rivers of the world is given, together with a final discussion.

  12. Potential-pH Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    1982-01-01

    Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

  13. Splicing Wires Permanently With Explosives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Kushnick, Anne C.

    1990-01-01

    Explosive joining process developed to splice wires by enclosing and metallurgically bonding wires within copper sheets. Joints exhibit many desirable characteristics, 100-percent conductivity and strength, no heat-induced annealing, no susceptibility to corrosion in contacts between dissimilar metals, and stability at high temperature. Used to join wires to terminals, as well as to splice wires. Applicable to telecommunications industry, in which millions of small wires spliced annually.

  14. Scattering equations and Feynman diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-09-01

    We show a direct matching between individual Feynman diagrams and integration measures in the scattering equation formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan. The connection is most easily explained in terms of triangular graphs associated with planar Feynman diagrams in ? 3-theory. We also discuss the generalization to general scalar field theories with ? p interactions, corresponding to polygonal graphs involving vertices of order p. Finally, we describe how the same graph-theoretic language can be used to provide the precise link between individual Feynman diagrams and string theory integrands.

  15. False recall is reduced by damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex: implications for understanding the neural correlates of schematic memory.

    PubMed

    Warren, David E; Jones, Samuel H; Duff, Melissa C; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-05-28

    Schematic memory, or contextual knowledge derived from experience (Bartlett, 1932), benefits memory function by enhancing retention and speeding learning of related information (Bransford and Johnson, 1972; Tse et al., 2007). However, schematic memory can also promote memory errors, producing false memories. One demonstration is the "false memory effect" of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995): studying words that fit a common schema (e.g., cold, blizzard, winter) often produces memory for a nonstudied word (e.g., snow). We propose that frontal lobe regions that contribute to complex decision-making processes by weighting various alternatives, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), may also contribute to memory processes by weighting the influence of schematic knowledge. We investigated the role of human vmPFC in false memory by combining a neuropsychological approach with the DRM task. Patients with vmPFC lesions (n = 7) and healthy comparison participants (n = 14) studied word lists that excluded a common associate (the critical item). Recall and recognition tests revealed expected high levels of false recall and recognition of critical items by healthy participants. In contrast, vmPFC patients showed consistently reduced false recall, with significantly fewer intrusions of critical items. False recognition was also marginally reduced among vmPFC patients. Our findings suggest that vmPFC increases the influence of schematically congruent memories, a contribution that may be related to the role of the vmPFC in decision making. These novel neuropsychological results highlight a role for the vmPFC as part of a memory network including the medial temporal lobes and hippocampus (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010). PMID:24872571

  16. False Recall Is Reduced by Damage to the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex: Implications for Understanding the Neural Correlates of Schematic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Samuel H.; Duff, Melissa C.; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Schematic memory, or contextual knowledge derived from experience (Bartlett, 1932), benefits memory function by enhancing retention and speeding learning of related information (Bransford and Johnson, 1972; Tse et al., 2007). However, schematic memory can also promote memory errors, producing false memories. One demonstration is the “false memory effect” of the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm (Roediger and McDermott, 1995): studying words that fit a common schema (e.g., cold, blizzard, winter) often produces memory for a nonstudied word (e.g., snow). We propose that frontal lobe regions that contribute to complex decision-making processes by weighting various alternatives, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), may also contribute to memory processes by weighting the influence of schematic knowledge. We investigated the role of human vmPFC in false memory by combining a neuropsychological approach with the DRM task. Patients with vmPFC lesions (n = 7) and healthy comparison participants (n = 14) studied word lists that excluded a common associate (the critical item). Recall and recognition tests revealed expected high levels of false recall and recognition of critical items by healthy participants. In contrast, vmPFC patients showed consistently reduced false recall, with significantly fewer intrusions of critical items. False recognition was also marginally reduced among vmPFC patients. Our findings suggest that vmPFC increases the influence of schematically congruent memories, a contribution that may be related to the role of the vmPFC in decision making. These novel neuropsychological results highlight a role for the vmPFC as part of a memory network including the medial temporal lobes and hippocampus (Andrews-Hanna et al., 2010). PMID:24872571

  17. Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.

  18. Wire core reactor for NTP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harty, R. B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution.

  19. Atemporal diagrams for quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.; Wu Shengjun; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2006-05-15

    A system of diagrams is introduced that allows the representation of various elements of a quantum circuit, including measurements, in a form which makes no reference to time (hence 'atemporal'). It can be used to relate quantum dynamical properties to those of entangled states (map-state duality), and suggests useful analogies, such as the inverse of an entangled ket. Diagrams clarify the role of channel kets, transition operators, dynamical operators (matrices), and Kraus rank for noisy quantum channels. Positive (semidefinite) operators are represented by diagrams with a symmetry that aids in understanding their connection with completely positive maps. The diagrams are used to analyze standard teleportation and dense coding, and for a careful study of unambiguous (conclusive) teleportation. A simple diagrammatic argument shows that a Kraus rank of 3 is impossible for a one-qubit channel modeled using a one-qubit environment in a mixed state.

  20. Wire brush fastening device

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, R.A.

    1993-08-31

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  1. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  2. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A. (East Concord, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  3. Phase diagrams of decomposing nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirinyan, A. S.; Gusak, A. M.

    2004-02-01

    The thermodynamics of nucleation and decomposition in small isolated particles are considered. There exist three possibilities: phase separation, prohibition of decomposition and a metastable state. We investigate the peculiarities of phase diagrams related to depletion of the nanosize parent phase even at the nucleation stage. For small particles the equilibrium diagram becomes split (and shifted and size dependent). Concentration, size and temperature hystereses take place. Size-dependent 'critical supersaturation', increasing with decreasing size, has been analysed.

  4. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. One hundred angstrom niobium wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, H. E.; Rose, R. M.; Wulff, J.

    1968-01-01

    Composite of fine niobium wires in copper is used to study the size and proximity effects of a superconductor in a normal matrix. The niobium rod was drawn to a 100 angstrom diameter wire on a copper tubing.

  6. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  7. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  8. A World without Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2006-01-01

    The wireless bandwagon is rolling across Mississippi, picking up a fresh load of converts and turning calamity into opportunity. Traditional wired school networks, many of which unraveled during Hurricane Katrina, are giving way to advanced wireless mesh networks that frequently include voice-over-IP (VoIP) capabilities. Vendor funding is helping…

  9. Improved wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  10. Weld-Wire Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, R.; Hall, R.

    1982-01-01

    Changes in the size or composition of weld wire being fed to an automatic welding machine are detected by an impedance-monitoring instrument. The instrument triggers an alarm if the changes would affect weld quality or cause weld failure. Device could find applications in construction of pipelines or nuclear powerplants.

  11. Wired To Flex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Discusses wire and cable management solutions school construction committees can use that do not limit flexibility. Topics cover such areas as using perimeter raceways in classrooms, incorporating a flexible communications cabling infrastructure in to the initial design, and answering the question of how to meet future requirements and…

  12. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  13. Basic Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a foundation course to prepare students for additional courses of training for entry-level employment in either the residential or commercial and industrial wiring trades. Included in the guide are 17 instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using…

  14. NewsWire, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Bingham, Margaret, Ed.; Bowman, Gloria, Ed.; Shoemaker, Dan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the 3 2002 issues of the newsletter "NewsWire," (volume 5). Issue Number One focuses on collaborative Web projects. This issue begins with descriptions of four individual projects: "iEARN"; "Operation RubyThroat"; "Follow the Polar Huskies!"; and "Log in Your Animal Roadkill!" Features that follow include: "Bringing the…

  15. Residential Wiring. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mark; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist teachers conducting a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. Included in the guide are six instructional units and the following sections of information for teachers: guidelines in using the unit components; academic and workplace skills classifications and…

  16. Heat-dissipating aluminum wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, J. D.; Stringer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    Surface area, and consequently heat dissipation, is increased by using star-shaped, rather than round cross section, for aluminum wire. When used with modern high-temperature insulating materials, pointed-star wire is suitable for applications where low-cost light-weight wire is required.

  17. Approximations to wire grid inductance.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Merewether, Kimball O.

    2004-06-01

    By using a multipole-conformal mapping expansion for the wire currents we examine the accuracy of approximations for the transfer inductance of a one dimensional array of wires (wire grid). A simple uniform fit is constructed by introduction of the decay factor from bipolar coordinates into existing formulas for this inductance.

  18. 1997 wire development workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This conference is divided into the following sections: (1) First Generation Wires I; (2) First Generation Wires II; (3) Coated conductors I; and (4) Coated conductors II. Applications of the superconducting wires include fault current limiters, superconducting motors, transformers, and power transmission lines.

  19. Data management system CIU and DIU. Appendix A: CIU and DIU schematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Computer Interface Unit (CIU) and the Data Interface Unit (DIU) of the Data Management System (DMS) were described as to their functional location, purpose and function. This describes the CIU and DIU at the unit level illustrating their interface thru the Data Bus (DBUS) and to other DMS units. All unit level interfaces are defined as to function and characteristics. The controls, indicators, test points and connectors are listed and function, location and application are described for each. The mechanical configuration is defined and illustrated to provide card and component location for modification or repair purposes. Unique disassembly and assembly requirements are outlined where applicable. A unit internal functional block diagram level description is provided.

  20. Automatically Assessing Graph-Based Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pete; Smith, Neil; Waugh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    To date there has been very little work on the machine understanding of imprecise diagrams, such as diagrams drawn by students in response to assessment questions. Imprecise diagrams exhibit faults such as missing, extraneous and incorrectly formed elements. The semantics of imprecise diagrams are difficult to determine. While there have been…

  1. Automatically Assessing Graph-Based Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pete; Smith, Neil; Waugh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    To date there has been very little work on the machine understanding of imprecise diagrams, such as diagrams drawn by students in response to assessment questions. Imprecise diagrams exhibit faults such as missing, extraneous and incorrectly formed elements. The semantics of imprecise diagrams are difficult to determine. While there have been…

  2. Matched designs and causal diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Mansournia, Mohammad A; Hernán, Miguel A; Greenland, Sander

    2013-01-01

    We use causal diagrams to illustrate the consequences of matching and the appropriate handling of matched variables in cohort and case-control studies. The matching process generally forces certain variables to be independent despite their being connected in the causal diagram, a phenomenon known as unfaithfulness. We show how causal diagrams can be used to visualize many previous results about matched studies. Cohort matching can prevent confounding by the matched variables, but censoring or other missing data and further adjustment may necessitate control of matching variables. Case-control matching generally does not prevent confounding by the matched variables, and control of matching variables may be necessary even if those were not confounders initially. Matching on variables that are affected by the exposure and the outcome, or intermediates between the exposure and the outcome, will ordinarily produce irremediable bias. PMID:23918854

  3. The Quasar SED Mixing Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Heng; Elvis, M.; Civano, F.

    2011-05-01

    We present a useful new diagram for characterizing the quasar-host-reddening mixture for AGN SEDs. This "mixing diagram" is based on a detailed study of 413 X-ray selected Type 1 AGN SEDs from the XMM-COSMOS Survey (Elvis, Hao, et al., 2011). The mixing diagram plots the near-IR (1-3micron) spectral slope against the optical (0.3-1micron) slope to form a generalized 'color-color' diagram. A pure AGN continuum (Elvis et al., 1994, E94) and pure host galaxies are located at clear and distinct positions on the mixing diagram. The lines joining them indicate the fraction of host contribution to each AGN. The reddening vector is almost perpendicular to these mixing lines, and so is easily measured independently. The mixing diagram shows that 90% of the AGNs lie on mixing curves between the mean E94 AGN SED and a host galaxy, with only modest reddening [E(B-V)=0.1-0.2] (Hao et al., 2011a). Lower luminosity and lower Eddington ratio AGNs have a larger host galaxy fraction, as expected. Optically selected samples (SDSS) have smaller host galaxy fractions. There is some intrinsic scatter around the E94 mean SED. A substantial minority, 10%, of the XMM-COSMOS AGNs are inconsistent with any AGN+host+reddening mix. These AGNs have weak or non-existent near-IR bumps, suggesting a lack of the hot dust characteristic of AGNs (Hao et al., 2010). A similar fraction of these "hot dust poor" (HDP) quasars are found in the Elvis et al. 1994 (BQS) and Richards et al. 2006 (SDSS) samples (Hao et al., 2011b). The fraction of "hot dust poor" AGNs grows to 20% at z>2 (Hao et al. 2010). The proposed 'cosmic cycle' of SMBH and galaxy co-evolution (e.g. Hopkins et al., 2006) can be shown as tracks on the mixing diagram. The mixing diagram definition could also be expanded to other wavelengths.

  4. Charge state of the fast gate in chloride channels: insights from electrostatic calculations in a schematic model.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, Rajiv; Coorey, Nathan; Kuyucak, Serdar

    2007-11-21

    Fast gating is a unique property of chloride channels, where a permeating Cl(-) ion acts as its own ligand in opening the channel. The glutamate residue implicated in fast gating normally carries a unit negative charge. Whether this charge needs to be protonated to enable permeation of a Cl(-) ion is an important question that will affect how models of chloride channels are constructed. We investigate the energetic consequences of the charge state of this glutamate residue from continuum electrostatics using a schematic cylindrical channel model. Both analytical solutions of the Poisson equation for an infinite cylinder and numerical ones for a finite cylinder are employed in the calculations. PMID:18035906

  5. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  6. From wires to cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Mustafa A.; Baumann, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We provide a statistical framework for characterizing stochastic particle production in the early universe via a precise correspondence to current conduction in wires with impurities. Our approach is particularly useful when the microphysics is uncertain and the dynamics are complex, but only coarse-grained information is of interest. We study scenarios with multiple interacting fields and derive the evolution of the particle occupation numbers from a Fokker-Planck equation. At late times, the typical occupation numbers grow exponentially which is the analog of Anderson localization for disordered wires. Some statistical features of the occupation numbers show hints of universality in the limit of a large number of interactions and/or a large number of fields. For test cases, excellent agreement is found between our analytic results and numerical simulations.

  7. Lithium niobate photonic wires.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Ricken, R; Sohler, W

    2009-12-21

    LN photonic wires of cross-section dimensions down to 1 x 0.73 microm2 were fabricated by Ar milling of a single-crystalline LiNbO3 (LN) film bonded to a SiO2/LiNbO3 substrate. Mode intensity distributions, propagation losses, and group indices of refraction were measured at 1.55 microm wavelength and compared with simulation results. Moreover, effective mode indices and end face reflectivities were numerically evaluated. The waveguide of 1 microm top width is the smallest LN photonic wire reported to date; it has a mode size of approximately 0.4 microm2 (0.5 microm2) only and propagation losses of 9.9 dB/cm (12.9 dB/cm) for qTM (qTE) polarization. PMID:20052137

  8. Plated wire memory subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, L.; Tweed, H.

    1972-01-01

    The work performed entailed the design, development, construction and testing of a 4000 word by 18 bit random access, NDRO plated wire memory for use in conjunction with a spacecraft imput/output unit and central processing unit. The primary design parameters, in order of importance, were high reliability, low power, volume and weight. A single memory unit, referred to as a qualification model, was delivered.

  9. Wiring for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. L., Jr.; Dickman, J. E.; Bercaw, R. W.; Myers, I. T.; Hammoud, A. N.; Stavnes, M.; Evans, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors summarize the current state of knowledge of arc propagation in aerospace power wiring and efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) towards the understanding of the arc tracking phenomena in space environments. Recommendations will be made for additional testing. A database of the performance of commonly used insulating materials will be developed to support the design of advanced high power missions, such as Space Station Freedom and Lunar/Mars Exploration.

  10. Superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL); Banerjee, Indrajit (San Jose, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..

  11. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  12. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  13. Dual wire welding torch and method

    DOEpatents

    Diez, Fernando Martinez; Stump, Kevin S.; Ludewig, Howard W.; Kilty, Alan L.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Egland, Keith M.

    2009-04-28

    A welding torch includes a nozzle with a first welding wire guide configured to orient a first welding wire in a first welding wire orientation, and a second welding wire guide configured to orient a second welding wire in a second welding wire orientation that is non-coplanar and divergent with respect to the first welding wire orientation. A method of welding includes moving a welding torch with respect to a workpiece joint to be welded. During moving the welding torch, a first welding wire is fed through a first welding wire guide defining a first welding wire orientation and a second welding wire is fed through a second welding wire guide defining a second welding wire orientation that is divergent and non-coplanar with respect to the first welding wire orientation.

  14. Manually Operated Welding Wire Feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A manual welding wire feeder apparatus comprising a bendable elongate metal frame with a feed roller mounted at the center thereof for rotation about an axis transverse to the longitudinal axis of the frame. The frame ends are turned up as tabs and each provided with openings in alignment with each other and the mid-width center of the roller surface. The tab openings are sized to accommodate welding wire and each extends to a side edge of the tab, both opening on the same side of the frame, whereby welding wire can be side-loaded onto the frame. On the side of the frame, opposite the roller a lock ring handle is attached tangentially and is rotatable about the attachment point and an axis perpendicular to the frame. The device is grasped in the hand normally used to hold the wire. A finger is placed through the loop ring and the frame positioned across the palm and lower fingers. The thumb is positioned atop the wire so it can be moved from the back of the frame across the roller, and towards the front. In doing so, the wire is advanced at a steady rate in axial alignment with the tab openings and roller. To accommodate different wire diameters the frame is bendable about its center in the plane of the frame axis and wire so as to keep the wire in sufficient tension against the roller and to keep the wire fixed when the frame is tilted and thumb pressure released.

  15. Wire detecting apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method that combines a signal generator and a passive signal receiver to detect and record the path of partially or completely concealed electrical wiring without disturbing the concealing surface. The signal generator applies a series of electrical pulses to the selected wiring of interest. The applied pulses create a magnetic field about the wiring that can be detected by a coil contained within the signal receiver. An audible output connected to the receiver and driven by the coil reflects the receiver`s position with respect to the wiring. The receiver`s audible signal is strongest when the receiver is directly above the wiring and the long axis of the receiver`s coil is parallel to the wiring. A marking means is mounted on the receiver to mark the location of the wiring as the receiver is directed over the wiring`s concealing surface. Numerous marks made on various locations of the concealing surface will trace the path of the wiring of interest.

  16. Collectivity of the pygmy dipole resonance within schematic Tamm-Dancoff approximation and random-phase approximation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, V.; Palade, D. I.; Colonna, M.; Di Toro, M.; Croitoru, A.; Nicolin, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    Within schematic models based on the Tamm-Dancoff approximation and the random-phase approximation with separable interactions, we investigate the physical conditions that may determine the emergence of the pygmy dipole resonance in the E 1 response of atomic nuclei. By introducing a generalization of the Brown-Bolsterli schematic model with a density-dependent particle-hole residual interaction, we find that an additional mode will be affected by the interaction, whose energy centroid is closer to the distance between two major shells and therefore well below the giant dipole resonance (GDR). This state, together with the GDR, exhausts all the transition strength in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation and all the energy-weighted sum rule in the random-phase approximation. Thus, within our scheme, this mode, which could be associated with the pygmy dipole resonance, is of collective nature. By relating the coupling constants appearing in the separable interaction to the symmetry energy value at and below saturation density we explore the role of density dependence of the symmetry energy on the low-energy dipole response.

  17. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granoff, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  18. Review of wire chamber aging

    SciTech Connect

    Va'Vra, J.

    1986-02-01

    This paper makes an overview of the wire chamber aging problems as a function of various chamber design parameters. It emphasizes the chemistry point of view and many examples are drawn from the plasma chemistry field as a guidance for a possible effort in the wire chamber field. The paper emphasizes the necessity of variable tuning, the importance of purity of the wire chamber environment, as well as it provides a practical list of presently known recommendations. In addition, several models of the wire chamber aging are qualitatively discussed. The paper is based on a summary talk given at the Wire Chamber Aging Workshop held at LBL, Berkeley on January 16-17, 1986. Presented also at Wire Chamber Conference, Vienna, February 25-28, 1986. 74 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Subminiature Hot-Wire Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, R. V.; Lemos, F. R.; Ligrani, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    Class of improved subminiature hot-wire flow-measuring probes developed. Smaller sizes yield improved resolution in measurements of practical aerodynamic flows. Probe made in one-wire, two-perpendicular-wire, and three-perpendicular-wire version for measurement of one, two, or all three components of flow. Oriented and positioned on micromanipulator stage and viewed under microscope during fabrication. Tested by taking measurements in constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. New probes give improved measurements of turbulence quantities near surfaces and anisotropies of flows strongly influence relative errors caused by phenomena related to spatial resolution.

  20. Texture development in Galfenol wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesenberg, A. J.; Restorff, J. B.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Sailsbury, H.; Summers, E.

    2013-05-01

    Galfenol (Fe-Ga alloy) wire fabrication provides a low cost alternative to directional solidification methods. This work evaluates the compositional dependence of the wire drawing suitability of Fe-Ga and characterizes the microstructural and magnetic properties of these wires. Wire has been produced with Ga contents between 10 at. % and 17 at. % to allow determination of the ductile to brittle transition (DTBT) in wire manufacture. Published results on chill cast bend specimens indicated that a DTBT occurs at roughly 15 at. % Ga. This DTBT was observed under tensile loading with a corresponding change in fracture behavior from transverse fracture to intergranular fracture. For improved magnetostrictive performance, higher Ga contents are desired, closer to the 17 at. % Ga evaluated in this work. Electron backscattered diffraction B-H loop and resonance measurements as a function of magnetic field (to determine modulus and coupling factor) are presented for as-drawn, furnace, and direct current (DC) annealed wire. Galfenol wire produced via traditional drawing methods is found to have a strong <110> (?) texture parallel to the drawing direction. As-drawn wire was observed to have a lower magnetic permeability and larger hysteresis than DC annealed wire. This is attributed to the presence of a large volume of crystalline defects; such as vacancies and dislocations.

  1. Diagnostics for exploding wires (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosman, B.; Bystritskii, Vitaly; Wessel, F. J.; Van Drie, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two diagnostics, capable of imaging fast, high temperature, plasmas were used on exploding wire experiments at UC Irvine. An atmospheric pressure nitrogen laser (?=337.1 nm) was used to generate simultaneous shadow and shearing interferogram images with a temporal resolution of ˜1 ns and a spatial resolution of 10 ?m. An x-ray backlighter imaged the exploding wire 90° with respect to the laser and at approximately the same instant in time. The backlighter spatial resolution as determined by geometry and film resolution was 25 ?m. Copper wires of diameters (25, 50, and 100 ?m) and steel wire d=25 ?m were exploded in vacuum (10-5 Torr) at a maximum current level of 12 kA, by a rectified marx bank at a voltage of 50 kV and a current rise time (quarter period) of 900 ns. Copper wires which were cleaned and then resistively heated under vacuum to incandescence for several hours prior to high current initiation, exhibited greater expansion velocities at peak current than wires which had not been heated prior to discharge. Axial variations on the surface of the wire observed with the laser were found to correlate with bulk axial mass differences from x-ray backlighting. High electron density, measured near the opaque surface of the exploding wire, suggests that much of the current is shunted outward away from the bulk of the wire.

  2. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury....

  3. Spectral Determinants on Mandelstam Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillairet, Luc; Kalvin, Victor; Kokotov, Alexey

    2015-11-01

    We study the regularized determinant of the Laplacian as a functional on the space of Mandelstam diagrams (noncompact translation surfaces glued from finite and semi-infinite cylinders). A Mandelstam diagram can be considered as a compact Riemann surface equipped with a conformal flat singular metric {|?|^2} , where {?} is a meromorphic one-form with simple poles such that all its periods are pure imaginary and all its residues are real. The main result is an explicit formula for the determinant of the Laplacian in terms of the basic objects on the underlying Riemann surface (the prime form, theta-functions, the canonical meromorphic bidifferential) and the divisor of the meromorphic form {?} . As an important intermediate result we prove a decomposition formula of the type of Burghelea-Friedlander-Kappeler for the determinant of the Laplacian for flat surfaces with cylindrical ends and conical singularities.

  4. Test of new light-and-strong material for anode wires of wire chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, K.; Nakayama, M.; Okusawa, T.; Shimonaka, A.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, S.; Teramoto, Y.; Tsui, T.; Yoshida, T.; Yutori, T.; Uchimura, M.

    1991-10-01

    We have tested a new type of steel wires for anode wires of wire chambers. The measured yield strength of 50 ?m diameter wires of this material is 500-650 g, as compared to 430 g for tungsten wires. As used for the anode wires of proportional tubes, no significant difference of signals was observed between the wires of this material and the gold-plated tungsten wires. Wire sags, ?, in units of ?m, are expressed as ? = 3.2 L2, for 50 ?m diameter wires of this material when 600 g tension is applied, where L is the length of the wire in m.

  5. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.

  6. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

  7. Two-Wire to Four-Wire Audio Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, G. L., Jr; Seale, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    Simple circuit provides interface between normally incompatible voicecommunication lines. Circuit maintains 40 dB of isolation between input and output halves of four-wire line permitting two-wire line to be connected. Balancing potentiometer, Rg, adjusts gain of IC2 to null feed through from input to output. Adjustment is done on workbench just after assembly.

  8. Improved superconducting magnet wire

    DOEpatents

    Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    This invention is directed to a superconducting tape or wire composed of alternating layers of copper and a niobium-containing superconductor such as niobium of NbTi, Nb/sub 3/Sn or Nb/sub 3/Ge. In general, each layer of the niobium-containing superconductor has a thickness in the range of about 0.05 to 1.5 times its coherence length (which for Nb/sub 3/Si is 41 A) with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170 to 600 A. With the use of very thin layers of the niobium composition having a thickness within the desired range, the critical field (H/sub c/) may be increased by factors of 2 to 4. Also, the thin layers of the superconductor permit the resulting tape or wire to exhibit suitable ductility for winding on a magnet core. These compositions are also characterized by relatively high values of critical temperature and therefore will exhibit a combination of useful properties as superconductors.

  9. Arrows in Comprehending and Producing Mechanical Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Julie; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical systems have structural organizations--parts, and their relations--and functional organizations--temporal, dynamic, and causal processes--which can be explained using text or diagrams. Two experiments illustrate the role of arrows in diagrams of mechanical systems. In Experiment 1, people described diagrams with or without arrows,…

  10. Arrows in Comprehending and Producing Mechanical Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Julie; Tversky, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical systems have structural organizations--parts, and their relations--and functional organizations--temporal, dynamic, and causal processes--which can be explained using text or diagrams. Two experiments illustrate the role of arrows in diagrams of mechanical systems. In Experiment 1, people described diagrams with or without arrows,…

  11. Manufacture and quality control of interconnecting wire hardnesses, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A standard is presented for manufacture, installation, and quality control of eight types of interconnecting wire harnesses. The processes, process controls, and inspection and test requirements reflected are based on acknowledgment of harness design requirements, acknowledgment of harness installation requirements, identification of the various parts, materials, etc., utilized in harness manufacture, and formulation of a typical manufacturing flow diagram for identification of each manufacturing and quality control process, operation, inspection, and test. The document covers interconnecting wire harnesses defined in the design standard, including type 1, enclosed in fluorocarbon elastomer convolute, tubing; type 2, enclosed in TFE convolute tubing lines with fiberglass braid; type 3, enclosed in TFE convolute tubing; and type 5, combination of types 3 and 4. Knowledge gained through experience on the Saturn 5 program coupled with recent advances in techniques, materials, and processes was incorporated.

  12. Self-bound quark matter in the NJL model revisited: From schematic droplets to domain-wall solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buballa, Michael; Carignano, Stefano

    2013-03-01

    The existence and the properties of self-bound quark matter in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model at zero temperature are investigated in the mean-field approximation, focusing on inhomogeneous structures with one-dimensional spatial modulations. It is found that the most stable homogeneous solutions which have previously been interpreted as schematic quark droplets are unstable against the formation of a one-dimensional lattice of domain-wall solitons. The solitons repel each other, so that the minimal energy per quark is realized in the single-soliton limit. The properties of the solitons and their interactions are discussed in detail, and the effect of vector interactions is estimated. The results may be relevant for the dynamics of expanding quark matter.

  13. Northern Pacific Railroad Bridge and Wire Weight

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wire weight is lowered to water surface to measure stage at a site. Levels are made to the wire weights elevation from known benchmarks to ensure correct readings. This wire weight is located along the Missouri River in Bismarck, ND....

  14. Wire and Packing Tape Sandwiches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can combine craft wire with clear packing tape to create a two-dimensional design that can be bent and twisted to create a three-dimensional form. Students sandwich wire designs between two layers of tape. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  15. Wire Stripper Holds Insulation Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Allen D.; Morris, Henry S.; Bauer, Laverne

    1994-01-01

    Attachment to standard wire-stripping tool catches bits of insulation as they are removed from electrical wire and retains them for proper disposal. Prevents insulation particles from falling at random, contaminating electronic equipment and soiling workspace. Commercial tool modified by attaching small collection box to one of the jaws.

  16. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  17. The Current in a Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  18. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-11-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  19. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  20. Understanding machines from text and diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegarty, Mary; Just, Marcel A.

    1987-12-01

    Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text, (2) to reactivate information that has already been represented, and (3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Using data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrams more often than high-ability text. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite for encoding new information from a diagram. Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text; (2) to reactivate information that was alsready represented, and *3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Uinsg data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrmas more often than high-ability tesxt. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite and encoding information on a diagram.

  1. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  2. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  3. Phase diagram for topological superconductivity in topological insulator nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, Fernando; Bardarson, Jens; Ilan, Roni

    2015-03-01

    A topological insulator nanowire can be used as a platform to produce one dimensional topological superconductivity in the presence of magnetic fields and the proximity effect from a nearby superconductor. In this work, we discuss the conditions under which this can happen by computing the topological invariant of the system from both a continuum Dirac fermion model and a lattice realization of a TI. We demonstrate that the presence of a vortex in the order parameter winding around the wire is essential to have a non-trivial invariant. In addition, we present a full phase diagram of the model as a function of chemical potential, flux and superconducting pairing, emphasizing that not all regions present a fully gapped superconducting state. Implications for transport in normal-superconductor junctions in this system will be discussed.

  4. FIRAS wire grid characterization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, Richard D.; Magner, Thomas J.

    Characterization techniques used to verify the quality and spectral performance of the large freestanding wire grid polarizing beamsplitters and input/output polarizers used in the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) are presented. The clear aperture of these grids is lined with 20.8 micron diameter gold coated tungsten wire, spaced 33 microns apart. The grid characteristics measured throughout fabrication and space flight qualification are the center to center wire spacing and wire plane flatness. Ideally, the wire grids should produce coherent wavefronts with equal reflectance and transmittance properties. When the spacing is inconsistent, these wavefront intensities are unequal, thus decreasing the efficiency of the grids and reducing the output signal of the FIRAS. The magnitude of the output interferogram is also reduced by incoherence in the interfering wave fronts caused by uneven flatness.

  5. Wire metamaterials: physics and applications.

    PubMed

    Simovski, Constantin R; Belov, Pavel A; Atrashchenko, Alexander V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-08-16

    The physics and applications of a broad class of artificial electromagnetic materials composed of lattices of aligned metal rods embedded in a dielectric matrix are reviewed. Such structures are here termed wire metamaterials. They appear in various settings and can operate from microwaves to THz and optical frequencies. An important group of these metamaterials is a wire medium possessing extreme optical anisotropy. The study of wire metamaterials has a long history, however, most of their important and useful properties have been revealed and understood only recently, especially in the THz and optical frequency ranges where the wire media correspond to the lattices of microwires and nanowires, respectively. Another group of wire metamaterials are arrays and lattices of nanorods of noble metals whose unusual properties are driven by plasmonic resonances. PMID:22760970

  6. Internal wire guide for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a filler metal wire guide positioned within the torch, and within the shielding gas nozzle. The wire guide is adjacent to the tungsten electrode and has a ceramic liner through which the wire is fed. This reduces the size of the torch and eliminates the outside clearance problems that exit with external wire guides. Additionally, since the wire is always within the shielding gas, oxidizing of the wire is eliminated.

  7. Electrode carrying wire for GTAW welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E. (Inventor); Dyer, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A welding torch for gas tungsten arc welding apparatus has a hollow tungsten electrode including a ceramic liner and forms the filler metal wire guide. The wire is fed through the tungsten electrode thereby reducing the size of the torch to eliminate clearance problems which exist with external wire guides. Since the wire is preheated from the tungsten more wire may be fed into the weld puddle, and the wire will not oxidize because it is always within the shielding gas.

  8. Apollo experience report: Electrical wiring subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The general requirements of the electrical wiring subsystems and the problem areas and solutions that occurred during the major part of the Apollo Program are detailed in this report. The concepts and definitions of specific requirements for electrical wiring; wire-connecting devices; and wire-harness fabrication, checkout, and installation techniques are discussed. The design and development of electrical wiring and wire-connecting devices are described. Mission performance is discussed, and conclusions and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  9. Origin and use of crystallization phase diagrams.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Crystallization phase diagrams are frequently used to conceptualize the phase relations and also the processes taking place during the crystallization of macromolecules. While a great deal of freedom is given in crystallization phase diagrams owing to a lack of specific knowledge about the actual phase boundaries and phase equilibria, crucial fundamental features of phase diagrams can be derived from thermodynamic first principles. Consequently, there are limits to what can be reasonably displayed in a phase diagram, and imagination may start to conflict with thermodynamic realities. Here, the commonly used `crystallization phase diagrams' are derived from thermodynamic excess properties and their limitations and appropriate use is discussed. PMID:25760697

  10. Sintered wire cathode

    DOEpatents

    Falce, Louis R. (San Jose, CA); Ives, R. Lawrence (Saratoga, CA)

    2009-06-09

    A porous cathode structure is fabricated from a plurality of wires which are placed in proximity to each other in elevated temperature and pressure for a sintering time. The sintering process produces the porous cathode structure which may be divided into a plurality of individual porous cathodes, one of which may be placed into a dispenser cathode support which includes a cavity for containing a work function reduction material such as BaO, CaO, and Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The work function reduction material migrates through the pores of the porous cathode from a work replenishment surface adjacent to the cavity of the dispenser cathode support to an emitting cathode surface, thereby providing a dispenser cathode which has a uniform work function and therefore a uniform electron emission.

  11. Voronoi Diagrams Without Bounding Boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, E. T. K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a technique for presenting geographic data in Voronoi diagrams without having to specify a bounding box. The method restricts Voronoi cells to points within a user-defined distance of the data points. The mathematical foundation of the approach is presented as well. The cell clipping method is particularly useful for presenting geographic data that is spread in an irregular way over a map, as for example the Dutch dialect data displayed in Figure 2. The automatic generation of reasonable cell boundaries also makes redundant a frequently used solution to this problem that requires data owners to specify region boundaries, as in Goebl (2010) and Nerbonne et al (2011).

  12. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, Guido; Lusso, Elisabeta

    2015-09-01

    We present a new method to test the cosmological model at high z, and measure the cosmological parameters, based on the non-linear correlation between UV and X-ray luminosity in quasars. While the method can be successfully tested with the data available today, a deep X-ray survey matching the future LSST and Euclid quasar catalogs is needed to achieve a high precision. Athena could provide a Hubble diagram for quasar analogous to that available today for supernovae, but extending up to z>6.

  13. [New wires and their force delivery--consequences for orthodontic therapy].

    PubMed

    Bantleon, H P; Droschl, H; Pfeiffer, K P

    1989-08-01

    Levelling arches made of stainless-steel wires were compared with nickel-titanium wires of the new generation which are distinguished by their shape memory, superelasticity and their excellent spring-back. The data received from a bending test have been analysed statistically and revealed a linear unloading curve of the twisted stainless-steel wires. The nickel-titanium wires, however, showed a clear deviation form the linearity with a curviform course. Besides the unusual unloading curve with a constant force mechanism in the middle range of deactivation the wires give off the same amount of force irrespective of the degree of activation (that is to say, regardless whether the level difference between the brackets amounts to 1 or to 4 mm). The diagram shows that the greater the activity between the brackets, the longer the period of superelasticity. Therefore the nickel-titanium wires are suited for large level differences or deflections. At a low activation rate the characteristic line takes a very steep and almost linear deactivation curve. In these cases twisted stainless steal wires should be preferred because of their lower load deflection rate and flexibility. PMID:2792985

  14. Magnetized effective QCD phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, C. A.; Hernández, L. A.; Loewe, M.; Zamora, R.

    2015-11-01

    The QCD phase diagram in the temperature vs quark chemical potential plane is studied in the presence of a magnetic field, using the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. It is shown that the decrease of the couplings with increasing field strength obtained in this model leads to the critical temperature for the phase transition to decrease with increasing field intensity (inverse magnetic catalysis). This happens provided that plasma screening is properly accounted for. It is also found that with increasing field strength the location of the critical end point in the phase diagram moves toward lower values of the critical quark chemical potential and larger values of the critical temperature. In addition, the critical end point approaches the temperature axis for large values of the magnetic field. We argue that a similar behavior is to be expected in QCD, since the physical impact of the magnetic field, regardless of strength, is to produce a spatial dimension reduction, whereby virtual quark-antiquark pairs are closer on average and thus the strength of their interaction decreases due to asymptotic freedom.

  15. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  16. Crimping: A wire fastening technique in wire chamber construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, B.; Koltick, D.; Kobayashi, M.

    1990-04-01

    The successful crimping technique for fasteninng wires individually in place, developed during the construction of the TOPAZ high-resolution vertex chamber, is described. A model of how crimping works which yeilds the parameters for successful crimping, the tools needed and their properties, results of a study of the relaxation rate for wires that have been crimped under various conditions and finally the results of applying this technique to the TOPAZ vertex chamber are presented. Wire size range from 20 to 400 μm in diameter, typically tensioned to half their breaking strength and crimped in thin-walled tubing. Applying this technique to 400 μm wires spaced only 2.0 mm apart in tubing with 160 μm walls yield upper limit tension loss rates of between 0.2% and 0.4% per year.

  17. HTS Wire: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malozemoff, A. P.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Fleshler, S.; Aized, D.; Yu, D.

    2003-04-01

    Practical, robust high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire is a composite of high temperature superconductor and metal. The composite provides many advantages, including improved mechanical properties and stability. Multi-filamentary composite fabricated with the BSCCO HTS material has achieved performance for commercial applications, and commercial price/performance is on the near horizon. This wire enables HTS applications such as power cables, marine propulsion motors, utility generators and magnets for materials processing. Coated conductor is also a composite, combining the YBCO HTS material with a metal or metal-alloy substrate; this technology is in the stage of research and development. The status and commercial prospects of these wire technologies are reviewed.

  18. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific…

  19. Exploring Verbal, Visual and Schematic Learners' Static and Dynamic Mental Images of Scientific Species and Processes in Relation to Their Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The current study compared different learners' static and dynamic mental images of unseen scientific species and processes in relation to their spatial ability. Learners were classified into verbal, visual and schematic. Dynamic images were classified into: appearing/disappearing, linear-movement, and rotation. Two types of scientific…

  20. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  1. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  2. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  3. A Regime Diagram for Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, D. R.; Farrington, R.; Capitanio, F. A.; Schellart, W. P.

    2009-12-01

    Regime diagrams and associated scaling relations have profoundly influenced our understanding of planetary dynamics. Previous regime diagrams characterized the regimes of stagnant-lid, small viscosity contrast, transitional, and no-convection for temperature-dependent (Moresi and Solomatov, 1995), and non-linear power law rheologies (Solomatov and Moresi, 1997) as well as stagnant-lid, sluggish-lid, and mobile-lid regimes once the finite strength of rock was considered (Moresi and Solomatov, 1998). Scalings derived from such models have been the cornerstone for parameterized models of thermal evolution of rocky planets and icy moons for the past decade. While such a theory can predict the tectonic state of a planetary body, it is still rather incomplete in regards to predicting tectonics. For example, the mobile-lid regime is unspecific as to how continuous lithospheric recycling should occur on a terrestrial planet. Towards this goal, Gerya et al., (2008) advanced a new regime diagram aiming to characterize when subduction would manifest itself as a one-sided or two-sided downwelling and either symmetric or asymmetric. Here, we present a regime diagram for the case of a single-sided, asymmetric type of subduction (most Earth-like type). Using a 3-D numerical model of a free subduction, we describe a total of 5 different styles of subduction that can possibly occur. Each style is distinguished by its upper mantle slab morphology resulting from the sinking kinematics. We provide movies to illustrate the different styles and their progressive time-evolution. In each regime, subduction is accommodated by a combination of plate advance and slab rollback, with associated motions of forward plate velocity and trench retreat, respectively. We demonstrate that the preferred subduction mode depends upon two essential controlling factors: 1) buoyancy of the downgoing plate and 2) strength of plate in resisting bending at the hinge. We propose that a variety of subduction regimes are generated primarily as a product of two mechanisms. The first mechanism is that of the competition between the weight of the slab and the strength of the plate, which can be understood in terms of the applied bending moment, and this competition results in a particular radius of curvature (for which we provide a simple scaling theory). The second mechanism is the interaction between the slab and the more viscous lower mantle, which produces each regime's distinct slab morphology. Thus, the emergence of five distinct styles of subduction is a direct consequence of the presence of the modest barrier to flow into the lower mantle. Although only 2 of these styles presently operate on Earth, the possibility exists that other modes may have been the predominant mode in the past. Based on these models, we propose that the lithosphere is the primary factor in describing key elements of the plate tectonics system over time, rather than the convecting mantle. We discuss the various factors that may have influenced secular changes in Earth's tectonic behavior, some of which may have interesting consequences for the geochemical evolution of the Earth.

  4. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

  5. Back to the Future: Past and Future Era-Based Schematic Support and Associative Memory for Prices in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Alan D.; McGillivray, Shannon; Worden, Kendell M.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults typically display various associative memory deficits, but these deficits can be reduced when conditions allow for the use of prior knowledge or schematic support. To determine how era-specific schematic support and future simulation might influence associative memory, we examined how younger and older adults remember prices from the past as well as the future. Younger and older adults were asked to imagine the past or future, and then studied items and prices from approximately 40 years ago (market value prices from the 1970s) or 40 years in the future. In Experiment 1, all items were common items (e.g., movie ticket, coffee) and the associated prices reflected the era in question, whereas in Experiment 2, some item-price pairs were specific to the time period (e.g., typewriter, robot maid), to test different degrees of schematic support. After studying the pairs, participants were shown each item and asked to recall the associated price. In both experiments, older adults showed similar performance as younger adults in the past condition for the common items, whereas age-related differences were greater in the future condition and for the era-specific items. The findings suggest that in order for schematic support to be effective, recent (and not simply remote) experience is needed in order to enhance memory. Thus, whereas older adults can benefit from “turning back the clock,” younger adults better remember future-oriented information compared with older adults, outlining age-related similarities and differences in associative memory and the efficient use of past and future-based schematic support. PMID:24128073

  6. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-03-03

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  7. Method of manufacturing superconductor wire

    DOEpatents

    Motowidlo, Leszek

    2014-09-16

    A method for forming Nb.sub.3Sn superconducting wire is provided. The method employs a powder-in-tube process using a high-tin intermetallic compound, such as MnSn.sub.2, for producing the Nb.sub.3Sn. The use of a high-tin intermetallic compound enables the process to perform hot extrusion without melting the high-tin intermetallic compound. Alternatively, the method may entail drawing the wire without hot extrusion.

  8. Resistivity of inhomogeneous quantum wires.

    SciTech Connect

    Rech, J.; Matveev, K. A.; Materials Science Division

    2008-02-15

    We study the effect of electron-electron interactions on the transport in an inhomogeneous quantum wire. We show that contrary to the well-known Luttinger liquid result, nonuniform interactions contribute substantially to the resistance of the wire. In the regime of weakly interacting electrons and moderately low temperatures we find a linear in T resistivity induced by the interactions. We then use the bosonization technique to generalize this result to the case of arbitrarily strong interactions.

  9. Resistivity of inhomogeneous quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Rech, Jérôme; Matveev, K A

    2008-02-15

    We study the effect of electron-electron interactions on the transport in an inhomogeneous quantum wire. We show that contrary to the well-known Luttinger liquid result, nonuniform interactions contribute substantially to the resistance of the wire. In the regime of weakly interacting electrons and moderately low temperatures we find a linear in T resistivity induced by the interactions. We then use the bosonization technique to generalize this result to the case of arbitrarily strong interactions. PMID:18352498

  10. Smart Wire Grid: Resisting Expectations

    ScienceCinema

    Ramsay, Stewart; Lowe, DeJim

    2014-04-09

    Smart Wire Grid's DSR technology (Discrete Series Reactor) can be quickly deployed on electrical transmission lines to create intelligent mesh networks capable of quickly rerouting electricity to get power where and when it's needed the most. With their recent ARPA-E funding, Smart Wire Grid has been able to move from prototype and field testing to building out a US manufacturing operation in just under a year.

  11. Satake diagrams of affine Kac Moody algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, L. K.; Pati, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    Satake diagrams of affine Kac-Moody algebras (untwisted and twisted) are obtained from their Dynkin diagrams. These diagrams give a classification of restricted root systems associated with these algebras. In the case of simple Lie algebras, these root systems and Satake diagrams correspond to symmetric spaces which have recently found many physical applications in quantum integrable systems, quantum transport problems, random matrix theories etc. We hope these types of root systems may have similar applications in theoretical physics in future and may correspond to symmetric spaces analogue of affine Kac-Moody algebras if they exist.

  12. Hydrogen in Mono-Atomic Gold Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Robert N.; Sherbakov, Andrew G.; Landman, Uzi; Hakkinen, Hannu

    2004-03-01

    Results of ab-initio scalar relativistic density functional calculations of the interaction between a mono-atomic gold wire (suspended between two gold tips) and a hydrogen molecule, at various stages of wire stretching, are presented. The hydrogen molecule does not bind to the wire until the wire is sufficiently stretched, i.e. starting to break, at which time the molecule inserts itself into the wire restoring a fraction of the conductance quantum g. With subsequent compression of the wire the axis of the molecule gradually tips away from the wire axis until it becomes "quasi-dissociated" with the H-H axis perpendicular to the wire. At this point the conductance almost vanishes, while for the bare wire the conductance at this tip-to-tip separation is close to 1g. These results, and the frequency of various vibrational modes of the hydrogen molecule, are compared with recent experimental and theoretical work involving platinum wires.

  13. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  14. Laser soldering of enameled wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhm, S.; Hemken, G.; Noack, K.

    2009-02-01

    In electrical connections with enameled copper wires, isolation material residue can be found in the solder area when the coating is not stripped. This residue can lead to mechanical and electrical problems. In electronic devices and MEMS, quality requirements increase with rising thermal requirements for electrical contacts made from enameled copper wire. Examples for this exist in the area of automotive electronics, consumer electronics and in the field of machine design. Typical products with electrical connecting which use enameled wires include: micro-phones and speakers (especially for mobile phones), coil forms, small transformers, relays, clock coils, and so on. Due to increasing thermal and electrical requirements, the manufacturer of enameled wires continuously develops new isolating materials for the improvement of isolation classes, thermal resistance, etc. When using current bonding and solder processes, there exist problems for contacting enameled copper wire with these insulation layers. Therefore the Institute of Joining and Welding, Department Micro Joining developed a laser based solder process with which enamels copper wires can enable high quality electrical connections without a preceding stripping process.

  15. HTS Wire Development Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The 1994 High-Temperature Superconducting Wire Development Workshop was held on February 16--17 at the St. Petersburg Hilton and Towers in St. Petersburg, Florida. The meeting was hosted by Florida Power Corporation and sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Program for Electric Power Systems. The meeting focused on recent high-temperature superconducting wire development activities in the Department of Energy`s Superconductivity Systems program. The meeting opened with a general discussion on the needs and benefits of superconductivity from a utility perspective, the US global competitiveness position, and an outlook on the overall prospects of wire development. The meeting then focused on four important technology areas: Wire characterization: issues and needs; technology for overcoming barriers: weak links and flux pinning; manufacturing issues for long wire lengths; and physical properties of HTS coils. Following in-depth presentations, working groups were formed in each technology area to discuss the most important current research and development issues. The working groups identified research areas that have the potential for greatly enhancing the wire development effort. These areas are discussed in the summary reports from each of the working groups. This document is a compilation of the workshop proceedings including all general session presentations and summary reports from the working groups.

  16. An investigation into the perception of dominance from schematic faces: a study using the World-Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Senior, C; Phillips, M L; Barnes, J; David, A S

    1999-05-01

    The World-Wide Web (WWW) is considered to be a viable tool for scientific research, and several investigators have already made use of it in their studies. Although the WWW allows researchers to access a vast subject pool, questions of reliability and validity need to be addressed before it is incorporated into mainstream research. By replicating, on the Internet, an existing study (Keating, Mazur, & Segall, 1977) on the perception of schematic faces, we were able to conclude that experimental work carried out in this manner is not necessarily biased by the medium. One difference from previous work was the effect of a smiling versus a nonsmiling face on the perception of dominance, given an identical brow position for the two faces. This was replicated on a different occasion with different subjects, which may represent a shift in attitudes to this facial configuration since the original study was conducted. Young North American males were overrepresented in our sample, but comparison with other surveys indicates that the population sampled by the Internet is becoming more representative. PMID:10495820

  17. A schematic representation of the professional identity formation and socialization of medical students and residents: a guide for medical educators.

    PubMed

    Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Boudreau, J Donald; Snell, Linda; Steinert, Yvonne

    2015-06-01

    Recent calls to focus on identity formation in medicine propose that educators establish as a goal of medical education the support and guidance of students and residents as they develop their professional identity. Those entering medical school arrive with a personal identity formed since birth. As they proceed through the educational continuum, they successively develop the identity of a medical student, a resident, and a physician. Each individual's journey from layperson to skilled professional is unique and is affected by "who they are" at the beginning and "who they wish to become."Identity formation is a dynamic process achieved through socialization; it results in individuals joining the medical community of practice. Multiple factors within and outside of the educational system affect the formation of an individual's professional identity. Each learner reacts to different factors in her or his own fashion, with the anticipated outcome being the emergence of a professional identity. However, the inherent logic in the related processes of professional identity formation and socialization may be obscured by their complexity and the large number of factors involved.Drawing on the identity formation and socialization literature, as well as experience gained in teaching professionalism, the authors developed schematic representations of these processes. They adapted them to the medical context to guide educators as they initiate educational interventions, which aim to explicitly support professional identity formation and the ultimate goal of medical education-to ensure that medical students and residents come to "think, act, and feel like a physician." PMID:25785682

  18. Connecting to Thermocouples with Fewer Lead Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    A simple technique has been devised to reduce the number of lead wires needed to connect an array of thermocouples to the instruments (e.g., voltmeters) used to read their output voltages. Because thermocouple wires are usually made of expensive metal alloys, reducing the number of lead wires can effect a considerable reduction in the cost of such an array. Reducing the number of wires also reduces the number of terminals and the amount of space needed to accommodate the wires.

  19. Experimental Results for Space-Wire-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkes, Steve; Gibson, David; Ferrer, Albert

    2015-09-01

    SpaceWire-D is a deterministic extension to SpaceWire that uses time-division multiplexing to schedule traffic within time-slots. It allows a single SpaceWire network to be used for both time-critical avionics control applications and asynchronous payload data-handling simultaneously using existing SpaceWire technology. In this paper we describe the services of SpaceWire-D and present experimental results for each service.

  20. Fabrication of Pd-Cr wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, Sidney; Leach, Dennen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication of Pd-13 percent Cr alloy wires is described. Melting, casting, swaging and annealing processes are discussed. Drawing to reach two diameters (0.003 inch and 0.00176 inch) of wire is described. Representative micrographs of the Pd-Cr alloy at selected stages during wire fabrication are included. The resistance of the wire was somewhat lower, by about 15 to 20 percent, than comparable wire of other alloys used for strain gages.

  1. Coulomb interaction effects on the Majorana states in quantum wires.

    PubMed

    Manolescu, A; Marinescu, D C; Stanescu, T D

    2014-04-30

    The stability of the Majorana modes in the presence of a repulsive interaction is studied in the standard semiconductor wire-metallic superconductor configuration. The effects of short-range Coulomb interaction, which is incorporated using a purely repulsive ?-function to model the strong screening effect due to the presence of the superconductor, are determined within a Hartree-Fock approximation of the effective Bogoliubov-De Gennes Hamiltonian that describes the low-energy physics of the wire. Through a numerical diagonalization procedure we obtain interaction corrections to the single particle eigenstates and calculate the extended topological phase diagram in terms of the chemical potential and the Zeeman energy. We find that, for a fixed Zeeman energy, the interaction shifts the phase boundaries to a higher chemical potential, whereas for a fixed chemical potential this shift can occur either at lower or higher Zeeman energies. These effects can be interpreted as a renormalization of the g-factor due to the interaction. The minimum Zeeman energy needed to realize Majorana fermions decreases with the increasing strength of the Coulomb repulsion. Furthermore, we find that in wires with multi-band occupancy this effect can be enhanced by increasing the chemical potential, i.e. by occupying higher energy bands. PMID:24722427

  2. Photoelastic analysis of stress generated by wires when conventional and self-ligating brackets are used: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Guilherme Caiado; Vedovello, Mário; Degan, Viviane Veroni; Santamaria, Milton

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: By means of a photoelastic model, this study analyzed the stress caused on conventional and self-ligating brackets with expanded arch wires. METHOD: Standard brackets were adhered to artificial teeth and a photoelastic model was prepared using the Interlandi 19/12 diagram as base. Successive activations were made with 0.014-in and 0.018-in rounded cross section Nickel-Titanium wires (NiTi) and 0.019 x 0.025-in rectangular stainless steel wires all of which made on 22/14 Interlandi diagram. The model was observed on a plane polariscope - in a dark field microscope configuration - and photographed at each exchange of wire. Then, they were replaced by self-ligating brackets and the process was repeated. Analysis was qualitative and observed stress location and pattern on both models analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Results identified greater stress on the region of the apex of premolars in both analyzed models. Upon comparing the stress between models, a greater amount of stress was found in the model with conventional brackets in all of its wires. Therefore, the present pilot study revealed that alignment of wires in self-ligating brackets produced lower stress in periodontal tissues in expansive mechanics. PMID:25715719

  3. Pressure-temperature phase diagrams of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Smeller, László

    2002-03-25

    The pressure-temperature phase diagram of various biomolecules is reviewed. Special attention is focused on the elliptic phase diagram of proteins. The phenomenological thermodynamic theory describing this diagram explains the heat, cold and pressure denaturations in a unified picture. The limitations and possible developments of this theory are discussed as well. It is pointed out that a more complex diagram can be obtained when the intermolecular interactions are also taken into account. In this case metastable states appear on the pressure-temperature (p-T) diagram due to intermolecular interactions. Pressure-temperature phase diagrams of other biopolymers are also discussed. While the p-T diagrams of helix-coil transition of nucleic acids and of gel-liquid crystal transition of lipid bilayers are non-elliptical, those of gelatinization of starch and of phase separation of some synthetic polymers show an elliptic profile, similar to that of proteins. Finally, the p-T diagram of bacterial inactivation is shown to be elliptic. From the point of view of basic science, this fact shows that the key factor of inactivation should be the protein type, and from the viewpoint of practical applications, it serves as the theoretical basis of pressure treatment of biosystems. PMID:11983384

  4. Vesicle deformation by microtubules: A phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Virginie; Cardoso, Olivier; Tabeling, Patrick

    1998-10-01

    The experimental investigation of vesicles deformed by the growth of encapsulated microtubules shows that the axisymmetric morphologies can be classified into ovals, lemons, φ, cherries, dumbbells, and pearls. A geometrical phase diagram is established. Numerical minimization of the elastic energy of the membrane reproduces satisfactorily well the observed morphologies and the corresponding phase diagram.

  5. Learning from Diagrams: Theoretical and Instructional Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William D.; Holliday, William G.

    The purpose of the eight studies reported in this paper was two-fold: to identify some of the relationships that exist between the unique properties of diagrams and various aspects of cognitive processes and learning, and, subsequently, to derive principles from these relationships that would direct the design and use of diagrams in the classroom.…

  6. THE QCD PHASE DIAGRAM AT FINITE DENSITY.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMIDT, C.; FODOR, Z.; KATZ, S.

    2005-07-25

    We study the density of states method to explore the phase diagram of the chiral transition on the temperature and quark chemical potential plane. Four quark flavours are used in the analysis. Though the method is quite expensive small lattices show an indication for a triple-point connecting three different phases on the phase diagram.

  7. Schematic of Mars Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The interior of Mars is simply modeled as a core and mantle with a thin crust, similar to Earth. Mars' size and total mass have been determined by previous missions. Given four parameters, the core size and mass, and mantle size and mass can be determined. The combination of Pathfinder Doppler data with earlier data from the Viking landers has determined a third parameter, the moment of inertia, through measurement of Mars' precession rate. A fourth measurement is needed to complete the interior model. This may be achieved through future Doppler tracking of Pathfinder, since the presence of a fluid core may be detectable through its effect on Mars' nutation. The determination of the moment of inertia is a significant constraint on possible models for Mars' interior. If the core is as dense as possible (i.e. completely iron) and the mantle is similar to Earth's (or similar to the SNC meteorites thought to originate on Mars) then the minimum core radius is about 1300 km. If the core is made of less-dense material (i.e. a mixture of iron and sulfur) then the core radius is probably no more than 2000 km.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  8. Phase diagrams for surface alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A.; Ruban, A. V.; Stoltze, P.; Jacobsen, K. W.; Skriver, H. L.; Nørskov, J. K.; Besenbacher, F.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss surface alloy phases and their stability based on surface phase diagrams constructed from the surface energy as a function of the surface composition. We show that in the simplest cases of pseudomorphic overlayers there are four generic classes of systems, characterized by the sign of the heat of segregation from the bulk and the sign of the excess interactions between the atoms in the surface (the surface mixing energy). We also consider the more complicated cases with ordered surface phases, nonpseudomorphic overlayers, second layer segregation, and multilayers. The discussion is based on density-functional calculations using the coherent-potential approximation and on effective-medium theory. We give self-consistent density-functional results for the segregation energy and surface mixing energy for all combinations of the transition and noble metals. Finally we discuss in detail the cases Ag/Cu(100), Pt/Cu(111), Ag/Pt(111), Co/Cu(111), Fe/Cu(111), and Pd/Cu(110) in connection with available experimental results.

  9. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  10. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  11. Plasma arc torch with coaxial wire feed

    DOEpatents

    Hooper, Frederick M

    2002-01-01

    A plasma arc welding apparatus having a coaxial wire feed. The apparatus includes a plasma arc welding torch, a wire guide disposed coaxially inside of the plasma arc welding torch, and a hollow non-consumable electrode. The coaxial wire guide feeds non-electrified filler wire through the tip of the hollow non-consumable electrode during plasma arc welding. Non-electrified filler wires as small as 0.010 inches can be used. This invention allows precision control of the positioning and feeding of the filler wire during plasma arc welding. Since the non-electrified filler wire is fed coaxially through the center of the plasma arc torch's electrode and nozzle, the wire is automatically aimed at the optimum point in the weld zone. Therefore, there is no need for additional equipment to position and feed the filler wire from the side before or during welding.

  12. A comprehensive wiring diagram of the protocerebral bridge for visual information processing in the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Yung; Chuang, Chao-Chun; Hua, Tzu-En; Chen, Chun-Chao; Dickson, Barry J; Greenspan, Ralph J; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2013-05-30

    How the brain perceives sensory information and generates meaningful behavior depends critically on its underlying circuitry. The protocerebral bridge (PB) is a major part of the insect central complex (CX), a premotor center that may be analogous to the human basal ganglia. Here, by deconstructing hundreds of PB single neurons and reconstructing them into a common three-dimensional framework, we have constructed a comprehensive map of PB circuits with labeled polarity and predicted directions of information flow. Our analysis reveals a highly ordered information processing system that involves directed information flow among CX subunits through 194 distinct PB neuron types. Circuitry properties such as mirroring, convergence, divergence, tiling, reverberation, and parallel signal propagation were observed; their functional and evolutional significance is discussed. This layout of PB neuronal circuitry may provide guidelines for further investigations on transformation of sensory (e.g., visual) input into locomotor commands in fly brains. PMID:23707064

  13. Wire chambers revisited.

    PubMed

    Ott, R J

    1993-04-01

    Detectors used for radioisotope imaging have, historically, been based on scintillating crystal/photomultiplier combinations in various forms. From the rectilinear scanner through to modern gamma cameras and positron cameras, the basic technology has remained much the same. Efforts to overcome the limitations of this form of technology have foundered on the inability to reproduce the required sensitivity, spatial resolution and sensitive area at acceptable cost. Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. As gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of "gas only" photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera. The MWPC camera produces quantitative ejection fraction information of the highest quality. The detection of higher energy gamma rays has proved more problematical, needing a solid photon-electron convertor to be incorporated into the chamber. Several groups have been working on this problem with modest success so far. The only clinical detectors have been developed for positron emission tomography, where thin lead or lead-glass can provide an acceptable convertor for 511 keV photons. Two MWPC positron cameras have been evaluated clinically and one is now in routine use in clinical oncology. The problems of detection efficiency have not been solved by these detectors although reliability and large-area PET imaging have been proven.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8491229

  14. Californium Recovery from Palladium Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Jon D.

    2014-08-01

    The recovery of 252Cf from palladium-252Cf cermet wires was investigated to determine the feasibility of implementing it into the cermet wire production operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Radiochemical Engineering Development Center. The dissolution of Pd wire in 8 M HNO3 and trace amounts of HCl was studied at both ambient and elevated temperatures. These studies showed that it took days to dissolve the wire at ambient temperature and only 2 hours at 60°C. Adjusting the ratio of the volume of solvent to the mass of the wire segment showed little change in the kinetics of dissolution, which ranged from 0.176 mL/mg down to 0.019 mL/mg. A successful chromatographic separation of 153Gd, a surrogate for 252Cf, from Pd was demonstrated using AG 50x8 cation exchange resin with a bed volume of 0.5 mL and an internal diameter of 0.8 cm.

  15. Sealed-tube synthesis and phase diagram of Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} (0 ≤ x ≤1)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ziping; Dong, Cheng; Guan, Chunlong; Yang, Lihong; Luo, Xiaoning; Li, Aolei

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: We reported a new method to prepare Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) at 600 °C in sealed tube using Li{sub 2}S aslithium source. A schematic phase diagram of the Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} system has been constructed based on the DTA and XRD data. - Abstract: We reported a new method to prepare Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) at 600 °C in sealed tube using Li{sub 2}S as lithium source. The Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and differential thermal analysis. The variations of the lattice parameters with lithium content x in Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} were determined by X-ray powder diffraction analysis for both 1T and 3R phases. The phase transition between low-temperature 1T phase and high-temperature 3R phase was confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Based on the differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction results, a schematic phase diagram of the Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} system has been constructed, providing a guideline to synthesize Li{sub x}TiS{sub 2} in 1T structure or 3R structure.

  16. Antenna coupled photonic wire lasers.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tsung-Yu; Cai, Xiaowei; Lee, Alan W M; Reno, John L; Hu, Qing

    2015-06-29

    Slope efficiency (SE) is an important performance metric for lasers. In conventional semiconductor lasers, SE can be optimized by careful designs of the facet (or the modulation for DFB lasers) dimension and surface. However, photonic wire lasers intrinsically suffer low SE due to their deep sub-wavelength emitting facets. Inspired by microwave engineering techniques, we show a novel method to extract power from wire lasers using monolithically integrated antennas. These integrated antennas significantly increase the effective radiation area, and consequently enhance the power extraction efficiency. When applied to wire lasers at THz frequency, we achieved the highest single-side slope efficiency (~450 mW/A) in pulsed mode for DFB lasers at 4 THz and a ~4x increase in output power at 3 THz compared with a similar structure without antennas. This work demonstrates the versatility of incorporating microwave engineering techniques into laser designs, enabling significant performance enhancements. PMID:26191717

  17. Wires for Shape Memory Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, R.; Vedani, M.; Gialanella, S.; Tuissi, A.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of non-conventional electrical pulse treatment on microstructure and shape memory response of Ni49Ti51 wires was studied. High-power rapid current square pulses were applied to cold-drawn wires of 25 µm diameter. The TEM microstructures showed equiaxial recrystallization, with average grain size in the 100 nm range, after a double current pulse lasting 10 ms. Rapid current pulse treatment in Ti-rich NiTi induces shape memory effect with reduced thermal hysteresis and high recovery strain values. This novel treatment might replace conventional pre-device shape setting/training of the wire with a post-device shape setting with promising industrial advantages.

  18. SchemeLens: A Content-Aware Vector-Based Fisheye Technique for Navigating Large Systems Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Cohé, Aurélie; Liutkus, Bastien; Bailly, Gilles; Eagan, James; Lecolinet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    System schematics, such as those used for electrical or hydraulic systems, can be large and complex. Fisheye techniques can help navigate such large documents by maintaining the context around a focus region, but the distortion introduced by traditional fisheye techniques can impair the readability of the diagram. We present SchemeLens, a vector-based, topology-aware fisheye technique which aims to maintain the readability of the diagram. Vector-based scaling reduces distortion to components, but distorts layout. We present several strategies to reduce this distortion by using the structure of the topology, including orthogonality and alignment, and a model of user intention to foster smooth and predictable navigation. We evaluate this approach through two user studies: Results show that (1) SchemeLens is 16-27% faster than both round and rectangular flat-top fisheye lenses at finding and identifying a targ et alng one or several paths in a network diagram; (2) augmenting SchemeLens with a model of user intentions aids in learning the network topology. PMID:26390464

  19. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akutsu, Noriko

    2016-03-01

    Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT) zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model) on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL), which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → ) . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111) surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the <101> direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  20. Human life support during interplanetary travel and domicile. VI - Generic modular flow schematic for hybrid physical/chemical-biological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Seshan, P. K.; Ferrall, Joseph; Rohatgi, Naresh

    1992-01-01

    An extension is proposed for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative's Generic Modular Flow Schematics for physical/chemical life support systems which involves the addition of biological processes. The new system architecture includes plant, microbial, and animal habitat, as well as the human habitat subsystem. Major Feedstock Production and Food Preparation and Packaging components have also been incorporated. Inedible plant, aquaculture, microbial, and animal solids are processed for recycling.

  1. The amplituhedron from momentum twistor diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuntao; He, Song

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new diagrammatic formulation of the all-loop scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops in planar = 4 SYM, dubbed the "momentum-twistor diagrams". These are on-shell-diagrams obtained by gluing trivalent black and white vertices in momentum twistor space, which, in the reduced diagram case, are known to be related to diagrams in the original twistor space. The new diagrams are manifestly Yangian invariant, and they naturally represent factorization and forward-limit contributions in the all-loop BCFW recursion relations in momentum twistor space, in a fashion that is completely different from those in momentum space. We show how to construct and evaluate momentum-twistor diagrams, and how to use them to obtain tree-level amplitudes and loop-level integrands; in particular the latter involve isolated bubble-structures for loop variables arising from forward limits, or the entangled removal of particles. From each diagram, the generalized "boundary measurement" directly gives the C, D matrices, thus a cell in the amplituhedron associated with the amplitude, and we expect that our diagrammatic representations of the amplitude provide triangulations of the amplituhedron. To demonstrate the computational power of the formalism, we give explicit results for general two-loop integrands, and the cells of the amplituhedron for two-loop MHV amplitudes.

  2. Peculiarities of Wire Array Implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Volkov, G. S.; Grabovski, E. V.; Zaitsev, V. I.; Zukakishvili, G. G.; Medovschikov, S. F.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Nedoseev, S. L.; Oleinik, G. M.; Porofeev, I. Yu.; Samokhin, A. A.; Sasorov, P. V.; Smirnov, V. P.; Frolov, I. N.; Fedulov, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    The results of the experiments on Z-pinch produced from wire arrays performed on the facility Angara-5-1 are presented. The models of liner implosion, i.e. prolonged plasma production have found their confirmation. Estimation based on our experimental data show that W wire cores are heterogeneous. The velocity of core expansion is determined by energy deposited at the first nanoseconds after current start. The effect of the inner array on the current distribution in the region between the arrays has been revealed. The «lost mass » was measured at initial radius of array at the moment of X-ray pulse maximum.

  3. Charge transport along proton wires.

    PubMed

    Karahka, Markus Leopold; Kreuzer, Hans Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Using density functional theory we look at the quantum mechanics of charge transport along water wires both with free ends and donor/acceptor terminated. With the intermediate geometries in the DFT iterations we can follow the charge transfer mechanism and also construct the energy landscape explicitly. It shows activation barriers when a proton is transferred from one water molecule to the next. This, together with snapshots of intermediate geometries, leads to a justification and further elucidation of the Grotthuss mechanism and the Bjerrum effect. The charge transfer times and the conductivity of the proton wire are obtained in agreement with experimental results. PMID:24706126

  4. Designing potentials by sculpturing wires

    SciTech Connect

    Della Pietra, Leonardo; Aigner, Simon; Groth, Soenke; Hagen, Christoph von; Schmiedmayer, Joerg; Bar-Joseph, Israel; Lezec, Henri J.

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic trapping potentials for atoms on atom chips are determined by the current flow in the chip wires. By modifying the shape of the conductor we can realize specialized current flow patterns and therefore microdesign the trapping potentials. We have demonstrated this by nano-machining an atom chip using the focused ion beam technique. We built a trap, a barrier, and using a Bose-Einstein Condensate as a probe we showed that by polishing the conductor edge the potential roughness on the selected wire can be reduced. Furthermore, we give different other designs and discuss the creation of a one-dimensional magnetic lattice on an atom chip.

  5. Wire Detection Algorithms for Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia I.

    2002-01-01

    In this research we addressed the problem of obstacle detection for low altitude rotorcraft flight. In particular, the problem of detecting thin wires in the presence of image clutter and noise was studied. Wires present a serious hazard to rotorcrafts. Since they are very thin, their detection early enough so that the pilot has enough time to take evasive action is difficult, as their images can be less than one or two pixels wide. Two approaches were explored for this purpose. The first approach involved a technique for sub-pixel edge detection and subsequent post processing, in order to reduce the false alarms. After reviewing the line detection literature, an algorithm for sub-pixel edge detection proposed by Steger was identified as having good potential to solve the considered task. The algorithm was tested using a set of images synthetically generated by combining real outdoor images with computer generated wire images. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated both, at the pixel and the wire levels. It was observed that the algorithm performs well, provided that the wires are not too thin (or distant) and that some post processing is performed to remove false alarms due to clutter. The second approach involved the use of an example-based learning scheme namely, Support Vector Machines. The purpose of this approach was to explore the feasibility of an example-based learning based approach for the task of detecting wires from their images. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) have emerged as a promising pattern classification tool and have been used in various applications. It was found that this approach is not suitable for very thin wires and of course, not suitable at all for sub-pixel thick wires. High dimensionality of the data as such does not present a major problem for SVMs. However it is desirable to have a large number of training examples especially for high dimensional data. The main difficulty in using SVMs (or any other example-based learning method) is the need for a very good set of positive and negative examples since the performance depends on the quality of the training set.

  6. Algorithmic Identification for Wings in Butterfly Diagrams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, E. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. Two algorithms of cluster analysis, namely DBSCAN and C-means, have demonstrated their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Here we generalize the method for continuous tracers, give results concerning the migration velocities and presented clusters for 12 - 20 cycles.

  7. Quality control of microelectronic wire bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiel, R. A.; Schmidt, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Report evaluates ultrasonic bonding of small-diameter aluminum wire joined to ceramic substrates metalized with thin-film and thick-film gold. Quick testing technique for nondestructive location of poor wire bonds is also presented.

  8. Preparation and properties of amorphous wires

    SciTech Connect

    Ogasawara, I.; Ueno, S.

    1995-03-01

    Amorphous magnetostrictive Fe-Si-B and Co-Fe-Si-B various diameters were prepared by in-rotating-water spinning method. Magnetic properties of as-quenched wires and their domain wall propagation characteristics were investigated. All as-quenched amorphous wires show reentrant flux reversal. The critical field of reverse domain nucleation H* decreases with increasing wire diameter. The ratio of B{sub r} to B{sub s} Is almost constant at about 0.45 for as-quenched amorphous wires. The critical length for re-entrant flux reversal linearly increases with Increasing wire diameter, which reflects the effect of the demagnetizing field or the wire. The domain wall mobility of as-quenched amorphous wire is linearly related to the reciprocal of wire diameter.

  9. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  10. 49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conductor shall be of sufficient conductivity and shall be maintained in such condition to ensure proper... single duplex wire with single plug acting as fouling wires is prohibited. Existing installations...

  11. Evaluation of high temperature stranded hookup wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, J. H.; Moore, H. J., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Tests are performed on wire and insulation materials to determine selection for electronic space assemblies. Wire characteristics of tensile strength, flexibility, conductivity, and general workability are tested. Knowledge of the advantages and limitations of these materials should prevent overspecification.

  12. 49 CFR 234.231 - Fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conductor shall be of sufficient conductivity and shall be maintained in such condition to ensure proper... single duplex wire with single plug acting as fouling wires is prohibited. Existing installations...

  13. New insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slenski, George

    1994-01-01

    Outlined in this presentation is the background to insulation constructions for aerospace wiring applications, the Air Force wiring policy, the purpose and contract requirements of new insulation constructions, the test plan, and the test results.

  14. Electrical wire insulation and electromagnetic coil

    DOEpatents

    Bich, George J.; Gupta, Tapan K.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic coil for high temperature and high radiation application in which glass is used to insulate the electrical wire. A process for applying the insulation to the wire is disclosed which results in improved insulation properties.

  15. Wire Capture Programs for Macintosh and IBM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Gale

    1989-01-01

    Discusses wire capture programs (computer programs which gather and process wire services such as the Associated Press or United Press) for computer labs in journalism departments. Describes details of such programs for Macintosh, IBM, and IBM clones. (SR)

  16. A Hubble Diagram for Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.; Lusso, E.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method to test the ΛCDM cosmological model and to estimate cosmological parameters based on the nonlinear relation between the ultraviolet and X-ray luminosities of quasars. We built a data set of 1138 quasars by merging several samples from the literature with X-ray measurements at 2 keV and SDSS photometry, which was used to estimate the extinction-corrected 2500 Å flux. We obtained three main results: (1) we checked the nonlinear relation between X-ray and UV luminosities in small redshift bins up to z˜ 6, confirming that the relation holds at all redshifts with the same slope; (2) we built a Hubble diagram for quasars up to z˜ 6, which is well matched to that of supernovae in the common z = 0-1.4 redshift interval and extends the test of the cosmological model up to z˜ 6; and (3) we showed that this nonlinear relation is a powerful tool for estimating cosmological parameters. Using the present data and assuming a ΛCDM model, we obtain {{{Ω }}}M = 0.22{}-0.08+0.10 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.92{}-0.30+0.18 ({{{Ω }}}M = 0.28 ± 0.04 and {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }} = 0.73 +/- 0.08 from a joint quasar-SNe fit). Much more precise measurements will be achieved with future surveys. A few thousand SDSS quasars already have serendipitous X-ray observations from Chandra or XMM-Newton, and at least 100,000 quasars with UV and X-ray data will be made available by the extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array all-sky survey in a few years. The Euclid, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics surveys will further increase the sample size to at least several hundred thousand. Our simulations show that these samples will provide tight constraints on the cosmological parameters and will allow us to test for possible deviations from the standard model with higher precision than is possible today.

  17. Phase diagram of the Z3 parafermionic chain with chiral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Ye; Changlani, Hitesh J.; Tubman, Norm M.; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2015-07-01

    Parafermions are exotic quasiparticles with non-Abelian fractional statistics that can be realized and stabilized in one-dimensional models that are generalizations of the Kitaev p -wave wire. We study the simplest generalization, i.e., the Z3 parafermionic chain. Using a Jordan-Wigner transform we focus on the equivalent three-state chiral clock model, and study its rich phase diagram using the density matrix renormalization group technique. We perform our analyses using quantum entanglement diagnostics which allow us to determine phase boundaries, and the nature of the phase transitions. In particular, we study the transition between the topological and trivial phases, as well as to an intervening incommensurate phase which appears in a wide region of the phase diagram. The phase diagram is predicted to contain a Lifshitz type transition which we confirm using entanglement measures. We also attempt to locate and characterize a putative tricritical point in the phase diagram where the three above mentioned phases meet at a single point.

  18. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Protraction Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...

  19. Magnet-wire wrapping tool for integrated circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    Wire-dispensing tool which resembles mechanical pencil is used to wrap magnet wire around integrated circuit terminals uniformly and securely without damaging insulative coating on wire. Tool is hand-held and easily manipulated to execute wire wrapping movements.

  20. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  1. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  2. Shape-Memory Wires Switch Rotary Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, Myron J.

    1992-01-01

    Thermomechanical rotary actuator based on shape-memory property of alloy composed of equal parts of titanium and nickel. If alloy stretched while below transition temperature, it reverts to original length when heated above transition temperature. Two capstans on same shaft wrapped with shape-memory wires. As one wire heated, it contracts and stretches opposite wire. Wires heated in alternation so they switch shaft between two extreme angular positions; "on" and "off" positions of rotary valve.

  3. Further Studies Of Hot-Wire Anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Robert; Logan, Pamela; Bershader, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses factors affecting readings of hot-wire anemometer in turbulent supersonic boundary layer. Represents extension of work described in "Hot-Wire Anemometry Versus Laser-Induced Fluorescence" (ARC-11802). Presents theoretical analysis of responses of hot-wire probe to changes in flow; also compares measurements by hot-wire probe with measurements of same flows by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF).

  4. Moving Large Wiring-Harness Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Samuel D.; Gurman, Isaac

    1990-01-01

    Carrier for wiring-harness fabrication boards enables lone operator to move board easily and safely. Holds harness while operator fabricating, while being stored, and being transported to equipment frame for mounting. When positioned for assembly of wiring harness, board and carrier give operator easy and convenient access to wires and cables, when positioned for transfer of wiring harness to or from storage area, carrier holds board securely while moved by one person.

  5. Different mechanical properties in Seldinger guide wires

    PubMed Central

    Schummer, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Most central venous catheters are placed using Seldinger guide wires. EN ISO 11070 is the guideline for testing guide wire flexing performance and tensile strength, and we can safely assume that guide wires in use meet these requirements. Unfortunately, EN ISO 11070 guidelines do not reflect the clinical requirements and we continue to see mechanical failures and their associated complications. Material and Methods: This in vitro study was performed in an accredited laboratory. With regard to flexing, we: (1) Established the minimum flexing performance needed to meet clinical requirements, (2) developed flexing performance tests which mimic clinical requirement, and (3) evaluated the mechanical properties of various guide wires relative to these requirements. With regard to tensile strength, we used the testing method prescribed in ISO 11070, but did not end the test at 5 Newton (N). We continued until the guide wire was damaged, or we reached maximum tractive force. We then did a wire-to-wire comparison. We examined two basic wire constructions, monofil and core and coil. Results: Tensile strength: All wires tested, except one, met EN ISO 11070 requirements for 5 N tensile strength. The mean of the wire types tested ranged from 15.06 N to 257.76 N. Flexing performance: None of the wires kinked. The monofil had no evidence of bending. Two core/coil wires displayed minor bending (angle 1.5°). All other wires displayed bending angles between 22.5° and 43.0°. Conclusion: We recommend that: (1) Clinicians use guide wires with high-end mechanical properties, (2) EN ISO 11070 incorporate our flexing test into their testing method, raise the flexing requirement to kink-proof, (3) and raise the tensile strength requirement to a minimum of 30 N, and (3) all manufacturers and suppliers be required to display mechanical properties of all guide wire, and guide wire kits sold. PMID:26702209

  6. REACH. Residential Electrical Wiring Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansley, Jimmy; Ennis, Mike

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of residential electrical wiring. The instructional units focus on grounded outlets, service entrance, and blueprint reading. Each unit follows a typical format…

  7. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  8. Vocational Preparation Curriculum: Electrical Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usoro, Hogan

    This document is a curriculum guide for instructors teaching vocational preparation for electrical wiring to special needs students. The purpose of the curriculum guide is to provide minimum skills for disadvantaged and handicapped students entering the mainstream; to supplement vocational skills of those students already in a regular training…

  9. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  10. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation deals with the use of carbon nanotubes as a transport system. Contact, defects, tubular bend, phonons, and mechanical deformations all contribute to reflection within the nanotube wire. Bragg reflection, however, is native to an ideal energy transport system. Transmission resistance depends primarily on the level of energy present. Finally, the details regarding coupling between carbon nanotubes and simple metals are presented.

  11. Health care's 100 most wired.

    PubMed

    Solovy, A; Serb, C

    1999-02-01

    They're wired all right, and America's 100 most techno-savvy hospitals and health systems share one more thing: a commitment to using technology to link with employees, patients, suppliers, and insurers. "We want to be a health care travel agency for our community," says one chief information officer. "And we see Internet technology as a key." PMID:10081454

  12. Plated wire random access memories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouldin, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

  13. Veitch diagram plotter simplifies Boolean functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. K.

    1964-01-01

    This device for simplifying the plotting of a Veitch diagram consists of several overlays for blocking out the unwanted squares. This method of plotting the various input combinations to a computer is used in conjunction with the Boolean functions.

  14. Some Geometric Aspects of the Ternary Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, G. M.; Watson, D. F.

    1989-01-01

    Uses the process of normalization in the Cartesian coordinate system which entails radial projection onto a transect to compare different compositions of minerals. Warns that the ternary diagram should not be used as a framework for calculations. (MVL)

  15. A Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn; Miyake, Robert; Dodge, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes a Smart Thermal Block Diagram Tool. It is used by JPL's Team X in studying missions during the Pre-Phase A. It helps generate cost and mass estimates using proprietary data bases.

  16. A Phase Diagram for Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Winter, Lisa; Pernak, Rick

    2015-04-01

    Using the data from the NOAA/GOES X-ray observations of ~50,000 flares, we develop a Phase Diagram for solar flares. Such a Solar Flare Phase Diagram helps to trace the underlying energy structure of solar flares, and provides a prediction framework. The temperature (maximum ratio of short (0.5 - 4 A) to long band (1-8 A) band) and background solar x-ray radiation (at 1-8 A band) forms the basis of the phase diagram. Using the phase diagram and relevant statistical analysis, we derive insights into the eruptive nature of flares during the solar-cycle ramp (ramp up to and ramp down from solar maximum) phases and peak phase of the solar cycle.

  17. An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

    1989-01-01

    Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)

  18. [Super-elastic wire used in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Laino, A; Boscaino, F; Michelotti, A

    1990-01-01

    The Authors describe the unusual super-elastic property of the Japanese NiTi alloy wire. They examine the clinical applications in relation to the relatively constant force delivered during the deactivation and in relation to the new possibility to shape wire which are offered by the Archmate Wire Bender. PMID:2074888

  19. Customised 2G HTS wire for applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilenkov, S.; Molodyk, A.; Lee, S.; Petrykin, V.; Kalitka, V.; Martynova, I.; Makarevich, A.; Markelov, A.; Moyzykh, M.; Blednov, A.

    2016-02-01

    Reproducibility of superconducting properties and suitability for specific applications by means of customised finish are two important attributes required from commercial 2G HTS wire. This paper reviews the consistent performance of SuperOx production 2G HTS wire and describes two novel customisation options: surround polyimide varnish insulation and composite bulk materials assembled with 2G HTS wires soldered together.

  20. Home and School Technology: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of informal research on smart homes and appliances, structured home wiring, whole-house audio/video distribution, hybrid cable, and wireless networks. Computer network wiring is tricky to install unless all-in-one jacketed cable is used. Wireless phones help installers avoid pre-wiring problems in homes and schools. (MLH)

  1. 30 CFR 57.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires. 57.12047 Section 57.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12047 Guy wires. Guy wires of...

  2. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A method and a computer program are presented to calculate probability of system success from an arbitrary reliability block diagram. The class of reliability block diagrams that can be handled include any active/standby combination of redundancy, and the computations include the effects of dormancy and switching in any standby redundancy. The mechanics of the program are based on an extension of the probability tree method of computing system probabilities.

  3. A universal structured-design diagramer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Program (FLOWCHARTER) generates standardized flowcharts and concordances for development and debugging of programs in any language. User describes programming-language grammar, providing syntax rules in Backus-Naur form (BNF), list of semantic rules, and set of concordance rules. Once grammar is described, user supplies only source code of program to be diagrammed. FLOWCHARTER automatically produces flow diagram and concordance. Source code for program is written for PASCAL Release 2 compiler, as distributed by University of Minnesota.

  4. An analysis of Newton's projectile diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topper, D.; Vincent, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    Newton's famous mountain projectile diagram, reproduced in countless science books, is analysed in detail - mathematically, graphically, and historically - perhaps for the first time. A study of the relationship between this diagram from Newton's On the System of the World and the written texts on projectile motion in this book and in the Principia reveals an ambiguity in Newton's presentation. We propose an explanation of the ambiguity based on an exploration of its roots in Newton's thought.

  5. Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2008-10-13

    Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.

  6. Preliminary Study of Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengrant, David; Mzoughi, Taha

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we present a new representation to help students learn about momentum, impulse and conservation of momentum which we call an Impulse-Momentum Diagram. We include a description of this diagram as well as examples of how instructors can use them in the classroom. Next we present preliminary quantitative and qualitative data of a study we conducted where students used these representations. Our final analysis shows how students benefited from these representations.

  7. Class diagram based evaluation of software performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Huong V.; Nguyen, Binh N.

    2013-03-01

    The evaluation of software performance in the early stages of the software life cycle is important and it has been widely studied. In the software model specification, class diagram is the important object-oriented software specification model. The measures based on a class diagram have been widely studied to evaluate quality of software such as complexity, maintainability, reuse capability, etc. However the software performance evaluation based on Class model has not been widely studied, especially for object-oriented design of embedded software. Therefore, in this paper we propose a new approach to directly evaluate the software performance based on class diagrams. From a class diagram, we determine the parameters which are used to evaluate and build formula of the measures such as Size of Class Variables, Size of Class Methods, Size of Instance Variables, Size of Instance Methods, etc. Then, we do analysis of the dependence of performance on these measures and build the performance evaluation function from class diagram. Thereby we can choose the best class diagram based on this evaluation function.

  8. Pressure-enthalpy diagrams for alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Kruse, H.

    1996-10-01

    Thermodynamic diagrams, particularly log(p)-h diagrams, have become very convenient tools for refrigeration and air-conditioning industries. To promote alternative refrigerants-related development and application, it is urgently required to provide the industries with reliable engineering diagrams for the most promising candidate refrigerants. A computer program has been developed for automatically producing log(p)-h diagrams for alternative refrigerants. The Lee Kesler Ploecker (LKP) equation of state has been used to calculate thermodynamic data. Some modifications have been made to the LKP to improve the calculation convergency. In this paper three sample diagrams for R134a, a binary R410A and a ternary R407B which have been enclosed and analyzed. To investigate the LKP calculation accuracy details, an extensive deviation analysis has been made for R134a. For mixed refrigerants, good calculation accuracy was achieved by optimizing the binary interactive parameters. The system can produce log(p)-h diagrams with reliable accuracy, high quality, and flexibility to meet any size and color requirements.

  9. Frequency response in short thermocouple wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, L. J.; Meeks, E. L.; Ma, J.; Fralick, G. C.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical expressions are derived for the steady state frequency response of a thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for a nonuniform wire with unequal material properties and wire diameters across the junction. The amplitude ratio at low frequency omega approaches 0 agrees with the results of Scadron and Warshawsky (1952) for a steady state temperature distribution. Moreover, the frequency response for a nonuniform wire in the limit of infinite length l approaches infinity is shown to reduce to a simple expression that is analogous to the classic first order solution for a thermocouple wire with uniform properties. Theoretical expressions are also derived for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire and a two material wire with unequal material properties across the junction. For the case of a one material supported wire, an exact solution is derived which compares favorably with an approximate expression that only matches temperatures at the support junction. Moreover, for the case of a two material supported wire, an analytical expression is derived that closely correlates numerical results. Experimental measurements are made for the steady state frequency response of a supported thermocouple wire. In particular, the effects of axial heat conduction are demonstrated for both a supported one material wire (type K) and a two material wire (type T) with unequal material properties across the junction. The data for the amplitude ratio and phase angle are correlated to within 10 pct. with the theoretical predictions of Forney and Fralick (1991). This is accomplished by choosing a natural frequency omega sub n for the wire data to correlate the first order response at large gas temperature frequencies. It is found that a large bead size, however, will increase the amplitude ratio at low frequencies but decrease the natural frequency of the wire. The phase angle data are also distorted for imperfect junctions.

  10. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  11. Wiring Viterbi decoders (splitting deBruijn graphs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, O.; Pollara, F.; Dolinar, S.; Statman, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new Viterbi decoder, capable of decoding convolutional codes with constraint lengths up to 15, is under development for the Deep Space Network (DSN). A key feature of this decoder is a two-level partitioning of the Viterbi state diagram into identical subgraphs. The larger subgraphs correspond to circuit boards, while the smaller subgraphs correspond to Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) chips. The full decoder is built from identical boards, which in turn are built from identical chips. The resulting system is modular and hierarchical. The decoder is easy to implement, test, and repair because it uses a single VLSI chip design and a single board design. The partitioning is completely general in the sense that an appropriate number of boards or chips may be wired together to implement a Viterbi decoder of any size greater than or equal to the size of the module.

  12. Printed wiring board design and manufacture in Electronic Instrumentation Department 8450

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.J.; Schoeppe, H.E.; Franssen, R.L.; Kirchner, G.W. )

    1991-05-01

    In order to successfully and efficiently produce printed wiring boards, the full progression from design concept through fabrication must be understood. Within Department 8450, this includes the utilization of Valid Logic Systems Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools to perform schematic capture, circuit simulation, and board layout. If the appropriate functions are not performed in the proper sequence, or if the essential materials are not available when needed, the time required to produce a printed wiring board will grow inordinately. This report details the process flow within Department 8450, starting with the initial design requirements and concluding with a completely fabricated and tested circuit board. Recommendations for improving the system are also presented. Design are manufacturing considerations that impact the process are identified, as are the input and output requirements for each stage. With this information as a guide, a design engineer will be able to utilize the CAE tools available for circuit board design more effectively and minimize the time interval from concept to final product. 10 figs.

  13. Plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittenden, J. P.; Lebedev, S. V.; Ruiz-Camacho, J.; Beg, F. N.; Bland, S. N.; Jennings, C. A.; Bell, A. R.; Haines, M. G.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.

    2000-04-01

    Plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinches is modeled using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics code. Modified Thomas-Fermi equations of state and dense plasma transport coefficients allow the phase transitions from solid to plasma to be approximated. Results indicate the persistence of a two-component structure with a cold, dense core embedded within a much hotter, low density, m=0 unstable corona. Extensive benchmark testing against data from a number of single-wire experiments is presented. Artificial laser schlieren and x-ray back-lighting images generated from the code data are compared directly to experimental results. The results were found to be insensitive to inaccuracies in the equations of state and transport coefficients. Simulations of individual wires in a wire array show different behavior to that observed experimentally due to the absence of three-dimensional effects. Simulations with similar conditions to wires in an array show a general trend in the plasma structure at start of implosion from discrete wires with large m=0 perturbation amplitudes to partially merged wires with smaller perturbation amplitudes as the number of wires is increased. Results for a wire number scan with aluminum wire arrays on the SATURN generator suggest that the observed sharp transition to high x-ray power at around 40 wires corresponds to a sharp decrease in m=0 perturbation amplitude and hence a sharp decrease in the seed perturbation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  14. SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, S.; Parkes, S. M.; O'Gribin, N.

    2007-08-01

    The SpaceWire standard was published in 2003 with the aim of providing a standard for onboard communications, defining the physical and data link layers of an interconnection, in order to improve reusability, reliability and to reduce the cost of mission development. The many benefits which it provides mean that it has already been used in a number of missions, both in Europe and throughout the world. Recent work by the SpaceWire community has included the development of higher level protocols for SpaceWire, such as the Remote Memory Access Protocol (RMAP) which can be used for many purposes, including the configuration of SpaceWire devices. Although SpaceWire has become very popular, the various ways in which it can be used are still being discovered, as are the most efficient ways to use it. At the same time, some in the space industry are not even aware of SpaceWire's existence. This paper describes the SpaceWire Data Handling Demonstration System that has been developed by the University of Dundee. This system simulates an onboard data handling network based on SpaceWire. It uses RMAP for all communication, and so demonstrates how SpaceWire and standardised higher level protocols can be used onboard a spacecraft. The system is not only a good advert for those who are unfamiliar with the benefits of SpaceWire, it is also a useful tool for those using SpaceWire to test ideas.

  15. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  16. NASA wiring for space applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulze, Norman

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program and its relationship to NASA's space technology enterprise is given in viewgraph format. The mission of the space technology enterprise is to pioneer, with industry, the development and use of space technology to secure national economic competitiveness, promote industrial growth, and to support space missions. The objectives of the NASA Wiring for Space Applications Program is to improve the safety, performance, and reliability of wiring systems for space applications and to develop improved wiring technologies for NASA flight programs and commercial applications. Wiring system failures in space and commercial applications have shown the need for arc track resistant wiring constructions. A matrix of tests performed versus wiring constructions is presented. Preliminary data indicate the performance of the Tensolite and Filotex hybrid constructions are the best of the various candidates.

  17. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  18. Reduced-Wiring Tactile Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy R.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed tactile sensor on robot finger puts out multiplexed analog signals transmitted to control computer on fewer wires than needed to transmit equivalent digital signals. Analog output represents data on contact area of object being gripped, on position of object, and on direction and rate of slippage if any. Consists of chains of normally open switches and resistors on surface of finger. Each resistance double preceding resistance in each chain. Constant-current sources supply power to chains.

  19. Non-planar on-shell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Penante, Brenda; Wen, Congkao

    2015-06-01

    We initiate a systematic study of non-planar on-shell diagrams in SYM and develop powerful technology for doing so. We introduce canonical variables generalizing face variables, which make the d log form of the on-shell form explicit. We make significant progress towards a general classification of arbitrary on-shell diagrams by means of two classes of combinatorial objects: generalized matching and matroid polytopes. We propose a boundary measurement that connects general on-shell diagrams to the Grassmannian. Our proposal exhibits two important and non-trivial properties: positivity in the planar case and it matches the combinatorial description of the diagrams in terms of generalized matroid polytopes. Interestingly, non-planar diagrams exhibit novel phenomena, such as the emergence of constraints on Plücker coordinates beyond Plücker relations when deleting edges, which are neatly captured by the generalized matching and matroid polytopes. This behavior is tied to the existence of a new type of poles in the on-shell form at which combinations of Plücker coordinates vanish. Finally, we introduce a prescription, applicable beyond the MHV case, for writing the on-shell form as a function of minors directly from the graph.

  20. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  1. Students' Understanding of Diagrams for Solving Word Problems: A Framework for Assessing Diagram Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Apryl L.; van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A visual representation, such as a diagram, can be a powerful strategy for solving mathematical word problems. However, using a representation to solve mathematical word problems is not as simple as it seems! Many students with learning disabilities struggle to use a diagram effectively and efficiently. This article provides a framework for…

  2. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  3. Students' Understanding of Diagrams for Solving Word Problems: A Framework for Assessing Diagram Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Apryl L.; van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A visual representation, such as a diagram, can be a powerful strategy for solving mathematical word problems. However, using a representation to solve mathematical word problems is not as simple as it seems! Many students with learning disabilities struggle to use a diagram effectively and efficiently. This article provides a framework for…

  4. New Pinning Strategies for Second-Generation Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, VF; Li, Q; Rupich, M; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP

    2013-06-01

    In the last several years, second-generation (2G) superconducting wires have been considered for applications in rotating machines operating in the 20-40 K temperature range in 1-3 T magnetic fields. Here, we outline several novel strategies for improving the low-temperature performance of second-generation wires by utilizing the in-plane strain of thick YBCO layers manufactured by the reel-to-reel metal-organic deposition (MOD) method. First, we show that he strain-induced pinning mechanism analysis, based on the Eshelby model of the elastically-strained composites, predicts that small YBCO grain size is a critical component of a strong pinning architecture. Second, we describe how the in-plane strain can be controlled by processing parameters. Systematic changes of the in-plane structure and YBCO grain size are mapped with respect to the YBCO stability line and the Cu2O-CuO line on the Bormann-Hammond diagram. It is demonstrated that the optimum critical current density is the result of a trade-off between YBCO grain coupling and the strain-induced pinning.

  5. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  6. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  7. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  8. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  9. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  10. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  11. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  12. Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram

  13. Wiring the new COMPASS Drift Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medlock, Lacey; Compass Dc5 Team

    2014-09-01

    COMPASS, a fixed-target experiment at CERN, will examine the first ever polarized Drell-Yan events that may illuminate how the quark angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. A new drift chamber must be constructed to replace an older straw chamber that is currently in use. In order to construct the drift chamber 4616 gold-plated tungsten wires are used, half are 100 micron (field wires) which provide an electrical field and half are 20 micron (sense wires) which measure position. Because of the difference in wire width, two very different stringing techniques had to be developed. The 20 micron sense wire was too fragile and thin to be handled in the same manner as the 100 micron field wire, so different tools had to be used in order to ensure the stability and efficacy of the chamber. Additionally, different soldering techniques had to be used for the two different types of wires to guarantee both that the field wires did not slip out of their solder joints during the process of stringing the sense wires and that both types of wires had smooth, even solder joints that would not require repair. This poster will detail several aspects of wire stringing, including how to string different widths of wire and how to overcome difficulties arising from using two different types of wire during the stringing process. COMPASS, a fixed-target experiment at CERN, will examine the first ever polarized Drell-Yan events that may illuminate how the quark angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. A new drift chamber must be constructed to replace an older straw chamber that is currently in use. In order to construct the drift chamber 4616 gold-plated tungsten wires are used, half are 100 micron (field wires) which provide an electrical field and half are 20 micron (sense wires) which measure position. Because of the difference in wire width, two very different stringing techniques had to be developed. The 20 micron sense wire was too fragile and thin to be handled in the same manner as the 100 micron field wire, so different tools had to be used in order to ensure the stability and efficacy of the chamber. Additionally, different soldering techniques had to be used for the two different types of wires to guarantee both that the field wires did not slip out of their solder joints during the process of stringing the sense wires and that both types of wires had smooth, even solder joints that would not require repair. This poster will detail several aspects of wire stringing, including how to string different widths of wire and how to overcome difficulties arising from using two different types of wire during the stringing process. This research was supported in part by the DOE under Grant Number DE-FG03-94ER40860.

  14. The Butterfly diagram leopard skin pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    A time-latitude diagram where spotgroups are given proportional relevance to their area is presented. The diagram reveals that the spotted area distribution is higly dishomogeneous, most of it being concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the Butterfly Diagram; because of this structure, the BD may be properly described as a cluster of knots. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is challenged. Indeed, spots cluster around at as many latitudes as knots; a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the activity splits, in any hemisphere, into two or more distinct ``activity waves'', drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  15. Method and apparatus for laying wire arrays

    DOEpatents

    Horowitz, Seymour M.; Nesbitt, Dale D.

    1986-01-01

    Wire arrays (11) having a continuous wire (12) which is formed into a predetermined pattern and adhered to a backing material or substrate (13) are fabricated by applying adhesive material (16a, 16b) along opposite edge portions (17, 18) of the substrate, positioning a row of winding spools (21) along each of the edge portions and repeatedly extending the wire between and around successive spools at the opposite edge portions. The wound wire is then traveled along each spool toward the substrate and into contact with the adhesive. The spools are then removed and a coating of hardenable material (54) is applied to secure the wound wire to the substrate. Tension in the wire is relieved prior to contact of the wire with the adhesive and a small amount of slack is introduced into the wire before the final coating step. Mechanism (32) is provided for lifting the spools away from the substrate without disturbing the wound wire. The method and apparatus enable manufacture of precisely configured wire arrays without complex or costly equipment and do not require structural alterations in the substrate for the purpose of accommodating to fabrication equipment.

  16. Analysis of Conical Wire Array Z-Pinch Stability with a Center Wire

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, D.; Presura, R.; Wright, S.; Plechaty, C.; Neff, S.; Wanex, L.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2009-01-21

    Adding a center wire on the axis of a conical wire array produces conditions suitable for studying shear flow stabilization of the Z-pinch. The conical wire array produces and axial plasma flow while the center wire introduces a radial variation of the axial velocity. Experiments of this array configuration were preformed on the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch generator and showed stabilization of the kink instability when a center wire was present. Comparison with equivalent cylindrical wire arrays indicates that the shear flow stabilization plays a role in the stabilization of the kink instability.

  17. Thermal energy scavenger (rotating wire modules)

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, P.A.; Milton, H.W.; Pringle, W.L.

    1980-11-04

    A thermal energy scavenger assembly is is described including a plurality of temperature-sensitive wires made of material which exhibits shape memory due to a thermoelastic, martensitic phase transformation. The wires are placed in tension between fixed and movable plates which are, in turn, supported by a pair of wheels which are rotatably supported by a housing for rotation about a central axis. A pair of upper and lower cams are fixed to the housing and cam followers react with the respective cams. Each cam transmits forces through a pair of hydraulic pistons. One of the pistons is connected to a movable plate to which one end of the wires are connected whereby a stress is applied to the wires to strain the wires during a first phase and whereby the cam responds to the unstraining of the wires during a second phase. A housing defines fluid compartments through which hot and cold fluid passes and flows radially through the wires whereby the wires become unstrained and shorten in length when subjected to the hot fluid for causing a reaction between the cam followers and the cams to effect rotation of the wheels about the central axis of the assembly, which rotation of the wheels is extracted through beveled gearing. The wires are grouped into a plurality of independent modules with each module having a movable plate, a fixed plate and the associated hydraulic pistons and cam follower. The hydraulic pistons and cam follower of a module are disposed at ends of the wires opposite from the ends of the wires at which the same components of the next adjacent modules are disposed so that the cam followers of alternate modules react with one of the cams and the remaining cam followers of the remaining modules react with the other cam. There is also included stress limiting means in the form of coil springs associated with alternate ends of the wires for limiting the stress or strain in the wires.

  18. B-Fe-U Phase Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Marta; Carvalho, Patrícia Almeida; Mardolcar, Umesh Vinaica; Tougait, Olivier; Noël, Henri; Gonçalves, António Pereira

    2014-04-01

    The liquidus projection of the U-rich corner of the B-Fe-U phase diagram is proposed based on X-ray powder diffraction measurements, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy observations complemented with energy- and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. Two ternary reactions in this U-rich region were observed and their approximate temperatures were established. In addition, an overview of the complete phase diagram is given, including the liquidus projection; isothermal sections at 1053 K, 1223 K, and 1373 K (780 °C, 950 °C, and 1100 °C); and a U:(Fe,B) = 1:5 isopleth.

  19. Solving multiloop Feynman diagrams using light-front coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligterink, N. E.

    2000-05-01

    We determine the numerical values of scalar multiloop two-vertex Feynman diagrams, the generalized sunset diagrams, or watermelon diagrams, by integrating all but the longitudinal momenta analytically. For the longitudinal momenta we introduce one collective coordinate, which allows us to determine the numerical value of the diagram efficiently and to an arbitrary accuracy. The imaginary part and the threshold behavior of the diagram is also handled within this framework.

  20. A Vibrating Wire System For Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    A vibrating wire system is being developed to fiducialize the quadrupoles between undulator segments in the LCLS. This note provides a detailed analysis of the system. The LCLS will have quadrupoles between the undulator segments to keep the electron beam focused. If the quadrupoles are not centered on the beam axis, the beam will receive transverse kicks, causing it to deviate from the undulator axis. Beam based alignment will be used to move the quadrupoles onto a straight line, but an initial, conventional alignment must place the quadrupole centers on a straight line to 100 {micro}m. In the fiducialization step of the initial alignment, the position of the center of the quadrupole is measured relative to tooling balls on the outside of the quadrupole. The alignment crews then use the tooling balls to place the magnet in the tunnel. The required error on the location of the quadrupole center relative to the tooling balls must be less than 25 {micro}m. In this note, we analyze a system under construction for the quadrupole fiducialization. The system uses the vibrating wire technique to position a wire onto the quadrupole magnetic axis. The wire position is then related to tooling balls using wire position detectors. The tooling balls on the wire position detectors are finally related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to perform the fiducialization. The total 25 {micro}m fiducialization error must be divided between these three steps. The wire must be positioned onto the quadrupole magnetic axis to within 10 {micro}m, the wire position must be measured relative to tooling balls on the wire position detectors to within 15 {micro}m, and tooling balls on the wire position detectors must be related to tooling balls on the quadrupole to within 10 {micro}m. The techniques used in these three steps will be discussed. The note begins by discussing various quadrupole fiducialization techniques used in the past and discusses why the vibrating wire technique is our method of choice. We then give an overview of the measurement system showing how the vibrating wire is positioned onto the quadrupole axis, how the wire position detectors locate the wire relative to tooling balls without touching the wire, and how the tooling ball positions are all measured. The novel feature of this system is the vibrating wire which we discuss in depth. We analyze the wire dynamics and calculate the expected sensitivity of the system. The note should be an aid in debugging the system by providing calculations to compare measurements to.

  1. Conductance oscillations of a metallic quantum wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwapinski, T.

    2005-09-01

    The electron transport through a monatomic metallic wire connected to leads is investigated using the tight-binding Hamiltonian and the Green function technique. Analytical formulae for the transmittance are derived and M-atom oscillations of the conductance versus the length of the wire are found. Maxima of the transmittance function versus the energy, for a wire consisting of N atoms, determine the (N+1) period of the conductance. The periods of conductance oscillations are discussed and the local and average quantum wire charges are presented. The average charge of the wire is linked with the period of the conductance oscillations and for M-atom periodicity there are possible (M-1) average occupations of the wire states.

  2. Signal propagation in long wire chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, P.; Engelfried, J.; Friedrich, T.; Heintze, J.; Lennert, P.; Russ, M.; Zimmer, M.

    2012-09-01

    The propagation of signals in long proportional counters or multi-wire tracking chambers is simulated, using numerical solutions of the multi-wire telegraph equations. The results are compared to experimental data, recorded with a proportional counter and a multi-wire test chamber. The signal shape, the charge division ratio and, in the case of the drift chamber, also the cross talk between the wires, are well reproduced. Similar shapes for signals and their cross talk can be obtained with a properly chosen electrical termination. It is shown how data from a multi-wire chamber can then be corrected for cross talk. The effects limiting the precision of position measurements along the wires with the charge division method are discussed. The simulation was applied to the reconstruction of tracks measured with the OPAL JET chamber.

  3. Spectroscopic research of underwater electrical wire explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.; Sheftman, D.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Efimov, S.; Bazilitski, G.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Oreshkin, V. I.

    2008-08-15

    Results of spectroscopic research in the visible range of light of the radiation generated by underwater electrical wire explosions (UEWE) are presented. A pulsed generator with an output voltage of {approx}110 kV, current of {approx}70 kA, and rise time of {approx}60 ns was used for electrical explosion of Cu wires 0.1 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length. It was shown that UEWE is not governed by the 'polarity' effect, which plays an important role in electrical wire explosions in vacuum. The results of detailed space- and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements show that the radiation spectrum differs significantly of the spectrum expected from the exploding wire. A model is suggested based on the formation of a few {mu}m 'water' plasma layer in the vicinity of the exploding wire plasma which efficiently absorbs the radiation of the exploding wire.

  4. Space Shuttle Columbia Aging Wiring Failure Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDaniels, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Columbia main engine controller 14 AWG wire short circuited during the launch of STS-93. Post-flight examination divulged that the wire had electrically arced against the head of a nearby bolt. More extensive inspection revealed additional damage to the subject wire, and to other wires as well from the mid-body of Columbia. The shorted wire was to have been constructed from nickel-plated copper conductors surrounded by the polyimide insulation Kapton, top-coated with an aromatic polyimide resin. The wires were analyzed via scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA); differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the polyimide. Exemplar testing under laboratory conditions was performed to replicate the mechanical damage characteristics evident on the failed wires. The exemplar testing included a step test, where, as the name implies, a person stepped on a simulated wire bundle that rested upon a bolt head. Likewise, a shear test that forced a bolt head and a torque tip against a wire was performed to attempt to damage the insulation and conductor. Additionally, a vibration test was performed to determine if a wire bundle would abrade when vibrated against the head of a bolt. Also, an abrasion test was undertaken to determine if the polyimide of the wire could be damaged by rubbing against convolex helical tubing. Finally, an impact test was performed to ascertain if the use of the tubing would protect the wire from the strike of a foreign object.

  5. Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft and Spacecraft Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John E.; Tucholski, Edward J.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft, and especially aircraft, often fry well past their original design lives and, therefore, the need to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures for inspection of vital structures in these craft is extremely important. One of the more recent problems is the degradation of wiring and wiring insulation. The present paper describes several nondestructive characterization methods which afford the possibility to detect wiring and insulation degradation in-situ prior to major problems with the safety of aircraft and spacecraft.

  6. Wrapped Wire Detects Rupture Of Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, James B.

    1990-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive technique helps protect against damage caused by continuing operation of equipment after rupture or burnout of pressure vessel. Wire wrapped over area on outside of vessel where breakthrough most likely. If wall breaks or burns, so does wire. Current passing through wire ceases, triggering cutoff mechanism stopping flow in vessel to prevent further damage. Applied in other situations in which pipes or vessels fail due to overpressure, overheating, or corrosion.

  7. Wire Whip Keeps Spray Nozzle Clean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Air-turbine-driven wire whip is clamped near spray-gun mount. When spray gun is installed, wire whip is in position to remove foam buildup from nozzle face. Two lengths of wire 1 to 2 inches long and about 0.03 inch in thickness are used. Foam spray would be prevented from accumulating on nozzle face by increasing purge flow and cutting vortex-generating grooves inside cap and on nozzle flats.

  8. Wire frame to MOVIE. BYU transfer program

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D.; Byers, L.D.; Benner, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    At SNLA, the primary computer-aided drafting tool is the Applicon Graphics System (AGS). The data base for mechanical parts on the AGS is a wire frame model. This report summarizes a method of adding surface information to the wire frame and passing this information up stream to MOVIE.BYU which is on a VAX computer and is used to produce shaded graphics pictures of the AGS wire frame model on a RAMTEK 9400 display terminal.

  9. Development of the Axial Instability in Low Wire Number Wire Array Z-Pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, P. F.; Bell, K. S.; Blesener, I. C.; Chalenski, D. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Greenly, J. B.; Martin, M. R.; McBride, R. D.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Hall, G. N.

    2009-01-21

    We are investigating the development of the axial instability, a modulation of the size of the coronal plasma that develops around each wire in wire-array Z-pinches. The modulation is a result of nonuniform ablation of material from the relatively cold wire core. It has long been known that the wavelength of this modulation is constant late in time and, since it is unique to different materials, it has come to be known as the fundamental mode. In these experiments we imaged individual wires with laser shadowgraphy early in time primarily in low wire number, large wire diameter aluminum arrays for ease of viewing. We Observe the development of this modulation from the time of initiation of coronal plasma, obtaining its dominant wavelength and amplitude growth as a function of time. We also studied the instability on coiled wires, which modify the wire ablation mechanism and completely suppress the fundamental mode[Hall2008]. time is discussed.

  10. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING... Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.241 Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground...

  11. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  12. Constructing Causal Diagrams to Learn Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems like "What should we do about global warming?" are ill-defined in large part because we do not agree on a system to represent them the way we agree Algebra problems should be represented by equations. As a first step toward building a policy deliberation tutor, we investigated: (a) whether causal diagrams help students learn to…

  13. Constructing Causal Diagrams to Learn Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterday, Matthew W.; Aleven, Vincent; Scheines, Richard; Carver, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Policy problems like "What should we do about global warming?" are ill-defined in large part because we do not agree on a system to represent them the way we agree Algebra problems should be represented by equations. As a first step toward building a policy deliberation tutor, we investigated: (a) whether causal diagrams help students learn to…

  14. Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

  15. Nonverbal Poetry: Family Life-Space Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardill, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    Examines life-space diagrams as a form of nonverbal poetry which taps personal feelings, tells a story, and characterizes a particular life situation, forming a useful therapy technique that provides a family the opportunity to examine its internal family relationships. Offers two case studies, discusses five levels of knowing and awareness, and…

  16. Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

  17. NFHS Court and Field Diagram Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, John, Ed.

    This guide contains a comprehensive collection of diagrams and specifications of playing fields and courts used in interscholastic and recreational sports, along with information on how to set up various formats of tournament drawings, how to compute golf handicaps, and how to convert metric-to-English distances. Lists are provided of national…

  18. The Binary Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Philip C.; Reeves, James H.; Messina, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The equations for the liquid and gas lines in the binary temperature-composition phase diagram are derived by approximating that delta(H)[subscript vap] of the two liquids are equal. It is shown that within this approximation, the resulting equations are not too difficult to present in an undergraduate physical chemistry lecture.

  19. Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

  20. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  1. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  2. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  3. Weight diagram construction of Lax operators

    SciTech Connect

    Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

    1991-10-01

    We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.

  4. Construction of Lax operators from weight diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

    1991-05-01

    We show that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to read-off the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax pair generates the modified KdV equations, and have been shown in some cases to produce acceptable solutions of the string equation of matrix models.

  5. Drawing conformal diagrams for a fractal landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2005-06-15

    Generic models of cosmological inflation and the recently proposed scenarios of a recycling universe and the string theory landscape predict spacetimes whose global geometry is a stochastic, self-similar fractal. To visualize the complicated causal structure of such a universe, one usually draws a conformal (Carter-Penrose) diagram. I develop a new method for drawing conformal diagrams, applicable to arbitrary 1+1-dimensional spacetimes. This method is based on a qualitative analysis of intersecting lightrays and thus avoids the need for explicit transformations of the spacetime metric. To demonstrate the power and simplicity of this method, I present derivations of diagrams for spacetimes of varying complication. I then apply the lightray method to three different models of an eternally inflating universe (scalar-field inflation, recycling universe, and string theory landscape) involving the nucleation of nested asymptotically flat, de Sitter and/or anti-de Sitter bubbles. I show that the resulting diagrams contain a characteristic fractal arrangement of lines.

  6. The force between two charged wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Richard H.; Phillips, Richard P.

    1990-06-01

    For two circular cross-section ``infinitely long'' wires charged to opposite electric potential, it is a standard problem to calculate the potential field, the attractive force per unit wire length, etc. If, however, the potentials are not exactly opposite, the problem is not even well defined. As shown here, the problem becomes well defined when the physical environment of the wires is considered. An effective electrical ground is imposed on the problem either by the presence of nearby conductors or due to the finite length of the wires.

  7. A deployable .015 inch diameter wire antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibiasi, L.

    1979-01-01

    This mechanism was developed to dispense a small diameter wire which serves as a receiving antenna for electric field measurements on an Earth orbiting satellite. The antenna is deployed radially from a spinning satellite. A brushless dc motor drives a storage spool to dispense the wire at a controlled rate. Centrifugal force, acting on a mass attached to the end of the wire, keeps the wire in the radial position. The mechanism design, testing, and performance characteristics are discussed. Finally, operational data of the mechanism while in orbit are presented.

  8. Superconducting-wire fabrication. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Glad, W.E.; Chase, G.G.

    1990-05-01

    Experiments were done leading to the fabrication of high-temperature superconducting composite wire. Bulk superconductor was characterized by using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The chemical compatibility of superconducting materials with a number of metal sheathing candidates was tested, with silver offering the best compatibility. Wire was fabricated by drawing 0.250-inch-diameter silver tubing packed with superconducting powder. Single core wires were drawn to 0.037-inch diameter. The best critical current performance (660 A/cm2) for leaded bismuth 2-2-2-3 material was achieved by flattening single-core wire before heat treatment.

  9. Adjustable Bracket For Entry Of Welding Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Wire-entry bracket on welding torch in robotic welding system provides for adjustment of angle of entry of welding wire over range of plus or minus 30 degrees from nominal entry angle. Wire positioned so it does not hide weld joint in view of through-the-torch computer-vision system part of robot-controlling and -monitoring system. Swiveling bracket also used on nonvision torch on which wire-feed-through tube interferes with workpiece. Angle simply changed to one giving sufficient clearance.

  10. Impersonal parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2003-10-01

    An objective process for estimation of star cluster parameters from Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams is introduced, with direct inclusion of multiple stars, a least-squares fitting criterion, and standard error estimates. No role is played by conventional isochrones. Instead the quantity compared between observation and theory is the density of points (areal ) as it varies over the diagram. With as the effective observable quantity, standard parameter adjustment theory can be brought to bear on HR diagram analysis. Here we use the method of differential corrections with a least-squares fitting criterion, but any of the many known fitting methods should be applicable to comparison of observed and theoretical distributions. Diverse numerical schemes were developed to make the overall algorithm workable, including two that improve differentiability of by rendering point distributions effectively equivalent to continuous distributions in certain respects. Statistics of distributions are handled not via Monte Carlo methods but by the Functional Statistics Algorithm (hereafter FSA), a statistical algorithm that has been developed for HR diagram fitting but should serve as an alternative to Monte Carlo in many other applications. FSA accomplishes the aims of Monte Carlo with orders of magnitude less computation. Analysis of luminosity functions is included within the HR diagram algorithm as a special case. Areal density analysis of HR diagrams is acceptably fast because we handle stellar evolution via approximation functions, whose output also is more precisely differentiable than that of a full stellar evolution program. Evolution by approximation functions is roughly a million times as fast as full evolution and has virtually no numerical noise. The algorithmic ideas that lead to objective solutions can be applied to many kinds of HR diagram analysis that are now done subjectively. The present solution program is limited by speed considerations to use of one evolution program and exploration of variations in evolutionary physics is left for future versions. The program has miscellaneous refinements, such as allowing for distributions of chemical composition and interstellar extinction, as well as inclusion of binary star evolution, but so far not all have been tried in solutions. An algorithm is described for dealing with field stars directly in terms of , but has not yet been actively implemented. A synthetic globular cluster with known properties is analysed to demonstrate parameter convergence, solution consistency and comparison with known answers.

  11. Transport Through Carbon Nanotube Wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anantram, M. P.; Yan, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the the current carrying capacity of nanotube wires. Information is given on the motivation for the research, models and assumptions, Bragg reflection and Zener tunneling effects, and the influence of defects. Results show that dI/dv versus V does not increase in a manner commensurate with the increase in the number of subbands; in small diameter nanotubes, Zener tunneling is ineffective; Zener tunneling contributes to current with increase in nanotube diameter; and the increase in dI/dV with bias is much smaller than the increase in the number of subbands.

  12. Conductance of a biomolecular wire

    PubMed Central

    Visoly-Fisher, Iris; Daie, Kayvon; Terazono, Yuichi; Herrero, Christian; Fungo, Fernando; Otero, Luis; Durantini, Edgardo; Silber, Juana J.; Sereno, Leonides; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Lindsay, Stuart M.

    2006-01-01

    Carotenoids (Car) act as “wires” that discharge unwanted electrons in the reaction center of higher plants. One step in this “side-path” electron conduction is thought to be mediated by Car oxidation. We have carried out direct measurements of the conductance of single-Car molecules under potential control in a membrane-mimicking environment, and we found that when Car are oxidized conductance is enhanced and the electronic decay constant (?) is decreased. However, the neutral molecule may already be conductive enough to account for observed electron transfer rates. PMID:16728508

  13. Marshall Technicians Check ATM Wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Technicians at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center check the wiring on a mechanical test article of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) solar array. Four such arrays were joined in a cross to provide electric power for the ATM in Earth orbit. The deployment mechanism for extending the wing to the fully open position had just been tested when this photograph was taken. The array was suspended from beams riding on air bearings to closely simulate the weightless conditions under which it would be deployed in space. The wings are folded against the sides of the ATM for launch and are deployed by a scissors mechanism in Earth's orbit.

  14. Wired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Every American grade school and library ought to have free access to the Internet, and universities and institutions ought to have better access, according to the Clinton Administration.In an October 10 speech in Knoxville, Tennessee, President Clinton proposed that all of the nation's 100,000 public schools and 9,000 libraries receive a two-tiered E-rate (education rate) for access to Internet services. All schools and libraries should receive basic connections for free, as well as deep discounts on video conferencing and highspeed connections (with prices influenced by how much the school can afford to pay). The basic connections (and part of the cost of the more sophisticated connections) would be paid from a special federal fund that currently provides below-cost phone service to households in poor and rural areas. That fund is currently drawn from fees assessed on local and long-distance telephone providers; the Clinton Administration would have cable operators and cellular service providers contribute as well. Companies that provide Internet services would be paid at the best available commercial rate.

  15. Wired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Aaron R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses technology's impact on scoreboard design: the development of the light-emitting diode (LED) display. How the LED system works is explained, as are the advantages and disadvantages of LED compared with incandescent lamp boards. Final comments address deciding on materials for scoreboard casings. (GR)

  16. Effect of an Axial Wire on Conical Wire Array Z-Pinch Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Presura, R.; Martinez, D.; Wright, S.; Plechaty, C.; Neff, S.; Wanex, L.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2009-01-21

    Adding a wire on the axis of wire arrays significantly affects the x-ray emission of the conical arrays, and much less that of the cylindrical ones. The radiation of the conical wire arrays increases with the thickness of the central wire, surpassing that of the equivalent cylindrical arrays. Significant energy is emitted early on, around the time of the conical shock formation, before the pinch stagnation.

  17. Processing A Printed Wiring Board By Single Bath Electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-04-15

    A method of processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from the bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  18. Processing a printed wiring board by single bath electrodeposition

    DOEpatents

    Meltzer, Michael P. (Oakland, CA); Steffani, Christopher P. (Livermore, CA); Gonfiotti, Ray A. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-12-07

    A method of processing a printed wiring board. Initial processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board. Copper is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper. Nickel is plated on the printed wiring board from a bath containing nickel and copper and final processing steps are implemented on the printed wiring board.

  19. Tuning a Tetrahertz Wire Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/ or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique 'wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is much much less than lambda. Placing a movable object close to the wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of approximately equal to 137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at approximately equal to 3.8 THz.

  20. Tuning a terahertz wire laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qi; Williams, Benjamin S.; Kumar, Sushil; Reno, John L.; Hu, Qing

    2009-12-01

    Tunable terahertz lasers are desirable in applications in sensing and spectroscopy because many biochemical species have strong spectral fingerprints at terahertz frequencies. Conventionally, the frequency of a laser is tuned in a similar manner to a stringed musical instrument, in which pitch is varied by changing the length of the string (the longitudinal component of the wave vector) and/or its tension (the refractive index). However, such methods are difficult to implement in terahertz semiconductor lasers because of their poor outcoupling efficiencies. Here, we demonstrate a novel tuning mechanism based on a unique `wire laser' device for which the transverse dimension w is <wire laser manipulates a large fraction of the waveguided mode propagating outside the cavity, thereby tuning its resonant frequency. Continuous single-mode redshift and blueshift tuning is demonstrated for the same device by using either a dielectric or metallic movable object. In combination, this enables a frequency tuning of ~137 GHz (3.6%) from a single laser device at ~3.8 THz.

  1. A Simple Approach for Boundary Improvement of Euler Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Simonetto, Paolo; Archambault, Daniel; Scheidegger, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    General methods for drawing Euler diagrams tend to generate irregular polygons. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that smoother contours make these diagrams easier to read. In this paper, we present a simple method to smooth the boundaries of any Euler diagram drawing. When refining the diagram, the method must ensure that set elements remain inside their appropriate boundaries and that no region is removed or created in the diagram. Our approach uses a force system that improves the diagram while at the same time ensuring its topological structure does not change. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach through case studies and quantitative evaluations. PMID:26529723

  2. A Legal Negotiatiton Support System Based on A Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Katsumi; Shibasaki, Masato; Yasumura, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Ryuzo; Fujita, Hiroshi; Koshimura, Miyuki; Inoue, Katsumi; Shirai, Yasuyuki; Komatsu, Hiroshi

    We present an overview of a legal negotiation support system, ANS (Argumentation based Negotiation support System). ANS consists of a user interface, three inference engines, a database of old cases, and two decision support modules. The ANS users negotiates or disputes with others via a computer network. The negotiation status is managed in the form of the negotiation diagram. The negotiation diagram is an extension of Toulmin’s argument diagram, and it contains all arguments insisted by participants. The negotiation protocols are defined as operations to the negotiation diagram. By exchanging counter arguments each other, the negotiation diagram grows up. Nonmonotonic reasoning using rule priorities are applied to the negotiation diagram.

  3. Defining brain wiring patterns and mechanisms through gene trapping in mice.

    PubMed

    Leighton, P A; Mitchell, K J; Goodrich, L V; Lu, X; Pinson, K; Scherz, P; Skarnes, W C; Tessier-Lavigne, M

    2001-03-01

    The search to understand the mechanisms regulating brain wiring has relied on biochemical purification approaches in vertebrates and genetic approaches in invertebrates to identify molecular cues and receptors for axon guidance. Here we describe a phenotype-based gene-trap screen in mice designed for the large-scale identification of genes controlling the formation of the trillions of connections in the mammalian brain. The method incorporates an axonal marker, which helps to identify cell-autonomous mechanisms in axon guidance, and has generated a resource of mouse lines with striking patterns of axonal labelling, which facilitates analysis of the normal wiring diagram of the brain. Studies of two of these mouse lines have identified an in vivo guidance function for a vertebrate transmembrane semaphorin, Sema6A, and have helped re-evaluate that of the Eph receptor EphA4. PMID:11242070

  4. Thermal conductivity measurement in clay dominant consolidated material by Transient Hot-Wire method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, J. P.; Gallier, J.; Mercx, B.; Dudoignon, P.; Milcent, D.

    2010-06-01

    The transient hot-wire (THW) technique is widely used for measurements of the thermal-conductivity of most fluids and some attempts have also been carried out for simultaneous measurements of the thermal-diffusivity with the same hot wire. This technique was also tried to determine thermal properties of soils by the mean of probes which can be considered as wire with some assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to validate the thermal conductivity measurement by the THW technique in geomaterials, composed of compacted sand + clay mineral that can be used for earth construction (Compacted Earth Brick). The thermal transfer behaviors are mainly governed by the texture and moisture of the geomaterials. Thus the investigations were performed (1) in media made of glass beads of different diameters in dry and saturated state in order to observe the role of grain sizes and saturation state on the wire temperature (?t) measurements and (2) in the compacted clay-geomaterial at different moisture states. The ?t / ln(t) diagrams allow the calculation of two thermal conductivities. The first one, measured in the short time acquisition (< 1s), characterizes the microtexture of the material and its hydrated state. The second one, measured for longer time acquisitions, characterizes the mean thermal conductivity of the material.

  5. Magnetic field-assisted synthesis of wire-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures: Electrochemical and photocatalytic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiubin; Pang, Zhanwen; Wu, Mingzai; Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui ; Liu, Xiansong; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Yongqing; Sun, Zhaoqi; Zhang, Lide; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the magnetic field-assisted growth of wire-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires are prepared by magnetic field hydrothermal reduction and annealing. ► These Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires possess enhanced capacitance. ► The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires have a good photocatalytic activity for methyl orange. -- Abstract: Wire-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures were prepared by the combination of magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal reduction of cobalt ions and the subsequent ambient annealing at 500 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphological evolution of the products. The results show that the wire-like nanostructures possess diameters about 250 nm and lengths over 10 μm. The possible formation mechanism of the wire-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures is also proposed based on the SEM results. Galvanostatic methods were used to characterize the electrochemical properties. The measurements indicate that the wire-like Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructures show larger discharge and charge capacities than that of spherical Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared in the absence of magnetic field. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of the products was investigated by measuring the photodegradation of methyl orange solution under ultraviolet radiation, which shows that both the wire-like and spherical products have a good photocatalytic activity.

  6. Improved Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: Superconducting Wires for Direct-Drive Wind Generators

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a low-cost superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. Brookhaven National Laboratory will develop a high-performance superconducting wire that can handle significantly more electrical current, and will demonstrate an advanced manufacturing process that has the potential to yield a several-fold reduction in wire costs while using a using negligible amount of rare earth material. This design has the potential to make a wind turbine generator lighter, more powerful, and more efficient, particularly for offshore applications.

  7. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... wiring. The incumbent provider that has elected to abandon its home run wiring may remove its amplifiers... amplifiers or other active devices used in the wiring if an equivalent replacement can easily be...

  8. 47 CFR 76.804 - Disposition of home run wiring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... wiring. The incumbent provider that has elected to abandon its home run wiring may remove its amplifiers... amplifiers or other active devices used in the wiring if an equivalent replacement can easily be...

  9. Wiring harnesses documented by punched-card technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, W. W.; Kloezeman, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    Cards representing a connector are punched, sorted, and then used to printout wiring documentation for that connector. When wiring changes are made, new cards are punched and the wiring documentation is reprinted to reflect the latest configuration.

  10. Long-Wearing Wire Guide For Welding Torch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutow, David A.; Burley, Richard K.; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Fogel, Irving

    1992-01-01

    Insert for wire-guide tube on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus extends life of guide tube and increases accuracy of weld. Hardened insert resists wear by sliding tungsten wire. Chamfer guides wire into insert.

  11. Stiffness Corrections for the Vibration Frequency of a Stretched Wire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornung, H. G.; Durie, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the need of introducing corrections due to wire stiffness arising from end constraints and wire axis distribution curvature in the measurement of ac electrical frequency by exciting transverse standing waves in a stretched steel wire. (SL)

  12. Motion control of the accumulator flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.Q.

    1990-04-23

    Flying wire systems for the Fermilab Accumulator are being constructed in order to measure the transverse beam profiles during stacking. Each device passes a 25 micron carbon filament through the beam transversely at a constant velocity of 10 m/s. Collisions between the beam particles and the wire produce secondary particle cascades, which in turn produce photons in a scintillator. A photomultiplier tube is used to measure the light intensity while the wire position is determined by an optical encoder. There are six Accumulator flying wire systems. Four of them are to be used in normal stacking operation: two horizontal and two vertical flying wires are in the AP40 high dispersion section, covering the core orbit and the extraction orbit respectively. The other two horizontal wires are for measuring the momentum distribution of the beam on the central orbit at the Accumulator transition energy. At the AP40 high dispersion region a wire covers the central orbit, the other is in the AP30 low dispersion section. The operation and control of the flying wire system is discussed in this paper. 11 figs.

  13. Pretinning Nickel-Plated Wire Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igawa, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-plated copper shielding for wires pretinned for subsequent soldering with help of activated rosin flux. Shield cut at point 0.25 to 0.375 in. (6 to 10 mm) from cut end of outer jacket. Loosened end of shield straightened and pulled toward cut end. Insulation of inner wires kept intact during pretinning.

  14. Glidden's Patent Application for Barbed Wire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Emily; Schamel, Wynell

    1997-01-01

    Describes a series of teaching activities to be used in conjunction with a reproduction of Joseph Glidden's patent for barbed wire fencing. These include document analysis, creative interpretation, and personal experience. Presents a brief history of the social and economic effects of the introduction of barbed wire to the West. (MJP)

  15. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas (Westhampton Beach, NY); Klamut, Carl J. (E. Patchogue, NY); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY); Welch, David (Stony Brook, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improves the strain characteristics of the wire.

  16. Superconducting wire with improved strain characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas (Westhampton Beach, NY); Klamut, Carl J. (East Patchogue, NY); Suenaga, Masaki (Bellport, NY); Welch, David (Stony Brook, NY)

    1982-01-01

    A superconducting wire comprising a superconducting filament and a beryllium strengthened bronze matrix in which the addition of beryllium to the matrix permits a low volume matrix to exhibit reduced elastic deformation after heat treating which increases the compression of the superconducting filament on cooling and thereby improve the strain characteristics of the wire.

  17. Lansce Wire Scanning Diagnostics Device Mechanical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio; Batygin, Yuri K.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Gruchalla, Michael E.; Maestas, Alfred J.; Pillai, Chandra; Raybun, Joseph L.; Sattler, F. D.; Sedillo, James Daniel; Smith, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Operations & Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory operates a linear particle accelerator which utilizes 110 wire scanning diagnostics devices to gain position and intensity information of the proton beam. In the upcoming LANSCE improvements, 51 of these wire scanners are to be replaced with a new design, up-to-date technology and off-the-shelf components. This document outlines the requirements for the mechanical design of the LANSCE wire scanner and presents the recently developed linac wire scanner prototype. Additionally, this document presents the design modifications that have been implemented into the fabrication and assembly of this first linac wire scanner prototype. Also, this document will present the design for the second, third, and fourth wire scanner prototypes being developed. Prototypes 2 and 3 belong to a different section of the particle accelerator and therefore have slightly different design specifications. Prototype 4 is a modification of a previously used wire scanner in our facility. Lastly, the paper concludes with a plan for future work on the wire scanner development.

  18. LANSCE-R WIRE-SCANNER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gruchalla, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Instruments cRIO platform is used for the new LANSCE-R wire-scanner systems. All wire-scanner electronics are integrated into a single BiRa BiRIO 4U cRIO chassis specifically designed for the cRIO crate and all interface electronics. The BiRIO chassis, actuator and LabVIEW VIs provide a complete wire-scanner system integrated with EPICS. The new wire-scanner chassis includes an 8-slot cRIO crate with Virtex-5 LX 110 FPGA and Power-PC real-time controller, the LANL-developed cRIO 2-axis wire-sensor analog interface module (AFE), NI9222 cRIO 4-channel 16-bit digitizer, cRIO resolver demodulator, cRIO event receiver, front-panel touch panel display, motor driver, and all necessary software, interface wiring, connectors and ancillary components. This wirescanner system provides a complete, turn-key, 2-axis wire-scanner system including 2-channel low-noise sensewire interface with variable DC wire bias and wireintegrity monitor, 16-bit signal digitizers, actuator motor drive and control, actuator position sensing, limit-switch interfaces, event receiver, LabVIEW and EPICS interface, and both remote operation and full stand-alone operation using the touch panel.

  19. Wire ageing with the TEA photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1996-06-01

    Recently several RICH protypes successfully tested a gaseous TEA photocathode. However, its wire ageing behavior is unknown. In principle, TEA is a more strongly bonded molecule than TMAE, and, as a result, one would expect better wire ageing behavior. This paper explores this question.

  20. Ultra-flexible biomedical electrodes and wires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rositano, S. A.

    1970-01-01

    Soft, flexible electrode conforms to body contour during body motion. It is fabricated from an elastomer impregnated with a conductive powder which can be configured into any required shape, including a wire shape to connect the electrode directly to an electrical instrument or to a conventional metallic wire.

  1. Welding torch and wire feed manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    Welding torch and wire feed manipulator increase capability for performing automatic welding operations. The manipulator rotates on its horizontal axis to avoid obstacles as they approach the torch. The initial individual attitudes of the torch and wire guide are set with respect to the general configuration of the part.

  2. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a)...

  3. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a)...

  4. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a)...

  5. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a)...

  6. 29 CFR 1919.79 - Wire rope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wire rope. 1919.79 Section 1919.79 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.79 Wire rope. (a)...

  7. Add-On Shielding for Unshielded Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, J. C.; Billitti, J. W.; Tallon, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Fabrication sequence used to produce compact shields slipped into place from free ends of wires already soldered into connectors at other ends. Single shields are formed into harnesses by connecting grounding jumpers. Technique is especially useful for small diameter wire attached to microminiature connectors.

  8. MSFC inspections of installed polyimide wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landers, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    An alert was issued because of the arc-tracking possibilities of installed polyimide wire harnesses. MSFC undertook a program to try to enhance the safety and reliability of these harnesses. Photographs are presented showing the need for inspections of installed wiring harnesses.

  9. Diamond-Coated Wire-Feeding Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    Hard vacuum-deposited film improves nozzle properties. Tip and bore surfaces of proposed nozzle for feeding wire for gas/tungsten arc welding coated with film of synthetic diamond. Film gives nozzle following advantages: lower friction, thermal conductivity, less wear, electrical isolation of wire from nozzle, and high resistance to corrosion.

  10. Wire-Guide Manipulator For Automated Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Tim; White, Kevin; Gordon, Steve; Emerich, Dave; Richardson, Dave; Faulkner, Mike; Stafford, Dave; Mccutcheon, Kim; Neal, Ken; Milly, Pete

    1994-01-01

    Compact motor drive positions guide for welding filler wire. Drive part of automated wire feeder in partly or fully automated welding system. Drive unit contains three parallel subunits. Rotations of lead screws in three subunits coordinated to obtain desired motions in three degrees of freedom. Suitable for both variable-polarity plasma arc welding and gas/tungsten arc welding.

  11. Microfabricated wire arrays for Z-pinch.

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Rowen, Adam M.; Cich, Michael Joseph; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Arrington, Christian L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Klem, John Frederick; Romero, Dustin Heinz

    2008-10-01

    Microfabrication methods have been applied to the fabrication of wire arrays suitable for use in Z. Self-curling GaAs/AlGaAs supports were fabricated as an initial route to make small wire arrays (4mm diameter). A strain relief structure that could be integrated with the wire was designed to allow displacements of the anode/cathode connections in Z. Electroplated gold wire arrays with integrated anode/cathode bus connections were found to be sufficiently robust to allow direct handling. Platinum and copper plating processes were also investigated. A process to fabricate wire arrays on any substrate with wire thickness up to 35 microns was developed. Methods to handle and mount these arrays were developed. Fabrication of wire arrays of 20mm diameter was demonstrated, and the path to 40mm array fabrication is clear. With some final investment to show array mounting into Z hardware, the entire process to produce a microfabricated wire array will have been demonstrated.

  12. EXPERIMENTS WITH A DC WIRE IN RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; CALAGA, R.; DORDA, U.; KOUTCHOUK, J.-P.; ZIMMERMANN, F.; SEN, T.

    2007-06-25

    A DC wire has been installed in RHIC to explore the long-range beam-beam effect, and test its compensation. We report on experiments that measure the effect of the wire's electro-magnetic field on the beam's lifetime and tune distribution, and accompanying simulations.

  13. Spin Hall effect in Molybdenum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morota, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Kimura, T.; Otani, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The spin Hall effect in molybdenum wires has been experimentally investigated by means of spin absorption method using lateral spin valve structure. The spin Hall conductivity of Mo wire is negative and decreases with increasing the resistivity. These tendencies are surprisingly consistent with the recent theoretical calculation based on the intrinsic spin Hall effect.

  14. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  15. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  16. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  17. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  18. 30 CFR 56.12047 - Guy wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guy wires. 56.12047 Section 56.12047 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12047 Guy wires....

  19. Development of Bi-2223 superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, S.; Kaneko, T.; Ayai, N.; Hayashi, K.; Takei, H.; Hata, R.

    2001-08-01

    The essential conditions of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are a high transport critical current density, shape uniformity of long length wire and mechanical performance. By exploiting the properties of (Bi, Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x (Bi-2223) HTS material, we have succeeded in semi-mass-producing long wire (in the kilometer-class), which can be drawn, by processing silver alloy sheathed multifilamentary wire into tape form. It is now developing Bi-2223 HTS wire with even higher performance in order to develop the superconducting equipment required for industrial applications at the earliest possible time. This paper presents the results of Bi-2223 HTS wires' performance by the powder-in-tube manufacturing technologies, which we developed. Typical Jc performances for 10-1623 m long wires are above 30 kA/cm 2 (77 K, self-field, 1 ?V/cm). Recently we have completed the production of total over 150 km Bi-2223 HTS wires necessary to HTS magnet for Si single crystal growth applications and 66 kV/1 kA, three phase, 100 m long HTS power cable.

  20. Butt welder for fine gage wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kabana, W. B.

    1970-01-01

    Device welds fine gage wire 0.001-in. in diameter. It permits welding of thermocouple junctions of the same size with straight sections adjacent to the junctions. Electrode arrangement provides constant pressure on the joint during welding while fully supporting the wires to prevent buckling or movement.

  1. Twisted Pair Of Insulated Wires Senses Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Eric G.; Stephens, James B.

    1989-01-01

    Sensitivity of electronic moisture sensor to low levels of moisture increased by new electrode configuration. Moisture-sensing circuit described in "Low-Cost Humidity Sensor" (NPO-16544). New twisted pair of wires takes place of flat-plate capacitor in circuit. Configuration allows for thermal expansion and contraction of polymer while maintaining nearly constant area of contact between polymer and wires.

  2. Method of preparing composite superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Finnemore, Douglas K. (Ames, IA); Ostenson, Jerome E. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Owen, Charles V. (Ames, IA)

    1985-08-06

    An improved method of preparing composite multifilament superconducting wire of Nb.sub.3 Sn in a copper matrix which eliminates the necessity of coating the drawn wire with tin. A generalized cylindrical billet of an alloy of copper containing at least 15 weight percent niobium, present in the copper as discrete, randomly distributed and oriented dendritic-shaped particles, is provided with at least one longitudinal opening which is filled with tin to form a composite drawing rod. The drawing rod is then drawn to form a ductile composite multifilament wire containing a filament of tin. The ductile wire containing the tin can then be wound into magnet coils or other devices before heating to diffuse the tin through the wire to react with the niobium forming Nb.sub.3 Sn. Also described is an improved method for making large billets of the copper-niobium alloy by consumable-arc casting.

  3. Development Status of AMSC Amperium® Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleshler, S.; DeMoranville, K.; Gannon, J., Jr.; Li, X.; Podtburg, E.; Rupich, M. W.; Sathyamurthy, S.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Tucker, D.; Whitman, L.

    2014-05-01

    AMSC produces Second Generation (2G) HTS wire for utility power applications as well as coil, motor and generator solutions. In this paper, various types of AMSC's Amperium® wire suitable to power cables, fault current limiters and coils are reviewed. In addition, recently developed performance-improvements in amperage, reduced ac power loss and mechanical properties are summarized. The introduction of thicker HTS layers coupled with optimized heat treatments to enhance critical current density dramatically improve both cable and coil wire current-carrying capability. A non-magnetic RABiTSTM substrate has now been developed to the point where it is compatible with the manufacturing process and capable of sustaining large critical currents. Finally, the ability of Amperium® wires to withstand cable-winding stresses, and to exhibit the high transverse c-axis strength critical to the reliability of the wire in coils, are discussed.

  4. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  5. Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Walter, III

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.

  6. Electronic transport in inhomogeneous quantum wires.

    SciTech Connect

    Rech, J.; Matveev, K. A.; Materials Science Division

    2008-04-23

    We study the transport properties of a long non-uniform quantum wire where the electron-electron interactions and the density vary smoothly at large length scales. We show that these inhomogeneities lead to a finite resistivity of the wire, due to a weak violation of momentum conservation in the collisions between electrons. Estimating the rate of change of momentum associated with non-momentum-conserving scattering processes, we derive the expression for the resistivity of the wire in the regime of weakly interacting electrons and find a contribution linear in temperature for a broad range of temperatures below the Fermi energy. By estimating the energy dissipated throughout the wire by low-energy excitations, we then develop a different method for deriving the resistivity of the wire, which can be combined with the bosonization formalism. This allows us to compare our results with previous works relying on an extension of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model to inhomogeneous systems.

  7. Drawing of Ag-clad ? superconductor wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, D.-W.; Pollock, M. J.; Kajuch, J.

    1997-01-01

    The powder-in-tube process has been widely used to fabricate long lengths of 0953-2048/10/1/008/img2 (Bi-2212) superconducting wires and tapes. However, there is not a good understanding of the processing variables involved in the wire-drawing process. Recent studies indicated that powder characteristics, such as particle size distribution and morphology, had a significant effect on the consolidation behaviour of Bi-2212 green compacts. In this investigation, silver-clad Bi-2212 composite wires containing powders of two different particle sizes were fabricated. The effects of initial packing density and sheath thickness on the characteristics of the wires, including elongation, silver:core ratio and relative core density, were investigated. It is observed that coarse powders with a wide particle size distribution produce wires with higher core density and a moderate benefit is obtained from higher initial powder packing density.

  8. Pions in the quark matter phase diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Zablocki, D.; Blaschke, D.; Anglani, R.

    2008-08-29

    The relationship between mesonic correlations and quantum condensates in the quark matter phase diagram is explored within a quantum field theoretical approach of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type. Mean-field values in the scalar meson and diquark channels are order parameters signaling the occurrence of quark condensates, entailing chiral symmetry breaking ({chi}SB) and color superconductivity (2SC) in quark matter. We investigate the spectral properties of scalar and pseudoscalar meson excitations in the phase diagram in Gaussian approximation and show that outside the {chi}SB region where the pion is a zero-width bound state, there are two regions where it can be considered as a quasi-bound state with a lifetime exceeding that of a typical heavy-ion collision fireball: (A) the high-temperature {chi}SB crossover region at low densities and (B) the high-density color superconducting phase at temperatures below 100 MeV.

  9. Phase diagram of 4He on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Happacher, Jodok; Corboz, Philippe; Boninsegni, Massimo; Pollet, Lode

    2013-03-01

    The low-temperature phase diagram of 4He adsorbed on a single graphene sheet is studied by computer simulations of a system consisting of nearly a thousand helium atoms. In the first layer, two commensurate solid phases are observed with fillings 1/3 and 7/16, respectively, separated by a domain wall phase, as well as an incommensurate crystal at a higher coverage. No evidence of a thermodynamically stable superfluid phase is found for the first adlayer. Second-layer promotion occurs at a coverage of 0.111(4) Å-2. In the second layer, two phases are observed, namely a superfluid and an incommensurate solid, with no commensurate solid intervening between these two phases. The computed phase diagram closely resembles that predicted for helium on graphite.

  10. Diagrams of stability of circumbinary planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Elena

    2014-07-01

    The stability diagrams in the ``pericentric distance - eccentricity'' plane of initial data are built and analyzed for Kepler-38, Kepler-47, and Kepler-64 (PH1). This completes a survey of stability of the known up to now circumbinary planetary systems, initiated by Popova & Shevchenko (2013), where the analysis was performed for Kepler-16, 34, and 35. In the diagrams, the planets appear to be ``embedded'' in the fractal chaos border; however, I make an attempt to measure the ``distance'' to the chaos border in a physically consistent way. The obtained distances are compared to those given by the widely used numerical-experimental criterion by Holman & Wiegert (1999), who employed smooth polynomial approximations to describe the border. I identify the resonance cells, hosting the planets.

  11. Phase Coexistence in a Dynamic Phase Diagram.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Luigi; Coppola, Luigi; Balog, Sandor; Mortensen, Kell; Ranieri, Giuseppe A; Olsson, Ulf

    2015-08-01

    Metastability and phase coexistence are important concepts in colloidal science. Typically, the phase diagram of colloidal systems is considered at the equilibrium without the presence of an external field. However, several studies have reported phase transition under mechanical deformation. The reason behind phase coexistence under shear flow is not fully understood. Here, multilamellar vesicle (MLV)-to-sponge (L3 ) and MLV-to-Lα transitions upon increasing temperature are detected using flow small-angle neutron scattering techniques. Coexistence of Lα and MLV phases at 40 °C under shear flow is detected by using flow NMR spectroscopy. The unusual rheological behavior observed by studying the lamellar phase of a non-ionic surfactant is explained using (2) H NMR and diffusion flow NMR spectroscopy with the coexistence of planar lamellar-multilamellar vesicles. Moreover, a dynamic phase diagram over a wide range of temperatures is proposed. PMID:26083451

  12. The geometry of on-shell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Galloni, Daniele; Mariotti, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    The fundamental role of on-shell diagrams in quantum field theory has been recently recognized. On-shell diagrams, or equivalently bipartite graphs, provide a natural bridge connecting gauge theory to powerful mathematical structures such as the Grassmannian. We perform a detailed investigation of the combinatorial and geometric objects associated to these graphs. We mainly focus on their relation to polytopes and toric geometry, the Grassmannian and its stratification. Our work extends the current understanding of these connections along several important fronts, most notably eliminating restrictions imposed by planarity, positivity, reducibility and edge removability. We illustrate our ideas with several explicit examples and introduce concrete methods that considerably simplify computations. We consider it highly likely that the structures unveiled in this article will arise in the on-shell study of scattering amplitudes beyond the planar limit. Our results can be conversely regarded as an expansion in the understanding of the Grassmannian in terms of bipartite graphs.

  13. Modeling the Round Earth through Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalkar, Shamin; Ramadas, Jayashree

    Earlier studies have found that students, including adults, have problems understanding the scientifically accepted model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and explaining day-to-day astronomical phenomena based on it. We have been examining such problems in the context of recent research on visual-spatial reasoning. Working with middle school students in India, we have developed a pedagogical sequence to build the mental model of the Earth and tried it in three schools for socially and educationally disadvantaged students. This pedagogy was developed on the basis of (1) a reading of current research in imagery and visual-spatial reasoning and (2) students' difficulties identified during the course of pretests and interviews. Visual-spatial tools such as concrete (physical) models, gestures, and diagrams are used extensively in the teaching sequence. The building of a mental model is continually integrated with drawing inferences to understand and explain everyday phenomena. The focus of this article is inferences drawn with diagrams.

  14. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  15. Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Weonjong

    2005-01-01

    We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

  16. The aging of wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether: wire and construction materials and freon impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jibaly, Mohammed; Majewski, Stan; Chrusch, Peter; Wojcik, Randolph; Sauli, Fabio; Gaudaen, Jan

    1989-11-01

    This is a complete summary of our study of the aging of different types of wire chambers, with a variety of construction materials and wires, filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. The resistive Nicotin and Stablohm wires were corroded by DME, producing fast aging. The moderately resistive stainless steel wires were able to withstand extended irradiation (up to 1 C/cm) in high-purity DME without any apparent damage; and gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires exhibited a comparable behavior. Many construction materials were tested and recommendations are thus reached as to what kinds of materials are safe in building DME-operated wire chambers. Among many different Freon and hydrocarbon impurities detected in DME by means of gas chromatography (GC), Freon-11 was found to be mostly responsible for the aging, even with noncorrosive stainless steel or gold-plated wires. The availability and feasibility of obtaining Freon-free DME is reported as well.

  17. SpaceWire EGSE: Real-Time Simulation of Space Wire Instruments in a Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudie, Stephen; Parks, Steve; Dunstan, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The SpaceWire Electronic Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) is a test and development unit produced by STAR-Dundee that is designed to significantly reduce the time required to simulate SpaceWire instruments and other SpaceWire equipment in real-time. It does this using a simple yet powerful scripting language designed for SpaceWire applications. The required behaviour of the SpaceWire equipment can be quickly defined in a script which is then compiled and loaded into the EGSE hardware via software. Once configured the SpaceWire EGSE operates independent of software resulting in real-time behaviour. This paper briefly describes the SpaceWire EGSE hardware and software, before introducing the scripting language, including an example, and summarising the capabilities and benefits of the EGSE.

  18. Breaking bad news--a flow diagram.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, A; Maguire, P; Regnard, C

    1994-01-01

    Breaking bad news is neither an easy nor a popular task. Properly handled, however, it can be given in a positive way that the individual can both accept and understand. There may be a range of emotions and concerns following the telling of bad news. These need to be explored and worked through with each individual. This flow diagram describes the steps in this important process. PMID:8081554

  19. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  20. Displaying multimedia environmental partitioning by triangular diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Mackay, D.

    1995-11-01

    It is suggested that equilateral triangular diagrams are a useful method of depicting the equilibrium partitioning of organic chemicals among the three primary environmental media of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the organosphere (natural organic matter and biotic lipids and waxes). The technique is useful for grouping chemicals into classes according to their partitioning tendencies, for depicting the incremental effects of substituents such as alkyl groups and chlorine, and for showing how partitioning changes in response to changes in temperature.

  1. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  2. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  3. Refined phase diagram of boron nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Solozhenko, V.; Turkevich, V.Z.; Holzapfel, W.B.

    1999-04-15

    The equilibrium phase diagram of boron nitride thermodynamically calculated by Solozhenko in 1988 has been now refined on the basis of new experimental data on BN melting and extrapolation of heat capacities of BN polymorphs into high-temperature region using the adapted pseudo-Debye model. As compared with the above diagram, the hBN {l_reversible} cBN equilibrium line is displaced by 60 K toward higher temperatures. The hBN-cBN-L triple point has been calculated to be at 3480 {+-} 10 K and 5.9 {+-} 0.1 GPa, while the hBN-L-V triple point is at T = 3400 {+-} 20 K and p = 400 {+-} 20 Pa, which indicates that the region of thermodynamic stability of vapor in the BN phase diagram is extremely small. It has been found that the slope of the cBN melting curve is positive whereas the slope of hBN melting curve varies from positive between ambient pressure and 3.4 GPa to negative at higher pressures.

  4. The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2013-04-01

    The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shapley did not believe in the cosmological distances of Heber Curtis' spiral nebulae. It is not so well known that in 1920 Curtis' plot of the period-luminosity relation suggests that he didn't believe it was a physical relation and also he failed to appreciate the significance of the Russell diagram for understanding the large size of the Milky Way.

  5. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236.76 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise so... apparatus. Inspections and Tests; All Systems...

  6. 49 CFR 236.76 - Tagging of wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with signal apparatus. 236.76 Section 236.76 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... wires and interference of wires or tags with signal apparatus. Each wire shall be tagged or otherwise so... apparatus. Inspections and Tests; All Systems...

  7. Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the standards also require some form of governance to maintain and then extend the standard as the science evolves to meet new challenges. A standard that does have some governance is GeoSciML, a data transfer standard for geoscience map data. GeoSciML is currently being developed by a consortium of 7 countries under the auspices of the Commission for the Management of and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI), a commission of the International Union of Geological Sciences. Perhaps other `ML' or ontology and vocabulary development `teams' need to look to their international domain specific specialty societies for endorsement and governance. But the issue goes beyond Earth and Space Sciences, as increasingly cross and intra disciplinary science requires machine to machine interaction with other science disciplines such as physics, chemistry and astronomy. For example, for geochemistry do we develop GeochemistryML or do we extend the existing Chemical Markup Language? Again, the question is who will provide the coordination of the development of the required schematic and semantic standards that underpin machine to machine global integration of science data. Is this a role for ICSU or CODATA or who? In order to address this issue, Geoscience Australia and CSIRO established the Solid Earth and Environmental Grid Community website to enable communities to `advertise' standards development and to provide a community TWIKI where standards can be developed in a globally `open' environment.

  8. Strain tolerant microfilamentary superconducting wire

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, D.K.; Miller, T.A.; Ostenson, J.E.; Schwartzkopf, L.A.; Sanders, S.C.

    1993-02-23

    A strain tolerant microfilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the normal metal is sufficiently thin to allow supercurrent transfer between the overlapped discontinuous filaments but is also sufficiently thick to provide strain relief to the filaments.

  9. [Intrathoracic migration of Kirschner wires].

    PubMed

    Veres, Lukács; Kiss, Regina; Boros, Miklós; Enyedi, Attila; Takács, István; Kollár, Sándor; Damjanovich, László; Sz Kiss, Sándor

    2009-12-01

    Orthopedic surgeons apply metallic pins to stabilize the clavicule and humerus on a daily basis. Migration of these pins into the thoracic cavity is rare. We present the case of an elderly female patient, whose right humeroscapular joint was fixed with Kirschner wires due to recurrent luxation. Six weeks later, a follow-up X-ray revealed that the pins have migrated into the right thoracic cavity, confirmed by a CT chest. Videothoracoscopic removal of the metallic pins was not possible because of dense adhesions. Right anterolateral thoracotomy was carried out, and after pneumolysis one pin was taken out from the 2nd lung segment. The other one, which was running along the cupola and entering the spinal cord, was also removed. There was no postoperative surgical complication. The authors review the literature of this rare complication and point out that pins migrating into the thoracic cavity should be removed to avoid life threatening complications. PMID:19945939

  10. Single wire drift chamber design

    SciTech Connect

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  11. Dependence of Electron Beam Emittance on Electron Gun Controls, and the Description of Electron Dynamics Using Phase Space Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Ronald; Bowman, Arnesto

    2009-11-01

    The designs and test results of devices for measuring the emittance of a low energy electron beam are discussed. The emittance is controlled by varying the electron gun's cathode, grid and anode; with the goal of minimizing the emittance. Scanning wire probes are used initially however non-perturbing optical probes are being developed. The tests are performed using a 5 keV electron beam, however the scaling to higher energy beams will be discussed. Multidimensional phase space diagrams for the emittance measurements will be discussed. Also, similar phase space diagrams for electrons propagating across laser and plasma waves will be discussed. These results are important steps toward developing a diagnostic for plasma waves using a low emittance electron beams.

  12. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-01

    The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a ?4 interaction to three-loop order.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.

  14. The Classroom as Rhizome: New Strategies for Diagramming Knotted Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article calls attention to the unexamined role of diagrams in educational research and offers examples of alternative diagramming practices or tools that shed light on classroom interaction as a rhizomatic process. Drawing extensively on the work of Latour, Deleuze and Guattari, and Chatelet, this article explores the power of diagramming as…

  15. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  16. The Problem of Labels in E-Assessment of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayal, Ambikesh; Shepperd, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore a problematic aspect of automated assessment of diagrams. Diagrams have partial and sometimes inconsistent semantics. Typically much of the meaning of a diagram resides in the labels; however, the choice of labeling is largely unrestricted. This means a correct solution may utilize differing yet semantically equivalent…

  17. The Classroom as Rhizome: New Strategies for Diagramming Knotted Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article calls attention to the unexamined role of diagrams in educational research and offers examples of alternative diagramming practices or tools that shed light on classroom interaction as a rhizomatic process. Drawing extensively on the work of Latour, Deleuze and Guattari, and Chatelet, this article explores the power of diagramming as…

  18. 30 CFR 256.8 - Leasing maps and diagrams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leasing maps and diagrams. 256.8 Section 256.8..., General § 256.8 Leasing maps and diagrams. (a) Any area of the OCS which has been appropriately platted as... 12(d) of the Act. (b) The MMS shall prepare leasing maps and official protraction diagrams of...

  19. Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram…

  20. The Problem of Labels in E-Assessment of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayal, Ambikesh; Shepperd, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore a problematic aspect of automated assessment of diagrams. Diagrams have partial and sometimes inconsistent semantics. Typically much of the meaning of a diagram resides in the labels; however, the choice of labeling is largely unrestricted. This means a correct solution may utilize differing yet semantically equivalent…