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  1. Folate and vitamin B12 status in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Djalali, Mahmoud; Moghadam, Ali Malekshahi; Ramezankhani, Ozra; Najmi, Laya

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine red blood cell (RBC) and serum folate and vitamin B12 levels as well as their intake in schizophrenic patients. METHODS: The folate and cobalamin status of 60 schizophrenic patients (15-55 years) was compared to 60 matched healthy controls using Radio Isotope Dilution Assay (RIDA). RESULTS: Serum and RBC folate in schizophrenic patients was significantly lower than the control group. Mean serum cobalamin levels in the schizophrenic group were higher than controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that folate deficiency is common in schizophrenic patients; therefore, it is important to pay attention to folate levels in these patients. PMID:22247731

  2. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Brieden, T; Ujeyl, M; Naber, D

    2002-05-01

    Aggressive behavior is frequently observed in schizophrenic patients. More than 50 % of all psychiatric patients and 10 % of schizophrenic patients show aggressive symptoms varying from threatening behavior and agitation to assault. The pharmacological treatment of acute, persisting and repetitive aggression is a serious problem for other patients and staff members. Not only is violent behavior from mentally ill patients the most detrimental factor in their stigmatization, aggression is also a considerable direct source of danger for the patients themselves. Based on rather limited evidence, a wide variety of medications for the pharmacological treatment of aggression has been recommended: typical and atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, beta-blockers and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Most clinical information on treating aggression has been collected for atypical neuroleptics, particularly for clozapine. Several retrospective and open studies indicate its efficacy. Treatment duration of 6 months is recommended to induce a stable reduction of physical and verbal aggression. Severe side effects have very rarely been seen. At the moment, clozapine seems to be the first choice in aggression treatment. Within the last few years, about 10 articles were published showing that this is the most effective antiaggressive agent in the treatment of aggression and agitation in psychiatric patients, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. However, clozapine, like all the other substances used, does not have an established indication for the treatment of aggressive symptoms. Noncompliance with medication makes it difficult to choose the right preparation for the medication: tablets, liquids, intramuscular injections and readily soluble "FDDFs" are available. Ethical, juridical and methodological problems prevent controlled studies from establishing a reference in the treatment of aggression in mentally ill patients. This review summarizes

  3. Spectral and brain mapping analysis of EEG based on Pwelch in schizophrenic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Y.; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the differences of power spectral distribution in various frequency bands between healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients. Subjects in this study were 8 people consisting of 4 schizophrenic patients and 4 healthy subjects. Subjects were recorded from 12 electrodes with Electroencephalography (EEG). EEG signals were recorded during a resting eye-closed state for 4-6 minutes. Data were extracted and analyzed by centering and filtering, then performed using Welch Periodogram technique for the spectral estimation with a Hamming window. The results of this study showed that delta power spectral in schizophrenic patients increased ten times from healthy subjects; theta power spectral in schizophrenic patients increased three times from healthy subjects; alpha power spectral in schizophrenic patients decreased with an increase of one third of healthy subjects. These results were confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showing there were significant differences between schizophrenic and healthy subjects on delta, theta and alpha brain wave. Based on the results of Brain Mapping analysis showed that there was significant increasing in the activity of delta waves and theta waves in frontal lobe of schizophrenics, whereas the alpha waves indicated a decrease in the occipital lobe in all schizophrenic patients.

  4. Impact of Life Events on the Relapse of Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Jacoob, Shirooq; Sharour, Loai Abu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between stressful life events at the time of relapse in schizophrenic patients at psychiatric hospitals in Baghdad city. Methodology: A purposive (non-probability) sampling of 50 schizophrenic patients who have relapsed was involved in the present study. Data were collected through the use of the…

  5. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  6. Family interaction: parental representation in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Onstad, S; Skre, I; Torgersen, S; Kringlen, E

    1994-01-01

    12 monozygotic (MZ) and 19 same-sexed dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs discordant for DSM-III-R schizophrenia completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The schizophrenic twins described their parents as less caring and being more overprotective compared to their non-schizophrenic co-twins. These results were independent of age, sex and zygosity. Difference in paternal overprotection was the most important variable discriminating between the schizophrenic probands and their co-twins. Three different hypotheses regarding these findings are discussed. PMID:7879646

  7. [The information of the schizophrenic patient: actuality].

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, J; Brousse, G; Favre, P; Llorca, P-M

    2005-01-01

    schizophrenia can come alive talking about things in the past before they became ill. It's as if their life grinded to halt when they became sick. I'm stuck in the mid seventies, and that's the music I like. Everybody I know with schizophrenia is quite isolated socially and I don't really know why. That is especially true for the older people in my age group. Younger people seem to be doing much better. Many still live with their parents. Most older people live alone. There is also the odd person who recovers well, returns to a career, and marries someone without schizophrenia. In cases where marriage predates the onset of schizophrenia, the outcome is often divorce although women are more likely to stick with their husbands with schizophrenia than vice versa, especially if there are already children. I hope the next generation who appears to be less disabled survives better than people of my age with schizophrenia. The goal of community integration is one that requires: more effective treatments and/or more financial support and/or a compassionate non-discriminating community. The combination of early diagnosis and atypical medications will change the face of schizophrenia. I'm not expecting more financial support from the government, but many more people with schizophrenia will start working again instead. Their social networks will develop but social networks are probably the hardest hit in schizophrenia. It's better that you never lose your friends in the first place". This testimony shows how the information of the schizophrenic patient is necessary, and underlines the importance of the relationships between the patient and his family. Our article insists on this theme, rarely developed in the literature. PMID:15959449

  8. Sex Differences in Completed Suicide by Schizophrenic Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on all studies of suicide mortality in follow-up studies of schizophrenic patients that presented data for male and female patients separately. The percentage of deaths from suicide was significantly greater for the male schizophrenic patients than for the female schizophrenic patients in studies where both sexes were…

  9. Basic symptoms and P300 abnormalities in young schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, S; Quercioli, L; Pazzagli, A

    1999-01-01

    Among the reasons for the relatively limited number of investigations of self-knowledge phenomena should be included, in addition to theoretical motives, the difficulties regarding the use of instruments available for this kind of approach and their content validity. This study investigates the relationship between subjective and objective deficits in schizophrenia, taking into account subjective experiences of cognitive impairment, clinical symptoms, and cognitive evoked potentials (P300 component). A group of 36 young schizophrenic patients (29 on neuroleptic treatment and seven drug-naive) were considered, together with a comparison group of 36 healthy subjects. Auditory event-correlated potentials (ERPs) were obtained using a simple "oddball" paradigm. Clinical symptoms were rated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS), and while subjective disturbances were assessed by the Frankfurter Beschwerde Fragebogen (FBF, also called the Complaint Questionnaire). Correlation analysis showed that P300 amplitude was inversely correlated with subjective experiences of cognitive deficit, especially in the area of automatic skills and overstimulation. No relationship emerged between BPRS, SANS, and SAPS scores and P300 alterations. The results suggest that subjective cognitive disturbances, more than objective symptoms, are related to P300 alterations in schizophrenia, and that the FBF questionnaire appropriately covers the domain of schizophrenic cognitive disorders. PMID:10509619

  10. [Psychopathological correlates of dopaminergic dysfunction in alcoholic and schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Heinz, A

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that anhedonia, the loss of pleasure, is associated with a dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system in schizophrenic and alcohol-dependent patients. In a series of neuroendocrinological and brain imaging studies, we examined pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms of dopaminergic neurotransmission in non-human primates and in schizophrenic and alcohol-dependent patients. Among alcoholics, we found indicators of a sensitization of dopaminergic neurotransmission, which was associated with the relapse risk, but not with anhedonia or depression. Schizophrenics with neuroleptic blockade of striatal dopamine D2 receptors displayed psychomotor slowing and reduced motivation, but not anhedonia. Primate studies pointed to the importance of a temporocortical dysfunction in the pathogenesis of phasic dopaminergic dysregulation in the striatum. These observations indicate that a dysfunction of stimulus-dependent dopamine release may be associated with motivational deficits caused by a reduction in incentive salience, but not with anhedonia. PMID:10407835

  11. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kotb El-Sayed, Mohamed-I; Amin, Hatem-K

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients. Patients and methods In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10) or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10). Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone) and h (haloperidol). Healthy male subjects (37) were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17) and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20). Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated. Results ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium. Conclusion Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. PMID:25926735

  12. Smooth pursuit eye tracking over a structured background in first-episode schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hutton, S B; Crawford, T J; Kennard, C; Barnes, T R; Joyce, E M

    2000-01-01

    Whilst most laboratory smooth pursuit tasks are performed in the dark, in everyday life pursuit commonly occurs over a structured background. This background provides a powerful stimulus to the optokinetic reflex (OKR), inducing a background "drag" on pursuit eye movements. An inability to inhibit the influence of the OKR may be a contributing factor to the dysfunctional pursuit performance observed in many schizophrenic patients. Smooth pursuit performance was measured in 23 first-episode schizophrenic patients and 23 healthy controls matched for age and estimated IQ, both in the dark and over a structured background (a random checkerboard of black and white squares). Velocity gain was measured, as well as the number and size of corrective saccades (catch-up saccades) and intrusive saccades (anticipatory saccades and square wave jerks). Overall, schizophrenic patients had lower velocity gain and made more catch-up saccades than controls. The effect of the background was to lower velocity gain and increase the number of catch-up saccades to the same extent in schizophrenic patients and controls. There were no significant interactions between group and background effect. These results suggest that, although their overall level of performance was worse, the schizophrenic patients were as able as controls to inhibit the effect of the OKR. Since lesion studies show that inhibition of the OKR requires intact inferior parietal regions in man (Lawden et al., 1995), one hypothesis is that the parietal component of smooth pursuit may be intact in schizophrenia. PMID:11097164

  13. Prediction of employability in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Solinski, S; Jackson, H J; Bell, R C

    1992-07-01

    This study, the third of a series of reports on employability and schizophrenia, investigated the effects of both interview and non-interview variables on employability. Data on 46 chronic schizophrenic inpatients included demographic and illness-related variables, measures of psychopathology and interview-based ratings of employment skill. Latent class analysis using linear structural relations (LISREL) modelling generated the main finding namely, that interview-based measures are the strongest determinants of employability. However, other variables pertaining to illness, prior functioning and negative symptoms, exert an effect on interview performance and hence indirectly influence employability ratings and judgements. PMID:1515375

  14. The effect of context during word perception in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Done, D J; Frith, C D

    1984-11-01

    Hospitalized chronic and acute schizophrenics were compared with age- and social-status-matched controls on word perception tests to measure the effect of context on recognition thresholds. In Experiment 1 the method of J. Morton (1964, British Journal of Psychology, 55, 165-180) was adopted to see how related and unrelated contexts influenced word recognition thresholds when both context and stimulus word were presented visually. Experiment 2 was an auditory analog of Experiment 1 and in addition the chronic schizophrenics were selected on the basis of a presence or absence of auditory hallucinations. The influence of context on perceptual thresholds was quite normal in all schizophrenics. However, analysis of the incorrect responses elicited showed that some schizophrenic subjects do produce bizarre or irrelevant responses or perseveration to a greater extent than their controls. These results are explained in terms of automatic and strategic modes of information processing. The automatic processes responsible for the adjustment of perceptual thresholds operate normally in schizophrenics but response production which demands strategic selection and editing of responses is prone to malfunction which results in the observed deviations in the normal use of language. PMID:6518358

  15. Cytomegalovirus Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Schizophrenic Patients Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack

    1982-05-01

    By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.

  16. The Comprehension of Idiomatic Expressions in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schettino, Antonio; Lauro, Leonor Romero; Crippa, Franca; Anselmetti, Simona; Cavallaro, Roberto; Papagno, Costanza

    2010-01-01

    Recent fMRI and TMS studies on idiom comprehension have shown that the prefrontal cortex is involved in idiom processing. Since schizophrenic patients exhibit prefrontal "structural" changes and dysexecutive "behavioural" deficits, we hypothesised an impairment in idiom comprehension, correlating with performance on executive tasks. In this study,…

  17. Unsuccessful Self-Enucleation in a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Noy Achiron, Romi; Paul, Michael; Achiron, Asaf

    2014-01-01

    Self-enucleation is a very unusual form of self-mutilation directly linked to mental illness. In this case we present a 26-year-old schizophrenic patient who attempted to enucleate his eye with a rollerball pen. Antipsychotic therapy and emergency surgery saved the patient eye and emphasize the importance of quick response and good collaboration between psychiatric and ophthalmic teams. PMID:25328735

  18. Neurocognitive performance in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Andresen, Burghard; Perro, Christian; Schickel, Marc; Krausz, Micheal; Naber, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Previous research on neuropsychological disturbances in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients has provided mixed results which can be partially attributed to methodological inconsistencies. For the present study, 70 schizophrenic patients (40 with chronic and 30 with first-episode schizophrenia) were compared to 30 healthy controls on a large battery of neuropsychological tests. Special attention was paid to potential confounds such as differences in psychopathology, age and educational level between the schizophrenic sub-samples. Healthy controls performed better than both first-episode and chronic patients in almost all cognitive domains (P < 0.01), while the patient samples did not differ in any of the tasks. Results were confirmed in a second series of analyses in which patient subgroups were equated for sociodemographic background variables. The present results confirm recent data collected in longitudinal studies, thus, lending further support for a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. It is suggested that neuropsychological disturbances occur early in schizophrenia and do not worsen in the course beyond age-related decrement. Possible reasons why previous research has produced contradictory findings are discussed. PMID:12056580

  19. [Reducing ambiguity: semantic statistical studies of "normal" probands, neurotic patients, borderline patients and schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Leichsenring, F; Meyer, H A

    1994-01-01

    The present study tries to answer three questions: 1.) Do patients with neurotic disorders differ from normals by a stronger tendency to avoid or reduce ambiguity? 2.) Does the tendency to avoid or reduce ambiguity increase with increasing ambiguity of the stimulus? 3.) Does the avoidance or reduction of ambiguity increase with affects of anxiety and hostility? In order to answer these questions, Ertel's dogmatism-dictionary was applied to the answers of 30 normals, 30 patients with neurotic disorders, 30 borderline-patients, 25 acute and 25 chronic schizophrenics in the Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT). According to the results, (1) patients with neurotic disorders do not differ from normals by a stronger tendency to avoid or reduce ambiguity. 2.) The tendency to avoid or reduce ambiguity increases with measures of increasing stimulus ambiguity of the HIT cards in all diagnostic groups studied with the exception of chronic schizophrenics. As far as response ambiguity (variability of interpretation) is concerned, only in chronic schizophrenics the tendency to avoid or reduce ambiguity decreases with increasing response ambiguity. 3.) The avoidance or reduction of ambiguity increases with affects of anxiety and/or aggression assessed by HIT-measures in all diagnostic groups studied with the exception of normals and chronic schizophrenics. In both normals and chronic schizophrenics, the reduction of ambiguity decreases significantly with increasing anxiety, in chronic schizophrenics the reduction of ambiguity decreases significantly with an increase of low levels of aggression. PMID:7879407

  20. Serum homocysteine, folate level and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677, 1298 gene polymorphism in Korean schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Jeon, Chang Moo; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Na, Chul; Chae, Seok Lae; Cho, Soo Churl

    2006-05-15

    High homocysteine serum level has been regarded as one of the important factors that influence the development of schizophrenia. Genetic variations of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, which is a main enzyme reducing homocysteine level, are reported in schizophrenic patients. We measured the serum level of homocysteine/folate and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T/A1298C gene polymorphism in 235 patients with schizophrenia. Plasma homocysteine levels were higher and folate levels were lower in patients than in comparison subjects. Variations of C677T were more frequent in patients than in comparison subjects. Patients with the 677TT genotype showed higher homocysteine levels than patients with the CC and CT genotypes. These findings suggest that folate supplement may be beneficial to some schizophrenic patients with homocysteinemia due to the genetic defect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. PMID:16641680

  1. Neglected basal cell carcinoma in a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hassan A; Lee, Hui Bae Harold; Nunery, William R

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent from patients with mental disorders can be a complicated and involved process, potentially resulting in decisions contrary to the advice of physicians. We present a schizophrenic patient with an invasive basal cell carcinoma involving the periocular structures and the right orbit. Exenteration was recommended with en bloc resection of the tumor. The ethical and legal committees decided against surgical intervention. Rather, the patient was admitted for medical treatment of his mental illness. A multidisciplinary approach with consultation of a psychiatrist, social worker, and ethical and legal committees is often necessary in the care of patients with mental illness. PMID:19033856

  2. THE STABILITY OF SYMPTOMS AND SYNDROMES IN CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Sharma, L.N.

    1992-01-01

    36 chronic schizophrenic patients meeting D.S.M. III - R criteria were assessed by a single rater using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Ratings were repeated 9 months later by the same rater. Negative symptoms and syndromes were much more stable over time than positive symptoms and syndromes. Only hallucinations had stability comparable to the negative symptoms. Positive and negative subtypes of schizophrenia based on the composite score were very stable. Relatively few symptoms from the general psychopathology subscale were stable over time. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21776113

  3. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.; Dowling-Zimmerman, S.; Pickar, D.; Boronow, J.; Morihisa, J.M.; van Kammen, D.P.; Carpenter, W.; Kessler, R.

    1985-01-01

    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern.

  4. Facial, vocal and musical emotion recognition is altered in paranoid schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Weisgerber, Anne; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre; De Graeuwe D'Aoust, Catherine; De Jaegere, Aline; Delatte, Benoît; Gillain, Benoît; De Longueville, Xavier; Constant, Eric

    2015-09-30

    Disturbed processing of emotional faces and voices is typically observed in schizophrenia. This deficit leads to impaired social cognition and interactions. In this study, we investigated whether impaired processing of emotions also affects musical stimuli, which are widely present in daily life and known for their emotional impact. Thirty schizophrenic patients and 30 matched healthy controls evaluated the emotional content of musical, vocal and facial stimuli. Schizophrenic patients are less accurate than healthy controls in recognizing emotion in music, voices and faces. Our results confirm impaired recognition of emotion in voice and face stimuli in schizophrenic patients and extend this observation to the recognition of emotion in musical stimuli. PMID:26210647

  5. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients1

    PubMed Central

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon. METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior. CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment. PMID:25296152

  6. Protective Effects of Quetiapine on Metabolic and Inflammatory Abnormalities in Schizophrenic Patients during Exacerbated Stage.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Ko, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Sheng-Chiang; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2016-04-30

    Inflammation has been considered important in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increasing evidence reveals that patients with schizophrenia have abnormal expression of cytokines, which are related to development of metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic abnormality has become a critical issue, though its longitudinal relationship with the disorder, such as the antipsychotics influence, is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether abnormalities of metabolic parameters and cytokine levels in acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients existed, and whether intervention of antipsychotic could help. The present study analyzed peripheral cytokines and metabolic/hemodynamic parameters in healthy controls and acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients hospitalized for three weeks under the unique treatment of quetiapine, a well-known second-generation antipsychotic. Our results showed that patients with schizophrenia were predisposed to metabolic abnormalities in acute exacerbation, including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The patients were also prone to dysglycemia, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, and higher blood pressure with concomitant of elevation of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in which IL-6 was associated with BMI. After quetiapine treatment, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 remained higher than the controls, but IL-10 was significantly decreased in follow-up comparison. Glycemic-related indexes, HDL-c and IL-10 levels were significantly changed by variance analysis. Results of the present study imply that acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients with metabolism abnormalities may involve disruption of expression of cytokines, and that quetiapine may have therapeutic effects. Nonetheless, metabolism parameters of patients undergoing treatment with quetiapine should be closely monitored. PMID:27080462

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika I; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite with neurotropic characteristics that can mediate neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental, behavioral and personality aspects of their hosts. Therefore, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies has been studied in patients with different neurological disorders from different localities. On searching online databases, however, we could not find published studies on the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies among patients with neurodevelopmental disorders in Egypt. Therefore, the present preliminary study was conducted to determine the serological profile of T. gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt. Data and blood samples were collected from 188 patients recruited for the study from four mental rehabilitation centers in the period from July 2014 to March 2015. The overall seropositivity rates of IgM and IgG among patients were 16.5% (31/188) and 50.0% (94/188), respectively. Of the studied patients' characteristics, only age was significantly associated with anti-Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity, with older patients being about twice more likely exposed to infection. However, no statistically significant association was found with IgM. In addition, seropositivity of anti-Toxoplasma IgG, but not IgM, was significantly associated with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders; however, neither IgG nor IgM showed a significant association with cognitive impairment as indicated by the intelligence quotient scores. PMID:26656562

  8. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  9. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  10. What happens in the leucotomised brain? A postmortem morphological study of brains from schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Pakkenberg, B

    1989-01-01

    Volume measurements were carried out on 19 brains from leucotomised schizophrenic patients and 20 age- and sex-matched controls using a stereological method. The volume of the total fixed brain, hemispheres, cortex, white matter, and central grey matter were all significantly reduced compared with controls. White matter and central grey structures were significantly reduced compared with a group of non-leucotomised schizophrenic brains. No difference was found in the size of the lesions in patients who improved compared with the patients who remained unchanged and the outcome was unrelated to lesional asymmetry. Morphometric measurements were correlated to a number of clinical parameters. PMID:2703834

  11. [Development of a proverb test for assessment of concrete thinking problems in schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Barth, A; Küfferle, B

    2001-11-01

    Concretism is considered an important aspect of schizophrenic thought disorder. Traditionally it is measured using the method of proverb interpretation, in which metaphoric proverbs are presented with the request that the subject tell its meaning. Interpretations are recorded and scored on concretistic tendencies. However, this method has two problems: its reliability is doubtful and it is rather complicated to perform. In this paper, a new version of a multiple choice proverb test is presented which can solve these problems in a reliable and economic manner. Using the new test, it is has been shown that schizophrenic patients have greater deficits in proverb interpretation than depressive patients. PMID:11758092

  12. Reduced high affinity cholecystokinin binding in hippocampus and frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Farmery, S.M.; Owen, F.; Poulter, M.; Crow, T.J.

    1985-02-04

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding sites were assessed in post-mortem brain membrane preparations from controls and schizophrenic patients. /sup 125/ I-BH CCK/sub 33/ specific binding was reduced by 40% (p < 0.02) in the hippocampus and by 20% (p < 0.01) in the frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients compared with controls. There were no differences in /sup 125/I-BH CCK/sub 33/ binding between the two groups in the amygdala, temporal cortex or caudate nucleus. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. Hemispheric asymmetry in visual recognition of words and motor response in schizophrenic and depressive patients.

    PubMed

    Min, S K; Oh, B H

    1992-02-01

    Two-letter Hangul words were presented tachistoscopically as target words to either the right or left visual field of normal subjects, schizophrenics, and depressive patients. The subjects' task was to judge the similarity or difference between the target words and the words used for comparison. They were to signal as soon as possible by pressing a key with their hands. In normal subjects, the correct response rate was significantly higher in the left hemisphere; there was little difference in the speed of motor response between the two hemispheres, however. Compared with normal subjects, both patient groups showed generalized impairment. Schizophrenia was associated with impairment in the left hemisphere, depression was associated with impairment in the right hemisphere. PMID:1547299

  14. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Calcium metabolism in schizophrenic patients on long-term neuroleptic therapy.

    PubMed

    Baastrup, P C; Christiansen, C; Transbøl, I

    1980-01-01

    The bone mineral content (BMC) in both forearms (highly related to total body calcium) was measured in a large group of schizophrenic patients receiving neuroleptic drugs. The mean BMC value was 86% of normal (p less than 0.001), and the decrease was independent of type of neuroleptic treatment. In contrast, the biochemical variables (serum calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatases) were virtually normal. This combination of osteopenia and normal biochemical variables suggests that schizophrenics have osteoporosis, be it due to the disease or the treatment given. PMID:6102745

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging DTI-FT study on schizophrenic patients with typical negative first symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chengyu; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Fuquan; Cheng, Yougen; Cao, Yulin; Hou, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) together with a white matter fiber tracking (FT) technique was used to assess different brain white matter structures and functionalities in schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms. In total, 30 schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms, comprising an observation group were paired 1:1 according to gender, age, right-handedness, and education, with 30 healthy individuals in a control group. Individuals in each group underwent routine MRI and DTI examination of the brain, and diffusion-tensor tractography (DTT) data were obtained through whole brain analysis based on voxel and tractography. The results were expressed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. The schizophrenic patients were evaluated using a positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) as well as a Global Assessment Scale (GAS). The results of the study showed that routine MRIs identified no differences between the two groups. However, compared with the control group, the FA values obtained by DTT from the deep left prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus callosum were significantly lower in the observation group (P<0.05). The PANSS positive scale value in the observation group averaged 7.7±1.5, and the negative scale averaged 46.6±5.9, while the general psychopathology scale averaged 65.4±10.3, and GAS averaged 53.8±19.2. The Pearson statistical analysis, the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and the FA value of part of the corpus callosum in the observation group was negatively correlated with the negative scale (P<0.05), and positively correlated with GAS (P<0.05). In conclusion, a decrease in the FA values of the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus

  17. A Weight-Reduction Program for Schizophrenic Patients on a Token Economy Unit: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upper, Dennis; Newton, Judith G.

    1971-01-01

    Overweight patients on a token economy psychiatric ward were reinforced with tokens, off ward privileges and social approval for meeting a weight loss criterion of three pounds per week. The progress of two subjects, both chronic paranoid schizophrenics, is described. The procedure appears to be effective. (Author)

  18. Schizophrenic Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings Share Increased Resting-State Connectivity in the Task-Negative Network but Not Its Anticorrelated Task-Positive Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haihong; Kaneko, Yoshio; Ouyang, Xuan; Li, Li; Hao, Yihui; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Zhening

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abnormal connectivity of the anticorrelated intrinsic networks, the task-negative network (TNN), and the task-positive network (TPN) is implicated in schizophrenia. Comparisons between schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings enable further understanding of illness susceptibility and pathophysiology. We examined the resting-state connectivity differences in the intrinsic networks between schizophrenic patients, their unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were obtained from 25 individuals in each subject group. The posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were used as seed regions to identify the TNN and TPN through functional connectivity analysis. Interregional connectivity strengths were analyzed using overlapped intrinsic networks composed of regions common to all subject groups. Results: Schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings showed increased connectivity in the TNN between the bilateral inferior temporal gyri. By contrast, schizophrenic patients alone demonstrated increased connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and left inferior temporal gyrus and between the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and right lateral parietal cortex in the TNN. Schizophrenic patients exhibited increased connectivity between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus in the TPN relative to their unaffected siblings, though this trend only approached statistical significance in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Resting-state hyperconnectivity of the intrinsic networks may disrupt network coordination and thereby contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Similar, though milder, hyperconnectivity of the TNN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenic patients may contribute to the identification of schizophrenia endophenotypes and ultimately to the determination of schizophrenia

  19. Smoking in schizophrenic patients: A critique of the self-medication hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Manzella, Francesca; Maloney, Susan E; Taylor, George T

    2015-01-01

    A common remark among laypeople, and notably also among mental health workers, is that individuals with mental illnesses use drugs as self-medication to allay clinical symptoms and the side effects of drug treatments. Roots of the self-medication concept in psychiatry date back at least to the 1980s. Observations that rates of smokers in schizophrenic patients are multiple times the rates for regular smoking in the general population, as well as those with other disorders, proved particularly tempting for a self-medication explanation. Additional evidence came from experiments with animal models exposed to nicotine and the identification of neurobiological mechanisms suggesting self-medication with smoking is a plausible idea. More recently, results from studies comparing smoking and non-smoking schizophrenic patients have led to the questioning of the self-medication hypothesis. Closer examination of the literature points to the possibility that smoking is less beneficial on schizophrenic symptomology than generally assumed while clearly increasing the risk of cancer and other smoking-related diseases responsible for early mortality. It is a good time to examine the evidence for the self-medication concept as it relates to smoking. Our approach is to focus on data addressing direct or implied predictions of the hypothesis in schizophrenic smokers. PMID:25815253

  20. Neuropsychology, social cognition and global functioning among bipolar, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls: preliminary data

    PubMed Central

    Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo A.; Fiorentini, Alessio; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Serati, Marta; Orsenigo, Giulia; Grillo, Paolo; Zago, Stefano; Caldiroli, Alice; Prunas, Cecilia; Giusti, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Altamura, A. Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic (SKZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan; it includes stabilized SKZ patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and HC (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB) that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however, the differences did not influence the results. BD patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to SKZ patients, even in “ecological” tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p < 0.0038) and BACS symbol coding (p < 0.0043). Regarding the ESCB tests, in the Hotel task SKZ patients completed significantly less tasks (p < 0.001), showed a greater number of errors in Multiple Errands Test (MET-HV) (p < 0.0248) and a worse performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tests (p < 0.001 for the Eyes test and Faux pas test). Both patients' groups performed significantly worse than HC. Finally, significant differences were found between the two groups in GAF scores, being greater among BD subjects (p < 0.001). GAF was correlated with BACS and ESCB scores showing the crucial role of cognitive and ecological performances in patients' global functioning. PMID:24146642

  1. The relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Asgharnejad Farid, Aliasghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a disorder with psychotic symptoms that severely affects personal performance. Assessing problem- focused strategies and quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia may help the clinicians to use appropriate interventions. This study was conducted to find the relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenic patients who referred to the clinic of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: Non-random sampling was used in two stages (quota and convenience sampling). Data were collected through Demographic Questionnaire, 5-point Likert-type scale World Health Organization Quality of Life and Problem-Focused Strategies Standard Questionnaire. Four dimensions of QoL which were assessed among schizophrenic patients were as follows: Physical health, mental health, social relationships and environmental factors. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression were used for data analysis. Results: The highest mean score (Mean= 2.7) belonged to environmental factors and the lowest score to social relationships (Mean= 2.55). Overall, there was a significant direct relationship between the QoL and problem-focused coping strategies (p= 0.024, r= 0.319). Conclusion: The Schizophrenic patients who used more problem- focused coping strategies had better QoL. Therefore, it is important to take into account problem- focus coping strategies when treating the patients. The application of this research will be crucial to clinicians and healthcare executives. PMID:26913251

  2. Extrastriatal dopamine D 2/3 receptor density and distribution in drug-naive schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, H; Kuikka, J; Viinamäki, H; Husso-Saastamoinen, M; Bergström, K; Tiihonen, J

    2003-04-01

    Several lines of studies have suggested the importance of cortical dopamine (DA) transmission in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The putative alteration of striatal D(2) receptor density in schizophrenia has been studied intensely, although extrastriatal DA activity may be more relevant for behavioral symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore extrastriatal D(2/3) density in drug-naive schizophrenic patients. We studied the extrastriatal D(2/3) receptor binding with a novel high-affinity single-photon emission tomography ligand epidepride in seven drug-naive schizophrenic patients and seven matched controls. The symptoms were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia. The findings indicated an extremely low D(2/3) receptor binding among patients in temporal cortex in both hemispheres when compared with controls (effect size 2.0-2.3), and the D(2/3) levels had negative correlations with general psychopathological (r from -0.86 to -0.90) and negative (r from -0.37 to -0.55) schizophrenic symptoms. These results support the previous hypothesis on dysfunction of mesocortical DA function behind the cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:12740603

  3. Private and public in the lives of chronic schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Leferink, K

    1998-01-01

    This article argues that both the private and public spheres must be taken into account when analyzing the development and everyday reality of the mentally ill. Private and public are two poles whose reciprocal relationship constitutes the form taken by a person's life. The interplay of both areas expresses how a person uses his thinking, feeling, and acting to relate to a real or imaginary audience. The psychosocial reality of a person is based on cooperation of the public and private selves. According to a central thesis of this essay, a loss of public presence leads in equal measure to a loss, rather than an increase, of private reality. An empirical study based on a sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia confirms this assumption by showing that such patients, under today's social conditions, develop lives characterized by a high degree of private reclusiveness. This is linked with an external and internal loss of life reality. Many patients, however, look for indirect and socially noncommittal forms of participating in public life without having to deny their private reality. PMID:9706102

  4. Perception of the duration of emotional faces in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Liu, Yunzhe; Tan, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    The level of emotional timing deficit is a critical determinant of daily functions and social interactions in people with schizophrenia. This study demonstrated that people with schizophrenia have significant deficits in emotional time perception. Behaviorally, while the healthy controls overestimated the duration of happy and fearful faces, the patients underestimated the duration of emotional and neutral faces. Accordingly, an online ERP index of timing—the contingent negative variation (CNV) displayed larger amplitudes for emotional faces in the controls, whereas the CNV in the patients only showed overall smaller amplitudes when compared with the controls. In addition, the results of the N170 and the CNV suggest that the emotional processing and timing for facial expressions in schizophrenia might have a pattern of two-stage deterioration. Findings from the present work point to the importance of considering the time dimension of emotional processing in schizophrenia, based on which we are likely to discover aspects of emotional deficits that would be unnoticed in other studies. Furthermore, the perception deviation of the duration of emotional faces in schizophrenia suggests us to consider the magnitude of this temporal deviation as a quantitative biomarker for specific emotional/social dysfunctions in schizophrenia. PMID:26923667

  5. Abnormal physiological conditions in acute schizophrenic patients on emergency admission: dehydration, hypokalemia, leukocytosis and elevated serum muscle enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hatta, K; Takahashi, T; Nakamura, H; Yamashiro, H; Endo, H; Fujii, S; Fukami, G; Masui, K; Asukai, N; Yonezawa, Y

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated varieties and incidence of abnormal physiological conditions in acute schizophrenic patients on emergency. Laboratory data obtained prior to treatment from patients, admitted on an emergency basis during an 18-month period, were evaluated retrospectively, as well as demographics and clinical characteristics. Of 259 male acute schizophrenic patients (ICD-10: F2), 6.9% revealed dehydration, a third had hypokalemia and leukocytosis, and two thirds showed elevated serum muscle enzymes. These percentages were statistically significant compared with those of outpatients. In addition, the former three of these conditions in the F2 group were as frequent as those in alcohol and/or psychoactive substance abusers (ICD-10: F1) on emergency admission, although elevated serum muscle enzymes in the F2 group was less frequent than that in the F1 group. In order to prevent these abnormal physiological conditions from worsening and becoming life-threatening, one fourth of the F2 group [dehydration, 6.9%, severe hypokalemia (< 3.0 mEq/l), 2.3%, and markedly elevated serum muscle enzymes (creatine phosphokinase > 1000 IU/l), 16.5%] required medical management such as fluid therapy and various types of monitoring. In cases of a behavioral emergency, laboratory screening and monitoring of urinary output were essential. Due to their lack of cooperation, case history, physical examination, and initial vital signs did not contribute to detection of their medical condition. PMID:9810481

  6. [Assessment of metabolic impairments inducted by atypical antipsychotics among schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Gauthé, M; Goldberger, C; Olié, J P; Lôo, H; Gury, C; Poirier, M F

    2005-01-01

    Conventional and atypical antipsychotics are known to induce weight gain, cause glucose and lipid impairments among schizophrenic patients. These impairments contribute to the intrinsic risk factors linked to the psychiatric pathology (sedentary state, nicotin addiction, diabetes) increasing numbers of cardiovascular complications. We propose to study ponderal modifications and presence of metabolic abnormalities in a population of schizophrenic patients treated by conventional or atypical antipsychotics, depending on the received treatment; 32 patients, whose schizophrenia diagnosis had been previously made, were consecutively included over a 4 months period. They were divided into three groups: patients treated by conventional antipsychotics (n = 6), by atypical antipsychotics (n = 16) or by a combination of both (n = 10); 6 patients (18%) display overweight problems, 4 patients (12.5%) got hypertriglyceridemia and 4 other patients (12.5%) have hypercholesterolemia. No particular drug could be directly targeted, partly because of the restricted size of our sample, but the patients presenting metabolism impairment were treated by atypical antipsychotic. The observance of these abnormalities is reflected in publications and lead to some antipsychotic treatments monitoring rules. PMID:15971636

  7. Simple Analysis Used in Diagnosis and Follow-up of Schizophrenic Patients (Patent)

    PubMed Central

    Nour El-Dien, Faten A.; El-Nahas, Reham G.; El-Nahas, Ahmed G.

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine acts as neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Determination of dopamine (DO) was performed by spectrophotometric analysis depending on the formation of new colored compound. The proposed procedure was efficient in quantitative determination of DO as pure material in pharmaceutical preparations and in urine samples. DO concentration in urine sample of patient confirms the affection with schizophrenia and the proposed procedure was used to facilitate diagnosis and followup of schizophrenic patients. It is recommended to apply the proposed procedures as routine analysis in pharmaceutical companies for quality control and in analytical laboratories to diagnose and follow up schizophrenia. PMID:17671624

  8. The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ≥ 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated a new schizophrenia data base, the GRAS (Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia) data collection. GRAS is the necessary ground to study genetic causes of the schizophrenic phenotype in a 'phenotype-based genetic association study' (PGAS). This approach is different from and complementary to the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on schizophrenia. Methods For this purpose, 1085 patients were recruited between 2005 and 2010 by an invariable team of traveling investigators in a cross-sectional field study that comprised 23 German psychiatric hospitals. Additionally, chart records and discharge letters of all patients were collected. Results The corresponding dataset extracted and presented in form of an overview here, comprises biographic information, disease history, medication including side effects, and results of comprehensive cross-sectional psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurological examinations. With >3000 data points per schizophrenic subject, this data base of living patients, who are also accessible for follow-up studies, provides a wide-ranging and standardized phenotype characterization of as yet unprecedented detail. Conclusions The GRAS data base will serve as prerequisite for PGAS, a novel approach to better understanding 'the schizophrenias' through exploring the contribution of genetic variation to the schizophrenic phenotypes. PMID:21067598

  9. Plasma concentrations of three methylated arginines, endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, in schizophrenic patients undergoing antipsychotic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Nonaka-Hashida, Satoko; Sekine, Masae; Ozeki, Yuji; Fujii, Kumiko; Akiyama, Kazufumi; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Tsunoda, Makoto; Katane, Masumi; Saitoh, Yasuaki; Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Homma, Hiroshi

    2016-04-30

    Plasma concentration of three methylated arginines, endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, is not studied in schizophrenic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma concentrations of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), N(G),N(G)-dimethyl-l-arginine (ADMA), N(G),N(G')-dimethyl-l-arginine (SDMA), and l-arginine in 56 male and 45 female schizophrenic patients undergoing antipsychotic drug treatment versus those of 39 male and 24 female healthy controls. Plasma concentrations of methylated arginines and l-arginine were measured using newly developed high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection which we previously reported. Methylated arginine levels were slightly but significantly higher in schizophrenic patients. l-Arginine levels and the l-arginine/(ADMA+l-NMMA) ratio were higher in schizophrenic patients than in healthy controls. It is considered that pharmacological treatment of schizophrenic patients may lower methylated arginine levels that are increased by the disease, and increase l-arginine levels, eliciting an improvement in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. PMID:27086234

  10. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient's symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients. PMID:26101683

  11. Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    García, Saínza; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; López-Zurbano, Saioa; Zorrilla, Iñaki; López, Purificación; Vieta, Eduard; González-Pinto, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Antipsychotics are the drugs prescribed to treat psychotic disorders; however, patients often fail to adhere to their treatment, and this has a severe negative effect on prognosis in these kinds of illnesses. Among the wide range of risk factors for treatment nonadherence, this systematic review covers those that are most important from the point of view of clinicians and patients and proposes guidelines for addressing them. Analyzing 38 studies conducted in a total of 51,796 patients, including patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder, we found that younger age, substance abuse, poor insight, cognitive impairments, low level of education, minority ethnicity, poor therapeutic alliance, experience of barriers to care, high intensity of delusional symptoms and suspiciousness, and low socioeconomic status are the main risk factors for medication nonadherence in both types of disorder. In the future, prospective studies should be conducted on the use of personalized patient-tailored treatments, taking into account risk factors that may affect each individual, to assess the ability of such approaches to improve adherence and hence prognosis in these patients. PMID:27307187

  12. Insomnia related to biperiden withdrawal in two schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hirose, S

    2000-11-01

    It is not uncommon for patients who are receiving antipsychotic medication to be given anticholinergic agents, such as biperiden, despite the relative absence of neurological side-effects. Two cases of schizophrenia are reported in which insomnia developed after biperiden withdrawal or reduction. The insomnia continued until biperiden treatment was reinstated, despite the fact that the patients did not exhibit signs or report symptoms indicative of antipsychotic drug-induced neurological side-effects. The occurrence of insomnia following the withdrawal of biperiden or reduction in the dose has not been previously reported. One potential explanation for the insomnia is cholinergic rebound following the withdrawal of biperiden. PMID:11110012

  13. Phospholipase A2 activity in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast cells from schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Bennett, E R; Yedgar, S; Lerer, B; Ebstein, R P

    1991-06-01

    We examined the activity of phospholipase A2 in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast cell lines established from ten schizophrenic patients and ten controls. A novel method for determination of enzyme activity in whole cells was employed, by measuring the hydrolysis of a fluorescent analogue of phosphatidylcholine. No significant difference in phospholipase A2 activity was found between the groups. These results suggest that the previously reported changes in phospholipase A2 activity in plasma and in fresh peripheral cells are indicative of environmental influences and not of "trait" characteristics intrinsic to schizophrenia. PMID:1651772

  14. [Clinical prognosis of schizophrenic patients with cannabis addiction. Between nihilism and hope].

    PubMed

    Schnell, T

    2014-09-01

    Comorbid substance use disorders in schizophrenia are mostly associated with an unfavorable course of the disease and with difficulties in clinical management. Therefore, some therapists tend to react to these patients in a resigned manner. However, there is growing evidence for higher cognitive functioning and less severe deficits in brain morphology of these patients compared to patients without cannabis use. A common interpretation refers to relatively low vulnerability for psychosis in some of these patients, who mainly became schizophrenic because of the pro-psychotic properties of cannabis. Low vulnerability is reflected by a higher cognitive functioning; therefore, the pessimistic view of therapists seems unjustified for at least a subgroup of young patients. Provided that patients are treated in adequate therapeutic settings and that they stop using cannabis, a lower vulnerability may be associated with overall better socio-rehabilitative outcome parameters. PMID:24343109

  15. Genetic variability testing of neurodevelopmental genes in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Terzić, Tea; Kastelic, Matej; Dolžan, Vita; Plesničar, Blanka Kores

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the neurodevelopmental Disrupted In Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1 ), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NOTCH4 genes and the clinical symptoms and the occurrence of treatment-resistant schizophrenia in the Slovenian population. We included 138 schizophrenia patients, divided into treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant group and 94 healthy blood donors. All subjects were genotyped for eight polymorphisms (DISC1 rs6675281, DISC1 rs821616, NRG1 rs3735781, NRG1 rs3735782, NRG1 rs10503929, NRG1 rs3924999, BDNF rs6265, NOTCH rs367398) and investigated for associations with clinical variables. NOTCH4 rs367398 AA/AG was significantly associated with worse Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score. NOTCH4 rs367398 was not statistically significantly associated with the occurrence of treatment-resistant schizophrenia after the correction for multiple testing. Our data indicate that NOTCH4 polymorphism can influence clinical symptoms in Slovenian patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25529856

  16. Deficits in attentional processing of fearful facial expressions in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Shuping; Luo, Yuejia

    2016-01-01

    Impaired attentional processing of negative facial expressions is prominent in schizophrenia and has been shown to be associated with patients' social dysfunctions. However, little is known about when and which specific attention deficits influence social functions. Given the dynamic feature of attention, it is necessary to investigate the attention deficits in negative emotional processing unfolding in time. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of attention deficits in emotion perception and their potential relationship with emotional/social impairments in neuroleptic naive schizophrenic patients. Two specific attention deficits were identified and were found to be associated with emotional/social impairments. More specifically, the deficit in orienting attention (evidenced with the reduced P1 amplitude) was correlated with expressive deficits, while the deficit in executive control of attention (evidenced with the reduced P3 amplitude) was correlated with avolition/asociality. Together, these findings may provide novel insights into the core pathophysiological processes and offer objective biomarkers for specific emotional/social impairments in schizophrenia. It is also hoped that this study helps to bridge the gap between basic cognitive deficits and relative high-level social dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients. PMID:27586404

  17. Effects of plasma magnesium and prolactin on quantitative ultrasound measurements of heel bone among schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a bone disease that can reduce both bone mass and bone strength. It can cause serious fractures of bones, along with causing significant and even devastating physical, psychological and financial consequences for patients and their family members. Many reports have revealed that the prevalence of decreased bone density is higher in schizophrenic patients than in the non-psychological diseased population. The previous report of our group revealed that chronic schizophrenia patients have poorer BUA levels since they were young as compared to the general community population. Hyperprolactinemia and antipsychotics are reported to be among the risk factors for osteoporosis in chronic schizophrenic patients. Methods 93 schizophrenic patients with severely poor adjusted BUA values and 93 age and gender matched patients with normal adjusted BUA values from a previous survey study were selected. Data were collected via questionnaires and via reviews of antipsychotic medications. Blood samples were drawn, and serum levels of prolactin, estradiol, testosterone, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, Cross-linked N-teleopeptide of type I collagen (NTX), thyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone were checked. The association between BUA levels and serum levels of the above items, along with the type of received antipsychotic medication, was evaluated. Results There was no significant association found between reduced BUA levels and serum prolactin, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, NTX, thyroid stimulating hormone and parathyroid hormone levels. There was also no association between BUA levels and types of currently received antipsychotics. There was no association between BUA levels and menstruation condition in female patients. Hypermagnesemia had a borderline association with classical and combined (classical and atypical) antipsychotic medications in male patients. Nevertheless, hypermagnesemia is a significant protective factor of reduced BUA

  18. Deficits in attentional processing of fearful facial expressions in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Shuping; Luo, Yuejia

    2016-01-01

    Impaired attentional processing of negative facial expressions is prominent in schizophrenia and has been shown to be associated with patients’ social dysfunctions. However, little is known about when and which specific attention deficits influence social functions. Given the dynamic feature of attention, it is necessary to investigate the attention deficits in negative emotional processing unfolding in time. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of attention deficits in emotion perception and their potential relationship with emotional/social impairments in neuroleptic naive schizophrenic patients. Two specific attention deficits were identified and were found to be associated with emotional/social impairments. More specifically, the deficit in orienting attention (evidenced with the reduced P1 amplitude) was correlated with expressive deficits, while the deficit in executive control of attention (evidenced with the reduced P3 amplitude) was correlated with avolition/asociality. Together, these findings may provide novel insights into the core pathophysiological processes and offer objective biomarkers for specific emotional/social impairments in schizophrenia. It is also hoped that this study helps to bridge the gap between basic cognitive deficits and relative high-level social dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients. PMID:27586404

  19. How schizophrenic patients change during 3 years' treatment with depot neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Dencker, S J; Frankenberg, K; Lepp, M; Lindberg, D; Malm, U

    1978-02-01

    A group of patients, initially 67 individuals, with chronic schizophrenia were studied on repeated occasions during 1 year and followed up after 3 years. The patients were given depot neuroleptics, either fluphenazine decanoate or pipotiazine palmitate, at intervals of 1 month. The symptom scores from three rating scales were subjected to factor analysis. Four factors were found to explain the variance satisfactorily: one comprising psychopathological symptoms specific for schizophrenia, one relating to contact disturbances, one psychomotor activity and one representing neurotic symptoms. Analysis of these factors revealed certain differences between the treatment groups over time and demonstrated the effect of combination of psychotherapy and neuroleptic drugs in a subgroup of patients. This type of analysis of treatment results might contribute to improving our knowledge of rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients and help us to draw up giudelines for selection of suitable measures. PMID:24982

  20. Differential effects of haloperidol on negative symptoms in drug-naive schizophrenic patients: effects on plasma homovanillic acid.

    PubMed

    Labarca, R; Silva, H; Jerez, S; Ruiz, A; Forray, M I; Gysling, K; Andres, M E; Bustos, G; Castillo, Y; Hono, J

    1993-03-01

    After 5 weeks of haloperidol, positive symptoms in drug-naive schizophrenic patients substantially subsided. Negative symptoms, although with a different temporal pattern, decreased after the fifth week of haloperidol treatment; specifically, a decrease was seen in anhedonia and affective flattening, whereas avolition-apathy and attentional impairment presented no changes. Alogia showed a decrease during the third week and a trend to return to placebo scores during weeks 4 and 5. Changes in affective flattening, alogia and attentional impairment correlated with changes in positive symptoms. During placebo, plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) correlated with negative symptoms and with changes presented by negative symptoms between the first and the fifth treatment week. These data show that negative symptoms respond differentially to neuroleptics and suggest that avolition-apathy may represent a different behavioral component of the schizophrenia process. PMID:8461269

  1. Evaluation of the usability of a serious game aiming to teach facial expressions to schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Isleyen, Filiz; Gulkesen, K Hakan; Cinemre, Buket; Samur, M Kemal; Zayim, Nese; Sen Kaya, Semiha

    2014-01-01

    In some psychological disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, loss of facial expression recognition skill may complicate patient's daily life. Information technology may help to develop facial expression recognition skill by educational software and games. We designed and developed an interactive web-based educational program with which we performed a usability study before investigating its effectiveness on the schizophrenia patients' ability of emotion perception. The purpose of this study is to describe the usability evaluation for a web-based game set that has been designed to teach facial expressions to schizophrenic patients. The usability study was done at two steps; first, we applied heuristic evaluation and the violations were rated in a scale from most to least severe and the major problems were solved. In the second step, think-aloud method was used and the web site was assessed by five schizophrenic patients. Eight experts participated in the heuristic evaluation, in which a total of 60 violations were identified with a mean severity of 2.77 (range: 0-4). All of the major problems (severity over 2.5) were listed and the usability problems were solved by the development team. After solving the problems, five users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia used the web site with the same scenario. They reported to have experienced minor, but different problems. In conclusion, we suggest that a combination of heuristic evaluation and think-aloud method may be an effective and efficient way for usability evaluations for the serious games that have been designed for special patient groups. PMID:25160269

  2. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic patients: preponderance of off-label drug use.

    PubMed

    Pickar, David; Vinik, Jessie; Bartko, John J

    2008-01-01

    Multiple drug class combinations are often prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, although antipsychotic monotherapy reflects FDA labeling and scientific justification for combinations is highly variable. This study was performed to gain current data regarding drug treatment of schizophrenia as practiced in the community and to assess the frequencies of off-label drug class combinations. 200 DSM IV-diagnosed schizophrenic patients recruited from community treatment sources participated in this cross-sectional study of community based schizophrenic patients. Drug class categories include First and Second Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA, respectively), mood stabilizers, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. 25.5% of patients received antipsychotic monotherapy; 70% of patients received an antipsychotic and another drug class. A total of 42.5% of patients received more than one antipsychotic drug. The most common drug class combination was antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Stepwise linear discriminant function analysis identified the diagnosis of schizoaffective schizophrenia, history of having physically hurt someone and high scores on the General Portion of the PANSS rating scale predicted the combined use of an antipsychotic drug and a mood stabilizer. "Real world" pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia has developed its own established practice that is predominantly off-label and may have outstripped current data support. The economic implications for public sector payers are substantial as well as for the revenue of the pharmaceutical industry, whose promotion of off-label drug use is an increasingly problematic. These data are consistent with the recognition of the therapeutic limitations of both first and second generation antipsychotic drugs. PMID:18781198

  3. Impaired working speed and executive functions as frontal lobe dysfunctions in young first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Beate; Knappe, Susanne; Blanz, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to detect neuropsychological markers, such as sustained and selective attention and executive functions, which contribute to the vulnerability to schizophrenia especially in young persons. Performance was assessed in 32 siblings and children of schizophrenic patients and 32 matched controls using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Colour-Word-Interference-Test, Trail Making Test, and d2-Concentration-Test. The first-degree relatives showed certain impairments on all four tests, in particular, slower times on all time-limited tests. These results suggest the need for more time when completing neuropsychological tasks involving selected and focused attention, as well as cognitive flexibility, as a possible indicator of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. PMID:16721500

  4. Identification of a missense mutation and several polymorphisms in the proenkephalin A gene of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mikesell, M.J.; Sommer, S.S.; McMurray, C.T.

    1996-09-20

    Schizophrenia is a complex and severe disorder of unknown cause and pathophysiology. In this study, we examined the opioid hypothesis for schizophrenia at the molecular level, focusing on the dopamine-regulated proenkephalin A gene (chromosome 8q11.23-q12). We have screened 150 schizophrenic patients for sequence variations within the promoter region, entire coding sequence, and 3{prime}-untranslated region. We find one sequence change in a conserved amino acid that may be of functional significance. This mutation was found in a single schizophrenia patient but not in controls. Although several new, race-specific polymorphisms were identified, all other sequence changes appeared to be common polymorphisms, unlikely to contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Communicability of Verbal Behavior in Schizophrenic Patients and Its Relationship to Current Psycholinguistic Threory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.

    The purpose of this paper is to relate past research on communicability of verbal behavior in schizophrenics to current psycholinguistic theory. The paper reviews the taxonomic methods (segmentation and classification) which have characterized past research on schizophrenic verbal behavior. It is concluded that although interesting results have…

  6. Pipotiazine palmitate: an evaluation of a new long acting intramuscular antipsychotic agent in severely ill schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Gallant, D M; Mielke, D; Bishop, G; Oelsner, T; Guerrero-Figueroa, R

    1975-04-01

    Findings in this study support earlier investigations in attesting to the antipsychotic efficacy and relatively low toxicity of pipotiazine palmitate. Results with all efficacy measures utilized were consistent in indicating a high level of efficacy for this investigational compound. Pipotiazine palmitate apparently has an average duration of action that extends beyond 4 weeks in severely ill schizophrenic patients. This particular long acting IM antipsychotic preparation appears to have an even longer duration of activity than some of the other available standard long acting agents. The optimal dosage range for severely ill schizophrenic patients appears to be between 100 and 600 mg once monthly. While this type of drug (as is the case with many antipsychotic drugs) does reduce the psychotic symptomatology and improves the thought associations sufficient to enable the patient to leave the hospital, it should be re-emphasized that socioeconomic and guidance counseling services are necessary to maintain the patient in the community. The availability of this type of long acting preparation is not only economical in terms of nursing care and hospital cost but it should also increase the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatment of schizophrenics by reducing both patient errors and staff errors in administration of medication. In addition, this IM preparation should prove to be of invaluable help in maintaining the schizophrenic patient in his community by reducing the relapse and the rehospitalization rates. It should be noted that there are schizophrenic patients who either absorb compounds from the gastrointestinal tract in a very poor manner or too rapidly metabolize the antipsychotic agents with resultant suboptimal blood levels and these subjects may be called "drug refractory." This type of long acting medication is an ideal preparation for the schizophrenic patient who has these types of absorption or metabolic problems since the "circulatory pass" through the

  7. Why some patients prefer to become manic-depressive rather than schizophrenic.

    PubMed Central

    Stierlin, H.; Weber, G.; Schmidt, G.; Simon, F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports the authors' observations on fifteen families in which a young adult member had been diagnosed as manic-depressive. All families were seen in systemic family therapy, with intervals of four to six weeks between sessions. The circular questioning method developed by Selvini-Palazzoli [1] and her team was widely employed. All families could be described as extremely rigid and bound-up systems characterized by a "restrictive parental complementarity," typical dynamics of reciprocal delegation, and certain cognitive features and shared assumptions. These "manic-depressive" families show similarities as well as differences when compared with families with schizophrenic members (i.e., "schizo-present" families). Finally, some therapeutic implications of this view and approach are developed. PMID:4049908

  8. Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Halldin, C.; Sedvall, G.

    1988-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography and the carbon 11-labeled ligand raclopride, central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in the putamen was determined in psychiatric patients treated with clinical doses of psychoactive drugs. Receptor occupancy in drug-treated patients was defined as the percent reduction of specific carbon 11-raclopride binding in relation to the expected binding in the absence of drug treatment. Clinical treatment of schizophrenic patients with 11 chemically distinct antipsychotic drugs (including both classic and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine) resulted in a 65% to 85% occupancy of D2-dopamine receptors. In a depressed patient treated with the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline, no occupancy was found. The time course for receptor occupancy and drug levels was followed after withdrawal of sulpiride or haloperidol. D2-dopamine receptor occupancy remained above 65% for many hours despite a substantial reduction of serum drug concentrations. In a sulpiride-treated patient, the dosage was reduced in four steps over a nine-week period and a curvilinear relationship was demonstrated between central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy and serum drug concentrations. The results demonstrate that clinical doses of all the currently used classes of antipsychotic drugs cause a substantial blockade of central D2-dopamine receptors in humans. This effect appears to be selective for the antipsychotics, since it was not induced by the antidepressant nortriptyline.

  9. C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Nsaiba, Mohamed Jalloul; Lapointe, Marc; Mabrouk, Hajer; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude; Jrad, Besma Bel Hadj; Cianflone, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Excessive activation of complement is associated with many diseases including schizophrenia. Investigation of C3 polymorphisms, circulating C3, cleavage product ASP/C3adesArg, and lipid metabolism. Cross-sectional analysis. C3 genotyping (CC vs GG for R102L) was performed on 434 Tunisian people consisting of 272 schizophrenic (SZ) patients and 162 control subjects. In a age- and gender-matched subgroups of the three genotypes (131 SZ and 112 NOR), plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol (C), LDL-C, HDL-C, ASP, and complement C3 were measured. C3 gene polymorphism influences BMI and plasma C3, ASP, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C among SZ patients (p < 0.05-0.0001), with increasing values demonstrated from CC (common form) to CG (heterozygote form) to GG (rare homozygote) forms. Significant correlations between plasma C3 and BMI, triglyceride, HDL-C and ASP (p < 0.05-0.0001) were observed, while ASP correlated with BMI and LDL-C (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, respectively) in SZ patients. Further, proportional conversion of C3 to ASP (%ASP/C3) also increased (p < 0.0001, GG>CG>CC). C3 polymorphisms and plasma C3, ASP and %ASP/C3 correlated with lipid parameters in this SZ population, suggesting that factors predisposing patients to schizophrenia are permissive for complement pathway activation and dyslipidemic influences. PMID:25720829

  10. General life satisfaction and domain-specific quality of life in chronic schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, G; Holzner, B; Neudorfer, C; Meise, U; Hinterhuber, H

    1997-04-01

    Subjective quality of life (QOL) has often been assessed through questionnaires or structured interviews focusing on the person's satisfaction with various life domains. In particular, most QOL instruments for psychiatric patients are based on this concept. We report on a study casting some doubts on the rationale of this approach. We investigated the QOL of 48 chronic schizophrenic outpatients with a long-term disease history (at least 20 years) using a German version of the Lancashire QOL Profile. The interrelations between general life satisfaction, satisfaction with specific life domains, psychological well-being and psychopathology were studied using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Of the life domains assessed, only two, namely social relations and health, contributed significantly to the patients' general life satisfaction, while the others (including work, leisure, family relations and housing) did not. The subscales on psychological well-being (self-esteem, affective state) as well as psychopathology were found to be more closely associated with general life satisfaction than almost all life domains considered. The findings are discussed with regard to the specific situation of the group of patients investigated. They give indications that the life domain approach to measuring QOL has its limitations, in particular when applied to patients having adapted to a very restricted everyday life. PMID:9226984

  11. Functional connectivity-based signatures of schizophrenia revealed by multiclass pattern analysis of resting-state fMRI from schizophrenic patients and their healthy siblings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    , the left middle temporal gyrus, the left angular and the left rectus, as well as connectivities between the cingulate cortex and the left rectus showed higher discriminative power in the compensatory patterns. Conclusions Based on our experimental results, we saw some indication of differences in functional connectivity patterns in the healthy siblings of schizophrenic patients compared to other healthy individuals who have no relations with the patients. Our preliminary investigation suggested that the use of resting-state functional connectivities as classification features to discriminate among schizophrenic patients, their healthy siblings and healthy controls is meaningful. PMID:23390976

  12. Assessment of procedural learning and problem solving in schizophrenic patients by Tower of Hanoi type tasks.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, T E; Saint-Cyr, J A; Weinberger, D R

    1990-01-01

    Two versions of the Tower of Hanoi task were used to investigate different components of learning and problem solving in schizophrenia. Prior studies have suggested that a three-disk version (Tower 3), which involves primarily problem-solving abilities and planning, is preferentially sensitive to frontal lobe lesions and that the more difficult four-disk version (Tower 4), which involves "learning by doing," is sensitive to basal ganglia disease. Schizophrenic patients performed significantly worse than normal subjects on Tower 3 and Tower 4. However, they performed at least as well relatively on Tower 4 as on Tower 3, indicating that level of difficulty per se does not account for their poor performance on these tasks. Moreover, they eventually attained perfect or near-perfect performance after four days of repeated administration. Their relatively stronger performance on Tower 4 may have reflected an ability to acquire a procedure and, as such, suggests greater preservation of basal ganglia function than of prefrontal function. PMID:2136071

  13. Enhanced calcium responses to serotonin receptor stimulation in T-lymphocytes from schizophrenic patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Genius, J; Schellenberg, A; Tchana-Duope, L; Hartmann, N; Giegling, I; Hartmann, A; Benninghoff, J; Rujescu, D

    2015-03-01

    Even if more extensively investigated in affective disorders, the serotonergic system is likely to be also implicated in modulating the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, where it closely interacts with the dopaminergic and glutamatergic system. To substantiate this notion, we studied the intensity and dynamics of cellular Ca(2+) responses to serotonin (5-hydoxytryptamine, 5-HT) in peripheral lymphocytes taken from currently non-psychotic schizophrenic patients. To this aim, peripheral lymphocytes were freshly obtained from healthy controls and a naturalistic collective of patients with schizophrenia in remission. Intracellular Ca(2+) responses were recorded in real-time by ratiometric fluorometry after 5-HT or phythaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, which served as an internal reference for Ca(2+) responsivity to non-specific stimulation. The intracellular Ca(2+) peak early after applying the 5-HT trigger was significantly elevated in schizophrenic patients. No significant differences of Ca(2+) peak levels were seen in response to stimulation with the mitogenic agent PHA, although responses to 5-HT and PHA were positively correlated in individual patients or controls. In conclusion, the serotonergic response patterns in peripheral lymphocytes from schizophrenic patients seem to be elevated, if employing sensitive tools like determination of intracellular Ca(2+) responses. Our observations suggest that the participation of serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia may deserve more interest, even if it should only act as a modulator on the main pathology in the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. We hope that this pilot study will prompt further studies with larger patient collectives to revisit this question. PMID:25576705

  14. [Comparison of 2 depression scales and their relationship with negative and akinetic symptoms in stabilized schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Langlois-Thery, S; Dollfus, S; Lesieur, P; Petit, M

    1994-01-01

    Since the Bleuler's early writings, studies in schizophrenia have often shown a frequent occurrence of depression in the context of schizophrenia and also its implications for the morbidity and mortality of schizophrenic patients. The wide variability in the prevalence of depression (between 7 to 70% in post-psychotic period) is due in part to the difficulty in clearly separating depressive symptoms from akinesia induced by neuroleptic or negative symptoms and to the lack of a valid assessment of depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Under these conditions, a better understanding of depressive symptomatology in schizophrenia seems to be necessary to go further in this area of research with clinical and therapeutical purposes. The "Echelle de Ralentissement Dépressif" (ERD, Widlöcher, 1983) was studied in a sample of 53 schizophrenic patients to determinate whether ERD composed of three subscores (motor, ideic and subjective) could be able to evaluate the subjective depressive symptomatology and whether its measure would be independent of negative symptoms or akinesia. Pearson's correlations and correlations with variables partialled out were used to compare ERD to Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, 1979) and to establish their relationship with Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS< Kay, 1987) and an Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS, Chouinard & Ross-Chouinard, 1980). Fifty three in or outpatients (35 males and 18 females, mean age +/- standard deviation = 38.26 +/- 9.82) were evaluated in a stable condition (i.e., when the psychotic symptomatology and the neuroleptic treatment have been stabilized since 4 weeks). According to DESM III-R criteria, 49 patients met the diagnosis of schizophrenia (2 schizoaffective disorders and 2 schizophreniform disorders).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7828511

  15. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E. National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC )

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia.

  16. [The Osnabruck Work Capabilities Profile (O-AFP) for persons with psychiatric illness: concept, development, and testing in schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Wiedl, K H; Uhlhorn, S; Jöns, K

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this paper is presentation of an inventory for the assessment of basic capabilities underlying work and occupational behaviour of psychiatric patients in the course of their treatment and rehabilitation. The "Osnabruck Work Capabilities Profile" (O-AFP) is an instrument filled in by staff, which consists of three scales comprising ten items each, measuring "Learning Ability", "Social Communication Ability" and "Adaptation". In the study presented, these scales were confirmed by factor analyses of data from 194 schizophrenic patients. Test analyses yielded good item and scale characteristics. The only exception to this are elevated item difficulty scores of the third scale (adaptation). This was attributed to specific effects of selecting the sample of patients. Furthermore, low or insignificant correlations with the patients' symptom scores indicate the discriminant validity of the scales. It is concluded that the O-AFP is well suited for application with different forms of occupational therapy. PMID:15565538

  17. Bioequivalence of Generic and Brand Name Clozapine in Korean Schizophrenic Patients: A Randomized, Two-Period, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Hun; Seo, Jeong Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clozapine is the treatment of choice for refractory schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the brand name (Clozaril) formulation and a generic formulation (Clzapine) of clozapine in Korean schizophrenic patients. Methods A prospective, randomized, crossover study was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetic profiles of Clozaril and Clzapine. Schizophrenic patients were randomized to receive either the brand name or generic formulation (100 mg twice daily) for 10 days, followed by the other formulation for 10 days. Plasma samples were collected on the last day of each treatment period. Results Twenty-two of 28 patients (78.6%) completed the study. The mean Cmax,ss values for Clzapine and Clozaril were 524.62 and 551.18 ng/mL, and the mean AUC0-12 values were 4479.90 hr·ng/mL and 4724.56 hr·ng/mL, respectively. The 90% CI values for the natural logarithmically transformed Cmax,ss and AUC0-12 ratios (Clzapine to Clozaril) after a single oral dose (100 mg) were 0.934 (0.849-1.028) and 0.936 (0.869-1.008), respectively. Five patients (20.8%) among 24 patients who took Clzapine reported 11 adverse events and six adverse events were reported by four patients (15.4%) among 26 who took Clozaril; there were no significant differences on physical examination or in vital signs, ECG, and laboratory tests between groups. Conclusion Generic clozapine (Clzapine) appears to be bioequivalent to brand name clozapine (Clozaril). PMID:26207129

  18. Relational Control Patterns in Families of Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarrick, Anne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined patterning of relational control in families of schizophrenic patients, and relationship between control in the family and the course of the illness. Transcripts of conversations among 17 schizophrenic outpatients and their families were coded into Relational Control Coding System. Found rigid, one-up messages from family members to…

  19. Brain functional connectivity during the experience of thought blocks in schizophrenic patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Elias; Koutsoukos, Elias; Maillis, Antonis; Papadimitriou, George N; Stefanis, Costas

    2014-03-01

    Thought blocks (TBs) are characterized by regular interruptions in the stream of thought. Outward signs are abrupt and repeated interruptions in the flow of conversation or actions while subjective experience is that of a total and uncontrollable emptying of the mind. In the very limited bibliography regarding TB, the phenomenon is thought to be conceptualized as a disturbance of consciousness that can be attributed to stoppages of continuous information processing due to an increase in the volume of information to be processed. In an attempt to investigate potential expression of the phenomenon on the functional properties of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, an EEG study was contacted in schizophrenic patients with persisting auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) who additionally exhibited TBs. In this case, we hypothesized that the persistent and dense AVHs could serve the role of an increased information flow that the brain is unable to process, a condition that is perceived by the person as TB. Phase synchronization analyses performed on EEG segments during the experience of TBs showed that synchrony values exhibited a long-range common mode of coupling (grouped behavior) among the left temporal area and the remaining central and frontal brain areas. These common synchrony-fluctuation schemes were observed for 0.5 to 2s and were detected in a 4-s window following the estimated initiation of the phenomenon. The observation was frequency specific and detected in the broad alpha band region (6-12Hz). The introduction of synchrony entropy (SE) analysis applied on the cumulative synchrony distribution showed that TB states were characterized by an explicit preference of the system to be functioned at low values of synchrony, while the synchrony values are broadly distributed during the recovery state. Our results indicate that during TB states, the phase locking of several brain areas were converged uniformly in a narrow band of low synchrony values and in a

  20. Pleckstrin homology domain containing 6 protein (PLEKHA6) polymorphisms are associated with psychopathology and response to treatment in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Spellmann, Ilja; Rujescu, Dan; Musil, Richard; Meyerwas, Sebastian; Giegling, Ina; Genius, Just; Zill, Peter; Dehning, Sandra; Cerovecki, Anja; Seemüller, Florian; Schennach, Rebecca; Hartmann, Annette M; Schäfer, Martin; Müller, Norbert; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Riedel, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Pleckstrin homology domain (PH domain) comprises approximately 120 amino acids and is integrated in a wide range of proteins involved in intracellular signaling or as constituents of the cytoskeleton. This domain can bind phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-biphosphate and proteins such as the βγ-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and protein kinase C. Associations with psychiatric diseases have not been investigated yet. To identify genes involved in response to antipsychotics, mice were treated with haloperidol (1mg/kg, n = 11) or saline (n = 12) for one week. By analyzing microarray data, we observed an increase of pleckstrin homology domain containing 6 (PLEKHA6) gene expression. Furthermore, we genotyped 263 schizophrenic patients, who were treated monotherapeutically with different antipsychotics within randomized-controlled trials. Psychopathology was measured weekly using the PANSS for a minimum of four and a maximum of twelve weeks. Correlations between PANSS subscale scores at baseline and PANSS improvement scores after four weeks of treatment and genotypes were calculated by using a linear model for all investigated SNPs. We found associations between four PLEKHA6 polymorphisms (rs17333933 (T/G), rs3126209 (C/T), rs4951338 (A/G) and rs100900571 (T/C)) and different PANSS subscales at baseline. Furthermore two different polymorphisms (rs7513240 (T/C), rs4951353 (A/G)) were found to be associated with therapy response in terms of a significant correlation with different PANSS improvement subscores after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Our observation of an association between genetic polymorphisms of a protein of the PH domain and psychopathology data in schizophrenic patients might be indicative for an involvement of PLEKHA6 in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the therapy response towards antipsychotics. PMID:24576533

  1. [Organization of the mental lexicon in 12 schizophrenic subjects].

    PubMed

    Bensaid, A; Hardy-Bayle, M C; Segui, J; Hardy, P; Widlocher, D

    1989-01-01

    Using different tasks to test the organization of the mental lexicon in schizophrenics patients we tried to confirm the non organization of their mental lexicon as underlied by different authors and to show a wrong exploitation of their semantic competences. Our findings pointed out the difficulties of the evaluated lexical competences exploitation rather than the disturbances of these competences themselves. PMID:2485620

  2. The face and its emotion: right N170 deficits in structural processing and early emotional discrimination in schizophrenic patients and relatives.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Riveros, Rodrigo; Hurtado, Esteban; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Urquina, Hugo; Herrera, Eduar; Amoruso, Lucía; Reyes, Migdyrai Martin; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-30

    Previous studies have reported facial emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenic patients, as well as abnormalities in the N170 component of the event-related potential. Current research on schizophrenia highlights the importance of complexly-inherited brain-based deficits. In order to examine the N170 markers of face structural and emotional processing, DSM-IV diagnosed schizophrenia probands (n=13), unaffected first-degree relatives from multiplex families (n=13), and control subjects (n=13) matched by age, gender and educational level, performed a categorization task which involved words and faces with positive and negative valence. The N170 component, while present in relatives and control subjects, was reduced in patients, not only for faces, but also for face-word differences, suggesting a deficit in structural processing of stimuli. Control subjects showed N170 modulation according to the valence of facial stimuli. However, this discrimination effect was found to be reduced both in patients and relatives. This is the first report showing N170 valence deficits in relatives. Our results suggest a generalized deficit affecting the structural encoding of faces in patients, as well as the emotion discrimination both in patients and relatives. Finally, these findings lend support to the notion that cortical markers of facial discrimination can be validly considered as vulnerability markers. PMID:21824666

  3. Measures of anhedonia and hedonic responses to sucrose in depressive and schizophrenic patients in comparison with healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Berlin, I; Givry-Steiner, L; Lecrubier, Y; Puech, A J

    1998-09-01

    Anhedonia may be considered as a transnosological feature of depression and schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to assess hedonic responses to sucrose solutions and sweet taste perception threshold in patients with major depression and in schizophrenic patients in comparison with healthy subjects (matched for age and gender with depressive patients), and to compare these responses to evaluations by the Physical and Social Anhedonia scale of Chapman and the Pleasure Scale of Fawcett, generally used to quantify anhedonia. Hedonic responses to sucrose solutions were similar in patients with major depression (n = 20), schizophrenia (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20). Sweet taste perception threshold was significantly higher in depressive patients than in controls. Hedonic response to sucrose was inversely correlated with physical Anhedonia Scores and sweet taste perception threshold with Pleasure Scale scores. Measures of hedonia/anhedonia were not related with the intensity of depression or anxiety as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale, respectively. In 11 depressed patients hospitalised for 17 to 33 days, neither hedonic ratings to sucrose solutions, sweet taste perception threshold, Physical, Social Anhedonia scores nor Pleasure Scale scores were modified in spite of substantial decrease in MADRS or Hamilton Anxiety scores. Hedonic responses to sucrose solutions and sweet taste perception threshold may be used as complementary evaluation to quantify anhedonia. PMID:19698645

  4. Typical and atypical antipsychotic medications differentially affect two nondeclarative memory tasks in schizophrenic patients: a double dissociation.

    PubMed

    Beninger, Richard J; Wasserman, James; Zanibbi, Katherine; Charbonneau, Danielle; Mangels, Jennifer; Beninger, Bruce V

    2003-06-01

    Nondeclarative memory (NDM) has subtypes associated with different brain regions; learning of a probabilistic classification task is impaired by striatal damage and learning of a gambling task is impaired by ventromedial prefrontocortical damage. Typical and atypical antipsychotic medications differentially affect immediate early gene expression in the striatum and frontal cortex in normal rats. This suggested the hypothesis that schizophrenic patients treated with typical antipsychotics will have impaired probabilistic classification learning (PCL) and that similar patients treated with atypical antipsychotics will have impaired learning of the gambling task. Groups of schizophrenia patients treated with typical or atypical antipsychotics did not differ from each other on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) or a number of indexes of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) but performed worse than normal controls on these instruments. In the first study, patients treated with typicals (n=20) but not atypicals (n=20) or normal controls (n=32) were impaired in probabilistic classification. In the second study, those treated with atypicals (n=18) but not typicals (n=18) or normal controls (n=18) were impaired in the gambling task. Results suggest that typical and atypical antipsychotics differentially affect nondeclarative memory mediated by different brain regions. PMID:12729880

  5. [Smoking habits in chronic schizophrenics].

    PubMed

    Fukui, K; Kobayashi, T; Hayakawa, S; Koga, E; Okazaki, S; Kawashima, Y; Kawakami, F; Fukui, Y; Tani, N; Kato, A

    1995-12-01

    The smoking habits of 48 chronic schizophrenics who were inpatients of private psychiatric were examined. Subjects were divided into three groups; non-smokers, moderate smokers and heavy smokers, and tested by Fagerstrom's Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ) as a tobacco dependence evaluation, and Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) and Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) as a neuropsychological battery. In addition, we used the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) to evaluate the degree of schizophrenic negative symptoms, confirming the correlation between SANS score and the amount of nicotine intake or FTQ item. From the results of FTQ scores and their correlation with SANS scores, the amount of nicotine intake was significantly related to the severity of schizophrenic negative symptoms including affective blunting, poverty of thinking and attention impairment. BGT and BVRT showed disturbances in visual-motor gestalt function, and attention and memory, in chronic schizophrenics who smoked, especially in heavy smokers. These results suggest that smoking behavior in chronic schizophrenics might increase the individual vigilance against negative symptoms, from the perspective of self-medication. PMID:8588752

  6. Correlation between neuropsychological and social cognition measures and symptom dimensions in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Altamura, A Carlo; Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Grillo, Paolo; Prunas, Cecilia; Caldiroli, Alice; Zago, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits have been largely reported in Schizophrenia (SKZ) but their association with psychopathology remains uncertain. Our purpose was to explore the relationship between symptom dimensions and neuropsychological performances. We enrolled 35 stabilized schizophrenic outpatients of the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, who completed psychiatric Rating Scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB). Disorganized dimension seems to have the most significant impact on cognition, being associated with performance in several BACS subtests (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, symbol coding, Tower of London) and ESCB tasks (MET and Hotel task number of tasks attempted, number of broken MET rules, sum of deviations in Hotel Task). Positive dimension correlated with performance in verbal fluency, negative dimension with IOWA Test results, cognitive dimension with MET number of inefficiencies and Eyes test score. Impulsive-aggressive and depressive dimensions weakly correlated only with Faux Pas test. Our study supports the existence of a specific disorganized dimension in SKZ, separated from cognitive dimension evaluated through clinical instruments (e.g. PANSS), but capable of influencing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it strengthens the validity of ecological tasks in evaluating cognition in SKZ. PMID:26350702

  7. [Disease models and change in attitude of involuntarily admitted schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, J; Ulmar, G; Starzinski, T

    1995-12-01

    The attitude to illness and therapy of 28 involuntary and 31 voluntary patients admitted to a state psychiatric hospital was investigated by means of a questionnaire at the time of admission and prior to discharge. Involuntary patients have less illness consciousness, and only 17.9% of them but 67.7% of the voluntary patients show insight into their illness; they favour a medical-somatic model of illness and express less positive therapy expectations. Their whole attitude proves to be dysfunctional concerning compliance with medical treatment. Attitudes of involuntary patients changed during the hospital stay and became similar to those of voluntary patients, which hardly changed. This attitudinal change extended to illness consciousness, insight into illness and therapy expectations, whereas models of illness were found to be very stable. One third of the involuntary patients stayed in hospital voluntarily for further treatment. It is discussed that patients attitudes to illness and therapy should be taken more often into consideration and integrated into the planning of therapy. PMID:8586351

  8. Subjective experiences of stigma. A focus group study of schizophrenic patients, their relatives and mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Beate; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2003-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been found to be one of the most stigmatising conditions. To the present, most research on stigma related to mental illness has drawn conclusions on the adverse reactions faced by people with schizophrenia from studies on public attitudes or analogue behavioural studies. The views of those exposed to the stigmatising reactions, however, has largely been absent. Aiming to explore stigma from the subjective perspective of people with schizophrenia, a focus group study was carried out at the four centres involved in the WPA Global Programme against Stigma and Discrimination because of Schizophrenia in Germany. In order to get a comprehensive picture of how stigma affects the lives of schizophrenic patients, collateral information was sought from relatives and mental health professionals. The focus groups enquired about concrete stigmatisation experiences of the patients and incidences of stigma witnessed by the other two groups. Focus group sessions were tape-recorded and transcripts were coded using an inductive method. Results reveal four dimensions of stigma: interpersonal interaction, structural discrimination, public images of mental illness and access to social roles. Examples are given for the views of patients, relatives and mental health professionals on each of the four stigma types. The consequences for conceptualisations of stigma and the development of effective strategies to reduce stigma and discrimination because of schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:12473315

  9. Increased co-expression of genes harboring the damaging de novo mutations in Chinese schizophrenic patients during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Miaoxin; Yang, Zhenxing; Hu, Xun; Wu, Hei-Man; Ni, Peiyan; Ren, Hongyan; Deng, Wei; Li, Mingli; Ma, Xiaohong; Guo, Wanjun; Zhao, Liansheng; Wang, Yingcheng; Xiang, Bo; Lei, Wei; Sham, Pak C; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heritable, heterogeneous common psychiatric disorder. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that de novo variants (DNVs) contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We performed exome sequencing in Chinese patients (N = 45) with schizophrenia and their unaffected parents (N = 90). Forty genes were found to contain DNVs. These genes had enriched transcriptional co-expression profile in prenatal frontal cortex (Bonferroni corrected p < 9.1 × 10−3), and in prenatal temporal and parietal regions (Bonferroni corrected p < 0.03). Also, four prenatal anatomical subregions (VCF, MFC, OFC and ITC) have shown significant enrichment of connectedness in co-expression networks. Moreover, four genes (LRP1, MACF1, DICER1 and ABCA2) harboring the damaging de novo mutations are strongly prioritized as susceptibility genes by multiple evidences. Our findings in Chinese schizophrenic patients indicate the pathogenic role of DNVs, supporting the hypothesis that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disease. PMID:26666178

  10. Association study of T102C 5-HT2A polymorphism in schizophrenic patients: diagnosis, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Humberto; De Marco, Luiz; Boson, Wolfanga; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antó L.; Campo, Valdir R.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between the serotonin (5-HT)2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. We studied 129 subjects who met the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia according to a structured clinicai interview (MINI-PLUS), Patients underwent a semistructured interview to assess suicide attempt history and its characteristics, in addition, at least one close relative of the patient was interviewed to assess prohand and family suicidal behavior. Healthy controls were students and hospital staff members free of psychiatric and medical illness. Genotypes were determined after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the region of 5-HT2A/T102C containing the polymorphic site and digestion with the restriction enzyme Hpall, We found no association between suicidal attempt history and suicide attempt characteristics and genotypic or aileie frequencies. Suicidal behavior was also not associated with demographic or psychopathological characteristics. These results suggest that the S-HT2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) is not involved in genetic susceptibility to suicidal behavior, but further studies in a larger sample are needed. PMID:17506229

  11. D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. A positron emission tomography study with (11C)raclopride

    SciTech Connect

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Stone-Elander, S.; Halldin, C.; Nordstroem, A.L.H.; Hall, H.; Sedvall, G. )

    1990-03-01

    Several groups have reported increased densities of D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of schizophrenic brains postmortem. The significance of this finding has been questioned, since an upregulation of receptor number may be a neuronal response to neuroleptic drug treatment. We have used positron emission tomography and ({sup 11}C)raclopride to examine central D2 dopamine receptor binding in 20 healthy subjects and 18 newly admitted, young, neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia. An in vivo saturation procedure was applied for quantitative determination of D2 dopamine receptor density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd). When the two groups were compared, no significant difference in Bmax or Kd values was found in the putamen or the caudate nucleus. The hypothesis of generally elevated central D2 dopamine receptor densities in schizophrenia was thus not supported by the present findings. In the patients but not in the healthy controls, significantly higher densities were found in the left than in the right putamen but not in the caudate nucleus.

  12. On Ho's "Modern Logic and Schizophrenic Thinking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, James L.

    1976-01-01

    Points out that conclusions drawn in the title paper about the role of logic in the schizophrenic thought process are not reliable since they are based on patients medicated with antipsychotic drugs. (MS)

  13. Determination of Drugs in Plasma Samples by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Pinto, Mônia Aparecida Lemos; de Souza, Israel Donizeti; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecilio; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development of a simple, sensitive and selective method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to determine antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, clozapine, haloperidol and chlorpromazine) along with antidepressants (mirtazapine, paroxetine, citalopram, sertraline, imipramine, clomipramine and fluoxetine), anticonvulsants (carbamazepine and lamotrigine) and anxiolytics (diazepam and clonazepam) in plasma samples obtained from schizophrenic patients. The samples were prepared by protein precipitation. The target drugs were separated on an XSelect SCH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm × 2.5 µm) within 8.0 min by means of gradient elution. The drugs were then detected on a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source, operating in the multiple reactions monitoring mode and in the positive ionization mode. The LC-MS-MS method was linear range from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations with lower limit of quantification values ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng mL(-1), precision with coefficient of variation values lower than 12%, and accuracy ranged from 90 to 108%. The developed method enabled successful analysis of the target drugs in plasma samples obtained from 51 schizophrenic patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring revealed that many of the evaluated schizophrenic patients presented altered plasma concentrations of the analyzed drugs. These altered concentrations resulted from pharmacokinetic interactions among the medications prescribed to treat schizophrenia. PMID:26333987

  14. Schizotypy and personality profiles of Cluster A in a group of schizophrenic patients and their siblings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizotypy, or the set of personality traits related to schizophrenia, is considered an endophenotypic manifestation that is more represented in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia than in the general population. The assessment of schizotypy is primarily based on self-reports, and for this reason it presents several limitations. In order to assess schizotypy, this study proposes a diagnostic instrument based on clinical reports. Methods A sample of 66 subjects, composed of 25 outpatients with schizophrenia, 18 siblings of these patients and 23 healthy controls, was subjected to the personality assessment test SWAP-200 by trained clinical interviewers. To test the hypothesis of the difference between the profiles of the Personality Disorders within the schizophrenia spectrum, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance and subsequent planned comparisons were conducted. Results Patients with schizophrenia scored higher than both their siblings and the controls on all SWAP-200 scales; their siblings, compared to the healthy controls, showed significant statistical differences, with higher mean scores for paranoid (F(1,63) = 7.02; p = 0.01), schizoid (F(1,63) = 6.56; p = 0.013) and schizotypal (F(1,63) = 6.47; p = 0.013) traits (PD T scores of Cluster A and Q-factor scores for the schizoid scale [F(1,63) = 6.47; p = 0.013]). Conclusions Consistent with previous data, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia scored higher on schizophrenia-related personality traits than a general population comparison sample. SWAP-200, as an alternative diagnostic instrument to self-report measures, is able to reveal the higher prevalence of schizotypal traits in siblings of patients with schizophrenia, suggesting its possible use as a complementary instrument for the assessment of schizophrenia. PMID:24094118

  15. Analysis of clozapine response and polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) in schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, S.; Collier, D.A.; Sham, P.

    1995-12-18

    We have examined the hypothesis that a variable number of tandem repeats in the third cytoplasmic loop of the dopamine D4 receptor influences clinical response to clozapine using a sample of 189 schizophrenic patients. Alleles of the 48-bp repeat, which range from two to ten copies in the normal human population, were analysed by the polymerase chain reaction using genomic DNA as template. Association between these alleles and response to clozapine was tested using the difference in pre- and post-treatment GAS scores as a measure of response. We found no statistically significant variation between genotypic groups and response by analysis of variance. We conclude that the variation of the number of 48-bp repeats alone does not determine response to clozapine. Larger studies are underway to determine if there is a more subtle relationship with sequence variation within the repeats or at other polymorphic sites within the gene that may provide evidence for a component of clozapine`s action being at D4 receptors. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Sex education and rehabilitation with schizophrenic male outpatients.

    PubMed

    Lukoff, D; Gioia-Hasick, D; Sullivan, G; Golden, J S; Nuechterlein, K H

    1986-01-01

    Research indicates that schizophrenic patients lack intimate relationships and show a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Despite increasing awareness of the rights of handicapped persons to sexual expression, the treatment of schizophrenic patients rarely addresses their sexuality. A sex education program for recent-onset male schizophrenic patients attending an outpatient clinic was developed in response to several incidents involving patients' inappropriate sexual behaviors. To enhance our understanding of the current sexual functioning and needs of these patients, sex histories were taken. Almost all of the 16 patients interviewed were sexually active, with autoerotic activity predominating. Sixty-three percent of the patients reported orgasmic and/or erectile dysfunctions. Other studies have linked sexual dysfunction to the side effects of antipsychotic medications. The objectives of the sex education program were: to provide information; to clarify values; to overcome sexual dysfunction; and to enhance intimacy skills. The authors used role playing, modeling, group exercises, and explicit sex therapy audiovisual material to improve patients' intimacy skills. Patients participated actively and used the group to explore sexual issues. No exacerbations of symptoms were observed among patients participating in the program. PMID:3027886

  17. Observational postmarketing study on efficacy and safety of novel generic risperidone risset(r) in patients with acute or chronic schizophrenic or other related psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kucukalić, Abdulah; Srkalović, Azijada Pasicek; Oremus, Marijana; Rustempasić, Edhem

    2004-06-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness and safety of risperidone (Risset(R) - PLIVA) in patients with acute or chronic schizophrenic or other related psychosis. Study was designed as postmarketing, 4-week, open-label, flexible-dose observational study. Subjects and Methods. 30 patients, both genders, aged 18-70 years, with diagnosed various types of schizophrenic psychosis were enrolled in the study as outpatient and inpatient setting. The patients had to have a total score >/=40 on Positive and Negative scale - two parts of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and to be able to discontinue current antipsychotic and antiparkinsonian medications. The primary efficacy parameter was the percent of score difference between baseline and week 4 of therapy on two above-mentioned PANSS subscales. The difference was considered as significant improvement if decrease from the baseline was 20% or more. The safety of risperidone was evaluated on the basis of reported adverse events. Results. All 30 enrolled patients completed the study. After the 4 weeks of treatment, 23/30 patients (76.67%) had clinically significant improvement of 20% or more decreased total PANSS score (Positive and Negative subscale). In 4/30 patients (13.33%) clinical improvement was also reported with <20% decreased total PANSS score. No serious adverse event was observed. Conclusions. Overall, collected data indicate that in this specific population (70% patients were resistant to previous anti-psychotic therapy), Risset(R) has shown very good effectiveness and safety. PMID:19114946

  18. Schizophrenic thought disorder. A psychological and organic interpretation.

    PubMed

    Cutting, J; Murphy, D

    1988-03-01

    It is suggested that schizophrenic thought disorder comprises four relatively independent components: delusion; intrinsic thinking disturbance; formal thought disorder; and deficient real-world knowledge--a new concept. Schizophrenic and neurotic control subjects were given tests of thinking, perception, appreciation of conversational discourse, and social and practical knowledge. Not all deluded schizophrenics had intrinsic thinking disturbance. Those that did tended to have overinclusive categorisation as the most apparent deficit. Formal thought disorder was associated with a poor performance on the test of conversational discourse. The most striking result was that 75% of schizophrenic patients were markedly deficient, relative to neurotic patients, on their knowledge of everyday social issues. PMID:3167363

  19. Common Variants in MAGI2 Gene Are Associated with Increased Risk for Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Takayoshi; Banno, Masahiro; Aleksic, Branko; Yamashita, Saori; Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Adachi, Yasunori; Kawano, Naoko; Kushima, Itaru; Nakamura, Yukako; Okada, Takashi; Ikeda, Masashi; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yasuda, Yuka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Inada, Toshiya; Ujike, Hiroshi; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Michio; Takeda, Masatoshi; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive impairment. MAGI2, a relatively large gene (∼1.5 Mbps) that maps to chromosome 7q21, is involved in recruitment of neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. A genetic association study designed to evaluate the association between MAGI2 and cognitive performance or schizophrenia has not been conducted. In this case-control study, we examined the relationship of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations in MAGI2 and risk for schizophrenia in a large Japanese sample and explored the potential relationships between variations in MAGI2 and aspects of human cognitive function related to glutamate activity. Based on the result of first schizophrenia genome-wide association study in a Japanese population (JGWAS), we selected four independent SNPs and performed an association study using a large independent Japanese sample set (cases 1624, controls 1621). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was used to evaluate executive function in 114 cases and 91 controls. We found suggestive evidence for genetic association of common SNPs within MAGI2 locus and schizophrenia in Japanese population. Furthermore in terms of association between MAGI2 and cognitive performance, we observed that genotype effect of rs2190665 on WCST score was significant (p = 0.034) and rs4729938 trended toward significance (p = 0.08). In conclusion, although we could not detect strong genetic evidence for association of common variants in MAGI2 and increased schizophrenia risk in a Japanese population, these SNPs may increase risk of cognitive impairment in schizophrenic patients. PMID:22649501

  20. [Survived stab to the heart in a schizophrenic man].

    PubMed

    Fieseler, Sybille; Zinka, Bettina; Kunz, Sebastian N

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a significant risk of suicide. According to recent research, 10-15 % of all schizophrenic patients die by suicide. It is not uncommon that the victims show sharp force injuries, so that the forensic pathologist first has to differentiate between self-infliction and involvement of another person. The authors' case report presents a 68-year-old schizophrenic patient who committed suicide by jumping out of a window of his apartment located on the second floor after inflicting multiple stab wounds to his thoracic region. At autopsy, an older stab wound to the apex of the heart was detected. In the criminal investigation, a suicide attempt made 13 days before could be ascertained. As the patient did not want to be taken to a hospital at that time, the injury had never been examined or documented. Since there was no evidence suggesting homicide, the older stab to the heart was interpreted as a tentative injury. PMID:22039699

  1. The Neurobehavioural Evaluation in Schizophrenics: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ilamkar, Kamini Ramdas

    2013-01-01

    Background: The simple reaction time task assesses the ability of the subject to respond to an external cue and to retrieve a reward. The reaction time provides an indirect index of the processing capability of the central nervous system and a simple means to the determined sensory and the motor performances, which is a neurobehavioural evaluation. A general slowness in the latency in the reaction time tasks and a disengagement deficit in the visual and the hearing oriented tasks were seen in schizophrenics. Aims: In order to clarify the feature of the attention disorders in schizophrenia, a simple reaction time task was given to schizophrenics. Methods and Materials: Schizophrenics (34 males and 20 females, n=54) and healthy controls (40 males and 21 females, n=61) with a mean age of 35±7, who were individually matched for gender and age, were included in the study, by using a response analyser to evaluate the reaction time. Statistical analysis: The performances were expressed in mean ± standard deviation of the reaction time by using the unpaired ‘t’ test. Results and Conclusions: The schizophrenic patients performed poorer than the healthy controls, which indicated a difficulty in sustaining attention and this was statistically very highly significant (p<0.000). The results suggested that the schizophrenics showed inattentiveness in the clinical settings and an emotional disturbance in interpersonal situations. The increased reaction time as compared to that in healthy controls, might be due to the impairment of the psychomotor poverty, disorganization and reality distortion which were associated with the deficits in the cortical neurological functions, such as planning, coordination and sequencing of the motor acts, which showed a greater involvement of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe dysfunction. PMID:23449931

  2. Neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenic patients treated by clozapine: clinical evolution, plasma and red blood cell clozapine and desmethylclozapine levels.

    PubMed

    Aymard, N; Baldacci, C; Leyris, A; Smagghe, P O; Tribolet, S; Vacheron, M N; Viala, A; Caroli, F

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this open study was to determine a more rational therapeutic approach for psychotic patients treated with clozapine for several months, using measurement of plasma and red blood cell levels (P, RBC) of clozapine (cloza) and N-desmethylclozapine (descloza), the major metabolite of clozapine, which has been reported to be less active but more toxic (agranulocytosis) than clozapine itself. The RBC concentration may be considered as more representative of the free fraction drug. The study concerned 7 patients suffering from chronic paranoid schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria. All of them were treatment-refractory schizophrenic inpatients (4 men, 3 women, mean age +/- SD: 38.2 +/- 8.4 years; mean duration of illness +/- SD: 14.4 +/- 5.1 years). They had received at least two different neuroleptics, for 6 weeks, before entering the study. Treatment started in our hospitalization unit with clozapine 25 mg up to a maximum of 900 mg/d (mean stabilized daily dose +/- SD: 507 +/- 211 mg and mean daily dose per kg: 6.91 +/- 3.08 mg). Clinical evaluations (Quality of Life Scale: QLS), regular blood monitoring and biological samples were conducted at the same time, weekly for 18 weeks and then monthly (duration of the study: 4 to 38 months; mean +/- SD: 12.9 +/- 11.5 months). Plasma and RBC (after lysis) levels were determined by reversed phase HPLC and UV detection after extraction with hexane. All the patients improved very quickly after the first week of treatment and six were able to leave the hospitalization unit and start outpatient care such as daily hospitalization, returning home or in sheltered accommodation. With the following plasma (P) and RBC levels: mean cloza +/- SD: (P = 294 +/- 146 ng/ml; RBC = 110 +/- 82 ng/ml) and mean descloza +/- SD: (P = 173 +/- 106 ng/ml; RBC = 76 +/- 54 ng/ml); none of the seven patients developed agranulocytosis. The blood levels, ensuring better surveillance, have a predictive value for clinical improvement. A

  3. Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenic Patients: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    García, Saínza; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; López-Zurbano, Saioa; Zorrilla, Iñaki; López, Purificación; Vieta, Eduard; González-Pinto, Ana

    2016-08-01

    Antipsychotics are the drugs prescribed to treat psychotic disorders; however, patients often fail to adhere to their treatment, and this has a severe negative effect on prognosis in these kinds of illnesses. Among the wide range of risk factors for treatment nonadherence, this systematic review covers those that are most important from the point of view of clinicians and patients and proposes guidelines for addressing them. Analyzing 38 studies conducted in a total of 51,796 patients, including patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder, we found that younger age, substance abuse, poor insight, cognitive impairments, low level of education, minority ethnicity, poor therapeutic alliance, experience of barriers to care, high intensity of delusional symptoms and suspiciousness, and low socioeconomic status are the main risk factors for medication nonadherence in both types of disorder. In the future, prospective studies should be conducted on the use of personalized patient-tailored treatments, taking into account risk factors that may affect each individual, to assess the ability of such approaches to improve adherence and hence prognosis in these patients. PMID:27307187

  4. Effects of cabergoline on hyperprolactinemia, psychopathology, and sexual functioning in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Kalkavoura, Christina S; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Arvanitakis, Periklis; Theodoropoulou, Pitsa; Dimopoulou, Konstantina; Tzebelikos, Errikos; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2013-08-01

    Antipsychotic medications are associated to different degrees with sexual dysfunction mainly through their potential to induce hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin (PRL) secretion is mainly regulated by the hypothalamic dopaminergic systems. We conducted this 6-month, parallel-group study to prospectively investigate the effects of the dopamine agonist cabergoline on sexual dysfunction in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV, AP 194) and hyperprolactinemia (PRL > 20 ng/ml for men and PRL > 25 ng/ml for women). In total 80 patients were enrolled; 33 were receiving risperidone, 17 haloperidol, 11 amisulpride, and 8 risperidone microspheres long acting. Based on PRL levels (< 50, 50-99, or > 100 ng/ml), patients were assigned in 3 cabergoline doses (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/day in 38, 23, and 19 patients, respectively). The psychopathology was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrom Scale (PANSS), and sexual dysfunction was evaluated using the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX). PRL levels were reduced in all patients, from 73.3 (± 46.8) to 42.0 (± 27.8) at Month 3 and 27.1 (± 20.4) at Month 6 (p < .001). ASEX scores declined from 19.1 (± 5.1) to 17.6 (± 5.5) at Month 3 and 15.0 (± 6.5) at Month 6 (p < .001). PANSS scores were reduced in the third and in the sixth month (p = .001 at 6 month vs. baseline). The decrease in PRL was not statistically different between groups. Our data suggest that cabergoline administration to clinically stable patients with schizophrenia may improve sexual functioning without adversely affecting their psychopathologic status, provided that the dose has been suited to the severity of the hyperprolactinemia. PMID:23834553

  5. Do Anorexics and Schizophrenics Look Alike on the MMPI?--A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verberne, Tom J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory data presented by Small, Madero, Gross, Teagno, Leib, and Ebert (1981) which shows distinct differences, consistent with the clinical diagnosis in the case of the schizophrenic patients, and is suggestive of an affective disorder in the anorexic patients. (Author/JAC)

  6. Acute dystonia in a young schizophrenic patient associated with ingestion of a cloperastine containing cough syrup.

    PubMed

    Linazasoro, G; Garmendia, M T; Lizaso, X

    2000-01-01

    Acute dystonic reactions are usually observed after exposure to drugs with antidopaminergic actions. We report on one patient with acute dystonia associated with ingestion of a cloperastine containing syrup, who suffered from schizophrenia but had been neuroleptic-free for 6months. Cloperastine has antihistaminic properties. We suggest that antihistaminic agents may induce acute dystonia by altering the balance between dopamine and acetylcholine in the striatum. PMID:18591150

  7. Trichotillomania with trichorhizophagia in a schizophrenic patient: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P N Suresh; Rajmohan, V

    2012-04-01

    Trichotillomania is a disorder characterized by chronic hair pulling that often results in alopecia. Eating the part of hair pulled out is a common practice and trichorhizophagia is a new term to denote the habit of eating the root of hairs pulled out, associated with trichotillomania. Many psychiatric disorders are prevalent among patients with trichotillomania. Here we report a case of trichotillomania with trichorhizophagia in a 58-year-old man with schizophrenia. The various treatment options are also discussed. PMID:22988332

  8. Trichotillomania with trichorhizophagia in a schizophrenic patient: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; Rajmohan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a disorder characterized by chronic hair pulling that often results in alopecia. Eating the part of hair pulled out is a common practice and trichorhizophagia is a new term to denote the habit of eating the root of hairs pulled out, associated with trichotillomania. Many psychiatric disorders are prevalent among patients with trichotillomania. Here we report a case of trichotillomania with trichorhizophagia in a 58-year-old man with schizophrenia. The various treatment options are also discussed. PMID:22988332

  9. Negative Correlation between Serum S100B and Leptin Levels in Schizophrenic Patients During Treatment with Clozapine and Risperidone: Preliminary Evidence.

    PubMed

    Hendouei, Narjes; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Panahi, Amin; Khazaeipour, Zahra; Barari, Fatemeh; Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Ala, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extensive efforts have been made to understand the rate of energy expenditure and the weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment, including identification of markers of obesity risk. In recent years, leptin, an adipocyte hormone, has gained significant interest in psychiatric disorders. S100B has been considered as a surrogate marker for astrocyte-specific damage in neurologic disorders. Also, S100B has been detected in adipose with concentration as high as nervous tissue as a second release source. In this study we evaluated the relationship between S100B and leptin in schizophrenic patients under treatment with clozapine and risperidone.This study included 19 patients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, having body mass index (BMI) of 16- 25 kg/m(2) and suffering schizophrenia for more than 3 years and from this study. Twenty five healthy controls were group matched for age and gender whose BMI was 16-25 kg/m(2). Serum S100B and leptin levels and positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) were assessed at admission and after six weeks. During the study, S100B showed a strong and negative correlation with leptin (r = -0.5, P = 0.01). Also, there were negative correlation between serum S100B level and PANSS negative subscale after 6 weeks of treatment (r = -0.048, P = 0.8). Positive correlation between leptin level and PANSS suggested a potential role for leptin which can mediate the link between antipsychotic induced weight gain and therapeutic response in schizophrenia. PMID:27610173

  10. Negative Correlation between Serum S100B and Leptin Levels in Schizophrenic Patients During Treatment with Clozapine and Risperidone: Preliminary Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hendouei, Narjes; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Panahi, Amin; Khazaeipour, Zahra; Barari, Fatemeh; Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Ala, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extensive efforts have been made to understand the rate of energy expenditure and the weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment, including identification of markers of obesity risk. In recent years, leptin, an adipocyte hormone, has gained significant interest in psychiatric disorders. S100B has been considered as a surrogate marker for astrocyte-specific damage in neurologic disorders. Also, S100B has been detected in adipose with concentration as high as nervous tissue as a second release source. In this study we evaluated the relationship between S100B and leptin in schizophrenic patients under treatment with clozapine and risperidone.This study included 19 patients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, having body mass index (BMI) of 16- 25 kg/m2 and suffering schizophrenia for more than 3 years and from this study. Twenty five healthy controls were group matched for age and gender whose BMI was 16-25 kg/m2. Serum S100B and leptin levels and positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) were assessed at admission and after six weeks. During the study, S100B showed a strong and negative correlation with leptin (r = -0.5, P = 0.01). Also, there were negative correlation between serum S100B level and PANSS negative subscale after 6 weeks of treatment (r = -0.048, P = 0.8). Positive correlation between leptin level and PANSS suggested a potential role for leptin which can mediate the link between antipsychotic induced weight gain and therapeutic response in schizophrenia. PMID:27610173

  11. Severe Burns and Amputation of Both Arms in the First Psychotic Episode of a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Cruzado, Lizardo; Villafane-Alva, Ronald; Caballero-Atencio, Katia; Cortez-Vergara, Carla; Núñez-Moscoso, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    An alleged reduction of sensitivity to pain in people with schizophrenia has been reported, but the nature of this complex phenomenon has not been elucidated yet. Reports of insensitivity to burns from people with schizophrenia are extremely rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old man who set both of his arms on fire during the first break of paranoid schizophrenia. As a result of severe tissue damage, both of his limbs had to be amputated. Today, at the age of 59, the patient is physically and mentally rehabilitated and is adherent to treatment. Additionally, given the uncertainty about the true nature of the alleged hypoalgesia in schizophrenia, we postulate the need for a comprehensive phenomenological approach in the study of embodiment in people with this condition. PMID:26417469

  12. Family burden of schizophrenic patients and the welfare system; the case of Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The shift from asylum to community care for mental health patients has burdened the providers of primary health care and, more than all, families. As a result, numerous studies [Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 31:345–348, 1995, J Health Socisl Behav 36:138–150, 1995] have focused on the burden of care experienced by family members living with individuals with severe mental disorders. This kind of provision, also extols a significant cost to the society at large in terms of significant direct and indirect costs. A cost that may be even higher in times of severe socio-economic crisis. Methodology This study, firstly, aims to examine the burden that the family members experience by caring for individuals with schizophrenia and the identification of the parameters, in a micro and macro level, that affect family burden. Secondly, this study aims to investigate whether the welfare state will be fit to help vulnerable groups as the one studied, especially during economic crisis periods when austerity measures are being implemented into welfare systems. For data collection purposes this study employed the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire [Schizophr Bull 1998, 24(4):609–618]. The sample consisted of caregivers either living in rural or urban areas of the district of Nicosia, the capital of the Republic of Cyprus. These people were attending regular meetings with their allocated Community Psychiatric Nurses (CPN) in Community Mental Health Centres (CMHC). Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied with the tension, the supervision, the worry, and the encouragement entering as dependent factors. In each case, participant’s age, gender, marital status, income, number of people living in the same house with the participant, degree of relationship between the caregiver and the person suffering from severe mental disorder, the age of the relative, and the gender of the relative, were entered as independent factors. Four ANCOVAs were performed

  13. Analysis of drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with organic-inorganic hybrid cyanopropyl monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Souza, Israel Donizeti de; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2015-07-01

    This study reports on the development of a rapid, selective, and sensitive column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze sixteen drugs (antidepressants, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, and antipsychotics) in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients. The developed organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column with cyanopropyl groups was used for the first dimension of the column-switching arrangement. This arrangement enabled online pre-concentration of the drugs (monolithic column) and their subsequent analytical separation on an XSelect SCH C18 column. The drugs were detected on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (multiple reactions monitoring mode) with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The developed method afforded adequate linearity for the sixteen target drugs; the coefficients of determination (R(2)) lay above 0.9932, the interassay precision had coefficients of variation lower than 6.5%, and the relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -14.0 to 11.8%. The lower limits of quantification in plasma samples ranged from 63 to 1250pgmL(-1). The developed method successfully analyzed the target drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). PMID:25984963

  14. Bizarreness in dream reports and waking fantasies of psychotic schizophrenic and manic patients: empirical evidences and theoretical consequences.

    PubMed

    Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Manzone, Maria Laura; Scarone, Silvio

    2011-09-30

    Several overlapping features have frequently been described between psychosis and the subjective experience of dreaming from the neurobiological to the phenomenological level, but whether this similarity reflects the cognitive organization of schizophrenic thought or rather that of psychotic mentation independent of diagnostic categories is still unclear. In this study, 40 actively psychotic inpatients were equally divided in two age- and education-matched groups according to their diagnosis (Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder). Participants were asked to report their dreams upon awakening and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was administered to elicit waking fantasies; the same procedure was used in a control group of 20 non-psychiatric subjects. Two highly trained judges scored the collected material according to a Dream Bizarreness scale. The same level of cognitive bizarreness was found in TAT and dream reports of schizophrenic and manic subjects but was almost completely absent in the TAT stories of the control group. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures assessed the effect of diagnosis and experimental conditions (TAT stories and dream reports) on bizarreness yielding a significant interaction. Cognitive bizarreness seems to be a shared feature of dreaming and psychotic mentation, beyond diagnostic categorizations. Although these findings must be considered preliminary, this experimental measure of the cognitive architecture of thought processes seems to support the view that dreaming could be a useful model for the psychoses. PMID:21435729

  15. The miR-137 schizophrenia susceptibility variant rs1625579 does not predict variability in brain volume in a sample of schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Rose, Emma J; Morris, Derek W; Fahey, Ciara; Cannon, Dara; McDonald, Colm; Scanlon, Cathy; Kelly, Sinead; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Donohoe, Gary

    2014-09-01

    The micro RNA 137 (miR-137) variant rs1625579 has been identified as a genome-wide significant risk variant for schizophrenia. miR-137 has an established role in neurodevelopment and may mediate cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. This role of miR-137 may be related to changes in brain morphology for risk-related genotypes; however this has not yet been delineated. Here we considered whether rs1625579 genotype was predictive of indices of brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data (i.e. 3T T1-TFE or 1.5T T1-MPRAGE) were acquired from 150 healthy controls and 163 schizophrenic patients. Two volumetric analyses that considered the impact of miR-137/rs1625579 genotype were carried out on sMRI data. In the first analysis, voxel based morphometry was employed to consider genotype-related variability in local grey and white matter across the entire brain volume. Our secondary analysis utilized the FIRST protocol in FSL to consider the volume of subcortical structures (i.e. bilateral accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus). Several brain regions in both analyses demonstrated the expected main effect of participant group (i.e. schizophrenics < controls), yet there were no regions where we observed an impact of rs1635579 genotype on brain volume. Our analyses suggest that the mechanism by which miR-137 confers risk for schizophrenia and impacts upon cognitive function may not be mediated by changes in local brain volume. However, it remains to be determined whether or not alternative measures of brain structure are related to these functions of miR-137. PMID:25044277

  16. IPI-145 shows promise in CLL patients.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Results from a phase I study of Infinity Pharmaceuticals' IPI-145, which inhibits both δ and γ isoforms of phosphoinositide3-kinase, suggest the drug is safe and effective in patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:24501284

  17. Cognition, negative symptoms, and diagnosis: a comparison of schizophrenic, bipolar, and control samples.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, K A; Hoffman, R E; Quinlan, D M; Rakfeldt, J; Docherty, N M; Sledge, W H

    1997-01-01

    Forty-six schizophrenic, 22 bipolar, and 26 normal control subjects were administered negative and positive symptoms scales and tests of cognitive function. Test performance was related to diagnosis and to positive and negative symptom ratings within the schizophrenic group. Bipolar patients were significantly superior in cognitive status when compared with all schizophrenic patients, but less so when compared only with those who did not have key negative symptoms (affective nonresponsivity and poverty of speech). The schizophrenic patients with negative symptoms displayed severe impairment, performing significantly worse than the control, bipolar, and other schizophrenic subjects. Negative symptoms thus are significantly implicated in the cognitive inferiority of schizophrenic to bipolar patients. Although the data suggest bipolar patients may also have cognitive deficiencies, these findings are inconclusive and require cross-validation. PMID:9017533

  18. Migraine patients show increased platelet vasopressin receptors.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, J; Leppla-Wollsiffer, G; Nemeth, N; Nelson, K; Kirsten, R

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate vasopressin receptor status (Bmax and Kd) on platelets, vasopressin plasma levels, and vasopressin-induced platelet aggregation in migraine patients (21 females and 6 males) during a headache-free interval and in a matched control group. In the migraine group, Bmax was significantly higher (P = 0.02) at 53.9 +/- 20.6 fmol/mg than in the control group (36.8 +/- 21.0 fmol/mg). A correlation between Bmax and high or low sensitivity to vasopressin as an aggregator was evident in the control group, but not in the migraine group. No differences in Kd or in plasma levels of vasopressin between the migraine and control group were apparent. Men in both groups were much less sensitive to vasopressin as a platelet aggregator than were women (P < 0.01). Whether the higher Bmax in the migraine group is a reflection of temporarily higher vasopressin levels during headache or reflects a primary increase in sensitivity to vasopressin, remains to be clarified. The higher sensitivity of platelets (as a model for vessel wall receptors) from women may indicate why many more women than men suffer from migraine. Since the Bmax of the vasopressin receptor on platelets from migraine patients is increased compared to controls, treating migraine headache with vasopressin may deserve more attention. PMID:8990597

  19. Distressing behaviour of schizophrenics at home.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, P S; Chaturvedi, S K

    1992-09-01

    The care of mentally ill people at home is being encouraged nowadays. As a result, the family members feel an increased burden of care and find it difficult to cope with the care of a schizophrenic patient at home. We interviewed the relatives of 62 schizophrenics systematically regarding the behaviour of the patients that was perceived to be distressful. This was done using the Scale for Assessment of Family Distress. It was noted that behaviours related to activity and self-care were perceived to be most distressful, and not aggressive or psychotic behaviour. Distress was more often reported by younger relatives and those with more education. The findings have implications in planning appropriate family intervention methods. PMID:1414410

  20. Lateralization effects of image-guided 31P magnetoresonance spectroscopic parameters in the frontal lobe of schizophrenics and healthy controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Gabriele; Volz, Hans-Peter; Riehemann, Stefan; Wenda, Berit; Roessger, Grit; Rzanny, Reinhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    1999-05-01

    Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) has gained much interest in schizophrenia research in the last years since it allows the non-invasive measurement of high- energy phosphates and phospholipids in vivo. We investigated hemispherical differences of the concentrations of different phosphorus compounds in the frontal lobes. For this purpose, well defined volumes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 32 healthy controls and 51 schizophrenic patients were examined. Schizophrenic patients showed significant lateralization effects of phosphodiesters (PDE) and the intracellular pH-value. Differences in the lateralization of 31P-MRS parameters between patients and healthy volunteers were only detected for the pH-value. While healthy controls exhibit lower pH-values in the left frontal lobe (6.96), in schizophrenic patients we found lower pH-values in the right (6.89). Detailed examinations showed that this effect is mainly based on the subgroup of schizophrenics who received atypical neuroleptic medication.

  1. Cannabis Use and Dependence among French Schizophrenic Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Basquin, Anne; Koch, Marie; Embouazza, Houcine; Chalvin, Florence; Ilongo, Michaelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: One hundred one schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire, and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates, and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption, and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken. Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs. 44.7 years p < 0.0001), more often male (77 vs. 54%, p = 0.02) and had been hospitalized for the first time in psychiatry earlier (24.3 vs. 31.3 p = 0.003). Eighty-eight percent of cannabis consumers were dependent on cannabis. They were more often dependent on opiates (17 vs. 0%) and alcohol (32 vs. 7.4%, p = 0.001) and presented compulsive buying more often (48 vs. 27%, p = 0.04). Logistic regression revealed that factors associated to cannabis consumption among schizophrenics were cannabis dependence, male gender, pathological gambling, opiate dependence, number of joints smoked each day, and compulsive buying. Conclusion: 33.6% of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment. PMID:25076916

  2. Abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients: gender differences and partial normalization with antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Richtand, Neil M; Stanford, Kevin E

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have observed significant abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of peripheral tissues from drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenic (SZ) patients relative to normal controls, including deficits in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are partially normalized following chronic antipsychotic treatment. We hypothesized that postmortem cortical tissue from patients with SZ would also exhibit deficits in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) relative to normal controls, and that these deficits would be greater in drug-free SZ patients. We determined the total fatty acid composition of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (Brodmann area 10) from drug-free and antipsychotic-treated SZ patients (n=21) and age-matched normal controls (n=26) by gas chromatography. After correction for multiple comparisons, significantly lower DHA (-20%) concentrations, and significantly greater vaccenic acid (VA) (+12.5) concentrations, were found in the OFC of SZ patients relative to normal controls. Relative to age-matched same-gender controls, OFC DHA deficits, and elevated AA:DHA, oleic acid:DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6):DHA ratios, were found in male but not female SZ patients. SZ patients that died of cardiovascular-related disease exhibited lower DHA (-31%) and AA (-19%) concentrations, and greater OA (+20%) and VA (+17%) concentrations, relative to normal controls that also died of cardiovascular-related disease. OFC DHA and AA deficits, and elevations in oleic acid and vaccenic acid, were numerically greater in drug-free SZ patients and were partially normalized in SZ patients treated with antipsychotic medications (atypical>typical). Fatty acid abnormalities could not be wholly attributed to lifestyle or postmortem tissue variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence implicating omega-3 fatty acid deficiency as well as the OFC in the pathoaetiology of SZ, and suggest that

  3. Visual search performance by paranoid and chronic undifferentiated schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Portnoff, L A; Yesavage, J A; Acker, M B

    1981-10-01

    Disturbances in attention are among the most frequent cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia. Recent research has suggested that some schizophrenics have difficulty with visual tracking, which is suggestive of attentional deficits. To investigate differential visual-search performance by schizophrenics, 15 chronic undifferentiated and 15 paranoid schizophrenics were compared with 15 normals on two tests measuring visual search in a systematic and an unsystematic stimulus mode. Chronic schizophrenics showed difficulty with both kinds of visual-search tasks. In contrast, paranoids had only a deficit in the systematic visual-search task. Their ability for visual search in an unsystematized stimulus array was equivalent to that of normals. Although replication and cross-validation is needed to confirm these findings, it appears that the two tests of visual search may provide a useful ancillary method for differential diagnosis between these two types of schizophrenia. PMID:7312527

  4. A group approach to psychopharmacology with schizophrenics.

    PubMed Central

    Skolnick, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and practical issues involved in integrating pharmacotherapy and psychosocial therapy in a long-term day hospital for schizophrenics are addressed. The limitations and risks of relying too heavily on a biomedical conceptual framework are discussed. In addition to diagnosis, target symptoms, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics, individual interpersonal, family, and institutional dynamics can exert profound effects on the effectiveness of medication. Through case illustrations it is shown how an open systems model and a group approach can allow for an integration of the many variables involved in the medication process. A weekly medication group which emphasizes education, informed choice, patient responsibility, and the examination of the boundary between medication effect and the need for psychological work is described. It is shown that the chemical control of psychosis alone may reinforce the psychosocial aspects of the schizophrenic syndrome. A distinction is drawn between chemical control of psychosis and the sensitive use of medication as a facilitator of growth-promoting psychosocial treatment. PMID:2864762

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics. Tests using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ariel, R.N.; Golden, C.J.; Berg, R.A.; Quaife, M.A.; Dirksen, J.W.; Forsell, T.; Wilson, J.; Graber, B.

    1983-03-01

    Measurements of intrahemispheric and bilateral regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) for gray and white matter were compared in 29 schizophrenic patients and 22 normal controls, using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method. Results showed significantly lower CBF values for all brain regions in the schizophrenic group, and post hoc comparisons showed relatively greater reduced gray-matter CBF values in the anterior areas of the brain. There was also a left-hemisphere frontal loss similar to that reported previously, although it was in the context of a generalized loss in anterior functioning. Interhemispheric comparison within both groups showed no differences between homologous regions for gray matter, and greater white-matter CBF values in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. The findings support a hypothesis of a bilateral anterior deficit in schizophrenia.

  6. [Prescription of traditional neuroleptics in the remission period for schizophrenic patients with excess of body mass caused by atypical antipsychotics].

    PubMed

    Danilov, D S; Tiul'pin, Iu G

    2007-01-01

    A sample included 61 patients, 53 men and 8 women, with ICD-10 episodic schizophrenia in the remission after treatment with atypical neuroleptics (risperidon, olanzapine, clozapine). All patients were featured by therapeutically caused excess of body mass (obesity of different degrees) that hampered the further treatment. In 31 cases (the main group) atypical neuroleptics were substituted for traditional drugs that exerted lesser influence on body mass. Haloperidol (mean dosage 4,1 mg daily) was administered to 17 patients and trifluoperazine (mean dosage 7,1 mg daily) to 14 patients. Other 30 patients (a control group) continued to receive atypical neuroleptics. Between group differences of patient's mental and somatic state were assessed using quantitative scales. It was shown that the substitution of atypical neuroleptics for traditional neuroleptic drugs allowed to stop further body mass gain and even decreased it without significant influence on psychopathological symptoms and other side-effects in patients with excess of body mass. PMID:18379518

  7. Consumer satisfaction and attributions of improvement among fully recovered schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Torgalsbøen, A K

    2001-02-01

    As people with serious mental illness are viewed as consumers rather than patients, their views and needs are increasingly seen as essential to the treatment process. The aim of the present study is to add valuable knowledge about how to help patients by reporting what fully recovered schizophrenics, as consumers, had found helpful in their treatment as well as which factors contributed to their recovery. In addition to a semistructured interview, two instruments were used: the "UCLA Social Attainment Survey Premorbid Adjustment Scale" (SASPAS) to measure patients' premorbid adjustment and the "Global Assessment Scale" (GAS) to obtain an assessment of the present general functioning of the subjects. The results showed that a majority of the recovered subjects emphasized their own will-power and the human qualities in their therapists as helpful to them in the process towards recovery. The therapeutic relationships were characterized by the kindling and sustaining of hope in the clients. PMID:11273577

  8. Recognition and Repair of Communicative Failures: The Interaction between Theory of Mind and Cognitive Complexity in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Bono, Adele; Bara, Bruno G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to perform a detailed and empirical investigation of schizophrenia patients' deficits in recognizing and recovering a communicative failure. In particular, this paper investigates the role of Theory of Mind (ToM) and of the complexity of the mental representations involved in explaining patients' deficits in…

  9. Scanning for unstable trinucleotide repeats in neuropsychiatric disorders: Detection of a large CTG expansion in a schizophrenic patient

    SciTech Connect

    Sirugo, G.; Haaf, T.; Kidd, K.K.

    1994-09-01

    Expansion of unstable trinucleotide repeats have been associated so far with seven human genetic disorders including fragile X, myotonic dystrophy and Huntington disease. This newly discovered class of genetic mutations is almost invariably associated with genetic anticipation. Anticipation has been recently reported in bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia pedigrees, suggesting a possible implication of genes with unstable triplets in these disorders. To explore this hypothesis we have analyzed large schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder kindreds by means of the Repeat Expansion Detection Method (RED) described by Schalling and modified in our laboratory. This method uses genomic DNA as a template for the annealing and ligation of repeat-specific oligonucleotides. The reactions were subjected to denaturing PAGE and then transferred onto nylon membrane by capillary transfer. The multimers were revealed after hybridization with an oligoprobe and 5 hours exposure on film. To date the kindreds have been screened for the presence of unstable (CTG)n. CTG multimers ranging from 51 to 119 CTG units were detected in both affected and normal individuals corresponding to a normal variation in length of one or more CTG loci. Although our results indicate that (CTG)n expansions are not the mechanism causing schziophrenia or bipolar affective disorder, in one schizophrenia patient we have detected a large (CTG)n constituted by at least 204 CTG units. The incomplete structure of the family does not allow us to determine if this large repeat segregates with the disease. Localization of this expanded locus by in situ hybridization is underway. Similar in situ studies using PCR-generated CCA multimers up to 1 kb in length as a probe have revealed the presence of long tracts of CCA repeats at discrete sites in the human genome. This shows the feasibility of the in situ approach to localize large arrays of triplets in the human genome.

  10. Adult medication-free schizophrenic patients exhibit long-chain omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency: implications for cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn - 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 24). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, -22%, P = 0.007). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, P = 0.001). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n - 6) (+9%, P = 0.02) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, P = 0.0004) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2n - 6) was significantly lower (-12%, P = 0.009) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (-19%, P = 0.04) but not female (-13%, P = 0.33) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, P = 0.008) and female (+22%, P = 0.04) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn - 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23533712

  11. Elevated delta-6 desaturase (FADS2) expression in the postmortem prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients: relationship with fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K

    2009-04-01

    Although emerging evidence suggests that schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with peripheral and central polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficits, there is currently nothing known about the expression of genes that mediate PUFA biosynthesis in SZ patients. Here we determined Delta5 desaturase (FADS1), Delta6 desaturase (FADS2), elongase (HELO1 [ELOVL5]), peroxisomal (PEX19), and Delta9 desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase, SCD) mRNA expression, and relevant fatty acid product:precursor ratios as estimates of enzyme activities, in the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of patients with SZ (n=20) and non-psychiatric controls (n=20). After correction for multiple comparisons, FADS2 mRNA expression was significantly greater in SZ patients relative to controls (+36%, p=0.002), and there was a positive trend found for FADS1 (+26%, p=0.15). No differences were found for HELO1 (+10%, p=0.44), PEX19 (+12%, p=0.44), or SCD (-6%, p=0.85). Both male (+34%, p=0.02) and female (+42%, p=0.02) SZ patients exhibited greater FADS2 mRNA expression relative to same-gender controls. Drug-free SZ patients (+37%, p=0.02), and SZ patients treated with typical (+40%, p=0.002) or atypical (+31%, p=0.04) antipsychotics, exhibited greater FADS2 mRNA expression relative to controls. Consistent with increased Delta6 desaturase activity, SZ patients exhibited a greater 20:3/18:2 ratio (+20%, p=0.03) and a positive trend was found for 20:4/18:2 (+13%, p=0.07). These data demonstrate abnormal, potentially compensatory, elevations in Delta6 desaturase (FADS2) expression in the PFC of SZ patients that are independent of gender and antipsychotic medications. Greater Delta6 desaturase expression and activity could have implications for central prostaglandin synthesis and proinflammatory signaling. PMID:19195843

  12. Family Type as a Prognostic Indicator of Rehabilitation Outcome with Post-Hospitalized Male Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beres, Barbara Oliver; Frumkin, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    A study of 65 male schizophrenic patients at the Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation Unit, Cleveland Psychiatric Institute, Cleveland, Ohio revealed that family type (conjugal settings, parental settings, living alone) is found to to be a valuable prognosticator of rehabilitation outcome among post-hospitalized schizophrenics. (EA)

  13. Verbal Conditioning of Male and Female Schizophrenics as a Function of Experimenter Proximity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Brooks, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Assess the effects of patient-experimenter proximity on schizophrenics' learning when the social class of the subjects, both schizophrenics and nonschizophrenics, and the verbal and nonverbal components of social reinforcement are controlled. Also tests males and females to determine whether sex of subjects moderates the responses of…

  14. Improvement in verbal memory following SSRI augmentation of antipsychotic treatment is associated with changes in the expression of mRNA encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in PMC of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Mandiuk, Nina; Einoch, Reef; Susser, Ehud; Danovich, Lena; Bilker, Warren; Youdim, Moussa; Weinreb, Orly

    2015-05-01

    Verbal memory impairment in schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) systems. Recent evidence from animal and clinical studies that adding fluvoxamine to antipsychotics alters the expression of transcripts encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF led us to postulate that fluvoxamine augmentation may improve memory in schizophrenia. To test this, we examined the effect of add-on fluvoxamine on verbal memory and other cognitive functions and related it to the expression of mRNA coding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMC) of schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine patients completed a 6-week study in which fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Verbal memory, abstraction working memory, object and face recognition, and psychomotor speed and clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were taken at baseline and weeks 1, 3, and 6 and PMC was assayed for the GABA-A beta3 receptor and BDNF mRNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Associative and logical verbal memory improved significantly and showed a significant correlation with changes in PMC BDNF and GABA-A beta3 receptor mRNA, which increased during treatment. Abstraction and object recognition improved, but this did not correlate with PMC measures. Negative and positive symptoms improved significantly; the latter showed significant correlations with changes in PMC measures. Addition of fluvoxamine to antipsychotics improves verbal memory. It is postulated that the mechanism involves enhanced GABA-A receptor/BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:25756551

  15. [Music in the picture -- musical scores and other music-related pictorial elements in the visual artworks of schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Simon, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century music scores and other music releated pictoral elements have repeteadly appeared in psychotic patients' visual artworks. Interestingly, little attention was paid to these enigmatic forms of psychopathological art expression till the 1970s. This essay investigates the underlying psychopathology and the psychodynamic basis of musical elements applied in psychotic patients' visual art expression within a phenomenological- intersubjective framework integrating the art-historical context of the 20th century. As an illustration, artworks of the psychopathological art collection of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty, University of Pecs, Hungary are presented. PMID:26202621

  16. Hospital utilization outcome of an assertive outreach model for schizophrenic patients - results of a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Büchtemann, Dorothea; Kästner, Denise; Warnke, Ingeborg; Radisch, Jeanett; Baumgardt, Johanna; Giersberg, Steffi; Kleine-Budde, Katja; Moock, Jörn; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-07-30

    We assessed whether an Assertive Outreach (AO) program for patients with schizophrenia implemented in German routine care in rural areas reduces psychiatric hospital admissions and/or psychiatric hospital days. We conducted a quasi-experimental controlled study with 5 assessments in 12 months. Data collection included health care utilization (Client Sociodemographic and Service Receipt Inventory), and clinical parameters. The assessments took place in the practices of the psychiatrists. Admission incidence rates were calculated. For bivariate group comparison, we used U-tests, T-tests and Chi(2)-Tests, multivariate analysis was conducted using zero-inflated regression models. For hospital outcomes, data of 295 patients was analysed. No statistically significant differences between AO and TAU patients in terms of hospital admissions or hospital days were found. Overall hospital utilization was low (8%). Advantages of AO over TAU referring to hospital utilization were not found. However, a spill-over effect might have reduced hospital utilization in both groups. Further research should differentiate patient subgroups. These two appear to be key factors to explain effects or absence of effects and to draw conclusions for the mental health care delivery. PMID:27208511

  17. THE REMOTIVATION OF CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC MEN PATIENTS THROUGH THE USE OF "WORK CONDITIONING" IN HOSPITAL WORK AREAS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PAIK, GEORGE; AND OTHERS

    THE PROJECT SOUGHT TO ESTABLISH VOCATIONAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES, PROVIDE A WORK CONDITIONING PROGRAM TO INCREASE WORK POTENTIAL, AND PROVIDE AFTERCARE SERVICE AND FOLLOWUP. THE MAJOR HYPOTHESIS WAS THAT PATIENTS GIVEN A PROGRAM OF WORK CONDITIONING WERE MORE LIKELY TO BE PLACED IN WORK SITUATIONS IN THE COMMUNITY AND TO REMAIN LONGER OUTSIDE THE…

  18. Effects of cerebral hemispheric laterality on the span of apprehension of schizophrenic and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Mass, R; Schoemig, T; Novikov, J; Wagner, M

    2001-01-01

    The effects of hemispheric laterality on a forced-choice Span of Apprehension (SoA) task were investigated. Forty-eight adult schizophrenic inpatients were recruited. A control group of healthy subjects was put together using the matched-pairs method with age, gender, and education as control variables. SoA performance was determined separately for the left and right visual field (VF), respectively. No SoA group differences were found; in both groups, the hit percentage was higher in the right VF. However, in the schizophrenic group, the left VF performance showed significant negative correlations with psychopathologic symptoms (especially auditory verbal hallucinations). In a subsample of patients receiving atypical neuroleptic drugs, the daily dosage correlated negatively with left VF performance. In general, young subjects performed better than old subjects (both VFs), males performed better than females, and subjects with high education performed better than subjects with low education (right VF). PMID:11315513

  19. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version Score of Schizophrenic Patients in a Japanese Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Takayoshi; Aleksic, Branko; Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Banno, Masahiro; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Adachi, Yasunori; Kawano, Naoko; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP), which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit) and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores) in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d′ score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d′ score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score. PMID:22966454

  20. Continuing clozapine treatment with lithium in schizophrenic patients with neutropenia or leukopenia: brief review of literature with case reports

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Memduha; Ilhan, Bilge Cetin; Calisir, Saliha; Yildirim, Seda; Eren, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic used for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Despite its effectiveness, clozapine is largely underused due to serious side effects such as leukopenia or neutropenia. We aimed to review whether to continue, discontinue or rechallenge clozapine treatment after such haematological side effects. Methods: We reviewed and summarized the literature on the use of clozapine, how to deal with its side effects, and suitable options in case of any haematological problems. Then, we described several cases successfully treated with clozapine and lithium after development of neutropenia or leukopenia Results: We present three patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. While they had demonstrated poor response to multiple antipsychotic trials, clozapine was started. Clozapine induced neutropenia; or leukopenia developed in some cases that was successfully reversed after lithium onset. Increased serious side effects related with coprescription of lithium and clozapine were not observed. Conclusion: Lithium increases neutrophil and total white blood cell count as a side effect that may be useful in patients who develop neutropenia or leukopenia while being treated with clozapine. PMID:26913176

  1. MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study)

    PubMed Central

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Szyburska, Justyna; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Find changes in matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) levels during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine and a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of MMP-9. Method: Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms participated in a six-month prospective RCT (randomized controlled trial). The patients received two grams of sarcosine (n = 28) or placebo (n = 30) daily. At the beginning, after six weeks and after six months MMP-9 levels were measured. Severity of symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Results: MMP-9 serum levels were stable after six weeks and six months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group compared to placebo; however, there was no correlations between serum MMP-9 concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum MMP-9 concentrations cannot be used as an improvement predictor acquired during sarcosine augmentation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that either MMP-9 is not involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action in terms of clinical parameters or sarcosine induced changes in peripheral MMP-9 concentrations cannot be detected in blood assessments. PMID:27409603

  2. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows. PMID:27142954

  3. The Well Siblings of Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Laurel; Chase, Laura

    1979-01-01

    Explores the impact of having a schizophrenic sibling. Subjects functioned at high levels of adjustment. Separated from their families, there followed a period of reinvolvement, including responsibility for the ill sibling. Younger siblings expressed guilt over being well, whereas older siblings expressed guilt over earlier sibling rivalry.…

  4. Schizophrenic Symptoms Improve with Apomorphine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamminga, Carol A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In eighteen chronic schizophrenics, subcutaneous doses of the dopamine reception agonist, apomorphine, improved psychotic symptoms. The results are interpreted as a consequence of presynaptic dopamine receptor activationby apomorphine with a subsequent decrease in dopamine-mediated neural transmission. (Author/BB)

  5. The effects of token reinforcement and feedback on the delusional verbal behavior of chronic paranoid schizophrenics1

    PubMed Central

    Wincze, John P.; Leitenberg, Harold; Agras, W. Stewart

    1972-01-01

    Prior research with token reinforcement in the psychiatric population has been directed at work adjustment, more than at major symptomatic behaviors. The purpose of the present research, on the other hand, was to investigate the effects of feedback and token reinforcement on the modification of delusional verbal behavior in chronic psychotics. Six male and four female paranoid schizophrenic patients participated in the study. The results indicated that the effects of feedback were effective about half the time in reducing percentage delusional talk, but in at least three cases produced adverse reactions. Token reinforcement, however, showed more consistency and reduced the percentage of delusional verbal behavior in seven of the nine subjects exposed to this procedure. The effects of both feedback and token reinforcement were quite specific to the environment in which they were applied and showed little generalization to other situations. It would appear that using token reinforcement can reduce the percentage delusional speech of chronic paranoid schizophrenics. PMID:16795347

  6. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Asad A; Tidball, Andrew M; Kumar, Kevin K; Neely, M Diana; Han, Bingying; Ess, Kevin C; Hong, Charles C; Erikson, Keith M; Hedera, Peter; Bowman, Aaron B

    2015-01-01

    Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD. PMID:25315681

  7. Abnormal seasonality of schizophrenic births. A specific finding?

    PubMed

    Häfner, H; Haas, S; Pfeifer-Kurda, M; Eichhorn, S; Michitsuji, S

    1987-01-01

    The unusual finding of an abnormal seasonal distribution of schizophrenic births, showing an excess of 10% in the winter or spring months and an equal deficit in the summer or autumn months, cannot be explained by artefacts. It has not yet been established whether the finding is specific to schizophrenia. We observed an excess of schizophrenic births of some 10% in March to May, significant at the 5% level, and a deficit of approximately the same size in June to August on the birth data of first-admission patients with the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia. The data, obtained from the Mannheim Psychiatric Case Register, were compared with those of the Mannheim population and a control group matched by birth year and sex. The total population of mentally retarded children aged 7 to 16 years from the Mannheim population showed an excess of some 20% in April to June and an equal deficit in the last two quarters of the year, compared with the Mannheim population of the same birth years. The finding was not significant, but allowance must be made for the low case number of 415. We also compared 3409 first-admission patients with depressive syndromes (ICD 296 and 300.4) and 5615 first-admission patients with the diagnosis of "neurosis and personality disorders" (ICD 300-302, except 300.4, and 305-309) from the Mannheim Case Register with a control population and a parallel control group. Depressed males showed an excess of births in March to May, which was significant at the 1% level; the birth peak for females was smaller and not significant. The same findings were obtained for the category of neurosis and personality disorders, i.e. an excess of about 10% in March to May for males, significant at the 1% level, and a non-significant excess for females. Our findings are awaiting replication. Causal explanations will be discussed with great reservation. The procreational hypothesis, assuming those factors that lead to an equidirectional seasonal pattern of births with a

  8. Computerized EEG as a predictor of drug response in treatment resistant schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Shapiro, D; Schneider, S J; Francis, I B

    1981-10-01

    Thirteen chronic schizophrenics were identified who failed to improve with physician's choice medication and 1 year of systematic treatment with a long acting phenothiazine. These patients were considered to be treatment resistant. Computer analyzed electroencephalogram (CEEG) or these treatment resistant schizophrenics was characterized by a large amount of alpha activity and less fast activity, in comparison with previous results from therapy responsive schizophrenics. The therapy resistant subjects did not display the typical neuroleptic CEEG profile following test dosages of four neuroleptics, and instead displayed CEEG profiles which more closely resembled the typical profile for psychostimulants. These findings may point to an altered metabolism, neurotransmitter defect, or other problem which alters the physiological and clinical response of therapy resistant schizophrenics to neuroleptic medication. PMID:6116742

  9. [Genotypic specificity of schizophrenic psychoses].

    PubMed

    Shakhmatova-Pavlova, I V; Gindilis, V M; Rokhlina, M L; Kozlova, I A

    1980-01-01

    A total of 610 probands with a disease manifestation in childhood, middle and old age and their families were examined by the clinico-genealogical method. The results allowed conclusions that (1) there is an undoubted genetic relationship between schizophrenia of childhood, middle and old age; and that (2) among the closest relatives in families of the probands there is no significant (in comparison to the general population) accumulation of non-schizophrenic pathology. The latter indicates a high genotypic specificity of schizophrenia. PMID:7415694

  10. A case of Déjerine-Sottas disease with schizophrenic symptoms. A clinical and pathological study.

    PubMed

    Nakao, T; Takahashi, K; Okuma, T; Matsushima, Y; Nagami, M

    1975-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic interstitial neuritis with a disturbance of intelligence and schizophrenic symptoms was reported. The patient, a 41-year-old male, showed monologia at the age of 14 and auditory hallucination at the age of 21. He was diagnosed as schizophrenia. Torsion of the head to the right side and muscular atrophy were also noticed at 21 years. Atrophy of the muscles progressed gradually, particularly in the distal parts of the upper and lower extremeties. Psychiatric examination revealed schizophrenic symptoms such as auditory hallucination, thought disorder, lack of spontaneity, autism, apathy, etc. There was also a disturbance of intelligence (imbecility). In neurological examination, the torsion of the head to the right side, slight exaggeration of the peripheral reflexes, muscular atrophy in the distal parts of the extremeties were noted. The bilateral ulnar nerves were markedly hypertrophied. The biopsy of the right ulnar nerve revealed a remarkable thickening of the endoneuria and "onion bulb" formations. A large amount of the interstitial accumulation of PAS positive substance, which showed metachromasia in cresyl violet staining, was also noted. Schwann cell processes were proved electron-microscopically to surround the myelin sheaths and some of them meandered and extended and into the metachromatic substance. The basement membrane of the sheath cell was hypertrophic in some portions and elongated into interstitium. The nucleus of the sheath cell was hyperchromic and showed marked atrophy. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen obtained from the gastrocnemius muscle suggested neurogenic muscular atrophy. The relationship among the hypertrophic interstitial neuritis, schizophrenic symptoms, disturbance of intelligence and torsion of the head was also discussed. PMID:1158314

  11. Induced oscillations and the distributed cortical sources during the Wisconsin card sorting test performance in schizophrenic patients: new clues to neural connectivity.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, J A; Cedeño, I; Pita-Alcorta, C; Galán, L; Aubert, E; Figueredo-Rodríguez, P

    2003-04-01

    Prefrontal dysfunction has been associated with schizophrenia. Activation during Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) is a common approach used in functional neuroimaging to address this failure. Equally, current knowledge states that oscillations are basic forms of cells-assembly communications during mental activity. Promising results were revealed in a previous study assessing healthy subjects, WCST and oscillations. However, those previous studies failed to meet the functional integration of the network during the WCST in schizophrenics, based on the induced oscillations and their distributed cortical sources. In this research, we utilized the brain electrical tomography (variable-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) technique to accomplish this goal. Task specific delta, theta, alpha and beta-2 oscillations were induced and simultaneously synchronized over large extensions of cortex, encompassing prefrontal, temporal and posterior regions as in healthy subjects. Every frequency had a well-defined network involving a variable number of areas and sharing some of them. Oscillations at 11.5, 5.0 and 30 Hz seem to reflect an abnormal increase or decrease, being located at supplementary motor area (SMA), left occipitotemporal region (OT), and right frontotemporal subregions (RFT), respectively. Three cortical areas appeared to be critical, that may lead to difficulties either in coordinating/sequencing the input/output of the prefrontal networks-SMA, and retention of information in memory-RFT, both preceded or paralleled by a deficient visual information processing-OT. PMID:12694897

  12. Schizophrenic psychosis associated with aqueduct stenosis in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J K; Trimble, M R; Robertson, M

    1983-01-01

    The case histories of five adult patients with hydrocephalus and aqueduct stenosis are presented. All the cases were associated with prominent psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations or thought disorder). In the three cases where operative intervention was carried out the diagnosis was made in adult life. Using the Present State Examination all five cases were classified as having schizophrenic psychosis. The possible reasons for this association are discussed. PMID:6644313

  13. Patient Experience Shows Little Relationship with Hospital Quality Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Groene, Oliver; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Wagner, Cordula; Bartels, Paul D.; Kristensen, Solvejg; Saillour, Florence; Thompson, Andrew; Thompson, Caroline A.; Pfaff, Holger; DerSarkissian, Maral; Sunol, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Patient-reported experience measures are increasingly being used to routinely monitor the quality of care. With the increasing attention on such measures, hospital managers seek ways to systematically improve patient experience across hospital departments, in particular where outcomes are used for public reporting or reimbursement. However, it is currently unclear whether hospitals with more mature quality management systems or stronger focus on patient involvement and patient-centered care strategies perform better on patient-reported experience. We assessed the effect of such strategies on a range of patient-reported experience measures. Materials and Methods We employed a cross-sectional, multi-level study design randomly recruiting hospitals from the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey between May 2011 and January 2012. Each hospital contributed patient level data for four conditions/pathways: acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hip fracture and deliveries. The outcome variables in this study were a set of patient-reported experience measures including a generic 6-item measure of patient experience (NORPEQ), a 3-item measure of patient-perceived discharge preparation (Health Care Transition Measure) and two single item measures of perceived involvement in care and hospital recommendation. Predictor variables included three hospital management strategies: maturity of the hospital quality management system, patient involvement in quality management functions and patient-centered care strategies. We used directed acyclic graphs to detail and guide the modeling of the complex relationships between predictor variables and outcome variables, and fitted multivariable linear mixed models with random intercept by hospital, and adjusted for fixed effects at the country level, hospital level and patient level. Results Overall, 74 hospitals and 276 hospital departments contributed data on 6,536 patients to this study (acute

  14. Repeat length variation in the dopamine D4 receptor gene shows no evidence of association with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.; Williams, J.; Asherson, P.

    1994-09-15

    The D4 receptor has been shown to exist in several allelic forms reflecting variation in the number of 48 base-pair sequence repeats in the putative cytoplasmic loop. We report a comparison of repeat length variation between schizophrenic patients and controls. Our sample of 106 unrelated schizophrenic cases and 119 controls showed no significant differences in allele or genotype distribution between patients and controls. In particular, we were unable to support the previous observation of an excess of 4-repeat homozygotes in patients. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Differentiation between patients with schizophrenia and borderline disorders in the Percept-genetic Object-Relation Test, PORT.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, A

    1995-12-01

    Schizophrenics (12 males), borderline patients (12 males), and self-selected normal controls (11 males, 17 females) were compared using PORT (Percept-genetic Object-Relation Test), a projective test, diagnosis being on the basis of DSM-III and Kernberg's six descriptive borderline criteria. The aim of the study was to compare the three groups in order to distinguish the two clinical groups from the control group, but also to distinguish the borderlines from the schizophrenic patients with specified diagnosis. The two patient groups differed from the controls on 15 different PORT signs/patterns. In addition, the borderline patients and the three schizophrenics of unspecified diagnosis showed signs in PORT of dissolution anxiety, splitting, whole configuration (fusion) and sexualization as defence, which the schizophrenics with specified diagnosis did not, although catatonic/hebephrenic, simplex, and paranoid schizophrenics could be distinguished in the test. Characteristic of the schizophrenics was also diffusion of domains of object relationships. In a blind prediction study with PORT involving five male and five female patients with severe psychiatric disorders (diagnosed by DSM-III-R), borderline patients could also be distinguished satisfactorily from schizophrenics. PMID:8688369

  16. Patient navigators show the way to faster flow.

    PubMed

    2007-09-01

    Nurses or physician assistants designated as patient navigators can ease the burden on the rest of the staff, improve relations with outside physicians, and improve patient flow in your ED. Provide them with separate phone numbers that primary care physicians can call to check on the condition of referred patients. Make them an integral part of your bed flow team, and have them serve as liaisons to admitting. Navigators also can be used to check with radiology when test results appear to be delayed. PMID:17894127

  17. Non-right-handedness and obstetrical complications in paranoid hallucinatory schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Sperling, W; Martus, P; Barocka, A

    1999-01-01

    In previous studies a link between pregnancy complications, minor physical anomalies and non-right-handedness was described in schizophrenic patients. There is evidence of an anomaly in the lateralization process in schizophrenia. Many studies of handedness and schizophrenia have found that schizophrenic patients have an increased rate of non-right-handedness compared with normal subjects. The contemporary neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia emerged from pathobiological findings. In addition there is evidence for early brain lesions and malformations in fetal brain development. Especially pregnancy and birth complications have been found to be a risk factor for the later development of schizophrenia. In this study we set out to test the possible association between diagnosis and handedness, diagnosis and risk factors, as well as gender and handedness for 60 patients (30 men, 30 women) and 60 controls. The percentage of non-right-handedness was significantly elevated in the patient group (p = 0.0025). In a gender-specific analysis this result could be confirmed only for male patients. Peri- and postnatal developmental risk factors were significantly elevated in schizophrenics compared with controls. The percentage of all risk factors in the male group of schizophrenic non-right-handers was significantly elevated compared with right-handed male schizophrenics. PMID:10494066

  18. Solitary brain metastasis of an occult and stable small-cell lung cancer in a schizophrenic patient: a 3-year control.

    PubMed

    Jesien-Lewandowicz, Emilia; Spych, Michal; Fijuth, Jacek; Kordek, Radzislaw

    2010-08-01

    Small-cell lung cancer is a highly aggressive carcinoma, with poorer prognosis in patients with brain metastases. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with a cerebellar tumour which, following surgery, was revealed to be a metastatic small-cell lung carcinoma. Subsequent CT and PET scanning showed a small, isolated 8 mm nodule in the upper lobe of the right lung. The patient was suffering from schizophrenia and has been treated with clozapine for 17 years. Because of the unusual presentation, there was no therapy given for the primary tumour at the time, and systemic therapy or surgery was discussed. However, 18 months later, the nodule was slightly larger (14 mm), and surgery was performed. On pathology examination, the tumour was presented as a typical small-cell carcinoma. Standard chest irradiation with systemic chemotherapy was given. At the time of writing, 39 months after diagnosis of metastatic small-cell carcinoma, the patient is disease free. However, this case is unusual in that a long-term observation of a small stable primary tumour in the lung took place without any therapy being given. This case strongly supports the thesis that small-cell lung cancer may comprise a heterogeneous group of tumours with different biological properties. The proapoptotic effect of clozapine may be also taken into account. PMID:20537425

  19. Functionally aberrant electrophysiological cortical connectivities in first episode medication-naive schizophrenics from three psychiatry centers

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L.; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D.; Milz, Patricia; Herrmann, Werner M.; Koukkou, Martha; Saito, Naomi; Winterer, Georg; Kochi, Kieko

    2014-01-01

    Functional dissociation between brain processes is widely hypothesized to account for aberrations of thought and emotions in schizophrenic patients. The typically small groups of analyzed schizophrenic patients yielded different neurophysiological findings, probably because small patient groups are likely to comprise different schizophrenia subtypes. We analyzed multichannel eyes-closed resting EEG from three small groups of acutely ill, first episode productive schizophrenic patients before start of medication (from three centers: Bern N = 9; Osaka N = 9; Berlin N = 12) and their controls. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to compute intracortical source model-based lagged functional connectivity not biased by volume conduction effects between 19 cortical regions of interest (ROIs). The connectivities were compared between controls and patients of each group. Conjunction analysis determined six aberrant cortical functional connectivities that were the same in the three patient groups. Four of these six concerned the facilitating EEG alpha-1 frequency activity; they were decreased in the patients. Another two of these six connectivities concerned the inhibiting EEG delta frequency activity; they were increased in the patients. The principal orientation of the six aberrant cortical functional connectivities was sagittal; five of them involved both hemispheres. In sum, activity in the posterior brain areas of preprocessing functions and the anterior brain areas of evaluation and behavior control functions were compromised by either decreased coupled activation or increased coupled inhibition, common across schizophrenia subtypes in the three patient groups. These results of the analyzed three independent groups of schizophrenics support the concept of functional dissociation. PMID:25191252

  20. Tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia with second-generation antipsychotics in non-elderly schizophrenic patients unexposed to first-generation antipsychotics: a cross-sectional and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seunghyong; Yoo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Choi, Ji Sun; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ha, Kyooseob; Kwon, Jun Soo; Hong, Kyung Sue

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the clinical nature, prevalence rates, and associated factors of second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-related tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia. To date, these subjects have not been thoroughly investigated.The subjects were 80 non-elderly schizophrenic patients who received SGAs for more than 1 year without any previous exposure to first-generation antipsychotics. Multiple (≥2) direct assessments of movement symptoms were performed. Hospital records longer than 1 recent year describing any observed tardive movement symptoms were reviewed.A current or history of tardive dyskinesia and/or tardive dystonia associated with SGA was identified in 28 (35%) subjects. These patients were being treated with risperidone (n = 15), amisulpride, olanzapine, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, or clozapine at the time of the onset of the movement symptoms. Tardive dyskinesia was mostly in the orolingual area, and the most frequently observed tardive dystonia was torticollis. The median interval between the first exposure to the SGA and the movement syndrome onset was 15 months for tardive dyskinesia and 43 months for tardive dystonia. A history of acute dystonia was significantly associated with tardive dystonia, and comorbid obsessive-compulsive syndrome was related to both tardive movement syndromes.This study indicates that more clinical attention and research efforts are needed regarding SGA-associated tardive movement syndromes, including a larger-scale prevalence assessment. This study is the first to indicate that a comorbid obsessive-compulsive syndrome might be an associated factor of tardive movement syndrome. The association warrants further investigation. PMID:25485636

  1. Prediction of the period of psychotic episode in individual schizophrenics by simulation-data construction approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Loh, El-Wui

    2010-10-01

    Although schizophrenia can be treated, most patients still experience inevitable psychotic episodes from time to time. Precautious actions can be taken if the next onset can be predicted. However, sufficient information is always lacking in the clinical scenario. A possible solution is to use the virtual data generated from limited of original data. Data construction method (DCM) has been shown to generate the virtual felt earthquake data effectively and used in the prediction of further events. Here we investigated the performance of DCM in deriving the membership functions and discrete-event simulations (DES) in predicting the period embracing the initiation and termination time-points of the next psychotic episode of 35 individual schizophrenic patients. The results showed that 21 subjects had a success of simulations (RSS) ≥70%. Further analysis demonstrated that the co-morbidity of coronary heart diseases (CHD), risks of CHD, and the frequency of previous psychotic episodes increased the RSS. PMID:20703629

  2. Components of Processing Deficit Among Paranoid and Nonparanoid Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Richard W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics were compared to normals in their performance on a sentence verification task. Results were related to past evidence and hypotheses about central processing performance among schizophrenics. (Editor/RK)

  3. On a disturbance of affectivity in schizophrenic adolescents: implications for affect theory.

    PubMed

    Siomopoulos, G

    1980-01-01

    As recently as 1969 Loeb stated, "Not only has adolescent schizophrenia been largely ignored by the clinician and research worker but until recent years the entire subject of adolescence had received scant attention" (p. 462). Since that time, a number of investigators have attended to similarities and differences between the schizophrenic syndrome, as a whole, and schizophrenia as it appears in adolescence. One of the findings that has been alluded to by some authors concerns the notion that affect is less severely disturbed, especially in the dimension of affective responsiveness, in adolescent schizophrenics (Sands, 1956). Observations by the author and others suggest that greater attention be paid to the variety of affectivity to delineate this area of symptomatology, which both Kraepelin and Bleuler considered so fundamental and typical in their designations of dementia praecox and schizophrenia. Indeed the purpose of this study concerns the description and dynamic understanding of a typical disturbance of affectivity in adolescent schizophrenics. This disturbance is characterized by a quality of affective communication in which the patient relates to the people around him in a superficial, socially acceptable, receptionist-like manner which induces in the observer the impression that the individual's genuine feelings are not prominent. For want of a better term, we may designate this affective state "airline-hostess affectivity" (A.H.A.). The disturbance is not exclusive to adolescent schizophrenics but can also be observed in young adults too before a phase of chronic adaptation to the schizophrenic process. PMID:7369002

  4. A STUDY OF COPING WITH AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY The general orientation and activities involved in coping with auditory hallucinations were examined in 30 schizophrenics. Age, personality dimensions, duration of illness, position, loudness and pitch of the voice and interference with activities of patients by the voice were associated with the general orientation. Systematic coping behavior was useful. Socio-economic status and degree of interference with activities were associated with the choice of useful orientation. Manipulation of arousal and control of attention were beneficial. Neuroticism, interference due to voice, emotional intensity during the voice, ‘third person’ voices and anticipation of voice were related to suicidal ideas. PMID:21965990

  5. Associative intrusions in the verbal behavior of the first-degree relatives of adult schizophrenics. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Callahan, L A; Saccuzzo, D P

    1986-04-01

    The first-degree blood relatives of schizophrenics were compared to a matched control group on a psychometrically matched test of responsiveness to associative intrusions. The groups differed on the subtest containing an associative alternative but not on the equally difficult subtest free of associative distractors. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that an overresponsiveness to associative distractors, well documented in schizophrenics, may also be a characteristic of their nondisturbed first degree blood relatives. The possible existence of cognitive markers in the relatives of schizophrenic patients that might indicate familial psychopathology was supported. Limitations of the present preliminary findings, as well as the case for additional investigation of the cognitive behavior of the first-degree relatives of schizophrenics, are discussed. PMID:3958705

  6. Prospective memory deficits in subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a comparison study with schizophrenic subjects, psychometrically defined schizotypal subjects, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K; Xin Yu; Shi, Chuan; Cui, Jifang; Deng, Yongyu

    2008-11-01

    Memory impairment is one of the core deficits in schizophrenia. This study explored the memory profiles of schizophrenic and psychometrically defined schizotypal subjects. The study participants included 15 patients with schizophrenia, 41 schizotypal subjects, and 20 healthy controls. All of the participants completed verbal and visual memory, working memory, and prospective memory tasks. The results showed that patients with schizophrenia were impaired in all aspects of memory function, whereas the schizotypal subjects tended to show moderate to large impairment effect sizes in prospective memory. It is suggested that prospective memory be considered a potential endophenotype of schizophrenia. PMID:17719206

  7. The appreciation of imagery by schizophrenics: an interpretation of Goldstein's impairment of the abstract attitude.

    PubMed

    Cutting, J; Ryan, K

    1982-08-01

    Three experiments are reported in which schizophrenics are compared with other psychiatric patients on (i) the imagery value of words in their speech, (ii) their memory for words differing in imagery value, and (iii) their ability to distinguish the imagery value of two words. The study was designed to evaluate a neglected interpretation of Goldstein's ideas that schizophrenics are more concrete, in that their 'action is determined by momentary sense impressions'. The results gave no support for this interpretation and it is suggested that an abnormal way of categorizing the world is more likely to be a useful way of formulating Goldstein's ideas. PMID:7134315

  8. Anabolic steroids and acute schizophrenic episode.

    PubMed

    Annitto, W J; Layman, W A

    1980-04-01

    The use of anabolic steroids by athletes to increase physical performance has vastly increased over the last 10 years. A case is described which temporally relates the use of these organic compounds with the development of an acute schizophreniform illness. The dearth of literature on this particular "side-effect" is noted, as are the diagnostic implications vis-a-vis anabolic steroids and the anamnestic interview in an athlete who presents with an acute schizophrenic mental status examination. Recommendation is made to consider this "side-effect" in differential diagnosis of schizophrenic episode. PMID:7364737

  9. Patterns of brain activity in normals and schizophrenics with positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Brodie, J.D.; Canero, R.; Van Gelder, P.; Russell, J.A.G.

    1985-05-01

    The authors investigated the functional interaction among brain areas under baseline and upon activation by a visual task to compare the response of normal subjects from the ones of chronic schizophrenics. Cerebral metabolic images were obtained on twelve healthy volunteers an eighteen schizophrenics with positron emission tomography and 11-C-Deoxyglucose. Correlation coefficients among the relative metabolic values (region of interest divided by the average of whole brain gray matter) of 11 brain regions; frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital left and right lobes, left and right basal ganglia and thalamus were computed for the baseline and for the task. Under baseline, normals showed more functional correlations than schizophrenics. Both groups showed a thalamo-occipital (positive) and thalamo-frontal (negative) interaction. The highest correlations among homologous brain areas were the frontal, occipital and basal ganglia.

  10. Validity of the Schizophrenia Diagnosis of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA): A Comparison of Schizophrenic Patients with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linaker, Olav M.; Helle, Jon

    1994-01-01

    This study found that the schizophrenia subscale of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults was a valid quantitative measure of schizophrenia if one item was removed from the scale. Comparison with a nonretarded population indicated that mentally retarded patients had less delusions and more incoherence and flat affect. They…

  11. A Study of Variables Related to Conditionability of Verbal Behavior in Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorkey, Clayton Thomas

    Some 80, white, schizophrenic patients were administered the Taylor Personality Scale of Manifest Anxiety (MAS), the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and were tested on an operant conditioning task. Hypotheses tested were: (1) effectiveness of social reinforcement (verbal approval) on a verbal conditioning task would be enhanced by subjecting…

  12. Reduced haloperidol/haloperidol ratios after oral haloperidol and decanoate administration in schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Chang, W H; Lin, S K; Juang, D J; Chen, L C; Yang, C H; Hu, W H; Chien, C P; Lam, Y F; Jann, M W

    1993-01-01

    1. Haloperidol and reduced haloperidol plasma concentrations were measured in thirteen stable schizophrenic patients that received both oral haloperidol and haloperidol decanoate. 2. Significant correlations between reduced haloperidol/haloperidol ratios from oral haloperidol and haloperidol decanoate occurred at week two and week 16, respectively. 3. The formation of RH was consistent during haloperidol decanoate treatment. PMID:8416597

  13. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 Gene Polymorphisms in Schizophrenic Patients with Neuroleptic Drug-Induced Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, S A; Filipenko, M L; Vyalova, N M; Voronina, E N; Pozhidaev, I V; Osmanova, D Z; Ivanov, M V; Fedorenko, O Yu; Semke, A V; Bokhan, N A

    2016-03-01

    Polymorphic variants of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 genes of the cytochrome P450 system were studied in patients with schizophrenia with drug-induced motor disorders and hyperprolactinemia against the background of long-term neuroleptic therapy. We revealed an association of polymorphic variant C-163A CYP1A2*1F of CYP1A2 gene with tardive dyskinesia and association of polymorphic variant 1846G>A CY2D6*4 and genotype A/A of CYP2D6 gene (responsible for debrisoquin-4-hydroxylase synthesis) with limbotruncal tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia receiving neuroleptics for a long time. PMID:27021090

  14. The Schizophrenic Brain: Rewriting the Chapter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joel

    1979-01-01

    Evidence of last two decades indicates schizophrenic disorders related to imbalance of brain chemicals. Recent discovery made of association between chronic schizophrenia and variety of structural abnormalities. Included are frontal lobe reversal and accipital lobe reversal. Computer tomography scans and data presented. (SA)

  15. Comment on Differentiating Paranoid From Nonparanoid Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, James F.

    1971-01-01

    Three methods of differentiating paranoid from nonparanoid schizophrenics were compared using 97 males from a Veterans Administration hospital. Official hospital diagnosis and behavior ratings were found to be significantly correlated, while self-report correlated with neither of the other two techniques. Implications for research are briefly…

  16. Prodromal Signs and Symptoms of Schizophrenic Relapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

    Increasing evidence that decompensation into acute psychosis by schizophrenics can often be avoided with active pharmacological and psychosocial intervention at the early signs of relapse has stimulated research into the signs and symptoms prodromal to acute psychosis. In this study, 6-week periods prior to 17 psychotic relapses and to 11 relapses…

  17. [Do the effects of inpatient vocational therapy and ergotherapy approaches differ in schizophrenic patients? Results of a controlled multicenter study of the german research network on schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Längle, Gerhard; Bayer, Wiltrud; Köster, Margitta; Salize, Hans Joachim; Höhl, Werner; Machleidt, Wielant; Wiedl, Karl H; Buchkremer, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    For some decades, vocational therapy approaches have been an integral part of inpatient psychiatric treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Like most sociotherapeutic measures, they are largely hypothesis-based. So far, their effectiveness has been subjected to very little scientific scrutiny. The results of a multicenter study in which five vocational therapy models were compared with creativity-oriented ergotherapy in a prospective, randomized control group design are presented. Target criteria were job-relevant skills, psychopathology, general level of functioning, quality of life, self-efficacy, and speed of cognitive performance. 227 patients were enrolled in the study, which was carried out within the framework of the German Research Network on Schizophrenia funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Multicenter analyses in a pre-post comparison revealed only minimum differences between the experimental and the control group over a four-week intervention period. Job-oriented approaches cannot currently be assumed to be superior to creativity-oriented ergotherapy. PMID:16389581

  18. Comparisons of methamphetamine psychotic and schizophrenic symptoms: a differential item functioning analysis.

    PubMed

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Wada, Kiyoshi; Marsden, John; Ali, Robert; Kongsakon, Ronnachai

    2011-06-01

    The concept of negative symptoms in methamphetamine (MA) psychosis (e.g., poverty of speech, flatten affect, and loss of drive) is still uncertain. This study aimed to use differential item functioning (DIF) statistical techniques to differentiate the severity of psychotic symptoms between MA psychotic and schizophrenic patients. Data of MA psychotic and schizophrenic patients were those of the participants in the WHO Multi-Site Project on Methamphetamine-Induced Psychosis (or WHO-MAIP study) and the Risperidone Long-Acting Injection in Thai Schizophrenic Patients (or RLAI-Thai study), respectively. To confirm the unidimensionality of psychotic syndromes, we applied the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) on the eight items of Manchester scale. We conducted the DIF analysis of psychotic symptoms observed in both groups by using nonparametric kernel-smoothing techniques of item response theory. A DIF composite index of 0.30 or greater indicated the difference of symptom severity. The analyses included the data of 168 MA psychotic participants and the baseline data of 169 schizophrenic patients. For both data sets, the EFA and CFA suggested a three-factor model of the psychotic symptoms, including negative syndrome (poverty of speech, psychomotor retardation and flatten/incongruous affect), positive syndrome (delusions, hallucinations and incoherent speech) and anxiety/depression syndrome (anxiety and depression). The DIF composite indexes comparing the severity differences of all eight psychotic symptoms were lower than 0.3. The results suggest that, at the same level of syndrome severity (i.e., negative, positive, and anxiety/depression syndromes), the severity of psychotic symptoms, including the negative ones, observed in MA psychotic and schizophrenic patients are almost the same. PMID:21277930

  19. [Pregnancy and maternity of a schizophrenic patient].

    PubMed

    Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Halmesmäki, Erja; Sailas, Eila; Suvisaari, Jaana; Gissler, Mika; Maim, Heli; Lindberg, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Aspects to be taken into consideration in the total care of women of reproductive age and affected with schizophrenia include possible contraception, pharmacological therapy during pregnancy and need for support in parenthood. Compared with other pregnant women, those affected with schizophrenia are older, are more frequently smokers during pregnancy and more often neglect health monitoring during pregnancy. Schizophrenia predisposes for preterm delivery, miscarriage and lower Apgar score of the infant. In regard to parenthood, the effects of the illness itself or the prescribed medication on the interactive mother-child relationship may emerge as problematic issues. PMID:26951028

  20. [Recovery of intersubjectivity and empathy in schizophrenics: through a characteristic type of friendship "frolicking"].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshiko

    2003-01-01

    The author has noticed a characteristic form of close, frolicsome friendship between recovering adolescent schizophrenic patients. It occurs in groups of young patients in a psychiatric clinic and in a day-care institution. Through this type of friendship, their intersubjectivity, ability for empathy and human relations develop, essential changes for the amelioration of schizophrenia. It is characterized by 1 A mutual relationship on equal terms with another schizophrenic patient of the same sex and generation; particularly close friendship between two patients, or sometimes several patients who form a group, spending much time together. 2 Playful, childish behavior, jokes and jests; Patients laugh and make others laugh, playing together. 3 Touching the friends' bodies and coordinated playing such as dancing and singing together. 4 Chatting and having common interests, along with sharing various experiences. 5 Enjoyment with so much energy that sometimes, as in a gang, social norms are contravened. 6 Being a transient phenomenon that ends naturally after a certain period. Through such friendship, the adolescents show mental growth compared with their premorbid state. They come to sympathize with others' feelings and willingly cooperate. Their social relationships and spheres of activity expand, and spontaneity and self-esteem become improved. They come to assert themselves adequately, tolerate stress, and conform to social norms. Moreover, they advance to developing a purpose. e.g. work. To be able to have empathy through friendship with those of the same sex and generation is a basic developmental theme generally seen in childhood and pre-adolescence. Such friendship between the patients studied represents benign regression in such a developmental period. This type of friendship is characterized by a frolicsome and playful atmosphere. Frolicking by means of jokes, jests and body-touching, and play with coordinated acts lead to the sharing of emotions and

  1. Drug Treated Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective and Bipolar Disorder Patients Evaluated by qEEG Absolute Spectral Power and Mean Frequency Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wix-Ramos, Richard; Moreno, Xiomara; Capote, Eduardo; González, Gilbert; Uribe, Ezequiel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research of electroencephalograph (EEG) power spectrum and mean frequency has shown inconsistent results in patients with schizophrenic, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders during medication when compared to normal subjects thus; the characterization of these parameters is an important task. Methods We applied quantitative EEG (qEEG) to investigate 38 control, 15 schizophrenic, 7 schizoaffective and 11 bipolar disorder subjects which remaine under the administration of psychotropic drugs (except control group). Absolute spectral power (ASP), mean frequency and hemispheric electrical asymmetry were measured by 19 derivation qEEG. Group mean values were compared with non parametrical Mann-Whitney test and spectral EEG maps with z-score method at p < 0.05. Results Most frequent drug treatments for schizophrenic patients were neuroleptic+antiepileptic (40% of cases) or 2 neuroleptics (33.3%). Schizoaffective patients received neuroleptic+benzodiazepine (71.4%) and for bipolar disorder patients neuroleptic+antiepileptic (81.8%). Schizophrenic (at all derivations except for Fp1, Fp2, F8 and T6) and schizoaffective (only at C3) show higher values of ASP (+57.7% and +86.1% respectively) compared to control group. ASP of bipolar disorder patients did not show differences against control group. The mean frequency was higher at Fp1 (+14.2%) and Fp2 (+17.4%) in bipolar disorder patients than control group, but no differences were found in frequencies between schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients against the control group. Majority of spectral differences were found at the left hemisphere in schizophrenic and schizoaffective but not in bipolar disorder subjects. Conclusion The present report contributes to characterize quantitatively the qEEG in drug treated schizophrenic, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder patients. PMID:24851121

  2. [Insight into illness and compliance in schizophrenic disorders].

    PubMed

    Zsolt, Juhász Levente; György, Bartkó

    2006-01-01

    Poor insight into illness is a characteristic and common phenomenon in schizophrenic disorders. Lack of insight may lead to poor clinical outcome, thus, research focused on this phenomenon could help develop effective treatment strategies. The relationship between compliance with treatment and insight is complex and it may be influenced mostly by specific components of insight. The aim of the present study was to review the current definitions of insight, the tools and questionnaires used for its measurement, as well as the relationship between insight and psychopathological symptoms. Three theoretical models developed for the explanation of impaired insight are described; the Psychological Defence Model, the Cognitive Deficit Model, and the Neuropsychological Deficit Model. The neurocognitive bases of impaired insight is given special attention in this article. Administration of second generation antipsychotics and psychosocial interventions (psychoeducation with problem solving procedures and motivating techniques) can improve insight, and enhance compliance with treatment, thus, optimizing long-term therapeutic outcome for schizophrenia patients. PMID:17438658

  3. Medication, Logic, and Schizophrenic Thinking: A Reply to Marini

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, D. Y. F.

    1976-01-01

    In answer to a critique, the author argues that although most of the schizophrenic subjects in the original research were receiving medication, this does not negate the conclusion that the thinking pathology found in schizophrenics cannot be accounted for by positing a basic defect in their deductive reasoning processes. (MS)

  4. ER Docs Only Ask Half of Suicidal Patients about Guns, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... Docs Only Ask Half of Suicidal Patients About Guns, Study Shows Finding points to missed chances to ... EDs) are asked if they have access to guns, a new study finds. National guidelines say doctors ...

  5. Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK) and South Africa (SA), in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p < 0.05). For the microsatellite stable tumors, geographical origin of the patients correlated with cluster membership, derived from unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (p = 0.001). Several chromosomal alterations showed significantly different frequencies in tumors from UK patients and native SA patients, but not between UK and Caucasian SA patients and between native and Caucasian SA patients. Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy. PMID:21226972

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Candida isolates from AIDS patients showing different fluconazole resistance profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Lischewski, A; Ruhnke, M; Tennagen, I; Schönian, G; Morschhäuser, J; Hacker, J

    1995-01-01

    Thirty Candida isolates obtained from the oropharynxes of three AIDS patients were genotypically characterized. In vitro fluconazole MIC determination revealed increasing fluconazole resistances during treatment, thereby confirming the in vivo situation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis karyotyping, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and hybridizations with Candida albicans repetitive element 2 were used to determine possible genotypic changes. The isolates from two patients showed genetic homogeneity, suggesting the selection for resistant variants. One patient experienced a strain switch to Candida krusei. Horizontal spread of identical strains between the patients could be excluded. However, the molecular methods used might not be sufficient to detect the underlying genetic basis of resistance to fluconazole. PMID:7751395

  7. Gross and histological criteria for developmental disorders in brains of schizophrenics.

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, H; Beckmann, H

    1989-01-01

    Autopsy findings and examination of histological sections from 12 schizophrenic patients and from age-matched, non-schizophrenic controls were enlarged and confirmed our previous study. Four subgroups were differentiated with gross abnormalities, in most cases with asymmetry of the temporal sulcal gyral pattern. Two types of macroscopical deviations are described. Different periods of developmental termination, concerning the sulcal gyral pattern of the temporal lobe, suggest a period in which the disturbance of the development originated which coincides with a probably genetically-induced disturbed migration in the entorhinal region toward the end of the fifth month. It is thought that the parahippocampal or entorhinal area develops differently, space- and time-wise. This may explain why migratory disturbances particularly occur in this precisely limited area. The findings in the ventral insular area are discussed, together with factors which also suggest a developmental disorder. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. a Figure 2. ac Figure 2. b Figure 2. bc PMID:2674429

  8. Patient No-Show Predictive Model Development using Multiple Data Sources for an Effective Overbooking Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Patient no-shows in outpatient delivery systems remain problematic. The negative impacts include underutilized medical resources, increased healthcare costs, decreased access to care, and reduced clinic efficiency and provider productivity. Objective To develop an evidence-based predictive model for patient no-shows, and thus improve overbooking approaches in outpatient settings to reduce the negative impact of no-shows. Methods Ten years of retrospective data were extracted from a scheduling system and an electronic health record system from a single general pediatrics clinic, consisting of 7,988 distinct patients and 104,799 visits along with variables regarding appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the impact of variables on show or no-show status. Logistic regression was used to develop a no-show predictive model, which was then used to construct an algorithm to determine the no-show threshold that calculates a predicted show/no-show status. This approach aims to overbook an appointment where a scheduled patient is predicted to be a no-show. The approach was compared with two commonly-used overbooking approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness in terms of patient wait time, physician idle time, overtime and total cost. Results From the training dataset, the optimal error rate is 10.6% with a no-show threshold being 0.74. This threshold successfully predicts the validation dataset with an error rate of 13.9%. The proposed overbooking approach demonstrated a significant reduction of at least 6% on patient waiting, 27% on overtime, and 3% on total costs compared to other common flat-overbooking methods. Conclusions This paper demonstrates an alternative way to accommodate overbooking, accounting for the prediction of an individual patient’s show/no-show status. The predictive no-show model leads to a dynamic overbooking policy that could improve patient

  9. EEG and autonomic arousal measures in schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Joseph, C

    1989-04-01

    EEG and autonomic indices were measured in basal, tonic, and phasic conditions in order to delineate the nature of arousal dysfunction in schizophrenics as compared to normals. The experimental procedure involved six continuous recording sessions consisting of a basal recording before and after four experimental series. Sequentially, these were the visual nonsignal (VNS), the auditory nonsignal (ANS), the visual signal (VS), and the auditory signal (AS) series. The main findings indicated significant differences between the two groups in cardiovascular indices during the basal and tonic conditions and in the EEG and EMG indices of phasic response. These results suggest a dysfunction of basal and tonic autonomic arousal and a modulatory impairement of the central phasic arousal reaction. The findings are in accordance with the two arousal hypothesis postulated by Routtenberg (1968) and disconfirm the unitary concept of arousal for the explanation of psychophysiological abnormality in schizophrenia. PMID:2744968

  10. A Patient with Idiopathic Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis Showing a Sustained Pulmonary Function due to Treatment with Pirfenidone.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seidai; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Mikiko; Fukuda, Yuh; Morizumi, Shun; Toyoda, Yuko; Goto, Hisatsugu; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 68-year-old man presenting with body weight loss and exertional dyspnea. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed dense subpleural consolidation with traction bronchiectasis and volume loss predominantly in bilateral apical lesions and upper lobes. A histopathological analysis of a specimen of the right upper lobe showed histological patterns which were consistent with idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastotis (IPPFE). Treatment with pirfenidone was introduced with the expectation of its potential benefit. The effect of pirfenidone was satisfactory, and a decline in forced vital capacity was inhibited during treatment. This is the first case report suggesting the efficacy of pirfenidone for patients with IPPFE. PMID:26935370

  11. Torque and Schizophrenic Vulnerability: As the World Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Theodore H.

    1977-01-01

    Based upon reports of parents and guardians, with subjects at an average age of 21 years, it was found that 11 of the youngsters who had exhibited torque had in the interim been diagnosed as schizophrenic. (Author)

  12. The fear of object loss, responsiveness to subliminal stimuli, and schizophrenic psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Litwack, T R; Wiedemann, C F; Yager, J

    1979-02-01

    Thirty schizophrenic patients were seen individually for three sessions in a balanced design. In each session, following subliminal stimulation with a neutral stimulus, a baseline assessment of pathology was made. Then, in different sessions, in counterbalanced order, each patient received one of three experimental (or "critical") stimuli: a) a neutral control stimulus; b) a message--CANNIBAL EATS PERSON--intended to activate aggressive ideation; c) a message--I AM LOSING MOMMY--intended to activate fantasies of object loss. Each of these conditions was followed by an initial and later assessment of pathology, and finally by a measure of the patients' sense of differentiation from a mothering figure. In the final session other measures were also obtained, including each patient's conscious association to the critical stimuli when presented supraliminally. The major results were: a) as in previous experiments, the subliminal aggressive message intensified pathology and aggressive ideation--especially for relatively undifferentiated and relatively nondefended patients; b) subliminal stimulation of fantasies of object loss also increased pathology--especially for nondefended patients--and also increased the patients' sense of merging with the mothering object; c) the patients' response to subliminal stimuli--including presumably neutral ones--was a function of the conscious meaning(s) of such stimuli. It was concluded that: a) the threat of object loss (real or fantasied) may be one of the motivations supporting the development of pathology in schizophrenics; b) the activation of fantasies of aggressive destruction can exacerbate schizophrenic pathology--perhaps by activating fantasies of object loss; c) future research with subliminal stimulation should consider carefully the differential responsiveness of subjects to the content of particular messages. PMID:762544

  13. How to handle patients who miss appointments or show up late.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2009-01-01

    Patients who don't show for their appointments or who come late can take a toll on your practice's bottom line and become a huge stressor. This article offers practical suggestions for preventing unnecessary broken, missed, and late appointments and for dealing effectively both with first- and repeat offenders. It provides a 10-question quiz you can take to assess and improve your current patient attendance policies. This article then divides missed appointments into three categories-cancelled, broken, and no-show appointments-and describes effective strategies for dealing with each of them. It suggests policies to use with repeat attendance offenders, including sample language medical practices can use, and offers guidelines ultimately for dismissing those who miss appointments chronically. Finally, this article explores the reasons patients often miss appointments and strategies medical practices can use to prevent and minimize them. PMID:20073172

  14. [Evaluation of efficacy and tolerance of amisulpride in treatment of schizophrenic psychoses].

    PubMed

    Chabannes, J P; Pelissolo, A; Farah, S; Gerard, D

    1998-01-01

    the study, with 21% of patients reporting adverse events, in majority psychiatric or endocrine disturbances. Only seven adverse events were assessed as serious. Extra pyramidal symptoms remained low during the study, as measured with Simpson-Angus scale. The EAPS scale showed a significant improvement of social adaptation during the treatment, with a sustained response during the 3-month follow-up period. In conclusion, 600-1 200 mg/d of amisulpride is an effective and well tolerated treatment of schizophrenic disorders, as demonstrated through this 3-month study carried in a large sample of 445 patients. Besides results suggest that under treatment with amisulpride in schizophrenic patients patients' ability to social adaptation can be improved, which could facilitate their rehabilitation. PMID:9809244

  15. Adjunctive α-lipoic acid reduces weight gain compared with placebo at 12 weeks in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Wook; Song, Yul-Mai; Kim, Eosu; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Jin Young

    2016-09-01

    α-Lipoic acid (ALA) has been reported to be effective in reducing body weight in rodents and obese patients. Our previous open trial showed that ALA may play a role in reducing weight gain in patients with schizophrenia on atypical antipsychotics. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ALA in reducing weight and BMI in patients with schizophrenia who had experienced significant weight gain since taking atypical antipsychotics. In a 12-week, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, 22 overweight and clinically stable patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to receive ALA or placebo. ALA was administered at 600-1800 mg, as tolerated. Weight, BMI, abdomen fat area measured by computed tomography, and metabolic values were determined. Adverse effects were also assessed to examine safety. Overall, 15 patients completed 12 weeks of treatment. There was significant weight loss and decreased visceral fat levels in the ALA group compared with the placebo group. There were no instances of psychopathologic aggravation or severe ALA-associated adverse effects. ALA was effective in reducing weight and abdominal obesity in patients with schizophrenia who had experienced significant weight gain since beginning an atypical antipsychotic regimen. Moreover, ALA was well tolerated throughout this study. ALA might play an important role as an adjunctive treatment in decreasing obesity in patients who take atypical antipsychotics. PMID:27276401

  16. Platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peitl, Vjekoslav; Vidrih, Branka; Karlović, Zoran; Getaldić, Biserka; Peitl, Milena; Karlović, Dalibor

    2016-05-30

    Depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia, but so far they have received less attention than other symptom domains. Impaired serotonergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia. The objectives of this study were to investigate platelet serotonin concentrations in schizophrenic patients with and without depressive symptoms, and to investigate the association between platelet serotonin concentrations and symptoms of schizophrenia, mostly depressive symptoms. A total of 364 patients were included in the study, 237 of which had significant depressive symptoms. Significant depressive symptoms were defined by the cut-off score of 7 or more on Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDSS). Platelet serotonin concentrations were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prevalence of depression in patients with schizophrenia was 65.1%. Schizophrenic patients with depressive symptoms showed lower platelet serotonin concentrations (mean±SD; 490.6±401.2) compared to schizophrenic patients without depressive symptoms (mean±SD; 660.9±471.5). An inverse correlation was established between platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms, with more severe symptoms being associated with lower platelet serotonin concentrations. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be associated with reduced concentrations of platelet serotonin. PMID:27137969

  17. MRI volumetry shows increased anterior thalamic volumes in patients with absence seizures.

    PubMed

    Betting, Luiz Eduardo; Mory, Susana Barreto; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Li, Li Min; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Guerreiro, Carlos A M; Cendes, Fernando

    2006-05-01

    The interaction between thalamus and cortex appears to be critical to the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs). The objective of this study was to investigate thalamic volumes of a group of patients with IGEs using high-resolution MRI. Thalamic segmentation was performed by the same rater, who was unaware of the diagnosis. Thalamic volumes were divided into anterior half and posterior half. One hundred forty-seven patients were scanned (71 with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, 49 with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only, and 27 with absence epilepsy). Subgroup analyses with corrections for multiple comparisons showed that, when compared with those of controls, anterior thalamic volumes were increased in patients with absence epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy with absence seizures, but not in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy without absence seizures. Our results demonstrated that the anterior thalamus is structurally different in patients with IGEs and absence seizures as compared with patients with IGEs without absence seizures. PMID:16530016

  18. LINE-1 methylation shows little intra-patient heterogeneity in primary and synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (LINE-1) hypomethylation is suggested to play a role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). To assess intra-patient heterogeneity of LINE-1 methylation in CRC and to understand its biological relevance in invasion and metastasis, we evaluated the LINE-1 methylation at multiple tumor sites. In addition, the influence of stromal cell content on the measurement of LINE-1 methylation in tumor tissue was analyzed. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tumor tissue was obtained from 48 CRC patients. Matched adjacent normal colon tissue, lymph node metastases and distant metastases were obtained from 12, 18 and 7 of these patients, respectively. Three different areas were microdissected from each primary tumor and included the tumor center and invasive front. Normal mucosal and stromal cells were also microdissected for comparison with the tumor cells. The microdissected samples were compared in LINE-1 methylation level measured by multicolor MethyLight assay. The assay results were also compared between microdissected and macrodissected tissue samples. Results LINE-1 methylation within primary tumors showed no significant intra-tumoral heterogeneity, with the tumor center and invasive front showing identical methylation levels. Moreover, no difference in LINE-1 methylation was observed between the primary tumor and lymph node and distant metastases from the same patient. Tumor cells showed significantly less LINE-1 methylation compared to adjacent stromal and normal mucosal epithelial cells. Consequently, LINE-1 methylation was significantly lower in microdissected samples compared to macrodissected samples. A trend for less LINE-1 methylation was also observed in more advanced stages of CRC. Conclusions LINE-1 methylation shows little intra-patient tumor heterogeneity, indicating the suitability of its use for molecular diagnosis in CRC. The methylation is relatively stable during CRC progression

  19. Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients Show Accumulation of Genetic Variants in PARS2

    PubMed Central

    Henmyr, Viktor; Lind-Halldén, Christina; Halldén, Christer; Säll, Torbjörn; Carlberg, Daniel; Bachert, Claus; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have identified a total of 53 CRS-associated SNPs that were subsequently evaluated for their reproducibility in a recent study. The rs2873551 SNP in linkage disequilibrium with PARS2 showed the strongest association signal. The present study aims to comprehensively screen for rare variants in PARS2 and evaluate for accumulation of such variants in CRS-patients. Sanger sequencing and long-range PCR were used to screen for rare variants in the putative promoter region and coding sequence of 310 CRS-patients and a total of 21 variants were detected. The mutation spectrum was then compared with data from European populations of the 1000Genomes project (EUR) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The CRS population showed a significant surplus of low-frequency variants compared with ExAC data. Haplotype analysis of the region showed a significant excess of rare haplotypes in the CRS population compared to the EUR population. Two missense mutations were also genotyped in the 310 CRS patients and 372 CRS-negative controls, but no associations with the disease were found. This is the first re-sequencing study in CRS research and also the first study to show an association of rare variants with the disease. PMID:27348859

  20. Patients with Parkinson's Disease Show Impaired Use of Priors in Conditions of Sensory Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Alessandra; Ditterich, Jochen; Basso, Michele A

    2016-07-25

    Perceptual decisions arise after considering the available sensory evidence [1]. When sensory information is unreliable, a good strategy is to rely on previous experience in similar situations to guide decisions [2-6]. It is well known that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired at value-based decision-making [7-11]. How patients combine past experience and sensory information to make perceptual decisions is unknown. We developed a novel, perceptual decision-making task and manipulated the statistics of the sensory stimuli presented to patients with PD and healthy participants to determine the influence of past experience on decision-making. We show that patients with PD are impaired at combining previously learned information with current sensory information to guide decisions. We modeled the results using the drift-diffusion model (DDM) and found that the impairment corresponds to a failure in adjusting the amount of sensory evidence needed to make a decision. Our modeling results also show that two complementary mechanisms operate to implement a bias when two sets of priors are learned concurrently. Asymmetric decision threshold adjustments, as reflected by changes in the starting point of evidence accumulation, are responsible for a general choice bias, whereas the adjustment of a dynamic bias that develops over the course of a trial, as reflected by a drift-rate offset, provides the stimulus-specific component of the prior. A proper interplay between these two processes is required to implement a bias based on concurrent, stimulus-specific priors in decision-making. We show here that patients with PD are impaired in these across-trial decision threshold adjustments. PMID:27322000

  1. Cytokine profiles show heterogeneity of interferon-β response in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Hegen, Harald; Adrianto, Indra; Lessard, Christopher J.; Millonig, Alban; Bertolotto, Antonio; Comabella, Manuel; Giovannoni, Gavin; Guger, Michael; Hoelzl, Martina; Khalil, Michael; Fazekas, Franz; Killestein, Joep; Lindberg, Raija L.P.; Malucchi, Simona; Mehling, Matthias; Montalban, Xavier; Rudzki, Dagmar; Schautzer, Franz; Sellebjerg, Finn; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Deisenhammer, Florian; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate serum cytokine profiles for their utility to determine the heterogeneous responses to interferon (IFN)–β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome receiving de novo IFN-β treatment were included in this prospective, observational study. Number of relapses and changes in disability were assessed 2 years prior to and 2 years after initiation of treatment. Sera were collected at baseline and after 3 months on therapy. Cytokine levels in sera were assessed by Luminex multiplex assays. Baseline cytokine profiles were grouped by hierarchical clustering analysis. Demographic features, changes in cytokines, and clinical outcome were then assessed in the clustered patient groups. Results: A total of 157 patients were included in the study and clustered into 6 distinct subsets by baseline cytokine profiles. These subsets differed significantly in their clinical and biological response to IFN-β therapy. Two subsets were associated with patients who responded poorly to therapy. Two other subsets, associated with a good response to therapy, showed a significant reduction in relapse rates and no worsening of disability. Each subset also had differential changes in cytokine levels after 3 months of IFN-β treatment. Conclusions: There is heterogeneity in the immunologic pathways of the RRMS population, which correlates with IFN-β response. PMID:26894205

  2. Provider portrayals and patient-provider communication in drama and reality medical entertainment television shows.

    PubMed

    Jain, Parul; Slater, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Portrayals of physicians on medical dramas have been the subject of research attention. However, such research has not examined portrayals of interactions between physicians and patients, has not compared physician portrayals on medical dramas versus on medical reality programs, and has not fully examined portrayals of physicians who are members of minority groups or who received their education internationally. This study content-analyzes 101 episodes (85 hours) of such programs broadcast during the 2006-2007 viewing season. Findings indicate that women are underrepresented as physicians on reality shows, though they are no longer underrepresented as physicians on dramas. However, they are not as actively portrayed in patient-care interactions as are male physicians on medical dramas. Asians and international medical graduates are underrepresented relative to their proportion in the U.S. physician population, the latter by almost a factor of 5. Many (but certainly not all) aspects of patient-centered communication are modeled, more so on reality programs than on medical dramas. Differences in patient-provider communication portrayals by minority status and gender are reported. Implications for public perception of physicians and expectations regarding provider-patient interaction are discussed. PMID:23581602

  3. Multimodal neuroimaging in patients with disorders of consciousness showing "functional hemispherectomy".

    PubMed

    Bruno, M A; Fernández-Espejo, D; Lehembre, R; Tshibanda, L; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Gosseries, O; Lommers, E; Napolitani, M; Noirhomme, Q; Boly, M; Papa, M; Owen, A; Maquet, P; Laureys, S; Soddu, A

    2011-01-01

    Beside behavioral assessment of patients with disorders of consciousness, neuroimaging modalities may offer objective paraclinical markers important for diagnosis and prognosis. They provide information on the structural location and extent of brain lesions (e.g., morphometric MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-MRI) assessing structural connectivity) but also their functional impact (e.g., metabolic FDG-PET, hemodynamic fMRI, and EEG measurements obtained in "resting state" conditions). We here illustrate the role of multimodal imaging in severe brain injury, presenting a patient in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS; i.e., vegetative state, VS) and in a "fluctuating" minimally conscious state (MCS). In both cases, resting state FDG-PET, fMRI, and EEG showed a functionally preserved right hemisphere, while DTI showed underlying differences in structural connectivity highlighting the complementarities of these neuroimaging methods in the study of disorders of consciousness. PMID:21854972

  4. [Richard Arwed Pfeifer. Aesthetics of "schizophrenic art" and brain research].

    PubMed

    Somburg, O; Steinberg, H

    2008-11-01

    This paper concentrates on two aspects of the work of Leipzig brain researcher Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1877-1957). It has been little known that Pfeifer, like Prinzhorn, collected paintings by his schizophrenic patients. In works about these paintings, he tried to decipher their specific attraction and the possibility of differentiating artworks of sane artists from those of insane ones. From experimental research he concluded that the "demonic element" was of utmost importance, which however could temporarily be brought about by sane artists too. Trained in medicine and psychology by Wundt, Flechsig, and Niessl von Mayendorf, Pfeifer was appointed as the first associate professor of brain research in Germany in 1927. Until now he has been appreciated for reestablishing the angioarchitecture of the brain, mainly due to his works on the distribution of capillaries in the brain achieved by a particular method of injection which he developed. Moreover he contributed new findings on the interrelations of the capillaries and thus finally disproved the existence of so-called terminal arteries of Cohnheim. PMID:18690421

  5. Narcoleptic Patients Show Fragmented EEG-Microstructure During Early NREM Sleep.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Alena; Brodbeck, Verena; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Morzelewski, Astrid; von Wegner, Frederic; Laufs, Helmut

    2015-07-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic disorder of the sleep-wake cycle with pathological shifts between sleep stages. These abrupt shifts are induced by a sleep-regulating flip-flop mechanism which is destabilized in narcolepsy without obvious alterations in EEG oscillations. Here, we focus on the question whether the pathology of narcolepsy is reflected in EEG microstate patterns. 30 channel awake and NREM sleep EEGs of 12 narcoleptic patients and 32 healthy subjects were analyzed. Fitting back the dominant amplitude topography maps into the EEG led to a temporal sequence of maps. Mean microstate duration, ratio total time (RTT), global explained variance (GEV) and transition probability of each map were compared between both groups. Nine patients reached N1, 5 N2 and only 4 N3. All healthy subjects reached at least N2, 19 also N3. Four dominant maps could be found during wakefulness and all NREM- sleep stages in healthy subjects. During N3, narcolepsy patients showed an additional fifth map. The mean microstate duration was significantly shorter in narcoleptic patients than controls, most prominent in deep sleep. Single maps' GEV and RTT were also altered in narcolepsy. Being aware of the limitation of our low sample size, narcolepsy patients showed wake-like features during sleep as reflected in shorter microstate durations. These microstructural EEG alterations might reflect the intrusion of brain states characteristic of wakefulness into sleep and an instability of the sleep-regulating flip-flop mechanism resulting not only in pathological switches between REM- and NREM-sleep but also within NREM sleep itself, which may lead to a microstructural fragmentation of the EEG. PMID:25168255

  6. Sensory gating deficits in parents of schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, M.; Madison, A.; Freedman, R.

    1995-12-18

    Although schizophrenia clusters in families, it is not inherited in Mendelian fashion. This suggests that there may be alternative phenotypic expressions of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia, such as more elementary physiological or biochemical defects. One proposed phenotype is impaired inhibitory gating of the auditory evoked potential to repeated stimuli. Normally, the amplitude of the P50 response to the second stimulus is significantly less than the response to the first, but this gating of response is generally impaired in schizophrenia. Clinically unaffected individuals within a pedigree who have both an ancestral and descendant history of schizophrenia may be useful for studying whether this physiological defect is a possible alternative phenotype. We have studied inhibitory gating of the auditory P50 response to pairs of auditory stimuli in 17 nuclear families. In 11, there was one parent who had another relative with a chronic psychotic illness, in addition to the schizophrenic proband. AR of the parents with family histories of schizophrenia had gating of the P50 response similar to their schizophrenia offspring, whereas only 7% of the parents without family history had gating of the P50 response in the abnormal range. These results support loss of gating of the auditory P50 wave as an inherited deficit related to schizophrenia and suggest that studies of parents may help elucidate the neurobiological expression of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Hamartomas from patients with tuberous sclerosis show loss of heterozygosity for chromosome 9q34

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.J.; Sepp, T.; Yates, J.R.W. |

    1994-09-01

    We have previously shown allele loss in hamartomas from cases of tuberous sclerosis (TSC) for markers in the region of the recently characterized TSC2 gene on chromosome 16p13.3. Germline deletions in the TSC2 gene have been shown in 5% of patients with TSC. These data strongly suggest that the TSC2 gene acts as a tumor suppressor gene. We hypothesised that hamartomas from patients with TSC can also show allele loss for markers on chromosome 9q34 in the region of the TSC1 gene. We studied 7 hamartomas (3 renal angiomyolipomas, 3 giant cell astrocytomas, and a cardiac rhabdomyoma) from 7 cases of TSC, none of which showed allele loss for markers on chromosome 16p13.3. Eight microsatellite markers were analyzed, comprising from centromeric to telomeric, ASS - D9S64 - D9S149 -D9S150 - DBH - D9S66 - D9S114 - D9S67. Two hamartomas (one renal angiomyolipoma and one giant cell astrocytoma) showed allele loss for at least two markers. The region of allele loss involved the TSC1 locus, but did not include D9S149 or D9S67. We have shown allele loss in two of seven TSC hamartomas in the region of the TSC1 gene on 9q34. Based on this deletion mapping, we suggest that the TSC1 gene on 9a34, like the TSC2 gene, acts as a tumor suppressor gene.

  8. Do patients with different mental disorders show specific aspects of shame?

    PubMed

    Scheel, Corinna N; Bender, Caroline; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Brodführer, Anne; Matthies, Swantje; Hermann, Christiane; Geisse, Eva K; Svaldi, Jennifer; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Philipsen, Alexandra; Jacob, Gitta A

    2014-12-15

    Shame is related to several mental disorders. We assume that facets of shame, namely bodily, cognitive and existential shame, may occur in typical patterns in mental and personality disorders. An excessive level of shame may lead to psychopathological symptoms. However, a lack of shame may also lead to distress, for instance as it may facilitate violation of social norms and thus may promote interpersonal problems. In this study we investigated facets of shame in females suffering from various mental disorders and personality disorders presumably associated with specific aspects of shame. Women suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD, n=92), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n=86), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=17), social anxiety disorder (SAD, n=33), and a community sample (COM, n=290) completed the SHAME questionnaire, which is a newly developed instrument to assess adaptive and maladaptive aspects of shame. BPD patients reported the highest level of existential shame compared to all other groups. Compared to the controls, SAD patients displayed stronger bodily and cognitive shame, and ADHD showed lower bodily shame. As assumed, specific aspects of shame were found in different patient groups. It may be important to specifically address these specific aspects of shame in psychotherapy. PMID:25219613

  9. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN NEUROTICISM AND CERTAIN ASPECTS OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 schizophrenics who met the criteria of Feighner et al and were having verbal auditory hallucinations, with or without hallucinations of other varieties were chosen for the study. The relation between neuroticism scale of Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire and different aspects of the voice was examined. Neuroticism scores were positively related to the level of anxiety prior to the voice, anticipation of the voice, intensity of anger during the voice and interference with occupation and social activities of patients by the voice. PMID:21927144

  10. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in schizophrenic and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Young, J; McKinney, S B; Ross, B M; Wahle, K W J; Boyle, S P

    2007-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative injury exists in schizophrenia. Although it may not be the main cause, oxidative damage has been suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology and may account for deteriorating course and poor outcome in schizophrenia. A human study was undertaken, therefore, to investigate possible differences in biomarkers of DNA, lipid and protein oxidation in schizophrenic (n=16) and control subjects (n=17). Plasma vitamin C levels were also compared in both groups. Cellular DNA damage and plasma protein carbonyl levels were increased in the schizophrenic group compared to control subjects but not significantly. However, DNA damage in lymphocytes from the male schizophrenic group was significantly higher than the female group. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and plasma vitamin C levels also revealed no significant difference between the two groups under investigation, although a significant elevation in plasma vitamin C was observed in the female control group when compared to the male groups. PMID:17197163

  11. Evidence for a chromosome 22q susceptibility locus for some schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Pulver, A.E.; Wolyniec, P.; Nestadt, G.

    1994-09-01

    Recent reports from linkage studies suggests that in some families there may be a gene associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 22q. Given the probable heterogeneity of schizophrenia, further exploration of this region was undertaken. The region was examined for candidate genes and diseases reported to have some psychiatric manifestations. Studies were initiated to examine the the potential phenotypic and molecular similarity between schizophrenia and velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a syndrome associated with an interstitial deletion of 22q11.2. Phenotypic expression: (1) psychiatric evaluations of VCFS patients and their relatives found a high rate of DSM III-R schizophrenia in the patients and of psychotic illness in their 2nd and 3rd degree relatives. (2) 160 schizophrenic patients from the Maryland Epidemiology Sample (MES) were evaluated for the presence of typical facies seen in VCFS. Rating a 5-point scale, {open_quotes}5{close_quotes} being most likely, 15 (9.4%) were rated {open_quotes}5{close_quotes} and 27 (16.9%) were rated {open_quotes}4{close_quotes} for the VCFS-like facial features. Molecular characteristics: fluorescent in situ hybridization methods (FISH) identified 3 schizophrenics among 60 in the MES with the microdeletion of probe sc11.lab commonly deleted in VCFS subjects. This work provides a model for the mapping of complex phenotypes such schizophrenia using both genetic and epidemiological methods.

  12. Development of the caregivers attitude scale on home care of schizophrenics (CASHS)

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, N; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; D’Sa, Juliana Linnette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that elicits feelings of strangeness and discomfort, which may create stigma and lead to the social exclusion of the mentally ill and of the people relating with them. In the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of research studies on attitudes toward mental disorders. Materials and Methods: An instrument was developed to assess the attitude of primary caregivers on home care of schizophrenics. This article describes the development of a Likert scale, the Caregivers Attitude Scale on Home Care of Schizophrenics CASHS, which is a 31-item self-reported instrument that quantifies three aspects of home care, that is, attitude towards patient, towards treatment, and towards social interaction. The steps involved in its development are the review of literature, development of items, content validation, translation and language validity, pretesting, and reliability. Results: After establishing the content validity, the CASHS was pretested with five subjects. To establish the reliability of the CASHS, 21 primary caregivers were recruited through purposive sampling technique. In order to measure the stability between scores obtained, a test-retest reliability was computed using Karl Pearson correlation coefficient and the r value was 0.78. The internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlation and the r value was 0.789. The item discrimination analysis was also computed and the value was of above 0.35. These statistical measurements indicate that the CASHS was reliable. Conclusions: The CASHS is a valid and reliable tool that can be utilized for assessing the attitude of primary caregivers on home care of schizophrenics. PMID:24574561

  13. Social Skills Training with Schizophrenics: A Meta-Analytic Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Mary K.; Schroeder, Harold E.

    1990-01-01

    Conducted meta-analytic review of 27 studies on social skills training with schizophrenics, addressing magnitude of treatment effects relative to outcome measures, extent of generalization and maintenance of treatment effects, and impact of diagnostic clarity and training variations. Found that social skills training had strong, positive impact on…

  14. Selection of Subjects in Studies of Schizophrenic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Loren J.; Chapman, Jean P.

    1977-01-01

    An investigator's method of selecting schizophrenic and control subjects for comparison can assure either a difference or a lack of difference between groups on almost any kind of task that requires a voluntary response. Discusses how researchers should select subjects and the inferences that may reasonably be drawn from studies of schizophrenic…

  15. Lexical and sub-lexical reading skills and their correlation to clinical symptoms in young Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiuju; Wang, Pengfei; Xia, Zhichao; Liu, Jin; Quan, Wenxiang; Tian, Ju; Wydell, Taeko N; Dong, Wentian

    2015-12-30

    Patients with schizophrenia often experience severe reading deficits such as oral reading and reading comprehension deficits. However, it is not known whether different types of lexical or sub-lexical components in reading are also impaired. In order to address this issue, the present study had 22 young Chinese patients with schizophrenia and 22 young Chinese normal controls undergo a battery of reading tests, which specifically measures lexical and sub-lexical components of reading in Chinese. The schizophrenic group further underwent Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in order to ascertain the severity of patients' clinical symptoms. The results showed that compared to the controls, (1) the schizophrenic patients performed significantly poorly in orthographic processing, orthography-phonology mapping, and orthography-semantic mapping tests and further that (2) their performances in orthographic processing, and orthography-semantic mapping skill tests negatively correlated with the BPRS score. Note however that their ability to access their mental lexicon was intact. There is thus a clear need for studies with a larger sample-size and neurobiological measures which would lead to our better understanding of the behavioral as well as the neural relationships between schizophrenic patients, and their reading processing impairments, thus developing effective reading intervention programs for the schizophrenic patients. PMID:26611156

  16. Abnormal Sense of Agency in Patients with Schizophrenia: Evidence from Bimanual Coupling Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Garbarini, Francesca; Mastropasqua, Angela; Sigaudo, Monica; Rabuffetti, Marco; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Pia, Lorenzo; Rocca, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A fruitful approach to the understanding the human awareness of action is the study of those pathologies in which some aspects of it are altered. Previous evidences showed that patients with schizophrenia tend to attribute someone else' actions to their own, as internally, rather than externally, generated. Here, we asked whether schizophrenics have an "excessive" sense of agency, while observing others' movements. We took advantage from the circles-lines task, known to show bimanual interferences. Twenty schizophrenics and 20 age-matched healthy controls were administered: (a) the bimanual version of the task: drawing lines with one hand and circles with the other; and (b) a modified version: drawing lines while observing the examiner drawing circles. In the bimanual version, patients and controls showed a comparable interference effect. In the observation version, schizophrenics, compared to controls, showed a significantly greater interference effect of the examiners' hand drawing circles on the own hand drawing lines. This effect was significantly correlated to the strength of the positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) and to the alteration of the sense of agency, reported during the task. These findings suggest that an altered sense of agency, as shown by schizophrenics, can induce objective consequences on the motor system. PMID:27014005

  17. Abnormal Sense of Agency in Patients with Schizophrenia: Evidence from Bimanual Coupling Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Garbarini, Francesca; Mastropasqua, Angela; Sigaudo, Monica; Rabuffetti, Marco; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Pia, Lorenzo; Rocca, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A fruitful approach to the understanding the human awareness of action is the study of those pathologies in which some aspects of it are altered. Previous evidences showed that patients with schizophrenia tend to attribute someone else’ actions to their own, as internally, rather than externally, generated. Here, we asked whether schizophrenics have an “excessive” sense of agency, while observing others’ movements. We took advantage from the circles-lines task, known to show bimanual interferences. Twenty schizophrenics and 20 age-matched healthy controls were administered: (a) the bimanual version of the task: drawing lines with one hand and circles with the other; and (b) a modified version: drawing lines while observing the examiner drawing circles. In the bimanual version, patients and controls showed a comparable interference effect. In the observation version, schizophrenics, compared to controls, showed a significantly greater interference effect of the examiners’ hand drawing circles on the own hand drawing lines. This effect was significantly correlated to the strength of the positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) and to the alteration of the sense of agency, reported during the task. These findings suggest that an altered sense of agency, as shown by schizophrenics, can induce objective consequences on the motor system. PMID:27014005

  18. Innovations at Miami practice show promise for treating high-risk Medicare patients.

    PubMed

    Tanio, Craig; Chen, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Patients with five or more chronic conditions drive most Medicare costs. Our organization, ChenMed, developed a scalable primary care-led delivery model that focuses on this population while getting reimbursed through full-risk capitation by Medicare Advantage plans. ChenMed is a primary care-led group practice based in Florida that serves low-to-moderate-income elderly patients, largely through the Medicare Advantage program. Our model includes a number of innovations: a one-stop-shop approach for delivering multispecialty services in the community, smaller physician panel sizes of 350-450 patients that allow for intensive health coaching and preventive care, on-site physician pharmacy dispensing, a collaborative physician culture with peer review, and customized information technology. These innovations have improved patient medication adherence, increased the time doctors and patients spend together, and led to high rates of patient satisfaction. Additionally, our Medicare patients have substantially lower rates of hospital use than their peers in the Miami Medicare market. Creating chronic disease centers focused on seniors with multiple chronic conditions is a promising delivery system innovation with major potential to improve the cost and quality of care. PMID:23733982

  19. Alzheimer's disease treated patients showed different patterns for oxidative stress and inflammation markers.

    PubMed

    Gubandru, Miriana; Margina, Denisa; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Goutzourelas, Nikos; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Ilie, Mihaela; Tsatsakis, Aristidis Michael; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2013-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia accounting for 60-80% of the reported cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of certain parameters of oxidative stress and markers of endothelial dysfunction in the blood of 21 AD patients under standard treatment compared with 10 controls, in an attempt to elucidate the contribution of AD to the total oxidative stress status of the patients. Results indicate that IL-6, TNF-α, ADMA and homocysteine levels were significantly elevated in AD patients. Protein carbonyls levels were higher in AD group, while glutathione reductase and total antioxidant capacity were lower, depicting decreased defense ability against reactive oxygen species. Besides, a higher level of advanced glycation end-products was observed in AD patients. Depending on the treatment received, a distinct inflammatory and oxidative stress profile was observed: in Rivastigmine-treated group, IL6 levels were 47% lower than the average value of the remaining AD patients; homocysteine and glutathione reductase were statistically unchanged in the Rivastigmine and Donepezil-Memantine, respectively Donepezil group. Although the study is based on a limited population, the results could constitute the basis for further studies regarding the effect of medication and diet on AD patients. PMID:23871825

  20. Use of the Terms "Schizophrenia" and "Schizophrenic" in the South Korean News Media: A Content Analysis of Newspapers and News Programs in the Last 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Hyun; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong-Woo; Gim, Min-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Objective In this study, we explored the meaning attributed to the words "jungshinbunyeolbyung" (schizophrenia) and "jungshinbunyeol" (schizophrenic) in South Korean newspapers and news programs in the last 10 years. Methods We screened the websites of three national newspapers and the broadcasts of three nationwide television news programs from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010. We classified a total of 490 articles and 257 news segments by category and quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed them. The articles and news segments were assigned to one of the following categories based on their use of the term "schizophrenia": 1) negative, 2) neutral or positive, 3) incidental, and 4) metaphorical. Results The negative viewpoint accounted for 349 incidences (46.7%), while the neutral and positive viewpoints included 225 incidences (30.1%). Incidental uses accounted for 95 incidences (12.7%), and metaphorical uses accounted for 78 incidences (10.4%). The majority of the negative uses focused on violence or dangers posed by patients (137 mentions, 37.8%), while the metaphorical uses mainly focused on the idea of splitting (51 mentions, or 65%). Conclusion This study showed that the South Korean news media do not provide balanced information about schizophrenia to the public. This study also showed that no significant move has been made toward a more positive use of the term since a previous study was conducted on the subject. Although the term schizophrenia has given way to "attunement disorder," it will be difficult to establish the new term as the standard if the South Korean media continue to use the term "schizophrenic symptom." Even though the term has been changed, guidelines are necessary to encourage the mass media to provide balanced articles and reduce prejudice. PMID:22396680

  1. Jejuna of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) show signs of immune activation

    PubMed Central

    SAVILAHTI, E; ÖRMÄLÄ, T; SAUKKONEN, T; SANDINI-POHJAVUORI, U; KANTELE, J M; ARATO, A; ILONEN, J; ÅKERBLOM, H K

    1999-01-01

    The roles of enteric viruses and food antigens as possible triggers in human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and the evidence that mucosal-associated homing receptors are important in both human and experimental diabetes prompted us to undertake an immunohistochemical study of intestinal specimens from patients with IDDM. We studied jejunal morphology and immunohistochemistry in 26 patients with IDDM, 13 of whom had the HLA-DQB1*0201 gene and therefore a higher risk of coeliac disease. The findings were compared with those in specimens from age-matched controls. Villous structure and the density of the intraepithelial lymphocytes were normal in every biopsy specimen. The extent of positivity with anti-DR and -DP antibodies in the villous epithelium was significantly greater in the specimens from patients than in those from controls (P = 0.0002 in both comparisons). The crypts were also more positive: for DR P = 0.0001, and for DP P = 0.002. The densities of T cells, CD4+, CD8+, and T cell receptor α/β+ and γ/δ+ cells in the epithelium and lamina propria were similar in patients and controls, but the patients had significantly more α4/β7 integrin+ cells in the lamina propria (P = 0.006). No difference was seen between HLA-DQB1*0201-positive and -negative patients. These findings reflect a stage of inflammation in the structurally normal intestines of patients with IDDM and suggest secretion of inflammatory Th1-type cytokines in the intestine. PMID:10209507

  2. Rhinitis Patients With Sputum Eosinophilia Show Decreased Lung Function in the Absence of Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min-Suk; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Min-Hye; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kwon, Jae-Woo; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Min, Kyung-Up

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sputum eosinophilia is observed frequently in patients with rhinitis. Sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic allergic rhinitis has been suggested to be related to nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). However, the clinical significance of sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic rhinitis without AHR has not been determined. We conducted a retrospective study examining the influence of sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic rhinitis without AHR on pulmonary function and expression of fibrosis-related mediators. Methods Eighty-nine patients with moderate-to-severe perennial rhinitis without AHR were included. All underwent lung function tests (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC]), skin tests to inhalant allergens, methacholine bronchial challenge tests, and hypertonic saline-induced sputum to determine eosinophil counts. Sputum mRNA levels for transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were also examined. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of sputum eosinophilia (≥3%, eosinophilia-positive [EP] and <3%, eosinophilia-negative [EN] groups). Results FEV1 was significantly lower (P=0.04) and FEV1/FVC tended to be lower (P=0.1) in the EP group than in the EN group. In sputum analyses, the MMP-9 mRNA level (P=0.005) and the ratio of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 expression (P=0.01) were significantly higher in the EP group than in the EN group. There was no significant difference in TGF-β mRNA expression between the two groups. Conclusions Sputum eosinophilia in patients with moderate-to-severe perennial rhinitis without AHR influenced FEV1 and the expression pattern of fibrosis-related mediators. PMID:23814677

  3. A comparison of new and revised Rorschach measures of schizophrenic functioning in a Serbian clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, Tamara; Smith, Bruce L; Djuric Jocic, Dragana; Milanovic, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We empirically evaluated indexes derived from the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) that are used for the assessment of psychotic functioning in schizophrenia. We compared the Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Ego Impairment Index (EII-2) with their revised versions: Thought and Perception Composite (TP-Comp) and EII-3. We evaluated their predictive validity for differentiating schizophrenic from nonschizophrenic patients in a Serbian sample. The sample consisted of 211 (109 men and 102 women, 18-50 years old) inpatients in Serbia who were divided into 2 groups: schizophrenic (100) and nonschizophrenic (111). Test administration, coding, and form quality classification followed CS guidelines. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the new indexes TP-Comp and EII-3 have slightly better predictive power than their counterparts, PTI and EII-2, in identification of schizophrenia, and that TP-Comp performed better than other indexes, although all 4 indexes were successful in differentiating these groups. The results supported the use of TP-Comp in diagnosis of schizophrenia and generally provided evidence for the utility of the Rorschach in evaluating psychosis and for its use in a cross-national context. PMID:23844937

  4. Macrophages from Patients with Cirrhotic Ascites Showed Function Alteration of Host Defense Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abdel Motaal M.; Kadaru, Abdel Gadir Y.; Omer, Ibtihal; Musa, Ahmed M.; Enan, Khalid; El Khidir, Isam M.; Williams, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with cirrhotic ascites (PCA) are susceptible to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) which has increased morbidity and mortality. Since some host defense aspects of peritoneal macrophages (PMф) from PCA are altered this study examined factors related to receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Methods Twelve PCA were studied. PMɸ were isolated from ascitic fluid (AF) samples removed from these patients. Uptake of mannose receptor (MR)-specific ligand, fluorescein isothiocyanate-mannosylated-bovine serum albumin (FITC-man-BSA), by patients' PMɸ and controls, a human monocytic cell line, was measured pre- and post-IL-4 treatment. Phagocytosis of FITC-labeled yeast particles by patients' PMɸ was measured pre- and post-IL-4 treatment. Fluorescence values were obtained using a spectrofuorometer. MRC1 gene was analyzed in blood samples from PCA and controls, healthy donors, using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Results Past SBP episode(s) were reported in 58.3% of patients. Mean AF volume analyzed per patient was 1.3L. PMɸ ratio in cell yield was 53.73% (SD 18.1). Mean uptake absorbance of patients' PMф was 0.0841 (SD 0.077) compared to 0.338 (SD 0.34) of controls, P = 0.023. Following IL-4 treatment absorbance increased to 0.297 (SD 0.28) in patients' PMф (P = 0.018 on paired sample t-test), and to 0.532 (SD 0.398 in controls (P = 0.053 on independent sample t-test). Mean phagocytosis absorbance of patients' PMф was 0.1250 (SD 0.032) before IL-4 treatment compared to 0.2300 (SD 0.104) after (P = 0.026). PCR analysis for MRC1 gene was negative in all PCA samples compared to positive results in all controls. Conclusion Since decreased phagocytosis and MR uptake were enhanced post-IL-4 treatment MR downregulation pre-treatment is plausible. Negative PCR results for MRC1 might suggest an anomaly, but this awaits further ellucidation. These altered host defense findings are relevant to infection pathophysiology, and their

  5. IL-6, IL-18, sIL-2R, and TNFα proinflammatory markers in depression and schizophrenia patients who are free of overt inflammation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hakeim, Hussein Kadhem; Al-Rammahi, Duaa Abdulzahraa; Al-Dujaili, Arafat Hussein

    2015-08-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia are associated with inflammatory processes. Studies have shown that these disorders exhibit increase in the level of one or more proinflammatory markers. However, these studies did not exclude patients with obvious inflammation (i.e., CRP>6mg/L). Therefore, a comprehensive study should include those inflammatory disorders. In the present study, the inflammatory natures of MDD and schizophrenia were investigated. To achieve this goal, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) in depressed and schizophrenic patients were obtained and compared with those of the control group. Results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum levels of IL-6, IL-18, TNFα, and sIL-2R in MDD and schizophrenic patients compared with the control group. Also patients with schizophrenia group showed higher levels of the inflammatory markers than MDD and control groups. The current study concluded that the immunological response in the MDD and schizophrenic patients groups was significantly stimulated. These disorders may be considered an inflammatory disorder because of elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in spite of lacking an overt inflammation. Furthermore results of this study suggested the possibility of the use of anti-inflammatory drugs as adjuvant therapy in schizophrenic and depressive disorders. PMID:25985379

  6. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira; Santos, Bruno F. de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M. Francisco; de Oliveira, Daniel Pio; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all‑cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 – 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 – 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. PMID:25352460

  7. [Which patients with ovarian cancer shows the combination of trabectedin with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin].

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, S V; Cherkasova, M V; Orel, N F; Limareva, S V; Bazaeva, I Ia; Gorbunova, V A

    2013-01-01

    Given the high rate of recurrence of ovarian cancer, the search for new therapeutic strategies are topical issue. According to various studies the effectiveness of drug treatment relapse depends on the platinum-free interval, increasing in proportion to its duration. If therapy is platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer is a standard approach, the treatment of platinum-sensitive recurrent algorithm is not fully defined. Comparison of platinum and non-platinum combinations revealed the advantage of combined platinum- treatment for patients with platinum-free interval of more than 6 months without an increase in life expectancy. Non-platinum combination of trabected in with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin has shown comparable efficacy with an advantage in overall survival in patients with platinum-free interval of 6-12 months. A platinum-free interval prolongation by the use of non-platinum mode increases the efficiency of subsequent platinum-based therapy, increasing the life expectancy of patients. Currently under study molecular markers and prognostic factors allowing to define a group of patients who have the greatest benefit from the use trabectedin with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as second-line chemotherapy. PMID:24640740

  8. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bouwense, Stefan AW; Olesen, Søren S; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders) to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15) or placebo (n=12; n=17) treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT) in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects) and Ventral T10 (segmental effects). Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm. Results Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA) vs placebo responders (−0.1 mA; P=0.015). This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9%) vs placebo responders (−17%; P<0.001). CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006). Conclusion This hypothesis-generating study provides the first evidence that pain relief with pregabalin is associated with anti-hyperalgesic effects and increased endogenous inhibitory modulation. No such effects were observed in patients experiencing pain relief with the placebo treatment. The mechanisms underlying analgesic response to placebo vs drug treatments are different and, together with their interactions, deserve further study. PMID:26203273

  9. The Tryptophan Hydroxylase Inhibitor LX1031 Shows Clinical Benefit in Patients With Nonconstipating Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Philip M.; Drossman, Douglas A.; Wood, Alastair J. J.; Cline, Gary A.; Frazier, Kenny S.; Jackson, Jessica I.; Bronner, Johanna; Freiman, Joel; Zambrowicz, Brian; Sands, Arthur; Gershon, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has an important role in gastrointestinal function. LX1031 is an oral, locally acting, small molecule inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). Local inhibition of TPH in the gastrointestinal tract might reduce mucosal production of serotonin (5-HT) and be used to treat patients with nonconstipating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS We evaluated 2 dose levels of LX1031 (250 mg or 1000 mg, given 4 times/day) in a 28-day, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 155 patients with nonconstipating IBS. 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a biomarker of pharmacodynamic activity, was measured in urine samples at baseline (24 hours after LX1031 administration), and at weeks 4 and 6 (n = 76). RESULTS Each dose of LX1031 was safe and well-tolerated. The primary efficacy end point, relief of IBS pain and discomfort, improved significantly in patients given 1000 mg LX1031 (25.5%), compared with those given placebo, at week 1 (P = .018); with nonsignificant improvements at weeks 2, 3, and 4 (17.9%, 16.3%, and 11.6%, respectively). Symptom improvement correlated with a dose-dependent reduction in 5-HIAA, a marker for TPH inhibition, from baseline until week 4. This suggests the efficacy of LX1031 is related to the extent of inhibition of 5-HT biosynthesis. Stool consistency significantly improved, compared with the group given placebo, at weeks 1 and 4 (P < .01) and at week 2 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS In a phase 2 study, LX1031 was well tolerated, relieving symptoms and increasing stool consistency in patients with nonconstipating IBS. Symptom relief was associated with reduced levels of 5-HIAA in urine samples. This marker might be used to identify patients with nonconstipating IBS who respond to inhibitors of 5-HT synthesis. PMID:21684281

  10. Doppler Sonography Confirmation in Patients Showing Calcified Carotid Artery Atheroma in Panoramic Radiography and Evaluation of Related Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Rah Rooh, Mohammad; Mahmoudi Hashemi, Elahe; Javadzade Blouri, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The purpose of this study was to identify patients at the risk of cerebrovascular attack (CVA) by detecting calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in panoramic radiography and evaluating their risk factors. Materials and methods A total of 960 panoramic radiographs of patients above 40 years old were evaluated. Doppler Sonography (DS) was performed for patients who showed calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in panoramic radiogra-phy in order to determine the presence of CCAA and the degree of stenosis. Cardiovascular risk factors in both groups of patients with CCAA (12 subjects) and without CCAA (3 subjects) were compared using a questionnaire filled out by the patients. Statistical analysis including Fisher and independent t-test applied for data analysis. Results Fifteen patients (30 sides) showed calcification in their panoramic radiographs, and underwent DS which revealed CCAA in 16 sides (12 patients). Two patients (13.33%) showed stenosis greater than 70%. Among the risk factors, only age showed a significant association with the occurrence of carotid calcified atheroma (P=0.026). Conclusion Considering the results, dentists should refer especially elderly patients with radiographically identified atheromas for further examinations, as asymptomatic CCAA might be associated with high degrees of stenosis. PMID:22991627

  11. John Nash, game theory, and the schizophrenic brain.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2011-03-01

    This article focuses on John Nash, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1994, and subject of the Award winning 2001 film A Beautiful Mind, who was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia in 1958 at the age of 29. After presenting an account of the emergence, course, and eventual remission of his illness, the article argues for the relevance of his contribution to game theory, known as the Nash equilibrium, for which he received the Nobel Prize, to research studies of the schizophrenic brain and how it deviates from the normal brain. The case is made that the Nash equilibrium is descriptive of the normal brain, whereas the game theory formulated by John van Neumann, which Nash's theory challenges, is descriptive of the schizophrenic brain. The fact that Nash and his colleagues in mathematics did not make the association between his contributions to mathematics and his mental breakdown and that his later recovery exemplified the validity of this contribution are noted and discussed. Religious themes in his delusional system, including his view of himself as a secret messianic figure and the biblical Esau, are interpreted in light of these competing game theories and the dysfunctions of the schizophrenic brain. His recognition that his return to normalcy came at the price of his sense of being in relation to the cosmos is also noted. PMID:19862621

  12. A Patient with Refractory Psoriasis Who Developed Sebaceous Carcinoma on the Neck during Cyclosporine Therapy and Showed Rapid Progression.

    PubMed

    Shima, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Okuhira, Hisako; Mikita, Naoya; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who developed sebaceous carcinoma on the neck during therapy with immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporine, corticosteroid, methotrexate) for refractory psoriasis vulgaris, which showed rapid enlargement, leading to a fatal outcome. Multiple-organ metastases were detected. Weekly carboplatin + paclitaxel therapy resulted in the disappearance of tumor cells, but the patient died of febrile neutropenia. The development of sebaceous carcinoma is rare among psoriasis patients receiving immunosuppressive agents including cyclosporine. PMID:27462222

  13. A Patient with Refractory Psoriasis Who Developed Sebaceous Carcinoma on the Neck during Cyclosporine Therapy and Showed Rapid Progression

    PubMed Central

    Shima, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Okuhira, Hisako; Mikita, Naoya; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who developed sebaceous carcinoma on the neck during therapy with immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporine, corticosteroid, methotrexate) for refractory psoriasis vulgaris, which showed rapid enlargement, leading to a fatal outcome. Multiple-organ metastases were detected. Weekly carboplatin + paclitaxel therapy resulted in the disappearance of tumor cells, but the patient died of febrile neutropenia. The development of sebaceous carcinoma is rare among psoriasis patients receiving immunosuppressive agents including cyclosporine. PMID:27462222

  14. Heritability and Familiality of Temperament and Character Dimensions in Korean Families with Schizophrenic Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Dae; Park, Je Min; Lee, Young Min; Moon, Eunsoo; Jeong, Hee Jeong; Chung, Young In; Yi, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Categorical syndromes such as schizophrenia may represent complexes of many continuous psychological structural phenotypes along several dimensions of personality development/degeneration. The present study investigated the heritability and familiality of personality dimensions in Korean families with schizophrenic linkage disequilibrium (LD). Methods We recruited 179 probands (with schizophrenia) as well as, whenever possible, their parents and siblings. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure personality and symptomatic dimensions. The heritability of personality dimensions in a total of 472 family members was estimated using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). To measure familiality, we compared the personality dimensions of family members with those of 336 healthy unrelated controls using analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis. Results Three of the seven TCI variables were significantly heritable and were included in subsequent analyses. The three groups (control, unaffected first-degree relative, case) were found to significantly differ from one another, with the expected order of average group scores, for all heritable dimensions. Conclusion Despite several study limitations with respect to family recruitment and phenotyping, our results show that aberrations in several personality dimensions related to genetic-environment coactions or interactions may underlie the complexity of the schizophrenic syndrome. PMID:27121432

  15. Fibroblasts from patients with major depressive disorder show distinct transcriptional response to metabolic stressors

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, K A; Vereczkei, A; Kálmán, S; Wang, L; Korade, Ž; Shelton, R C; Mirnics, K

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is increasingly viewed as interplay of environmental stressors and genetic predisposition, and recent data suggest that the disease affects not only the brain, but the entire body. As a result, we aimed at determining whether patients with major depression have aberrant molecular responses to stress in peripheral tissues. We examined the effects of two metabolic stressors, galactose (GAL) or reduced lipids (RL), on the transcriptome and miRNome of human fibroblasts from 16 pairs of patients with MDD and matched healthy controls (CNTR). Our results demonstrate that both MDD and CNTR fibroblasts had a robust molecular response to GAL and RL challenges. Most importantly, a significant part (messenger RNAs (mRNAs): 26–33% microRNAs (miRNAs): 81–90%) of the molecular response was only observed in MDD, but not in CNTR fibroblasts. The applied metabolic challenges uncovered mRNA and miRNA signatures, identifying responses to each stressor characteristic for the MDD fibroblasts. The distinct responses of MDD fibroblasts to GAL and RL revealed an aberrant engagement of molecular pathways, such as apoptosis, regulation of cell cycle, cell migration, metabolic control and energy production. In conclusion, the metabolic challenges evoked by GAL or RL in dermal fibroblasts exposed adaptive dysfunctions on mRNA and miRNA levels that are characteristic for MDD. This finding underscores the need to challenge biological systems to bring out disease-specific deficits, which otherwise might remain hidden under resting conditions. PMID:25756806

  16. Patients with bipolar disorder show differential executive dysfunctions: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Leung, Meranda M W; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Ya; Tsui, Chi F; Au, Angie C W; Yeung, Hera K H; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Li, Zhi; Cheng, Chi-Wai; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-04-30

    Executive deficits in euthymic bipolar I disorder were examined in a fractionated manner based on the "Supervisory Attentional System" (SAS) model, and the relationship between the degree of executive impairment and the demographic and clinical characteristics of bipolar I participants was explored. A battery of neurocognitive tests capturing specific components of executive function was administered on 30 patients with bipolar I disorder in euthymic state, and compared with 30 healthy controls who were matched by age, gender and IQ. A differential impairment in executive function was demonstrated in euthymic bipolar I participants by using a fractionated approach of the SAS. Euthymic bipolar I patients were found to have significantly poorer performance in immediate and delayed visual memory; and in the executive domains of "initiation", "sustained attention", and "attention allocation and planning". Those with a greater number of executive impairments had lower IQ and higher negative sub-scores on PANSS. These findings might provide a the basis for further studies on identifying the executive components that are associated with particular disease characteristics of bipolar disorder, and those with poorer functional outcome, so that rehabilitation can be focused on the selective domains concerned. PMID:27086222

  17. Computer Simulation Shows the Effect of Communication on Day of Surgery Patient Flow.

    PubMed

    Taaffe, Kevin; Fredendall, Lawrence; Huynh, Nathan; Franklin, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    To improve patient flow in a surgical environment, practitioners and academicians often use process mapping and simulation as tools to evaluate and recommend changes. We used simulations to help staff visualize the effect of communication and coordination delays that occur on the day of surgery. Perioperative services staff participated in tabletop exercises in which they chose the delays that were most important to eliminate. Using a day-of-surgery computer simulation model, the elimination of delays was tested and the results were shared with the group. This exercise, repeated for multiple groups of staff, provided an understanding of not only the dynamic events taking place, but also how small communication delays can contribute to a significant loss in efficiency and the ability to provide timely care. Survey results confirmed these understandings. PMID:26119616

  18. Patients treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin show selective activation of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tjon, A S W; Tha-In, T; Metselaar, H J; van Gent, R; van der Laan, L J W; Groothuismink, Z M A; te Boekhorst, P A W; van Hagen, P M; Kwekkeboom, J

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used to treat autoimmune and systemic inflammatory diseases caused by derailment of humoral and cellular immunity. In this study we investigated whether IVIg treatment can modulate regulatory T cells (Tregs) in humans in vivo. Blood was collected from IVIg-treated patients with immunodeficiency or autoimmune disease who were treated with low-dose (n = 12) or high-dose (n = 15) IVIg before, immediately after and at 7 days after treatment. Percentages and activation status of circulating CD4+CD25+forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3+) Tregs and of conventional CD4+FoxP3− T-helper cells (Tconv) were measured. The suppressive capacity of Tregs purified from blood collected at the time-points indicated was determined in an ex-vivo assay. High-dose, but not low-dose, IVIg treatment enhanced the activation status of circulating Tregs, as shown by increased FoxP3 and human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) expression, while numbers of circulating Tregs remained unchanged. The enhanced activation was sustained for at least 7 days after infusion, and the suppressive capacity of purified Tregs was increased from 41 to 70% at day 7 after IVIg treatment. The activation status of Tconv was not affected by IVIg. We conclude that high-dose IVIg treatment activates Tregs selectively and enhances their suppressive function in humans in vivo. This effect may be one of the mechanisms by which IVIg restores imbalanced immune homeostasis in patients with autoimmune and systemic inflammatory disorders. PMID:23607448

  19. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira de; Santos, Bruno F de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M Francisco; Oliveira, Daniel Pio de; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-11-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.Fundamento: Estudos têm demonstrado a acurácia diagnóstica e o valor prognóstico da ecocardiografia com estresse f

  20. [Beyond suffering, schizophrenic improvisation and therapeutic challenges].

    PubMed

    Bizot, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Led jointly by an actress and an occupational therapist, an 'improvisation' activity has been set up within the Sainte-Anne University Hospital SHU Sector 14 for hospitalised patients, on medical prescription. This containing environment provides psychological support and encourages patients with schizophrenia to explore their creativity and to 'let go' so as to discover new physical possibilities. The group thereby becomes a support for the relationship and the development of verbal and non-verbal communication. PMID:27615701

  1. De novo WDR45 mutation in a patient showing clinically Rett syndrome with childhood iron deposition in brain.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Chihiro; Nabatame, Shin; Iijima, Yoshitaka; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Miyake, Noriko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Ozono, Keiichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2014-05-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly caused by MECP2 mutations. We identified a de novo WDR45 mutation, which caused a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, in a patient showing clinically typical RTT. The mutation (c.830+1G>A) led to aberrant splicing in lymphoblastoid cells. Sequential brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that iron deposition in the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra was observed as early as at 11 years of age. Because the patient showed four of the main RTT diagnostic criteria, WDR45 should be investigated in patients with RTT without MECP2 mutations. PMID:24621584

  2. Peritoneal macrophages from patients with cirrhotic ascites show impaired phagocytosis and vigorous respiratory burst

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abdel Motaal M.; Bomford, Adrian; Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T.; Davies, Ted; Smith, Roger; Williams, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients (CPs) are susceptible to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Aim of this study was to examine if this susceptibility was related to peritoneal macrophages' (PMs) altered host defence. Absorbance of phagocytosed particles by PMs from CPs was lower than that of control (31.88% vs. 77.2%). Particle opsonisation increased the absorbance to 41% in CPs' PMs, and this value remains lower than the control; 77.2%. Respiratory burst (RB) was expressed as fluorescence index values, and these were higher in PMs from CPs than in controls (82 vs. 41, 73 vs. 26 and 71 vs. 26). IFN-γ made no further increase of RB values in PMs from CPs. CD14 expression was also higher in CPs' PMs. IFN-γ significantly downregulated CD14 expression in both CPs' PMs and control. Reduced phagocytosis by predominantly CD14-positive PMs from CPs could be related to intense RB. Findings suggest altered host defence that could contribute to susceptibility to SBP. PMID:24371553

  3. Decreased cytochrome-c oxidase activity and lack of age-related accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletions in the brains of schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Cavelier, L.; Jazin, E.E.; Eriksson, I.

    1995-09-01

    Defects in mitochondrial energy production have been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To study the contribution of mitochondrial defects to Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia, cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity and levels of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion in postmortem brain tissue specimens of patients were compared with those of asymptomatic age-matched controls. No difference in COX activity was observed between Alzheimer patients and controls in any of five brain regions investigated. In contrast, schizophrenic patients had a 63% reduction of the COX activity in the nucleus caudatus (P<0.0001) and a 43% reduction in the cortex gyrus frontalis (P<0.05) as compared to controls. The average levels of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion did not differ significantly between Alzheimer patients and controls, and the deletion followed similar modes of accumulation with age in the two groups. In contrast, no age-related accumulation of mtDNA deletions was found in schizophrenic patients. The reduction in COX activity in schizophrenic patients did not correlate with changes in the total amount of mtDNA or levels of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion. The lack of age-related accumulation of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion and reduction in COX activity suggest that a mitochondrial dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Chemical Modulation of Mutant mGlu1 Receptors Derived from Deleterious GRM1 Mutations Found in Schizophrenics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex and highly heterogeneous psychiatric disorder whose precise etiology remains elusive. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified risk genes, they have failed to determine if rare coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) contribute in schizophrenia. Recently, two independent studies identified 12 rare, deleterious nsSNPS in the GRM1 gene, which encodes the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGlu1), in schizophrenic patients. Here, we generated stable cell lines expressing the mGlu1 mutant receptors and assessed their pharmacology. Using both the endogenous agonist glutamate and the synthetic agonist DHPG, we found that several of the mutant mGlu1 receptors displayed a loss of function that was not due to a loss in plasma membrane expression. Due to a lack of mGlu1 positive allosteric modulators (PAM) tool compounds active at human mGlu1, we optimized a known mGlu4 PAM/mGlu1 NAM chemotype into a series of potent and selective mGlu1 PAMs by virtue of a double “molecular switch”. Employing mGlu1 PAMs from multiple chemotypes, we demonstrate that the mutant receptors can be potentiated by small molecules and in some cases efficacy restored to that comparable to wild type mGlu1 receptors, suggesting deficits in patients with schizophrenia due to these mutations may be amenable to intervention with an mGlu1 PAM. However, in wild type animals, mGlu1 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are efficacious in classic models predictive of antipsychotic activity, whereas we show that mGlu1 PAMs have no effect to slight potentiation in these models. These data further highlight the heterogeneity of schizophrenia and the critical role of patient selection strategies in psychiatric clinical trials to match genotype with therapeutic mechanism. PMID:25137254

  5. Standard and long-acting depot neuroleptics in chronic schizophrenics: an 18-month open multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Fermanian, J; Ginestet, D; Goujet, M A; Péron-Magnan, P

    1978-07-01

    The overall objective of this 18-month open study was to compare standard neuroleptics and long-acting depot neuroleptics following the current psychiatric practice in order to determine the best therapy. Thirty French psychiatrists from 15 different wards participated in this experiment. One hundred eighty-one chronic schizophrenic patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the following three treatments: standard neuroleptics, pipotiazine palmitate, or fluphenazine decanoate. Criteria used for evaluation were an overall clinical evaluation by a psychiatrist, a Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and a Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation. No significant difference (P greater than .05) was observed between the three groups in drug effectiveness or tolerance. PMID:28102

  6. Phenomenological correlates of metabolic activity in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Van Gelder, P.; Brodie, J.D.; Overall, J.E.; Cancro, R.; Gomez-Mont, F.

    1987-02-01

    Using (11C)-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography (PET), the authors measured brain metabolism in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia to assess which of the metabolic measures from two test conditions was more closely related to the patients' differing clinical characteristics. The two conditions were resting and activation, and an eye tracking task was used. Patients with more negative symptoms showed lower global metabolic rates and more severe hypofrontality than did the patients with fewer negative symptoms. Differences among the patients were distinguished by the task: sicker patients failed to show a metabolic activation response. These findings suggest that cerebral metabolic patterns reflect clinical characteristics of schizophrenic patients.

  7. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  8. Divergent Thinking Abilities across the Schizophrenic Spectrum and Other Psychological Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Perkins, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on the connection between psychopathology and creativity is vast and recent research has focused on the relationship between the schizophrenic spectrum and creativity. The schizophrenic spectrum includes genetically related disorders that share certain symptom features. It has been suggested that schizotypal personality disorder, a…

  9. A STUDY OF BEHAVIOUR DURING AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty untreated urban living Schizophrenics fulfilling the criteria of Feigher et al. (1972) and having Schneiderian hallucinations were studied with the aim of examining the relation of certain variables to their behaviour during auditory hallucinations. For those whose behaviour had no direction, the voices were less real in comparison to those with positive or negative direction. For those with negative direction in behaviour, voice were positioned more outside than within sensory range and the individual episodes of hallucination were of longer duration. The voices were more real for those who had emotional experience without physical activity and those without emotions of physical activity. PMID:21965928

  10. Patterns of psychiatric hospitalizations in schizophrenic psychoses within the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Miettunen, Jouko; Lauronen, Erika; Veijola, Juha; Koponen, Hannu; Saarento, Outi; Isohanni, Matti

    2006-01-01

    We report patterns of hospitalization in schizophrenic psychoses by age 34 in a longitudinal population-based cohort. We test the predictive ability of various demographic and illness-related variables on patterns of hospitalization, with a special focus on the length of the first psychiatric hospitalization. All living subjects of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort with DSM-III-R schizophrenia (n=88) and other schizophrenia spectrum cases (n=27) by the year 1997 in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register were followed for an average of 10.5 years. Measures of psychiatric hospitalization included time to re-hospitalization (as continuous and as re-hospitalization within 2 years) and the number of hospital episodes. Length of the first hospitalization, other illness-related and various socio-demographic predictors were used to predict hospitalization patterns. After adjusting for gender, age at first admission and number of hospital days a short (1-14 days) first hospitalization (reference >30 days; adjusted odds ratio 6.39; 95% CI 2.00-20.41) and familial risk of psychosis (OR 3.36; 1.09-10.39) predicted re-hospitalization within 2 years. A short first hospitalization also predicted frequent psychiatric admissions defined as the first three admissions within 3 years (OR 13.77; 3.92-48.36). A short first hospitalization was linked to increased risk of re-hospitalizations. Although short hospitalization is recommended by several guidelines, there may be a group of patients with schizophrenic psychoses in which too short a hospitalization may lead to inadequate treatment response. PMID:16923637