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  1. Folate and vitamin B12 status in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Djalali, Mahmoud; Moghadam, Ali Malekshahi; Ramezankhani, Ozra; Najmi, Laya

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine red blood cell (RBC) and serum folate and vitamin B12 levels as well as their intake in schizophrenic patients. METHODS: The folate and cobalamin status of 60 schizophrenic patients (15-55 years) was compared to 60 matched healthy controls using Radio Isotope Dilution Assay (RIDA). RESULTS: Serum and RBC folate in schizophrenic patients was significantly lower than the control group. Mean serum cobalamin levels in the schizophrenic group were higher than controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that folate deficiency is common in schizophrenic patients; therefore, it is important to pay attention to folate levels in these patients. PMID:22247731

  2. Psychopharmacological treatment of aggression in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Brieden, T; Ujeyl, M; Naber, D

    2002-05-01

    Aggressive behavior is frequently observed in schizophrenic patients. More than 50 % of all psychiatric patients and 10 % of schizophrenic patients show aggressive symptoms varying from threatening behavior and agitation to assault. The pharmacological treatment of acute, persisting and repetitive aggression is a serious problem for other patients and staff members. Not only is violent behavior from mentally ill patients the most detrimental factor in their stigmatization, aggression is also a considerable direct source of danger for the patients themselves. Based on rather limited evidence, a wide variety of medications for the pharmacological treatment of aggression has been recommended: typical and atypical antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, beta-blockers and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Most clinical information on treating aggression has been collected for atypical neuroleptics, particularly for clozapine. Several retrospective and open studies indicate its efficacy. Treatment duration of 6 months is recommended to induce a stable reduction of physical and verbal aggression. Severe side effects have very rarely been seen. At the moment, clozapine seems to be the first choice in aggression treatment. Within the last few years, about 10 articles were published showing that this is the most effective antiaggressive agent in the treatment of aggression and agitation in psychiatric patients, independent of psychiatric diagnosis. However, clozapine, like all the other substances used, does not have an established indication for the treatment of aggressive symptoms. Noncompliance with medication makes it difficult to choose the right preparation for the medication: tablets, liquids, intramuscular injections and readily soluble "FDDFs" are available. Ethical, juridical and methodological problems prevent controlled studies from establishing a reference in the treatment of aggression in mentally ill patients. This review summarizes

  3. Spectral and brain mapping analysis of EEG based on Pwelch in schizophrenic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Y.; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the differences of power spectral distribution in various frequency bands between healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients. Subjects in this study were 8 people consisting of 4 schizophrenic patients and 4 healthy subjects. Subjects were recorded from 12 electrodes with Electroencephalography (EEG). EEG signals were recorded during a resting eye-closed state for 4-6 minutes. Data were extracted and analyzed by centering and filtering, then performed using Welch Periodogram technique for the spectral estimation with a Hamming window. The results of this study showed that delta power spectral in schizophrenic patients increased ten times from healthy subjects; theta power spectral in schizophrenic patients increased three times from healthy subjects; alpha power spectral in schizophrenic patients decreased with an increase of one third of healthy subjects. These results were confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showing there were significant differences between schizophrenic and healthy subjects on delta, theta and alpha brain wave. Based on the results of Brain Mapping analysis showed that there was significant increasing in the activity of delta waves and theta waves in frontal lobe of schizophrenics, whereas the alpha waves indicated a decrease in the occipital lobe in all schizophrenic patients.

  4. Impact of Life Events on the Relapse of Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Jacoob, Shirooq; Sharour, Loai Abu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between stressful life events at the time of relapse in schizophrenic patients at psychiatric hospitals in Baghdad city. Methodology: A purposive (non-probability) sampling of 50 schizophrenic patients who have relapsed was involved in the present study. Data were collected through the use of the…

  5. Reported Childhood Trauma and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Childhood traumas are associated with suicidal behavior but this aspect has not been examined in relation to schizophrenia. In this study, 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had attempted suicide were compared with 50 chronic schizophrenic patients who had never attempted suicide for their scores on the 34-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire…

  6. Family interaction: parental representation in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Onstad, S; Skre, I; Torgersen, S; Kringlen, E

    1994-01-01

    12 monozygotic (MZ) and 19 same-sexed dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs discordant for DSM-III-R schizophrenia completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The schizophrenic twins described their parents as less caring and being more overprotective compared to their non-schizophrenic co-twins. These results were independent of age, sex and zygosity. Difference in paternal overprotection was the most important variable discriminating between the schizophrenic probands and their co-twins. Three different hypotheses regarding these findings are discussed. PMID:7879646

  7. [The information of the schizophrenic patient: actuality].

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, J; Brousse, G; Favre, P; Llorca, P-M

    2005-01-01

    schizophrenia can come alive talking about things in the past before they became ill. It's as if their life grinded to halt when they became sick. I'm stuck in the mid seventies, and that's the music I like. Everybody I know with schizophrenia is quite isolated socially and I don't really know why. That is especially true for the older people in my age group. Younger people seem to be doing much better. Many still live with their parents. Most older people live alone. There is also the odd person who recovers well, returns to a career, and marries someone without schizophrenia. In cases where marriage predates the onset of schizophrenia, the outcome is often divorce although women are more likely to stick with their husbands with schizophrenia than vice versa, especially if there are already children. I hope the next generation who appears to be less disabled survives better than people of my age with schizophrenia. The goal of community integration is one that requires: more effective treatments and/or more financial support and/or a compassionate non-discriminating community. The combination of early diagnosis and atypical medications will change the face of schizophrenia. I'm not expecting more financial support from the government, but many more people with schizophrenia will start working again instead. Their social networks will develop but social networks are probably the hardest hit in schizophrenia. It's better that you never lose your friends in the first place". This testimony shows how the information of the schizophrenic patient is necessary, and underlines the importance of the relationships between the patient and his family. Our article insists on this theme, rarely developed in the literature. PMID:15959449

  8. Sex Differences in Completed Suicide by Schizophrenic Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on all studies of suicide mortality in follow-up studies of schizophrenic patients that presented data for male and female patients separately. The percentage of deaths from suicide was significantly greater for the male schizophrenic patients than for the female schizophrenic patients in studies where both sexes were…

  9. Basic symptoms and P300 abnormalities in young schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, S; Quercioli, L; Pazzagli, A

    1999-01-01

    Among the reasons for the relatively limited number of investigations of self-knowledge phenomena should be included, in addition to theoretical motives, the difficulties regarding the use of instruments available for this kind of approach and their content validity. This study investigates the relationship between subjective and objective deficits in schizophrenia, taking into account subjective experiences of cognitive impairment, clinical symptoms, and cognitive evoked potentials (P300 component). A group of 36 young schizophrenic patients (29 on neuroleptic treatment and seven drug-naive) were considered, together with a comparison group of 36 healthy subjects. Auditory event-correlated potentials (ERPs) were obtained using a simple "oddball" paradigm. Clinical symptoms were rated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS and SANS), and while subjective disturbances were assessed by the Frankfurter Beschwerde Fragebogen (FBF, also called the Complaint Questionnaire). Correlation analysis showed that P300 amplitude was inversely correlated with subjective experiences of cognitive deficit, especially in the area of automatic skills and overstimulation. No relationship emerged between BPRS, SANS, and SAPS scores and P300 alterations. The results suggest that subjective cognitive disturbances, more than objective symptoms, are related to P300 alterations in schizophrenia, and that the FBF questionnaire appropriately covers the domain of schizophrenic cognitive disorders. PMID:10509619

  10. [Psychopathological correlates of dopaminergic dysfunction in alcoholic and schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Heinz, A

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that anhedonia, the loss of pleasure, is associated with a dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system in schizophrenic and alcohol-dependent patients. In a series of neuroendocrinological and brain imaging studies, we examined pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms of dopaminergic neurotransmission in non-human primates and in schizophrenic and alcohol-dependent patients. Among alcoholics, we found indicators of a sensitization of dopaminergic neurotransmission, which was associated with the relapse risk, but not with anhedonia or depression. Schizophrenics with neuroleptic blockade of striatal dopamine D2 receptors displayed psychomotor slowing and reduced motivation, but not anhedonia. Primate studies pointed to the importance of a temporocortical dysfunction in the pathogenesis of phasic dopaminergic dysregulation in the striatum. These observations indicate that a dysfunction of stimulus-dependent dopamine release may be associated with motivational deficits caused by a reduction in incentive salience, but not with anhedonia. PMID:10407835

  11. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kotb El-Sayed, Mohamed-I; Amin, Hatem-K

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients. Patients and methods In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10) or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10). Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone) and h (haloperidol). Healthy male subjects (37) were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17) and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20). Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated. Results ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium. Conclusion Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. PMID:25926735

  12. Smooth pursuit eye tracking over a structured background in first-episode schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hutton, S B; Crawford, T J; Kennard, C; Barnes, T R; Joyce, E M

    2000-01-01

    Whilst most laboratory smooth pursuit tasks are performed in the dark, in everyday life pursuit commonly occurs over a structured background. This background provides a powerful stimulus to the optokinetic reflex (OKR), inducing a background "drag" on pursuit eye movements. An inability to inhibit the influence of the OKR may be a contributing factor to the dysfunctional pursuit performance observed in many schizophrenic patients. Smooth pursuit performance was measured in 23 first-episode schizophrenic patients and 23 healthy controls matched for age and estimated IQ, both in the dark and over a structured background (a random checkerboard of black and white squares). Velocity gain was measured, as well as the number and size of corrective saccades (catch-up saccades) and intrusive saccades (anticipatory saccades and square wave jerks). Overall, schizophrenic patients had lower velocity gain and made more catch-up saccades than controls. The effect of the background was to lower velocity gain and increase the number of catch-up saccades to the same extent in schizophrenic patients and controls. There were no significant interactions between group and background effect. These results suggest that, although their overall level of performance was worse, the schizophrenic patients were as able as controls to inhibit the effect of the OKR. Since lesion studies show that inhibition of the OKR requires intact inferior parietal regions in man (Lawden et al., 1995), one hypothesis is that the parietal component of smooth pursuit may be intact in schizophrenia. PMID:11097164

  13. Prediction of employability in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Solinski, S; Jackson, H J; Bell, R C

    1992-07-01

    This study, the third of a series of reports on employability and schizophrenia, investigated the effects of both interview and non-interview variables on employability. Data on 46 chronic schizophrenic inpatients included demographic and illness-related variables, measures of psychopathology and interview-based ratings of employment skill. Latent class analysis using linear structural relations (LISREL) modelling generated the main finding namely, that interview-based measures are the strongest determinants of employability. However, other variables pertaining to illness, prior functioning and negative symptoms, exert an effect on interview performance and hence indirectly influence employability ratings and judgements. PMID:1515375

  14. The effect of context during word perception in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Done, D J; Frith, C D

    1984-11-01

    Hospitalized chronic and acute schizophrenics were compared with age- and social-status-matched controls on word perception tests to measure the effect of context on recognition thresholds. In Experiment 1 the method of J. Morton (1964, British Journal of Psychology, 55, 165-180) was adopted to see how related and unrelated contexts influenced word recognition thresholds when both context and stimulus word were presented visually. Experiment 2 was an auditory analog of Experiment 1 and in addition the chronic schizophrenics were selected on the basis of a presence or absence of auditory hallucinations. The influence of context on perceptual thresholds was quite normal in all schizophrenics. However, analysis of the incorrect responses elicited showed that some schizophrenic subjects do produce bizarre or irrelevant responses or perseveration to a greater extent than their controls. These results are explained in terms of automatic and strategic modes of information processing. The automatic processes responsible for the adjustment of perceptual thresholds operate normally in schizophrenics but response production which demands strategic selection and editing of responses is prone to malfunction which results in the observed deviations in the normal use of language. PMID:6518358

  15. Cytomegalovirus Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Schizophrenic Patients Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack

    1982-05-01

    By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.

  16. The Comprehension of Idiomatic Expressions in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schettino, Antonio; Lauro, Leonor Romero; Crippa, Franca; Anselmetti, Simona; Cavallaro, Roberto; Papagno, Costanza

    2010-01-01

    Recent fMRI and TMS studies on idiom comprehension have shown that the prefrontal cortex is involved in idiom processing. Since schizophrenic patients exhibit prefrontal "structural" changes and dysexecutive "behavioural" deficits, we hypothesised an impairment in idiom comprehension, correlating with performance on executive tasks. In this study,…

  17. Unsuccessful Self-Enucleation in a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Noy Achiron, Romi; Paul, Michael; Achiron, Asaf

    2014-01-01

    Self-enucleation is a very unusual form of self-mutilation directly linked to mental illness. In this case we present a 26-year-old schizophrenic patient who attempted to enucleate his eye with a rollerball pen. Antipsychotic therapy and emergency surgery saved the patient eye and emphasize the importance of quick response and good collaboration between psychiatric and ophthalmic teams. PMID:25328735

  18. Neurocognitive performance in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Andresen, Burghard; Perro, Christian; Schickel, Marc; Krausz, Micheal; Naber, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Previous research on neuropsychological disturbances in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients has provided mixed results which can be partially attributed to methodological inconsistencies. For the present study, 70 schizophrenic patients (40 with chronic and 30 with first-episode schizophrenia) were compared to 30 healthy controls on a large battery of neuropsychological tests. Special attention was paid to potential confounds such as differences in psychopathology, age and educational level between the schizophrenic sub-samples. Healthy controls performed better than both first-episode and chronic patients in almost all cognitive domains (P < 0.01), while the patient samples did not differ in any of the tasks. Results were confirmed in a second series of analyses in which patient subgroups were equated for sociodemographic background variables. The present results confirm recent data collected in longitudinal studies, thus, lending further support for a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. It is suggested that neuropsychological disturbances occur early in schizophrenia and do not worsen in the course beyond age-related decrement. Possible reasons why previous research has produced contradictory findings are discussed. PMID:12056580

  19. [Reducing ambiguity: semantic statistical studies of "normal" probands, neurotic patients, borderline patients and schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Leichsenring, F; Meyer, H A

    1994-01-01

    The present study tries to answer three questions: 1.) Do patients with neurotic disorders differ from normals by a stronger tendency to avoid or reduce ambiguity? 2.) Does the tendency to avoid or reduce ambiguity increase with increasing ambiguity of the stimulus? 3.) Does the avoidance or reduction of ambiguity increase with affects of anxiety and hostility? In order to answer these questions, Ertel's dogmatism-dictionary was applied to the answers of 30 normals, 30 patients with neurotic disorders, 30 borderline-patients, 25 acute and 25 chronic schizophrenics in the Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT). According to the results, (1) patients with neurotic disorders do not differ from normals by a stronger tendency to avoid or reduce ambiguity. 2.) The tendency to avoid or reduce ambiguity increases with measures of increasing stimulus ambiguity of the HIT cards in all diagnostic groups studied with the exception of chronic schizophrenics. As far as response ambiguity (variability of interpretation) is concerned, only in chronic schizophrenics the tendency to avoid or reduce ambiguity decreases with increasing response ambiguity. 3.) The avoidance or reduction of ambiguity increases with affects of anxiety and/or aggression assessed by HIT-measures in all diagnostic groups studied with the exception of normals and chronic schizophrenics. In both normals and chronic schizophrenics, the reduction of ambiguity decreases significantly with increasing anxiety, in chronic schizophrenics the reduction of ambiguity decreases significantly with an increase of low levels of aggression. PMID:7879407

  20. Serum homocysteine, folate level and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677, 1298 gene polymorphism in Korean schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Jeon, Chang Moo; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Na, Chul; Chae, Seok Lae; Cho, Soo Churl

    2006-05-15

    High homocysteine serum level has been regarded as one of the important factors that influence the development of schizophrenia. Genetic variations of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, which is a main enzyme reducing homocysteine level, are reported in schizophrenic patients. We measured the serum level of homocysteine/folate and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T/A1298C gene polymorphism in 235 patients with schizophrenia. Plasma homocysteine levels were higher and folate levels were lower in patients than in comparison subjects. Variations of C677T were more frequent in patients than in comparison subjects. Patients with the 677TT genotype showed higher homocysteine levels than patients with the CC and CT genotypes. These findings suggest that folate supplement may be beneficial to some schizophrenic patients with homocysteinemia due to the genetic defect of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. PMID:16641680

  1. Neglected basal cell carcinoma in a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hassan A; Lee, Hui Bae Harold; Nunery, William R

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent from patients with mental disorders can be a complicated and involved process, potentially resulting in decisions contrary to the advice of physicians. We present a schizophrenic patient with an invasive basal cell carcinoma involving the periocular structures and the right orbit. Exenteration was recommended with en bloc resection of the tumor. The ethical and legal committees decided against surgical intervention. Rather, the patient was admitted for medical treatment of his mental illness. A multidisciplinary approach with consultation of a psychiatrist, social worker, and ethical and legal committees is often necessary in the care of patients with mental illness. PMID:19033856

  2. THE STABILITY OF SYMPTOMS AND SYNDROMES IN CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Sharma, L.N.

    1992-01-01

    36 chronic schizophrenic patients meeting D.S.M. III - R criteria were assessed by a single rater using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Ratings were repeated 9 months later by the same rater. Negative symptoms and syndromes were much more stable over time than positive symptoms and syndromes. Only hallucinations had stability comparable to the negative symptoms. Positive and negative subtypes of schizophrenia based on the composite score were very stable. Relatively few symptoms from the general psychopathology subscale were stable over time. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21776113

  3. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.; Dowling-Zimmerman, S.; Pickar, D.; Boronow, J.; Morihisa, J.M.; van Kammen, D.P.; Carpenter, W.; Kessler, R.

    1985-01-01

    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern.

  4. Facial, vocal and musical emotion recognition is altered in paranoid schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Weisgerber, Anne; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre; De Graeuwe D'Aoust, Catherine; De Jaegere, Aline; Delatte, Benoît; Gillain, Benoît; De Longueville, Xavier; Constant, Eric

    2015-09-30

    Disturbed processing of emotional faces and voices is typically observed in schizophrenia. This deficit leads to impaired social cognition and interactions. In this study, we investigated whether impaired processing of emotions also affects musical stimuli, which are widely present in daily life and known for their emotional impact. Thirty schizophrenic patients and 30 matched healthy controls evaluated the emotional content of musical, vocal and facial stimuli. Schizophrenic patients are less accurate than healthy controls in recognizing emotion in music, voices and faces. Our results confirm impaired recognition of emotion in voice and face stimuli in schizophrenic patients and extend this observation to the recognition of emotion in musical stimuli. PMID:26210647

  5. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients1

    PubMed Central

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon. METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior. CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment. PMID:25296152

  6. Protective Effects of Quetiapine on Metabolic and Inflammatory Abnormalities in Schizophrenic Patients during Exacerbated Stage.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Ko, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Sheng-Chiang; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2016-04-30

    Inflammation has been considered important in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increasing evidence reveals that patients with schizophrenia have abnormal expression of cytokines, which are related to development of metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic abnormality has become a critical issue, though its longitudinal relationship with the disorder, such as the antipsychotics influence, is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether abnormalities of metabolic parameters and cytokine levels in acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients existed, and whether intervention of antipsychotic could help. The present study analyzed peripheral cytokines and metabolic/hemodynamic parameters in healthy controls and acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients hospitalized for three weeks under the unique treatment of quetiapine, a well-known second-generation antipsychotic. Our results showed that patients with schizophrenia were predisposed to metabolic abnormalities in acute exacerbation, including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The patients were also prone to dysglycemia, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, and higher blood pressure with concomitant of elevation of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in which IL-6 was associated with BMI. After quetiapine treatment, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 remained higher than the controls, but IL-10 was significantly decreased in follow-up comparison. Glycemic-related indexes, HDL-c and IL-10 levels were significantly changed by variance analysis. Results of the present study imply that acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients with metabolism abnormalities may involve disruption of expression of cytokines, and that quetiapine may have therapeutic effects. Nonetheless, metabolism parameters of patients undergoing treatment with quetiapine should be closely monitored. PMID:27080462

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika I; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite with neurotropic characteristics that can mediate neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental, behavioral and personality aspects of their hosts. Therefore, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies has been studied in patients with different neurological disorders from different localities. On searching online databases, however, we could not find published studies on the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies among patients with neurodevelopmental disorders in Egypt. Therefore, the present preliminary study was conducted to determine the serological profile of T. gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt. Data and blood samples were collected from 188 patients recruited for the study from four mental rehabilitation centers in the period from July 2014 to March 2015. The overall seropositivity rates of IgM and IgG among patients were 16.5% (31/188) and 50.0% (94/188), respectively. Of the studied patients' characteristics, only age was significantly associated with anti-Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity, with older patients being about twice more likely exposed to infection. However, no statistically significant association was found with IgM. In addition, seropositivity of anti-Toxoplasma IgG, but not IgM, was significantly associated with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders; however, neither IgG nor IgM showed a significant association with cognitive impairment as indicated by the intelligence quotient scores. PMID:26656562

  8. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  9. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  10. What happens in the leucotomised brain? A postmortem morphological study of brains from schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Pakkenberg, B

    1989-01-01

    Volume measurements were carried out on 19 brains from leucotomised schizophrenic patients and 20 age- and sex-matched controls using a stereological method. The volume of the total fixed brain, hemispheres, cortex, white matter, and central grey matter were all significantly reduced compared with controls. White matter and central grey structures were significantly reduced compared with a group of non-leucotomised schizophrenic brains. No difference was found in the size of the lesions in patients who improved compared with the patients who remained unchanged and the outcome was unrelated to lesional asymmetry. Morphometric measurements were correlated to a number of clinical parameters. PMID:2703834

  11. [Development of a proverb test for assessment of concrete thinking problems in schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Barth, A; Küfferle, B

    2001-11-01

    Concretism is considered an important aspect of schizophrenic thought disorder. Traditionally it is measured using the method of proverb interpretation, in which metaphoric proverbs are presented with the request that the subject tell its meaning. Interpretations are recorded and scored on concretistic tendencies. However, this method has two problems: its reliability is doubtful and it is rather complicated to perform. In this paper, a new version of a multiple choice proverb test is presented which can solve these problems in a reliable and economic manner. Using the new test, it is has been shown that schizophrenic patients have greater deficits in proverb interpretation than depressive patients. PMID:11758092

  12. Reduced high affinity cholecystokinin binding in hippocampus and frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Farmery, S.M.; Owen, F.; Poulter, M.; Crow, T.J.

    1985-02-04

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding sites were assessed in post-mortem brain membrane preparations from controls and schizophrenic patients. /sup 125/ I-BH CCK/sub 33/ specific binding was reduced by 40% (p < 0.02) in the hippocampus and by 20% (p < 0.01) in the frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients compared with controls. There were no differences in /sup 125/I-BH CCK/sub 33/ binding between the two groups in the amygdala, temporal cortex or caudate nucleus. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. Hemispheric asymmetry in visual recognition of words and motor response in schizophrenic and depressive patients.

    PubMed

    Min, S K; Oh, B H

    1992-02-01

    Two-letter Hangul words were presented tachistoscopically as target words to either the right or left visual field of normal subjects, schizophrenics, and depressive patients. The subjects' task was to judge the similarity or difference between the target words and the words used for comparison. They were to signal as soon as possible by pressing a key with their hands. In normal subjects, the correct response rate was significantly higher in the left hemisphere; there was little difference in the speed of motor response between the two hemispheres, however. Compared with normal subjects, both patient groups showed generalized impairment. Schizophrenia was associated with impairment in the left hemisphere, depression was associated with impairment in the right hemisphere. PMID:1547299

  14. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Calcium metabolism in schizophrenic patients on long-term neuroleptic therapy.

    PubMed

    Baastrup, P C; Christiansen, C; Transbøl, I

    1980-01-01

    The bone mineral content (BMC) in both forearms (highly related to total body calcium) was measured in a large group of schizophrenic patients receiving neuroleptic drugs. The mean BMC value was 86% of normal (p less than 0.001), and the decrease was independent of type of neuroleptic treatment. In contrast, the biochemical variables (serum calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatases) were virtually normal. This combination of osteopenia and normal biochemical variables suggests that schizophrenics have osteoporosis, be it due to the disease or the treatment given. PMID:6102745

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging DTI-FT study on schizophrenic patients with typical negative first symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chengyu; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Fuquan; Cheng, Yougen; Cao, Yulin; Hou, Hongtao

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) together with a white matter fiber tracking (FT) technique was used to assess different brain white matter structures and functionalities in schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms. In total, 30 schizophrenic patients with typical first negative symptoms, comprising an observation group were paired 1:1 according to gender, age, right-handedness, and education, with 30 healthy individuals in a control group. Individuals in each group underwent routine MRI and DTI examination of the brain, and diffusion-tensor tractography (DTT) data were obtained through whole brain analysis based on voxel and tractography. The results were expressed by fractional anisotropy (FA) values. The schizophrenic patients were evaluated using a positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) as well as a Global Assessment Scale (GAS). The results of the study showed that routine MRIs identified no differences between the two groups. However, compared with the control group, the FA values obtained by DTT from the deep left prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus callosum were significantly lower in the observation group (P<0.05). The PANSS positive scale value in the observation group averaged 7.7±1.5, and the negative scale averaged 46.6±5.9, while the general psychopathology scale averaged 65.4±10.3, and GAS averaged 53.8±19.2. The Pearson statistical analysis, the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and the FA value of part of the corpus callosum in the observation group was negatively correlated with the negative scale (P<0.05), and positively correlated with GAS (P<0.05). In conclusion, a decrease in the FA values of the left deep prefrontal cortex, the right deep temporal lobe, the white matter of the inferior frontal gyrus and part of the corpus

  17. A Weight-Reduction Program for Schizophrenic Patients on a Token Economy Unit: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upper, Dennis; Newton, Judith G.

    1971-01-01

    Overweight patients on a token economy psychiatric ward were reinforced with tokens, off ward privileges and social approval for meeting a weight loss criterion of three pounds per week. The progress of two subjects, both chronic paranoid schizophrenics, is described. The procedure appears to be effective. (Author)

  18. Schizophrenic Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings Share Increased Resting-State Connectivity in the Task-Negative Network but Not Its Anticorrelated Task-Positive Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haihong; Kaneko, Yoshio; Ouyang, Xuan; Li, Li; Hao, Yihui; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Zhening

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abnormal connectivity of the anticorrelated intrinsic networks, the task-negative network (TNN), and the task-positive network (TPN) is implicated in schizophrenia. Comparisons between schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings enable further understanding of illness susceptibility and pathophysiology. We examined the resting-state connectivity differences in the intrinsic networks between schizophrenic patients, their unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were obtained from 25 individuals in each subject group. The posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were used as seed regions to identify the TNN and TPN through functional connectivity analysis. Interregional connectivity strengths were analyzed using overlapped intrinsic networks composed of regions common to all subject groups. Results: Schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings showed increased connectivity in the TNN between the bilateral inferior temporal gyri. By contrast, schizophrenic patients alone demonstrated increased connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and left inferior temporal gyrus and between the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and right lateral parietal cortex in the TNN. Schizophrenic patients exhibited increased connectivity between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus in the TPN relative to their unaffected siblings, though this trend only approached statistical significance in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Resting-state hyperconnectivity of the intrinsic networks may disrupt network coordination and thereby contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Similar, though milder, hyperconnectivity of the TNN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenic patients may contribute to the identification of schizophrenia endophenotypes and ultimately to the determination of schizophrenia

  19. Smoking in schizophrenic patients: A critique of the self-medication hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Manzella, Francesca; Maloney, Susan E; Taylor, George T

    2015-01-01

    A common remark among laypeople, and notably also among mental health workers, is that individuals with mental illnesses use drugs as self-medication to allay clinical symptoms and the side effects of drug treatments. Roots of the self-medication concept in psychiatry date back at least to the 1980s. Observations that rates of smokers in schizophrenic patients are multiple times the rates for regular smoking in the general population, as well as those with other disorders, proved particularly tempting for a self-medication explanation. Additional evidence came from experiments with animal models exposed to nicotine and the identification of neurobiological mechanisms suggesting self-medication with smoking is a plausible idea. More recently, results from studies comparing smoking and non-smoking schizophrenic patients have led to the questioning of the self-medication hypothesis. Closer examination of the literature points to the possibility that smoking is less beneficial on schizophrenic symptomology than generally assumed while clearly increasing the risk of cancer and other smoking-related diseases responsible for early mortality. It is a good time to examine the evidence for the self-medication concept as it relates to smoking. Our approach is to focus on data addressing direct or implied predictions of the hypothesis in schizophrenic smokers. PMID:25815253

  20. Neuropsychology, social cognition and global functioning among bipolar, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls: preliminary data

    PubMed Central

    Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo A.; Fiorentini, Alessio; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Serati, Marta; Orsenigo, Giulia; Grillo, Paolo; Zago, Stefano; Caldiroli, Alice; Prunas, Cecilia; Giusti, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Altamura, A. Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic (SKZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan; it includes stabilized SKZ patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and HC (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB) that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however, the differences did not influence the results. BD patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to SKZ patients, even in “ecological” tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p < 0.0038) and BACS symbol coding (p < 0.0043). Regarding the ESCB tests, in the Hotel task SKZ patients completed significantly less tasks (p < 0.001), showed a greater number of errors in Multiple Errands Test (MET-HV) (p < 0.0248) and a worse performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tests (p < 0.001 for the Eyes test and Faux pas test). Both patients' groups performed significantly worse than HC. Finally, significant differences were found between the two groups in GAF scores, being greater among BD subjects (p < 0.001). GAF was correlated with BACS and ESCB scores showing the crucial role of cognitive and ecological performances in patients' global functioning. PMID:24146642

  1. The relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Asgharnejad Farid, Aliasghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a disorder with psychotic symptoms that severely affects personal performance. Assessing problem- focused strategies and quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia may help the clinicians to use appropriate interventions. This study was conducted to find the relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenic patients who referred to the clinic of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: Non-random sampling was used in two stages (quota and convenience sampling). Data were collected through Demographic Questionnaire, 5-point Likert-type scale World Health Organization Quality of Life and Problem-Focused Strategies Standard Questionnaire. Four dimensions of QoL which were assessed among schizophrenic patients were as follows: Physical health, mental health, social relationships and environmental factors. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression were used for data analysis. Results: The highest mean score (Mean= 2.7) belonged to environmental factors and the lowest score to social relationships (Mean= 2.55). Overall, there was a significant direct relationship between the QoL and problem-focused coping strategies (p= 0.024, r= 0.319). Conclusion: The Schizophrenic patients who used more problem- focused coping strategies had better QoL. Therefore, it is important to take into account problem- focus coping strategies when treating the patients. The application of this research will be crucial to clinicians and healthcare executives. PMID:26913251

  2. Extrastriatal dopamine D 2/3 receptor density and distribution in drug-naive schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, H; Kuikka, J; Viinamäki, H; Husso-Saastamoinen, M; Bergström, K; Tiihonen, J

    2003-04-01

    Several lines of studies have suggested the importance of cortical dopamine (DA) transmission in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The putative alteration of striatal D(2) receptor density in schizophrenia has been studied intensely, although extrastriatal DA activity may be more relevant for behavioral symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore extrastriatal D(2/3) density in drug-naive schizophrenic patients. We studied the extrastriatal D(2/3) receptor binding with a novel high-affinity single-photon emission tomography ligand epidepride in seven drug-naive schizophrenic patients and seven matched controls. The symptoms were rated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia. The findings indicated an extremely low D(2/3) receptor binding among patients in temporal cortex in both hemispheres when compared with controls (effect size 2.0-2.3), and the D(2/3) levels had negative correlations with general psychopathological (r from -0.86 to -0.90) and negative (r from -0.37 to -0.55) schizophrenic symptoms. These results support the previous hypothesis on dysfunction of mesocortical DA function behind the cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:12740603

  3. Private and public in the lives of chronic schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Leferink, K

    1998-01-01

    This article argues that both the private and public spheres must be taken into account when analyzing the development and everyday reality of the mentally ill. Private and public are two poles whose reciprocal relationship constitutes the form taken by a person's life. The interplay of both areas expresses how a person uses his thinking, feeling, and acting to relate to a real or imaginary audience. The psychosocial reality of a person is based on cooperation of the public and private selves. According to a central thesis of this essay, a loss of public presence leads in equal measure to a loss, rather than an increase, of private reality. An empirical study based on a sample of patients with chronic schizophrenia confirms this assumption by showing that such patients, under today's social conditions, develop lives characterized by a high degree of private reclusiveness. This is linked with an external and internal loss of life reality. Many patients, however, look for indirect and socially noncommittal forms of participating in public life without having to deny their private reality. PMID:9706102

  4. Perception of the duration of emotional faces in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Liu, Yunzhe; Tan, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    The level of emotional timing deficit is a critical determinant of daily functions and social interactions in people with schizophrenia. This study demonstrated that people with schizophrenia have significant deficits in emotional time perception. Behaviorally, while the healthy controls overestimated the duration of happy and fearful faces, the patients underestimated the duration of emotional and neutral faces. Accordingly, an online ERP index of timing—the contingent negative variation (CNV) displayed larger amplitudes for emotional faces in the controls, whereas the CNV in the patients only showed overall smaller amplitudes when compared with the controls. In addition, the results of the N170 and the CNV suggest that the emotional processing and timing for facial expressions in schizophrenia might have a pattern of two-stage deterioration. Findings from the present work point to the importance of considering the time dimension of emotional processing in schizophrenia, based on which we are likely to discover aspects of emotional deficits that would be unnoticed in other studies. Furthermore, the perception deviation of the duration of emotional faces in schizophrenia suggests us to consider the magnitude of this temporal deviation as a quantitative biomarker for specific emotional/social dysfunctions in schizophrenia. PMID:26923667

  5. Abnormal physiological conditions in acute schizophrenic patients on emergency admission: dehydration, hypokalemia, leukocytosis and elevated serum muscle enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hatta, K; Takahashi, T; Nakamura, H; Yamashiro, H; Endo, H; Fujii, S; Fukami, G; Masui, K; Asukai, N; Yonezawa, Y

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated varieties and incidence of abnormal physiological conditions in acute schizophrenic patients on emergency. Laboratory data obtained prior to treatment from patients, admitted on an emergency basis during an 18-month period, were evaluated retrospectively, as well as demographics and clinical characteristics. Of 259 male acute schizophrenic patients (ICD-10: F2), 6.9% revealed dehydration, a third had hypokalemia and leukocytosis, and two thirds showed elevated serum muscle enzymes. These percentages were statistically significant compared with those of outpatients. In addition, the former three of these conditions in the F2 group were as frequent as those in alcohol and/or psychoactive substance abusers (ICD-10: F1) on emergency admission, although elevated serum muscle enzymes in the F2 group was less frequent than that in the F1 group. In order to prevent these abnormal physiological conditions from worsening and becoming life-threatening, one fourth of the F2 group [dehydration, 6.9%, severe hypokalemia (< 3.0 mEq/l), 2.3%, and markedly elevated serum muscle enzymes (creatine phosphokinase > 1000 IU/l), 16.5%] required medical management such as fluid therapy and various types of monitoring. In cases of a behavioral emergency, laboratory screening and monitoring of urinary output were essential. Due to their lack of cooperation, case history, physical examination, and initial vital signs did not contribute to detection of their medical condition. PMID:9810481

  6. [Assessment of metabolic impairments inducted by atypical antipsychotics among schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Gauthé, M; Goldberger, C; Olié, J P; Lôo, H; Gury, C; Poirier, M F

    2005-01-01

    Conventional and atypical antipsychotics are known to induce weight gain, cause glucose and lipid impairments among schizophrenic patients. These impairments contribute to the intrinsic risk factors linked to the psychiatric pathology (sedentary state, nicotin addiction, diabetes) increasing numbers of cardiovascular complications. We propose to study ponderal modifications and presence of metabolic abnormalities in a population of schizophrenic patients treated by conventional or atypical antipsychotics, depending on the received treatment; 32 patients, whose schizophrenia diagnosis had been previously made, were consecutively included over a 4 months period. They were divided into three groups: patients treated by conventional antipsychotics (n = 6), by atypical antipsychotics (n = 16) or by a combination of both (n = 10); 6 patients (18%) display overweight problems, 4 patients (12.5%) got hypertriglyceridemia and 4 other patients (12.5%) have hypercholesterolemia. No particular drug could be directly targeted, partly because of the restricted size of our sample, but the patients presenting metabolism impairment were treated by atypical antipsychotic. The observance of these abnormalities is reflected in publications and lead to some antipsychotic treatments monitoring rules. PMID:15971636

  7. Simple Analysis Used in Diagnosis and Follow-up of Schizophrenic Patients (Patent)

    PubMed Central

    Nour El-Dien, Faten A.; El-Nahas, Reham G.; El-Nahas, Ahmed G.

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine acts as neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Determination of dopamine (DO) was performed by spectrophotometric analysis depending on the formation of new colored compound. The proposed procedure was efficient in quantitative determination of DO as pure material in pharmaceutical preparations and in urine samples. DO concentration in urine sample of patient confirms the affection with schizophrenia and the proposed procedure was used to facilitate diagnosis and followup of schizophrenic patients. It is recommended to apply the proposed procedures as routine analysis in pharmaceutical companies for quality control and in analytical laboratories to diagnose and follow up schizophrenia. PMID:17671624

  8. The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ≥ 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated a new schizophrenia data base, the GRAS (Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia) data collection. GRAS is the necessary ground to study genetic causes of the schizophrenic phenotype in a 'phenotype-based genetic association study' (PGAS). This approach is different from and complementary to the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on schizophrenia. Methods For this purpose, 1085 patients were recruited between 2005 and 2010 by an invariable team of traveling investigators in a cross-sectional field study that comprised 23 German psychiatric hospitals. Additionally, chart records and discharge letters of all patients were collected. Results The corresponding dataset extracted and presented in form of an overview here, comprises biographic information, disease history, medication including side effects, and results of comprehensive cross-sectional psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurological examinations. With >3000 data points per schizophrenic subject, this data base of living patients, who are also accessible for follow-up studies, provides a wide-ranging and standardized phenotype characterization of as yet unprecedented detail. Conclusions The GRAS data base will serve as prerequisite for PGAS, a novel approach to better understanding 'the schizophrenias' through exploring the contribution of genetic variation to the schizophrenic phenotypes. PMID:21067598

  9. Plasma concentrations of three methylated arginines, endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, in schizophrenic patients undergoing antipsychotic drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Nonaka-Hashida, Satoko; Sekine, Masae; Ozeki, Yuji; Fujii, Kumiko; Akiyama, Kazufumi; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Tsunoda, Makoto; Katane, Masumi; Saitoh, Yasuaki; Miyamoto, Tetsuya; Homma, Hiroshi

    2016-04-30

    Plasma concentration of three methylated arginines, endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, is not studied in schizophrenic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma concentrations of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), N(G),N(G)-dimethyl-l-arginine (ADMA), N(G),N(G')-dimethyl-l-arginine (SDMA), and l-arginine in 56 male and 45 female schizophrenic patients undergoing antipsychotic drug treatment versus those of 39 male and 24 female healthy controls. Plasma concentrations of methylated arginines and l-arginine were measured using newly developed high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection which we previously reported. Methylated arginine levels were slightly but significantly higher in schizophrenic patients. l-Arginine levels and the l-arginine/(ADMA+l-NMMA) ratio were higher in schizophrenic patients than in healthy controls. It is considered that pharmacological treatment of schizophrenic patients may lower methylated arginine levels that are increased by the disease, and increase l-arginine levels, eliciting an improvement in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. PMID:27086234

  10. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient's symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients. PMID:26101683

  11. Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    García, Saínza; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; López-Zurbano, Saioa; Zorrilla, Iñaki; López, Purificación; Vieta, Eduard; González-Pinto, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Antipsychotics are the drugs prescribed to treat psychotic disorders; however, patients often fail to adhere to their treatment, and this has a severe negative effect on prognosis in these kinds of illnesses. Among the wide range of risk factors for treatment nonadherence, this systematic review covers those that are most important from the point of view of clinicians and patients and proposes guidelines for addressing them. Analyzing 38 studies conducted in a total of 51,796 patients, including patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder, we found that younger age, substance abuse, poor insight, cognitive impairments, low level of education, minority ethnicity, poor therapeutic alliance, experience of barriers to care, high intensity of delusional symptoms and suspiciousness, and low socioeconomic status are the main risk factors for medication nonadherence in both types of disorder. In the future, prospective studies should be conducted on the use of personalized patient-tailored treatments, taking into account risk factors that may affect each individual, to assess the ability of such approaches to improve adherence and hence prognosis in these patients. PMID:27307187

  12. Insomnia related to biperiden withdrawal in two schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hirose, S

    2000-11-01

    It is not uncommon for patients who are receiving antipsychotic medication to be given anticholinergic agents, such as biperiden, despite the relative absence of neurological side-effects. Two cases of schizophrenia are reported in which insomnia developed after biperiden withdrawal or reduction. The insomnia continued until biperiden treatment was reinstated, despite the fact that the patients did not exhibit signs or report symptoms indicative of antipsychotic drug-induced neurological side-effects. The occurrence of insomnia following the withdrawal of biperiden or reduction in the dose has not been previously reported. One potential explanation for the insomnia is cholinergic rebound following the withdrawal of biperiden. PMID:11110012

  13. Phospholipase A2 activity in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast cells from schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Bennett, E R; Yedgar, S; Lerer, B; Ebstein, R P

    1991-06-01

    We examined the activity of phospholipase A2 in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast cell lines established from ten schizophrenic patients and ten controls. A novel method for determination of enzyme activity in whole cells was employed, by measuring the hydrolysis of a fluorescent analogue of phosphatidylcholine. No significant difference in phospholipase A2 activity was found between the groups. These results suggest that the previously reported changes in phospholipase A2 activity in plasma and in fresh peripheral cells are indicative of environmental influences and not of "trait" characteristics intrinsic to schizophrenia. PMID:1651772

  14. [Clinical prognosis of schizophrenic patients with cannabis addiction. Between nihilism and hope].

    PubMed

    Schnell, T

    2014-09-01

    Comorbid substance use disorders in schizophrenia are mostly associated with an unfavorable course of the disease and with difficulties in clinical management. Therefore, some therapists tend to react to these patients in a resigned manner. However, there is growing evidence for higher cognitive functioning and less severe deficits in brain morphology of these patients compared to patients without cannabis use. A common interpretation refers to relatively low vulnerability for psychosis in some of these patients, who mainly became schizophrenic because of the pro-psychotic properties of cannabis. Low vulnerability is reflected by a higher cognitive functioning; therefore, the pessimistic view of therapists seems unjustified for at least a subgroup of young patients. Provided that patients are treated in adequate therapeutic settings and that they stop using cannabis, a lower vulnerability may be associated with overall better socio-rehabilitative outcome parameters. PMID:24343109

  15. Genetic variability testing of neurodevelopmental genes in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Terzić, Tea; Kastelic, Matej; Dolžan, Vita; Plesničar, Blanka Kores

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the neurodevelopmental Disrupted In Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1 ), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NOTCH4 genes and the clinical symptoms and the occurrence of treatment-resistant schizophrenia in the Slovenian population. We included 138 schizophrenia patients, divided into treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant group and 94 healthy blood donors. All subjects were genotyped for eight polymorphisms (DISC1 rs6675281, DISC1 rs821616, NRG1 rs3735781, NRG1 rs3735782, NRG1 rs10503929, NRG1 rs3924999, BDNF rs6265, NOTCH rs367398) and investigated for associations with clinical variables. NOTCH4 rs367398 AA/AG was significantly associated with worse Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score. NOTCH4 rs367398 was not statistically significantly associated with the occurrence of treatment-resistant schizophrenia after the correction for multiple testing. Our data indicate that NOTCH4 polymorphism can influence clinical symptoms in Slovenian patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25529856

  16. Deficits in attentional processing of fearful facial expressions in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Shuping; Luo, Yuejia

    2016-01-01

    Impaired attentional processing of negative facial expressions is prominent in schizophrenia and has been shown to be associated with patients' social dysfunctions. However, little is known about when and which specific attention deficits influence social functions. Given the dynamic feature of attention, it is necessary to investigate the attention deficits in negative emotional processing unfolding in time. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of attention deficits in emotion perception and their potential relationship with emotional/social impairments in neuroleptic naive schizophrenic patients. Two specific attention deficits were identified and were found to be associated with emotional/social impairments. More specifically, the deficit in orienting attention (evidenced with the reduced P1 amplitude) was correlated with expressive deficits, while the deficit in executive control of attention (evidenced with the reduced P3 amplitude) was correlated with avolition/asociality. Together, these findings may provide novel insights into the core pathophysiological processes and offer objective biomarkers for specific emotional/social impairments in schizophrenia. It is also hoped that this study helps to bridge the gap between basic cognitive deficits and relative high-level social dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients. PMID:27586404

  17. Effects of plasma magnesium and prolactin on quantitative ultrasound measurements of heel bone among schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a bone disease that can reduce both bone mass and bone strength. It can cause serious fractures of bones, along with causing significant and even devastating physical, psychological and financial consequences for patients and their family members. Many reports have revealed that the prevalence of decreased bone density is higher in schizophrenic patients than in the non-psychological diseased population. The previous report of our group revealed that chronic schizophrenia patients have poorer BUA levels since they were young as compared to the general community population. Hyperprolactinemia and antipsychotics are reported to be among the risk factors for osteoporosis in chronic schizophrenic patients. Methods 93 schizophrenic patients with severely poor adjusted BUA values and 93 age and gender matched patients with normal adjusted BUA values from a previous survey study were selected. Data were collected via questionnaires and via reviews of antipsychotic medications. Blood samples were drawn, and serum levels of prolactin, estradiol, testosterone, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, Cross-linked N-teleopeptide of type I collagen (NTX), thyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone were checked. The association between BUA levels and serum levels of the above items, along with the type of received antipsychotic medication, was evaluated. Results There was no significant association found between reduced BUA levels and serum prolactin, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, NTX, thyroid stimulating hormone and parathyroid hormone levels. There was also no association between BUA levels and types of currently received antipsychotics. There was no association between BUA levels and menstruation condition in female patients. Hypermagnesemia had a borderline association with classical and combined (classical and atypical) antipsychotic medications in male patients. Nevertheless, hypermagnesemia is a significant protective factor of reduced BUA

  18. Deficits in attentional processing of fearful facial expressions in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Shuping; Luo, Yuejia

    2016-01-01

    Impaired attentional processing of negative facial expressions is prominent in schizophrenia and has been shown to be associated with patients’ social dysfunctions. However, little is known about when and which specific attention deficits influence social functions. Given the dynamic feature of attention, it is necessary to investigate the attention deficits in negative emotional processing unfolding in time. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of attention deficits in emotion perception and their potential relationship with emotional/social impairments in neuroleptic naive schizophrenic patients. Two specific attention deficits were identified and were found to be associated with emotional/social impairments. More specifically, the deficit in orienting attention (evidenced with the reduced P1 amplitude) was correlated with expressive deficits, while the deficit in executive control of attention (evidenced with the reduced P3 amplitude) was correlated with avolition/asociality. Together, these findings may provide novel insights into the core pathophysiological processes and offer objective biomarkers for specific emotional/social impairments in schizophrenia. It is also hoped that this study helps to bridge the gap between basic cognitive deficits and relative high-level social dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients. PMID:27586404

  19. How schizophrenic patients change during 3 years' treatment with depot neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Dencker, S J; Frankenberg, K; Lepp, M; Lindberg, D; Malm, U

    1978-02-01

    A group of patients, initially 67 individuals, with chronic schizophrenia were studied on repeated occasions during 1 year and followed up after 3 years. The patients were given depot neuroleptics, either fluphenazine decanoate or pipotiazine palmitate, at intervals of 1 month. The symptom scores from three rating scales were subjected to factor analysis. Four factors were found to explain the variance satisfactorily: one comprising psychopathological symptoms specific for schizophrenia, one relating to contact disturbances, one psychomotor activity and one representing neurotic symptoms. Analysis of these factors revealed certain differences between the treatment groups over time and demonstrated the effect of combination of psychotherapy and neuroleptic drugs in a subgroup of patients. This type of analysis of treatment results might contribute to improving our knowledge of rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients and help us to draw up giudelines for selection of suitable measures. PMID:24982

  20. Differential effects of haloperidol on negative symptoms in drug-naive schizophrenic patients: effects on plasma homovanillic acid.

    PubMed

    Labarca, R; Silva, H; Jerez, S; Ruiz, A; Forray, M I; Gysling, K; Andres, M E; Bustos, G; Castillo, Y; Hono, J

    1993-03-01

    After 5 weeks of haloperidol, positive symptoms in drug-naive schizophrenic patients substantially subsided. Negative symptoms, although with a different temporal pattern, decreased after the fifth week of haloperidol treatment; specifically, a decrease was seen in anhedonia and affective flattening, whereas avolition-apathy and attentional impairment presented no changes. Alogia showed a decrease during the third week and a trend to return to placebo scores during weeks 4 and 5. Changes in affective flattening, alogia and attentional impairment correlated with changes in positive symptoms. During placebo, plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) correlated with negative symptoms and with changes presented by negative symptoms between the first and the fifth treatment week. These data show that negative symptoms respond differentially to neuroleptics and suggest that avolition-apathy may represent a different behavioral component of the schizophrenia process. PMID:8461269

  1. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic patients: preponderance of off-label drug use.

    PubMed

    Pickar, David; Vinik, Jessie; Bartko, John J

    2008-01-01

    Multiple drug class combinations are often prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, although antipsychotic monotherapy reflects FDA labeling and scientific justification for combinations is highly variable. This study was performed to gain current data regarding drug treatment of schizophrenia as practiced in the community and to assess the frequencies of off-label drug class combinations. 200 DSM IV-diagnosed schizophrenic patients recruited from community treatment sources participated in this cross-sectional study of community based schizophrenic patients. Drug class categories include First and Second Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA, respectively), mood stabilizers, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. 25.5% of patients received antipsychotic monotherapy; 70% of patients received an antipsychotic and another drug class. A total of 42.5% of patients received more than one antipsychotic drug. The most common drug class combination was antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Stepwise linear discriminant function analysis identified the diagnosis of schizoaffective schizophrenia, history of having physically hurt someone and high scores on the General Portion of the PANSS rating scale predicted the combined use of an antipsychotic drug and a mood stabilizer. "Real world" pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia has developed its own established practice that is predominantly off-label and may have outstripped current data support. The economic implications for public sector payers are substantial as well as for the revenue of the pharmaceutical industry, whose promotion of off-label drug use is an increasingly problematic. These data are consistent with the recognition of the therapeutic limitations of both first and second generation antipsychotic drugs. PMID:18781198

  2. Evaluation of the usability of a serious game aiming to teach facial expressions to schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Isleyen, Filiz; Gulkesen, K Hakan; Cinemre, Buket; Samur, M Kemal; Zayim, Nese; Sen Kaya, Semiha

    2014-01-01

    In some psychological disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, loss of facial expression recognition skill may complicate patient's daily life. Information technology may help to develop facial expression recognition skill by educational software and games. We designed and developed an interactive web-based educational program with which we performed a usability study before investigating its effectiveness on the schizophrenia patients' ability of emotion perception. The purpose of this study is to describe the usability evaluation for a web-based game set that has been designed to teach facial expressions to schizophrenic patients. The usability study was done at two steps; first, we applied heuristic evaluation and the violations were rated in a scale from most to least severe and the major problems were solved. In the second step, think-aloud method was used and the web site was assessed by five schizophrenic patients. Eight experts participated in the heuristic evaluation, in which a total of 60 violations were identified with a mean severity of 2.77 (range: 0-4). All of the major problems (severity over 2.5) were listed and the usability problems were solved by the development team. After solving the problems, five users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia used the web site with the same scenario. They reported to have experienced minor, but different problems. In conclusion, we suggest that a combination of heuristic evaluation and think-aloud method may be an effective and efficient way for usability evaluations for the serious games that have been designed for special patient groups. PMID:25160269

  3. Impaired working speed and executive functions as frontal lobe dysfunctions in young first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Beate; Knappe, Susanne; Blanz, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to detect neuropsychological markers, such as sustained and selective attention and executive functions, which contribute to the vulnerability to schizophrenia especially in young persons. Performance was assessed in 32 siblings and children of schizophrenic patients and 32 matched controls using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Colour-Word-Interference-Test, Trail Making Test, and d2-Concentration-Test. The first-degree relatives showed certain impairments on all four tests, in particular, slower times on all time-limited tests. These results suggest the need for more time when completing neuropsychological tasks involving selected and focused attention, as well as cognitive flexibility, as a possible indicator of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. PMID:16721500

  4. Identification of a missense mutation and several polymorphisms in the proenkephalin A gene of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mikesell, M.J.; Sommer, S.S.; McMurray, C.T.

    1996-09-20

    Schizophrenia is a complex and severe disorder of unknown cause and pathophysiology. In this study, we examined the opioid hypothesis for schizophrenia at the molecular level, focusing on the dopamine-regulated proenkephalin A gene (chromosome 8q11.23-q12). We have screened 150 schizophrenic patients for sequence variations within the promoter region, entire coding sequence, and 3{prime}-untranslated region. We find one sequence change in a conserved amino acid that may be of functional significance. This mutation was found in a single schizophrenia patient but not in controls. Although several new, race-specific polymorphisms were identified, all other sequence changes appeared to be common polymorphisms, unlikely to contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Communicability of Verbal Behavior in Schizophrenic Patients and Its Relationship to Current Psycholinguistic Threory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisoni, David B.

    The purpose of this paper is to relate past research on communicability of verbal behavior in schizophrenics to current psycholinguistic theory. The paper reviews the taxonomic methods (segmentation and classification) which have characterized past research on schizophrenic verbal behavior. It is concluded that although interesting results have…

  6. Pipotiazine palmitate: an evaluation of a new long acting intramuscular antipsychotic agent in severely ill schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Gallant, D M; Mielke, D; Bishop, G; Oelsner, T; Guerrero-Figueroa, R

    1975-04-01

    Findings in this study support earlier investigations in attesting to the antipsychotic efficacy and relatively low toxicity of pipotiazine palmitate. Results with all efficacy measures utilized were consistent in indicating a high level of efficacy for this investigational compound. Pipotiazine palmitate apparently has an average duration of action that extends beyond 4 weeks in severely ill schizophrenic patients. This particular long acting IM antipsychotic preparation appears to have an even longer duration of activity than some of the other available standard long acting agents. The optimal dosage range for severely ill schizophrenic patients appears to be between 100 and 600 mg once monthly. While this type of drug (as is the case with many antipsychotic drugs) does reduce the psychotic symptomatology and improves the thought associations sufficient to enable the patient to leave the hospital, it should be re-emphasized that socioeconomic and guidance counseling services are necessary to maintain the patient in the community. The availability of this type of long acting preparation is not only economical in terms of nursing care and hospital cost but it should also increase the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatment of schizophrenics by reducing both patient errors and staff errors in administration of medication. In addition, this IM preparation should prove to be of invaluable help in maintaining the schizophrenic patient in his community by reducing the relapse and the rehospitalization rates. It should be noted that there are schizophrenic patients who either absorb compounds from the gastrointestinal tract in a very poor manner or too rapidly metabolize the antipsychotic agents with resultant suboptimal blood levels and these subjects may be called "drug refractory." This type of long acting medication is an ideal preparation for the schizophrenic patient who has these types of absorption or metabolic problems since the "circulatory pass" through the

  7. Why some patients prefer to become manic-depressive rather than schizophrenic.

    PubMed Central

    Stierlin, H.; Weber, G.; Schmidt, G.; Simon, F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports the authors' observations on fifteen families in which a young adult member had been diagnosed as manic-depressive. All families were seen in systemic family therapy, with intervals of four to six weeks between sessions. The circular questioning method developed by Selvini-Palazzoli [1] and her team was widely employed. All families could be described as extremely rigid and bound-up systems characterized by a "restrictive parental complementarity," typical dynamics of reciprocal delegation, and certain cognitive features and shared assumptions. These "manic-depressive" families show similarities as well as differences when compared with families with schizophrenic members (i.e., "schizo-present" families). Finally, some therapeutic implications of this view and approach are developed. PMID:4049908

  8. Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Halldin, C.; Sedvall, G.

    1988-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography and the carbon 11-labeled ligand raclopride, central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in the putamen was determined in psychiatric patients treated with clinical doses of psychoactive drugs. Receptor occupancy in drug-treated patients was defined as the percent reduction of specific carbon 11-raclopride binding in relation to the expected binding in the absence of drug treatment. Clinical treatment of schizophrenic patients with 11 chemically distinct antipsychotic drugs (including both classic and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine) resulted in a 65% to 85% occupancy of D2-dopamine receptors. In a depressed patient treated with the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline, no occupancy was found. The time course for receptor occupancy and drug levels was followed after withdrawal of sulpiride or haloperidol. D2-dopamine receptor occupancy remained above 65% for many hours despite a substantial reduction of serum drug concentrations. In a sulpiride-treated patient, the dosage was reduced in four steps over a nine-week period and a curvilinear relationship was demonstrated between central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy and serum drug concentrations. The results demonstrate that clinical doses of all the currently used classes of antipsychotic drugs cause a substantial blockade of central D2-dopamine receptors in humans. This effect appears to be selective for the antipsychotics, since it was not induced by the antidepressant nortriptyline.

  9. C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Nsaiba, Mohamed Jalloul; Lapointe, Marc; Mabrouk, Hajer; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude; Jrad, Besma Bel Hadj; Cianflone, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Excessive activation of complement is associated with many diseases including schizophrenia. Investigation of C3 polymorphisms, circulating C3, cleavage product ASP/C3adesArg, and lipid metabolism. Cross-sectional analysis. C3 genotyping (CC vs GG for R102L) was performed on 434 Tunisian people consisting of 272 schizophrenic (SZ) patients and 162 control subjects. In a age- and gender-matched subgroups of the three genotypes (131 SZ and 112 NOR), plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol (C), LDL-C, HDL-C, ASP, and complement C3 were measured. C3 gene polymorphism influences BMI and plasma C3, ASP, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C among SZ patients (p < 0.05-0.0001), with increasing values demonstrated from CC (common form) to CG (heterozygote form) to GG (rare homozygote) forms. Significant correlations between plasma C3 and BMI, triglyceride, HDL-C and ASP (p < 0.05-0.0001) were observed, while ASP correlated with BMI and LDL-C (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, respectively) in SZ patients. Further, proportional conversion of C3 to ASP (%ASP/C3) also increased (p < 0.0001, GG>CG>CC). C3 polymorphisms and plasma C3, ASP and %ASP/C3 correlated with lipid parameters in this SZ population, suggesting that factors predisposing patients to schizophrenia are permissive for complement pathway activation and dyslipidemic influences. PMID:25720829

  10. General life satisfaction and domain-specific quality of life in chronic schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, G; Holzner, B; Neudorfer, C; Meise, U; Hinterhuber, H

    1997-04-01

    Subjective quality of life (QOL) has often been assessed through questionnaires or structured interviews focusing on the person's satisfaction with various life domains. In particular, most QOL instruments for psychiatric patients are based on this concept. We report on a study casting some doubts on the rationale of this approach. We investigated the QOL of 48 chronic schizophrenic outpatients with a long-term disease history (at least 20 years) using a German version of the Lancashire QOL Profile. The interrelations between general life satisfaction, satisfaction with specific life domains, psychological well-being and psychopathology were studied using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Of the life domains assessed, only two, namely social relations and health, contributed significantly to the patients' general life satisfaction, while the others (including work, leisure, family relations and housing) did not. The subscales on psychological well-being (self-esteem, affective state) as well as psychopathology were found to be more closely associated with general life satisfaction than almost all life domains considered. The findings are discussed with regard to the specific situation of the group of patients investigated. They give indications that the life domain approach to measuring QOL has its limitations, in particular when applied to patients having adapted to a very restricted everyday life. PMID:9226984

  11. Functional connectivity-based signatures of schizophrenia revealed by multiclass pattern analysis of resting-state fMRI from schizophrenic patients and their healthy siblings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    , the left middle temporal gyrus, the left angular and the left rectus, as well as connectivities between the cingulate cortex and the left rectus showed higher discriminative power in the compensatory patterns. Conclusions Based on our experimental results, we saw some indication of differences in functional connectivity patterns in the healthy siblings of schizophrenic patients compared to other healthy individuals who have no relations with the patients. Our preliminary investigation suggested that the use of resting-state functional connectivities as classification features to discriminate among schizophrenic patients, their healthy siblings and healthy controls is meaningful. PMID:23390976

  12. Assessment of procedural learning and problem solving in schizophrenic patients by Tower of Hanoi type tasks.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, T E; Saint-Cyr, J A; Weinberger, D R

    1990-01-01

    Two versions of the Tower of Hanoi task were used to investigate different components of learning and problem solving in schizophrenia. Prior studies have suggested that a three-disk version (Tower 3), which involves primarily problem-solving abilities and planning, is preferentially sensitive to frontal lobe lesions and that the more difficult four-disk version (Tower 4), which involves "learning by doing," is sensitive to basal ganglia disease. Schizophrenic patients performed significantly worse than normal subjects on Tower 3 and Tower 4. However, they performed at least as well relatively on Tower 4 as on Tower 3, indicating that level of difficulty per se does not account for their poor performance on these tasks. Moreover, they eventually attained perfect or near-perfect performance after four days of repeated administration. Their relatively stronger performance on Tower 4 may have reflected an ability to acquire a procedure and, as such, suggests greater preservation of basal ganglia function than of prefrontal function. PMID:2136071

  13. Enhanced calcium responses to serotonin receptor stimulation in T-lymphocytes from schizophrenic patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Genius, J; Schellenberg, A; Tchana-Duope, L; Hartmann, N; Giegling, I; Hartmann, A; Benninghoff, J; Rujescu, D

    2015-03-01

    Even if more extensively investigated in affective disorders, the serotonergic system is likely to be also implicated in modulating the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, where it closely interacts with the dopaminergic and glutamatergic system. To substantiate this notion, we studied the intensity and dynamics of cellular Ca(2+) responses to serotonin (5-hydoxytryptamine, 5-HT) in peripheral lymphocytes taken from currently non-psychotic schizophrenic patients. To this aim, peripheral lymphocytes were freshly obtained from healthy controls and a naturalistic collective of patients with schizophrenia in remission. Intracellular Ca(2+) responses were recorded in real-time by ratiometric fluorometry after 5-HT or phythaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, which served as an internal reference for Ca(2+) responsivity to non-specific stimulation. The intracellular Ca(2+) peak early after applying the 5-HT trigger was significantly elevated in schizophrenic patients. No significant differences of Ca(2+) peak levels were seen in response to stimulation with the mitogenic agent PHA, although responses to 5-HT and PHA were positively correlated in individual patients or controls. In conclusion, the serotonergic response patterns in peripheral lymphocytes from schizophrenic patients seem to be elevated, if employing sensitive tools like determination of intracellular Ca(2+) responses. Our observations suggest that the participation of serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia may deserve more interest, even if it should only act as a modulator on the main pathology in the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. We hope that this pilot study will prompt further studies with larger patient collectives to revisit this question. PMID:25576705

  14. [Comparison of 2 depression scales and their relationship with negative and akinetic symptoms in stabilized schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Langlois-Thery, S; Dollfus, S; Lesieur, P; Petit, M

    1994-01-01

    Since the Bleuler's early writings, studies in schizophrenia have often shown a frequent occurrence of depression in the context of schizophrenia and also its implications for the morbidity and mortality of schizophrenic patients. The wide variability in the prevalence of depression (between 7 to 70% in post-psychotic period) is due in part to the difficulty in clearly separating depressive symptoms from akinesia induced by neuroleptic or negative symptoms and to the lack of a valid assessment of depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Under these conditions, a better understanding of depressive symptomatology in schizophrenia seems to be necessary to go further in this area of research with clinical and therapeutical purposes. The "Echelle de Ralentissement Dépressif" (ERD, Widlöcher, 1983) was studied in a sample of 53 schizophrenic patients to determinate whether ERD composed of three subscores (motor, ideic and subjective) could be able to evaluate the subjective depressive symptomatology and whether its measure would be independent of negative symptoms or akinesia. Pearson's correlations and correlations with variables partialled out were used to compare ERD to Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS, 1979) and to establish their relationship with Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS< Kay, 1987) and an Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS, Chouinard & Ross-Chouinard, 1980). Fifty three in or outpatients (35 males and 18 females, mean age +/- standard deviation = 38.26 +/- 9.82) were evaluated in a stable condition (i.e., when the psychotic symptomatology and the neuroleptic treatment have been stabilized since 4 weeks). According to DESM III-R criteria, 49 patients met the diagnosis of schizophrenia (2 schizoaffective disorders and 2 schizophreniform disorders).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7828511

  15. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E. National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC )

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia.

  16. [The Osnabruck Work Capabilities Profile (O-AFP) for persons with psychiatric illness: concept, development, and testing in schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Wiedl, K H; Uhlhorn, S; Jöns, K

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this paper is presentation of an inventory for the assessment of basic capabilities underlying work and occupational behaviour of psychiatric patients in the course of their treatment and rehabilitation. The "Osnabruck Work Capabilities Profile" (O-AFP) is an instrument filled in by staff, which consists of three scales comprising ten items each, measuring "Learning Ability", "Social Communication Ability" and "Adaptation". In the study presented, these scales were confirmed by factor analyses of data from 194 schizophrenic patients. Test analyses yielded good item and scale characteristics. The only exception to this are elevated item difficulty scores of the third scale (adaptation). This was attributed to specific effects of selecting the sample of patients. Furthermore, low or insignificant correlations with the patients' symptom scores indicate the discriminant validity of the scales. It is concluded that the O-AFP is well suited for application with different forms of occupational therapy. PMID:15565538

  17. Bioequivalence of Generic and Brand Name Clozapine in Korean Schizophrenic Patients: A Randomized, Two-Period, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Hun; Seo, Jeong Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clozapine is the treatment of choice for refractory schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the brand name (Clozaril) formulation and a generic formulation (Clzapine) of clozapine in Korean schizophrenic patients. Methods A prospective, randomized, crossover study was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetic profiles of Clozaril and Clzapine. Schizophrenic patients were randomized to receive either the brand name or generic formulation (100 mg twice daily) for 10 days, followed by the other formulation for 10 days. Plasma samples were collected on the last day of each treatment period. Results Twenty-two of 28 patients (78.6%) completed the study. The mean Cmax,ss values for Clzapine and Clozaril were 524.62 and 551.18 ng/mL, and the mean AUC0-12 values were 4479.90 hr·ng/mL and 4724.56 hr·ng/mL, respectively. The 90% CI values for the natural logarithmically transformed Cmax,ss and AUC0-12 ratios (Clzapine to Clozaril) after a single oral dose (100 mg) were 0.934 (0.849-1.028) and 0.936 (0.869-1.008), respectively. Five patients (20.8%) among 24 patients who took Clzapine reported 11 adverse events and six adverse events were reported by four patients (15.4%) among 26 who took Clozaril; there were no significant differences on physical examination or in vital signs, ECG, and laboratory tests between groups. Conclusion Generic clozapine (Clzapine) appears to be bioequivalent to brand name clozapine (Clozaril). PMID:26207129

  18. Relational Control Patterns in Families of Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarrick, Anne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined patterning of relational control in families of schizophrenic patients, and relationship between control in the family and the course of the illness. Transcripts of conversations among 17 schizophrenic outpatients and their families were coded into Relational Control Coding System. Found rigid, one-up messages from family members to…

  19. Brain functional connectivity during the experience of thought blocks in schizophrenic patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Elias; Koutsoukos, Elias; Maillis, Antonis; Papadimitriou, George N; Stefanis, Costas

    2014-03-01

    Thought blocks (TBs) are characterized by regular interruptions in the stream of thought. Outward signs are abrupt and repeated interruptions in the flow of conversation or actions while subjective experience is that of a total and uncontrollable emptying of the mind. In the very limited bibliography regarding TB, the phenomenon is thought to be conceptualized as a disturbance of consciousness that can be attributed to stoppages of continuous information processing due to an increase in the volume of information to be processed. In an attempt to investigate potential expression of the phenomenon on the functional properties of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, an EEG study was contacted in schizophrenic patients with persisting auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) who additionally exhibited TBs. In this case, we hypothesized that the persistent and dense AVHs could serve the role of an increased information flow that the brain is unable to process, a condition that is perceived by the person as TB. Phase synchronization analyses performed on EEG segments during the experience of TBs showed that synchrony values exhibited a long-range common mode of coupling (grouped behavior) among the left temporal area and the remaining central and frontal brain areas. These common synchrony-fluctuation schemes were observed for 0.5 to 2s and were detected in a 4-s window following the estimated initiation of the phenomenon. The observation was frequency specific and detected in the broad alpha band region (6-12Hz). The introduction of synchrony entropy (SE) analysis applied on the cumulative synchrony distribution showed that TB states were characterized by an explicit preference of the system to be functioned at low values of synchrony, while the synchrony values are broadly distributed during the recovery state. Our results indicate that during TB states, the phase locking of several brain areas were converged uniformly in a narrow band of low synchrony values and in a

  20. Pleckstrin homology domain containing 6 protein (PLEKHA6) polymorphisms are associated with psychopathology and response to treatment in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Spellmann, Ilja; Rujescu, Dan; Musil, Richard; Meyerwas, Sebastian; Giegling, Ina; Genius, Just; Zill, Peter; Dehning, Sandra; Cerovecki, Anja; Seemüller, Florian; Schennach, Rebecca; Hartmann, Annette M; Schäfer, Martin; Müller, Norbert; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Riedel, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Pleckstrin homology domain (PH domain) comprises approximately 120 amino acids and is integrated in a wide range of proteins involved in intracellular signaling or as constituents of the cytoskeleton. This domain can bind phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-biphosphate and proteins such as the βγ-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and protein kinase C. Associations with psychiatric diseases have not been investigated yet. To identify genes involved in response to antipsychotics, mice were treated with haloperidol (1mg/kg, n = 11) or saline (n = 12) for one week. By analyzing microarray data, we observed an increase of pleckstrin homology domain containing 6 (PLEKHA6) gene expression. Furthermore, we genotyped 263 schizophrenic patients, who were treated monotherapeutically with different antipsychotics within randomized-controlled trials. Psychopathology was measured weekly using the PANSS for a minimum of four and a maximum of twelve weeks. Correlations between PANSS subscale scores at baseline and PANSS improvement scores after four weeks of treatment and genotypes were calculated by using a linear model for all investigated SNPs. We found associations between four PLEKHA6 polymorphisms (rs17333933 (T/G), rs3126209 (C/T), rs4951338 (A/G) and rs100900571 (T/C)) and different PANSS subscales at baseline. Furthermore two different polymorphisms (rs7513240 (T/C), rs4951353 (A/G)) were found to be associated with therapy response in terms of a significant correlation with different PANSS improvement subscores after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Our observation of an association between genetic polymorphisms of a protein of the PH domain and psychopathology data in schizophrenic patients might be indicative for an involvement of PLEKHA6 in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the therapy response towards antipsychotics. PMID:24576533

  1. [Organization of the mental lexicon in 12 schizophrenic subjects].

    PubMed

    Bensaid, A; Hardy-Bayle, M C; Segui, J; Hardy, P; Widlocher, D

    1989-01-01

    Using different tasks to test the organization of the mental lexicon in schizophrenics patients we tried to confirm the non organization of their mental lexicon as underlied by different authors and to show a wrong exploitation of their semantic competences. Our findings pointed out the difficulties of the evaluated lexical competences exploitation rather than the disturbances of these competences themselves. PMID:2485620

  2. The face and its emotion: right N170 deficits in structural processing and early emotional discrimination in schizophrenic patients and relatives.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Riveros, Rodrigo; Hurtado, Esteban; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Urquina, Hugo; Herrera, Eduar; Amoruso, Lucía; Reyes, Migdyrai Martin; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-30

    Previous studies have reported facial emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenic patients, as well as abnormalities in the N170 component of the event-related potential. Current research on schizophrenia highlights the importance of complexly-inherited brain-based deficits. In order to examine the N170 markers of face structural and emotional processing, DSM-IV diagnosed schizophrenia probands (n=13), unaffected first-degree relatives from multiplex families (n=13), and control subjects (n=13) matched by age, gender and educational level, performed a categorization task which involved words and faces with positive and negative valence. The N170 component, while present in relatives and control subjects, was reduced in patients, not only for faces, but also for face-word differences, suggesting a deficit in structural processing of stimuli. Control subjects showed N170 modulation according to the valence of facial stimuli. However, this discrimination effect was found to be reduced both in patients and relatives. This is the first report showing N170 valence deficits in relatives. Our results suggest a generalized deficit affecting the structural encoding of faces in patients, as well as the emotion discrimination both in patients and relatives. Finally, these findings lend support to the notion that cortical markers of facial discrimination can be validly considered as vulnerability markers. PMID:21824666

  3. Measures of anhedonia and hedonic responses to sucrose in depressive and schizophrenic patients in comparison with healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Berlin, I; Givry-Steiner, L; Lecrubier, Y; Puech, A J

    1998-09-01

    Anhedonia may be considered as a transnosological feature of depression and schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to assess hedonic responses to sucrose solutions and sweet taste perception threshold in patients with major depression and in schizophrenic patients in comparison with healthy subjects (matched for age and gender with depressive patients), and to compare these responses to evaluations by the Physical and Social Anhedonia scale of Chapman and the Pleasure Scale of Fawcett, generally used to quantify anhedonia. Hedonic responses to sucrose solutions were similar in patients with major depression (n = 20), schizophrenia (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20). Sweet taste perception threshold was significantly higher in depressive patients than in controls. Hedonic response to sucrose was inversely correlated with physical Anhedonia Scores and sweet taste perception threshold with Pleasure Scale scores. Measures of hedonia/anhedonia were not related with the intensity of depression or anxiety as measured by the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Hamilton Anxiety Scale, respectively. In 11 depressed patients hospitalised for 17 to 33 days, neither hedonic ratings to sucrose solutions, sweet taste perception threshold, Physical, Social Anhedonia scores nor Pleasure Scale scores were modified in spite of substantial decrease in MADRS or Hamilton Anxiety scores. Hedonic responses to sucrose solutions and sweet taste perception threshold may be used as complementary evaluation to quantify anhedonia. PMID:19698645

  4. Typical and atypical antipsychotic medications differentially affect two nondeclarative memory tasks in schizophrenic patients: a double dissociation.

    PubMed

    Beninger, Richard J; Wasserman, James; Zanibbi, Katherine; Charbonneau, Danielle; Mangels, Jennifer; Beninger, Bruce V

    2003-06-01

    Nondeclarative memory (NDM) has subtypes associated with different brain regions; learning of a probabilistic classification task is impaired by striatal damage and learning of a gambling task is impaired by ventromedial prefrontocortical damage. Typical and atypical antipsychotic medications differentially affect immediate early gene expression in the striatum and frontal cortex in normal rats. This suggested the hypothesis that schizophrenic patients treated with typical antipsychotics will have impaired probabilistic classification learning (PCL) and that similar patients treated with atypical antipsychotics will have impaired learning of the gambling task. Groups of schizophrenia patients treated with typical or atypical antipsychotics did not differ from each other on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) or a number of indexes of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) but performed worse than normal controls on these instruments. In the first study, patients treated with typicals (n=20) but not atypicals (n=20) or normal controls (n=32) were impaired in probabilistic classification. In the second study, those treated with atypicals (n=18) but not typicals (n=18) or normal controls (n=18) were impaired in the gambling task. Results suggest that typical and atypical antipsychotics differentially affect nondeclarative memory mediated by different brain regions. PMID:12729880

  5. [Smoking habits in chronic schizophrenics].

    PubMed

    Fukui, K; Kobayashi, T; Hayakawa, S; Koga, E; Okazaki, S; Kawashima, Y; Kawakami, F; Fukui, Y; Tani, N; Kato, A

    1995-12-01

    The smoking habits of 48 chronic schizophrenics who were inpatients of private psychiatric were examined. Subjects were divided into three groups; non-smokers, moderate smokers and heavy smokers, and tested by Fagerstrom's Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ) as a tobacco dependence evaluation, and Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) and Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) as a neuropsychological battery. In addition, we used the Scales for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) to evaluate the degree of schizophrenic negative symptoms, confirming the correlation between SANS score and the amount of nicotine intake or FTQ item. From the results of FTQ scores and their correlation with SANS scores, the amount of nicotine intake was significantly related to the severity of schizophrenic negative symptoms including affective blunting, poverty of thinking and attention impairment. BGT and BVRT showed disturbances in visual-motor gestalt function, and attention and memory, in chronic schizophrenics who smoked, especially in heavy smokers. These results suggest that smoking behavior in chronic schizophrenics might increase the individual vigilance against negative symptoms, from the perspective of self-medication. PMID:8588752

  6. Correlation between neuropsychological and social cognition measures and symptom dimensions in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Altamura, A Carlo; Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Grillo, Paolo; Prunas, Cecilia; Caldiroli, Alice; Zago, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits have been largely reported in Schizophrenia (SKZ) but their association with psychopathology remains uncertain. Our purpose was to explore the relationship between symptom dimensions and neuropsychological performances. We enrolled 35 stabilized schizophrenic outpatients of the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, who completed psychiatric Rating Scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB). Disorganized dimension seems to have the most significant impact on cognition, being associated with performance in several BACS subtests (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, symbol coding, Tower of London) and ESCB tasks (MET and Hotel task number of tasks attempted, number of broken MET rules, sum of deviations in Hotel Task). Positive dimension correlated with performance in verbal fluency, negative dimension with IOWA Test results, cognitive dimension with MET number of inefficiencies and Eyes test score. Impulsive-aggressive and depressive dimensions weakly correlated only with Faux Pas test. Our study supports the existence of a specific disorganized dimension in SKZ, separated from cognitive dimension evaluated through clinical instruments (e.g. PANSS), but capable of influencing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it strengthens the validity of ecological tasks in evaluating cognition in SKZ. PMID:26350702

  7. [Disease models and change in attitude of involuntarily admitted schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, J; Ulmar, G; Starzinski, T

    1995-12-01

    The attitude to illness and therapy of 28 involuntary and 31 voluntary patients admitted to a state psychiatric hospital was investigated by means of a questionnaire at the time of admission and prior to discharge. Involuntary patients have less illness consciousness, and only 17.9% of them but 67.7% of the voluntary patients show insight into their illness; they favour a medical-somatic model of illness and express less positive therapy expectations. Their whole attitude proves to be dysfunctional concerning compliance with medical treatment. Attitudes of involuntary patients changed during the hospital stay and became similar to those of voluntary patients, which hardly changed. This attitudinal change extended to illness consciousness, insight into illness and therapy expectations, whereas models of illness were found to be very stable. One third of the involuntary patients stayed in hospital voluntarily for further treatment. It is discussed that patients attitudes to illness and therapy should be taken more often into consideration and integrated into the planning of therapy. PMID:8586351

  8. Subjective experiences of stigma. A focus group study of schizophrenic patients, their relatives and mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Beate; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2003-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been found to be one of the most stigmatising conditions. To the present, most research on stigma related to mental illness has drawn conclusions on the adverse reactions faced by people with schizophrenia from studies on public attitudes or analogue behavioural studies. The views of those exposed to the stigmatising reactions, however, has largely been absent. Aiming to explore stigma from the subjective perspective of people with schizophrenia, a focus group study was carried out at the four centres involved in the WPA Global Programme against Stigma and Discrimination because of Schizophrenia in Germany. In order to get a comprehensive picture of how stigma affects the lives of schizophrenic patients, collateral information was sought from relatives and mental health professionals. The focus groups enquired about concrete stigmatisation experiences of the patients and incidences of stigma witnessed by the other two groups. Focus group sessions were tape-recorded and transcripts were coded using an inductive method. Results reveal four dimensions of stigma: interpersonal interaction, structural discrimination, public images of mental illness and access to social roles. Examples are given for the views of patients, relatives and mental health professionals on each of the four stigma types. The consequences for conceptualisations of stigma and the development of effective strategies to reduce stigma and discrimination because of schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:12473315

  9. Association study of T102C 5-HT2A polymorphism in schizophrenic patients: diagnosis, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Humberto; De Marco, Luiz; Boson, Wolfanga; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antó L.; Campo, Valdir R.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between the serotonin (5-HT)2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. We studied 129 subjects who met the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia according to a structured clinicai interview (MINI-PLUS), Patients underwent a semistructured interview to assess suicide attempt history and its characteristics, in addition, at least one close relative of the patient was interviewed to assess prohand and family suicidal behavior. Healthy controls were students and hospital staff members free of psychiatric and medical illness. Genotypes were determined after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the region of 5-HT2A/T102C containing the polymorphic site and digestion with the restriction enzyme Hpall, We found no association between suicidal attempt history and suicide attempt characteristics and genotypic or aileie frequencies. Suicidal behavior was also not associated with demographic or psychopathological characteristics. These results suggest that the S-HT2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) is not involved in genetic susceptibility to suicidal behavior, but further studies in a larger sample are needed. PMID:17506229

  10. D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. A positron emission tomography study with (11C)raclopride

    SciTech Connect

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Stone-Elander, S.; Halldin, C.; Nordstroem, A.L.H.; Hall, H.; Sedvall, G. )

    1990-03-01

    Several groups have reported increased densities of D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of schizophrenic brains postmortem. The significance of this finding has been questioned, since an upregulation of receptor number may be a neuronal response to neuroleptic drug treatment. We have used positron emission tomography and ({sup 11}C)raclopride to examine central D2 dopamine receptor binding in 20 healthy subjects and 18 newly admitted, young, neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia. An in vivo saturation procedure was applied for quantitative determination of D2 dopamine receptor density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd). When the two groups were compared, no significant difference in Bmax or Kd values was found in the putamen or the caudate nucleus. The hypothesis of generally elevated central D2 dopamine receptor densities in schizophrenia was thus not supported by the present findings. In the patients but not in the healthy controls, significantly higher densities were found in the left than in the right putamen but not in the caudate nucleus.

  11. Increased co-expression of genes harboring the damaging de novo mutations in Chinese schizophrenic patients during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Miaoxin; Yang, Zhenxing; Hu, Xun; Wu, Hei-Man; Ni, Peiyan; Ren, Hongyan; Deng, Wei; Li, Mingli; Ma, Xiaohong; Guo, Wanjun; Zhao, Liansheng; Wang, Yingcheng; Xiang, Bo; Lei, Wei; Sham, Pak C; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heritable, heterogeneous common psychiatric disorder. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that de novo variants (DNVs) contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We performed exome sequencing in Chinese patients (N = 45) with schizophrenia and their unaffected parents (N = 90). Forty genes were found to contain DNVs. These genes had enriched transcriptional co-expression profile in prenatal frontal cortex (Bonferroni corrected p < 9.1 × 10−3), and in prenatal temporal and parietal regions (Bonferroni corrected p < 0.03). Also, four prenatal anatomical subregions (VCF, MFC, OFC and ITC) have shown significant enrichment of connectedness in co-expression networks. Moreover, four genes (LRP1, MACF1, DICER1 and ABCA2) harboring the damaging de novo mutations are strongly prioritized as susceptibility genes by multiple evidences. Our findings in Chinese schizophrenic patients indicate the pathogenic role of DNVs, supporting the hypothesis that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disease. PMID:26666178

  12. On Ho's "Modern Logic and Schizophrenic Thinking"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, James L.

    1976-01-01

    Points out that conclusions drawn in the title paper about the role of logic in the schizophrenic thought process are not reliable since they are based on patients medicated with antipsychotic drugs. (MS)

  13. Determination of Drugs in Plasma Samples by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Pinto, Mônia Aparecida Lemos; de Souza, Israel Donizeti; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecilio; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development of a simple, sensitive and selective method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to determine antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, clozapine, haloperidol and chlorpromazine) along with antidepressants (mirtazapine, paroxetine, citalopram, sertraline, imipramine, clomipramine and fluoxetine), anticonvulsants (carbamazepine and lamotrigine) and anxiolytics (diazepam and clonazepam) in plasma samples obtained from schizophrenic patients. The samples were prepared by protein precipitation. The target drugs were separated on an XSelect SCH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm × 2.5 µm) within 8.0 min by means of gradient elution. The drugs were then detected on a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source, operating in the multiple reactions monitoring mode and in the positive ionization mode. The LC-MS-MS method was linear range from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations with lower limit of quantification values ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng mL(-1), precision with coefficient of variation values lower than 12%, and accuracy ranged from 90 to 108%. The developed method enabled successful analysis of the target drugs in plasma samples obtained from 51 schizophrenic patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring revealed that many of the evaluated schizophrenic patients presented altered plasma concentrations of the analyzed drugs. These altered concentrations resulted from pharmacokinetic interactions among the medications prescribed to treat schizophrenia. PMID:26333987

  14. Schizotypy and personality profiles of Cluster A in a group of schizophrenic patients and their siblings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizotypy, or the set of personality traits related to schizophrenia, is considered an endophenotypic manifestation that is more represented in first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia than in the general population. The assessment of schizotypy is primarily based on self-reports, and for this reason it presents several limitations. In order to assess schizotypy, this study proposes a diagnostic instrument based on clinical reports. Methods A sample of 66 subjects, composed of 25 outpatients with schizophrenia, 18 siblings of these patients and 23 healthy controls, was subjected to the personality assessment test SWAP-200 by trained clinical interviewers. To test the hypothesis of the difference between the profiles of the Personality Disorders within the schizophrenia spectrum, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance and subsequent planned comparisons were conducted. Results Patients with schizophrenia scored higher than both their siblings and the controls on all SWAP-200 scales; their siblings, compared to the healthy controls, showed significant statistical differences, with higher mean scores for paranoid (F(1,63) = 7.02; p = 0.01), schizoid (F(1,63) = 6.56; p = 0.013) and schizotypal (F(1,63) = 6.47; p = 0.013) traits (PD T scores of Cluster A and Q-factor scores for the schizoid scale [F(1,63) = 6.47; p = 0.013]). Conclusions Consistent with previous data, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia scored higher on schizophrenia-related personality traits than a general population comparison sample. SWAP-200, as an alternative diagnostic instrument to self-report measures, is able to reveal the higher prevalence of schizotypal traits in siblings of patients with schizophrenia, suggesting its possible use as a complementary instrument for the assessment of schizophrenia. PMID:24094118

  15. Analysis of clozapine response and polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) in schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, S.; Collier, D.A.; Sham, P.

    1995-12-18

    We have examined the hypothesis that a variable number of tandem repeats in the third cytoplasmic loop of the dopamine D4 receptor influences clinical response to clozapine using a sample of 189 schizophrenic patients. Alleles of the 48-bp repeat, which range from two to ten copies in the normal human population, were analysed by the polymerase chain reaction using genomic DNA as template. Association between these alleles and response to clozapine was tested using the difference in pre- and post-treatment GAS scores as a measure of response. We found no statistically significant variation between genotypic groups and response by analysis of variance. We conclude that the variation of the number of 48-bp repeats alone does not determine response to clozapine. Larger studies are underway to determine if there is a more subtle relationship with sequence variation within the repeats or at other polymorphic sites within the gene that may provide evidence for a component of clozapine`s action being at D4 receptors. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. Sex education and rehabilitation with schizophrenic male outpatients.

    PubMed

    Lukoff, D; Gioia-Hasick, D; Sullivan, G; Golden, J S; Nuechterlein, K H

    1986-01-01

    Research indicates that schizophrenic patients lack intimate relationships and show a high rate of sexual dysfunction. Despite increasing awareness of the rights of handicapped persons to sexual expression, the treatment of schizophrenic patients rarely addresses their sexuality. A sex education program for recent-onset male schizophrenic patients attending an outpatient clinic was developed in response to several incidents involving patients' inappropriate sexual behaviors. To enhance our understanding of the current sexual functioning and needs of these patients, sex histories were taken. Almost all of the 16 patients interviewed were sexually active, with autoerotic activity predominating. Sixty-three percent of the patients reported orgasmic and/or erectile dysfunctions. Other studies have linked sexual dysfunction to the side effects of antipsychotic medications. The objectives of the sex education program were: to provide information; to clarify values; to overcome sexual dysfunction; and to enhance intimacy skills. The authors used role playing, modeling, group exercises, and explicit sex therapy audiovisual material to improve patients' intimacy skills. Patients participated actively and used the group to explore sexual issues. No exacerbations of symptoms were observed among patients participating in the program. PMID:3027886

  17. Observational postmarketing study on efficacy and safety of novel generic risperidone risset(r) in patients with acute or chronic schizophrenic or other related psychosis.

    PubMed

    Kucukalić, Abdulah; Srkalović, Azijada Pasicek; Oremus, Marijana; Rustempasić, Edhem

    2004-06-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness and safety of risperidone (Risset(R) - PLIVA) in patients with acute or chronic schizophrenic or other related psychosis. Study was designed as postmarketing, 4-week, open-label, flexible-dose observational study. Subjects and Methods. 30 patients, both genders, aged 18-70 years, with diagnosed various types of schizophrenic psychosis were enrolled in the study as outpatient and inpatient setting. The patients had to have a total score >/=40 on Positive and Negative scale - two parts of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and to be able to discontinue current antipsychotic and antiparkinsonian medications. The primary efficacy parameter was the percent of score difference between baseline and week 4 of therapy on two above-mentioned PANSS subscales. The difference was considered as significant improvement if decrease from the baseline was 20% or more. The safety of risperidone was evaluated on the basis of reported adverse events. Results. All 30 enrolled patients completed the study. After the 4 weeks of treatment, 23/30 patients (76.67%) had clinically significant improvement of 20% or more decreased total PANSS score (Positive and Negative subscale). In 4/30 patients (13.33%) clinical improvement was also reported with <20% decreased total PANSS score. No serious adverse event was observed. Conclusions. Overall, collected data indicate that in this specific population (70% patients were resistant to previous anti-psychotic therapy), Risset(R) has shown very good effectiveness and safety. PMID:19114946

  18. Schizophrenic thought disorder. A psychological and organic interpretation.

    PubMed

    Cutting, J; Murphy, D

    1988-03-01

    It is suggested that schizophrenic thought disorder comprises four relatively independent components: delusion; intrinsic thinking disturbance; formal thought disorder; and deficient real-world knowledge--a new concept. Schizophrenic and neurotic control subjects were given tests of thinking, perception, appreciation of conversational discourse, and social and practical knowledge. Not all deluded schizophrenics had intrinsic thinking disturbance. Those that did tended to have overinclusive categorisation as the most apparent deficit. Formal thought disorder was associated with a poor performance on the test of conversational discourse. The most striking result was that 75% of schizophrenic patients were markedly deficient, relative to neurotic patients, on their knowledge of everyday social issues. PMID:3167363

  19. Common Variants in MAGI2 Gene Are Associated with Increased Risk for Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Takayoshi; Banno, Masahiro; Aleksic, Branko; Yamashita, Saori; Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Adachi, Yasunori; Kawano, Naoko; Kushima, Itaru; Nakamura, Yukako; Okada, Takashi; Ikeda, Masashi; Ohi, Kazutaka; Yasuda, Yuka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Inada, Toshiya; Ujike, Hiroshi; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Michio; Takeda, Masatoshi; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive impairment. MAGI2, a relatively large gene (∼1.5 Mbps) that maps to chromosome 7q21, is involved in recruitment of neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. A genetic association study designed to evaluate the association between MAGI2 and cognitive performance or schizophrenia has not been conducted. In this case-control study, we examined the relationship of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variations in MAGI2 and risk for schizophrenia in a large Japanese sample and explored the potential relationships between variations in MAGI2 and aspects of human cognitive function related to glutamate activity. Based on the result of first schizophrenia genome-wide association study in a Japanese population (JGWAS), we selected four independent SNPs and performed an association study using a large independent Japanese sample set (cases 1624, controls 1621). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was used to evaluate executive function in 114 cases and 91 controls. We found suggestive evidence for genetic association of common SNPs within MAGI2 locus and schizophrenia in Japanese population. Furthermore in terms of association between MAGI2 and cognitive performance, we observed that genotype effect of rs2190665 on WCST score was significant (p = 0.034) and rs4729938 trended toward significance (p = 0.08). In conclusion, although we could not detect strong genetic evidence for association of common variants in MAGI2 and increased schizophrenia risk in a Japanese population, these SNPs may increase risk of cognitive impairment in schizophrenic patients. PMID:22649501

  20. [Survived stab to the heart in a schizophrenic man].

    PubMed

    Fieseler, Sybille; Zinka, Bettina; Kunz, Sebastian N

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a significant risk of suicide. According to recent research, 10-15 % of all schizophrenic patients die by suicide. It is not uncommon that the victims show sharp force injuries, so that the forensic pathologist first has to differentiate between self-infliction and involvement of another person. The authors' case report presents a 68-year-old schizophrenic patient who committed suicide by jumping out of a window of his apartment located on the second floor after inflicting multiple stab wounds to his thoracic region. At autopsy, an older stab wound to the apex of the heart was detected. In the criminal investigation, a suicide attempt made 13 days before could be ascertained. As the patient did not want to be taken to a hospital at that time, the injury had never been examined or documented. Since there was no evidence suggesting homicide, the older stab to the heart was interpreted as a tentative injury. PMID:22039699

  1. The Neurobehavioural Evaluation in Schizophrenics: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ilamkar, Kamini Ramdas

    2013-01-01

    Background: The simple reaction time task assesses the ability of the subject to respond to an external cue and to retrieve a reward. The reaction time provides an indirect index of the processing capability of the central nervous system and a simple means to the determined sensory and the motor performances, which is a neurobehavioural evaluation. A general slowness in the latency in the reaction time tasks and a disengagement deficit in the visual and the hearing oriented tasks were seen in schizophrenics. Aims: In order to clarify the feature of the attention disorders in schizophrenia, a simple reaction time task was given to schizophrenics. Methods and Materials: Schizophrenics (34 males and 20 females, n=54) and healthy controls (40 males and 21 females, n=61) with a mean age of 35±7, who were individually matched for gender and age, were included in the study, by using a response analyser to evaluate the reaction time. Statistical analysis: The performances were expressed in mean ± standard deviation of the reaction time by using the unpaired ‘t’ test. Results and Conclusions: The schizophrenic patients performed poorer than the healthy controls, which indicated a difficulty in sustaining attention and this was statistically very highly significant (p<0.000). The results suggested that the schizophrenics showed inattentiveness in the clinical settings and an emotional disturbance in interpersonal situations. The increased reaction time as compared to that in healthy controls, might be due to the impairment of the psychomotor poverty, disorganization and reality distortion which were associated with the deficits in the cortical neurological functions, such as planning, coordination and sequencing of the motor acts, which showed a greater involvement of the frontal lobe and temporal lobe dysfunction. PMID:23449931

  2. Neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenic patients treated by clozapine: clinical evolution, plasma and red blood cell clozapine and desmethylclozapine levels.

    PubMed

    Aymard, N; Baldacci, C; Leyris, A; Smagghe, P O; Tribolet, S; Vacheron, M N; Viala, A; Caroli, F

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this open study was to determine a more rational therapeutic approach for psychotic patients treated with clozapine for several months, using measurement of plasma and red blood cell levels (P, RBC) of clozapine (cloza) and N-desmethylclozapine (descloza), the major metabolite of clozapine, which has been reported to be less active but more toxic (agranulocytosis) than clozapine itself. The RBC concentration may be considered as more representative of the free fraction drug. The study concerned 7 patients suffering from chronic paranoid schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria. All of them were treatment-refractory schizophrenic inpatients (4 men, 3 women, mean age +/- SD: 38.2 +/- 8.4 years; mean duration of illness +/- SD: 14.4 +/- 5.1 years). They had received at least two different neuroleptics, for 6 weeks, before entering the study. Treatment started in our hospitalization unit with clozapine 25 mg up to a maximum of 900 mg/d (mean stabilized daily dose +/- SD: 507 +/- 211 mg and mean daily dose per kg: 6.91 +/- 3.08 mg). Clinical evaluations (Quality of Life Scale: QLS), regular blood monitoring and biological samples were conducted at the same time, weekly for 18 weeks and then monthly (duration of the study: 4 to 38 months; mean +/- SD: 12.9 +/- 11.5 months). Plasma and RBC (after lysis) levels were determined by reversed phase HPLC and UV detection after extraction with hexane. All the patients improved very quickly after the first week of treatment and six were able to leave the hospitalization unit and start outpatient care such as daily hospitalization, returning home or in sheltered accommodation. With the following plasma (P) and RBC levels: mean cloza +/- SD: (P = 294 +/- 146 ng/ml; RBC = 110 +/- 82 ng/ml) and mean descloza +/- SD: (P = 173 +/- 106 ng/ml; RBC = 76 +/- 54 ng/ml); none of the seven patients developed agranulocytosis. The blood levels, ensuring better surveillance, have a predictive value for clinical improvement. A

  3. Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenic Patients: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    García, Saínza; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; López-Zurbano, Saioa; Zorrilla, Iñaki; López, Purificación; Vieta, Eduard; González-Pinto, Ana

    2016-08-01

    Antipsychotics are the drugs prescribed to treat psychotic disorders; however, patients often fail to adhere to their treatment, and this has a severe negative effect on prognosis in these kinds of illnesses. Among the wide range of risk factors for treatment nonadherence, this systematic review covers those that are most important from the point of view of clinicians and patients and proposes guidelines for addressing them. Analyzing 38 studies conducted in a total of 51,796 patients, including patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder, we found that younger age, substance abuse, poor insight, cognitive impairments, low level of education, minority ethnicity, poor therapeutic alliance, experience of barriers to care, high intensity of delusional symptoms and suspiciousness, and low socioeconomic status are the main risk factors for medication nonadherence in both types of disorder. In the future, prospective studies should be conducted on the use of personalized patient-tailored treatments, taking into account risk factors that may affect each individual, to assess the ability of such approaches to improve adherence and hence prognosis in these patients. PMID:27307187

  4. Effects of cabergoline on hyperprolactinemia, psychopathology, and sexual functioning in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Kalkavoura, Christina S; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Arvanitakis, Periklis; Theodoropoulou, Pitsa; Dimopoulou, Konstantina; Tzebelikos, Errikos; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2013-08-01

    Antipsychotic medications are associated to different degrees with sexual dysfunction mainly through their potential to induce hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin (PRL) secretion is mainly regulated by the hypothalamic dopaminergic systems. We conducted this 6-month, parallel-group study to prospectively investigate the effects of the dopamine agonist cabergoline on sexual dysfunction in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV, AP 194) and hyperprolactinemia (PRL > 20 ng/ml for men and PRL > 25 ng/ml for women). In total 80 patients were enrolled; 33 were receiving risperidone, 17 haloperidol, 11 amisulpride, and 8 risperidone microspheres long acting. Based on PRL levels (< 50, 50-99, or > 100 ng/ml), patients were assigned in 3 cabergoline doses (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/day in 38, 23, and 19 patients, respectively). The psychopathology was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrom Scale (PANSS), and sexual dysfunction was evaluated using the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX). PRL levels were reduced in all patients, from 73.3 (± 46.8) to 42.0 (± 27.8) at Month 3 and 27.1 (± 20.4) at Month 6 (p < .001). ASEX scores declined from 19.1 (± 5.1) to 17.6 (± 5.5) at Month 3 and 15.0 (± 6.5) at Month 6 (p < .001). PANSS scores were reduced in the third and in the sixth month (p = .001 at 6 month vs. baseline). The decrease in PRL was not statistically different between groups. Our data suggest that cabergoline administration to clinically stable patients with schizophrenia may improve sexual functioning without adversely affecting their psychopathologic status, provided that the dose has been suited to the severity of the hyperprolactinemia. PMID:23834553

  5. Do Anorexics and Schizophrenics Look Alike on the MMPI?--A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verberne, Tom J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory data presented by Small, Madero, Gross, Teagno, Leib, and Ebert (1981) which shows distinct differences, consistent with the clinical diagnosis in the case of the schizophrenic patients, and is suggestive of an affective disorder in the anorexic patients. (Author/JAC)

  6. Acute dystonia in a young schizophrenic patient associated with ingestion of a cloperastine containing cough syrup.

    PubMed

    Linazasoro, G; Garmendia, M T; Lizaso, X

    2000-01-01

    Acute dystonic reactions are usually observed after exposure to drugs with antidopaminergic actions. We report on one patient with acute dystonia associated with ingestion of a cloperastine containing syrup, who suffered from schizophrenia but had been neuroleptic-free for 6months. Cloperastine has antihistaminic properties. We suggest that antihistaminic agents may induce acute dystonia by altering the balance between dopamine and acetylcholine in the striatum. PMID:18591150

  7. Trichotillomania with trichorhizophagia in a schizophrenic patient: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P N Suresh; Rajmohan, V

    2012-04-01

    Trichotillomania is a disorder characterized by chronic hair pulling that often results in alopecia. Eating the part of hair pulled out is a common practice and trichorhizophagia is a new term to denote the habit of eating the root of hairs pulled out, associated with trichotillomania. Many psychiatric disorders are prevalent among patients with trichotillomania. Here we report a case of trichotillomania with trichorhizophagia in a 58-year-old man with schizophrenia. The various treatment options are also discussed. PMID:22988332

  8. Trichotillomania with trichorhizophagia in a schizophrenic patient: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. N. Suresh; Rajmohan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a disorder characterized by chronic hair pulling that often results in alopecia. Eating the part of hair pulled out is a common practice and trichorhizophagia is a new term to denote the habit of eating the root of hairs pulled out, associated with trichotillomania. Many psychiatric disorders are prevalent among patients with trichotillomania. Here we report a case of trichotillomania with trichorhizophagia in a 58-year-old man with schizophrenia. The various treatment options are also discussed. PMID:22988332

  9. Negative Correlation between Serum S100B and Leptin Levels in Schizophrenic Patients During Treatment with Clozapine and Risperidone: Preliminary Evidence.

    PubMed

    Hendouei, Narjes; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Panahi, Amin; Khazaeipour, Zahra; Barari, Fatemeh; Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Ala, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extensive efforts have been made to understand the rate of energy expenditure and the weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment, including identification of markers of obesity risk. In recent years, leptin, an adipocyte hormone, has gained significant interest in psychiatric disorders. S100B has been considered as a surrogate marker for astrocyte-specific damage in neurologic disorders. Also, S100B has been detected in adipose with concentration as high as nervous tissue as a second release source. In this study we evaluated the relationship between S100B and leptin in schizophrenic patients under treatment with clozapine and risperidone.This study included 19 patients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, having body mass index (BMI) of 16- 25 kg/m(2) and suffering schizophrenia for more than 3 years and from this study. Twenty five healthy controls were group matched for age and gender whose BMI was 16-25 kg/m(2). Serum S100B and leptin levels and positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) were assessed at admission and after six weeks. During the study, S100B showed a strong and negative correlation with leptin (r = -0.5, P = 0.01). Also, there were negative correlation between serum S100B level and PANSS negative subscale after 6 weeks of treatment (r = -0.048, P = 0.8). Positive correlation between leptin level and PANSS suggested a potential role for leptin which can mediate the link between antipsychotic induced weight gain and therapeutic response in schizophrenia. PMID:27610173

  10. Negative Correlation between Serum S100B and Leptin Levels in Schizophrenic Patients During Treatment with Clozapine and Risperidone: Preliminary Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hendouei, Narjes; Hosseini, Seyed Hamzeh; Panahi, Amin; Khazaeipour, Zahra; Barari, Fatemeh; Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Ala, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Recently, extensive efforts have been made to understand the rate of energy expenditure and the weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic treatment, including identification of markers of obesity risk. In recent years, leptin, an adipocyte hormone, has gained significant interest in psychiatric disorders. S100B has been considered as a surrogate marker for astrocyte-specific damage in neurologic disorders. Also, S100B has been detected in adipose with concentration as high as nervous tissue as a second release source. In this study we evaluated the relationship between S100B and leptin in schizophrenic patients under treatment with clozapine and risperidone.This study included 19 patients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, having body mass index (BMI) of 16- 25 kg/m2 and suffering schizophrenia for more than 3 years and from this study. Twenty five healthy controls were group matched for age and gender whose BMI was 16-25 kg/m2. Serum S100B and leptin levels and positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) were assessed at admission and after six weeks. During the study, S100B showed a strong and negative correlation with leptin (r = -0.5, P = 0.01). Also, there were negative correlation between serum S100B level and PANSS negative subscale after 6 weeks of treatment (r = -0.048, P = 0.8). Positive correlation between leptin level and PANSS suggested a potential role for leptin which can mediate the link between antipsychotic induced weight gain and therapeutic response in schizophrenia. PMID:27610173

  11. Severe Burns and Amputation of Both Arms in the First Psychotic Episode of a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Cruzado, Lizardo; Villafane-Alva, Ronald; Caballero-Atencio, Katia; Cortez-Vergara, Carla; Núñez-Moscoso, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    An alleged reduction of sensitivity to pain in people with schizophrenia has been reported, but the nature of this complex phenomenon has not been elucidated yet. Reports of insensitivity to burns from people with schizophrenia are extremely rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old man who set both of his arms on fire during the first break of paranoid schizophrenia. As a result of severe tissue damage, both of his limbs had to be amputated. Today, at the age of 59, the patient is physically and mentally rehabilitated and is adherent to treatment. Additionally, given the uncertainty about the true nature of the alleged hypoalgesia in schizophrenia, we postulate the need for a comprehensive phenomenological approach in the study of embodiment in people with this condition. PMID:26417469

  12. Family burden of schizophrenic patients and the welfare system; the case of Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The shift from asylum to community care for mental health patients has burdened the providers of primary health care and, more than all, families. As a result, numerous studies [Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 31:345–348, 1995, J Health Socisl Behav 36:138–150, 1995] have focused on the burden of care experienced by family members living with individuals with severe mental disorders. This kind of provision, also extols a significant cost to the society at large in terms of significant direct and indirect costs. A cost that may be even higher in times of severe socio-economic crisis. Methodology This study, firstly, aims to examine the burden that the family members experience by caring for individuals with schizophrenia and the identification of the parameters, in a micro and macro level, that affect family burden. Secondly, this study aims to investigate whether the welfare state will be fit to help vulnerable groups as the one studied, especially during economic crisis periods when austerity measures are being implemented into welfare systems. For data collection purposes this study employed the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire [Schizophr Bull 1998, 24(4):609–618]. The sample consisted of caregivers either living in rural or urban areas of the district of Nicosia, the capital of the Republic of Cyprus. These people were attending regular meetings with their allocated Community Psychiatric Nurses (CPN) in Community Mental Health Centres (CMHC). Results Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was applied with the tension, the supervision, the worry, and the encouragement entering as dependent factors. In each case, participant’s age, gender, marital status, income, number of people living in the same house with the participant, degree of relationship between the caregiver and the person suffering from severe mental disorder, the age of the relative, and the gender of the relative, were entered as independent factors. Four ANCOVAs were performed

  13. Analysis of drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with organic-inorganic hybrid cyanopropyl monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Souza, Israel Donizeti de; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2015-07-01

    This study reports on the development of a rapid, selective, and sensitive column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyze sixteen drugs (antidepressants, anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, and antipsychotics) in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients. The developed organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column with cyanopropyl groups was used for the first dimension of the column-switching arrangement. This arrangement enabled online pre-concentration of the drugs (monolithic column) and their subsequent analytical separation on an XSelect SCH C18 column. The drugs were detected on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (multiple reactions monitoring mode) with an electrospray ionization source in the positive ion mode. The developed method afforded adequate linearity for the sixteen target drugs; the coefficients of determination (R(2)) lay above 0.9932, the interassay precision had coefficients of variation lower than 6.5%, and the relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -14.0 to 11.8%. The lower limits of quantification in plasma samples ranged from 63 to 1250pgmL(-1). The developed method successfully analyzed the target drugs in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). PMID:25984963

  14. Bizarreness in dream reports and waking fantasies of psychotic schizophrenic and manic patients: empirical evidences and theoretical consequences.

    PubMed

    Limosani, Ivan; D'Agostino, Armando; Manzone, Maria Laura; Scarone, Silvio

    2011-09-30

    Several overlapping features have frequently been described between psychosis and the subjective experience of dreaming from the neurobiological to the phenomenological level, but whether this similarity reflects the cognitive organization of schizophrenic thought or rather that of psychotic mentation independent of diagnostic categories is still unclear. In this study, 40 actively psychotic inpatients were equally divided in two age- and education-matched groups according to their diagnosis (Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder). Participants were asked to report their dreams upon awakening and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was administered to elicit waking fantasies; the same procedure was used in a control group of 20 non-psychiatric subjects. Two highly trained judges scored the collected material according to a Dream Bizarreness scale. The same level of cognitive bizarreness was found in TAT and dream reports of schizophrenic and manic subjects but was almost completely absent in the TAT stories of the control group. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures assessed the effect of diagnosis and experimental conditions (TAT stories and dream reports) on bizarreness yielding a significant interaction. Cognitive bizarreness seems to be a shared feature of dreaming and psychotic mentation, beyond diagnostic categorizations. Although these findings must be considered preliminary, this experimental measure of the cognitive architecture of thought processes seems to support the view that dreaming could be a useful model for the psychoses. PMID:21435729

  15. The miR-137 schizophrenia susceptibility variant rs1625579 does not predict variability in brain volume in a sample of schizophrenic patients and healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Rose, Emma J; Morris, Derek W; Fahey, Ciara; Cannon, Dara; McDonald, Colm; Scanlon, Cathy; Kelly, Sinead; Gill, Michael; Corvin, Aiden; Donohoe, Gary

    2014-09-01

    The micro RNA 137 (miR-137) variant rs1625579 has been identified as a genome-wide significant risk variant for schizophrenia. miR-137 has an established role in neurodevelopment and may mediate cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. This role of miR-137 may be related to changes in brain morphology for risk-related genotypes; however this has not yet been delineated. Here we considered whether rs1625579 genotype was predictive of indices of brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data (i.e. 3T T1-TFE or 1.5T T1-MPRAGE) were acquired from 150 healthy controls and 163 schizophrenic patients. Two volumetric analyses that considered the impact of miR-137/rs1625579 genotype were carried out on sMRI data. In the first analysis, voxel based morphometry was employed to consider genotype-related variability in local grey and white matter across the entire brain volume. Our secondary analysis utilized the FIRST protocol in FSL to consider the volume of subcortical structures (i.e. bilateral accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus). Several brain regions in both analyses demonstrated the expected main effect of participant group (i.e. schizophrenics < controls), yet there were no regions where we observed an impact of rs1635579 genotype on brain volume. Our analyses suggest that the mechanism by which miR-137 confers risk for schizophrenia and impacts upon cognitive function may not be mediated by changes in local brain volume. However, it remains to be determined whether or not alternative measures of brain structure are related to these functions of miR-137. PMID:25044277

  16. IPI-145 shows promise in CLL patients.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Results from a phase I study of Infinity Pharmaceuticals' IPI-145, which inhibits both δ and γ isoforms of phosphoinositide3-kinase, suggest the drug is safe and effective in patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:24501284

  17. Migraine patients show increased platelet vasopressin receptors.

    PubMed

    Buschmann, J; Leppla-Wollsiffer, G; Nemeth, N; Nelson, K; Kirsten, R

    1996-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate vasopressin receptor status (Bmax and Kd) on platelets, vasopressin plasma levels, and vasopressin-induced platelet aggregation in migraine patients (21 females and 6 males) during a headache-free interval and in a matched control group. In the migraine group, Bmax was significantly higher (P = 0.02) at 53.9 +/- 20.6 fmol/mg than in the control group (36.8 +/- 21.0 fmol/mg). A correlation between Bmax and high or low sensitivity to vasopressin as an aggregator was evident in the control group, but not in the migraine group. No differences in Kd or in plasma levels of vasopressin between the migraine and control group were apparent. Men in both groups were much less sensitive to vasopressin as a platelet aggregator than were women (P < 0.01). Whether the higher Bmax in the migraine group is a reflection of temporarily higher vasopressin levels during headache or reflects a primary increase in sensitivity to vasopressin, remains to be clarified. The higher sensitivity of platelets (as a model for vessel wall receptors) from women may indicate why many more women than men suffer from migraine. Since the Bmax of the vasopressin receptor on platelets from migraine patients is increased compared to controls, treating migraine headache with vasopressin may deserve more attention. PMID:8990597

  18. Cognition, negative symptoms, and diagnosis: a comparison of schizophrenic, bipolar, and control samples.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, K A; Hoffman, R E; Quinlan, D M; Rakfeldt, J; Docherty, N M; Sledge, W H

    1997-01-01

    Forty-six schizophrenic, 22 bipolar, and 26 normal control subjects were administered negative and positive symptoms scales and tests of cognitive function. Test performance was related to diagnosis and to positive and negative symptom ratings within the schizophrenic group. Bipolar patients were significantly superior in cognitive status when compared with all schizophrenic patients, but less so when compared only with those who did not have key negative symptoms (affective nonresponsivity and poverty of speech). The schizophrenic patients with negative symptoms displayed severe impairment, performing significantly worse than the control, bipolar, and other schizophrenic subjects. Negative symptoms thus are significantly implicated in the cognitive inferiority of schizophrenic to bipolar patients. Although the data suggest bipolar patients may also have cognitive deficiencies, these findings are inconclusive and require cross-validation. PMID:9017533

  19. Distressing behaviour of schizophrenics at home.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, P S; Chaturvedi, S K

    1992-09-01

    The care of mentally ill people at home is being encouraged nowadays. As a result, the family members feel an increased burden of care and find it difficult to cope with the care of a schizophrenic patient at home. We interviewed the relatives of 62 schizophrenics systematically regarding the behaviour of the patients that was perceived to be distressful. This was done using the Scale for Assessment of Family Distress. It was noted that behaviours related to activity and self-care were perceived to be most distressful, and not aggressive or psychotic behaviour. Distress was more often reported by younger relatives and those with more education. The findings have implications in planning appropriate family intervention methods. PMID:1414410

  20. Lateralization effects of image-guided 31P magnetoresonance spectroscopic parameters in the frontal lobe of schizophrenics and healthy controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Gabriele; Volz, Hans-Peter; Riehemann, Stefan; Wenda, Berit; Roessger, Grit; Rzanny, Reinhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    1999-05-01

    Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) has gained much interest in schizophrenia research in the last years since it allows the non-invasive measurement of high- energy phosphates and phospholipids in vivo. We investigated hemispherical differences of the concentrations of different phosphorus compounds in the frontal lobes. For this purpose, well defined volumes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 32 healthy controls and 51 schizophrenic patients were examined. Schizophrenic patients showed significant lateralization effects of phosphodiesters (PDE) and the intracellular pH-value. Differences in the lateralization of 31P-MRS parameters between patients and healthy volunteers were only detected for the pH-value. While healthy controls exhibit lower pH-values in the left frontal lobe (6.96), in schizophrenic patients we found lower pH-values in the right (6.89). Detailed examinations showed that this effect is mainly based on the subgroup of schizophrenics who received atypical neuroleptic medication.

  1. Cannabis Use and Dependence among French Schizophrenic Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Basquin, Anne; Koch, Marie; Embouazza, Houcine; Chalvin, Florence; Ilongo, Michaelle

    2014-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: One hundred one schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire, and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates, and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption, and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken. Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs. 44.7 years p < 0.0001), more often male (77 vs. 54%, p = 0.02) and had been hospitalized for the first time in psychiatry earlier (24.3 vs. 31.3 p = 0.003). Eighty-eight percent of cannabis consumers were dependent on cannabis. They were more often dependent on opiates (17 vs. 0%) and alcohol (32 vs. 7.4%, p = 0.001) and presented compulsive buying more often (48 vs. 27%, p = 0.04). Logistic regression revealed that factors associated to cannabis consumption among schizophrenics were cannabis dependence, male gender, pathological gambling, opiate dependence, number of joints smoked each day, and compulsive buying. Conclusion: 33.6% of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment. PMID:25076916

  2. Abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients: gender differences and partial normalization with antipsychotic medications.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Richtand, Neil M; Stanford, Kevin E

    2007-03-01

    Previous studies have observed significant abnormalities in the fatty acid composition of peripheral tissues from drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenic (SZ) patients relative to normal controls, including deficits in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are partially normalized following chronic antipsychotic treatment. We hypothesized that postmortem cortical tissue from patients with SZ would also exhibit deficits in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) relative to normal controls, and that these deficits would be greater in drug-free SZ patients. We determined the total fatty acid composition of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (Brodmann area 10) from drug-free and antipsychotic-treated SZ patients (n=21) and age-matched normal controls (n=26) by gas chromatography. After correction for multiple comparisons, significantly lower DHA (-20%) concentrations, and significantly greater vaccenic acid (VA) (+12.5) concentrations, were found in the OFC of SZ patients relative to normal controls. Relative to age-matched same-gender controls, OFC DHA deficits, and elevated AA:DHA, oleic acid:DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6):DHA ratios, were found in male but not female SZ patients. SZ patients that died of cardiovascular-related disease exhibited lower DHA (-31%) and AA (-19%) concentrations, and greater OA (+20%) and VA (+17%) concentrations, relative to normal controls that also died of cardiovascular-related disease. OFC DHA and AA deficits, and elevations in oleic acid and vaccenic acid, were numerically greater in drug-free SZ patients and were partially normalized in SZ patients treated with antipsychotic medications (atypical>typical). Fatty acid abnormalities could not be wholly attributed to lifestyle or postmortem tissue variables. These findings add to a growing body of evidence implicating omega-3 fatty acid deficiency as well as the OFC in the pathoaetiology of SZ, and suggest that

  3. Visual search performance by paranoid and chronic undifferentiated schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Portnoff, L A; Yesavage, J A; Acker, M B

    1981-10-01

    Disturbances in attention are among the most frequent cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia. Recent research has suggested that some schizophrenics have difficulty with visual tracking, which is suggestive of attentional deficits. To investigate differential visual-search performance by schizophrenics, 15 chronic undifferentiated and 15 paranoid schizophrenics were compared with 15 normals on two tests measuring visual search in a systematic and an unsystematic stimulus mode. Chronic schizophrenics showed difficulty with both kinds of visual-search tasks. In contrast, paranoids had only a deficit in the systematic visual-search task. Their ability for visual search in an unsystematized stimulus array was equivalent to that of normals. Although replication and cross-validation is needed to confirm these findings, it appears that the two tests of visual search may provide a useful ancillary method for differential diagnosis between these two types of schizophrenia. PMID:7312527

  4. A group approach to psychopharmacology with schizophrenics.

    PubMed Central

    Skolnick, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and practical issues involved in integrating pharmacotherapy and psychosocial therapy in a long-term day hospital for schizophrenics are addressed. The limitations and risks of relying too heavily on a biomedical conceptual framework are discussed. In addition to diagnosis, target symptoms, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics, individual interpersonal, family, and institutional dynamics can exert profound effects on the effectiveness of medication. Through case illustrations it is shown how an open systems model and a group approach can allow for an integration of the many variables involved in the medication process. A weekly medication group which emphasizes education, informed choice, patient responsibility, and the examination of the boundary between medication effect and the need for psychological work is described. It is shown that the chemical control of psychosis alone may reinforce the psychosocial aspects of the schizophrenic syndrome. A distinction is drawn between chemical control of psychosis and the sensitive use of medication as a facilitator of growth-promoting psychosocial treatment. PMID:2864762

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics. Tests using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ariel, R.N.; Golden, C.J.; Berg, R.A.; Quaife, M.A.; Dirksen, J.W.; Forsell, T.; Wilson, J.; Graber, B.

    1983-03-01

    Measurements of intrahemispheric and bilateral regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) for gray and white matter were compared in 29 schizophrenic patients and 22 normal controls, using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method. Results showed significantly lower CBF values for all brain regions in the schizophrenic group, and post hoc comparisons showed relatively greater reduced gray-matter CBF values in the anterior areas of the brain. There was also a left-hemisphere frontal loss similar to that reported previously, although it was in the context of a generalized loss in anterior functioning. Interhemispheric comparison within both groups showed no differences between homologous regions for gray matter, and greater white-matter CBF values in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. The findings support a hypothesis of a bilateral anterior deficit in schizophrenia.

  6. [Prescription of traditional neuroleptics in the remission period for schizophrenic patients with excess of body mass caused by atypical antipsychotics].

    PubMed

    Danilov, D S; Tiul'pin, Iu G

    2007-01-01

    A sample included 61 patients, 53 men and 8 women, with ICD-10 episodic schizophrenia in the remission after treatment with atypical neuroleptics (risperidon, olanzapine, clozapine). All patients were featured by therapeutically caused excess of body mass (obesity of different degrees) that hampered the further treatment. In 31 cases (the main group) atypical neuroleptics were substituted for traditional drugs that exerted lesser influence on body mass. Haloperidol (mean dosage 4,1 mg daily) was administered to 17 patients and trifluoperazine (mean dosage 7,1 mg daily) to 14 patients. Other 30 patients (a control group) continued to receive atypical neuroleptics. Between group differences of patient's mental and somatic state were assessed using quantitative scales. It was shown that the substitution of atypical neuroleptics for traditional neuroleptic drugs allowed to stop further body mass gain and even decreased it without significant influence on psychopathological symptoms and other side-effects in patients with excess of body mass. PMID:18379518

  7. Consumer satisfaction and attributions of improvement among fully recovered schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Torgalsbøen, A K

    2001-02-01

    As people with serious mental illness are viewed as consumers rather than patients, their views and needs are increasingly seen as essential to the treatment process. The aim of the present study is to add valuable knowledge about how to help patients by reporting what fully recovered schizophrenics, as consumers, had found helpful in their treatment as well as which factors contributed to their recovery. In addition to a semistructured interview, two instruments were used: the "UCLA Social Attainment Survey Premorbid Adjustment Scale" (SASPAS) to measure patients' premorbid adjustment and the "Global Assessment Scale" (GAS) to obtain an assessment of the present general functioning of the subjects. The results showed that a majority of the recovered subjects emphasized their own will-power and the human qualities in their therapists as helpful to them in the process towards recovery. The therapeutic relationships were characterized by the kindling and sustaining of hope in the clients. PMID:11273577

  8. Recognition and Repair of Communicative Failures: The Interaction between Theory of Mind and Cognitive Complexity in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Bono, Adele; Bara, Bruno G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to perform a detailed and empirical investigation of schizophrenia patients' deficits in recognizing and recovering a communicative failure. In particular, this paper investigates the role of Theory of Mind (ToM) and of the complexity of the mental representations involved in explaining patients' deficits in…

  9. Scanning for unstable trinucleotide repeats in neuropsychiatric disorders: Detection of a large CTG expansion in a schizophrenic patient

    SciTech Connect

    Sirugo, G.; Haaf, T.; Kidd, K.K.

    1994-09-01

    Expansion of unstable trinucleotide repeats have been associated so far with seven human genetic disorders including fragile X, myotonic dystrophy and Huntington disease. This newly discovered class of genetic mutations is almost invariably associated with genetic anticipation. Anticipation has been recently reported in bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia pedigrees, suggesting a possible implication of genes with unstable triplets in these disorders. To explore this hypothesis we have analyzed large schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder kindreds by means of the Repeat Expansion Detection Method (RED) described by Schalling and modified in our laboratory. This method uses genomic DNA as a template for the annealing and ligation of repeat-specific oligonucleotides. The reactions were subjected to denaturing PAGE and then transferred onto nylon membrane by capillary transfer. The multimers were revealed after hybridization with an oligoprobe and 5 hours exposure on film. To date the kindreds have been screened for the presence of unstable (CTG)n. CTG multimers ranging from 51 to 119 CTG units were detected in both affected and normal individuals corresponding to a normal variation in length of one or more CTG loci. Although our results indicate that (CTG)n expansions are not the mechanism causing schziophrenia or bipolar affective disorder, in one schizophrenia patient we have detected a large (CTG)n constituted by at least 204 CTG units. The incomplete structure of the family does not allow us to determine if this large repeat segregates with the disease. Localization of this expanded locus by in situ hybridization is underway. Similar in situ studies using PCR-generated CCA multimers up to 1 kb in length as a probe have revealed the presence of long tracts of CCA repeats at discrete sites in the human genome. This shows the feasibility of the in situ approach to localize large arrays of triplets in the human genome.

  10. Adult medication-free schizophrenic patients exhibit long-chain omega-3 Fatty Acid deficiency: implications for cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn - 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 24). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, -22%, P = 0.007). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, P = 0.001). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n - 6) (+9%, P = 0.02) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, P = 0.0004) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2n - 6) was significantly lower (-12%, P = 0.009) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (-19%, P = 0.04) but not female (-13%, P = 0.33) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, P = 0.008) and female (+22%, P = 0.04) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn - 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23533712

  11. Elevated delta-6 desaturase (FADS2) expression in the postmortem prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients: relationship with fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K

    2009-04-01

    Although emerging evidence suggests that schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with peripheral and central polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficits, there is currently nothing known about the expression of genes that mediate PUFA biosynthesis in SZ patients. Here we determined Delta5 desaturase (FADS1), Delta6 desaturase (FADS2), elongase (HELO1 [ELOVL5]), peroxisomal (PEX19), and Delta9 desaturase (stearoyl-CoA desaturase, SCD) mRNA expression, and relevant fatty acid product:precursor ratios as estimates of enzyme activities, in the postmortem prefrontal cortex (PFC) of patients with SZ (n=20) and non-psychiatric controls (n=20). After correction for multiple comparisons, FADS2 mRNA expression was significantly greater in SZ patients relative to controls (+36%, p=0.002), and there was a positive trend found for FADS1 (+26%, p=0.15). No differences were found for HELO1 (+10%, p=0.44), PEX19 (+12%, p=0.44), or SCD (-6%, p=0.85). Both male (+34%, p=0.02) and female (+42%, p=0.02) SZ patients exhibited greater FADS2 mRNA expression relative to same-gender controls. Drug-free SZ patients (+37%, p=0.02), and SZ patients treated with typical (+40%, p=0.002) or atypical (+31%, p=0.04) antipsychotics, exhibited greater FADS2 mRNA expression relative to controls. Consistent with increased Delta6 desaturase activity, SZ patients exhibited a greater 20:3/18:2 ratio (+20%, p=0.03) and a positive trend was found for 20:4/18:2 (+13%, p=0.07). These data demonstrate abnormal, potentially compensatory, elevations in Delta6 desaturase (FADS2) expression in the PFC of SZ patients that are independent of gender and antipsychotic medications. Greater Delta6 desaturase expression and activity could have implications for central prostaglandin synthesis and proinflammatory signaling. PMID:19195843

  12. Family Type as a Prognostic Indicator of Rehabilitation Outcome with Post-Hospitalized Male Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beres, Barbara Oliver; Frumkin, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    A study of 65 male schizophrenic patients at the Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation Unit, Cleveland Psychiatric Institute, Cleveland, Ohio revealed that family type (conjugal settings, parental settings, living alone) is found to to be a valuable prognosticator of rehabilitation outcome among post-hospitalized schizophrenics. (EA)

  13. Verbal Conditioning of Male and Female Schizophrenics as a Function of Experimenter Proximity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Brooks, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Assess the effects of patient-experimenter proximity on schizophrenics' learning when the social class of the subjects, both schizophrenics and nonschizophrenics, and the verbal and nonverbal components of social reinforcement are controlled. Also tests males and females to determine whether sex of subjects moderates the responses of…

  14. Improvement in verbal memory following SSRI augmentation of antipsychotic treatment is associated with changes in the expression of mRNA encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in PMC of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Mandiuk, Nina; Einoch, Reef; Susser, Ehud; Danovich, Lena; Bilker, Warren; Youdim, Moussa; Weinreb, Orly

    2015-05-01

    Verbal memory impairment in schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) systems. Recent evidence from animal and clinical studies that adding fluvoxamine to antipsychotics alters the expression of transcripts encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF led us to postulate that fluvoxamine augmentation may improve memory in schizophrenia. To test this, we examined the effect of add-on fluvoxamine on verbal memory and other cognitive functions and related it to the expression of mRNA coding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMC) of schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine patients completed a 6-week study in which fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Verbal memory, abstraction working memory, object and face recognition, and psychomotor speed and clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were taken at baseline and weeks 1, 3, and 6 and PMC was assayed for the GABA-A beta3 receptor and BDNF mRNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Associative and logical verbal memory improved significantly and showed a significant correlation with changes in PMC BDNF and GABA-A beta3 receptor mRNA, which increased during treatment. Abstraction and object recognition improved, but this did not correlate with PMC measures. Negative and positive symptoms improved significantly; the latter showed significant correlations with changes in PMC measures. Addition of fluvoxamine to antipsychotics improves verbal memory. It is postulated that the mechanism involves enhanced GABA-A receptor/BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:25756551

  15. [Music in the picture -- musical scores and other music-related pictorial elements in the visual artworks of schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Simon, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century music scores and other music releated pictoral elements have repeteadly appeared in psychotic patients' visual artworks. Interestingly, little attention was paid to these enigmatic forms of psychopathological art expression till the 1970s. This essay investigates the underlying psychopathology and the psychodynamic basis of musical elements applied in psychotic patients' visual art expression within a phenomenological- intersubjective framework integrating the art-historical context of the 20th century. As an illustration, artworks of the psychopathological art collection of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty, University of Pecs, Hungary are presented. PMID:26202621

  16. Hospital utilization outcome of an assertive outreach model for schizophrenic patients - results of a quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Büchtemann, Dorothea; Kästner, Denise; Warnke, Ingeborg; Radisch, Jeanett; Baumgardt, Johanna; Giersberg, Steffi; Kleine-Budde, Katja; Moock, Jörn; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-07-30

    We assessed whether an Assertive Outreach (AO) program for patients with schizophrenia implemented in German routine care in rural areas reduces psychiatric hospital admissions and/or psychiatric hospital days. We conducted a quasi-experimental controlled study with 5 assessments in 12 months. Data collection included health care utilization (Client Sociodemographic and Service Receipt Inventory), and clinical parameters. The assessments took place in the practices of the psychiatrists. Admission incidence rates were calculated. For bivariate group comparison, we used U-tests, T-tests and Chi(2)-Tests, multivariate analysis was conducted using zero-inflated regression models. For hospital outcomes, data of 295 patients was analysed. No statistically significant differences between AO and TAU patients in terms of hospital admissions or hospital days were found. Overall hospital utilization was low (8%). Advantages of AO over TAU referring to hospital utilization were not found. However, a spill-over effect might have reduced hospital utilization in both groups. Further research should differentiate patient subgroups. These two appear to be key factors to explain effects or absence of effects and to draw conclusions for the mental health care delivery. PMID:27208511

  17. THE REMOTIVATION OF CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC MEN PATIENTS THROUGH THE USE OF "WORK CONDITIONING" IN HOSPITAL WORK AREAS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PAIK, GEORGE; AND OTHERS

    THE PROJECT SOUGHT TO ESTABLISH VOCATIONAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES, PROVIDE A WORK CONDITIONING PROGRAM TO INCREASE WORK POTENTIAL, AND PROVIDE AFTERCARE SERVICE AND FOLLOWUP. THE MAJOR HYPOTHESIS WAS THAT PATIENTS GIVEN A PROGRAM OF WORK CONDITIONING WERE MORE LIKELY TO BE PLACED IN WORK SITUATIONS IN THE COMMUNITY AND TO REMAIN LONGER OUTSIDE THE…

  18. Effects of cerebral hemispheric laterality on the span of apprehension of schizophrenic and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Mass, R; Schoemig, T; Novikov, J; Wagner, M

    2001-01-01

    The effects of hemispheric laterality on a forced-choice Span of Apprehension (SoA) task were investigated. Forty-eight adult schizophrenic inpatients were recruited. A control group of healthy subjects was put together using the matched-pairs method with age, gender, and education as control variables. SoA performance was determined separately for the left and right visual field (VF), respectively. No SoA group differences were found; in both groups, the hit percentage was higher in the right VF. However, in the schizophrenic group, the left VF performance showed significant negative correlations with psychopathologic symptoms (especially auditory verbal hallucinations). In a subsample of patients receiving atypical neuroleptic drugs, the daily dosage correlated negatively with left VF performance. In general, young subjects performed better than old subjects (both VFs), males performed better than females, and subjects with high education performed better than subjects with low education (right VF). PMID:11315513

  19. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version Score of Schizophrenic Patients in a Japanese Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Takayoshi; Aleksic, Branko; Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Banno, Masahiro; Kohmura, Kunihiro; Adachi, Yasunori; Kawano, Naoko; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP), which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit) and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) scores) in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d′ score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d′ score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score. PMID:22966454

  20. Continuing clozapine treatment with lithium in schizophrenic patients with neutropenia or leukopenia: brief review of literature with case reports

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Memduha; Ilhan, Bilge Cetin; Calisir, Saliha; Yildirim, Seda; Eren, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic used for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Despite its effectiveness, clozapine is largely underused due to serious side effects such as leukopenia or neutropenia. We aimed to review whether to continue, discontinue or rechallenge clozapine treatment after such haematological side effects. Methods: We reviewed and summarized the literature on the use of clozapine, how to deal with its side effects, and suitable options in case of any haematological problems. Then, we described several cases successfully treated with clozapine and lithium after development of neutropenia or leukopenia Results: We present three patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. While they had demonstrated poor response to multiple antipsychotic trials, clozapine was started. Clozapine induced neutropenia; or leukopenia developed in some cases that was successfully reversed after lithium onset. Increased serious side effects related with coprescription of lithium and clozapine were not observed. Conclusion: Lithium increases neutrophil and total white blood cell count as a side effect that may be useful in patients who develop neutropenia or leukopenia while being treated with clozapine. PMID:26913176

  1. MMP-9 Serum Levels in Schizophrenic Patients during Treatment Augmentation with Sarcosine (Results of the PULSAR Study)

    PubMed Central

    Strzelecki, Dominik; Kałużyńska, Olga; Szyburska, Justyna; Wysokiński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Find changes in matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) levels during augmentation of antipsychotic treatment with sarcosine and a relationship between schizophrenia symptoms severity and initial level of MMP-9. Method: Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia with predominant negative symptoms participated in a six-month prospective RCT (randomized controlled trial). The patients received two grams of sarcosine (n = 28) or placebo (n = 30) daily. At the beginning, after six weeks and after six months MMP-9 levels were measured. Severity of symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). Results: MMP-9 serum levels were stable after six weeks and six months in both groups. We noted improvement in negative symptoms, general psychopathology and total PANSS score in sarcosine group compared to placebo; however, there was no correlations between serum MMP-9 concentrations and PANSS scores in all assessments. Initial serum MMP-9 concentrations cannot be used as an improvement predictor acquired during sarcosine augmentation. Conclusions: Our results indicate that either MMP-9 is not involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent mechanism of sarcosine action in terms of clinical parameters or sarcosine induced changes in peripheral MMP-9 concentrations cannot be detected in blood assessments. PMID:27409603

  2. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows. PMID:27142954

  3. Schizophrenic Symptoms Improve with Apomorphine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamminga, Carol A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In eighteen chronic schizophrenics, subcutaneous doses of the dopamine reception agonist, apomorphine, improved psychotic symptoms. The results are interpreted as a consequence of presynaptic dopamine receptor activationby apomorphine with a subsequent decrease in dopamine-mediated neural transmission. (Author/BB)

  4. The Well Siblings of Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Laurel; Chase, Laura

    1979-01-01

    Explores the impact of having a schizophrenic sibling. Subjects functioned at high levels of adjustment. Separated from their families, there followed a period of reinvolvement, including responsibility for the ill sibling. Younger siblings expressed guilt over being well, whereas older siblings expressed guilt over earlier sibling rivalry.…

  5. The effects of token reinforcement and feedback on the delusional verbal behavior of chronic paranoid schizophrenics1

    PubMed Central

    Wincze, John P.; Leitenberg, Harold; Agras, W. Stewart

    1972-01-01

    Prior research with token reinforcement in the psychiatric population has been directed at work adjustment, more than at major symptomatic behaviors. The purpose of the present research, on the other hand, was to investigate the effects of feedback and token reinforcement on the modification of delusional verbal behavior in chronic psychotics. Six male and four female paranoid schizophrenic patients participated in the study. The results indicated that the effects of feedback were effective about half the time in reducing percentage delusional talk, but in at least three cases produced adverse reactions. Token reinforcement, however, showed more consistency and reduced the percentage of delusional verbal behavior in seven of the nine subjects exposed to this procedure. The effects of both feedback and token reinforcement were quite specific to the environment in which they were applied and showed little generalization to other situations. It would appear that using token reinforcement can reduce the percentage delusional speech of chronic paranoid schizophrenics. PMID:16795347

  6. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Asad A; Tidball, Andrew M; Kumar, Kevin K; Neely, M Diana; Han, Bingying; Ess, Kevin C; Hong, Charles C; Erikson, Keith M; Hedera, Peter; Bowman, Aaron B

    2015-01-01

    Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD. PMID:25315681

  7. Abnormal seasonality of schizophrenic births. A specific finding?

    PubMed

    Häfner, H; Haas, S; Pfeifer-Kurda, M; Eichhorn, S; Michitsuji, S

    1987-01-01

    The unusual finding of an abnormal seasonal distribution of schizophrenic births, showing an excess of 10% in the winter or spring months and an equal deficit in the summer or autumn months, cannot be explained by artefacts. It has not yet been established whether the finding is specific to schizophrenia. We observed an excess of schizophrenic births of some 10% in March to May, significant at the 5% level, and a deficit of approximately the same size in June to August on the birth data of first-admission patients with the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia. The data, obtained from the Mannheim Psychiatric Case Register, were compared with those of the Mannheim population and a control group matched by birth year and sex. The total population of mentally retarded children aged 7 to 16 years from the Mannheim population showed an excess of some 20% in April to June and an equal deficit in the last two quarters of the year, compared with the Mannheim population of the same birth years. The finding was not significant, but allowance must be made for the low case number of 415. We also compared 3409 first-admission patients with depressive syndromes (ICD 296 and 300.4) and 5615 first-admission patients with the diagnosis of "neurosis and personality disorders" (ICD 300-302, except 300.4, and 305-309) from the Mannheim Case Register with a control population and a parallel control group. Depressed males showed an excess of births in March to May, which was significant at the 1% level; the birth peak for females was smaller and not significant. The same findings were obtained for the category of neurosis and personality disorders, i.e. an excess of about 10% in March to May for males, significant at the 1% level, and a non-significant excess for females. Our findings are awaiting replication. Causal explanations will be discussed with great reservation. The procreational hypothesis, assuming those factors that lead to an equidirectional seasonal pattern of births with a

  8. Computerized EEG as a predictor of drug response in treatment resistant schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Shapiro, D; Schneider, S J; Francis, I B

    1981-10-01

    Thirteen chronic schizophrenics were identified who failed to improve with physician's choice medication and 1 year of systematic treatment with a long acting phenothiazine. These patients were considered to be treatment resistant. Computer analyzed electroencephalogram (CEEG) or these treatment resistant schizophrenics was characterized by a large amount of alpha activity and less fast activity, in comparison with previous results from therapy responsive schizophrenics. The therapy resistant subjects did not display the typical neuroleptic CEEG profile following test dosages of four neuroleptics, and instead displayed CEEG profiles which more closely resembled the typical profile for psychostimulants. These findings may point to an altered metabolism, neurotransmitter defect, or other problem which alters the physiological and clinical response of therapy resistant schizophrenics to neuroleptic medication. PMID:6116742

  9. [Genotypic specificity of schizophrenic psychoses].

    PubMed

    Shakhmatova-Pavlova, I V; Gindilis, V M; Rokhlina, M L; Kozlova, I A

    1980-01-01

    A total of 610 probands with a disease manifestation in childhood, middle and old age and their families were examined by the clinico-genealogical method. The results allowed conclusions that (1) there is an undoubted genetic relationship between schizophrenia of childhood, middle and old age; and that (2) among the closest relatives in families of the probands there is no significant (in comparison to the general population) accumulation of non-schizophrenic pathology. The latter indicates a high genotypic specificity of schizophrenia. PMID:7415694

  10. A case of Déjerine-Sottas disease with schizophrenic symptoms. A clinical and pathological study.

    PubMed

    Nakao, T; Takahashi, K; Okuma, T; Matsushima, Y; Nagami, M

    1975-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic interstitial neuritis with a disturbance of intelligence and schizophrenic symptoms was reported. The patient, a 41-year-old male, showed monologia at the age of 14 and auditory hallucination at the age of 21. He was diagnosed as schizophrenia. Torsion of the head to the right side and muscular atrophy were also noticed at 21 years. Atrophy of the muscles progressed gradually, particularly in the distal parts of the upper and lower extremeties. Psychiatric examination revealed schizophrenic symptoms such as auditory hallucination, thought disorder, lack of spontaneity, autism, apathy, etc. There was also a disturbance of intelligence (imbecility). In neurological examination, the torsion of the head to the right side, slight exaggeration of the peripheral reflexes, muscular atrophy in the distal parts of the extremeties were noted. The bilateral ulnar nerves were markedly hypertrophied. The biopsy of the right ulnar nerve revealed a remarkable thickening of the endoneuria and "onion bulb" formations. A large amount of the interstitial accumulation of PAS positive substance, which showed metachromasia in cresyl violet staining, was also noted. Schwann cell processes were proved electron-microscopically to surround the myelin sheaths and some of them meandered and extended and into the metachromatic substance. The basement membrane of the sheath cell was hypertrophic in some portions and elongated into interstitium. The nucleus of the sheath cell was hyperchromic and showed marked atrophy. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen obtained from the gastrocnemius muscle suggested neurogenic muscular atrophy. The relationship among the hypertrophic interstitial neuritis, schizophrenic symptoms, disturbance of intelligence and torsion of the head was also discussed. PMID:1158314

  11. Induced oscillations and the distributed cortical sources during the Wisconsin card sorting test performance in schizophrenic patients: new clues to neural connectivity.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, J A; Cedeño, I; Pita-Alcorta, C; Galán, L; Aubert, E; Figueredo-Rodríguez, P

    2003-04-01

    Prefrontal dysfunction has been associated with schizophrenia. Activation during Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) is a common approach used in functional neuroimaging to address this failure. Equally, current knowledge states that oscillations are basic forms of cells-assembly communications during mental activity. Promising results were revealed in a previous study assessing healthy subjects, WCST and oscillations. However, those previous studies failed to meet the functional integration of the network during the WCST in schizophrenics, based on the induced oscillations and their distributed cortical sources. In this research, we utilized the brain electrical tomography (variable-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography) technique to accomplish this goal. Task specific delta, theta, alpha and beta-2 oscillations were induced and simultaneously synchronized over large extensions of cortex, encompassing prefrontal, temporal and posterior regions as in healthy subjects. Every frequency had a well-defined network involving a variable number of areas and sharing some of them. Oscillations at 11.5, 5.0 and 30 Hz seem to reflect an abnormal increase or decrease, being located at supplementary motor area (SMA), left occipitotemporal region (OT), and right frontotemporal subregions (RFT), respectively. Three cortical areas appeared to be critical, that may lead to difficulties either in coordinating/sequencing the input/output of the prefrontal networks-SMA, and retention of information in memory-RFT, both preceded or paralleled by a deficient visual information processing-OT. PMID:12694897

  12. Schizophrenic psychosis associated with aqueduct stenosis in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J K; Trimble, M R; Robertson, M

    1983-01-01

    The case histories of five adult patients with hydrocephalus and aqueduct stenosis are presented. All the cases were associated with prominent psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations or thought disorder). In the three cases where operative intervention was carried out the diagnosis was made in adult life. Using the Present State Examination all five cases were classified as having schizophrenic psychosis. The possible reasons for this association are discussed. PMID:6644313

  13. Patient Experience Shows Little Relationship with Hospital Quality Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Groene, Oliver; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Wagner, Cordula; Bartels, Paul D.; Kristensen, Solvejg; Saillour, Florence; Thompson, Andrew; Thompson, Caroline A.; Pfaff, Holger; DerSarkissian, Maral; Sunol, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Patient-reported experience measures are increasingly being used to routinely monitor the quality of care. With the increasing attention on such measures, hospital managers seek ways to systematically improve patient experience across hospital departments, in particular where outcomes are used for public reporting or reimbursement. However, it is currently unclear whether hospitals with more mature quality management systems or stronger focus on patient involvement and patient-centered care strategies perform better on patient-reported experience. We assessed the effect of such strategies on a range of patient-reported experience measures. Materials and Methods We employed a cross-sectional, multi-level study design randomly recruiting hospitals from the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey between May 2011 and January 2012. Each hospital contributed patient level data for four conditions/pathways: acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hip fracture and deliveries. The outcome variables in this study were a set of patient-reported experience measures including a generic 6-item measure of patient experience (NORPEQ), a 3-item measure of patient-perceived discharge preparation (Health Care Transition Measure) and two single item measures of perceived involvement in care and hospital recommendation. Predictor variables included three hospital management strategies: maturity of the hospital quality management system, patient involvement in quality management functions and patient-centered care strategies. We used directed acyclic graphs to detail and guide the modeling of the complex relationships between predictor variables and outcome variables, and fitted multivariable linear mixed models with random intercept by hospital, and adjusted for fixed effects at the country level, hospital level and patient level. Results Overall, 74 hospitals and 276 hospital departments contributed data on 6,536 patients to this study (acute

  14. Repeat length variation in the dopamine D4 receptor gene shows no evidence of association with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.; Williams, J.; Asherson, P.

    1994-09-15

    The D4 receptor has been shown to exist in several allelic forms reflecting variation in the number of 48 base-pair sequence repeats in the putative cytoplasmic loop. We report a comparison of repeat length variation between schizophrenic patients and controls. Our sample of 106 unrelated schizophrenic cases and 119 controls showed no significant differences in allele or genotype distribution between patients and controls. In particular, we were unable to support the previous observation of an excess of 4-repeat homozygotes in patients. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Differentiation between patients with schizophrenia and borderline disorders in the Percept-genetic Object-Relation Test, PORT.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, A

    1995-12-01

    Schizophrenics (12 males), borderline patients (12 males), and self-selected normal controls (11 males, 17 females) were compared using PORT (Percept-genetic Object-Relation Test), a projective test, diagnosis being on the basis of DSM-III and Kernberg's six descriptive borderline criteria. The aim of the study was to compare the three groups in order to distinguish the two clinical groups from the control group, but also to distinguish the borderlines from the schizophrenic patients with specified diagnosis. The two patient groups differed from the controls on 15 different PORT signs/patterns. In addition, the borderline patients and the three schizophrenics of unspecified diagnosis showed signs in PORT of dissolution anxiety, splitting, whole configuration (fusion) and sexualization as defence, which the schizophrenics with specified diagnosis did not, although catatonic/hebephrenic, simplex, and paranoid schizophrenics could be distinguished in the test. Characteristic of the schizophrenics was also diffusion of domains of object relationships. In a blind prediction study with PORT involving five male and five female patients with severe psychiatric disorders (diagnosed by DSM-III-R), borderline patients could also be distinguished satisfactorily from schizophrenics. PMID:8688369

  16. Patient navigators show the way to faster flow.

    PubMed

    2007-09-01

    Nurses or physician assistants designated as patient navigators can ease the burden on the rest of the staff, improve relations with outside physicians, and improve patient flow in your ED. Provide them with separate phone numbers that primary care physicians can call to check on the condition of referred patients. Make them an integral part of your bed flow team, and have them serve as liaisons to admitting. Navigators also can be used to check with radiology when test results appear to be delayed. PMID:17894127

  17. Non-right-handedness and obstetrical complications in paranoid hallucinatory schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Sperling, W; Martus, P; Barocka, A

    1999-01-01

    In previous studies a link between pregnancy complications, minor physical anomalies and non-right-handedness was described in schizophrenic patients. There is evidence of an anomaly in the lateralization process in schizophrenia. Many studies of handedness and schizophrenia have found that schizophrenic patients have an increased rate of non-right-handedness compared with normal subjects. The contemporary neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia emerged from pathobiological findings. In addition there is evidence for early brain lesions and malformations in fetal brain development. Especially pregnancy and birth complications have been found to be a risk factor for the later development of schizophrenia. In this study we set out to test the possible association between diagnosis and handedness, diagnosis and risk factors, as well as gender and handedness for 60 patients (30 men, 30 women) and 60 controls. The percentage of non-right-handedness was significantly elevated in the patient group (p = 0.0025). In a gender-specific analysis this result could be confirmed only for male patients. Peri- and postnatal developmental risk factors were significantly elevated in schizophrenics compared with controls. The percentage of all risk factors in the male group of schizophrenic non-right-handers was significantly elevated compared with right-handed male schizophrenics. PMID:10494066

  18. Solitary brain metastasis of an occult and stable small-cell lung cancer in a schizophrenic patient: a 3-year control.

    PubMed

    Jesien-Lewandowicz, Emilia; Spych, Michal; Fijuth, Jacek; Kordek, Radzislaw

    2010-08-01

    Small-cell lung cancer is a highly aggressive carcinoma, with poorer prognosis in patients with brain metastases. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman diagnosed with a cerebellar tumour which, following surgery, was revealed to be a metastatic small-cell lung carcinoma. Subsequent CT and PET scanning showed a small, isolated 8 mm nodule in the upper lobe of the right lung. The patient was suffering from schizophrenia and has been treated with clozapine for 17 years. Because of the unusual presentation, there was no therapy given for the primary tumour at the time, and systemic therapy or surgery was discussed. However, 18 months later, the nodule was slightly larger (14 mm), and surgery was performed. On pathology examination, the tumour was presented as a typical small-cell carcinoma. Standard chest irradiation with systemic chemotherapy was given. At the time of writing, 39 months after diagnosis of metastatic small-cell carcinoma, the patient is disease free. However, this case is unusual in that a long-term observation of a small stable primary tumour in the lung took place without any therapy being given. This case strongly supports the thesis that small-cell lung cancer may comprise a heterogeneous group of tumours with different biological properties. The proapoptotic effect of clozapine may be also taken into account. PMID:20537425

  19. Functionally aberrant electrophysiological cortical connectivities in first episode medication-naive schizophrenics from three psychiatry centers

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L.; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D.; Milz, Patricia; Herrmann, Werner M.; Koukkou, Martha; Saito, Naomi; Winterer, Georg; Kochi, Kieko

    2014-01-01

    Functional dissociation between brain processes is widely hypothesized to account for aberrations of thought and emotions in schizophrenic patients. The typically small groups of analyzed schizophrenic patients yielded different neurophysiological findings, probably because small patient groups are likely to comprise different schizophrenia subtypes. We analyzed multichannel eyes-closed resting EEG from three small groups of acutely ill, first episode productive schizophrenic patients before start of medication (from three centers: Bern N = 9; Osaka N = 9; Berlin N = 12) and their controls. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to compute intracortical source model-based lagged functional connectivity not biased by volume conduction effects between 19 cortical regions of interest (ROIs). The connectivities were compared between controls and patients of each group. Conjunction analysis determined six aberrant cortical functional connectivities that were the same in the three patient groups. Four of these six concerned the facilitating EEG alpha-1 frequency activity; they were decreased in the patients. Another two of these six connectivities concerned the inhibiting EEG delta frequency activity; they were increased in the patients. The principal orientation of the six aberrant cortical functional connectivities was sagittal; five of them involved both hemispheres. In sum, activity in the posterior brain areas of preprocessing functions and the anterior brain areas of evaluation and behavior control functions were compromised by either decreased coupled activation or increased coupled inhibition, common across schizophrenia subtypes in the three patient groups. These results of the analyzed three independent groups of schizophrenics support the concept of functional dissociation. PMID:25191252

  20. Tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia with second-generation antipsychotics in non-elderly schizophrenic patients unexposed to first-generation antipsychotics: a cross-sectional and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seunghyong; Yoo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Choi, Ji Sun; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ha, Kyooseob; Kwon, Jun Soo; Hong, Kyung Sue

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the clinical nature, prevalence rates, and associated factors of second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-related tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia. To date, these subjects have not been thoroughly investigated.The subjects were 80 non-elderly schizophrenic patients who received SGAs for more than 1 year without any previous exposure to first-generation antipsychotics. Multiple (≥2) direct assessments of movement symptoms were performed. Hospital records longer than 1 recent year describing any observed tardive movement symptoms were reviewed.A current or history of tardive dyskinesia and/or tardive dystonia associated with SGA was identified in 28 (35%) subjects. These patients were being treated with risperidone (n = 15), amisulpride, olanzapine, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, or clozapine at the time of the onset of the movement symptoms. Tardive dyskinesia was mostly in the orolingual area, and the most frequently observed tardive dystonia was torticollis. The median interval between the first exposure to the SGA and the movement syndrome onset was 15 months for tardive dyskinesia and 43 months for tardive dystonia. A history of acute dystonia was significantly associated with tardive dystonia, and comorbid obsessive-compulsive syndrome was related to both tardive movement syndromes.This study indicates that more clinical attention and research efforts are needed regarding SGA-associated tardive movement syndromes, including a larger-scale prevalence assessment. This study is the first to indicate that a comorbid obsessive-compulsive syndrome might be an associated factor of tardive movement syndrome. The association warrants further investigation. PMID:25485636

  1. Prediction of the period of psychotic episode in individual schizophrenics by simulation-data construction approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Loh, El-Wui

    2010-10-01

    Although schizophrenia can be treated, most patients still experience inevitable psychotic episodes from time to time. Precautious actions can be taken if the next onset can be predicted. However, sufficient information is always lacking in the clinical scenario. A possible solution is to use the virtual data generated from limited of original data. Data construction method (DCM) has been shown to generate the virtual felt earthquake data effectively and used in the prediction of further events. Here we investigated the performance of DCM in deriving the membership functions and discrete-event simulations (DES) in predicting the period embracing the initiation and termination time-points of the next psychotic episode of 35 individual schizophrenic patients. The results showed that 21 subjects had a success of simulations (RSS) ≥70%. Further analysis demonstrated that the co-morbidity of coronary heart diseases (CHD), risks of CHD, and the frequency of previous psychotic episodes increased the RSS. PMID:20703629

  2. Components of Processing Deficit Among Paranoid and Nonparanoid Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Richard W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics were compared to normals in their performance on a sentence verification task. Results were related to past evidence and hypotheses about central processing performance among schizophrenics. (Editor/RK)

  3. On a disturbance of affectivity in schizophrenic adolescents: implications for affect theory.

    PubMed

    Siomopoulos, G

    1980-01-01

    As recently as 1969 Loeb stated, "Not only has adolescent schizophrenia been largely ignored by the clinician and research worker but until recent years the entire subject of adolescence had received scant attention" (p. 462). Since that time, a number of investigators have attended to similarities and differences between the schizophrenic syndrome, as a whole, and schizophrenia as it appears in adolescence. One of the findings that has been alluded to by some authors concerns the notion that affect is less severely disturbed, especially in the dimension of affective responsiveness, in adolescent schizophrenics (Sands, 1956). Observations by the author and others suggest that greater attention be paid to the variety of affectivity to delineate this area of symptomatology, which both Kraepelin and Bleuler considered so fundamental and typical in their designations of dementia praecox and schizophrenia. Indeed the purpose of this study concerns the description and dynamic understanding of a typical disturbance of affectivity in adolescent schizophrenics. This disturbance is characterized by a quality of affective communication in which the patient relates to the people around him in a superficial, socially acceptable, receptionist-like manner which induces in the observer the impression that the individual's genuine feelings are not prominent. For want of a better term, we may designate this affective state "airline-hostess affectivity" (A.H.A.). The disturbance is not exclusive to adolescent schizophrenics but can also be observed in young adults too before a phase of chronic adaptation to the schizophrenic process. PMID:7369002

  4. A STUDY OF COPING WITH AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY The general orientation and activities involved in coping with auditory hallucinations were examined in 30 schizophrenics. Age, personality dimensions, duration of illness, position, loudness and pitch of the voice and interference with activities of patients by the voice were associated with the general orientation. Systematic coping behavior was useful. Socio-economic status and degree of interference with activities were associated with the choice of useful orientation. Manipulation of arousal and control of attention were beneficial. Neuroticism, interference due to voice, emotional intensity during the voice, ‘third person’ voices and anticipation of voice were related to suicidal ideas. PMID:21965990

  5. Associative intrusions in the verbal behavior of the first-degree relatives of adult schizophrenics. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Callahan, L A; Saccuzzo, D P

    1986-04-01

    The first-degree blood relatives of schizophrenics were compared to a matched control group on a psychometrically matched test of responsiveness to associative intrusions. The groups differed on the subtest containing an associative alternative but not on the equally difficult subtest free of associative distractors. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that an overresponsiveness to associative distractors, well documented in schizophrenics, may also be a characteristic of their nondisturbed first degree blood relatives. The possible existence of cognitive markers in the relatives of schizophrenic patients that might indicate familial psychopathology was supported. Limitations of the present preliminary findings, as well as the case for additional investigation of the cognitive behavior of the first-degree relatives of schizophrenics, are discussed. PMID:3958705

  6. Prospective memory deficits in subjects with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a comparison study with schizophrenic subjects, psychometrically defined schizotypal subjects, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K; Xin Yu; Shi, Chuan; Cui, Jifang; Deng, Yongyu

    2008-11-01

    Memory impairment is one of the core deficits in schizophrenia. This study explored the memory profiles of schizophrenic and psychometrically defined schizotypal subjects. The study participants included 15 patients with schizophrenia, 41 schizotypal subjects, and 20 healthy controls. All of the participants completed verbal and visual memory, working memory, and prospective memory tasks. The results showed that patients with schizophrenia were impaired in all aspects of memory function, whereas the schizotypal subjects tended to show moderate to large impairment effect sizes in prospective memory. It is suggested that prospective memory be considered a potential endophenotype of schizophrenia. PMID:17719206

  7. The appreciation of imagery by schizophrenics: an interpretation of Goldstein's impairment of the abstract attitude.

    PubMed

    Cutting, J; Ryan, K

    1982-08-01

    Three experiments are reported in which schizophrenics are compared with other psychiatric patients on (i) the imagery value of words in their speech, (ii) their memory for words differing in imagery value, and (iii) their ability to distinguish the imagery value of two words. The study was designed to evaluate a neglected interpretation of Goldstein's ideas that schizophrenics are more concrete, in that their 'action is determined by momentary sense impressions'. The results gave no support for this interpretation and it is suggested that an abnormal way of categorizing the world is more likely to be a useful way of formulating Goldstein's ideas. PMID:7134315

  8. Anabolic steroids and acute schizophrenic episode.

    PubMed

    Annitto, W J; Layman, W A

    1980-04-01

    The use of anabolic steroids by athletes to increase physical performance has vastly increased over the last 10 years. A case is described which temporally relates the use of these organic compounds with the development of an acute schizophreniform illness. The dearth of literature on this particular "side-effect" is noted, as are the diagnostic implications vis-a-vis anabolic steroids and the anamnestic interview in an athlete who presents with an acute schizophrenic mental status examination. Recommendation is made to consider this "side-effect" in differential diagnosis of schizophrenic episode. PMID:7364737

  9. Patterns of brain activity in normals and schizophrenics with positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Brodie, J.D.; Canero, R.; Van Gelder, P.; Russell, J.A.G.

    1985-05-01

    The authors investigated the functional interaction among brain areas under baseline and upon activation by a visual task to compare the response of normal subjects from the ones of chronic schizophrenics. Cerebral metabolic images were obtained on twelve healthy volunteers an eighteen schizophrenics with positron emission tomography and 11-C-Deoxyglucose. Correlation coefficients among the relative metabolic values (region of interest divided by the average of whole brain gray matter) of 11 brain regions; frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital left and right lobes, left and right basal ganglia and thalamus were computed for the baseline and for the task. Under baseline, normals showed more functional correlations than schizophrenics. Both groups showed a thalamo-occipital (positive) and thalamo-frontal (negative) interaction. The highest correlations among homologous brain areas were the frontal, occipital and basal ganglia.

  10. Validity of the Schizophrenia Diagnosis of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA): A Comparison of Schizophrenic Patients with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linaker, Olav M.; Helle, Jon

    1994-01-01

    This study found that the schizophrenia subscale of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults was a valid quantitative measure of schizophrenia if one item was removed from the scale. Comparison with a nonretarded population indicated that mentally retarded patients had less delusions and more incoherence and flat affect. They…

  11. A Study of Variables Related to Conditionability of Verbal Behavior in Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorkey, Clayton Thomas

    Some 80, white, schizophrenic patients were administered the Taylor Personality Scale of Manifest Anxiety (MAS), the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and were tested on an operant conditioning task. Hypotheses tested were: (1) effectiveness of social reinforcement (verbal approval) on a verbal conditioning task would be enhanced by subjecting…

  12. Reduced haloperidol/haloperidol ratios after oral haloperidol and decanoate administration in schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Chang, W H; Lin, S K; Juang, D J; Chen, L C; Yang, C H; Hu, W H; Chien, C P; Lam, Y F; Jann, M W

    1993-01-01

    1. Haloperidol and reduced haloperidol plasma concentrations were measured in thirteen stable schizophrenic patients that received both oral haloperidol and haloperidol decanoate. 2. Significant correlations between reduced haloperidol/haloperidol ratios from oral haloperidol and haloperidol decanoate occurred at week two and week 16, respectively. 3. The formation of RH was consistent during haloperidol decanoate treatment. PMID:8416597

  13. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 Gene Polymorphisms in Schizophrenic Patients with Neuroleptic Drug-Induced Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, S A; Filipenko, M L; Vyalova, N M; Voronina, E N; Pozhidaev, I V; Osmanova, D Z; Ivanov, M V; Fedorenko, O Yu; Semke, A V; Bokhan, N A

    2016-03-01

    Polymorphic variants of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 genes of the cytochrome P450 system were studied in patients with schizophrenia with drug-induced motor disorders and hyperprolactinemia against the background of long-term neuroleptic therapy. We revealed an association of polymorphic variant C-163A CYP1A2*1F of CYP1A2 gene with tardive dyskinesia and association of polymorphic variant 1846G>A CY2D6*4 and genotype A/A of CYP2D6 gene (responsible for debrisoquin-4-hydroxylase synthesis) with limbotruncal tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia receiving neuroleptics for a long time. PMID:27021090

  14. The Schizophrenic Brain: Rewriting the Chapter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joel

    1979-01-01

    Evidence of last two decades indicates schizophrenic disorders related to imbalance of brain chemicals. Recent discovery made of association between chronic schizophrenia and variety of structural abnormalities. Included are frontal lobe reversal and accipital lobe reversal. Computer tomography scans and data presented. (SA)

  15. Comment on Differentiating Paranoid From Nonparanoid Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, James F.

    1971-01-01

    Three methods of differentiating paranoid from nonparanoid schizophrenics were compared using 97 males from a Veterans Administration hospital. Official hospital diagnosis and behavior ratings were found to be significantly correlated, while self-report correlated with neither of the other two techniques. Implications for research are briefly…

  16. Prodromal Signs and Symptoms of Schizophrenic Relapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

    Increasing evidence that decompensation into acute psychosis by schizophrenics can often be avoided with active pharmacological and psychosocial intervention at the early signs of relapse has stimulated research into the signs and symptoms prodromal to acute psychosis. In this study, 6-week periods prior to 17 psychotic relapses and to 11 relapses…

  17. [Do the effects of inpatient vocational therapy and ergotherapy approaches differ in schizophrenic patients? Results of a controlled multicenter study of the german research network on schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Längle, Gerhard; Bayer, Wiltrud; Köster, Margitta; Salize, Hans Joachim; Höhl, Werner; Machleidt, Wielant; Wiedl, Karl H; Buchkremer, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    For some decades, vocational therapy approaches have been an integral part of inpatient psychiatric treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Like most sociotherapeutic measures, they are largely hypothesis-based. So far, their effectiveness has been subjected to very little scientific scrutiny. The results of a multicenter study in which five vocational therapy models were compared with creativity-oriented ergotherapy in a prospective, randomized control group design are presented. Target criteria were job-relevant skills, psychopathology, general level of functioning, quality of life, self-efficacy, and speed of cognitive performance. 227 patients were enrolled in the study, which was carried out within the framework of the German Research Network on Schizophrenia funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Multicenter analyses in a pre-post comparison revealed only minimum differences between the experimental and the control group over a four-week intervention period. Job-oriented approaches cannot currently be assumed to be superior to creativity-oriented ergotherapy. PMID:16389581

  18. Comparisons of methamphetamine psychotic and schizophrenic symptoms: a differential item functioning analysis.

    PubMed

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Wada, Kiyoshi; Marsden, John; Ali, Robert; Kongsakon, Ronnachai

    2011-06-01

    The concept of negative symptoms in methamphetamine (MA) psychosis (e.g., poverty of speech, flatten affect, and loss of drive) is still uncertain. This study aimed to use differential item functioning (DIF) statistical techniques to differentiate the severity of psychotic symptoms between MA psychotic and schizophrenic patients. Data of MA psychotic and schizophrenic patients were those of the participants in the WHO Multi-Site Project on Methamphetamine-Induced Psychosis (or WHO-MAIP study) and the Risperidone Long-Acting Injection in Thai Schizophrenic Patients (or RLAI-Thai study), respectively. To confirm the unidimensionality of psychotic syndromes, we applied the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) on the eight items of Manchester scale. We conducted the DIF analysis of psychotic symptoms observed in both groups by using nonparametric kernel-smoothing techniques of item response theory. A DIF composite index of 0.30 or greater indicated the difference of symptom severity. The analyses included the data of 168 MA psychotic participants and the baseline data of 169 schizophrenic patients. For both data sets, the EFA and CFA suggested a three-factor model of the psychotic symptoms, including negative syndrome (poverty of speech, psychomotor retardation and flatten/incongruous affect), positive syndrome (delusions, hallucinations and incoherent speech) and anxiety/depression syndrome (anxiety and depression). The DIF composite indexes comparing the severity differences of all eight psychotic symptoms were lower than 0.3. The results suggest that, at the same level of syndrome severity (i.e., negative, positive, and anxiety/depression syndromes), the severity of psychotic symptoms, including the negative ones, observed in MA psychotic and schizophrenic patients are almost the same. PMID:21277930

  19. [Pregnancy and maternity of a schizophrenic patient].

    PubMed

    Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Halmesmäki, Erja; Sailas, Eila; Suvisaari, Jaana; Gissler, Mika; Maim, Heli; Lindberg, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Aspects to be taken into consideration in the total care of women of reproductive age and affected with schizophrenia include possible contraception, pharmacological therapy during pregnancy and need for support in parenthood. Compared with other pregnant women, those affected with schizophrenia are older, are more frequently smokers during pregnancy and more often neglect health monitoring during pregnancy. Schizophrenia predisposes for preterm delivery, miscarriage and lower Apgar score of the infant. In regard to parenthood, the effects of the illness itself or the prescribed medication on the interactive mother-child relationship may emerge as problematic issues. PMID:26951028

  20. [Recovery of intersubjectivity and empathy in schizophrenics: through a characteristic type of friendship "frolicking"].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshiko

    2003-01-01

    The author has noticed a characteristic form of close, frolicsome friendship between recovering adolescent schizophrenic patients. It occurs in groups of young patients in a psychiatric clinic and in a day-care institution. Through this type of friendship, their intersubjectivity, ability for empathy and human relations develop, essential changes for the amelioration of schizophrenia. It is characterized by 1 A mutual relationship on equal terms with another schizophrenic patient of the same sex and generation; particularly close friendship between two patients, or sometimes several patients who form a group, spending much time together. 2 Playful, childish behavior, jokes and jests; Patients laugh and make others laugh, playing together. 3 Touching the friends' bodies and coordinated playing such as dancing and singing together. 4 Chatting and having common interests, along with sharing various experiences. 5 Enjoyment with so much energy that sometimes, as in a gang, social norms are contravened. 6 Being a transient phenomenon that ends naturally after a certain period. Through such friendship, the adolescents show mental growth compared with their premorbid state. They come to sympathize with others' feelings and willingly cooperate. Their social relationships and spheres of activity expand, and spontaneity and self-esteem become improved. They come to assert themselves adequately, tolerate stress, and conform to social norms. Moreover, they advance to developing a purpose. e.g. work. To be able to have empathy through friendship with those of the same sex and generation is a basic developmental theme generally seen in childhood and pre-adolescence. Such friendship between the patients studied represents benign regression in such a developmental period. This type of friendship is characterized by a frolicsome and playful atmosphere. Frolicking by means of jokes, jests and body-touching, and play with coordinated acts lead to the sharing of emotions and

  1. Drug Treated Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective and Bipolar Disorder Patients Evaluated by qEEG Absolute Spectral Power and Mean Frequency Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wix-Ramos, Richard; Moreno, Xiomara; Capote, Eduardo; González, Gilbert; Uribe, Ezequiel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research of electroencephalograph (EEG) power spectrum and mean frequency has shown inconsistent results in patients with schizophrenic, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders during medication when compared to normal subjects thus; the characterization of these parameters is an important task. Methods We applied quantitative EEG (qEEG) to investigate 38 control, 15 schizophrenic, 7 schizoaffective and 11 bipolar disorder subjects which remaine under the administration of psychotropic drugs (except control group). Absolute spectral power (ASP), mean frequency and hemispheric electrical asymmetry were measured by 19 derivation qEEG. Group mean values were compared with non parametrical Mann-Whitney test and spectral EEG maps with z-score method at p < 0.05. Results Most frequent drug treatments for schizophrenic patients were neuroleptic+antiepileptic (40% of cases) or 2 neuroleptics (33.3%). Schizoaffective patients received neuroleptic+benzodiazepine (71.4%) and for bipolar disorder patients neuroleptic+antiepileptic (81.8%). Schizophrenic (at all derivations except for Fp1, Fp2, F8 and T6) and schizoaffective (only at C3) show higher values of ASP (+57.7% and +86.1% respectively) compared to control group. ASP of bipolar disorder patients did not show differences against control group. The mean frequency was higher at Fp1 (+14.2%) and Fp2 (+17.4%) in bipolar disorder patients than control group, but no differences were found in frequencies between schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients against the control group. Majority of spectral differences were found at the left hemisphere in schizophrenic and schizoaffective but not in bipolar disorder subjects. Conclusion The present report contributes to characterize quantitatively the qEEG in drug treated schizophrenic, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder patients. PMID:24851121

  2. [Insight into illness and compliance in schizophrenic disorders].

    PubMed

    Zsolt, Juhász Levente; György, Bartkó

    2006-01-01

    Poor insight into illness is a characteristic and common phenomenon in schizophrenic disorders. Lack of insight may lead to poor clinical outcome, thus, research focused on this phenomenon could help develop effective treatment strategies. The relationship between compliance with treatment and insight is complex and it may be influenced mostly by specific components of insight. The aim of the present study was to review the current definitions of insight, the tools and questionnaires used for its measurement, as well as the relationship between insight and psychopathological symptoms. Three theoretical models developed for the explanation of impaired insight are described; the Psychological Defence Model, the Cognitive Deficit Model, and the Neuropsychological Deficit Model. The neurocognitive bases of impaired insight is given special attention in this article. Administration of second generation antipsychotics and psychosocial interventions (psychoeducation with problem solving procedures and motivating techniques) can improve insight, and enhance compliance with treatment, thus, optimizing long-term therapeutic outcome for schizophrenia patients. PMID:17438658

  3. Medication, Logic, and Schizophrenic Thinking: A Reply to Marini

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, D. Y. F.

    1976-01-01

    In answer to a critique, the author argues that although most of the schizophrenic subjects in the original research were receiving medication, this does not negate the conclusion that the thinking pathology found in schizophrenics cannot be accounted for by positing a basic defect in their deductive reasoning processes. (MS)

  4. ER Docs Only Ask Half of Suicidal Patients about Guns, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... Docs Only Ask Half of Suicidal Patients About Guns, Study Shows Finding points to missed chances to ... EDs) are asked if they have access to guns, a new study finds. National guidelines say doctors ...

  5. Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK) and South Africa (SA), in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p < 0.05). For the microsatellite stable tumors, geographical origin of the patients correlated with cluster membership, derived from unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (p = 0.001). Several chromosomal alterations showed significantly different frequencies in tumors from UK patients and native SA patients, but not between UK and Caucasian SA patients and between native and Caucasian SA patients. Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy. PMID:21226972

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Candida isolates from AIDS patients showing different fluconazole resistance profiles.

    PubMed Central

    Lischewski, A; Ruhnke, M; Tennagen, I; Schönian, G; Morschhäuser, J; Hacker, J

    1995-01-01

    Thirty Candida isolates obtained from the oropharynxes of three AIDS patients were genotypically characterized. In vitro fluconazole MIC determination revealed increasing fluconazole resistances during treatment, thereby confirming the in vivo situation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis karyotyping, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, and hybridizations with Candida albicans repetitive element 2 were used to determine possible genotypic changes. The isolates from two patients showed genetic homogeneity, suggesting the selection for resistant variants. One patient experienced a strain switch to Candida krusei. Horizontal spread of identical strains between the patients could be excluded. However, the molecular methods used might not be sufficient to detect the underlying genetic basis of resistance to fluconazole. PMID:7751395

  7. Gross and histological criteria for developmental disorders in brains of schizophrenics.

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, H; Beckmann, H

    1989-01-01

    Autopsy findings and examination of histological sections from 12 schizophrenic patients and from age-matched, non-schizophrenic controls were enlarged and confirmed our previous study. Four subgroups were differentiated with gross abnormalities, in most cases with asymmetry of the temporal sulcal gyral pattern. Two types of macroscopical deviations are described. Different periods of developmental termination, concerning the sulcal gyral pattern of the temporal lobe, suggest a period in which the disturbance of the development originated which coincides with a probably genetically-induced disturbed migration in the entorhinal region toward the end of the fifth month. It is thought that the parahippocampal or entorhinal area develops differently, space- and time-wise. This may explain why migratory disturbances particularly occur in this precisely limited area. The findings in the ventral insular area are discussed, together with factors which also suggest a developmental disorder. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. a Figure 2. ac Figure 2. b Figure 2. bc PMID:2674429

  8. Patient No-Show Predictive Model Development using Multiple Data Sources for an Effective Overbooking Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Patient no-shows in outpatient delivery systems remain problematic. The negative impacts include underutilized medical resources, increased healthcare costs, decreased access to care, and reduced clinic efficiency and provider productivity. Objective To develop an evidence-based predictive model for patient no-shows, and thus improve overbooking approaches in outpatient settings to reduce the negative impact of no-shows. Methods Ten years of retrospective data were extracted from a scheduling system and an electronic health record system from a single general pediatrics clinic, consisting of 7,988 distinct patients and 104,799 visits along with variables regarding appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the impact of variables on show or no-show status. Logistic regression was used to develop a no-show predictive model, which was then used to construct an algorithm to determine the no-show threshold that calculates a predicted show/no-show status. This approach aims to overbook an appointment where a scheduled patient is predicted to be a no-show. The approach was compared with two commonly-used overbooking approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness in terms of patient wait time, physician idle time, overtime and total cost. Results From the training dataset, the optimal error rate is 10.6% with a no-show threshold being 0.74. This threshold successfully predicts the validation dataset with an error rate of 13.9%. The proposed overbooking approach demonstrated a significant reduction of at least 6% on patient waiting, 27% on overtime, and 3% on total costs compared to other common flat-overbooking methods. Conclusions This paper demonstrates an alternative way to accommodate overbooking, accounting for the prediction of an individual patient’s show/no-show status. The predictive no-show model leads to a dynamic overbooking policy that could improve patient

  9. EEG and autonomic arousal measures in schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Joseph, C

    1989-04-01

    EEG and autonomic indices were measured in basal, tonic, and phasic conditions in order to delineate the nature of arousal dysfunction in schizophrenics as compared to normals. The experimental procedure involved six continuous recording sessions consisting of a basal recording before and after four experimental series. Sequentially, these were the visual nonsignal (VNS), the auditory nonsignal (ANS), the visual signal (VS), and the auditory signal (AS) series. The main findings indicated significant differences between the two groups in cardiovascular indices during the basal and tonic conditions and in the EEG and EMG indices of phasic response. These results suggest a dysfunction of basal and tonic autonomic arousal and a modulatory impairement of the central phasic arousal reaction. The findings are in accordance with the two arousal hypothesis postulated by Routtenberg (1968) and disconfirm the unitary concept of arousal for the explanation of psychophysiological abnormality in schizophrenia. PMID:2744968

  10. A Patient with Idiopathic Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis Showing a Sustained Pulmonary Function due to Treatment with Pirfenidone.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seidai; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Mikiko; Fukuda, Yuh; Morizumi, Shun; Toyoda, Yuko; Goto, Hisatsugu; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 68-year-old man presenting with body weight loss and exertional dyspnea. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed dense subpleural consolidation with traction bronchiectasis and volume loss predominantly in bilateral apical lesions and upper lobes. A histopathological analysis of a specimen of the right upper lobe showed histological patterns which were consistent with idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastotis (IPPFE). Treatment with pirfenidone was introduced with the expectation of its potential benefit. The effect of pirfenidone was satisfactory, and a decline in forced vital capacity was inhibited during treatment. This is the first case report suggesting the efficacy of pirfenidone for patients with IPPFE. PMID:26935370

  11. Torque and Schizophrenic Vulnerability: As the World Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Theodore H.

    1977-01-01

    Based upon reports of parents and guardians, with subjects at an average age of 21 years, it was found that 11 of the youngsters who had exhibited torque had in the interim been diagnosed as schizophrenic. (Author)

  12. The fear of object loss, responsiveness to subliminal stimuli, and schizophrenic psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Litwack, T R; Wiedemann, C F; Yager, J

    1979-02-01

    Thirty schizophrenic patients were seen individually for three sessions in a balanced design. In each session, following subliminal stimulation with a neutral stimulus, a baseline assessment of pathology was made. Then, in different sessions, in counterbalanced order, each patient received one of three experimental (or "critical") stimuli: a) a neutral control stimulus; b) a message--CANNIBAL EATS PERSON--intended to activate aggressive ideation; c) a message--I AM LOSING MOMMY--intended to activate fantasies of object loss. Each of these conditions was followed by an initial and later assessment of pathology, and finally by a measure of the patients' sense of differentiation from a mothering figure. In the final session other measures were also obtained, including each patient's conscious association to the critical stimuli when presented supraliminally. The major results were: a) as in previous experiments, the subliminal aggressive message intensified pathology and aggressive ideation--especially for relatively undifferentiated and relatively nondefended patients; b) subliminal stimulation of fantasies of object loss also increased pathology--especially for nondefended patients--and also increased the patients' sense of merging with the mothering object; c) the patients' response to subliminal stimuli--including presumably neutral ones--was a function of the conscious meaning(s) of such stimuli. It was concluded that: a) the threat of object loss (real or fantasied) may be one of the motivations supporting the development of pathology in schizophrenics; b) the activation of fantasies of aggressive destruction can exacerbate schizophrenic pathology--perhaps by activating fantasies of object loss; c) future research with subliminal stimulation should consider carefully the differential responsiveness of subjects to the content of particular messages. PMID:762544

  13. How to handle patients who miss appointments or show up late.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2009-01-01

    Patients who don't show for their appointments or who come late can take a toll on your practice's bottom line and become a huge stressor. This article offers practical suggestions for preventing unnecessary broken, missed, and late appointments and for dealing effectively both with first- and repeat offenders. It provides a 10-question quiz you can take to assess and improve your current patient attendance policies. This article then divides missed appointments into three categories-cancelled, broken, and no-show appointments-and describes effective strategies for dealing with each of them. It suggests policies to use with repeat attendance offenders, including sample language medical practices can use, and offers guidelines ultimately for dismissing those who miss appointments chronically. Finally, this article explores the reasons patients often miss appointments and strategies medical practices can use to prevent and minimize them. PMID:20073172

  14. [Evaluation of efficacy and tolerance of amisulpride in treatment of schizophrenic psychoses].

    PubMed

    Chabannes, J P; Pelissolo, A; Farah, S; Gerard, D

    1998-01-01

    the study, with 21% of patients reporting adverse events, in majority psychiatric or endocrine disturbances. Only seven adverse events were assessed as serious. Extra pyramidal symptoms remained low during the study, as measured with Simpson-Angus scale. The EAPS scale showed a significant improvement of social adaptation during the treatment, with a sustained response during the 3-month follow-up period. In conclusion, 600-1 200 mg/d of amisulpride is an effective and well tolerated treatment of schizophrenic disorders, as demonstrated through this 3-month study carried in a large sample of 445 patients. Besides results suggest that under treatment with amisulpride in schizophrenic patients patients' ability to social adaptation can be improved, which could facilitate their rehabilitation. PMID:9809244

  15. Adjunctive α-lipoic acid reduces weight gain compared with placebo at 12 weeks in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Wook; Song, Yul-Mai; Kim, Eosu; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Jin Young

    2016-09-01

    α-Lipoic acid (ALA) has been reported to be effective in reducing body weight in rodents and obese patients. Our previous open trial showed that ALA may play a role in reducing weight gain in patients with schizophrenia on atypical antipsychotics. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ALA in reducing weight and BMI in patients with schizophrenia who had experienced significant weight gain since taking atypical antipsychotics. In a 12-week, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, 22 overweight and clinically stable patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to receive ALA or placebo. ALA was administered at 600-1800 mg, as tolerated. Weight, BMI, abdomen fat area measured by computed tomography, and metabolic values were determined. Adverse effects were also assessed to examine safety. Overall, 15 patients completed 12 weeks of treatment. There was significant weight loss and decreased visceral fat levels in the ALA group compared with the placebo group. There were no instances of psychopathologic aggravation or severe ALA-associated adverse effects. ALA was effective in reducing weight and abdominal obesity in patients with schizophrenia who had experienced significant weight gain since beginning an atypical antipsychotic regimen. Moreover, ALA was well tolerated throughout this study. ALA might play an important role as an adjunctive treatment in decreasing obesity in patients who take atypical antipsychotics. PMID:27276401

  16. MRI volumetry shows increased anterior thalamic volumes in patients with absence seizures.

    PubMed

    Betting, Luiz Eduardo; Mory, Susana Barreto; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Li, Li Min; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Guerreiro, Carlos A M; Cendes, Fernando

    2006-05-01

    The interaction between thalamus and cortex appears to be critical to the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs). The objective of this study was to investigate thalamic volumes of a group of patients with IGEs using high-resolution MRI. Thalamic segmentation was performed by the same rater, who was unaware of the diagnosis. Thalamic volumes were divided into anterior half and posterior half. One hundred forty-seven patients were scanned (71 with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, 49 with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only, and 27 with absence epilepsy). Subgroup analyses with corrections for multiple comparisons showed that, when compared with those of controls, anterior thalamic volumes were increased in patients with absence epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy with absence seizures, but not in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy without absence seizures. Our results demonstrated that the anterior thalamus is structurally different in patients with IGEs and absence seizures as compared with patients with IGEs without absence seizures. PMID:16530016

  17. Platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peitl, Vjekoslav; Vidrih, Branka; Karlović, Zoran; Getaldić, Biserka; Peitl, Milena; Karlović, Dalibor

    2016-05-30

    Depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia, but so far they have received less attention than other symptom domains. Impaired serotonergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia. The objectives of this study were to investigate platelet serotonin concentrations in schizophrenic patients with and without depressive symptoms, and to investigate the association between platelet serotonin concentrations and symptoms of schizophrenia, mostly depressive symptoms. A total of 364 patients were included in the study, 237 of which had significant depressive symptoms. Significant depressive symptoms were defined by the cut-off score of 7 or more on Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDSS). Platelet serotonin concentrations were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prevalence of depression in patients with schizophrenia was 65.1%. Schizophrenic patients with depressive symptoms showed lower platelet serotonin concentrations (mean±SD; 490.6±401.2) compared to schizophrenic patients without depressive symptoms (mean±SD; 660.9±471.5). An inverse correlation was established between platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms, with more severe symptoms being associated with lower platelet serotonin concentrations. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be associated with reduced concentrations of platelet serotonin. PMID:27137969

  18. LINE-1 methylation shows little intra-patient heterogeneity in primary and synchronous metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Long interspersed nucleotide element 1 (LINE-1) hypomethylation is suggested to play a role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). To assess intra-patient heterogeneity of LINE-1 methylation in CRC and to understand its biological relevance in invasion and metastasis, we evaluated the LINE-1 methylation at multiple tumor sites. In addition, the influence of stromal cell content on the measurement of LINE-1 methylation in tumor tissue was analyzed. Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary tumor tissue was obtained from 48 CRC patients. Matched adjacent normal colon tissue, lymph node metastases and distant metastases were obtained from 12, 18 and 7 of these patients, respectively. Three different areas were microdissected from each primary tumor and included the tumor center and invasive front. Normal mucosal and stromal cells were also microdissected for comparison with the tumor cells. The microdissected samples were compared in LINE-1 methylation level measured by multicolor MethyLight assay. The assay results were also compared between microdissected and macrodissected tissue samples. Results LINE-1 methylation within primary tumors showed no significant intra-tumoral heterogeneity, with the tumor center and invasive front showing identical methylation levels. Moreover, no difference in LINE-1 methylation was observed between the primary tumor and lymph node and distant metastases from the same patient. Tumor cells showed significantly less LINE-1 methylation compared to adjacent stromal and normal mucosal epithelial cells. Consequently, LINE-1 methylation was significantly lower in microdissected samples compared to macrodissected samples. A trend for less LINE-1 methylation was also observed in more advanced stages of CRC. Conclusions LINE-1 methylation shows little intra-patient tumor heterogeneity, indicating the suitability of its use for molecular diagnosis in CRC. The methylation is relatively stable during CRC progression

  19. Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients Show Accumulation of Genetic Variants in PARS2

    PubMed Central

    Henmyr, Viktor; Lind-Halldén, Christina; Halldén, Christer; Säll, Torbjörn; Carlberg, Daniel; Bachert, Claus; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have identified a total of 53 CRS-associated SNPs that were subsequently evaluated for their reproducibility in a recent study. The rs2873551 SNP in linkage disequilibrium with PARS2 showed the strongest association signal. The present study aims to comprehensively screen for rare variants in PARS2 and evaluate for accumulation of such variants in CRS-patients. Sanger sequencing and long-range PCR were used to screen for rare variants in the putative promoter region and coding sequence of 310 CRS-patients and a total of 21 variants were detected. The mutation spectrum was then compared with data from European populations of the 1000Genomes project (EUR) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). The CRS population showed a significant surplus of low-frequency variants compared with ExAC data. Haplotype analysis of the region showed a significant excess of rare haplotypes in the CRS population compared to the EUR population. Two missense mutations were also genotyped in the 310 CRS patients and 372 CRS-negative controls, but no associations with the disease were found. This is the first re-sequencing study in CRS research and also the first study to show an association of rare variants with the disease. PMID:27348859

  20. Patients with Parkinson's Disease Show Impaired Use of Priors in Conditions of Sensory Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Alessandra; Ditterich, Jochen; Basso, Michele A

    2016-07-25

    Perceptual decisions arise after considering the available sensory evidence [1]. When sensory information is unreliable, a good strategy is to rely on previous experience in similar situations to guide decisions [2-6]. It is well known that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired at value-based decision-making [7-11]. How patients combine past experience and sensory information to make perceptual decisions is unknown. We developed a novel, perceptual decision-making task and manipulated the statistics of the sensory stimuli presented to patients with PD and healthy participants to determine the influence of past experience on decision-making. We show that patients with PD are impaired at combining previously learned information with current sensory information to guide decisions. We modeled the results using the drift-diffusion model (DDM) and found that the impairment corresponds to a failure in adjusting the amount of sensory evidence needed to make a decision. Our modeling results also show that two complementary mechanisms operate to implement a bias when two sets of priors are learned concurrently. Asymmetric decision threshold adjustments, as reflected by changes in the starting point of evidence accumulation, are responsible for a general choice bias, whereas the adjustment of a dynamic bias that develops over the course of a trial, as reflected by a drift-rate offset, provides the stimulus-specific component of the prior. A proper interplay between these two processes is required to implement a bias based on concurrent, stimulus-specific priors in decision-making. We show here that patients with PD are impaired in these across-trial decision threshold adjustments. PMID:27322000

  1. Provider portrayals and patient-provider communication in drama and reality medical entertainment television shows.

    PubMed

    Jain, Parul; Slater, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Portrayals of physicians on medical dramas have been the subject of research attention. However, such research has not examined portrayals of interactions between physicians and patients, has not compared physician portrayals on medical dramas versus on medical reality programs, and has not fully examined portrayals of physicians who are members of minority groups or who received their education internationally. This study content-analyzes 101 episodes (85 hours) of such programs broadcast during the 2006-2007 viewing season. Findings indicate that women are underrepresented as physicians on reality shows, though they are no longer underrepresented as physicians on dramas. However, they are not as actively portrayed in patient-care interactions as are male physicians on medical dramas. Asians and international medical graduates are underrepresented relative to their proportion in the U.S. physician population, the latter by almost a factor of 5. Many (but certainly not all) aspects of patient-centered communication are modeled, more so on reality programs than on medical dramas. Differences in patient-provider communication portrayals by minority status and gender are reported. Implications for public perception of physicians and expectations regarding provider-patient interaction are discussed. PMID:23581602

  2. Cytokine profiles show heterogeneity of interferon-β response in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Hegen, Harald; Adrianto, Indra; Lessard, Christopher J.; Millonig, Alban; Bertolotto, Antonio; Comabella, Manuel; Giovannoni, Gavin; Guger, Michael; Hoelzl, Martina; Khalil, Michael; Fazekas, Franz; Killestein, Joep; Lindberg, Raija L.P.; Malucchi, Simona; Mehling, Matthias; Montalban, Xavier; Rudzki, Dagmar; Schautzer, Franz; Sellebjerg, Finn; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Deisenhammer, Florian; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate serum cytokine profiles for their utility to determine the heterogeneous responses to interferon (IFN)–β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome receiving de novo IFN-β treatment were included in this prospective, observational study. Number of relapses and changes in disability were assessed 2 years prior to and 2 years after initiation of treatment. Sera were collected at baseline and after 3 months on therapy. Cytokine levels in sera were assessed by Luminex multiplex assays. Baseline cytokine profiles were grouped by hierarchical clustering analysis. Demographic features, changes in cytokines, and clinical outcome were then assessed in the clustered patient groups. Results: A total of 157 patients were included in the study and clustered into 6 distinct subsets by baseline cytokine profiles. These subsets differed significantly in their clinical and biological response to IFN-β therapy. Two subsets were associated with patients who responded poorly to therapy. Two other subsets, associated with a good response to therapy, showed a significant reduction in relapse rates and no worsening of disability. Each subset also had differential changes in cytokine levels after 3 months of IFN-β treatment. Conclusions: There is heterogeneity in the immunologic pathways of the RRMS population, which correlates with IFN-β response. PMID:26894205

  3. Multimodal neuroimaging in patients with disorders of consciousness showing "functional hemispherectomy".

    PubMed

    Bruno, M A; Fernández-Espejo, D; Lehembre, R; Tshibanda, L; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Gosseries, O; Lommers, E; Napolitani, M; Noirhomme, Q; Boly, M; Papa, M; Owen, A; Maquet, P; Laureys, S; Soddu, A

    2011-01-01

    Beside behavioral assessment of patients with disorders of consciousness, neuroimaging modalities may offer objective paraclinical markers important for diagnosis and prognosis. They provide information on the structural location and extent of brain lesions (e.g., morphometric MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI-MRI) assessing structural connectivity) but also their functional impact (e.g., metabolic FDG-PET, hemodynamic fMRI, and EEG measurements obtained in "resting state" conditions). We here illustrate the role of multimodal imaging in severe brain injury, presenting a patient in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS; i.e., vegetative state, VS) and in a "fluctuating" minimally conscious state (MCS). In both cases, resting state FDG-PET, fMRI, and EEG showed a functionally preserved right hemisphere, while DTI showed underlying differences in structural connectivity highlighting the complementarities of these neuroimaging methods in the study of disorders of consciousness. PMID:21854972

  4. Narcoleptic Patients Show Fragmented EEG-Microstructure During Early NREM Sleep.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Alena; Brodbeck, Verena; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Morzelewski, Astrid; von Wegner, Frederic; Laufs, Helmut

    2015-07-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic disorder of the sleep-wake cycle with pathological shifts between sleep stages. These abrupt shifts are induced by a sleep-regulating flip-flop mechanism which is destabilized in narcolepsy without obvious alterations in EEG oscillations. Here, we focus on the question whether the pathology of narcolepsy is reflected in EEG microstate patterns. 30 channel awake and NREM sleep EEGs of 12 narcoleptic patients and 32 healthy subjects were analyzed. Fitting back the dominant amplitude topography maps into the EEG led to a temporal sequence of maps. Mean microstate duration, ratio total time (RTT), global explained variance (GEV) and transition probability of each map were compared between both groups. Nine patients reached N1, 5 N2 and only 4 N3. All healthy subjects reached at least N2, 19 also N3. Four dominant maps could be found during wakefulness and all NREM- sleep stages in healthy subjects. During N3, narcolepsy patients showed an additional fifth map. The mean microstate duration was significantly shorter in narcoleptic patients than controls, most prominent in deep sleep. Single maps' GEV and RTT were also altered in narcolepsy. Being aware of the limitation of our low sample size, narcolepsy patients showed wake-like features during sleep as reflected in shorter microstate durations. These microstructural EEG alterations might reflect the intrusion of brain states characteristic of wakefulness into sleep and an instability of the sleep-regulating flip-flop mechanism resulting not only in pathological switches between REM- and NREM-sleep but also within NREM sleep itself, which may lead to a microstructural fragmentation of the EEG. PMID:25168255

  5. [Richard Arwed Pfeifer. Aesthetics of "schizophrenic art" and brain research].

    PubMed

    Somburg, O; Steinberg, H

    2008-11-01

    This paper concentrates on two aspects of the work of Leipzig brain researcher Richard Arwed Pfeifer (1877-1957). It has been little known that Pfeifer, like Prinzhorn, collected paintings by his schizophrenic patients. In works about these paintings, he tried to decipher their specific attraction and the possibility of differentiating artworks of sane artists from those of insane ones. From experimental research he concluded that the "demonic element" was of utmost importance, which however could temporarily be brought about by sane artists too. Trained in medicine and psychology by Wundt, Flechsig, and Niessl von Mayendorf, Pfeifer was appointed as the first associate professor of brain research in Germany in 1927. Until now he has been appreciated for reestablishing the angioarchitecture of the brain, mainly due to his works on the distribution of capillaries in the brain achieved by a particular method of injection which he developed. Moreover he contributed new findings on the interrelations of the capillaries and thus finally disproved the existence of so-called terminal arteries of Cohnheim. PMID:18690421

  6. Sensory gating deficits in parents of schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, M.; Madison, A.; Freedman, R.

    1995-12-18

    Although schizophrenia clusters in families, it is not inherited in Mendelian fashion. This suggests that there may be alternative phenotypic expressions of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia, such as more elementary physiological or biochemical defects. One proposed phenotype is impaired inhibitory gating of the auditory evoked potential to repeated stimuli. Normally, the amplitude of the P50 response to the second stimulus is significantly less than the response to the first, but this gating of response is generally impaired in schizophrenia. Clinically unaffected individuals within a pedigree who have both an ancestral and descendant history of schizophrenia may be useful for studying whether this physiological defect is a possible alternative phenotype. We have studied inhibitory gating of the auditory P50 response to pairs of auditory stimuli in 17 nuclear families. In 11, there was one parent who had another relative with a chronic psychotic illness, in addition to the schizophrenic proband. AR of the parents with family histories of schizophrenia had gating of the P50 response similar to their schizophrenia offspring, whereas only 7% of the parents without family history had gating of the P50 response in the abnormal range. These results support loss of gating of the auditory P50 wave as an inherited deficit related to schizophrenia and suggest that studies of parents may help elucidate the neurobiological expression of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Hamartomas from patients with tuberous sclerosis show loss of heterozygosity for chromosome 9q34

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.J.; Sepp, T.; Yates, J.R.W. |

    1994-09-01

    We have previously shown allele loss in hamartomas from cases of tuberous sclerosis (TSC) for markers in the region of the recently characterized TSC2 gene on chromosome 16p13.3. Germline deletions in the TSC2 gene have been shown in 5% of patients with TSC. These data strongly suggest that the TSC2 gene acts as a tumor suppressor gene. We hypothesised that hamartomas from patients with TSC can also show allele loss for markers on chromosome 9q34 in the region of the TSC1 gene. We studied 7 hamartomas (3 renal angiomyolipomas, 3 giant cell astrocytomas, and a cardiac rhabdomyoma) from 7 cases of TSC, none of which showed allele loss for markers on chromosome 16p13.3. Eight microsatellite markers were analyzed, comprising from centromeric to telomeric, ASS - D9S64 - D9S149 -D9S150 - DBH - D9S66 - D9S114 - D9S67. Two hamartomas (one renal angiomyolipoma and one giant cell astrocytoma) showed allele loss for at least two markers. The region of allele loss involved the TSC1 locus, but did not include D9S149 or D9S67. We have shown allele loss in two of seven TSC hamartomas in the region of the TSC1 gene on 9q34. Based on this deletion mapping, we suggest that the TSC1 gene on 9a34, like the TSC2 gene, acts as a tumor suppressor gene.

  8. Do patients with different mental disorders show specific aspects of shame?

    PubMed

    Scheel, Corinna N; Bender, Caroline; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Brodführer, Anne; Matthies, Swantje; Hermann, Christiane; Geisse, Eva K; Svaldi, Jennifer; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Philipsen, Alexandra; Jacob, Gitta A

    2014-12-15

    Shame is related to several mental disorders. We assume that facets of shame, namely bodily, cognitive and existential shame, may occur in typical patterns in mental and personality disorders. An excessive level of shame may lead to psychopathological symptoms. However, a lack of shame may also lead to distress, for instance as it may facilitate violation of social norms and thus may promote interpersonal problems. In this study we investigated facets of shame in females suffering from various mental disorders and personality disorders presumably associated with specific aspects of shame. Women suffering from borderline personality disorder (BPD, n=92), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, n=86), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=17), social anxiety disorder (SAD, n=33), and a community sample (COM, n=290) completed the SHAME questionnaire, which is a newly developed instrument to assess adaptive and maladaptive aspects of shame. BPD patients reported the highest level of existential shame compared to all other groups. Compared to the controls, SAD patients displayed stronger bodily and cognitive shame, and ADHD showed lower bodily shame. As assumed, specific aspects of shame were found in different patient groups. It may be important to specifically address these specific aspects of shame in psychotherapy. PMID:25219613

  9. Biomarkers of oxidative stress in schizophrenic and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Young, J; McKinney, S B; Ross, B M; Wahle, K W J; Boyle, S P

    2007-02-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that oxidative injury exists in schizophrenia. Although it may not be the main cause, oxidative damage has been suggested to contribute to the pathophysiology and may account for deteriorating course and poor outcome in schizophrenia. A human study was undertaken, therefore, to investigate possible differences in biomarkers of DNA, lipid and protein oxidation in schizophrenic (n=16) and control subjects (n=17). Plasma vitamin C levels were also compared in both groups. Cellular DNA damage and plasma protein carbonyl levels were increased in the schizophrenic group compared to control subjects but not significantly. However, DNA damage in lymphocytes from the male schizophrenic group was significantly higher than the female group. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and plasma vitamin C levels also revealed no significant difference between the two groups under investigation, although a significant elevation in plasma vitamin C was observed in the female control group when compared to the male groups. PMID:17197163

  10. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN NEUROTICISM AND CERTAIN ASPECTS OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 schizophrenics who met the criteria of Feighner et al and were having verbal auditory hallucinations, with or without hallucinations of other varieties were chosen for the study. The relation between neuroticism scale of Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire and different aspects of the voice was examined. Neuroticism scores were positively related to the level of anxiety prior to the voice, anticipation of the voice, intensity of anger during the voice and interference with occupation and social activities of patients by the voice. PMID:21927144

  11. Evidence for a chromosome 22q susceptibility locus for some schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Pulver, A.E.; Wolyniec, P.; Nestadt, G.

    1994-09-01

    Recent reports from linkage studies suggests that in some families there may be a gene associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 22q. Given the probable heterogeneity of schizophrenia, further exploration of this region was undertaken. The region was examined for candidate genes and diseases reported to have some psychiatric manifestations. Studies were initiated to examine the the potential phenotypic and molecular similarity between schizophrenia and velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a syndrome associated with an interstitial deletion of 22q11.2. Phenotypic expression: (1) psychiatric evaluations of VCFS patients and their relatives found a high rate of DSM III-R schizophrenia in the patients and of psychotic illness in their 2nd and 3rd degree relatives. (2) 160 schizophrenic patients from the Maryland Epidemiology Sample (MES) were evaluated for the presence of typical facies seen in VCFS. Rating a 5-point scale, {open_quotes}5{close_quotes} being most likely, 15 (9.4%) were rated {open_quotes}5{close_quotes} and 27 (16.9%) were rated {open_quotes}4{close_quotes} for the VCFS-like facial features. Molecular characteristics: fluorescent in situ hybridization methods (FISH) identified 3 schizophrenics among 60 in the MES with the microdeletion of probe sc11.lab commonly deleted in VCFS subjects. This work provides a model for the mapping of complex phenotypes such schizophrenia using both genetic and epidemiological methods.

  12. Development of the caregivers attitude scale on home care of schizophrenics (CASHS)

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, N; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; D’Sa, Juliana Linnette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that elicits feelings of strangeness and discomfort, which may create stigma and lead to the social exclusion of the mentally ill and of the people relating with them. In the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of research studies on attitudes toward mental disorders. Materials and Methods: An instrument was developed to assess the attitude of primary caregivers on home care of schizophrenics. This article describes the development of a Likert scale, the Caregivers Attitude Scale on Home Care of Schizophrenics CASHS, which is a 31-item self-reported instrument that quantifies three aspects of home care, that is, attitude towards patient, towards treatment, and towards social interaction. The steps involved in its development are the review of literature, development of items, content validation, translation and language validity, pretesting, and reliability. Results: After establishing the content validity, the CASHS was pretested with five subjects. To establish the reliability of the CASHS, 21 primary caregivers were recruited through purposive sampling technique. In order to measure the stability between scores obtained, a test-retest reliability was computed using Karl Pearson correlation coefficient and the r value was 0.78. The internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlation and the r value was 0.789. The item discrimination analysis was also computed and the value was of above 0.35. These statistical measurements indicate that the CASHS was reliable. Conclusions: The CASHS is a valid and reliable tool that can be utilized for assessing the attitude of primary caregivers on home care of schizophrenics. PMID:24574561

  13. Selection of Subjects in Studies of Schizophrenic Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Loren J.; Chapman, Jean P.

    1977-01-01

    An investigator's method of selecting schizophrenic and control subjects for comparison can assure either a difference or a lack of difference between groups on almost any kind of task that requires a voluntary response. Discusses how researchers should select subjects and the inferences that may reasonably be drawn from studies of schizophrenic…

  14. Social Skills Training with Schizophrenics: A Meta-Analytic Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Mary K.; Schroeder, Harold E.

    1990-01-01

    Conducted meta-analytic review of 27 studies on social skills training with schizophrenics, addressing magnitude of treatment effects relative to outcome measures, extent of generalization and maintenance of treatment effects, and impact of diagnostic clarity and training variations. Found that social skills training had strong, positive impact on…

  15. Lexical and sub-lexical reading skills and their correlation to clinical symptoms in young Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiuju; Wang, Pengfei; Xia, Zhichao; Liu, Jin; Quan, Wenxiang; Tian, Ju; Wydell, Taeko N; Dong, Wentian

    2015-12-30

    Patients with schizophrenia often experience severe reading deficits such as oral reading and reading comprehension deficits. However, it is not known whether different types of lexical or sub-lexical components in reading are also impaired. In order to address this issue, the present study had 22 young Chinese patients with schizophrenia and 22 young Chinese normal controls undergo a battery of reading tests, which specifically measures lexical and sub-lexical components of reading in Chinese. The schizophrenic group further underwent Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in order to ascertain the severity of patients' clinical symptoms. The results showed that compared to the controls, (1) the schizophrenic patients performed significantly poorly in orthographic processing, orthography-phonology mapping, and orthography-semantic mapping tests and further that (2) their performances in orthographic processing, and orthography-semantic mapping skill tests negatively correlated with the BPRS score. Note however that their ability to access their mental lexicon was intact. There is thus a clear need for studies with a larger sample-size and neurobiological measures which would lead to our better understanding of the behavioral as well as the neural relationships between schizophrenic patients, and their reading processing impairments, thus developing effective reading intervention programs for the schizophrenic patients. PMID:26611156

  16. Abnormal Sense of Agency in Patients with Schizophrenia: Evidence from Bimanual Coupling Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Garbarini, Francesca; Mastropasqua, Angela; Sigaudo, Monica; Rabuffetti, Marco; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Pia, Lorenzo; Rocca, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A fruitful approach to the understanding the human awareness of action is the study of those pathologies in which some aspects of it are altered. Previous evidences showed that patients with schizophrenia tend to attribute someone else’ actions to their own, as internally, rather than externally, generated. Here, we asked whether schizophrenics have an “excessive” sense of agency, while observing others’ movements. We took advantage from the circles-lines task, known to show bimanual interferences. Twenty schizophrenics and 20 age-matched healthy controls were administered: (a) the bimanual version of the task: drawing lines with one hand and circles with the other; and (b) a modified version: drawing lines while observing the examiner drawing circles. In the bimanual version, patients and controls showed a comparable interference effect. In the observation version, schizophrenics, compared to controls, showed a significantly greater interference effect of the examiners’ hand drawing circles on the own hand drawing lines. This effect was significantly correlated to the strength of the positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) and to the alteration of the sense of agency, reported during the task. These findings suggest that an altered sense of agency, as shown by schizophrenics, can induce objective consequences on the motor system. PMID:27014005

  17. Abnormal Sense of Agency in Patients with Schizophrenia: Evidence from Bimanual Coupling Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Garbarini, Francesca; Mastropasqua, Angela; Sigaudo, Monica; Rabuffetti, Marco; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Pia, Lorenzo; Rocca, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A fruitful approach to the understanding the human awareness of action is the study of those pathologies in which some aspects of it are altered. Previous evidences showed that patients with schizophrenia tend to attribute someone else' actions to their own, as internally, rather than externally, generated. Here, we asked whether schizophrenics have an "excessive" sense of agency, while observing others' movements. We took advantage from the circles-lines task, known to show bimanual interferences. Twenty schizophrenics and 20 age-matched healthy controls were administered: (a) the bimanual version of the task: drawing lines with one hand and circles with the other; and (b) a modified version: drawing lines while observing the examiner drawing circles. In the bimanual version, patients and controls showed a comparable interference effect. In the observation version, schizophrenics, compared to controls, showed a significantly greater interference effect of the examiners' hand drawing circles on the own hand drawing lines. This effect was significantly correlated to the strength of the positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) and to the alteration of the sense of agency, reported during the task. These findings suggest that an altered sense of agency, as shown by schizophrenics, can induce objective consequences on the motor system. PMID:27014005

  18. Innovations at Miami practice show promise for treating high-risk Medicare patients.

    PubMed

    Tanio, Craig; Chen, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Patients with five or more chronic conditions drive most Medicare costs. Our organization, ChenMed, developed a scalable primary care-led delivery model that focuses on this population while getting reimbursed through full-risk capitation by Medicare Advantage plans. ChenMed is a primary care-led group practice based in Florida that serves low-to-moderate-income elderly patients, largely through the Medicare Advantage program. Our model includes a number of innovations: a one-stop-shop approach for delivering multispecialty services in the community, smaller physician panel sizes of 350-450 patients that allow for intensive health coaching and preventive care, on-site physician pharmacy dispensing, a collaborative physician culture with peer review, and customized information technology. These innovations have improved patient medication adherence, increased the time doctors and patients spend together, and led to high rates of patient satisfaction. Additionally, our Medicare patients have substantially lower rates of hospital use than their peers in the Miami Medicare market. Creating chronic disease centers focused on seniors with multiple chronic conditions is a promising delivery system innovation with major potential to improve the cost and quality of care. PMID:23733982

  19. Alzheimer's disease treated patients showed different patterns for oxidative stress and inflammation markers.

    PubMed

    Gubandru, Miriana; Margina, Denisa; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Goutzourelas, Nikos; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Ilie, Mihaela; Tsatsakis, Aristidis Michael; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2013-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia accounting for 60-80% of the reported cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of certain parameters of oxidative stress and markers of endothelial dysfunction in the blood of 21 AD patients under standard treatment compared with 10 controls, in an attempt to elucidate the contribution of AD to the total oxidative stress status of the patients. Results indicate that IL-6, TNF-α, ADMA and homocysteine levels were significantly elevated in AD patients. Protein carbonyls levels were higher in AD group, while glutathione reductase and total antioxidant capacity were lower, depicting decreased defense ability against reactive oxygen species. Besides, a higher level of advanced glycation end-products was observed in AD patients. Depending on the treatment received, a distinct inflammatory and oxidative stress profile was observed: in Rivastigmine-treated group, IL6 levels were 47% lower than the average value of the remaining AD patients; homocysteine and glutathione reductase were statistically unchanged in the Rivastigmine and Donepezil-Memantine, respectively Donepezil group. Although the study is based on a limited population, the results could constitute the basis for further studies regarding the effect of medication and diet on AD patients. PMID:23871825

  20. Use of the Terms "Schizophrenia" and "Schizophrenic" in the South Korean News Media: A Content Analysis of Newspapers and News Programs in the Last 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Hyun; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong-Woo; Gim, Min-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Objective In this study, we explored the meaning attributed to the words "jungshinbunyeolbyung" (schizophrenia) and "jungshinbunyeol" (schizophrenic) in South Korean newspapers and news programs in the last 10 years. Methods We screened the websites of three national newspapers and the broadcasts of three nationwide television news programs from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010. We classified a total of 490 articles and 257 news segments by category and quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed them. The articles and news segments were assigned to one of the following categories based on their use of the term "schizophrenia": 1) negative, 2) neutral or positive, 3) incidental, and 4) metaphorical. Results The negative viewpoint accounted for 349 incidences (46.7%), while the neutral and positive viewpoints included 225 incidences (30.1%). Incidental uses accounted for 95 incidences (12.7%), and metaphorical uses accounted for 78 incidences (10.4%). The majority of the negative uses focused on violence or dangers posed by patients (137 mentions, 37.8%), while the metaphorical uses mainly focused on the idea of splitting (51 mentions, or 65%). Conclusion This study showed that the South Korean news media do not provide balanced information about schizophrenia to the public. This study also showed that no significant move has been made toward a more positive use of the term since a previous study was conducted on the subject. Although the term schizophrenia has given way to "attunement disorder," it will be difficult to establish the new term as the standard if the South Korean media continue to use the term "schizophrenic symptom." Even though the term has been changed, guidelines are necessary to encourage the mass media to provide balanced articles and reduce prejudice. PMID:22396680

  1. Rhinitis Patients With Sputum Eosinophilia Show Decreased Lung Function in the Absence of Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min-Suk; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Min-Hye; Song, Woo-Jung; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kwon, Jae-Woo; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Park, Heung-Woo; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Min, Kyung-Up

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Sputum eosinophilia is observed frequently in patients with rhinitis. Sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic allergic rhinitis has been suggested to be related to nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). However, the clinical significance of sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic rhinitis without AHR has not been determined. We conducted a retrospective study examining the influence of sputum eosinophilia in patients with non-asthmatic rhinitis without AHR on pulmonary function and expression of fibrosis-related mediators. Methods Eighty-nine patients with moderate-to-severe perennial rhinitis without AHR were included. All underwent lung function tests (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC]), skin tests to inhalant allergens, methacholine bronchial challenge tests, and hypertonic saline-induced sputum to determine eosinophil counts. Sputum mRNA levels for transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were also examined. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of sputum eosinophilia (≥3%, eosinophilia-positive [EP] and <3%, eosinophilia-negative [EN] groups). Results FEV1 was significantly lower (P=0.04) and FEV1/FVC tended to be lower (P=0.1) in the EP group than in the EN group. In sputum analyses, the MMP-9 mRNA level (P=0.005) and the ratio of MMP-9 to TIMP-1 expression (P=0.01) were significantly higher in the EP group than in the EN group. There was no significant difference in TGF-β mRNA expression between the two groups. Conclusions Sputum eosinophilia in patients with moderate-to-severe perennial rhinitis without AHR influenced FEV1 and the expression pattern of fibrosis-related mediators. PMID:23814677

  2. Jejuna of patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) show signs of immune activation

    PubMed Central

    SAVILAHTI, E; ÖRMÄLÄ, T; SAUKKONEN, T; SANDINI-POHJAVUORI, U; KANTELE, J M; ARATO, A; ILONEN, J; ÅKERBLOM, H K

    1999-01-01

    The roles of enteric viruses and food antigens as possible triggers in human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and the evidence that mucosal-associated homing receptors are important in both human and experimental diabetes prompted us to undertake an immunohistochemical study of intestinal specimens from patients with IDDM. We studied jejunal morphology and immunohistochemistry in 26 patients with IDDM, 13 of whom had the HLA-DQB1*0201 gene and therefore a higher risk of coeliac disease. The findings were compared with those in specimens from age-matched controls. Villous structure and the density of the intraepithelial lymphocytes were normal in every biopsy specimen. The extent of positivity with anti-DR and -DP antibodies in the villous epithelium was significantly greater in the specimens from patients than in those from controls (P = 0.0002 in both comparisons). The crypts were also more positive: for DR P = 0.0001, and for DP P = 0.002. The densities of T cells, CD4+, CD8+, and T cell receptor α/β+ and γ/δ+ cells in the epithelium and lamina propria were similar in patients and controls, but the patients had significantly more α4/β7 integrin+ cells in the lamina propria (P = 0.006). No difference was seen between HLA-DQB1*0201-positive and -negative patients. These findings reflect a stage of inflammation in the structurally normal intestines of patients with IDDM and suggest secretion of inflammatory Th1-type cytokines in the intestine. PMID:10209507

  3. A comparison of new and revised Rorschach measures of schizophrenic functioning in a Serbian clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Dzamonja-Ignjatovic, Tamara; Smith, Bruce L; Djuric Jocic, Dragana; Milanovic, Marko

    2013-01-01

    We empirically evaluated indexes derived from the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) and the Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS) that are used for the assessment of psychotic functioning in schizophrenia. We compared the Perceptual Thinking Index (PTI) and the Ego Impairment Index (EII-2) with their revised versions: Thought and Perception Composite (TP-Comp) and EII-3. We evaluated their predictive validity for differentiating schizophrenic from nonschizophrenic patients in a Serbian sample. The sample consisted of 211 (109 men and 102 women, 18-50 years old) inpatients in Serbia who were divided into 2 groups: schizophrenic (100) and nonschizophrenic (111). Test administration, coding, and form quality classification followed CS guidelines. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the new indexes TP-Comp and EII-3 have slightly better predictive power than their counterparts, PTI and EII-2, in identification of schizophrenia, and that TP-Comp performed better than other indexes, although all 4 indexes were successful in differentiating these groups. The results supported the use of TP-Comp in diagnosis of schizophrenia and generally provided evidence for the utility of the Rorschach in evaluating psychosis and for its use in a cross-national context. PMID:23844937

  4. Macrophages from Patients with Cirrhotic Ascites Showed Function Alteration of Host Defense Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abdel Motaal M.; Kadaru, Abdel Gadir Y.; Omer, Ibtihal; Musa, Ahmed M.; Enan, Khalid; El Khidir, Isam M.; Williams, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with cirrhotic ascites (PCA) are susceptible to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) which has increased morbidity and mortality. Since some host defense aspects of peritoneal macrophages (PMф) from PCA are altered this study examined factors related to receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Methods Twelve PCA were studied. PMɸ were isolated from ascitic fluid (AF) samples removed from these patients. Uptake of mannose receptor (MR)-specific ligand, fluorescein isothiocyanate-mannosylated-bovine serum albumin (FITC-man-BSA), by patients' PMɸ and controls, a human monocytic cell line, was measured pre- and post-IL-4 treatment. Phagocytosis of FITC-labeled yeast particles by patients' PMɸ was measured pre- and post-IL-4 treatment. Fluorescence values were obtained using a spectrofuorometer. MRC1 gene was analyzed in blood samples from PCA and controls, healthy donors, using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Results Past SBP episode(s) were reported in 58.3% of patients. Mean AF volume analyzed per patient was 1.3L. PMɸ ratio in cell yield was 53.73% (SD 18.1). Mean uptake absorbance of patients' PMф was 0.0841 (SD 0.077) compared to 0.338 (SD 0.34) of controls, P = 0.023. Following IL-4 treatment absorbance increased to 0.297 (SD 0.28) in patients' PMф (P = 0.018 on paired sample t-test), and to 0.532 (SD 0.398 in controls (P = 0.053 on independent sample t-test). Mean phagocytosis absorbance of patients' PMф was 0.1250 (SD 0.032) before IL-4 treatment compared to 0.2300 (SD 0.104) after (P = 0.026). PCR analysis for MRC1 gene was negative in all PCA samples compared to positive results in all controls. Conclusion Since decreased phagocytosis and MR uptake were enhanced post-IL-4 treatment MR downregulation pre-treatment is plausible. Negative PCR results for MRC1 might suggest an anomaly, but this awaits further ellucidation. These altered host defense findings are relevant to infection pathophysiology, and their

  5. IL-6, IL-18, sIL-2R, and TNFα proinflammatory markers in depression and schizophrenia patients who are free of overt inflammation.

    PubMed

    Al-Hakeim, Hussein Kadhem; Al-Rammahi, Duaa Abdulzahraa; Al-Dujaili, Arafat Hussein

    2015-08-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia are associated with inflammatory processes. Studies have shown that these disorders exhibit increase in the level of one or more proinflammatory markers. However, these studies did not exclude patients with obvious inflammation (i.e., CRP>6mg/L). Therefore, a comprehensive study should include those inflammatory disorders. In the present study, the inflammatory natures of MDD and schizophrenia were investigated. To achieve this goal, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-18 (IL-18), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) in depressed and schizophrenic patients were obtained and compared with those of the control group. Results showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum levels of IL-6, IL-18, TNFα, and sIL-2R in MDD and schizophrenic patients compared with the control group. Also patients with schizophrenia group showed higher levels of the inflammatory markers than MDD and control groups. The current study concluded that the immunological response in the MDD and schizophrenic patients groups was significantly stimulated. These disorders may be considered an inflammatory disorder because of elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in spite of lacking an overt inflammation. Furthermore results of this study suggested the possibility of the use of anti-inflammatory drugs as adjuvant therapy in schizophrenic and depressive disorders. PMID:25985379

  6. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira; Santos, Bruno F. de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M. Francisco; de Oliveira, Daniel Pio; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all‑cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 – 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 – 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. PMID:25352460

  7. [Which patients with ovarian cancer shows the combination of trabectedin with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin].

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, S V; Cherkasova, M V; Orel, N F; Limareva, S V; Bazaeva, I Ia; Gorbunova, V A

    2013-01-01

    Given the high rate of recurrence of ovarian cancer, the search for new therapeutic strategies are topical issue. According to various studies the effectiveness of drug treatment relapse depends on the platinum-free interval, increasing in proportion to its duration. If therapy is platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer is a standard approach, the treatment of platinum-sensitive recurrent algorithm is not fully defined. Comparison of platinum and non-platinum combinations revealed the advantage of combined platinum- treatment for patients with platinum-free interval of more than 6 months without an increase in life expectancy. Non-platinum combination of trabected in with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin has shown comparable efficacy with an advantage in overall survival in patients with platinum-free interval of 6-12 months. A platinum-free interval prolongation by the use of non-platinum mode increases the efficiency of subsequent platinum-based therapy, increasing the life expectancy of patients. Currently under study molecular markers and prognostic factors allowing to define a group of patients who have the greatest benefit from the use trabectedin with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin as second-line chemotherapy. PMID:24640740

  8. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bouwense, Stefan AW; Olesen, Søren S; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders) to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15) or placebo (n=12; n=17) treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT) in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects) and Ventral T10 (segmental effects). Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm. Results Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA) vs placebo responders (−0.1 mA; P=0.015). This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9%) vs placebo responders (−17%; P<0.001). CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006). Conclusion This hypothesis-generating study provides the first evidence that pain relief with pregabalin is associated with anti-hyperalgesic effects and increased endogenous inhibitory modulation. No such effects were observed in patients experiencing pain relief with the placebo treatment. The mechanisms underlying analgesic response to placebo vs drug treatments are different and, together with their interactions, deserve further study. PMID:26203273

  9. The Tryptophan Hydroxylase Inhibitor LX1031 Shows Clinical Benefit in Patients With Nonconstipating Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Philip M.; Drossman, Douglas A.; Wood, Alastair J. J.; Cline, Gary A.; Frazier, Kenny S.; Jackson, Jessica I.; Bronner, Johanna; Freiman, Joel; Zambrowicz, Brian; Sands, Arthur; Gershon, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has an important role in gastrointestinal function. LX1031 is an oral, locally acting, small molecule inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). Local inhibition of TPH in the gastrointestinal tract might reduce mucosal production of serotonin (5-HT) and be used to treat patients with nonconstipating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS We evaluated 2 dose levels of LX1031 (250 mg or 1000 mg, given 4 times/day) in a 28-day, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 155 patients with nonconstipating IBS. 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a biomarker of pharmacodynamic activity, was measured in urine samples at baseline (24 hours after LX1031 administration), and at weeks 4 and 6 (n = 76). RESULTS Each dose of LX1031 was safe and well-tolerated. The primary efficacy end point, relief of IBS pain and discomfort, improved significantly in patients given 1000 mg LX1031 (25.5%), compared with those given placebo, at week 1 (P = .018); with nonsignificant improvements at weeks 2, 3, and 4 (17.9%, 16.3%, and 11.6%, respectively). Symptom improvement correlated with a dose-dependent reduction in 5-HIAA, a marker for TPH inhibition, from baseline until week 4. This suggests the efficacy of LX1031 is related to the extent of inhibition of 5-HT biosynthesis. Stool consistency significantly improved, compared with the group given placebo, at weeks 1 and 4 (P < .01) and at week 2 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS In a phase 2 study, LX1031 was well tolerated, relieving symptoms and increasing stool consistency in patients with nonconstipating IBS. Symptom relief was associated with reduced levels of 5-HIAA in urine samples. This marker might be used to identify patients with nonconstipating IBS who respond to inhibitors of 5-HT synthesis. PMID:21684281

  10. Doppler Sonography Confirmation in Patients Showing Calcified Carotid Artery Atheroma in Panoramic Radiography and Evaluation of Related Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Rah Rooh, Mohammad; Mahmoudi Hashemi, Elahe; Javadzade Blouri, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The purpose of this study was to identify patients at the risk of cerebrovascular attack (CVA) by detecting calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in panoramic radiography and evaluating their risk factors. Materials and methods A total of 960 panoramic radiographs of patients above 40 years old were evaluated. Doppler Sonography (DS) was performed for patients who showed calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in panoramic radiogra-phy in order to determine the presence of CCAA and the degree of stenosis. Cardiovascular risk factors in both groups of patients with CCAA (12 subjects) and without CCAA (3 subjects) were compared using a questionnaire filled out by the patients. Statistical analysis including Fisher and independent t-test applied for data analysis. Results Fifteen patients (30 sides) showed calcification in their panoramic radiographs, and underwent DS which revealed CCAA in 16 sides (12 patients). Two patients (13.33%) showed stenosis greater than 70%. Among the risk factors, only age showed a significant association with the occurrence of carotid calcified atheroma (P=0.026). Conclusion Considering the results, dentists should refer especially elderly patients with radiographically identified atheromas for further examinations, as asymptomatic CCAA might be associated with high degrees of stenosis. PMID:22991627

  11. John Nash, game theory, and the schizophrenic brain.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2011-03-01

    This article focuses on John Nash, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1994, and subject of the Award winning 2001 film A Beautiful Mind, who was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia in 1958 at the age of 29. After presenting an account of the emergence, course, and eventual remission of his illness, the article argues for the relevance of his contribution to game theory, known as the Nash equilibrium, for which he received the Nobel Prize, to research studies of the schizophrenic brain and how it deviates from the normal brain. The case is made that the Nash equilibrium is descriptive of the normal brain, whereas the game theory formulated by John van Neumann, which Nash's theory challenges, is descriptive of the schizophrenic brain. The fact that Nash and his colleagues in mathematics did not make the association between his contributions to mathematics and his mental breakdown and that his later recovery exemplified the validity of this contribution are noted and discussed. Religious themes in his delusional system, including his view of himself as a secret messianic figure and the biblical Esau, are interpreted in light of these competing game theories and the dysfunctions of the schizophrenic brain. His recognition that his return to normalcy came at the price of his sense of being in relation to the cosmos is also noted. PMID:19862621

  12. A Patient with Refractory Psoriasis Who Developed Sebaceous Carcinoma on the Neck during Cyclosporine Therapy and Showed Rapid Progression

    PubMed Central

    Shima, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Okuhira, Hisako; Mikita, Naoya; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who developed sebaceous carcinoma on the neck during therapy with immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporine, corticosteroid, methotrexate) for refractory psoriasis vulgaris, which showed rapid enlargement, leading to a fatal outcome. Multiple-organ metastases were detected. Weekly carboplatin + paclitaxel therapy resulted in the disappearance of tumor cells, but the patient died of febrile neutropenia. The development of sebaceous carcinoma is rare among psoriasis patients receiving immunosuppressive agents including cyclosporine. PMID:27462222

  13. A Patient with Refractory Psoriasis Who Developed Sebaceous Carcinoma on the Neck during Cyclosporine Therapy and Showed Rapid Progression.

    PubMed

    Shima, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Okuhira, Hisako; Mikita, Naoya; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient who developed sebaceous carcinoma on the neck during therapy with immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporine, corticosteroid, methotrexate) for refractory psoriasis vulgaris, which showed rapid enlargement, leading to a fatal outcome. Multiple-organ metastases were detected. Weekly carboplatin + paclitaxel therapy resulted in the disappearance of tumor cells, but the patient died of febrile neutropenia. The development of sebaceous carcinoma is rare among psoriasis patients receiving immunosuppressive agents including cyclosporine. PMID:27462222

  14. Heritability and Familiality of Temperament and Character Dimensions in Korean Families with Schizophrenic Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Dae; Park, Je Min; Lee, Young Min; Moon, Eunsoo; Jeong, Hee Jeong; Chung, Young In; Yi, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Categorical syndromes such as schizophrenia may represent complexes of many continuous psychological structural phenotypes along several dimensions of personality development/degeneration. The present study investigated the heritability and familiality of personality dimensions in Korean families with schizophrenic linkage disequilibrium (LD). Methods We recruited 179 probands (with schizophrenia) as well as, whenever possible, their parents and siblings. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure personality and symptomatic dimensions. The heritability of personality dimensions in a total of 472 family members was estimated using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). To measure familiality, we compared the personality dimensions of family members with those of 336 healthy unrelated controls using analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis. Results Three of the seven TCI variables were significantly heritable and were included in subsequent analyses. The three groups (control, unaffected first-degree relative, case) were found to significantly differ from one another, with the expected order of average group scores, for all heritable dimensions. Conclusion Despite several study limitations with respect to family recruitment and phenotyping, our results show that aberrations in several personality dimensions related to genetic-environment coactions or interactions may underlie the complexity of the schizophrenic syndrome. PMID:27121432

  15. Fibroblasts from patients with major depressive disorder show distinct transcriptional response to metabolic stressors

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, K A; Vereczkei, A; Kálmán, S; Wang, L; Korade, Ž; Shelton, R C; Mirnics, K

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is increasingly viewed as interplay of environmental stressors and genetic predisposition, and recent data suggest that the disease affects not only the brain, but the entire body. As a result, we aimed at determining whether patients with major depression have aberrant molecular responses to stress in peripheral tissues. We examined the effects of two metabolic stressors, galactose (GAL) or reduced lipids (RL), on the transcriptome and miRNome of human fibroblasts from 16 pairs of patients with MDD and matched healthy controls (CNTR). Our results demonstrate that both MDD and CNTR fibroblasts had a robust molecular response to GAL and RL challenges. Most importantly, a significant part (messenger RNAs (mRNAs): 26–33% microRNAs (miRNAs): 81–90%) of the molecular response was only observed in MDD, but not in CNTR fibroblasts. The applied metabolic challenges uncovered mRNA and miRNA signatures, identifying responses to each stressor characteristic for the MDD fibroblasts. The distinct responses of MDD fibroblasts to GAL and RL revealed an aberrant engagement of molecular pathways, such as apoptosis, regulation of cell cycle, cell migration, metabolic control and energy production. In conclusion, the metabolic challenges evoked by GAL or RL in dermal fibroblasts exposed adaptive dysfunctions on mRNA and miRNA levels that are characteristic for MDD. This finding underscores the need to challenge biological systems to bring out disease-specific deficits, which otherwise might remain hidden under resting conditions. PMID:25756806

  16. Patients with bipolar disorder show differential executive dysfunctions: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Leung, Meranda M W; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Ya; Tsui, Chi F; Au, Angie C W; Yeung, Hera K H; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Li, Zhi; Cheng, Chi-Wai; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-04-30

    Executive deficits in euthymic bipolar I disorder were examined in a fractionated manner based on the "Supervisory Attentional System" (SAS) model, and the relationship between the degree of executive impairment and the demographic and clinical characteristics of bipolar I participants was explored. A battery of neurocognitive tests capturing specific components of executive function was administered on 30 patients with bipolar I disorder in euthymic state, and compared with 30 healthy controls who were matched by age, gender and IQ. A differential impairment in executive function was demonstrated in euthymic bipolar I participants by using a fractionated approach of the SAS. Euthymic bipolar I patients were found to have significantly poorer performance in immediate and delayed visual memory; and in the executive domains of "initiation", "sustained attention", and "attention allocation and planning". Those with a greater number of executive impairments had lower IQ and higher negative sub-scores on PANSS. These findings might provide a the basis for further studies on identifying the executive components that are associated with particular disease characteristics of bipolar disorder, and those with poorer functional outcome, so that rehabilitation can be focused on the selective domains concerned. PMID:27086222

  17. Computer Simulation Shows the Effect of Communication on Day of Surgery Patient Flow.

    PubMed

    Taaffe, Kevin; Fredendall, Lawrence; Huynh, Nathan; Franklin, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    To improve patient flow in a surgical environment, practitioners and academicians often use process mapping and simulation as tools to evaluate and recommend changes. We used simulations to help staff visualize the effect of communication and coordination delays that occur on the day of surgery. Perioperative services staff participated in tabletop exercises in which they chose the delays that were most important to eliminate. Using a day-of-surgery computer simulation model, the elimination of delays was tested and the results were shared with the group. This exercise, repeated for multiple groups of staff, provided an understanding of not only the dynamic events taking place, but also how small communication delays can contribute to a significant loss in efficiency and the ability to provide timely care. Survey results confirmed these understandings. PMID:26119616

  18. Patients treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin show selective activation of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tjon, A S W; Tha-In, T; Metselaar, H J; van Gent, R; van der Laan, L J W; Groothuismink, Z M A; te Boekhorst, P A W; van Hagen, P M; Kwekkeboom, J

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used to treat autoimmune and systemic inflammatory diseases caused by derailment of humoral and cellular immunity. In this study we investigated whether IVIg treatment can modulate regulatory T cells (Tregs) in humans in vivo. Blood was collected from IVIg-treated patients with immunodeficiency or autoimmune disease who were treated with low-dose (n = 12) or high-dose (n = 15) IVIg before, immediately after and at 7 days after treatment. Percentages and activation status of circulating CD4+CD25+forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3+) Tregs and of conventional CD4+FoxP3− T-helper cells (Tconv) were measured. The suppressive capacity of Tregs purified from blood collected at the time-points indicated was determined in an ex-vivo assay. High-dose, but not low-dose, IVIg treatment enhanced the activation status of circulating Tregs, as shown by increased FoxP3 and human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) expression, while numbers of circulating Tregs remained unchanged. The enhanced activation was sustained for at least 7 days after infusion, and the suppressive capacity of purified Tregs was increased from 41 to 70% at day 7 after IVIg treatment. The activation status of Tconv was not affected by IVIg. We conclude that high-dose IVIg treatment activates Tregs selectively and enhances their suppressive function in humans in vivo. This effect may be one of the mechanisms by which IVIg restores imbalanced immune homeostasis in patients with autoimmune and systemic inflammatory disorders. PMID:23607448

  19. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira de; Santos, Bruno F de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M Francisco; Oliveira, Daniel Pio de; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-11-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.Fundamento: Estudos têm demonstrado a acurácia diagnóstica e o valor prognóstico da ecocardiografia com estresse f

  20. [Beyond suffering, schizophrenic improvisation and therapeutic challenges].

    PubMed

    Bizot, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Led jointly by an actress and an occupational therapist, an 'improvisation' activity has been set up within the Sainte-Anne University Hospital SHU Sector 14 for hospitalised patients, on medical prescription. This containing environment provides psychological support and encourages patients with schizophrenia to explore their creativity and to 'let go' so as to discover new physical possibilities. The group thereby becomes a support for the relationship and the development of verbal and non-verbal communication. PMID:27615701

  1. De novo WDR45 mutation in a patient showing clinically Rett syndrome with childhood iron deposition in brain.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Chihiro; Nabatame, Shin; Iijima, Yoshitaka; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Miyake, Noriko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Ozono, Keiichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2014-05-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly caused by MECP2 mutations. We identified a de novo WDR45 mutation, which caused a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, in a patient showing clinically typical RTT. The mutation (c.830+1G>A) led to aberrant splicing in lymphoblastoid cells. Sequential brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that iron deposition in the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra was observed as early as at 11 years of age. Because the patient showed four of the main RTT diagnostic criteria, WDR45 should be investigated in patients with RTT without MECP2 mutations. PMID:24621584

  2. Peritoneal macrophages from patients with cirrhotic ascites show impaired phagocytosis and vigorous respiratory burst

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abdel Motaal M.; Bomford, Adrian; Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T.; Davies, Ted; Smith, Roger; Williams, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients (CPs) are susceptible to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Aim of this study was to examine if this susceptibility was related to peritoneal macrophages' (PMs) altered host defence. Absorbance of phagocytosed particles by PMs from CPs was lower than that of control (31.88% vs. 77.2%). Particle opsonisation increased the absorbance to 41% in CPs' PMs, and this value remains lower than the control; 77.2%. Respiratory burst (RB) was expressed as fluorescence index values, and these were higher in PMs from CPs than in controls (82 vs. 41, 73 vs. 26 and 71 vs. 26). IFN-γ made no further increase of RB values in PMs from CPs. CD14 expression was also higher in CPs' PMs. IFN-γ significantly downregulated CD14 expression in both CPs' PMs and control. Reduced phagocytosis by predominantly CD14-positive PMs from CPs could be related to intense RB. Findings suggest altered host defence that could contribute to susceptibility to SBP. PMID:24371553

  3. Decreased cytochrome-c oxidase activity and lack of age-related accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletions in the brains of schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Cavelier, L.; Jazin, E.E.; Eriksson, I.

    1995-09-01

    Defects in mitochondrial energy production have been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To study the contribution of mitochondrial defects to Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia, cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity and levels of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion in postmortem brain tissue specimens of patients were compared with those of asymptomatic age-matched controls. No difference in COX activity was observed between Alzheimer patients and controls in any of five brain regions investigated. In contrast, schizophrenic patients had a 63% reduction of the COX activity in the nucleus caudatus (P<0.0001) and a 43% reduction in the cortex gyrus frontalis (P<0.05) as compared to controls. The average levels of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion did not differ significantly between Alzheimer patients and controls, and the deletion followed similar modes of accumulation with age in the two groups. In contrast, no age-related accumulation of mtDNA deletions was found in schizophrenic patients. The reduction in COX activity in schizophrenic patients did not correlate with changes in the total amount of mtDNA or levels of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion. The lack of age-related accumulation of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion and reduction in COX activity suggest that a mitochondrial dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Chemical Modulation of Mutant mGlu1 Receptors Derived from Deleterious GRM1 Mutations Found in Schizophrenics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex and highly heterogeneous psychiatric disorder whose precise etiology remains elusive. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified risk genes, they have failed to determine if rare coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) contribute in schizophrenia. Recently, two independent studies identified 12 rare, deleterious nsSNPS in the GRM1 gene, which encodes the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGlu1), in schizophrenic patients. Here, we generated stable cell lines expressing the mGlu1 mutant receptors and assessed their pharmacology. Using both the endogenous agonist glutamate and the synthetic agonist DHPG, we found that several of the mutant mGlu1 receptors displayed a loss of function that was not due to a loss in plasma membrane expression. Due to a lack of mGlu1 positive allosteric modulators (PAM) tool compounds active at human mGlu1, we optimized a known mGlu4 PAM/mGlu1 NAM chemotype into a series of potent and selective mGlu1 PAMs by virtue of a double “molecular switch”. Employing mGlu1 PAMs from multiple chemotypes, we demonstrate that the mutant receptors can be potentiated by small molecules and in some cases efficacy restored to that comparable to wild type mGlu1 receptors, suggesting deficits in patients with schizophrenia due to these mutations may be amenable to intervention with an mGlu1 PAM. However, in wild type animals, mGlu1 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are efficacious in classic models predictive of antipsychotic activity, whereas we show that mGlu1 PAMs have no effect to slight potentiation in these models. These data further highlight the heterogeneity of schizophrenia and the critical role of patient selection strategies in psychiatric clinical trials to match genotype with therapeutic mechanism. PMID:25137254

  5. Standard and long-acting depot neuroleptics in chronic schizophrenics: an 18-month open multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Fermanian, J; Ginestet, D; Goujet, M A; Péron-Magnan, P

    1978-07-01

    The overall objective of this 18-month open study was to compare standard neuroleptics and long-acting depot neuroleptics following the current psychiatric practice in order to determine the best therapy. Thirty French psychiatrists from 15 different wards participated in this experiment. One hundred eighty-one chronic schizophrenic patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the following three treatments: standard neuroleptics, pipotiazine palmitate, or fluphenazine decanoate. Criteria used for evaluation were an overall clinical evaluation by a psychiatrist, a Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and a Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation. No significant difference (P greater than .05) was observed between the three groups in drug effectiveness or tolerance. PMID:28102

  6. Phenomenological correlates of metabolic activity in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Van Gelder, P.; Brodie, J.D.; Overall, J.E.; Cancro, R.; Gomez-Mont, F.

    1987-02-01

    Using (11C)-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography (PET), the authors measured brain metabolism in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia to assess which of the metabolic measures from two test conditions was more closely related to the patients' differing clinical characteristics. The two conditions were resting and activation, and an eye tracking task was used. Patients with more negative symptoms showed lower global metabolic rates and more severe hypofrontality than did the patients with fewer negative symptoms. Differences among the patients were distinguished by the task: sicker patients failed to show a metabolic activation response. These findings suggest that cerebral metabolic patterns reflect clinical characteristics of schizophrenic patients.

  7. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  8. Divergent Thinking Abilities across the Schizophrenic Spectrum and Other Psychological Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Perkins, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on the connection between psychopathology and creativity is vast and recent research has focused on the relationship between the schizophrenic spectrum and creativity. The schizophrenic spectrum includes genetically related disorders that share certain symptom features. It has been suggested that schizotypal personality disorder, a…

  9. A STUDY OF BEHAVIOUR DURING AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty untreated urban living Schizophrenics fulfilling the criteria of Feigher et al. (1972) and having Schneiderian hallucinations were studied with the aim of examining the relation of certain variables to their behaviour during auditory hallucinations. For those whose behaviour had no direction, the voices were less real in comparison to those with positive or negative direction. For those with negative direction in behaviour, voice were positioned more outside than within sensory range and the individual episodes of hallucination were of longer duration. The voices were more real for those who had emotional experience without physical activity and those without emotions of physical activity. PMID:21965928

  10. Patterns of psychiatric hospitalizations in schizophrenic psychoses within the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Miettunen, Jouko; Lauronen, Erika; Veijola, Juha; Koponen, Hannu; Saarento, Outi; Isohanni, Matti

    2006-01-01

    We report patterns of hospitalization in schizophrenic psychoses by age 34 in a longitudinal population-based cohort. We test the predictive ability of various demographic and illness-related variables on patterns of hospitalization, with a special focus on the length of the first psychiatric hospitalization. All living subjects of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort with DSM-III-R schizophrenia (n=88) and other schizophrenia spectrum cases (n=27) by the year 1997 in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register were followed for an average of 10.5 years. Measures of psychiatric hospitalization included time to re-hospitalization (as continuous and as re-hospitalization within 2 years) and the number of hospital episodes. Length of the first hospitalization, other illness-related and various socio-demographic predictors were used to predict hospitalization patterns. After adjusting for gender, age at first admission and number of hospital days a short (1-14 days) first hospitalization (reference >30 days; adjusted odds ratio 6.39; 95% CI 2.00-20.41) and familial risk of psychosis (OR 3.36; 1.09-10.39) predicted re-hospitalization within 2 years. A short first hospitalization also predicted frequent psychiatric admissions defined as the first three admissions within 3 years (OR 13.77; 3.92-48.36). A short first hospitalization was linked to increased risk of re-hospitalizations. Although short hospitalization is recommended by several guidelines, there may be a group of patients with schizophrenic psychoses in which too short a hospitalization may lead to inadequate treatment response. PMID:16923637

  11. Methylation matters? Decreased methylation status of genomic DNA in the blood of schizophrenic twins.

    PubMed

    Bönsch, Dominikus; Wunschel, Michael; Lenz, Bernd; Janssen, Gesa; Weisbrod, Matthias; Sauer, Heinrich

    2012-08-15

    Studies of schizophrenia inheritance in identical twins show a concordance of about 50%, which supports an epigenetic model. In our present study we investigated methylation of genomic DNA and promoter methylation of Reelin and SOX10 genes in peripheral blood of twins suffering from schizophrenia. Global DNA methylation was reduced (52.3%) in schizophrenic twins if compared with healthy control twins (65.7%). The reduced methylation was significant in males only. We also found a similar hypomethylation in the non-affected twins of discordant pairs and a mixed group of psychiatric controls. In discordant twins there was a relative hypermethylation of the SOX10 promoter. Within-pair-difference of methylation of Reelin promoter was significantly lower in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic twins. PMID:23102571

  12. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of occupational status in schizophrenic psychoses--follow-up within the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Miettunen, Jouko; Lauronen, Erika; Veijola, Juha; Koponen, Hannu; Saarento, Outi; Taanila, Anja; Isohanni, Matti

    2007-04-15

    We studied occupational status of persons with schizophrenic psychoses by age 34 in a longitudinal population-based cohort and predicted which demographic and illness-related factors could support the patients to maintain their occupational capacity. Subjects of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort with the diagnosis of DSM-III-R schizophrenic psychoses (n=113) by the year 1997 were followed until the end of year 2000. Various illness and socio-demographic factors at the time of onset of illness were used as predictors. At the end of the follow-up time 50 (44%) of patients were not pensioned and 22 (20%) were also working at least half of the time during year 2000. After adjusting for gender, being unemployed at onset, educational level and proportion of time spent in psychiatric hospitals, those who were married or cohabiting at the time of onset of illness were less often on pension than those who were single (OR 6.51; 95% CI 1.83-23.12). Thus, nearly half of the patients with schizophrenic psychoses were not pensioned after an average 10 years follow-up. Based on our findings, those who were single at time of their onset of illness probably need most support to retain their contacts to work life. PMID:17316827

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial Shows Biofeedback to be Superior to Alternative Treatments for Patients with Pelvic Floor Dyssynergia-type Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Heymen, Steve; Scarlett, Yolanda; Jones, Kenneth; Ringel, Yehuda; Drossman, Douglas; Whitehead, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether biofeedback is more effective than diazepam or placebo in a randomized controlled trial for patients with pelvic floor dyssynergia-type constipation, and whether instrumented biofeedback is necessary for successful training. Methods One hundred seventeen patients participated in a 4-week run-in (education and medical management). The 84 who remained constipated were randomized to Biofeedback (n=30); Diazepam (n=30); or Placebo (n=24). All patients were trained to do pelvic floor muscle exercises to correct pelvic floor dyssynergia during 6 biweekly 1-hour sessions, but only Biofeedback patients received electromyography feedback. All other patients received pills 1-2 hours before attempting defecation. Diary data on cathartic use, straining, incomplete bowel movements, Bristol stool scores, and compliance with homework were reviewed biweekly. Results Before treatment, the groups did not differ on demographic (average age 50, 85 percent females), physiologic or psychologic characteristics, severity of constipation, or expectation of benefit. Biofeedback was superior to diazepam by intention to treat analysis (70 percent vs. 23 percent reported adequate relief of constipation 3 months after treatment, χ2 = 13.1, p < 0.001), and also superior to placebo (38 percent successful, χ2 = 5.7, p = 0.017). Biofeedback patients had significantly more unassisted bowel movements at follow-up compared to Placebo (p = .005), with a trend favoring biofeedback over diazepam (p = .067). Biofeedback patients reduced pelvic floor electromyography during straining significantly more than diazepam patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions This investigation provides definitive support for the efficacy of biofeedback for pelvic floor dyssynergia and shows that instrumented biofeedback is essential to successful treatment. PMID:19966605

  14. [The Influence of Threatening Stimuli on the Component P200 in Patients with Paranoid Schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Strelets, V B; Arkhipov, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    We studied schizophrenic patients with the dominance of pseudohallucinations. As is well known, pseudohallucinations are the main syndrome of schizophrenia, the so-called first rank syndrome. Pseudohallucinations are defined as a disorder of sense (affective) perception. This disorder is mainly diagnosed from the clinical picture or by pathopsychologichal observations. We investigated the evoked potentials (EP) of brain after neutral and emotionally meaningful (threatening) visual stimuli in order to specify the neurophysiological disorders of affective perception in schizophrenic patients with severe paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome who did not receive neuroleptic therapy. The analysis of P200 component in healthy subjects showed an increase in the amplitude and shortening of the latency of this wave in response to thretaning stimuli, as compared to neutral stimuli. In the group of patients with schizophrenia, the analysis showed the same increase in the level of excitation in response to emotionally threatening stimuli. However, in schizophrenic patients there were also found certain areas where the amplitude and latency decreased or increased at the same time. The results show that patients with schizophrenia have the pathological effect of having parameters typical of the processes of both excitation and inhibition. PMID:26601410

  15. Combination of letrozole, metronomic cyclophosphamide and sorafenib is well-tolerated and shows activity in patients with primary breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bazzola, L; Foroni, C; Andreis, D; Zanoni, V; R Cappelletti, M; Allevi, G; Aguggini, S; Strina, C; Milani, M; Venturini, S; Ferrozzi, F; Giardini, R; Bertoni, R; Turley, H; Gatter, K; Petronini, P G; Fox, S B; Harris, A L; Martinotti, M; Berruti, A; Bottini, A; Reynolds, A R; Generali, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess whether the combination of letrozole, metronomic cyclophosphamide and sorafenib (LCS) is well tolerated and shows activity in primary breast cancer (BC). Methods: Thirteen oestrogen receptor-positive, postmenopausal, T2-4, N0-1 BC patients received the LCS combination for 6 months. In these patients we examined the pharmacokinetics of sorafenib and cyclophosphamide, toxicity of the regimen, the clinical response to therapy and changes in the levels of biologically relevant biomarkers. Results: Adequate plasma concentrations of sorafenib were achieved in patients when it was dosed in combination with L+C. The mean plasma concentrations of C were consistently lower following administration of LCS, compared with administration of L+C only. The most common drug-related grade 3/4 adverse events were skin rash (69.3%), hand-foot skin reaction (69.3%) and diarrhoea (46.1%). According to RECIST Criteria, a clinical complete response was observed in 6 of 13 patients. A significant reduction in tumour size, evaluated with MRI, was also observed between baseline and 14 days of treatment in all 13 patients (P=0.005). A significant reduction in SUV uptake, measured by 18FDG-PET/CT, was observed in all patients between baseline and 30 days of treatment (P=0.015) and between baseline and definitive surgery (P=0.0002). Using modified CT Criteria, a response was demonstrated in 8 out of 10 evaluable patients at 30 days and in 11 out of 13 evaluable patients at the definitive surgery. A significant reduction in Ki67 expression was observed in all patients at day 14 compared with baseline (P<0.00001) and in 9 out of 13 patients at the definitive surgery compared with baseline (P<0.03). There was also a significant suppression of CD31 and VEGF-A expression in response to treatment (P=0.01 and P=0.007, respectively). Conclusions: The LCS combination is feasible and tolerable. The tumour response and target biomarker modulation indicate that the combination is

  16. [Negative delusional identity with schizophrenic psychoses. Case studies of phemonology and pathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Stompe, T; Strobl, R

    2000-04-01

    With schizophrenics negative delusional identities constitute one way of psychotic alteration of self-identification. The main notion is of being a personification of evil. In a cross-cultural comparison study we found in the Austrian sample 13 patients with negative delusional identities. Our present study is based on detailed interviews and evaluations of medical records of this sample. Our aim was to draft a typology of delusional identities as a basic requirement for a phenomenology of the negative manifestations. Further investigative goals were the efforts of self-explanation undertaken by the patients with regard to their altered condition, the search for a pathogenetic transitional series and the functional value of the new identities. According to our estimation the basic mood on which negative delusional identities are founded is timid and dejected. Further basic requirements are a disturbed conscience of the ego and the concurrence of grandeur and guilt ideas. Half of our patients imagined to be reincarnations of negative biblical figures, three regarded themselves as possessed, two attributed their identities to heredity. Despite of diverse situative points of departure a common pathogenetic transitional series emerged for all patients. From a functional point of view a negative delusional identity seems to offer some kind of protection from further structural disintegration as well as relief from feelings of guilt--all that however at the price of structural deformations with dynamic depletion. PMID:10803385

  17. Chemotherapy Agents Alter Plasma Lipids in Breast Cancer Patients and Show Differential Effects on Lipid Metabolism Genes in Liver Cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Tuaine, Jo; McLaren, Blair; Waters, Debra L; Black, Katherine; Jones, Lynnette M; McCormick, Sally P A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications have emerged as a major concern for cancer patients. Many chemotherapy agents are cardiotoxic and some appear to also alter lipid profiles, although the mechanism for this is unknown. We studied plasma lipid levels in 12 breast cancer patients throughout their chemotherapy. Patients received either four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel or three cycles of epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and 5'-fluorouracil followed by three cycles of docetaxel. Patients demonstrated a significant reduction (0.32 mmol/L) in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels (0.18 g/L) and an elevation in apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels (0.15 g/L) after treatment. Investigation of the individual chemotherapy agents for their effect on genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism in liver cells showed that doxorubicin decreased ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) via a downregulation of the peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) transcription factors. In contrast, ABCA1 levels were not affected by cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel. Likewise, apoA1 levels were reduced by doxorubicin and remained unaffected by cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel both increased apoB protein levels and paclitaxel also decreased low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein levels. These findings correlate with the observed reduction in HDL-C and apoA1 and increase in apoB levels seen in these patients. The unfavourable lipid profiles produced by some chemotherapy agents may be detrimental in the longer term to cancer patients, especially those already at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This knowledge may be useful in tailoring effective follow-up care plans for cancer survivors. PMID:26807857

  18. Chemotherapy Agents Alter Plasma Lipids in Breast Cancer Patients and Show Differential Effects on Lipid Metabolism Genes in Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Monika; Tuaine, Jo; McLaren, Blair; Waters, Debra L.; Black, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications have emerged as a major concern for cancer patients. Many chemotherapy agents are cardiotoxic and some appear to also alter lipid profiles, although the mechanism for this is unknown. We studied plasma lipid levels in 12 breast cancer patients throughout their chemotherapy. Patients received either four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel or three cycles of epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and 5’-fluorouracil followed by three cycles of docetaxel. Patients demonstrated a significant reduction (0.32 mmol/L) in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels (0.18 g/L) and an elevation in apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels (0.15 g/L) after treatment. Investigation of the individual chemotherapy agents for their effect on genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism in liver cells showed that doxorubicin decreased ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) via a downregulation of the peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) transcription factors. In contrast, ABCA1 levels were not affected by cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel. Likewise, apoA1 levels were reduced by doxorubicin and remained unaffected by cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel both increased apoB protein levels and paclitaxel also decreased low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein levels. These findings correlate with the observed reduction in HDL-C and apoA1 and increase in apoB levels seen in these patients. The unfavourable lipid profiles produced by some chemotherapy agents may be detrimental in the longer term to cancer patients, especially those already at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This knowledge may be useful in tailoring effective follow-up care plans for cancer survivors. PMID:26807857

  19. Multiple Rapid Swallow Maneuver Enhances the Clinical Utility of High-Resolution Manometry in Patients Showing Ineffective Esophageal Motility.

    PubMed

    Min, Yang Won; Shin, Inseub; Son, Hee Jung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2015-10-01

    The clinical significance of ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) together with multiple rapid swallow (MRS) has not been yet evaluated in the Chicago Classification v3.0. This study evaluated the adjunctive role of MRS in IEM and determined the criteria of abnormal MRS to maximize the utility of IEM. We analyzed 186 patients showing IEM or normal esophageal motility (NEM), who underwent esophageal high-resolution impedance-manometry for esophageal symptoms. Two different criteria for abnormal MRS were applied to IEM subjects, resulting in 2 corresponding subgroups: IEM-A when distal contractile integral (DCI) ratio between an average wet swallows and MRS contraction was < 1 and IEM-B when MRS contraction DCI was <450 mm Hg-s-cm. One IEM subject inadequately performed MRS. Among the remaining 52 IEM subjects, 18 (34.6%) were classified into IEM-A and 23 (44.2%) into IEM-B. IEM subjects showed less complete bolus transit (median 0.0%, interquartile range 0.0-20.0% vs 60.0%, 30.0-80.0; P < 0.001) resulting in higher impaired bolus transit than NEM subjects (98.1% vs 66.9%, P = 0.001). IEM-B subjects showed additionally higher pathologic bolus exposure than NEM subjects (55.6% vs 29.3%, P = 0.001), whereas IEM-A subjects could not. Although IEM-B subjects had the highest prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease among the subjects groups, it did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, IEM patients with abnormal MRS contraction have an increased risk of prolonged bolus clearance, poor bolus transit, and pathologic bolus exposure. IEM patients need to be assessed concerning whether MRS contraction DCI is < 450 mm Hg-s-cm to segregate clinically relevant patients. PMID:26448010

  20. Multiple Rapid Swallow Maneuver Enhances the Clinical Utility of High-Resolution Manometry in Patients Showing Ineffective Esophageal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yang Won; Shin, Inseub; Son, Hee Jung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical significance of ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) together with multiple rapid swallow (MRS) has not been yet evaluated in the Chicago Classification v3.0. This study evaluated the adjunctive role of MRS in IEM and determined the criteria of abnormal MRS to maximize the utility of IEM. We analyzed 186 patients showing IEM or normal esophageal motility (NEM), who underwent esophageal high-resolution impedance–manometry for esophageal symptoms. Two different criteria for abnormal MRS were applied to IEM subjects, resulting in 2 corresponding subgroups: IEM-A when distal contractile integral (DCI) ratio between an average wet swallows and MRS contraction was <1 and IEM-B when MRS contraction DCI was <450 mm Hg-s-cm. One IEM subject inadequately performed MRS. Among the remaining 52 IEM subjects, 18 (34.6%) were classified into IEM-A and 23 (44.2%) into IEM-B. IEM subjects showed less complete bolus transit (median 0.0%, interquartile range 0.0–20.0% vs 60.0%, 30.0–80.0; P < 0.001) resulting in higher impaired bolus transit than NEM subjects (98.1% vs 66.9%, P = 0.001). IEM-B subjects showed additionally higher pathologic bolus exposure than NEM subjects (55.6% vs 29.3%, P = 0.001), whereas IEM-A subjects could not. Although IEM-B subjects had the highest prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease among the subjects groups, it did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, IEM patients with abnormal MRS contraction have an increased risk of prolonged bolus clearance, poor bolus transit, and pathologic bolus exposure. IEM patients need to be assessed concerning whether MRS contraction DCI is <450 mm Hg-s-cm to segregate clinically relevant patients. PMID:26448010

  1. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Catechol-O-Methyltransferase and Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase Genes in the Pakistani Schizophrenic Population: A Study with Special Emphasis on Cannabis and Smokeless Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Rukhsana; Siddiqui, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder in which abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex lead to impaired synthesis of dopamine. It is associated with hallucination, psychosis and hearing impairments. Many susceptible genes have been identified in schizophrenia such as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and serine/threonine kinase (AKT1). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes have not been identified in Pakistan. Therefore, we investigated the allelic and genotypic frequencies in COMT and AKT1 genes in the Pakistani population. Polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing were used to identify SNPs in the genes. The present study shows that COMT Val and COMT Met allelic frequencies for the controls were p=0.52, q=0.48 and for the schizophrenic cases they were p=0.34, q=0.66 respectively. The distribution of polymorphism in COMT Val158Met genotype by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was P=0.61 for controls and P=0.005 for cases. The data reveal that SNP rs1130214 T allele mutation was found neither in patients nor in controls in the 5' untranslated region (UTR). This proves that no association of AKT1 and positive association of COMT with schizophrenia exist in the population of Pakistan. Moreover, a study based on a single family showed COMT Met allele inheritance in schizophrenic offspring. This suggested that COMT allele alteration influences susceptibility to at least some forms of psychosis in the Pakistani population. Interestingly, according to our socio-economical survey, COMT genotype has no association with cannabis but it is strongly associated with tobacco. The Pakistani population with Val158Met SNP showed more susceptibility towards developing schizophrenia. This study highlights the genetic differences between Pakistani and other Caucasian populations. PMID:25801838

  2. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Patients with Huntington’s Disease Show CAG Repeat Expansion Associated Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mattis, Virginia B; Svendsen, Soshana P; Ebert, Allison; Svendsen, Clive N; King, Alvin R; Casale, Malcolm; Winokur, Sara T; Batugedara, Gayani; Vawter, Marquis; Donovan, Peter J; Lock, Leslie F; Thompson, Leslie M; Zhu, Yu; Fossale, Elisa; Singh Atwal, Ranjit; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Li, Jian-hong; Seong, IhnSik; Shen, Yiping; Chen, Xiaoli; Wheeler, Vanessa C; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Akimov, Sergey; Arbez, Nicolas; Juopperi, Tarja; Ratovitski, Tamara; Chiang, Jason H; Kim, Woon Roung; Chighladze, Eka; Watkin, Erin; Zhong, Chun; Makri, Georgia; Cole, Robert N; Margolis, Russell L; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guoli; Ross, Christopher A; Kaye, Julia A; Daub, Aaron; Sharma, Punita; Mason, Amanda R; Finkbeiner, Steven; Yu, Junying; Thomson, James A; Rushton, David; Brazier, Stephen P; Battersby, Alysia A; Redfern, Amanda; Tseng, Hsui-Er; Harrison, Alexander W; Kemp, Paul J; Allen, Nicholas D; Onorati, Marco; Castiglioni, Valentina; Cattaneo, Elena; Arjomand, Jamshid

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded stretch of CAG trinucleotide repeats that results in neuronal dysfunction and death. Here, the HD consortium reports the generation and characterization of 14 induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from HD patients and controls. Microarray profiling revealed CAG expansion-associated gene expression patterns that distinguish patient lines from controls, and early onset versus late onset HD. Differentiated HD neural cells showed disease associated changes in electrophysiology, metabolism, cell adhesion, and ultimately cell death for lines with both medium and longer CAG repeat expansions. The longer repeat lines were however the most vulnerable to cellular stressors and BDNF withdrawal using a range of assays across consortium laboratories. The HD iPSC collection represents a unique and well-characterized resource to elucidate disease mechanisms in HD and provides a novel human stem cell platform for screening new candidate therapeutics. PMID:22748968

  3. (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding sites increased in autopsied brains of chronic schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanada, S.; Mita, T.; Nishino, N.; Tanaka, C.

    1987-01-19

    (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus of autopsied brains from 19 chronic schizophrenics and 17 control subjects were investigated. In the schizophrenics, saturation analysis with varying concentrations of (/sup 3/H)muscimol revealed an increase in the number GABA/sub A/ receptors, but there was no significant difference in the affinity. In addition, the enhancement of (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding by diazepam was significantly greater in schizophrenics than in controls. GAD activity did not differ between controls and schizophrenics. The possibility that GABAergic mechanisms might play a role in case of chronic schizophrenia should be given further attention.

  4. Integrative Analyses of Colorectal Cancer Show Immunoscore Is a Stronger Predictor of Patient Survival Than Microsatellite Instability.

    PubMed

    Mlecnik, Bernhard; Bindea, Gabriela; Angell, Helen K; Maby, Pauline; Angelova, Mihaela; Tougeron, David; Church, Sarah E; Lafontaine, Lucie; Fischer, Maria; Fredriksen, Tessa; Sasso, Maristella; Bilocq, Amélie M; Kirilovsky, Amos; Obenauf, Anna C; Hamieh, Mohamad; Berger, Anne; Bruneval, Patrick; Tuech, Jean-Jacques; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Le Pessot, Florence; Mauillon, Jacques; Rafii, Arash; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Speicher, Michael R; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Michel, Pierre; Sesboüe, Richard; Frebourg, Thierry; Pagès, Franck; Valge-Archer, Viia; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Galon, Jérôme

    2016-03-15

    Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer predicts favorable outcomes. However, the mechanistic relationship between microsatellite instability, tumor-infiltrating immune cells, Immunoscore, and their impact on patient survival remains to be elucidated. We found significant differences in mutational patterns, chromosomal instability, and gene expression that correlated with patient microsatellite instability status. A prominent immune gene expression was observed in microsatellite-instable (MSI) tumors, as well as in a subgroup of microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors. MSI tumors had increased frameshift mutations, showed genetic evidence of immunoediting, had higher densities of Th1, effector-memory T cells, in situ proliferating T cells, and inhibitory PD1-PDL1 cells, had high Immunoscores, and were infiltrated with mutation-specific cytotoxic T cells. Multivariate analysis revealed that Immunoscore was superior to microsatellite instability in predicting patients' disease-specific recurrence and survival. These findings indicate that assessment of the immune status via Immunoscore provides a potent indicator of tumor recurrence beyond microsatellite-instability staging that could be an important guide for immunotherapy strategies. PMID:26982367

  5. MicroRNA-382 expression is elevated in the olfactory neuroepithelium of schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Mor, Eyal; Kano, Shin-Ichi; Colantuoni, Carlo; Sawa, Akira; Navon, Ruth; Shomron, Noam

    2013-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that has a strong genetic component. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, as indicated by their dysregulation in post-mortem brain tissues and in peripheral blood of schizophrenia patients. The olfactory epithelium (OE) is one of the few accessible neural tissues that contain neurons and their stem cells. Previous studies showed that OE-derived tissues and cells can be safely and easily collected from live human subjects and may provide a "window" into neuronal processes involved in disorders such as schizophrenia, while avoiding the limitations of using postmortem brain samples or non-neuronal tissues. In this study, we found that the brain-enriched miR-382 (miR-382-5p) expression was elevated in in vitro cultured olfactory cells, in a cohort of seven schizophrenia patients compared with seven non-schizophrenic controls. MiR-382 elevation was further confirmed in laser-capture microdissected OE neuronal tissue (LCM-OE), enriched for mature olfactory neurons, in a cohort of 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 non-schizophrenic controls. In sharp contrast, miR-382 expression could not be detected in lymphoblastoid cell lines generated from schizophrenic or non-schizophrenic individuals. We further found that miR-382 directly regulates the expression of two genes, FGFR1 and SPRY4, which are downregulated in both the cultured olfactory cells and LCM-OE derived from schizophrenia patients. These genes are involved in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway, while impairment of this pathway may underlie abnormal brain development and function associated with schizophrenia. Our data suggest that miR-382 elevation detected in patients' OE-derived samples might serve to strengthen current biomarker studies in schizophrenia. This study also illustrates the potential utility of OE-derived tissues and cells as surrogate samples for the

  6. Event-related potentials elicited during a context-free homograph task in normal versus schizophrenic subjects

    PubMed Central

    SALISBURY, DEAN F.; O’DONNELL, BRIAN F.; MCCARLEY, ROBERT W.; NESTOR, PAUL G.; SHENTON, MARTHA E.

    2009-01-01

    Thought disorder in schizophrenia may involve abnormal semantic activation or faulty working memory maintenance. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while sentences reading “THE NOUN WAS ADJECTIVE/VERB” were presented to 34 schizophrenic and 34 control subjects. Some nouns were homographs with dominant and subordinate meanings. Their sentence ending presented information crucial for interpretation (e.g., The bank was [closed, steep]). Greatest N400 activity to subordinate homograph-meaning sentence endings in schizophrenia would reflect a semantic bias to strong associates. N400 to all endings would reflect faulty verbal working memory maintenance. Schizophrenic subjects showed N400 activity to all endings, suggesting problems in contextual maintenance independent of content, but slightly greater N400 activity to subordinate endings that correlated with the severity of psychosis. Future research should help determine whether a semantic activation bias in schizophrenia toward strong associates is reflected in ERP activity or whether this effect is overshadowed by faulty verbal working memory maintenance of context. PMID:10934904

  7. Next-Generation Sequencing of Plasmodium vivax Patient Samples Shows Evidence of Direct Evolution in Drug-Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Flannery, Erika L.; Wang, Tina; Akbari, Ali; Corey, Victoria C.; Gunawan, Felicia; Bright, A. Taylor; Abraham, Matthew; Sanchez, Juan F.; Santolalla, Meddly L.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Rosales, Luis A.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Bafna, Vineet; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax, the parasite that causes the most widespread form of human malaria, is complicated by the lack of a suitable long-term cell culture system for this parasite. In contrast to P. falciparum, which can be more readily manipulated in the laboratory, insights about parasite biology need to be inferred from human studies. Here we analyze the genomes of parasites within 10 human P. vivax infections from the Peruvian Amazon. Using next-generation sequencing we show that some P. vivax infections analyzed from the region are likely polyclonal. Despite their polyclonality we observe limited parasite genetic diversity by showing that three or fewer haplotypes comprise 94% of the examined genomes, suggesting the recent introduction of parasites into this geographic region. In contrast we find more than three haplotypes in putative drug-resistance genes, including the gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase and the P. vivax multidrug resistance associated transporter, suggesting that resistance mutations have arisen independently. Additionally, several drug-resistance genes are located in genomic regions with evidence of increased copy number. Our data suggest that whole genome sequencing of malaria parasites from patients may provide more insight about the evolution of drug resistance than genetic linkage or association studies, especially in geographical regions with limited parasite genetic diversity. PMID:26719854

  8. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-06-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural highresolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00+-29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70+-22.26) (p less than 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics. PMID:25963262

  9. On identifying the processes underlying schizophrenic speech disorder.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Nancy M

    2012-11-01

    Speech of people with schizophrenia is often difficult to follow. There is evidence that neuropsychological deficits associated with schizophrenia explain some of the variance in speech disorder, but its nature and causes overall are not well understood. This study rated speech samples from 60 schizophrenic outpatients for thought disorder, conceptual disorganization, linguistic structural breakdown, and communication failure. A battery of neuropsychological tests potentially relevant to coherent speech production was administered, and associations between these variables and the speech measures were assessed. Consistent with previous research, the measure of functional effect, communication failure, was more highly associated with neuropsychological test performance than were the measures of putative cause: thought disorder, conceptual disorganization, or linguistic structural breakdown. Performance on tests of attention, immediate memory, working memory, organizational sequencing, and conceptual sequencing all were significantly related to the frequency of communication failures in the speech. In hierarchical regression, attention, working memory, and conceptual sequencing each contributed significantly and together explained 29% of the variance. Some other potential contributors to test in future research include auditory attention, internal source memory, emotional disturbances, and social cognitive deficits. PMID:21562141

  10. Building models for postmortem abnormalities in hippocampus of schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Benes, Francine M

    2015-09-01

    Postmortem studies have suggested that there is abnormal GABAergic activity in the hippocampus in schizophrenia (SZ). In micro-dissected human hippocampal slices, a loss of interneurons and a compensatory upregulation of GABAA receptor binding activity on interneurons, but not PNs, has suggested that disinhibitory GABA-to-GABA connections are abnormal in stratum oriens (SO) of CA3/2, but not CA1, in schizophrenia. Abnormal expression changes in the expression of kainate receptor (KAR) subunits 5, 6 and 7, as well as an inwardly-rectifying hyperpolarization-activated cationic channel (Ih3; HCN3) may play important roles in regulating GABA cell activity at the SO CA3/2 locus. The exclusive neurons at this site are GABAergic interneurons; these cells also receive direct projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA). When the BLA is stimulated by stereotaxic infusion of picrotoxin in rats, KARs influence axodendritic and presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms that regulate both inhibitory and disinhibitory interneurons in the SO-CA3/2 locus. The rat model described here was specifically developed to extend our understanding of these and other postmortem findings and has suggested that GABAergic abnormalities and possible disturbances in oscillatory rhythms may be related to a dysfunction of disinhibitory interneurons at the SO-CA3/2 site of schizophrenics. PMID:25749020

  11. The efficacy of tenofovir-based therapy in patients showing suboptimal response to entecavir-adefovir combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Han; Ahn, Sung Hyun; Ko, Soon Young; Choe, Won Hyeok; Kim, Kyun-Hwan; Kwon, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Before tenofovir (TDF) become available in South Korea, combination therapy with entecavir (ETV) and adefovir (ADV) was the most potent regimen for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who fail to respond to rescue therapy for drug resistance. We analyzed the efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy and investigated the clinical and clonal results of TDF-based rescue therapy in CHB patients refractory to this combination. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of CHB patients treated for up to 3 years with ETV-ADV combination therapy as a rescue therapy for drug resistance. In cases refractory to this combination, clinical and clonal analyses were performed for TDF-based rescue therapy. Results: The analysis was performed on 48 patients. Twelve patients achieved a virological response (VR) within 3 years. A VR was subsequently achieved in nine of the ten patients without a VR who switched to TDF monotherapy. A VR was also achieved in six of the seven patients who switched to lamivudine-TDF combination therapy, and in two of the two patients who switched to ETV-TDF combination therapy. In an in vitro susceptibility test, viral replication was detected with TDF monotherapy but not with ETV-TDF combination therapy. Conclusions: The efficacy of ETV-ADV combination therapy was insufficient in CHB patients who were refractory to rescue therapy. A more potent regimen such as ETV-TDF combination therapy may be considered in such refractory cases. PMID:27304549

  12. [Bone metastases or an insufficiency fracture? Oncology patients reporting pain or showing bone abnormalities on a scan].

    PubMed

    Meerveld-Eggink, Aafke; Bollen, Thomas L; Wijrdeman, Harm K; Los, Maartje

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old patient reported pain in the left hip 14 months after treatment with radiotherapy for a ypT3N1M0 rectal carcinoma, and a 61-year-old patient reported pain in the lower back with radiation to the buttocks 8 months after radiotherapy for a ypT3N2M0 rectal carcinoma. In both patients the initial diagnosis considered was bone metastasis. After MRI and nuclear bone scans, however, diagnoses of insufficiency fractures of the acetabulum and sacroiliac (SI) joints, respectively, were made. Insufficiency fractures of the SI joints or acetabula are a frequent complication of radiotherapy and should be considered in all oncology patients who present with sudden onset of back pain or lower back pain after radiotherapy. A MRI scan is the initial investigation of choice. Treatment is conservative, with analgesia and physiotherapy. Prognosis is good; symptoms disappear within 1 year in almost all patients. PMID:23841929

  13. Analysis of beta-globin mutations shows stable mixed chimerism in patients with thalassemia after bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kapelushnik, J; Or, R; Filon, D; Nagler, A; Cividalli, G; Aker, M; Naparstek, E; Slavin, S; Oppenheim, A

    1995-10-15

    Beta-thalassemia major (TM) is caused by any of approximately 150 mutations within the beta-globin gene. To establish the degree of chimerism after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we have performed molecular analysis of beta-globin mutations in 14 patients with TM over a period of 10 years. All patients underwent T cell-depleted allogeneic BMT from HLA-identical related donors, using either in vitro T-cell depletion with CAMPATH 1M and complement or in vivo depletion using CAMPATH 1G in the bone marrow collection bag. To date, at different time periods after BMT, seven patients have some degree of chimerism; six of these patients, all blood transfusion-independent, have donor cells in the range of 70% to 95%, with stable mixed chimerism (MC). The seventh patient has less than 10% donor cells with, surprisingly, only minimal transfusion requirements. The detection of beta-globin gene point mutation, as used here, is a highly specific and sensitive marker for engraftment and MC in patients with thalassemia. In light of its specificity, the method is applicable in all cases of TM, as it is independent of sex and other non-globin-related DNA markers. The high incidence of MC found in our patients may be a consequence of the pre-BMT T-cell depletion. Because MC was associated with transfusion independence, complete eradication of residual host cells for effective treatment of TM and possibly other genetic diseases may prove not to be essential. PMID:7579421

  14. Hip Fractures: What Information Does the Evidence Show That Patients and Families Need to Decrease 30-Day Readmission?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kristin OʼMara

    2015-01-01

    The current bundled payment reimbursement from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services will not cover the additional cost of hospital readmission for the same diagnosis, and patients with hip fractures have one of the highest cost-saving opportunities when compared with other admission reasons. Common reasons for readmission to the hospital after hip fracture include pneumonia, dehydration, and mobility issues. The learning modalities including visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic were used to make recommendations on how the education can be incorporated into the instruction of patients with hip fractures and their families. These learning techniques can be used to develop education to decrease possibility of 30-day readmission after hip fracture. Nurses must focus their education to meet the needs of each individual patient, adapting to different types of adult learners to increase the health literacy of patients with hip fractures and their families. PMID:26575502

  15. Sepsis Patients with First and Second-Hit Infections Show Different Outcomes Depending on the Causative Organism

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Matt P.; Szakmany, Tamas; Power, Sarah G.; Olaniyi, Patrick; Hall, Judith E.; Rowan, Kathy; Eberl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Objective: With improving rates of initial survival in severe sepsis, second-hit infections that occur following resolution of the primary insult carry an increasing burden of morbidity. However, despite the clinical relevance of these infections, no data are available on differential outcomes in patients with first and second-hit infections depending on the nature of the causative organism. This study aims to explore any differences in these subgroups. Design: In a retrospective, observational cohort study, the United Kingdom Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) database was used to explore the outcomes of patient with first-hit infections leading to sepsis, and sepsis patients with second-hit infections grouped according to the Gram status of the causative organism. Setting: General critical care units in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland participating in the ICNARC programme between 1 January, 2007 and 30 June, 2012. Patients: Patient groups analyzed included 2119 patients with and 1319 patients without sepsis who developed an intensive care unit acquired infection in blood. Subgroups included patients with trauma, emergency neurosurgery, elective surgery, and cardiogenic shock. Measurements and main results: Gram-negative organisms were associated with poorer outcomes in first-hit infections. The 90-day mortality of patients who developed a Gram-negative infection was 43.6% following elective surgery and 27.9% following trauma. This compared with a mortality of 25.6 and 20.6%, respectively, in Gram-positive infections. Unexpectedly, an inverse relationship between Gram status and mortality was observed in second-hit infections. Patients with an initial diagnosis of sepsis who developed secondary infections caused by Gram-negative organisms had a 90-day mortality of 40.4%, compared with 43.6% in Gram-positive infections. Conclusions: Our study identifies a fundamental difference in patient outcomes between first-hit and second

  16. Aberrant CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotypes do not show increased frequency in patients undergoing ECT after antidepressant therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; van Dormolen, Juliët; van der Weide, Karen; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; van Noorden, Martijn S; Swen, Jesse

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the accumulation of aberrant CYP2D6 genotypes and predicted metabolizer phenotypes (ultrarapid metabolizer, intermediate metabolizer and poor metabolizer) potentially affecting the antidepressant treatment response in depressive patients indicated for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) compared with patients with a single episode of depression. Seventy-six Dutch White patients with unipolar or bipolar treatment-resistant depression who underwent ECT were genotyped using the Amplichip CYP450 Test for CYP2D6. Two hundred and eight patients with a single episode of unipolar or bipolar depression were used as controls. No difference was observed in the prevalence of CYP2D6 phenotypes (poor metabolizer, intermediate metabolizer, extensive metabolizer and ultrarapid metabolizer) between the ECT and the control patients (5.3, 38.7, 56.0 and 0.0% vs. 6.4, 51.0, 42.6 and 0.0%, respectively). The types of depression (odds ratio = 0.33, P = 0.018) and age (odds ratio = 1.55 for a 10-year increase, P < 0.001), but not CYP2D6 phenotype or activity score were associated with the response to antidepressant treatment. In conclusion, preemptive genotyping for CYP2D6 currently appears to have no clinical implications in treatment-resistant depressive patients indicated for ECT. PMID:26230381

  17. Efficacy of yoga therapy on subjective well-being and basic living skills of patients having chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Paikkatt, Babu; Singh, Amool Ranjan; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Jahan, Masroor

    2012-01-01

    Background: Scientific studies demonstrate efficacy of yogic treatment methods in stress and anxiety related disorders, psychosomatic disorders and physical illness. Very few studies have been conducted on schizophrenic patients. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of yoga therapy on subjective well-being, basic living skills, self-care, interpersonal, communicational and routine functions of schizophrenic patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty chronic schizophrenic hospitalized patients were selected from Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Ranchi and were randomly assigned to the experimental group (yoga therapy along with Pharmacotherapy, n=15), and to control group (Pharmacotherapy alone, n=15). Baseline assessment was done using Post Graduate Institute general well-being measure (GWBM), Checklist for basic living skills and Indian disability evaluation and assessment scale (IDEAS). The experimental group attended yoga therapy every day for about 1½ h including motivational and feedback session. After 1 month post-assessment was done for both the groups. Statistical Analysis: Pearson Chi-square test was used for comparing the results. Results: At the end of 1 month experimental group showed better rating in comparison to control group in PGI GWBM, basic living skills and IDEAS. Conclusion: Yoga could improve patients’ subjective well-being, their daily basic living functioning, personal hygiene, self-care, interpersonal activities and communication, and prompted more involvement in routine work. PMID:24250042

  18. High mobility group A1 expression shows negative correlation with recurrence time in patients with glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Pang, Bo; Liu, Huajie; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Zhang, Rui; Feng, Bin; Zhong, Peng; Murata, Daiki; Fan, Haitao; Xin, Tao; Zhao, Guangyu; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hua; Luan, Liming; Xu, Shangchen; Miyamoto, Susumu; Pang, Qi

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the difference in high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) expression and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 R132H point mutation in initial and recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and to further identify whether the expression of HMGA1 has a role in the malignant progression of GBM. Paired initial and recurrent GBM specimens from the same patient were evaluated using immunohistochemical analysis. The association between HMGA1 expression and progression-free survival time (PFST) was analyzed. Three patients were confirmed with IDH-1 R132H mutations in both initial and recurrent groups (3/25, 12%). There was a significant difference in HMGA1 expression between initial and recurrent GBM (P=0.002), and patients with tumors expressing HMGA1 at higher level had a significantly shorter PFST (7.3 months versus 11.1months; P=0.044). Our study indicates that recurrent GBM express HMGA1 at a higher level and that HMGA1 overexpressoin is associated with shorter PFST in patients with GBM. These findings suggest that HMGA1 potentially plays an important role in the treatment of GBM. PMID:26092597

  19. Hospitals In ‘Magnet’ Program Show Better Patient Outcomes On Mortality Measures Compared To Non-‘Magnet’ Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Christopher R.; Xia, Rong; Ghaferi, Amir A.; Birkmeyer, John D.; Banerjee, Mousumi

    2015-01-01

    Hospital executives pursue external recognition to improve market share and demonstrate institutional commitment to quality of care. The Magnet Recognition Program of the American Nurses Credentialing Center identifies hospitals that epitomize nursing excellence, but it is not clear that receiving Magnet recognition improves patient outcomes. Using Medicare data on patients hospitalized for coronary artery bypass graft surgery, colectomy, or lower extremity bypass in 1998–2010, we compared rates of risk-adjusted thirty-day mortality and failure to rescue (death after a postoperative complication) between Magnet hospitals and non-Magnet hospitals matched on hospital characteristics. Surgical patients treated in Magnet hospitals, compared to those treated in non-Magnet hospitals, were 7.7 percent less likely to die within thirty days and 8.6 percent less likely to die after a postoperative complication. Across the thirteen–year study period, patient outcomes were significantly better in Magnet hospitals than in non-Magnet hospitals. However, outcomes did not improve for hospitals after they received Magnet recognition, which suggests that the Magnet program recognizes existing excellence and does not lead to additional improvements in surgical outcomes. PMID:26056204

  20. Mutation analysis in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients from Bulgaria shows a peculiar distribution of breakpoints by intron

    SciTech Connect

    Todorova, A.; Bronzova, J.; Kremensky, I.

    1996-10-02

    For the first time in Bulgaria, a deletion/duplication screening was performed on a group of 84 unrelated Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients, and the breakpoint distribution in the dystrophin gene was analyzed. Intragenic deletions were detected in 67.8% of patients, and intragenic duplications in 2.4%. A peculiar distribution of deletion breakpoints was found. Only 13.2% of the deletion breakpoints fell in the {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} hot spot in intron 44, whereas the majority (> 54%) were located within the segment encompassing introns 45-51, which includes intron 50, the richest in breakpoints (16%) in the Bulgarian sample. Comparison with data from Greece and Turkey points at the probable existence of a deletion hot spot within intron 50, which might be a characteristic of populations of the Balkan region. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  1. IBS Patients Show Frequent Fluctuations between Loose/Watery and Hard/Lumpy Stools: Implications for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Palsson, Olafur S.; Baggish, Jeffrey S.; Turner, Marsha J.; Whitehead, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine how variable stool consistency is in patients with irritable bowel (IBS) and assess the relationship between stool consistency and gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods Individuals with a physician diagnosis of IBS were recruited by advertisement. Enrollment questionnaires included the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaire and IBS Symptom Severity Scale. Then 185 patients meeting Rome criteria for IBS rated the consistency (using the Bristol Stool Scale) of each bowel movement (BM) for 90 days and whether the BM was accompanied by pain, urgency, or soiling. Each night they transferred BM ratings from a paper diary to an internet form and also reported the average daily intensity of abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit dissatisfaction, and life interference of bowel symptoms. Only the longest sequence of consecutive days of diary data was used in analysis (average of 73 days). Results Patients were 89% female with average age 36.6 years. 78% had both loose/watery and hard/lumpy stools; the average was 3 fluctuations between these extremes per month. The proportion of loose/watery stools correlated r=.78 between the first and second months and the proportion of hard/lumpy stools correlated r=.85 between months. Loose/watery stools were associated with more BM-related pain, urgency, and soiling than hard/lumpy or normal stools; however, IBS-C patients had significantly more BM-unrelated abdominal pain, bloating, dissatisfaction with bowel habits, and life interference than IBS-D. Questionnaires overestimated the frequency of abnormal stool consistency and gastrointestinal symptoms compared to diaries. Conclusions Stool consistency varies greatly within individuals. However, stool patterns are stable within an individual from month to month. The paradoxical findings of greater symptom severity after individual loose/watery BMs vs. greater overall symptom severity in IBS-C implies different physiological mechanisms for symptoms in constipation compared to

  2. Single-trial fMRI Shows Contralesional Activity Linked to Overt Naming Errors in Chronic Aphasic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Postman-Caucheteux, Whitney Anne; Birn, Rasmus M.; Pursley, Randall H.; Butman, John A.; Solomon, Jeffrey M.; Picchioni, Dante; McArdle, Joe; Braun, Allen R.

    2016-01-01

    We used fMRI to investigate the roles played by perilesional and contralesional cortical regions during language production in stroke patients with chronic aphasia. We applied comprehensive psycholinguistic analyses based on well-established models of lexical access to overt picture-naming responses, which were evaluated using a single trial design that permitted distinction between correct and incorrect responses on a trial-by-trial basis. Although both correct and incorrect naming responses were associated with left-sided perilesional activation, incorrect responses were selectively associated with robust right-sided contralesional activity. Most notably, incorrect responses elicited overactivation in the right inferior frontal gyrus that was not observed in the contrasts for patients’ correct responses or for responses of age-matched control subjects. Errors were produced at slightly later onsets than accurate responses and comprised predominantly semantic paraphasias and omissions. Both types of errors were induced by pictures with greater numbers of alternative names, and omissions were also induced by pictures with late acquired names. These two factors, number of alternative names per picture and age of acquisition, were positively correlated with activation in left and right inferior frontal gyri in patients as well as control subjects. These results support the hypothesis that some right frontal activation may normally be associated with increasing naming difficulty, but in patients with aphasia, right frontal overactivation may reflect ineffective effort when left hemisphere perilesional resources are insufficient. They also suggest that contralesional areas continue to play a role—dysfunctional rather than compensatory—in chronic aphasic patients who have experienced a significant degree of recovery. PMID:19413476

  3. Efficacy of Muscle Exercise in Patients with Muscular Dystrophy: A Systematic Review Showing a Missed Opportunity to Improve Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Silvia; Pecoraro, Valentina; Lambiase, Simone; Gatti, Roberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Moja, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background Although muscular dystrophy causes muscle weakness and muscle loss, the role of exercise in the management of this disease remains controversial. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of exercise interventions on muscle strength in patients with muscular dystrophy. Methods We performed systematic electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and Pedro as well as a list of reference literature. We included trials assessing muscle exercise in patients with muscular dystrophy. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and appraised risk of bias. Results We identified five small (two controlled and three randomized clinical) trials comprising 242 patients and two ongoing randomized controlled trials. We were able to perform two meta-analyses. We found an absence of evidence for a difference in muscle strength (MD 4.18, 95% CIs - 2.03 to 10.39; p = 0.91) and in endurance (MD −0.53, 95% CIs –1.11 to 0.05; p = 0.26). In both, the direction of effects favored muscle exercise. Conclusions The first included trial about the efficacy of muscular exercise was published in 1978. Even though some benefits of muscle exercise were consistently reported across studies, the benefits might be due to the small size of studies and other biases. Detrimental effects are still possible. After several decades of research, doctors cannot give advice and patients are, thus, denied basic information. A multi-center randomized trial investigating the strength of muscles, fatigue, and functional limitations is needed. PMID:23894268

  4. Horizon's patient-centered medical home program shows practices need much more than payment changes to transform.

    PubMed

    Patel, Urvashi B; Rathjen, Carl; Rubin, Elizabeth

    2012-09-01

    Skyrocketing costs and the uneven quality of patient care challenge the US health care system. Some health insurance companies are exploring patient-centered medical homes as a way to change incentives and transform the health care delivery system by increasing primary care providers' accountability for care coordination and outcomes. Horizon Healthcare Services, Inc., New Jersey's oldest and largest health insurance company, developed medical home programs that include financial incentives with essential support tools. Our experience in implementing and evaluating various approaches indicates that medical homes require intensive and targeted patient care coordination supported by committed primary care leadership, as well as new payment structures that include a monthly care coordination fee and outcome-based payments. Our experience also indicates that considerable nonmonetary support-such as an education program for population care coordinators, a medical home guide that offers effective ways to transform a practice into a medical home, and useful data sharing-are needed to improve the quality of care and reduce costs. PMID:22949451

  5. Natural course of schizophrenic disorders: a 15-year followup of a Dutch incidence cohort.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, D; Nienhuis, F J; Slooff, C J; Giel, R

    1998-01-01

    Data are presented on the 15-year natural course of schizophrenia and other nonaffective functional psychoses in a cohort of 82 first-contact cases from a circumscribed area in the Netherlands. The subjects were suffering from functional psychosis with International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnoses 295, 297, or 298.3-9 (broad definition of schizophrenia) on entry. Standardized assessments of psychopathology, psychological impairments, negative symptomatology, social disability, and use of mental healthcare were used. The study reveals a pattern of chronicity and relapses with a high risk of suicide: Two-thirds of the subjects had at least one relapse and after each relapse 1 of 6 subjects did not remit from the episode; 1 of 10 committed suicide; and 1 of 7 had at least one episode with affective psychotic symptoms that started on average 6 years after the onset of the schizophrenic disorder. Diagnoses were reclassified in five patients, according to DSM-III-R criteria for a bipolar disorder. The predictive power--in terms of time in psychosis and in partial or full remission--of demographic, illness, and treatment variables at onset of the illness was very limited. Insidious onset and delays in mental health treatment are risk factors that predict a longer duration of first or subsequent episodes. The importance of mental health treatment in regard to outcome is probably subject to change because an early warning and intervention strategy could prevent further damage and deterioration. Our data support the need for an adequate relapse prevention program as a priority for our mental health services. PMID:9502547

  6. Perioperative dexamethasone administration in tonsillectomy patients: A three-cycle audit showing improvement using printed theatre lists.

    PubMed

    Bola, Summy; Bartlett, Annie; Williams, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone administration prior to tonsillectomy has been shown to reduce morbidity and is part of SIGN guideline 117. We conducted a three-cycle audit of 149 patients to ascertain how well guidelines were being met and introduce a sustainable method to improve compliance. A 3-month audit was conducted to ascertain how many tonsillectomy patients didn't receive pre-operative dexamethasone. ENT secretaries were requested to add 'Dex Please' to tonsillectomy theatre lists. A 3-month re-audit was conducted; the intervention was only implemented in half of cases and so a reminding tool for the secretarial staff was administered before a third cycle. Initially, there was 73% compliance to SIGN guidelines, this improved to 87% in the second cycle. After the second intervention, all tonsillectomy theatre lists had the 'Dex Please' note and compliance to SIGN guidelines was 100%. There were five readmissions in the first cycle, three in the second and two in the third cycle. All readmissions were underdosed according to guidelines. Understanding there are regular staff rotations throughout many U.K. hospitals, we implemented a reliable method to increase compliance to guidelines which helped reduce post-operative readmission after tonsillectomy. This can be easily introduced to other institutions and for other perioperative requirements. PMID:26734456

  7. [Electrophysiology and schizophrenic vulnerability: the N400 component as endophenotype candidate?].

    PubMed

    Cermolacce, M; Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; Faugere, M; Naudin, J; Besson, M; Vion-Dury, J

    2013-04-01

    Research on early stages of schizophrenia aims to provide early, objective, and stable markers of vulnerability. In this review, we first briefly describe the notion of such markers, or endophenotypes, notably in terms of stability, specificity and heritability. Among other empirical approaches, event-related potentials (ERPs) have been recently considered as putative endophenotypes. The N400 component is an event-related brain potential classically elicited during semantic processing, as suggested by a growing body of empirical studies with a large variety of paradigms. We provide here a short account of its typical descriptions and the interpretations of its functional significance. Then we describe the main current results about schizophrenic alterations of the N400 component. Two levels of semantic processing (automatic spreading and controlled mechanisms) are disturbed in schizophrenia, even if the underlying mechanisms remain unclear or discussed. Several controversial issues may also need further research, such as the influence of symptomatology and evolution of schizophrenia. Another crucial topic concerns the putative schizophrenic specificity, and only little is known about possible alterations of N400 in affective disorders. We discuss the notion of heritability, mainly explored in current literature among people with schizotypal personality. Finally, even if N400 studies contribute to a better understanding of linguistic disturbances in schizophrenia, it appears difficult to consider the N400 component as a relevant schizophrenic endophenotype, given the current paucity of results on its stability, its heritability (clinical and genetic vulnerability) and its schizophrenic specificity. PMID:23540257

  8. Selective Attention in Schizophrenic and Manic Psychoses: The Effect of Distraction on Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    1978-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the general level of cognitive processing that is especially vulnerable to distraction in schizophrenia. Attempts to determine at what level auditory distraction interferes with schizophrenics' performance, as opposed to normals, on simple recall tasks. (Editor/RK)

  9. A Review of the Literature Concerning the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy with Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Michael Paul

    This review focuses on empirical studies with pre- and post-test measures of functioning that have attempted to assess the benefits of psychotherapy with schizophrenics. The first part of the review concentrates on various subgroups of schizophrenia, which appear to be influenced by subject variables and manifest clinical symptomatology. The…

  10. Dream Content of Schizophrenic, Nonschizophrenic Mentally Ill, and Community Control Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjez, Jack; Stein, Daniel; Gabbay, Uri; Bruckner, Judith; Meged, Sorin; Barak, Yoram; Elizur, Avner; Weizman, Abraham; Rotenberg, Vadim S.

    2003-01-01

    Study compared dream content of schizophrenic adolescent inpatients, adolescent inpatient s with other mental disorders, and community controls. Results suggest that psychopathology per se, rather than the specific psychiatric disturbance, may be associated with impoverishment of dream content; and that negative, rather than positive,…

  11. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  12. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  13. In Urban And Rural India, A Standardized Patient Study Showed Low Levels Of Provider Training And Huge Quality Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Das, Jishnu; Holla, Alaka; Das, Veena; Mohanan, Manoj; Tabak, Diana; Chan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the quality of care delivered by private and public providers of primary health care services in rural and urban India. To measure quality, the study used standardized patients recruited from the local community and trained to present consistent cases of illness to providers. We found low overall levels of medical training among health care providers; in rural Madhya Pradesh, for example, 67 percent of health care providers who were sampled reported no medical qualifications at all. What’s more, we found only small differences between trained and untrained doctors in such areas as adherence to clinical checklists. Correct diagnoses were rare, incorrect treatments were widely prescribed, and adherence to clinical checklists was higher in private than in public clinics. Our results suggest an urgent need to measure the quality of health care services systematically and to improve the quality of medical education and continuing education programs, among other policy changes. PMID:23213162

  14. Steroid-dependent sensorineural hearing loss in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease showing auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yukihide; Kataoka, Yuko; Sugaya, Akiko; Kariya, Shin; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2015-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common form of hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy and sometimes involves disorders of the peripheral auditory system. We present a case of steroid-dependent auditory neuropathy associated with CMT, in which the patient experienced 3 episodes of acute exacerbation of hearing loss and successful rescue of hearing by prednisolone. An 8-year-old boy was referred to the otolaryngology department at the University Hospital. He had been diagnosed with CMT type 1 (demyelinating type) at the Child Neurology Department and was suffering from mild hearing loss due to auditory neuropathy. An audiological diagnosis of auditory neuropathy was confirmed by auditory brainstem response and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions. At 9 years and 0 months old, 9 years and 2 months old, and 10 years and 0 months old, he had experienced acute exacerbations of hearing loss, each of which was successfully rescued by intravenous or oral prednisolone within 2 weeks. Steroid-responsive cases of CMT have been reported, but this is the first case report of steroid-responsive sensorineural hearing loss in CMT. The present case may have implications for the mechanisms of action of glucocorticoids in the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:25440412

  15. Characterization of Fibromyalgia Symptoms in Patients 55 to 95 Years Old: a Longitudinal Study Showing Symptom Persistence with Suboptimal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sandra A.; Simpson, Rachel G.; Lubahn, Cheri; Hu, Chengcheng; Belden, Christine M.; Davis, Kathryn J.; Nicholson, Lisa R.; Long, Kathy E.; Osredkar, Tracy; Lorton, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fibromyalgia (FM) has been understudied in the elderly population, a group with particular vulnerabilities to pain, reduced mobility, and sleep disruption. AIMS To characterize FM symptoms and treatments in a cohort of older subjects examined over time to determine the extent to which current, community-based treatment for older FM patients is in accord with published guidelines, and effective in reducing symptoms. METHODS A longitudinal, observational study of 51 subjects with FM (range 55 to 95 years) and 81 control subjects (58 to 95 years) performed at Banner Sun Health Research Institute in Sun City, AZ. Serial history and examination data were obtained over a 6-year period. FM data included medical history, medications, physical examination, tender point examination, neuropsychological testing, sleep and pain ratings, the Physical Function Subscale of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and other standardized scales to evaluate depression and other psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive and functional impairment. RESULTS Pain and stiffness that interfered with physical activity, sleep, and mood were reported by 80% or more of subjects. Over time, pain involved an increasing number of body areas. Over half of subjects were treated with NSAIDs, one-quarter with opioids, and one-quarter with estrogen. Few were treated with dual-acting antidepressants or pregabalin. DISCUSSION In this cohort of elders with suboptimally treated FM, substantial persistence of symptoms was seen over time. In general, recommended treatments were either not used or not tolerated. CONCLUSIONS Age-appropriate treatments as well as education of primary care providers are needed to improve treatment of FM in the older population. PMID:24859821

  16. iPSC-derived neurons from GBA1-associated Parkinson's disease patients show autophagic defects and impaired calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Schöndorf, David C; Aureli, Massimo; McAllister, Fiona E; Hindley, Christopher J; Mayer, Florian; Schmid, Benjamin; Sardi, S Pablo; Valsecchi, Manuela; Hoffmann, Susanna; Schwarz, Lukas Kristoffer; Hedrich, Ulrike; Berg, Daniela; Shihabuddin, Lamya S; Hu, Jing; Pruszak, Jan; Gygi, Steven P; Sonnino, Sandro; Gasser, Thomas; Deleidi, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the acid β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) gene, responsible for the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher's disease (GD), are the strongest genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) known to date. Here we generate induced pluripotent stem cells from subjects with GD and PD harbouring GBA1 mutations, and differentiate them into midbrain dopaminergic neurons followed by enrichment using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Neurons show a reduction in glucocerebrosidase activity and protein levels, increase in glucosylceramide and α-synuclein levels as well as autophagic and lysosomal defects. Quantitative proteomic profiling reveals an increase of the neuronal calcium-binding protein 2 (NECAB2) in diseased neurons. Mutant neurons show a dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and increased vulnerability to stress responses involving elevation of cytosolic calcium. Importantly, correction of the mutations rescues such pathological phenotypes. These findings provide evidence for a link between GBA1 mutations and complex changes in the autophagic/lysosomal system and intracellular calcium homeostasis, which underlie vulnerability to neurodegeneration. PMID:24905578

  17. First-Episode Schizophrenic Psychosis Differs From First-Episode Affective Psychosis and Controls in P300 Amplitude Over Left Temporal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Salisbury, Dean F.; Shenton, Martha E.; Sherwood, Andrea R.; Fischer, Iris A.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.; Tohen, Mauricio; McCarley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is associated with central (sagittal) midline reductions of the P300 cognitive event-related potential and topographic asymmetry of P300, with reduced left temporal voltage. This P300 asymmetry is, in turn, linked to tissue volume asymmetry in the posterior superior temporal gyrus. However, it is unknown whether P300 asymmetry is specific to schizophrenia and whether central and lateral P300 abnormalities are due to chronic morbidity, neuroleptic medication, and/or hospitalization, or whether they are present at the onset of illness. Methods P300 was recorded in first-episode schizophrenia, first-episode affective psychosis, and control subjects (n=14 per group). Subjects silently counted rare (15%) target tones (1.5 kHz) among trains of standard tones (1.0 kHz). Averages were constructed from brain responses to target tones. Results Peak amplitude of P300 and integrated voltage over 300 to 400 milliseconds were significantly different between first-episode schizophrenics and controls over the posterior sagittal midline of the head. First-episode schizophrenics displayed smaller amplitudes over the left temporal lobe than first-episode affective psychotics and controls, but the groups showed no differences over the right temporal lobe. Conclusions Left-sided P300 abnormality in first-episode schizophrenia relative to first-episode affective psychosis and controls suggests that P300 asymmetry is specific to schizophrenic psychosis and present at initial hospitalization. This P300 asymmetry suggests left temporal lobe dysfunction at the onset of schizophrenia. PMID:9477932

  18. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients. PMID:1358128

  19. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  20. Aortic arch calcification on chest X-ray combined with coronary calcium score show additional benefit for diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Kwon, Se Hwan; Youn, Hyo Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Soo Joong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) are individually associated with cardiovascular disease and outcome. This study investigated the predictive value of AoAC combined with CAC for cardiovascular diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina. Methods A total of 2018 stable angina patients who underwent chest X-ray and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography were followed up for four years to assess adverse events, which were categorized as cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization. The extent of AoAC on chest X-ray was graded on a scale from 0 to 3. Results During the four years of follow-up, 620 patients were treated by coronary stenting and 153 (7%) adverse events occurred. A higher grade of AoAC was associated with a higher CAC score. Cox regression showed that the CAC score, but not AoAC, were associated with adverse events. In patients with CAC score < 400, AoAC showed an additive predictive value in detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD). A gradual increases in the risk of adverse events were noted if AoAC was present in patients with similar CAC score. Conclusions As AoAC is strongly correlated with the CAC score regardless of age or gender, careful evaluation of CAD would be required in patients with AoAC on conventional chest X-rays. PMID:27103916

  1. A patient who showed a pathologically complete response after undergoing treatment with XELOX plus bevacizumab for synchronous liver metastasis of grade H2 from sigmoid colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hisatsune, Yasuhito; Mihara, Yoshitaka; Tobe, Naotaka; Ishibashi, Kazuyoshi; Shimamura, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Kei-ichi; Aida, Yoshio; Otsubo, Takehito

    2013-01-01

    We herein report the case of a patient who showed a pathological complete response after undergoing chemotherapy with capecitabine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab. The patient presented with synchronous solitary liver metastasis from sigmoid colon cancer. The maximum diameter of the liver deposit was 5.7 cm and the grade of the liver metastasis was H2 according to the Japanese classification. Deferred hepatectomy after sigmoidectomy was performed, followed by the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. After undergoing sigmoidectomy, the patient received 1,000 mg/m2 of capecitabine and 130 mg/m2 of oxaliplatin without bevacizumab as the first cycle of chemotherapy followed by eight cycles of chemotherapy with bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) every three weeks. The liver deposit was reduced to 2.2 cm in diameter and the patient showed a partial response to chemotherapy. The patient then underwent metastasectomy of segment 8 of the liver instead of the central hepatectomy that was possibly needed before chemotherapy. Histopathologically, the tumor consisted of fibrous tissue, and no cancer cells were detected in the resected specimen. A pathological complete response in a patient with H2 liver metastasis is considered rare and suggests that capecitabine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab are efficacious as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:23730524

  2. TP53 mutations in de novo acute myeloid leukemia patients: longitudinal follow-ups show the mutation is stable during disease evolution

    PubMed Central

    Hou, H-A; Chou, W-C; Kuo, Y-Y; Liu, C-Y; Lin, L-I; Tseng, M-H; Chiang, Y-C; Liu, M-C; Liu, C-W; Tang, J-L; Yao, M; Li, C-C; Huang, S-Y; Ko, B-S; Hsu, S-C; Chen, C-Y; Lin, C-T; Wu, S-J; Tsay, W; Chen, Y-C; Tien, H-F

    2015-01-01

    The TP53 mutation is frequently detected in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with complex karyotype (CK), but the stability of this mutation during the clinical course remains unclear. In this study, TP53 mutations were identified in 7% of 500 patients with de novo AML and 58.8% of patients with CK. TP53 mutations were closely associated with older age, lower white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts, FAB M6 subtype, unfavorable-risk cytogenetics and CK, but negatively associated with NPM1 mutation, FLT3/ITD and DNMT3A mutation. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that TP53 mutation was an independent poor prognostic factor for overall survival and disease-free survival among the total cohort and the subgroup of patients with CK. A scoring system incorporating TP53 mutation and nine other prognostic factors, including age, WBC counts, cytogenetics and gene mutations, into survival analysis proved to be very useful to stratify AML patients. Sequential study of 420 samples showed that TP53 mutations were stable during AML evolution, whereas the mutation was acquired only in 1 of the 126 TP53 wild-type patients when therapy-related AML originated from different clone emerged. In conclusion, TP53 mutations are associated with distinct clinic-biological features and poor prognosis in de novo AML patients and are rather stable during disease progression. PMID:26230955

  3. A Combined Proteomic and Transcriptomic Approach Shows Diverging Molecular Mechanisms in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Development in Patients with Tricuspid- And Bicuspid Aortic Valve*

    PubMed Central

    Kjellqvist, Sanela; Maleki, Shohreh; Olsson, Therese; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Branca, Rui Miguel Mamede; Lehtiö, Janne; Pinet, Florence; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Eriksson, Per

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a pathological local dilatation of the aorta, potentially leading to aortic rupture or dissection. The disease is a common complication of patients with bicuspid aortic valve, a congenital disorder present in 1–2% of the population. Using two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis proteomics followed by mRNA expression, and alternative splicing analysis of the identified proteins, differences in dilated and nondilated aorta tissues between 44 patients with bicuspid and tricuspid valves was examined. The pattern of protein expression was successfully validated with LC-MS/MS. A multivariate analysis of protein expression data revealed diverging protein expression fingerprints in patients with tricuspid compared with the patients with bicuspid aortic valves. From 302 protein spots included in the analysis, 69 and 38 spots were differentially expressed between dilated and nondilated aorta specifically in patients with tricuspid and bicuspid aortic valve, respectively. 92 protein spots were differentially expressed between dilated and nondilated aorta in both phenotypes. Similarly, mRNA expression together with alternative splicing analysis of the identified proteins also showed diverging fingerprints in the two patient groups. Differential splicing was abundant but the expression levels of differentially spliced mRNA transcripts were low compared with the wild type transcript and there was no correlation between splicing and the number of spots. Therefore, the different spots are likely to represent post-translational modifications. The identification of differentially expressed proteins suggests that dilatation in patients with a tricuspid aortic valve involves inflammatory processes whereas aortic aneurysm in patients with BAV may be the consequence of impaired repair capacity. The results imply that aortic aneurysm formation in patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valves involve different biological pathways

  4. A clinical study shows safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy to improve quality of life in muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Badhe, Prerna; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Kulkarni, Pooja; Lohiya, Mamta; Biju, Hema; Jacob, V C

    2013-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder with no definite cure. A study was carried out on 150 patients diagnosed with muscular dystrophy. These included Duchenne muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and Becker muscular dystrophy variants. They were administered autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells intrathecally and intramuscularly at the motor points of the antigravity weak muscles followed by vigorous rehabilitation therapy. No significant adverse events were noted. Assessment after transplantation showed neurological improvements in trunk muscle strength, limb strength on manual muscle testing, gait improvements, and a favorable shift on assessment scales such as the Functional Independence Measure and the Brooke and Vignos Scales. Furthermore, imaging and electrophysiological studies also showed significant changes in selective cases. On a mean follow-up of 12 ± 1 months, overall 86.67% cases showed symptomatic and functional improvements, with six patients showing changes with respect to muscle regeneration and a decrease in fatty infiltration on musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging and nine showing improved muscle electrical activity on electromyography. Fifty-three percent of the cases showed an increase in trunk muscle strength, 48% showed an increase in upper limb strength, 59% showed an increase in lower limb strength, and approximately 10% showed improved gait. These data were statistically analyzed using Student's paired t test and found to be significant. The results show that this treatment is safe and efficacious and also improves the quality of life of patients having muscular dystrophy. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) supplement issue of Cell Transplantation. PMID:24070109

  5. Traditional Chinese version of the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-TC): Its validation and application to schizophrenic individuals.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wei-Chung; Chen, Li-Fen; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Ching-Hung; Kao, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-09-30

    Schizophrenia is an illness that impairs a person's social cognition. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is the most well-known test used to measure emotional intelligence (EI), which is a major component of social cognition. Given the absence of EI ability-based scales adapted to Chinese speakers, we translated the MSCEIT into a Traditional Chinese version (MSCEIT-TC) and validated this scale for use in schizophrenia studies. The specific aims were to validate the MSCEIT-TC, to develop a norm for the MSCEIT-TC, and use this norm to explore the EI performance of schizophrenic individuals. We included in our study seven hundred twenty-eight healthy controls and seventy-six individuals with schizophrenia. The results suggest that the MSCEIT-TC is reliable and valid when assessing EI. The results showed good discrimination and validity when comparing the two study groups. Impairment was the greatest for two branches Understanding and Managing Emotions, which implies that the deficits of schizophrenia individuals involve ToM (theory of mind) tasks. Deficits involving the negative scale of schizophrenia was related to impaired performance when the MSCEIT-TC was used (in branch 2, 3, 4, and the area Strategic). Our findings suggest that the MSCEIT-TC can be used for emotional studies in healthy Chinese and in clinical setting for investigating schizophrenic individuals. PMID:27367492

  6. A Propensity Score Analysis Shows that Empirical Treatment with Linezolid Does Not Increase the Thirty-Day Mortality Rate in Patients with Gram-Negative Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Mateos-Díaz, Ana-María; Martinez, Jose-Antonio; Almela, Manel; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; De-la-Calle, Cristina; Sala, Marta; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The role of linezolid in empirical therapy of suspected bacteremia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of empirical use of linezolid or glycopeptides in addition to other antibiotics on the 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. For this purpose, 1,126 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona from 2000 to 2012 were included in this study. In order to compare the mortality rates between patients who received linezolid or glycopeptides, the propensity scores on baseline variables were used to balance the treatment groups, and both propensity score matching and propensity-adjusted logistic regression were used to compare the 30-day mortality rates between the groups. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 16.0% during the study period. Sixty-eight patients received empirical treatment with linezolid, and 1,058 received glycopeptides. The propensity score matching included 64 patients in each treatment group. After matching, the mortality rates were 14.1% (9/64) in patients who received glycopeptides and 21.9% (14/64) in those who received linezolid, and a nonsignificant association between empirical linezolid treatment and mortality rate (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 3.82; P = 0.275, McNemar's test) was found. This association remained nonsignificant when variables that remained unbalanced after matching were included in a conditional logistic regression model. Further, the stratified propensity score analysis did not show any significant relationship between empirical linezolid treatment and the mortality rate after adjustment by propensity score quintiles or other variables potentially associated with mortality. In conclusion, the propensity score analysis showed that empirical treatment with linezolid compared with that with glycopeptides was not associated with 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. PMID:25199780

  7. [Initial results of a pharmacokinetic study of pipothiazine and its palmitic ester (Piportil L4) in a schizophrenic population].

    PubMed

    Girard, M; Granier, F; Schmitt, L; Cotonat, J; Escande, M; Blanc, M

    1984-01-01

    Plasma kinetics of pipotiazine have been studied in ten schizophrenic patients after oral administration of single dose of pipotiazine at 7 a.m. (30 mg, drops). Peak plasma concentrations are reached one hour after administration (41.8 +/- 19,9 ng/ml) and then rapidly decline until 24 h (2.2 +/- 1.2 ng/ml). During the following days plasma concentrations remain stable at the same sampling times. After 3 days wash-out and first intramuscular injection of pipotiazine palmitate (100 mg) main pharmacokinetic data are found: plasma concentrations of pipotiazine are not detectable during at less 3 days after injection, maximal drug level is attained during second week after i.m. (1.7 +/- 0.9 ng/ml). A period of decline is then recorded. Furthermore the mean ratio between pipotiazine plasma concentration after oral and i.m. administration is about 20. When pipotiazine palmitate is given every fourth week, steady state seems to be reached as early as the second month. PMID:6149927

  8. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI < 17.5 kg/m2) and overweight (obesity with BMI 30–40, 40–50 and >50 kg/m2, n = 14–15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2, n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9–85 kg/m2, n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = −0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating. PMID:26089773

  9. Fibroblasts from patients with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia show abnormal expression of genes involved in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Avondo, Federica; Roncaglia, Paola; Crescenzio, Nicoletta; Krmac, Helena; Garelli, Emanuela; Armiraglio, Marta; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Campagnoli, Maria Francesca; Ramenghi, Ugo; Gustincich, Stefano; Santoro, Claudio; Dianzani, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Background Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA) is a rare inherited red cell hypoplasia characterised by a defect in the maturation of erythroid progenitors and in some cases associated with malformations. Patients have an increased risk of solid tumors. Mutations have been found in several ribosomal protein (RP) genes, i.e RPS19, RPS24, RPS17, RPL5, RPL11, RPL35A. Studies in haematopoietic progenitors from patients show that haplo-insufficiency of an RP impairs rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. DBA lymphocytes show reduced protein synthesis and fibroblasts display abnormal rRNA processing and impaired proliferation. Results To evaluate the involvement of non-haematopoietic tissues in DBA, we have analysed global gene expression in fibroblasts from DBA patients compared to healthy controls. Microarray expression profiling using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133A 2.0 Arrays revealed that 421 genes are differentially expressed in DBA patient fibroblasts. These genes include a large cluster of ribosomal proteins and factors involved in protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism, as well as genes associated to cell death, cancer and tissue development. Conclusion This analysis reports for the first time an abnormal gene expression profile in a non-haematopoietic cell type in DBA. These data support the hypothesis that DBA may be due to a defect in general or specific protein synthesis. PMID:19765279

  10. Prevalence and attributes of criminality in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ghoreishi, Abolfazl; Kabootvand, Soleiman; Zangani, Ebrahim; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ahmadi, Alireza; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Existing research in law and psychiatry point to schizophrenia as a risk factor for violence and offense behaviors. The present study aims to: 1) report on the prevalence and types of offensive or criminal acts in patients with schizophrenia; 2) identify attributes of schizophrenic offenders; and 3) examine factors associated with offensive or criminal behaviors within a sample of schizophrenic offenders. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 358 patients with schizophrenia who were admitted to a psychiatric ward in Iran between 2004 and 2008. Study data was collected using patients’ medical, criminal records, as well as via personal interview with the family member. Study variables included criminality or offensive behavior, types of schizophrenia (paranoid vs. nonparanoid), experiencing hallucination, disease onset, and patients’ demographics. Results: Of the sample, 64.8% were male, 80.7% were 45 years old or younger, and 74.1% were either single or divorced. Slightly over 59 % were offenders with criminal status, of which, 9.8% were legal offenders and 48.6% were hidden offenders. The results of unadjusted logistic regression between these variables and criminality show, except for employment, marital status, and opium use, all other variables were statically associated with criminality. Conclusions: Methodological difficulties arising from this study, as well as, the role of mental health professionals, family, and legal system for prevention of violence in and by patients with schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:24879076

  11. Patients with microvascular obstruction after primary percutaneous coronary intervention show a gp91phox (NOX2) mediated persistent oxidative stress after reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Celestini, Andrea; Calvieri, Camilla; Cosentino, Nicola; Falcioni, Elena; Carnevale, Roberto; Nocella, Cristina; Fracassi, Francesco; Roberto, Marco; Antonazzo, Roberta P; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Crea, Filippo; Violi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Persistent oxidative stress may play a key role in microvascular obstruction (MVO). We aimed at assessing the role of platelet gp91phox (NOX2), the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase in MVO. Methods: We enrolled 40 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 h from symptoms onset, either with angiographic MVO (n=20) or good angiographic myocardial reperfusion (MR) (n=20). Angiographic MVO was defined as a final thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow ≤2 or TIMI flow of 3 with myocardial blush grade <2. NOX2 and isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α) levels, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) or by an enzyme immunoassays, respectively, were measured on admission, at 24 h and pre-discharge. Results: NOX2 levels increased from baseline to pre-discharge in patients with angiographic MVO (20.25 (15–24.75) pg/ml vs 25.50 (17–29.25) pg/ml, p=0.02), but not in MR patients (p=0.45), with a significant interaction between baseline and pre-discharge levels among the two groups (p=0.04). The levels of 8-iso-PGF2α showed a trend to increase from baseline to pre-discharge in angiographic MVO patients (295 (183.50–389.25) pmol/l vs 322 (206–370) pmol/l, p=0.06), but not in patients with MR (p=0.56), with a trend for interaction between baseline and pre-discharge levels among the two groups (p=0.09). Conclusion: Patients with MVO, but not those with myocardial reperfusion, have a sustained increase of NOX2 and 8-iso-PGF2α. Therapies targeting NOX2 or high dosage antioxidants should be tested for MVO prevention and treatment. PMID:24338297

  12. Patients treated for male pattern hair with finasteride show, after discontinuation of the drug, altered levels of neuroactive steroids in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Donatella; Abbiati, Federico; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Fusco, Letizia; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2015-02-01

    Observations performed in a subset of patients treated for male pattern hair loss indicate that persistent sexual side effects as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology have been reported even after discontinuation of finasteride treatment. Due to the capability of finasteride to block the metabolism of progesterone (PROG) and/or testosterone (T) we have evaluated, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the levels of several neuroactive steroids in paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from post-finasteride patients and in healthy controls. At the examination, post-finasteride patients reported muscular stiffness, cramps, tremors and chronic fatigue in the absence of clinical evidence of any muscular disorder or strength reduction. Although severity of the anxious/depressive symptoms was quite variable in their frequency, overall all the subjects had a fairly complex and constant neuropsychiatric pattern. Assessment of neuroactive steroid levels in CSF showed a decrease of PROG and its metabolites, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), associated with an increase of its precursor pregnenolone (PREG). Altered levels were also observed for T and its metabolites. Thus, a significant decrease of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) associated with an increase of T as well as of 3α-diol was detected. Changes in neuroactive steroid levels also occurred in plasma. An increase of PREG, T, 3α-diol, 3β-diol and 17β-estradiol was associated with decreased levels of DHP and THP. The present observations show that altered levels of neuroactive steroids, associated with depression symptoms, are present in androgenic alopecia patients even after discontinuation of the finasteride treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Sex steroids and brain disorders'. PMID:24717976

  13. The effect of culture on the sex differences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cetingök, M; Chu, C C; Park, D B

    1990-01-01

    Cultural influences on sex differences in clinical characteristics and symptomatology of schizophrenia were studied among 369 schizophrenic patients from the United States and Turkey. Male schizophrenics were more likely to be single, and were younger than female schizophrenics at onset of symptoms and when first diagnosed, treated and hospitalised in both cultures. Turkish male and female schizophrenics were more ambivalent, inappropriate, "silly", euphoric, depersonalised, dissociated, mute, conceptually disorganised, and exhibiting more flight of ideas and thought than American male and female schizophrenics. Irrelevant thought and stereotypic behaviour were most severe in Turkish male and American female schizophrenics. Hallucinatory behaviour was most intense in Turkish separated, divorced, or widowed female schizophrenics and American married male schizophrenics. Turkish married female and Turkish separated, divorced, or widowed male schizophrenics were most disoriented. Turkish single female schizophrenics were most mute. Turkish separated, divorced, or widowed male schizophrenics showed most intense stupor behaviour. PMID:2079398

  14. The effect of motivation on loose thinking in schizophrenics as measured by the Bannister-Fransella Grid Test.

    PubMed

    Higgins, K; Sherman, M

    1978-07-01

    Administered the Bannister-Fransella Grid Test of Schizophrenic Thought Disorder to 40 male schizophrenics. Half of them received a monetary reward for their performance, and half did not. The efficacy of this motivation-enhancing manipulation was verified by the fact that the group that was working for the money completed a card sorting task significantly faster than the group that received no compensation. However, the former group also exhibited more thought disorder on the grid test. The results were interpreted in terms of drive theory. It was argued that the rewarded group was more motivated and therefore more highly aroused and that this high arousal level disrupted performance on the more complex task. The findings do not support the hypothesis that lack of motivation contributes to schizophrenic cognitive deficit. PMID:690198

  15. [Formation of self concept in the transition from adolescence to adulthood. An empirical comparative study of psychiatric patients and healthy control probands].

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, H P; Neumeier, R; Scherer, J

    1993-06-01

    The psychosocial development of psychiatrically ill and mentally healthy young adults is being explored in a series of comparative studies based on developmental tasks typical of this age. In a first study a patient group was compared with a control group with the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire as an indicator of patterns of psychosocial adaptation thus far. The patients showed significantly poorer adaptation on 10 dimensions of psychosocial life. In relation to a representative sample of young adults they especially reported disturbances in their own personality development and in family relations, but judged their adaptation to norms for behavior in public as less impaired. The nonpsychotic patients had a significantly less favorable pattern of self-concepts than the psychotic patients. The patients with affective disorders had a relatively healthy profile of psychosocial development compared with the schizophrenic patients. There was no significant difference between patients with schizophrenia of the disorganized type and other schizophrenic patients. There was a close relationship between subjective measures of self-concept and objective measures of psychosocial development, e.g. premorbid adaptation and current psychosocial development, e.g. premorbid adaptation and current psychosocial competence, in the different subgroups. The findings on self-concept seemed to be largely independent of the present severity of psychopathology. PMID:8342335

  16. [Various aspects of cognitive activities of schizophrenics. III. Maladjustment assimilation/accommodation and generalization of reasoning].

    PubMed

    Blein, G; Azorin, J M; Vollrath, J L; Andréoli, A; Tissot, R

    1987-05-01

    Paranoid schizophrenics are unable to balance affirmation and negation. Using the terms of Jean Piaget, they therefore only partially achieve the "équilibrations majorantes" of level II and never those of level III. In their thinking, they have access to the "généralisations inductives" (often excessive ones), but rarely to the "généralisations constructives complétives". They do not have access to the "généralisations synthétisantes" or to the feeling that logic is necessary. They oscillate between the positivist need to measure or verify and absolute beliefs issued from magical thinking. PMID:3688697

  17. Neutrophils from patients with SAPHO syndrome show no signs of aberrant NADPH oxidase-dependent production of intracellular reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Wekell, Per; Björnsdottir, Halla; Björkman, Lena; Sundqvist, Martina; Christenson, Karin; Osla, Veronica; Berg, Stefan; Fasth, Anders; Welin, Amanda; Bylund, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate if aberrant intracellular production of NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in neutrophils is a disease mechanism in the autoinflammatory disease SAPHO syndrome, characterized by synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis, as has previously been suggested based on a family with SAPHO syndrome-like disease. Methods. Neutrophil function was explored in a cohort of four patients with SAPHO syndrome, two of whom were sampled during both inflammatory and non-inflammatory phase. Intracellular neutrophil ROS production was determined by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in response to phorbol myristate acetate. Results. Cells from all patients produced normal amounts of ROS, both intra- and extracellularly, when compared with internal controls as well as with a large collection of healthy controls assayed in the laboratory over time (showing an extensive inter-personal variability in a normal population). Further, intracellular production of ROS increased during the inflammatory phase. Neutrophil activation markers were comparable between patients and controls. Conclusion. Dysfunctional generation of intracellular ROS in neutrophils is not a generalizable feature in SAPHO syndrome. Secondly, serum amyloid A appears to be a more sensitive inflammatory marker than CRP during improvement and relapses in SAPHO syndrome. PMID:27121779

  18. Familial adenomatous patients with desmoid tumours show increased expression of miR-34a in serum and high levels in tumours.

    PubMed

    Walton, Sarah-Jane; Lewis, Amy; Jeffery, Rosemary; Thompson, Hannah; Feakins, Roger; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Yau, Christopher; Lindsay, James O; Clark, Susan K; Silver, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is rare affecting 1 in 10,000 people and a subset (10%) are at risk of myofibroblastic desmoid tumours (DTs) after colectomy to prevent cancer. DTs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The absence of markers to monitor progression and a lack of treatment options are significant limitations to clinical management. We investigated microRNAs (miRNA) levels in DTs and serum using expression array analysis on two independent cohorts of FAP patients (total, n=24). Each comprised equal numbers of patients who had formed DTs (cases) and those who had not (controls). All controls had absence of DTs confirmed by clinical and radiological assessment over at least three years post- colectomy. Technical qPCR validation was performed using an expanded cohort (29 FAP patients; 16 cases and 13 controls). The most significant elevated serum miRNA marker of DTs was miR-34a-5p and in-situ hybridisation (ISH) showed most DTs analysed (5/6) expressed miRNA-34a-5p. Exome sequencing of tumour and matched germline DNA did not detect mutations within the miR-34a-5p transcript sites or 3'-UTR of target genes that would alter functional miRNA activity. In conclusion, miR-34a-5p is a potential circulatory marker and therapy target. A large prospective world-wide multi-centre study is now warranted. PMID:27489864

  19. Familial adenomatous patients with desmoid tumours show increased expression of miR-34a in serum and high levels in tumours

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Sarah-Jane; Lewis, Amy; Jeffery, Rosemary; Thompson, Hannah; Feakins, Roger; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Yau, Christopher; Lindsay, James O.; Clark, Susan K.; Silver, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is rare affecting 1 in 10,000 people and a subset (10%) are at risk of myofibroblastic desmoid tumours (DTs) after colectomy to prevent cancer. DTs are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The absence of markers to monitor progression and a lack of treatment options are significant limitations to clinical management. We investigated microRNAs (miRNA) levels in DTs and serum using expression array analysis on two independent cohorts of FAP patients (total, n=24). Each comprised equal numbers of patients who had formed DTs (cases) and those who had not (controls). All controls had absence of DTs confirmed by clinical and radiological assessment over at least three years post- colectomy. Technical qPCR validation was performed using an expanded cohort (29 FAP patients; 16 cases and 13 controls). The most significant elevated serum miRNA marker of DTs was miR-34a-5p and in-situ hybridisation (ISH) showed most DTs analysed (5/6) expressed miRNA-34a-5p. Exome sequencing of tumour and matched germline DNA did not detect mutations within the miR-34a-5p transcript sites or 3′-UTR of target genes that would alter functional miRNA activity. In conclusion, miR-34a-5p is a potential circulatory marker and therapy target. A large prospective world-wide multi-centre study is now warranted. PMID:27489864

  20. Serotonine and suicide: a preliminary study concerning a sample of violent suicidal patients.

    PubMed

    Cremniter, D; Thenault, M; Jamain, S; Meidinger, A; Delmas, C; Gaillard, M

    1994-09-01

    1. A sample of patients having attempted to commit suicide by using violent methods (hanging, jumping) was investigated according to the following procedure: for each patient, some evaluative tests (the MADRS, the SCL 90 and an agressivity scale) were administered and DSM III diagnosis was provided as well as the therapeutical orientation. 2. The 5 HIAA' level was measured in the CSF soon after the suicide attempt except for patients with rachis fracture or exposed to a cerebral oedeme. 3. Results were compared to those of a control group composed with patients having operated with rachi-anesthesia for orthopedic surgery. 4. The preliminary results show that 5 HIAA' levels were lower for suicide patients except for one schizophrenic patient. 5. This study suggests the possible link between a low 5 HIAA' level in CSF and the clinical aspects of severe suicidal behaviour. PMID:7526419

  1. Integration-Free Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells From Type 1 Diabetes Patient Skin Fibroblasts Show Increased Abundance of Pancreas-Specific microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Joglekar, Mugdha V.; Sumer, Huseyin; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Teede, Halena; Verma, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a disease that is typically associated with multigenetic changes as well as environmental triggers. Disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are preferable cell sources to study T1D, as they are derived from patient cells and therefore capture the disease genotype in a stem cell line. The purpose of this study was to generate integration-free iPSCs from adult skin fibroblasts with T1D. iPSCs were generated by transfection of synthetic mRNAs encoding transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, c-MYC, and LIN28. Phase-contrast microscopy, immunocytochemistry, karyotyping, bisulfite genomic sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and teratoma formation assay were used to determine reprogramming efficiency, pluripotency, and differentiation potential. Following 18 consecutive days of synthetic mRNA transfections, the T1D patient skin fibroblasts underwent morphological changes, and the aggregated clumps exhibited a human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like morphology with a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. Highly efficient generation of iPSCs was achieved using the mRNA reprogramming approach. The disease-specific iPSCs expressed pluripotency markers, maintained a normal karyotype, and formed teratomas containing tissues representative of the three germ layers when injected into immune-deficient mice. Of interest, the iPSCs showed upregulations of pancreas-specific microRNAs, compared with parental fibroblasts. These data indicate that T1D patient skin fibroblasts can be reprogrammed to pluripotency using a synthetic mRNA approach. These cells can serve as a useful tool for the identification of genes that are involved in autoimmune reactions as well as generating patient-matched β-cells for cell-based therapy. PMID:26858889

  2. The Use of Patient Education in a Prison Mental Health Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Charles; Brown, Calvin

    1987-01-01

    Presented four-hour multimedia workshop for 31 schizophrenic prison inmates to help them understand schizophrenia and its treatment. Comparison of pretest and posttest showed highly significant increase in knowledge about symptoms of schizophrenia, causes, and treatment. (Author)

  3. Effects of clozapine on sleep measures and sleep-associated changes in growth hormone and cortisol in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Woo, J I; Meltzer, H Y

    2001-09-20

    There have been limited reports on the effect of the atypical anti-psychotic agent clozapine on sleep measures and hormone secretion. The goal of this study was to determine the type, rate, and extent of changes in sleep measures and nighttime secretion of growth hormone (GH) and cortisol during clozapine treatment. Five schizophrenic patients (age: 32.4+/-7.4) and five age- and sex-matched normal subjects (age: 33.0+/-5.1) underwent nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) before clozapine therapy (S1), and during early and late clozapine therapy (S2 and S3). Serum GH and cortisol levels were monitored during each NPSG. NPSG findings showed that the mean total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and duration of awakening were increased at S2, and maintained until S3. The mean amounts of stage 2 sleep at S2 and S3 increased significantly compared with that of S1. In unmedicated schizophrenic patients, the mean plasma GH level in rapid eye movement sleep was lower than during the waking stage, and the mean level of plasma cortisol was higher during the waking stage. Plasma cortisol levels did not differ between control subjects and patients at any time, but clozapine treatment decreased plasma cortisol levels at S2 compared with S1 and S3. Plasma GH levels were unchanged by clozapine treatment. Clozapine improved sleep continuity and increased stage 2 sleep time from the beginning of therapy. These effects were maintained through at least 7 weeks of therapy. However, clozapine did not affect the relationship of plasma GH and cortisol levels with sleep stages in schizophrenic patients. PMID:11549404

  4. Integration of verbal and nonverbal emotional signals in patients with schizophrenia: Decreased nonverbal dominance.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Bastian; Brück, Carolin; Jacob, Heike; Eberle, Mark; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-07-30

    In day-to-day social interaction, emotions are usually expressed by verbal (e.g. spoken words) and nonverbal signals (e.g. facial expressions, prosody). In case of conflicting signals nonverbal signals are perceived as being the more reliable source of information. Deficits in interpreting nonverbal signals - as described for patients with schizophrenic disorders - might interfere with the ability to integrate verbal and nonverbal social cues into a meaningful whole. The aim of this study was to examine how schizophrenic disorders influence the integration of verbal and nonverbal signals. For this purpose short video sequences were presented to 21 patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy controls. Each sequence showed an actor speaking a short sentence with independently varying emotional connotations at the verbal and the nonverbal level. The participants rated the valence of the speaker's emotional state on a four-point scale (from very negative to very positive). The relative impact of nonverbal cues as compared to verbal cues on these ratings was evaluated. Both groups base their decisions primarily on nonverbal information. However, this effect is significantly less prominent in the patient group. Patients tend to base their decisions less on nonverbal signals and more on verbal information than healthy controls. PMID:27156031

  5. Efficacy of Yoga therapy for the management of psychopathology of patients having chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Paikkatt, Babu; Singh, Amool Ranjan; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Jahan, Masroor; Ranjan, Jay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a large body of literature and scientific data regarding the efficacy of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia, however, studies on Yoga therapy is scanty. Yoga is a means of balancing and harmonizing the body, mind and emotion, and for enlightening the mind and upliftment of the total personality. Aims: The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy of Yoga therapy as an adjunctive therapy and to see its effects on psychopathology on the patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia. Settings and Design: Pre- and post-test design with the control group. Materials and Methods: It is a study using purposive sampling technique by which 30 chronic schizophrenic patients were selected and 15 patients were randomly assigned to Yoga therapy along with pharmacotherapy (experimental group), and 15 were assigned pharmacotherapy alone (control group) after the baseline assessment using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The Yoga group attended Yoga therapy everyday for about 1½ h including motivational and feedback session. Results: At the end of 1 month postassessment was done, and schizophrenic patients, who received the yogic intervention showed better rating than those in pharmacotherapy alone on PANSS variables. Conclusion: Yoga could be a right choice for improving psychopathology resulting in better quality of life along with other pharmacological management and psychosocial interventions. PMID:26816423

  6. ALE Meta-Analysis of Schizophrenics Performing the N-Back Task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, Zachary

    2010-10-01

    MRI/fMRI has already proven itself as a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of many illnesses of the brain, including cognitive problems. By exploiting the differences in magnetic susceptibility between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, fMRI can measure blood flow in various regions of interest within the brain. This can determine the level of brain activity in relation to motor or cognitive functions and provide a metric for tissue damage or illness symptoms. Structural imaging techniques have shown lesions or deficiencies in tissue volumes in schizophrenics corresponding to areas primarily in the frontal and temporal lobes. These areas are currently known to be involved in working memory and attention, which many schizophrenics have trouble with. The ALE (Activation Likelihood Estimation) Meta-Analysis is able to statistically determine the significance of brain area activations based on the post-hoc combination of multiple studies. This process is useful for giving a general model of brain function in relation to a particular task designed to engage the affected areas (such as working memory for the n-back task). The advantages of the ALE Meta-Analysis include elimination of single subject anomalies, elimination of false/extremely weak activations, and verification of function/location hypotheses.

  7. Post-hoc analysis showing better clinical response with the loading dose of certolizumab pegol in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Mariko; Shoji, Toshiharu; Togo, Osamu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To compare the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) with and without loading dose (LD) in a post-hoc analysis of two Japanese clinical studies. Methods: Data from the double-blind trials (DBT) J-RAPID and HIKARI, and their open-label extension (OLE) studies, were used. Patients randomized to CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) groups starting with LD (400 mg Weeks 0/2/4; LD group; J-RAPID: n = 82, HIKARI: n = 116) and patients randomized to placebo groups who subsequently started CZP Q2W without LD in the OLEs (No-LD group; J-RAPID: n = 61, HIKARI: n = 99) were analyzed. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics were assessed during 24 weeks. Adverse events were reported from all studies. Results: In both trials, the LD groups showed more rapid initial ACR20/50/70 kinetics, and maintained higher ACR50/70 responses until 24 weeks, compared with the No-LD groups. Anti-CZP antibody development was less frequent in the LD groups (J-RAPID: 1.2% versus 4.9%; HIKARI: 17.2% versus 27.3%). Similar safety profiles were reported between LD and No-LD groups (any AEs: 281.8 versus 315.7 [J-RAPID], 282.6 versus 321.3 [HIKARI] [incidence rate/100 patient-years]). Conclusions: Despite limitations, including comparing DBT and OLE studies, these results suggest that a CZP LD improves clinical response in active rheumatoid arthritis without altering the safety profile. PMID:26472043

  8. COL1A1 and miR-29b show lower expression levels during osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells from Osteogenesis Imperfecta patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) cases are caused by mutations in one of the two genes, COL1A1 and COL1A2 encoding for the two chains that trimerize to form the procollagen 1 molecule. However, alterations in gene expression and microRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for the regulation of cell fate determination and may be evolved in OI phenotype. Methods In this work, we analyzed the coding region and intron/exon boundaries of COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes by sequence analysis using an ABI PRISM 3130 automated sequencer and Big Dye Terminator Sequencing protocol. COL1A1 and miR-29b expression were also evaluated during the osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) by qRT-PCR using an ABI7500 Sequence Detection System. Results We have identified eight novel mutations, where of four may be responsible for OI phenotype. COL1A1 and miR-29b showed lower expression values in OI type I and type III samples. Interestingly, one type III OI sample from a patient with Bruck Syndrome showed COL1A1 and miR-29b expressions alike those from normal samples. Conclusions Results suggest that the miR-29b mechanism directed to regulate collagen protein accumulation during mineralization is dependent upon the amount of COL1A1 mRNA. Taken together, results indicate that the lower levels observed in OI samples were not sufficient for the induction of miR-29b. PMID:24767406

  9. G2019S LRRK2 mutant fibroblasts from Parkinson's disease patients show increased sensitivity to neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium dependent of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodríguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Aiastui, Ana; López de Munain, Adolfo; Fuentes, José M; González-Polo, Rosa A

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. It is considered as a multifactorial disease dependent on environmental and genetic factors. Deregulation in cell degradation has been related with a significant increase in cell damage, becoming a target for studies on the PD etiology. In the present study, we have characterized the parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced damage in fibroblasts from Parkinson's patients with the mutation G2019S in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 protein (LRRK2) and control individuals without this mutation. The results reveal that MPP(+) induces mTOR-dependent autophagy in fibroblasts. Moreover, the effects of caspase-dependent cell death to MPP(+) were higher in cells with the G2019S LRRK2 mutation, which showed basal levels of autophagy due to the G2019S LRRK2 mutation (mTOR-independent). The inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment reduces these sensitivity differences between both cell types, however, the inhibition of autophagosome-lysosome fusion by bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1) increases these differences. This data confirm the importance of the combination of genetic and environmental factors in the PD etiology. Thereby, the sensitivity to the same damage may be different in function of a genetic predisposition, reason why individuals with certain mutations can develop some early-onset diseases, such as individuals with G2019S LRRK2 mutation and PD. PMID:25017139

  10. A High Resolution Case Study of a Patient with Recurrent Plasmodium vivax Infections Shows That Relapses Were Caused by Meiotic Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Andrew Taylor; Manary, Micah J.; Tewhey, Ryan; Arango, Eliana M.; Wang, Tina; Schork, Nicholas J.; Yanow, Stephanie K.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax infects a hundred million people annually and endangers 40% of the world's population. Unlike Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax parasites can persist as a dormant stage in the liver, known as the hypnozoite, and these dormant forms can cause malaria relapses months or years after the initial mosquito bite. Here we analyze whole genome sequencing data from parasites in the blood of a patient who experienced consecutive P. vivax relapses over 33 months in a non-endemic country. By analyzing patterns of identity, read coverage, and the presence or absence of minor alleles in the initial polyclonal and subsequent monoclonal infections, we show that the parasites in the three infections are likely meiotic siblings. We infer that these siblings are descended from a single tetrad-like form that developed in the infecting mosquito midgut shortly after fertilization. In this natural cross we find the recombination rate for P. vivax to be 10 kb per centimorgan and we further observe areas of disequilibrium surrounding major drug resistance genes. Our data provide new strategies for studying multiclonal infections, which are common in all types of infectious diseases, and for distinguishing P. vivax relapses from reinfections in malaria endemic regions. This work provides a theoretical foundation for studies that aim to determine if new or existing drugs can provide a radical cure of P. vivax malaria. PMID:24901334

  11. A Subgroup of First-Degree Relatives of Crohn's Disease Patients Shows a Profile of Inflammatory Markers in the Blood Which Is More Typical of Crohn's Disease Patients Than of Normal Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Efrat, Broide; Iris, Goren; Wang, Hongbin; Eitan, Scapa; Yona, Keisari

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Family member with IBD is the greatest risk factor for developing the disease. The hematological profile of first-degree relatives (FDRs) of Crohn's disease (CD) patients was studied in order to identify healthy FDRs at risk to develop disease. Materials and methods. Thirty CD patients, 90 FDRs, and 28 non-related individuals (controls) were enrolled. Hematological profile and C-reactive protein were determined. Results. All hematological parameters were significantly different in CD patients compared to controls, with significantly higher levels of CRP, WBC, PMN, MONO, and PLT and lower Hb and lymphocyte count. The hematological profile of FDRs showed values between the controls and CD patients with ten FDRs that their parameters matched those of CD patients and significantly different from other FDRs. This group was defined as high-risk relatives (HRRs). Conclusions. Analysis of the hematological profile and CRP level might be proven as a fast, reliable, and less money-consuming tool to identify FDRs with a probable increased risk to develop the disease. PMID:16883067

  12. Bosutinib shows low cross intolerance, in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated in fourth line. Results of the Spanish compassionate use program.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, Valentín; Martinez-Trillos, Alejandra; Lopez Lorenzo, Jose Luis; Bautista, Guiomar; Martin Mateos, Maria Luisa; Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Iglesias Pérez, Ana; Romo Collado, Andrés; Fernandez, Angeles; Portero, Angeles; Cuevas, Beatriz; Ruiz, Concepción; Romero, Esperanza; Ortega, Fernando; Mata, Isabel; Tallón, José; García Garay, Maria Del Carmen; Ramirez Sánchez, María José; de Las Heras, Natalia; Giraldo, Pilar; Bobillo, Sabela; Guinea, José María; Deben, Guillermo; Valencia, Sandra; Sebrango, Ana; Boqué, Concepción; Maestro, Begoña; Steegmann, Juan Luis

    2015-05-01

    The role of bosutinib as rescue treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients after failing three previous tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is currently unknown. We report here the largest series (to our knowledge) of patients treated with bosutinib in fourth-line, after retrospectively reviewing 30 patients in chronic phase, and pretreated with imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib. With a median follow up of 11.1 months, the probability to either maintain or improve their CCyR response was 56.6% (17/30) and 11 patients (36.7%) achieved or maintained their baseline MMR. In patients not having baseline CCyR, the probabilities of obtaining CCyR, MMR, and MR4.5 were 13, 11, and 14%, respectively. The probabilities of obtaining MMR and deep molecular response MR4.5 in patients with baseline CCyR were 40.0% (6/15) and 20.0% (3/15). At 20 months, progression-free survival was 73%. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicities were more frequent in resistant than intolerant patients (45.4 vs. 0.0%). Nonhematological toxicities were also more frequent in resistant patients, being diarrhea the most conspicuous one. Bosutinib seems to be an appropriate treatment option for patients resistant or intolerant to three prior TKI's. PMID:25683327

  13. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:10601828

  14. Neurobehavioral deficits in offspring of schizophrenic parents: liability indicators and predictors of illness.

    PubMed

    Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L

    2000-01-01

    High-risk research in schizophrenia incorporates several different strategies for studying individuals who are defined by different criteria as being at risk for future development of schizophrenia. Variables from a wide range of domains have been included in these studies. Several reviews of high-risk research have attempted to cover the field broadly, whereas others have been more sharply focused on research subjects defined by specific criteria or on particular classes of variables. Among the review articles and collections of project reports on high-risk research in the past two decades are: Watt et al. [1984: Children at risk for schizophrenia: a longitudinal perspective]; Nuechterlein and Dawson [1984: Schizophr Bull 10:160-203]; Nuechterlein [1986: J Child Psychol Psychiatr 27:133-144]; Erlenmeyer-Kimling and Cornblatt [1987: J Psychiatr Res 26:405-426]; Goldstein and Tuma [1987: Schizophr Bull 13:369-371]; Asarnow [1988: Schizophr Bull 14:613-631]; Moldin and Erlenmeyer-Kimling [1994: Schizophr Bull 20:25-29]; Mirsky [1995: Schizophr Bull 21:179-182]; Gooding and Iacono [1995: Manual of developmental psychopathology] McNeil [1995: Epidemiol Rev 17:107-112] Olin and Mednick [1996: Schizophr Bull 22:223-240]; Cornblatt and Obuchowski [1997: Intl Rev Psychiatry 9:437-447]. This paper presents an overview of findings from recent (the past decade and a half) prospective studies of children of schizophrenic parents, with a focus on neurobehavioral (neurocognitive, neuromotor, and neurophysiological) variables that may reflect aspects of the genetic liability to schizophrenia and related disorders. The few neuroimaging studies on children of schizophrenic parents are also briefly mentioned. Because of space limitations, the overview is not intended as a comprehensive or detailed review of this area of high-risk research. PMID:10813806

  15. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders are at increased risk for affective disorders and express discrete structural and functional abnormalities in the brain reward system. However, value-based decision making is not well understood in these at-risk individuals. Methods We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire brain. Results We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response in the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling risk. Post hoc analyses revealed that this effect was strongest in dizygotic twins. Limitations The relatively old average age of the mono- and dizygotic twin cohort (49.2 yr) may indicate an increased resilience to affective disorders. The size of the monozygotic high-risk group was relatively small (n = 13). Conclusion The reduced processing of risk magnitude in the middle insula may indicate a deficient integration of exteroceptive information related to risk-related cues with interoceptive states in individuals at familial risk for affective disorders. Impaired risk processing might contribute to increased vulnerability to affective disorders. PMID:26395812

  16. Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome. PMID:25379240

  17. Electroconvulsive in a Schizophrenic Patient With Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome and Rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    San Gabriel, Maria Chona P; Eddula-Changala, Bharathi; Tan, Yonghong; Longshore, Carrol T

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a middle-aged man with a chronic history of schizoaffective disorder, depressed type, stable on a second-generation antipsychotic. Psychotic symptoms recurred contingent to medication noncompliance necessitating hospitalization. Treatment was complicated by the development of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). In addition, subsequent medication rechallenges failed because of recurrent rhabdomyolysis and atypical NMS. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) treatment was initiated, affording remission of psychotic symptoms and nonrecurrence of NMS and rhabdomyolysis. Our experience confirmed the efficacy of ECT treatment in providing symptom relief of psychosis complicated by recurrent episodes of NMS and atypical NMS. Likewise, it illustrated the efficacy of ECT treatment for rhabdomyolysis. PMID:25243752

  18. Which employment interview skills best predict the employability of schizophrenic patients?

    PubMed

    Charisiou, J; Jackson, H J; Boyle, G J; Burgess, P M; Minas, I H; Joshua, S D

    1989-06-01

    To examine the effects of verbal and nonverbal interview microbehaviors and interview characteristics on employability, Simulated Employment Interviews were conducted with 46 psychiatric inpatients who each met the DSM-III criteria for a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Each interview was videotaped and shown to two raters, who generated independent ratings for six microbehaviors (eye-contact, facial gestures, body posture, verbal content, voice volume, and length of speech) and six subject characteristics (motivation, self-confidence, ability to communicate, manifest adjustment, manifest intelligence and overall interview skill). A panel of three Commonwealth Employment Service psychologists viewed the same videotaped interviews and generated employability ratings. Verbal and nonverbal microbehaviors were relatively independent while subject characteristics were highly interdependent. Microbehaviors and characteristics correlated at a high level. Of the 12 interview microbehaviors and characteristics, manifest adjustment and ability to communicate accounted for 64% of the total variance in predicting employability. Interviewees who were perceived as behaving in an adjusted manner and as being good communicators were rated as more employable. PMID:2748774

  19. [The IPT integrative program of psychological therapy for schizophrenia patients: new perspectives].

    PubMed

    Pomini, Valentino

    2004-04-01

    The integrated psychological treatment for schizophrenic patients IPT is composed by six modules that can be implemented either separately or in an articulated way. In that case, the treatment begins with a cognitive remediation phase which is followed by a social skills training phase. In the first phase, exercises specifically focalize on selective attention, memory, logical reasoning, perception and communication skills. The second phase of the program offers three other modules that train other skills: 1) social skills, 2) emotional management, 3) interpersonal problem solving. The IPT program belong to the so called second generation of social skills training programmes. It has been validated by numerous controlled studies, either in its complete form or in partial forms containing only one ore more of its sub-programmes. The results of these studies are globally positive. They show that IPT is an interesting therapeutic contribution for the rehabilitation practice with schizophrenic patients. A third generation of social skills training has been elaborated on the basis of the current IPT program. These new adjunctions to the IPT tend to favour the utilization in the real life of the competencies trained in the sessions, either by adding specific homeworks, in-vivo or booster sessions, or by designating new programmes directed to specific rehabilitation objectives, such as the integration in a apartment, the management of leisure times or the return to a workplace. These new programmes have been studied. They are promising and seem to be a useful complement to the original IPT. PMID:15209052

  20. Medical educational culture: introducing patients to applicants as part of the medical school interview: feasibility and initial impact show and tell

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Shireen Madani; Lynch, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The College of Medicine at our institution underwent a major curricular revision in order to develop a patient-centered context for learning. The admission process was revised to reflect this change, adopting a holistic review process, with the hope of attracting students who were particularly well suited to a patient-centered curriculum and learning culture. Methods Patients from a single practitioner, who were accustomed to working with medical students, were asked if they would like to select the next generation of physicians. The patient's experience included a brief didactic presentation related to the patient's diagnosis and treatment. This was followed by an informal session with the applicants and the physician, where they shared their story in a small group setting. They were encouraged to share their experiences with the healthcare system, both positive and negative. The goal was to allow applicants to glean the importance of the human aspects of disease in our institutional culture of learning. Results The response and experience were overwhelmingly positive for the patients who donated their time to participate and for our applicants. Follow-up surveys indicated that our applicants found the experience to be unique and positive. Many of the students who chose to attend our university cited the interview experience and learning culture as factors that influenced their choice of medical schools. In addition, the Liaison Committee on Medical Education cited the favorability of the admission process in their recent site visit. Discussion Now in its fifth year, we can say that the inclusion of patients as part of the interview day is feasible as part of our admission process. We continue to make changes and monitor our progress, and we have added several other faculty members and specialties in order to ensure the program is sustainable. PMID:27520404

  1. Population pharmacokinetic analysis for 10-monohydroxy derivative of oxcarbazepine in pediatric epileptic patients shows no difference between Japanese and other ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Ikuo; Bouillon, Thomas; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hikoe; Hirota, Takashi; Fink, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an anti-epileptic drug, which is almost completely metabolized by cytosolic enzymes in the liver to the active 10-monohyroxy metabolite (MHD) following oral administration. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of MHD were evaluated in pediatric epileptic patients and a possible ethnic difference in PK of MHD between Japanese and non-Japanese pediatric patients was assessed. A non-linear mixed effect modeling approach was used to determine the PK of MHD. A one-compartment population model with first-order absorption appropriately described the PK of MHD. No clinically relevant differences were found for using body surface area or weight to explain between-patient variability, therefore the final model included the effects of body weight on apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of MHD, and in addition, the effect of 3 concomitant anti-epileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin) on CL/F of MHD. Inclusion of ethnicity as a covariate in the final model, concluded no ethnic difference with respect to CL/F of MHD between Japanese and non-Japanese patients. Hence, oxcarbazepine can be generally applied using the same dosage and administration for the treatment of partial onset seizures in pediatric patients, regardless of ethnicity. PMID:25989891

  2. Alzheimer patients treated with an AchE inhibitor show higher IL-4 and lower IL-1 beta levels and expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Gambi, Francesco; Reale, Marcella; Iarlori, Carla; Salone, Anatolia; Toma, Lucia; Paladini, Carlo; De Luca, Giovanna; Feliciani, Claudio; Salvatore, Mirella; Salerno, Rosa M; Theoharides, Theoharis C; Conti, Pio; Exton, Michael; Gambi, Domenico

    2004-06-01

    The study evaluates the expression and production of cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with Alzheimer disease treated or not treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, which enhances neuronal transmission. Cytokines associated with brain inflammation such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha have been implicated in the regulation of amyloid peptide protein synthesis. The anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-4, may suppress the activity of IL-1beta. Patients were assessed for clinical and immunologic features at baseline and after 1 month of treatment with Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with and without phytohemagglutinin stimulation. IL-1beta and IL-4 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of cytokines in peripheral mononuclear cells. Compared with untreated patients and healthy control subjects, IL-1beta levels and expression decreased in Alzheimer disease patients treated with Donepezil (P < 0.001). In contrast, IL-4 levels and expression were significantly higher in Alzheimer patients treated with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. This increment was observed in both unstimulated and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:15118486

  3. Metal bar prevents phantom limb motion: case study of an amputation patient who showed a profound change in the awareness of his phantom limb.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Noritaka; Mita, Tomoki

    2009-12-01

    This case report describes an amputee (patient A.S., a 60-year-old male forelimb amputee) who had an extraordinary experience with a phantom limb. He complained that he could not move the wrist of his phantom limb because a metal bar was perceived to be grasped by the hand. As a solution for removing the metal bar, we invited the patient to undergo mirror reflection-induced visual feedback therapy. The patient reported that the metal bar previously grasped by his hand was successfully removed from the phantom during the course of therapy. Interestingly, this experience was accompanied by profound changes in the EMG modulation in the residual wrist muscles. In this article, the possible mechanisms underlying this interesting phenomenon will be discussed. PMID:19585348

  4. Early 18F-FDG PET/CT Evaluation Shows Heterogeneous Metabolic Responses to Anti-EGFR Therapy in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    van Helden, Erik J.; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Boellaard, Ronald; Roth, Chantal; Mulder, Emma R.; Verheul, Henk M. W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this pilot study was to explore intrapatient mixed metabolic response and early 18F-FDG PET response evaluation using predefined quantification strategies in patients with advanced KRAS wild-type colorectal adenocarcinoma (mCRC) treated with cetuximab. Methods A 18F-FDG PET was performed at baseline and after 2 cycles of cetuximab. Metabolic response was categorized using thresholds suggested in PERCIST. Quantitative analysis was done for the sum of all target lesions, ≤ 5 lesions and the metabolically most active lesion per PET. Quantitative data were correlated with clinical benefit, according to RECIST v1.1, after two months of treatment. Results In nine evaluable patients the total number of target lesions was 34 (1–8 per patient). Mixed metabolic response was observed in three out of seven patients with multiple target lesions, using TLG. Dichotomised metabolic data of the sum of all or ≤ 5 lesions had a concordance with clinical benefit of 89% using SULmax or SULpeak, and 100% using TLG. Evaluating the metabolically most active lesion, concordance was 89% for all three units. Additionally, the decrease in TLG was significantly correlated with PFS for all three quantification strategies. Conclusion Mixed metabolic response was observed in nearly half of the patients with advanced KRAS wild-type mCRC treated with cetuximab. If ≤ 5 target lesions were evaluated using TLG clinical benefit was predicted correctly for all patients. Moreover, decrease in TLG is significantly correlated with the duration of PFS. Validation of these promising preliminary results in a larger cohort is currently on-going. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01691391 PMID:27196139

  5. Study of 201 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Given Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy Shows Local Control Dependence on Dose Calculation Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Latifi, Kujtim; Oliver, Jasmine; Baker, Ryan; Dilling, Thomas J.; Stevens, Craig W.; Kim, Jongphil; Yue, Binglin; DeMarco, MaryLou; Zhang, Geoffrey G.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Pencil beam (PB) and collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithms differ significantly when used in the thorax. However, such differences have seldom been previously directly correlated with outcomes of lung stereotactic ablative body radiation (SABR). Methods and Materials: Data for 201 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with SABR were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated with 50 Gy in 5 fractions of 10 Gy each. The radiation prescription mandated that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) receive the prescribed dose. One hundred sixteen patients were planned with BrainLab treatment planning software (TPS) with the PB algorithm and treated on a Novalis unit. The other 85 were planned on the Pinnacle TPS with the CCC algorithm and treated on a Varian linac. Treatment planning objectives were numerically identical for both groups. The median follow-up times were 24 and 17 months for the PB and CCC groups, respectively. The primary endpoint was local/marginal control of the irradiated lesion. Gray's competing risk method was used to determine the statistical differences in local/marginal control rates between the PB and CCC groups. Results: Twenty-five patients planned with PB and 4 patients planned with the CCC algorithms to the same nominal doses experienced local recurrence. There was a statistically significant difference in recurrence rates between the PB and CCC groups (hazard ratio 3.4 [95% confidence interval: 1.18-9.83], Gray's test P=.019). The differences (Δ) between the 2 algorithms for target coverage were as follows: ΔD99{sub GITV} = 7.4 Gy, ΔD99{sub PTV} = 10.4 Gy, ΔV90{sub GITV} = 13.7%, ΔV90{sub PTV} = 37.6%, ΔD95{sub PTV} = 9.8 Gy, and ΔD{sub ISO} = 3.4 Gy. GITV = gross internal tumor volume. Conclusions: Local control in patients receiving who were planned to the same nominal dose with PB and CCC algorithms were statistically significantly different. Possible alternative

  6. History of Abuse and Neglect in Patients with Schizophrenia Who Have a History of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Bennouna-Greene, Valerie; Berna, Fabrice; Defranoux, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of five forms of abuse/neglect during childhood and adolescence in a group of schizophrenic patients with a history of violence. Methods: Twenty-eight patients hospitalized in a highly secured psychiatric unit were included. Abuse and neglect during patients' growth were evaluated with the childhood trauma…

  7. Combination therapies with oxaliplatin and oral capecitabine or intravenous 5-FU show similar toxicity profiles in gastrointestinal carcinoma patients if hand-food syndrome prophylaxis is performed continuously

    PubMed Central

    WEHLER, THOMAS C.; CAO, YANG; GALLE, PETER R.; THEOBALD, MATTHIAS; MOEHLER, MARKUS; SCHIMANSKI, CARL C.

    2012-01-01

    The use of anticancer drugs in palliative settings is often limited by their severe toxic effects. In gastrointestinal carcinomas the 5-fluorouracil-based palliative regimen FOLFOX-4 is often preferred to the equally effective, but more convenient oral capecitabine-based regimen XELOX. This preference is mainly based on the fact that the highly effective oral agent capecitabine induces hand-foot syndrome (HFS). In this study, we investigated whether the continuous administration of skin prophylaxis (10% urea, panthenol, bisabolol, vitamin A, C and E) is capable of protecting against capecitabine-induced HFS and allowing a more convenient oral therapeutic option. In this retrospective analysis, the toxicity profiles, according to NCI CTCAE 3.0 criteria, of 54 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who received either XELOX (34 patients) or FOLFOX-4 (20 patients) were compared using Fisher tests. The treatment protocols that were compared, herein, did not differ significantly in the majority of the analyzed items, with the exception of increased nausea (XELOX-70), fatigue (XELOX-130) and tumor pain (XELOX-70 and XELOX-130). No significant differences were observed among the various groups with regard to emesis, diarrhea, mucositis, exanthema, alopecia, loss of weight and the incidence of infections. In particular, no significant differences in toxicity levels occurred in terms of dose, and HFS was limited if skin prophylaxis was performed continuously. XELOX-based palliative regimens provide an equally effective and comparably toxic therapeutic alternative to FOLFOX-4 if HFS prophylaxis is performed continuously. Since the oral administration of capecitabine is a more convenient method of application, it provides patients with a quality of life-preserving therapeutic alternative. PMID:22783416

  8. Combination therapies with oxaliplatin and oral capecitabine or intravenous 5-FU show similar toxicity profiles in gastrointestinal carcinoma patients if hand-food syndrome prophylaxis is performed continuously.

    PubMed

    Wehler, Thomas C; Cao, Yang; Galle, Peter R; Theobald, Matthias; Moehler, Markus; Schimanski, Carl C

    2012-06-01

    The use of anticancer drugs in palliative settings is often limited by their severe toxic effects. In gastrointestinal carcinomas the 5-fluorouracil-based palliative regimen FOLFOX-4 is often preferred to the equally effective, but more convenient oral capecitabine-based regimen XELOX. This preference is mainly based on the fact that the highly effective oral agent capecitabine induces hand-foot syndrome (HFS). In this study, we investigated whether the continuous administration of skin prophylaxis (10% urea, panthenol, bisabolol, vitamin A, C and E) is capable of protecting against capecitabine-induced HFS and allowing a more convenient oral therapeutic option. In this retrospective analysis, the toxicity profiles, according to NCI CTCAE 3.0 criteria, of 54 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who received either XELOX (34 patients) or FOLFOX-4 (20 patients) were compared using Fisher tests. The treatment protocols that were compared, herein, did not differ significantly in the majority of the analyzed items, with the exception of increased nausea (XELOX-70), fatigue (XELOX-130) and tumor pain (XELOX-70 and XELOX-130). No significant differences were observed among the various groups with regard to emesis, diarrhea, mucositis, exanthema, alopecia, loss of weight and the incidence of infections. In particular, no significant differences in toxicity levels occurred in terms of dose, and HFS was limited if skin prophylaxis was performed continuously. XELOX-based palliative regimens provide an equally effective and comparably toxic therapeutic alternative to FOLFOX-4 if HFS prophylaxis is performed continuously. Since the oral administration of capecitabine is a more convenient method of application, it provides patients with a quality of life-preserving therapeutic alternative. PMID:22783416

  9. Protective factors in patients aged over 65 with stroke treated by physiotherapy, showing cognitive impairment, in the Valencia Community. Protection Study in Older People (EPACV)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Family function may have an influence on the mental health deterioration of the caregivers of dependent family members and it could have a varying importance on the care of dependents. Little attention has been paid to the preparation of minor stroke survivors for the recovery trajectory or the spouse for the caregiving role. Therefore, this study protocol intends to analyze the influence of family function on the protection of patients with stroke sequels needing physiotherapy in the family environment. Methods/Design This is an analytical observational design, prospective cohort study and using a qualitative methodology by means of data collected in the “interviews of life”. The study will be carried out by the Rehabilitation Service at Hospital of Elda in the Valencia Community. All patients that have been diagnosed with stroke and need physiotherapy treatment, having a dependency grade assigned and consent to participate in the study, will undergo a monitoring of one year in order to assess the predictive factors depending on the dependence of the people affected. Discussion Our research aims to analyze the perception of caregivers, their difficulties to work, and the influence of family function. Moreover, it aims to register the perception of the patients with stroke sequel over the care received and whether they feel protected in their family environment. PMID:23039063

  10. [An acute severe heat stroke patient showing abnormal diffuse high intensity of the cerebellar cortex in diffusion weighted image: a case report].

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Yusuke; Yasui, Keizo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Akira; Sobue, Gen

    2009-10-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of general convulsion, loss of consciousness and hyperthermia. A diagnosis of acute heat stroke was made clinically and neuroradiologically. As the consciousness level ameliorated, he developed severe abulia and mutism, then cerebellar ataxic syndrome (viz. truncal ataxia, hypermetria, ataxic speech and nystagmus). An MRI (diffusion weighted image; DWI) disclosed abnormal diffuse high signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex with reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Two months later after the onset, truncal ataxia and dysarthria significantly improved, while dysmetria of the extremities rather worsened. At that time, the abnormal signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex disappeared, and the cerebellum became atrophic. The cerebellar blood flow was significantly decreased on brain SPECT (99mTc-ECD). The abnormal DWI signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex in the present patient may represent the cytotoxic edema of Purkinje cells resulting from heat stroke-related hyperthermia It is essential to repeat MRI examination for cerebellar pathology and to obtain better insight into sequelae in patients with acute heat stroke. Protirelin tartrate seemed to be valid for improvement of abulia in the present patient. Further study is indicated. PMID:19999144

  11. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  12. Facial affect recognition performance and event-related potentials in violent and non-violent schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Frommann, Nicole; Stroth, Sanna; Brinkmeyer, Jürgen; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Luckhaus, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether male inpatients with schizophrenia and a history of hands-on violent offences (forensic schizophrenic, FOS) are more impaired in emotion recognition than matched schizophrenia patients without any history of violence (general psychiatric schizophrenic, GPS). This should become apparent in performance in psychometry and in scalp event-related brain potentials (ERPs) evoked by pictures of facial affect. FOS and GPS (each n = 19) were matched concerning age, intelligence, comorbid addiction, medication and illness duration. FOS revealed significantly poorer affect recognition (AR) performance, especially of neutral and fear stimuli. Analysis of ERPs revealed a significant interaction of hemisphere, electrode position and group of the N250 component. Post hoc analysis of group effect showed significantly larger amplitudes in FOS at FC3. These results support the hypothesis that in FOS emotional faces are more salient and evoke higher arousal. Larger impairment in AR performance combined with higher salience and arousal may contribute to the occurrence of violent acts in schizophrenia patients. PMID:24051542

  13. Missense mutation in immunodeficient patients shows the multifunctional roles of coiled-coil domain 3 (CC3) in STIM1 activation.

    PubMed

    Maus, Mate; Jairaman, Amit; Stathopulos, Peter B; Muik, Martin; Fahrner, Marc; Weidinger, Carl; Benson, Melina; Fuchs, Sebastian; Ehl, Stephan; Romanin, Christoph; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Prakriya, Murali; Feske, Stefan

    2015-05-12

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a universal Ca(2+) influx pathway that is important for the function of many cell types. SOCE occurs upon depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores and relies on a complex molecular interplay between the plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+) channel ORAI1 and the ER Ca(2+) sensor stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1. Patients with null mutations in ORAI1 or STIM1 genes present with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-like disease. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which a loss-of-function STIM1 mutation (R429C) in human patients abolishes SOCE. R429 is located in the third coiled-coil (CC3) domain of the cytoplasmic C terminus of STIM1. Mutation of R429 destabilizes the CC3 structure and alters the conformation of the STIM1 C terminus, thereby releasing a polybasic domain that promotes STIM1 recruitment to ER-PM junctions. However, the mutation also impairs cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization and abolishes STIM1-ORAI1 interactions. Thus, despite its constitutive localization at ER-PM junctions, mutant STIM1 fails to activate SOCE. Our results demonstrate multifunctional roles of the CC3 domain in regulating intra- and intermolecular STIM1 interactions that control (i) transition of STIM1 from a quiescent to an active conformational state, (ii) cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization, and (iii) STIM1-ORAI1 binding required for ORAI1 activation. PMID:25918394

  14. Missense mutation in immunodeficient patients shows the multifunctional roles of coiled-coil domain 3 (CC3) in STIM1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Mate; Jairaman, Amit; Stathopulos, Peter B.; Muik, Martin; Fahrner, Marc; Weidinger, Carl; Benson, Melina; Fuchs, Sebastian; Ehl, Stephan; Romanin, Christoph; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Prakriya, Murali; Feske, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a universal Ca2+ influx pathway that is important for the function of many cell types. SOCE occurs upon depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores and relies on a complex molecular interplay between the plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+ channel ORAI1 and the ER Ca2+ sensor stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1. Patients with null mutations in ORAI1 or STIM1 genes present with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-like disease. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which a loss-of-function STIM1 mutation (R429C) in human patients abolishes SOCE. R429 is located in the third coiled-coil (CC3) domain of the cytoplasmic C terminus of STIM1. Mutation of R429 destabilizes the CC3 structure and alters the conformation of the STIM1 C terminus, thereby releasing a polybasic domain that promotes STIM1 recruitment to ER–PM junctions. However, the mutation also impairs cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization and abolishes STIM1–ORAI1 interactions. Thus, despite its constitutive localization at ER–PM junctions, mutant STIM1 fails to activate SOCE. Our results demonstrate multifunctional roles of the CC3 domain in regulating intra- and intermolecular STIM1 interactions that control (i) transition of STIM1 from a quiescent to an active conformational state, (ii) cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization, and (iii) STIM1–ORAI1 binding required for ORAI1 activation. PMID:25918394

  15. Linkage analysis of a completely ascertained sample of familial schizophrenics and bipolars from Palau, Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Klei, Lambertus; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Myles-Worsley, Marina; Galke, Brandi; Xie, Weiting; Tiobech, Josepha; Otto, Caleb; Roeder, Kathyrn; Devlin, Bernie; Byerley, William

    2005-08-01

    We report on linkage analysis of a completely ascertained population of familial psychosis derived from the oceanic nation of Palau. Palau, an archipelago of islands in the Southern Pacific, currently has a population of approximately 23,000 individuals. The peoples of Palau populated these islands recently in human history, approximately 2,000 years ago. As both historical and genetic evidence suggest, the population is far more homogeneous than most other populations undergoing genetic studies, and should therefore prove quite useful for mapping genetic variants having a meaningful impact on susceptibility to psychotic disorders. Moreover, for our study, essentially all on-island schizophrenics (150) and individuals with other psychotic disorders (25) participated. By analysis of narrow (only schizophrenia) and broad (all psychosis) diagnostic schemes, two-point linkage analyses suggest that two regions of the genome harbor genetic variants affecting liability in most families, 3q28 (LOD = 3.03) and 17q32.2 (LOD = 2.80). Results from individual pedigrees also support 2q37.2, 2p14, and 17p13 as potentially harboring important genetic variants. Most of these regions have been implicated in other genetic studies of psychosis in populations physically quite distant from this Oceanic population, although some (e.g., 3q28) appear to be novel results for schizophrenia linkage analyses. PMID:15915326

  16. Faecal Escherichia coli isolates show potential to cause endogenous infection in patients admitted to the ICU in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Nagarjuna, D; Mittal, G; Dhanda, R S; Verma, P K; Gaind, R; Yadav, M

    2015-09-01

    Nosocomial infections are acquired during hospital treatment or in a hospital environment. One such infecting agent, Escherichia coli, harbours many virulence genes that enable it to become pathogenic, causing damage to the host. The mechanism of the E. coli virulence factors provenance to cause infection in host environments is not clearly elucidated. We investigated the virulence and pathogenicity of E. coli affected by the host environment. For this, blood (n = 78) and faecal (n = 83) E. coli isolates were collected from patients with and without sepsis, respectively, who had been admitted to the intensive care unit. The E. coli genomic DNA was isolated; the phylogenetic grouping was conducted by triplex PCR. The occurrence of nine virulence genes among the all the isolates was confirmed by gene-specific PCR. The prevalence of E. coli in blood isolates was more in phylogenetic groups B2 and D compared to groups A and B1. However, in faecal isolates, there was no significant difference. The prevalence of adhesin and toxin (papG, sfa, afa, cnf1, hlyA) genes was higher in blood compared to faecal E. coli isolates. However, the prevalence of aer, traT and PAI was similar as well as higher among both of these groups. These observations indicate a role of external environment (hospital setting) on host susceptibility (development of infection) in the faecal E. coli isolates, thereby making the patient prone to a sepsis condition. PMID:26257914

  17. A Pharmacogenetics Study in Mozambican Patients Treated with Nevirapine: Full Resequencing of TRAF3IP2 Gene Shows a Novel Association with SJS/TEN Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Ciccacci, Cinzia; Rufini, Sara; Mancinelli, Sandro; Buonomo, Ersilia; Giardina, Emiliano; Scarcella, Paola; Marazzi, Maria C.; Novelli, Giuseppe; Palombi, Leonardo; Borgiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Steven–Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are severe adverse drug reactions, characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosions of mucous membrane. SJS/TEN is one of the most serious adverse reactions to Nevirapine (NVP) treatment, commonly used in developing countries as first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In the last years TRAF3IP2 gene variants had been described as associated with susceptibility to several diseases such as psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. We hypothesized that this gene, involved in immune response and in NF-κB activation, could also be implicated in the SJS/TEN susceptibility. We performed a full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene in a population of patients treated with NVP. Twenty-seven patients with NVP-induced SJS/TEN and 78 controls, all from Mozambique, were enrolled. We identified eight exonic and three intronic already described variants. The case/control association analysis highlighted an association between the rs76228616 SNP in exon 2 and the SJS/TEN susceptibility. In particular, the variant allele (C) resulted significantly associated with a higher risk to develop SJS/TEN (p = 0.012 and OR = 3.65 (95% CI 1.33–10.01)). A multivariate analysis by logistic regression confirmed its significant contribution (p = 0.027, OR = 4.39 (95% CI 1.19–16.23)). In conclusion, our study suggests that a variant in TRAF3IP2 gene could be involved in susceptibility to SJS/TEN. PMID:25775161

  18. Faecal Escherichia coli isolates show potential to cause endogenous infection in patients admitted to the ICU in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Nagarjuna, D.; Mittal, G.; Dhanda, R.S.; Verma, P.K.; Gaind, R.; Yadav, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are acquired during hospital treatment or in a hospital environment. One such infecting agent, Escherichia coli, harbours many virulence genes that enable it to become pathogenic, causing damage to the host. The mechanism of the E. coli virulence factors provenance to cause infection in host environments is not clearly elucidated. We investigated the virulence and pathogenicity of E. coli affected by the host environment. For this, blood (n = 78) and faecal (n = 83) E. coli isolates were collected from patients with and without sepsis, respectively, who had been admitted to the intensive care unit. The E. coli genomic DNA was isolated; the phylogenetic grouping was conducted by triplex PCR. The occurrence of nine virulence genes among the all the isolates was confirmed by gene-specific PCR. The prevalence of E. coli in blood isolates was more in phylogenetic groups B2 and D compared to groups A and B1. However, in faecal isolates, there was no significant difference. The prevalence of adhesin and toxin (papG, sfa, afa, cnf1, hlyA) genes was higher in blood compared to faecal E. coli isolates. However, the prevalence of aer, traT and PAI was similar as well as higher among both of these groups. These observations indicate a role of external environment (hospital setting) on host susceptibility (development of infection) in the faecal E. coli isolates, thereby making the patient prone to a sepsis condition. PMID:26257914

  19. Single-Cell Analysis and Next-Generation Immuno-Sequencing Show That Multiple Clones Persist in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kriangkum, Jitra; Motz, Sarah N.; Mack, Tanner; Beiggi, Sara; Baigorri, Eva; Kuppusamy, Hemalatha; Belch, Andrew R.; Johnston, James B.; Pilarski, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) provides a unique molecular signature; however, we demonstrate that 26/198 CLL patients (13%) had more than one IGH rearrangement, indicating the power of molecular technology over phenotypic analysis. Single-cell PCR analysis and next-generation immuno-sequencing identified IGH-defined clones. In 23% (18/79) of cases whose clones carried unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes (U-CLL), IGH rearrangements were bialleic with one productive (P) and one non-productive (NP) allele. Two U-CLL were biclonal, each clone being monoallelic (P). In 119 IGHV-mutated (M-CLL) cases, one had biallelic rearrangements in their CLL (P/NP) and five had 2–4 distinct clones. Allelic exclusion was maintained in all B-clones analyzed. Based on single-cell PCR analysis, 5/11 partner clones (45%) reached levels of >5x109 cells/L, suggesting second CLL clones. Partner clones persisted over years. Conventional IGH characterization and next-generation sequencing of 13 CLL, 3 multiple myeloma, 2 Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia and 3 age-matched healthy donors consistently identified the same rearranged IGH sequences. Most multiple clones occurred in M-CLL, perhaps indicative of weak clonal dominance, thereby associating with a good prognosis. In contrast, biallelic CLL occurred primarily in U-CLL thus being associated with poor prognosis. Extending beyond intra-clonal diversity, molecular analysis of clonal evolution and apparent subclones in CLL may also reflect inter-clonal diversity. PMID:26353109

  20. Granuloma Annulare Mimicking Sarcoidosis: Report of Patient With Localized Granuloma Annulare Whose Skin Lesions Show 3 Clinical Morphologies and 2 Histology Patterns.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R; Carlos, Casey A

    2015-07-01

    Granuloma annulare, a benign dermatosis of undetermined etiology, typically presents in a localized or generalized form. It has 3 distinctive histologic patterns: an infiltrative (interstitial) pattern, a palisading granuloma pattern, and an epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) pattern. A man whose granuloma annulare skin lesions mimicked sarcoidosis is described. His localized granuloma annulare presented with a total of 3 lesions that each had a distinctive clinical morphology: an annular lesion of individual papules, a dermal nodule, and a linear arrangement of 3 papules. Two of his lesions showed a palisading granuloma histology pattern of granuloma annulare; however, the linear papules on his posterior neck lesion demonstrated noncaseating granulomas consistent with either the epithelioid nodule histology pattern of granuloma annulare or sarcoidal granuloma compatible with sarcoidosis. A comprehensive evaluation excluded the diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on granuloma annulare, epithelioid nodule, sarcoidal granuloma, and sarcoidosis. The histology patterns of granuloma annulare-emphasizing the history and differentiating features of the epithelioid nodule pattern from cutaneous sarcoidosis-were reviewed. The epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) histology pattern of granuloma annulare is uncommon and may mimic the histology changes observed in sarcoidosis skin lesions; the absence of asteroid or other giant cell inclusions and an increase in mucin deposition between the collagen bundles favor the diagnosis of granuloma annulare. In addition, the epithelioid nodule pattern of granuloma annulare can rarely also show other histologic patterns of granuloma annulare in the same biopsy specimen or concurrently present with other clinical lesions of granuloma annulare that demonstrate a palisading granuloma, or possibly an infiltrative, histology pattern. However, the presence of an

  1. Treatment with Ziprasidone for schizophrenia patients with OCD.

    PubMed

    Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Fostick, Leah; Cwikel-Hamzany, Shlomit; Balaban, Evgenya; Zohar, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been observed in about 15% of schizophrenic patients and has been associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for specific treatment options for these patients (schizo-obsessive, ScOCD). This is an open, prospective study, aiming to test the efficacy of Ziprasidone (80-200mg/d) in ScOCD patients and comparing the response to the treatment between stable schizophrenic (N=16) and stable ScOCD (N=29) patients. Treatment effect with Ziprasidone was different in schizophrenic patients when stratified based on OCD comorbidity. Overall, the effect on OCD symptoms (as measured by the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, YBOCS) was found to be bimodal-either no response or exacerbation (for 45% of the patients, n=13) or significant improvement of symptoms (55%, n=16). Those who improved in OCD symptoms, improved also in negative and general schizophrenia symptoms, while ScOCD-unimproved group worsened in all symptoms. Whereas schizophrenic patients without OCD responded in a modest Gaussian distribution, they improved in schizophrenia negative symptoms and in general anxiety. This data suggests that schizo-obsessive disorder is a distinct and complex condition with more than one underlying pathogenesis. Definition of these ScOCD subgroups defined by their response to Ziprasidone might contribute to personalized medicine within the OCD-schizophrenia spectrum. Moreover, this finding suggests that ScOCD may be considered as a special schizophrenic subtype and its inclusion in schizophrenia treatment studies need to be further explored due to its divergent response. PMID:25048540

  2. The neuroanatomical basis of affective mentalizing in schizophrenia: comparison of patients with schizophrenia and patients with localized prefrontal lesions.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2007-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show impaired emotional and social behavior, such as misinterpretation of social situations and lack of Theory of Mind (ToM). However, the neuroanatomical basis of impaired ToM and its nature in schizophrenia is still largely unknown. Based on previous findings, the present study suggests that impaired social cognition observed in schizophrenic patients may be similar to that observed in patients with prefrontal (PFC) damage due to impaired 'affective ToM' abilities, rather than to a general impairment in ToM. We examined the behavioral and neural mechanisms that underlie the social and communicative impairments observed in patients with schizophrenia and with PFC damage, by looking at differential patterns of ToM impairment in these individuals. The performance of 24 patients with schizophrenia was compared to the responses of patients with localized lesions in the ventromedial (VM) or dorsolateral PFC, patients with non-frontal lesions, and healthy control subjects. Patients with schizophrenia and those with VM lesions were impaired on 'affective ToM' tasks but not in cognitive ToM conditions. It was concluded that the pattern of mentalizing impairments in schizophrenia resembled those seen in patients with lesions of the frontal lobe, particularly with VM damage, providing support for the notion of a disturbance of the fronto-limbic circuits in schizophrenia. PMID:17182218

  3. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  4. Postoperative hospital course of patients with history of severe psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S; McCartney, J R; Saravay, S M; Katz, E

    1987-09-01

    The postoperative hospital course of 54 patients with a past history of psychiatric illness was studied through chart review. Both chronic schizophrenics and chronic depressives tolerated surgical procedures well, without any unusual difficulties or exacerbation of psychiatric illness. They represented no management problems. Patients with acute, severe upset in the preoperative period (regardless of diagnosis) presented most of the management problems postoperatively. PMID:3678811

  5. Exaggerated Leftward Bias in the Mental Number Line of Patients with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavezian, Celine; Rossetti, Yves; Danckert, James; d'Amato, Thierry; Dalery, Jean; Saoud, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Several visuo-motor tasks can be used to demonstrate biases towards left hemispace in schizophrenic patients, suggesting a minor right hemineglect. Recent studies in neglect patients used a new number bisection task to highlight a lateralized defect in their visuo-spatial representation of numbers. To test a possible lateralized representational…

  6. Occipital γ response to auditory stimulation in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Basar-Eroglu, Canan; Mathes, Birgit; Brand, Andreas; Schmiedt-Fehr, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated changes in gamma oscillations during auditory sensory processing (auditory-evoked gamma responses, AEGR) and target detection (auditory event-related gamma responses, AERGR) in healthy controls (n=10) and patients with schizophrenia (n=10) using both single-trial and averaged time-frequency data analysis. The results show that single-trial gamma responses in patients were altered in magnitude and topographic pattern for both the AEGR and the AERGR experimental conditions, whereas no differences were found for the averaged evoked gamma response. At the single-trial level, auditory stimuli elicited higher gamma responses at both anterior and occipital sites in patients with schizophrenia compared to controls. Furthermore, in patients with schizophrenia target detection compared to passive listening to stimuli was related to increased single-trial gamma power at frontal sites. In controls enhancement of the gamma response was only apparent for the averaged gamma response, with a distribution largely restricted to anterior sites. The differences in oscillatory activity between healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia were not reflected in the behavioral measure (i.e., counting targets). We conclude that gamma activity triggered by auditory stimuli in schizophrenic patients might have less selectivity in timing and alterations in topography and may show changes in amplitude modulation with task demands. The present study may indicate that in patients with schizophrenia neuronal information is not adequately transferred, possibly due to an over-excitability of neuronal networks and excessive pruning of local connections in association cortex. PMID:21056599

  7. Concomitant Use of Topiramate Inducing Neutropenia in a Schizophrenic Male Stabilized on Clozapine

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pravesh; Davis, Jeffrey; Rachamallu, Vivekananda; Aligeti, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This is a case of a 23-year-old African American male with a history of paranoid schizophrenia that developed neutropenia on a clozapine-topiramate therapy. Clozapine had well addressed the patient's psychotic symptoms, while topiramate was used as a weight-lowering agent. The patient had fairly stable leukocyte counts for eight months on clozapine 300 mg and topiramate 100 mg daily. Doubling the dosage of topiramate led to severe neutropenia after two months. Reviewing the patient's laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of neutrophils occurring at a lower dosage, followed by a rapid decline after an increased dosage. In this case, we report that not only did topiramate act as the neutropenic agent, but also it might have done so in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26904343

  8. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN PSYCHOTICISM AND CERTAIN ASPECTS OF AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS1

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY 30 schizophrenics who met the criteria of Feighner et al. and were having verbal auditory hallucination with or without hallucinations of other varieties were chosen for the study. Psychoticism was measured with the help of Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire. The relation of psychoticism scores to different aspects of auditory hallucinations was examined. High psychoticism scores seemed to be associated with a greater number of languages of the voice, known living ‘speakers’ and less fear and passive listening during the voice. PMID:21965978

  9. Myeloma in patients younger than age 50 years presents with more favorable features and shows better survival: an analysis of 10 549 patients from the International Myeloma Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Durie, Brian G. M.; Bolejack, Vanessa; Turesson, Ingemar; Kyle, Robert A.; Blade, Joan; Fonseca, Rafael; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; San Miguel, Jesus; Westin, Jan; Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Beksac, Meral; Boccadoro, Mario; Palumbo, Antonio; Barlogie, Bart; Shustik, Chaim; Cavo, Michele; Greipp, Philip R.; Joshua, Douglas; Attal, Michel; Sonneveld, Pieter; Crowley, John

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the presenting features and survival in 1689 patients with multiple myeloma aged younger than 50 years compared with 8860 patients 50 years of age and older. Of the total 10 549 patients, 7765 received conventional therapy and 2784 received high-dose therapy. Young patients were more frequently male, had more favorable features such as low International Staging System (ISS) and Durie-Salmon stage as well as less frequently adverse prognostic factors including high C-reactive protein (CRP), low hemoglobin, increased serum creatinine, and poor performance status. Survival was significantly longer in young patients (median, 5.2 years vs 3.7 years; P < .001) both after conventional (median, 4.5 years vs 3.3 years; P < .001) or high-dose therapy (median, 7.5 years vs 5.7 years; P = .04). The 10-year survival rate was 19% after conventional therapy and 43% after high-dose therapy in young patients, and 8% and 29%, respectively, in older patients. Multivariate analysis revealed age as an independent risk factor during conventional therapy, but not after autologous transplantation. A total of 5 of the 10 independent risk factors identified for conventional therapy were also relevant for autologous transplantation. After adjusting for normal mortality, lower ISS stage and other favorable prognostic features seem to account for the significantly longer survival of young patients with multiple myeloma with age remaining a risk factor during conventional therapy. PMID:18268097

  10. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  11. Subjective Symptoms in Euthymic Bipolar Disorder and Remitted Schizophrenia Patients: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Mondal, Anwesha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subjective experience means subtle, not yet psychotic abnormalities of experience that might be present during remitted phase and also in prodromal phase of schizophrenia and might be accurately efficient in identifying individuals at risk of eminent psychosis (Parnas et al., 2003). Apart from schizophrenic patients, bipolar patients also experience certain subjective symptoms in their euthymic state. They often experience subtle cognitive impairment and functional disturbances during their euthymic states. These subjective experiences may be related to distorted cognitive functions in these patients. These experiences include a great variety of cognitive dysfunction complaints about attention, perception, memory, thinking, language, movement, and emotion. Objective: To measure the experience of subjective symptoms and compare them between euthymic bipolar and remitted schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty euthymic bipolar patients and 30 remitted schizophrenia patients as per International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision were selected for the purpose of the study. At first, sociodemographic data were collected. And then, the patients were assessed using the scales; positive and negative syndrome scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-24. Results: Both the groups showed significant differences in terms of subjective symptoms. However, no significant correlation has been found between the objective psychopathology and subjective experience in the two groups. Conclusion: It can be suggested that the patients with schizophrenia show significantly higher subjective experience when compared with the patients of bipolar disorder. PMID:27114621

  12. Differences between patients with schizophrenia with and without co-occurring methamphetamine use disorders in a Taiwanese public psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Huang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Hung-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the factors related to and the outcomes of schizophrenic patients with co-occurring methamphetamine use disorders (MUDs). All schizophrenic patients discharged from a psychiatric hospital between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2006, were monitored. This study compared the important demographic and clinical variables between patients with co-occurring MUDs and those without, and postdischarge measured time to rehospitalization during a 1-year period. Seven hundred fifty-six patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 88 (11.6%) reported the use of methamphetamine. Univariate analyses indicated that male sex, low educational level, discharge against medical advice, missed first appointment after discharge, co-occurring other illicit substance use disorder, age (younger), diazepam equivalents prescribed at discharge (higher), number of previous admissions within the past 5 years (higher), and length of hospital stay (longer) were predictive of patients with co-occurring MUDs. There were also significant differences in time to rehospitalization between these two groups during the follow-up periods. Many factors can be identified in schizophrenic patients with co-occurring MUDs. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients with co-occurring MUDs were more likely to be rehospitalized. Future studies in many different mental health systems are needed before these findings can be generalized. PMID:25268153

  13. A randomized controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Stip, Emmanuel; Vincent, Philippe D.; Sablier, Juliette; Guevremont, Catherine; Zhornitsky, Simon; Tranulis, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS) seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR) is about 49.5% in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improved AAR of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we compared AAR obtained by the DoPill® and the BARS, in order to verify whether the DoPill® provides reliable assessment of medication adherence. Methods: The DoPill® is a smart pill dispenser that beeps and flashes at the appropriate time of the day. Each of its 28 compartments is covered by a plastic lamina that, when taken off, sends a signal to the pharmacist. Patients were randomized to the DoPill® or treatment as usual groups for 6 weeks. The BARS was used as a reference measure. Results: Forty-six percent of patients were deemed to be non-adherent with antipsychotic medication. The mean AAR was 67% after 6 weeks. DoPill® recorded better AAR than some of those found in the literature and were lower than the BARS estimate we found. Conclusion: These results suggest that DoPill® is a valid tool that provides more reliable and objective data for the clinician about their patient’s adherence, than existing assessment tools like the BARS. Furthermore, the device may help patients successfully manage their medication regimen. PMID:23950746

  14. A Comparison of the Animistic Beliefs of Schizophrenic Children with Normal Children, As Revealed by a Test Based on Piaget's Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Alice Poulsen

    The animistic beliefs of 40 schizophrenic children were compared with the beliefs of 40 normal children (age range for both groups from 11 to 15 years) in light of Jean Piaget's developmental stages of animistic thinking. Each S was tested individually on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and on whether each of 20 objects was animate.…

  15. Electrophysiological evidence showing muscarinic agonist-antagonist activities of N-desmethylclozapine using hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory neurons.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Yuto; Kikuchi, Yui; Yoneda, Mitsugu; Ohno-Shosaku, Takako

    2016-07-01

    The atypical antipsychotic clozapine is widely used for treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. Clozapine and its major active metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC), have complex pharmacological properties, and interact with various neurotransmitter receptors. There are several biochemical studies reporting that NDMC exhibits a partial agonist profile at the human recombinant M1 muscarinic receptors. However, direct electrophysiological evidence showing the ability of NDMC to activate native M1 receptors in intact neurons is poor. Using rat hippocampal neurons, we previously demonstrated that activation of muscarinic receptors by a muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine M (oxo-M), induces a decrease in outward K(+)current at -40mV. In the present study, using this muscarinic current response we assessed agonist and antagonist activities of clozapine and NDMC at native muscarinic receptors in intact hippocampal excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Suppression of the oxo-M-induced current response by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine was evident only in excitatory neurons, while the M3 antagonist darifenacin was effective in both types of neurons. Muscarinic agonist activity of NDMC was higher than that of clozapine, higher in excitatory neurons than in inhibitory neurons, sensitive to pirenzepine, and partially masked when co-applied with clozapine. Muscarinic antagonist activity of clozapine as well as NDMC was not different between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, but clozapine was more effective than NDMC. These results demonstrate that NDMC has the ability to activate native M1 receptors expressed in hippocampal excitatory neurons, but its agonist activity might be limited in clozapine-treated patients because of the presence of excessive clozapine with muscarinic antagonist activity. PMID:27048752

  16. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  17. Gray Matter Volume Decreases in Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia: A Voxel-based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Caroline; Schuller, Anne Marie; Paulos, Carlos; Namer, Izzie; Pull, Charles; Danion, Jean Marie; Foucher, Jack René

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aged patients (>50 years old) with residual schizophrenic symptoms differ from young patients. They represent a subpopulation with a more unfavorable Kraepelinian course and have an increased risk (up to 30%) for dementia of unknown origin. However, our current understanding of age-related brain changes in schizophrenia is derived from studies that included less than 17% of patients who were older than 50 years of age. This study investigated the anatomical distribution of gray matter (GM) brain deficits in aged patients with ongoing schizophrenia. Methods: Voxel-based morphometry was applied to 3D-T1 magnetic resonance images obtained from 27 aged patients with schizophrenia (mean age of 60 years) and 40 age-matched normal controls. Results: Older patients with schizophrenia showed a bilateral reduction of GM volume in the thalamus, the prefrontal cortex, and in a large posterior region centered on the occipito-temporo-parietal junction. Only the latter region showed accelerated GM volume loss with increasing age. None of these results could be accounted for by institutionalization, antipsychotic medication, or cognitive scores. Conclusions: This study replicated most common findings in patients with schizophrenia with regard to thalamic and frontal GM deficits. However, it uncovered an unexpected large region of GM atrophy in the posterior tertiary cortices. The latter observation may be specific to this aged and chronically symptomatic subpopulation, as atrophy in this region is rarely reported in younger patients and is accelerated with age. PMID:21205677

  18. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  19. Childhood Social Competence in Functionally Disordered Psychiatric Patients and in Normals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewine, Richard R. J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Childhood social competence in 59 schizophrenics, 40 personality disordered patients, 14 psychotic depressives, 28 neurotics, and normal adults was assessed. The results indicated that children eventually hospitalized for schizophrenia are characterized by their poor interpersonal skills long before symptom onset; academic competence failed to…

  20. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  1. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  2. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  3. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  4. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  5. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  6. Psychotic patients' impressions of a person from written descriptions.

    PubMed

    Luchins, A S; Luchins, E H

    1984-02-01

    The present study examined the impressions of personality formed from written descriptions of behavior by over 200 hospitalized male schizophrenics, tested individually when they seemed in contact with reality. One description was of extrovert (E) behavior by a youth named Jim; another was of his introvert (I) behavior in similar settings. Combined communications gave one description immediately after the other. After 150 patients read one of the communications, they were generally willing and able to respond to a 36-item questionnaire about Jim. This also occurred when 96 patients were asked to answer it before any communication, on the basis of their expectations about Jim; 56 subsequently received a communication, followed by readministration of the questionnaire. Patients' responses, before or after the communications, revealed few pathological signs and, like those of normal Ss, could usually be classified as E or I. Patients had less differential effects, and far fewer I responses than normal Ss. Patients and normals showed preconceptions of Jim as extrovertive. Results were discussed in light of the projective hypothesis and other theories. PMID:6706109

  7. Verbal conditioning of affect responses of process and reactive schizophrenics in a clinical interview situation.

    PubMed

    Pansa, M

    1979-06-01

    Sixteen process and 16 reactive schizoprenics out-patients were compared on a verbal conditioning task in an alternating conditioning-extinction design, using verbal and non-verbal positive social reinforcement to influence the emission of self-referred affect statements. It was found that process subjects failed to condition during the time periods used, while reactives demonstrated a significant trials effect showing trends consistent with those hypothesized from the type of design used. This differential conditionability between groups was shown not to be a function of diagnosis, sex, motivation, severity of illness, medication, hospitalization history, or general speech output. It was concluded that the degree of social responsiveness manifested in the premorbid history of the two groups is also operative in behaviour during the psychotic period, specifically, in responsiveness to positive social reinforcers in a verbal conditioning task. PMID:486358

  8. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  9. Anti-signal recognition particle antibody-positive polymyositis in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome showing various types of annular erythema: Positive correlation between the activities of annular erythema and myositis.

    PubMed

    Kabuto, Miho; Fujimoto, Noriki; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2016-08-01

    Annular erythema with Sjögren's syndrome (AESS) is occasionally found, especially in Asian patients, which is classified into three types. We present a case of Sjögren's syndrome showing various types of AESS with anti-signal recognition particle antibody-positive polymyositis. We successfully treated the eruption and myositis with a low dose of prednisolone. Every onset of annular erythema coincided with elevation of serum creatine kinase levels, which suggests the correlation between the activities of annular erythema and polymyositis. PMID:26972113

  10. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  11. Ventricular Tachycardia and Early Fibrillation in Patients With Brugada Syndrome and Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Show Predictable Frequency-Phase Properties on the Precordial ECG Consistent With the Respective Arrhythmogenic Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, David; Atienza, Felipe; Saiz, Javier; Martínez, Laura; Ávila, Pablo; Rubín, José; Herreros, Benito; Arenal, Ángel; García-Fernández, Javier; Ferrer, Ana; Sebastián, Rafael; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Jalife, José

    2015-01-01

    Background— Ventricular fibrillation (VF) has been proposed to be maintained by localized high-frequency sources. We tested whether spectral-phase analysis of the precordial ECG enabled identification of periodic activation patterns generated by such sources. Methods and Results— Precordial ECGs were recorded from 15 ischemic cardiomyopathy and 15 Brugada syndrome (type 1 ECG) patients during induced VF and analyzed in the frequency-phase domain. Despite temporal variability, induced VF episodes lasting 19.6±7.9 s displayed distinctly high power at a common frequency (shared frequency, 5.7±1.1 Hz) in all leads about half of the time. In patients with Brugada syndrome, phase analysis of shared frequency showed a V1–V6 sequence as would be expected from patients displaying a type 1 ECG pattern (P<0.001). Hilbert-based phases confirmed that the most stable sequence over the whole VF duration was V1–V6. Analysis of shared frequency in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients with anteroseptal (n=4), apical (n=3), and inferolateral (n=4) myocardial infarction displayed a sequence starting at V1–V2, V3–V4, and V5–V6, respectively, consistent with an activation origin at the scar location (P=0.005). Sequences correlated with the Hilbert-based phase analysis (P<0.001). Posterior infarction (n=4) displayed no specific sequence. On paired comparison, phase sequences during monomorphic ventricular tachycardia correlated moderately with VF (P<0.001). Moreover, there was a dominant frequency gradient from precordial leads facing the scar region to the contralateral leads (5.8±0.8 versus 5.4±1.1 Hz; P=0.004). Conclusions— Noninvasive analysis of ventricular tachycardia and early VF in patients with Brugada syndrome and ischemic cardiomyopathy shows a predictable sequence in the frequency-phase domain, consistent with anatomic location of the arrhythmogenic substrate. PMID:26253505

  12. [Physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: psychopathological investigation of 10 patients].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported two schizophrenic patients with characteristic hallucinations consisting of auditory hallucinations accompanied by visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The patient sees the face of the hallucinatory speaker in his/her mind and hears the voice talking inwardly. We termed these experiences physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations. In this report, we present 10 patients with schizophrenia showing physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations and evaluate the characteristics of these clinical symptoms. Moreover we consider what the symptoms mean for patients and the metabasis from structural aspects. Lastly, we consider how we can treat these patients living autistic lives with the symptoms. During physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations, the realistic face moves its mouth and talks to the patient expressively. In early onset cases, the faces of various real people appear talking about ordinary things while in late onset cases, the faces can be imaginary but are mainly real people talking about ordinary or delusional things. We suppose that these characteristics of the symptoms unify the schizophrenic world overwhelmed by "a force of non-sense" to "the sense field". "The force of non-sense" is a substantial power but cannot be reduced to the real meaning. And we suppose that not visual reality but the intensity of auditory hallucinations of the face brings about the overwhelming intensity of symptoms and the substantiality of this intensity depends on the states of excessive fullness of "the force of non-sense". With these symptoms patients see the narration of auditory hallucinations through the facial image and the content of auditory hallucinations is compressed into the movement of visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The form of symptoms is realistic but the speaker's face and voice are beyond ordinary time and space. The symptoms are essentially different from ordinary perception. The visual

  13. Corneal temperature in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Roni; Munitz, Hanan; Portuguese, Shirley; Gross-Isseroff, Ruth; Sigler, Mayanit; Bodinger, Liron; Katz, Nachum; Stryjer, Rafael; Hermesh, Haggai; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-12-01

    Most data imply that dopaminergic transmission is essential for proper hypothalamic-mediated core temperature regulation. Altered central dopaminergic transmission is suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Thus, hypothetically, schizophrenia patients might be at increased risk of developing thermoregulatory dysregulation manifested by alterations in core temperature, as well as in peripheral tissue, the temperature of which has been shown to correlate with core temperature (e.g. cornea). Previous small pilot studies of ours showed that schizophrenia patients may exhibit corneal temperature abnormalities. Hence, we assessed corneal temperature in a controlled sample of drug-free ( n =11) and medicated ( n =28) schizophrenia patients compared to healthy comparison subjects ( n =9), using a FLIR thermal imaging camera. Drug-free schizophrenia patients exhibited significantly higher corneal temperature compared to healthy subjects, typical antipsychotic drug (APD)-treated patients ( n =16) and atypical APD-treated patients ( n =12) (37.08+/-1.46 degrees C vs. 33.37+/-2.51 degrees C, 31.08+/-1.43 degrees C and 31.67+/-0.44 degrees C respectively, p <0.0001; p <0.001 vs. each group separately). The healthy comparison subjects and the atypical APD-treated patients exhibited comparable corneal temperatures and these two groups exhibited higher corneal temperatures compared to the typical APD-treated patients ( p <0.01 and p =0.051 respectively). In conclusion, this study indicates that drug-free schizophrenia patients exhibit substantially higher corneal temperature compared to healthy comparison subjects or medicated patients, and that APDs may decrease corneal temperature either to normal (atypical APD) or to subnormal (typical APD) values. The relevance of these phenomena to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the biological mechanism underlying drug-induced corneal temperature alterations, the possible role of temperature-lowering drugs

  14. Emotional prosody modulates attention in schizophrenia patients with hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Alba-Ferrara, L; de Erausquin, G A; Hirnstein, M; Weis, S; Hausmann, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that emotional prosody (EP) attracts attention involuntarily (Grandjean et al., 2008). The automat shift of attention toward emotionally salient stimuli can be overcome by attentional control (Hahn et al., 2010). Attentional control is impaired in schizophrenia, especially in schizophrenic patients with hallucinations because the "voices" capture attention increasing the processing load and competing for top-down resources. The present study investigates how involuntary attention is driven by implicit EP in schizophrenia with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and without (NAVH). Fifteen AVH patients, 12 NAVH patients and 16 healthy controls (HC) completed a dual-task dichotic listening paradigm, in which an emotional vocal outburst was paired with a neutral vocalization spoken in male and female voices. Participants were asked to report the speaker's gender while attending to either the left or right ear. NAVH patients and HC revealed shorter response times for stimuli presented to the attended left ear than the attended right ear. This laterality effect was not present in AVH patients. In addition, NAVH patients and HC showed faster responses when the EP stimulus was presented to the unattended ear, probably because of less interference between the attention-controlled gender voice identification task and involuntary EP processing. AVH patients did not benefit from presenting emotional stimuli to the unattended ear. The findings suggest that similar to HC, NAVH patients show a right hemispheric bias for EP processing. AVH patients seem to be less lateralized for EP and therefore might be more susceptible to interfering involuntary EP processing; regardless which ear/hemisphere receives the bottom up input. PMID:23459397

  15. Treadmill exercise inhibits hippocampal apoptosis through enhancing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin Woo; Seo, Jin-Hee; Baek, Sang-Bin; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by abnormal mental functioning and disruptive behaviors. Abnormal expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, one of the glutamate receptor subtypes, has also been suggested to contribute to the symptoms of schizophrenia. The effect of treadmill exercise on schizophrenia-induced apoptosis in relation with NMDA receptor has not been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus using MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice. MK-801 was intraperitoneally injected once a day for 2 weeks. The mice in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill exercise for 60 min, once a day for 2 weeks. In the present results, repeated injection of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 reduced expression of NMDA receptor in hippocampal CA2-3 regions. MK-801 injection increased casapse-3 expression and enhanced cytochrome c release in the hippocampus. The ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 was higher in the MK-801-induced schizophrenia mice than the normal mice. In contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced NMDA receptor expression, suppressed caspae-3 activation and cytochrome c release, and inhibited the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. Based on present finding, we concluded that NMDA receptor hypofunctioning induced neuronal apoptosis in MK-801-induced schizophrenic mice. Treadmill exercise suppressed neuronal apoptosis through enhancing NMDA receptor expression in schizophrenic mice. PMID:25210696

  16. The first double-blind, randomised, parallel-group certolizumab pegol study in methotrexate-naive early rheumatoid arthritis patients with poor prognostic factors, C-OPERA, shows inhibition of radiographic progression

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Yamanishi, Yuji; Kita, Yasuhiko; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Shoji, Toshiharu; Okada, Toshiyuki; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of combination therapy using certolizumab pegol (CZP) and methotrexate (MTX) as first-line treatment for MTX-naive, early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with poor prognostic factors, compared with MTX alone. Methods MTX-naive, early RA patients with ≤12 months persistent disease, high anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, and either rheumatoid factor positive and/or presence of bone erosions were enrolled in this multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo (PBO)-controlled study. Patients were randomised 1:1 to CZP+MTX or PBO+MTX for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was inhibition of radiographic progression (change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS CFB)) at week 52. Secondary endpoints were mTSS CFB at week 24, and clinical remission rates at weeks 24 and 52. Results 316 patients randomised to CZP+MTX (n=159) or PBO+MTX (n=157) had comparable baseline characteristics reflecting features of early RA (mean disease duration: 4.0 vs 4.3 months; Disease Activity Score 28-joint assessment (DAS28)) (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)): 5.4 vs 5.5; mTSS: 5.2 vs 6.0). CZP+MTX group showed significantly greater inhibition of radiographic progression relative to PBO+MTX at week 52 (mTSS CFB=0.36 vs 1.58; p<0.001) and week 24 (mTSS CFB=0.26 vs 0.86; p=0.003). Clinical remission rates (Simple Disease Activity Index, Boolean and DAS28 (ESR)) of the CZP+MTX group were significantly higher compared with those of the PBO+MTX group, at weeks 24 and 52. Safety results in both groups were similar, with no new safety signals observed with addition of CZP to MTX. Conclusions In MTX-naive early RA patients with poor prognostic factors, CZP+MTX significantly inhibited structural damage and reduced RA signs and symptoms, demonstrating the efficacy of CZP in these patients. Trial registration number (NCT01451203). PMID:26139005

  17. The Gamma-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase to Platelet Ratio Does not Show Advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in Diagnosing Significant Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Huang, Yuxian; Li, Xinyan; Zhuo, Qibin; Li, Weixia; Chen, Chong; Lu, Chuan; Qi, Xun; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is a new liver fibrosis model, which is reported to be more accurate than aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index based on the four factors (Fib-4) for diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in West Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of GPR for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in Chinese CHB patients, and explore whether GPR deserves to be popularized in China. A total of 372 CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies and routine laboratory tests were retrospectively studied. The Scheuer scoring system was adopted as the pathological standard of liver fibrosis. Using liver histology as a gold standard, the diagnostic accuracies of GPR, APRI, and Fib-4 for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis are evaluated and compared by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curves (AUROCs). Of these 372 patients, 176 (47.3%), 129 (34.7%), and 72 (19.4%) were classified as having significant fibrosis (≥ S2), severe fibrosis (≥ S3), and cirrhosis (S4), respectively. The AUROCs of GPR for significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.78; P = 0.01), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.80; P = 0.04), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.83; P = 0.02) were lower than those of APRI. The AUROCs of GPR and Fib-4 for diagnosing significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.70; P = 0.29), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.73; P = 0.33), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.75; P = 0.38) were comparable. GPR is a new serum diagnostic model for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, but does not show advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in identifying significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis in CHB patients in China. PMID:27100421

  18. Manic Symptoms during a Switch from Paliperidone ER to Paliperidone Palmitate in a Patient with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Keleş, Süleyman; Demirdaş, Arif; Korucu, Cafer Çağrı

    2015-01-01

    Some antipsychotic drugs have treatment efficacy for mania and bipolar disorder. However, these drugs may rarely cause manic symptoms in some schizophrenic patients. We hereby report a 22-year-old female patient with schizophrenia who experienced a manic episode during a switch from paliperidone ER to paliperidone palmitate. This case is an important reminder that an abrupt switch from oral paliperidone to paliperidone palmitate may predispose certain patients to hypomanic or manic symptoms. PMID:26539300

  19. [The changes of the function of lymphocytes natural killers in schizophrenics].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, E F; Kushner, S G; Abramova, L I; Kaleda, V G; Tsutsul'kovskaia, M Iu

    2002-01-01

    Cytotoxic activity and lymphocyte natural killers (NK) number as well as gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN) production were studied in patients with paranoid (22 patients) and progressive attack-like (39 patients) schizophrenia (47 male and 14 female patients aged 16-62 years). Compared to controls, a decrease of NK activity and a trend towards gamma-IFN production decrease were found. In the patients, NK lymphocytes number was not changed. Cytotoxic activity was reduced only in the male patients, a frequency of cases with lower activity level being the highest in those with more severe form of paranoid schizophrenia. A significant difference of both indices was detected between men and women. In the men, the longer was the disease duration, the higher was cytotoxic activity and lymphocyte number increase. It was shown in vitro that monocytes are not involved in mechanisms changing the level of lymphocyte cytotoxicity in the patients and immune modulator enkad stimulats cytotoxic activity in the male patients. PMID:12233256

  20. Increased anti-streptococcal antibodies in patients with Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Müller, N; Riedel, M; Straube, A; Günther, W; Wilske, B

    2000-04-24

    Infection or postinfectious phenomena have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of children afflicted with the typical symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS). We investigated whether an increase of titers of antistreptococcal antibodies can be reproduced in our children with TS, and whether this increase is restricted to children. We examined the titers of two different antistreptococcal antibodies, antistreptolysin (ASL) and anitDNase B, both in children and adults. Titer s of ASO and antiDNase B were measured (1) in 13 children/adolescents suffering from TS and in an aged-matched comparison group;(2) in 23 adult patients, a comparison group of 23 aged-matched controls, and in another group of 17 aged-matched, non-medicated acute schizophrenics. ASO and antiDNase B titers were determined by laser nephelometry using a commercially available kit. Two antistreptococcal cut-off levels were compared (> 250 U/ml and 400 U/ml). As expected, increases ASO titers (>400 IU/ml) were found in a higher portion of children/adolescents with TS compared to controls. Regarding adults, titers >250 U/ml for both antistreptococcal antigens were found in significantly more TS patients than in schizophrenic patients or healthy control subjects. The mean values of ASO and antiDNase titers were significantly higher in both groups of TS patients compared to control children/adolescents, to the comparison groups of healthy adults and to schizophrenics. No difference in antistreptococcal titers was found between schizophrenics and the group of healthy adults. TS patients exhibited higher antistreptococcal titers than age-matched comparison groups of both children/adolescents and adults using different types of calculation. Our findings support the theory that a postinfectious immune mechanism may play a role in the pathogenesis of TS. The mechanism still needs to be elucidated. PMID:10788676

  1. Virtual Avatar for Emotion Recognition in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Marcos-Pablos, Samuel; González-Pablos, Emilio; Martín-Lorenzo, Carlos; Flores, Luis A.; Gómez-García-Bermejo, Jaime; Zalama, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Persons who suffer from schizophrenia have difficulties in recognizing emotions in others’ facial expressions, which affects their capabilities for social interaction and hinders their social integration. Photographic images have traditionally been used to explore emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenia patients, but they lack of the dynamism that is inherent to facial expressiveness. In order to overcome those inconveniences, over the last years different authors have proposed the use of virtual avatars. In this work, we present the results of a pilot study that explored the possibilities of using a realistic-looking avatar for the assessment of emotion recognition deficits in patients who suffer from schizophrenia. In the study, 20 subjects with schizophrenia of long evolution and 20 control subjects were invited to recognize a set of facial expressions of emotions showed by both the said virtual avatar and static images. Our results show that schizophrenic patients exhibit recognition deficits in emotion recognition from facial expressions regardless the type of stimuli (avatar or images), and that those deficits are related with the psychopathology. Finally, some improvements in recognition rates (RRs) for the patient group when using the avatar were observed for sadness or surprise expressions, and they even outperform the control group in the recognition of the happiness expression. This leads to conclude that, apart from the dynamism of the shown expression, the RRs for schizophrenia patients when employing animated avatars may depend on other factors which need to be further explored. PMID:27616987

  2. [Psychotherapy of positive symptoms in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia psychosis].

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, G; Klingberg, S

    2003-01-01

    While the treatment of positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenic psychosis appeared until recently to be solely pharmacotherapeutic, new research findings show the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy (CBT) on positive symptoms in chronic psychotic patients. In addition, the effectiveness even in acute and recent-onset psychosis could be shown in some studies. The effects of CBT and standard care in psychosis compared to standard care alone and to other psychosocial interventions plus standard care are reviewed. The results of several studies and one meta-analysis show that CBT in schizophrenia patients has a direct effect on psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations as well as on relapse prevention. In routine settings,however,CBT has until now only rarely been delivered to these patients. In so-called large pragmatic trials, which might be subsumed as phase IIIb studies, the effects are tested. The therapeutic approach with the components of CBT for psychosis are described: building a therapeutic relationship, cognitive-behavioural coping strategies, developing an understanding of the experience of psychosis,working on hallucinations and delusions, addressing negative self-evaluations, anxiety, and depression,managing risk of relapse and social disability. Further clinical implications are described (capability of learning the therapeutic strategies, deliverability in broader clinical settings, acceptability by patients, combination with atypical neuroleptic drugs,and treatment of choice in risk populations). PMID:12596031

  3. Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158076.html Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise Baricitinib helped patients who failed other ... HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis showed promise in a new six-month trial. ...

  4. Gender Differences in Remission and Recovery of Schizophrenic and Schizoaffective Patients: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Carpiniello, Bernardo; Pinna, Federica; Tusconi, Massimo; Zaccheddu, Enrico; Fatteri, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate rates of clinical remission and recovery according to gender in a cohort of chronic outpatients attending a university community mental health center who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder according to DSM-IV-TR. A sample of 100 consecutive outpatients (70 males and 30 females) underwent comprehensive psychiatric evaluation using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis of Axis I and II DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II, Version R) and an assessment of psychopathology, social functioning, clinical severity, subjective wellbeing, and quality of life, respectively by means of PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), PSP (Personal and Social Performance), CGI-SCH (Clinical Global Impression—Schizophrenia scale), SWN-S (Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics—scale), and WHOQOL (WHO Quality of Life). Rates of clinical remission and recovery according to different criteria were calculated by gender. Higher rates of clinical remission and recovery were generally observed in females than males, a result consistent with literature data. Overall findings from the paper support the hypothesis of a better outcome of the disorders in women, even in the very long term. PMID:22966440

  5. Burden of Care on Caregivers of Schizophrenia Patients: A Correlation to Personality and Coping

    PubMed Central

    Geriani, Disha; Savithry, Kochukarottil Satish Babu; Shivakumar, Seemanthini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder where the caregivers are likely to face increasing levels of burden and stress. The present study aims to explore the relation between burden of care on the caregivers of schizophrenic patients with various psychological parameters including their coping strategies, personality type, overall quality of life and socio-demographic details. Materials and Methods: The participants included in the study (n=110) were administered a socio-demographic data sheet and questionnaires to assess their personality type, burden, quality of life, and coping mechanisms of having a schizophrenic in the family. These questionnaires were administered in individual setting. Their informed consent was taken prior to the administration of tools and their privacy was taken care of. The data obtained was analysed statistically. Results: Most of the caregivers were females. The caregivers were observed to have moderate and high levels of burden. Burden on the caregivers showed a significant correlation with psychoticism and their overall quality of life. A significant correlation was seen between the levels of coping and extrovert type of personality, and also with the environmental health of the caregivers. Caregivers belonging to nuclear families coped better than those of joint families. Conclusion: The study concludes that certain personality traits like psychoticism and certain social traits such as living in joint families can increase the risk of caregiver burden in looking after family members suffering from schizophrenia. A need for psychological assistance for the vulnerable caregivers to help them reduce the burden levels and employ positive coping strategies has, therefore, been emphasized in our study. PMID:25954685

  6. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.; Preus, Alexander P.; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2009-01-01

    We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called “default network”, a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

  7. [Stabilisation of post-acute stage schizophrenics: from the hospital to the city].

    PubMed

    Dammak, A; Stiti, M; Vacheron, M N

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating disease that usually begins in young adulthood, at a time when a person would usually make the transition to independent living, but it can occur at any age. The symptoms and behaviour associated with psychosis and schizophrenia have a distressing impact on the individual, and the family. The course of schizophrenia varies considerably. Although most patients will recover, some will have persisting difficulties or remain vulnerable to future episodes. Therefore, stabilisation of patients in acute phases and avoidance of relapse are major objectives of management throughout the course of this disease. The purpose of this article is to clarify the stabilisation, to study the contributing factors and strategies to implement to achieve stability, through a literature review and key guidelines. Thus, the patient is stabilised when productive symptoms and behavioural problems have decreased. So, the stable phase represents a prolonged period of treatment and rehabilitation during which symptoms are under adequate control and the focus is on improving functioning and recovery. Important predictive criteria of stabilisation include: positive symptoms, the number of previous relapses, cooperation with the patient and family, good adherence to treatment and the use of long acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics. After an acute relapse, the careful organization of the discharge and the development of a proposed ambulatory care in tailored care structures will help consolidate stabilisation and obtain remission. Accepting the idea of continuing treatment is a complex decision in which the psychiatrist plays a central role beside patients and their families. The course of integrated actions on modifiable risk factors such as psychosocial support, addictive comorbidities, identification of prodromes, active information for the therapeutic education of patients and families and access to care will also be supported. This would improve

  8. Relationship Between Metabolic Syndrome and Clinical Features, and Its Personal-Social Performance in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Saatcioglu, Omer; Kalkan, Murat; Fistikci, Nurhan; Erek, Sakire; Kilic, Kasim Candas

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria and also to investigate the effects of MS on medical treatment, clinical course and personal and social performance in patients with schizophrenia. One hundred-sixteen patients with schizophrenia were included in the study. Measurements of MS were calculated in all patients. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) were applied. The frequency of MS according to IDF criteria was 42.2 % among the patients. There was no significant difference between patients with and without MS in terms of age. The ratios of MS were 62.5 % for the group taking typical and atypical antipsychotics together and 35.7 % for the group taking two or more atypical antipsychotics together. The duration of disorder in patients with MS was higher than those without MS. Furthermore there was no significant difference between the schizophrenic patients with and without MS, in terms of PSP scores. Our findings showed that the duration of illness, high scores of BMI, use of clozapine or concurrent use of typical and atypical antipsychotics, depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were significant risk factors for the development of MS. PMID:26174109

  9. Correlation between clinical syndromes and neuropsychological tasks in unmedicated patients with recent onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Daban, Claire; Amado, Isabelle; Baylé, Franck; Gut, Anne; Willard, Dominique; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Loo, Henri; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Millet, Bruno; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Poirier, Marie-France

    2002-12-15

    The aim of this study is to circumscribe the cognitive deficits according to schizophrenic syndromes in a population of sub-acute untreated patients. We have studied the cross-sectional correlation between cognitive deficits and schizophrenic symptoms, in a group of 24 untreated patients (including 17 neuroleptic-naive patients) with recent onset of the disease. A task of alertness, a working memory (WM) test (including two levels of difficulty) and an abbreviated version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were selected. WM deficits and poor performance on the WCST were highly correlated with disorganized symptoms, modestly with the positive syndrome and not with the negative syndrome. Thus, disorganized symptoms, more than any other, appear to be related to the impairment of executive function and WM in recent onset unmedicated patients with schizophrenia. PMID:12467948

  10. [Works of a schizophrenic composer based on a 13-year catamnestic examination].

    PubMed

    Pethö, B

    1980-01-01

    In the period of acute psychosis the musical compositions were characterized by 'hiatus discursivitatis' and a partial absoluteness, whereas the works of the chronic period are characterized by a sterile, dreary style. The patient's musical compositions and the stagnation they express correspond to his deficient way of living, i.e. his open limitation. The examination of the compositions enriches the psychopathology of creativity with a new dimension: the quality of time inherent in musical works provides a deeper in sight into the creative existence of the patient than the products of visual arts often examined. PMID:7261586

  11. [Specific features and problems in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic psychoses in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M

    2002-10-01

    The present article reviews the specific problems of the off-label use of atypical and typical neuroleptics in the treatment of adolescent patients with schizophrenia. There is a considerable gap in the empirical knowledge of treatment efficacy and long term safety in adult populations as compared to children and adolescents. This means that in most in-patients with early onset schizophrenia some sort of typical or atypical neuroleptic drug is currently used beyond license. From a legal point of view there is no protection for treated children or adolescents and their parents as the manufacturer of these pharmaceutical products does not assume liability for off-label use. Whether the doctor can be held liable in these cases, depends on the quality of the information he provides to his patients and the patients' consent. Legal changes such as the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) and Pediatric Rule in the USA have brought forward more research to the benefit of children and adolescents. In 2002 a trend has been noticed in both the European and the German Parliament to improve the general conditions for using drugs that are well-established in adult medicine for the treatment of children. PMID:12474310

  12. Impact of an Educational Support Group on Family Participants Who Take Care of Their Schizophrenic Relatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Ira A.; Coursey, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Compared participants (N=24) in six-session educational support group offering family caregivers information about schizophrenia, training in problem-solving skills for managing patient behavior, and greater access to social support and community resources with matched controls (N=24). Participant caregivers reported significantly reduced anxiety…

  13. Thirty Days without a Bite: Wernicke’s Encephalopathy in a Patient with Paranoid Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Mélanie; Doré, Marie-Claire; Laforce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Wernicke’s Encephalopathy (WE) is a preventable neurologic condition characterized by altered mental status, ophthalmoplegia, and ataxia. Although historically associated with alcoholism, a few authors have described WE in patients with non-alcohol related psychiatric disorders. We report herein the case of a 36-year-old young man with paranoid schizophrenia who was brought to hospital for confusion and difficulties with his vision. His roommate said he had gone about thirty days without eating ‘…because he was on a slimming cure’. History and physical examination suggested WE as a result of isolation and poor diet leading to nutritional deficiency. This was confirmed by brain magnetic resonance imaging showing classic thalamic, mammillary bodies and brainstem lesions. Of note, his cognitive profile was far more heterogeneous than what had classically been described in the literature and involved both cortical and subcortical pathology, generating memory but also significant executive deficits. Intravenous treatment with thiamine was given and our patient showed mild improvements in visual acuity and nystagmus. However, persistent cognitive and physical disabilities consistent with Korsakoff syndrome remained, and he now lives in a supervised home. This case illustrates the tragic consequences of nutritional deficiencies in a patient with paranoid schizophrenia. The threshold to suspect WE in schizophrenic patients should be lowered and in doubt prophylactic parenteral thiamine should be administered. PMID:27088109

  14. Attentional modulation of external speech attribution in patients with hallucinations and delusions.

    PubMed

    Ilankovic, Lana Marija; Allen, Paul P; Engel, Rolf; Kambeitz, Joseph; Riedel, Michael; Müller, Norbert; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2011-04-01

    A range of psychological theories have been proposed to account for the experience of auditory hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenic patients. Most influential theories are those implicating the defective self-monitoring of inner speech. Some recent studies measured response bias independently of self-monitoring and found the results inconsistent with the defective self-monitoring model, but explained by an externalizing response bias. We aimed to investigate the role of attentional bias in external misattribution of source by modulating participant's endogenous expectancies. Comparisons were made between patients with paranoid schizophrenia (N=23) and matched healthy controls (N=23) who participated in two different versions of an audio-visual task, which differed based upon level of the cue predictiveness. The acoustic characteristic of voice was altered in half of the trials by shifting the pitch (distortion). Participants passively listened to recordings of single adjectives spoken in their own and another person's voice (alien) preceded by their own or another person's (alien) face and made self/non self judgments about the source. The patients showed increased error rates comparing to controls, when listening to the distorted self spoken words, misidentifying their own speech as produced by others. Importantly, patients made significantly more errors across all the invalid cue conditions. This suggests not only the presence of pathological misattribution bias, but also an inadequate balance between top-down and bottom-up attentional processes in the patients, which could be responsible for misattribution of the ambiguous sensory material. PMID:21241719

  15. [Persistence of negative symptoms in the early phase of schizophrenic psychosis].

    PubMed

    Anczewska, M

    1996-01-01

    103 patients were for the first time admitted to the psychiatric hospital (Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw) between 1976-1983 and received a research diagnosis of schizophrenia (in accordance with the ICD-9 criteria). The course and clinical pattern of the illness were analyzed at a follow-up in 65 patients--re-hospitalized in the 5th year from their first admission. As regards the clinical pattern analysis, it was focused mostly on negative symptoms occurrence, as assessed using the Andreasen Scales (SANS). The data obtained from the case reports were statistically tested and the results were presented in the tables according to the research questions. The stability of the negative symptoms in the early stage of the schizophrenia psychosis was examined. The author confirms that presence of negative symptoms (alogia, apathy and anhedonia) at first hospitalization has been associated with the symptoms recurrence during rehospitalization at the five-year follow-up. PMID:8848505

  16. Metastatic breast cancer in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    MEYER, AARON A.; HWANG, M.; FARASATPOUR, M.; JANARDHAN, R.; MARGENTHALER, J.A.; VIRGO, K.S.; JOHNSON, FRANK E.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The median survival duration for patients with metastatic breast cancer is two to three years. Approximately 1% of populations worldwide have schizophrenia. The manner in which schizophrenic patients fare when diagnosed with metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) was evaluated. We queried the National Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) datasets using computer codes for a pre-existing diagnosis of schizophrenia and a later diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Chart-based data concerning the identified subjects were then requested. Previously determined inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select evaluable patients from the medical records, prior to extracting demographic details and data concerning the treatment course in each subject. Ten patients had distant metastases at initial diagnosis, while seven developed MBC following prior curative-intent treatment. Two patients refused therapy. Ten did not comply with recommended management. Five harmed or threatened physicians, other caregivers or themselves. Schizophrenic patients with MBC often fail to understand the nature of their illnesses. Often they do not accept palliative treatment, while a number of them do not comply with therapy, once initiated. They often exhibit behaviors that are detrimental to themselves or others. Formal psychiatric consultation is therefore necessary in patients. Several detrimental behaviors may be predicted reliably by history alone. PMID:24649175

  17. The Expression of the Suicide-Associated Gene SKA2 Is Decreased in the Prefrontal Cortex of Suicide Victims but Not of Nonsuicidal Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Zhang, Hui; Bhaumik, Runa; Ren, Xinguo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent study of genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in the postmortem brain of suicidal and nonsuicidal subjects found that gene expression of spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 2 (SKA2) is decreased in the postmortem brain of suicide victims compared with nonsuicidal, nonpsychiatric control subjects. Methods: To determine if decreased SKA2 is specific to suicide and independent of diagnosis, we determined gene and protein expression of SKA2 in the prefrontal cortex obtained from suicide victims (n= 52), nonsuicidal psychiatric subjects (n= 27), and normal controls (n= 24). We determined gene expression by quantitative PCR technique and protein expression by Western blot. The postmortem brain samples were obtained from the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. Results: We found that protein and gene expression of SKA2 was significantly reduced in the prefrontal cortex of suicide victims compared with normal control subjects and nonsuicidal patients. We also found that SKA2 protein and gene expression in depressed suicide victims, schizophrenic suicide victims, and suicide victims with substance abuse and/or conduct disorders was significantly decreased compared with normal control subjects and also with nonsuicidal depressed or schizophrenic subjects. Conclusions: This study shows that decreased gene and protein expression of SKA2 observed in the prefrontal cortex of suicide victims is specific to suicide, which was not observed in the brain of nonsuicidal patients. It also indicates reduced SKA2 expression in suicide is independent of psychiatric diagnosis, since it is observed in all diagnostic groups studied. Therefore, SKA2 may be a potential biomarker for suicide. PMID:26902949

  18. Elevated risks for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and blood disorders in Ashkenazi schizophrenic pedigrees suggest new candidate genes in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, A.B.

    1994-09-15

    Among relatives of Ashkenazi schizophrenic probands the rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 3/1,000, compared to expected population rates of approximately 2/100,000. Relative risk of bleeding disorders, including hematologic cancers, was increased more than three-fold compared to controls. Co-occurrence of motor neuron disease and blood dyscrasias, accompanied by psychosis, has long been recognized. A virally-mediated autoimmune pathogenesis has been proposed. However, the familial co-occurrence of these three disease entities raises the possibility that the disease constellation be considered as a manifestation of a common underlying genetic defect. Such expansion of the spectrum of affectation might enhance the power of both candidate gene and linkage studies. Based on these findings, the loci suggested as candidate regions in schizophrenia include a potential hot spot on chromosome 21q21-q22, involving the superoxide dismutase and amyloid precursor protein genes. Alternatively, genes on other chromosomes involved in the expression, transcription, or regulation of these genes, or associated with the illnesses of high frequency in these pedigrees are suggested. Candidates include the choroid plexus transport protein, transthyretin at 18q11.2-q12.1; the t(14;18)(q22;21) characterizing B-cell lymphoma-2, the most common form of hematologic cancer; and the 14q24 locus of early onset Alzheimer`s disease, c-Fos, transforming growth factor beta 3, and heat shock protein A2. Expression of hematologic cancers and the suggested candidate genes are known to involve retinoid pathways, and retinoid disregulation has been proposed as a cause of schizophrenia. 67 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Alterations of Functional and Structural Networks in Schizophrenia Patients with Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiajia; Wang, Chunli; Liu, Feng; Qin, Wen; Li, Jie; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2016-01-01

    Background: There have been many attempts at explaining the underlying neuropathological mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia on the basis of regional brain changes, with the most consistent findings being that AVH are associated with functional and structural impairments in auditory and speech-related regions. However, the human brain is a complex network and the global topological alterations specific to AVH in schizophrenia remain unclear. Methods: Thirty-five schizophrenia patients with AVH, 41 patients without AVH, and 50 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The whole-brain functional and structural networks were constructed and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. Inter-group differences in global network metrics (including small-world properties and network efficiency) were investigated. Results: We found that three groups had a typical small-world topology in both functional and structural networks. More importantly, schizophrenia patients with and without AVH exhibited common disruptions of functional networks, characterized by decreased clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency, and increased characteristic path length; structural networks of only schizophrenia patients with AVH showed increased characteristic path length compared with those of healthy controls. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that less “small-worldization” and lower network efficiency of functional networks may be an independent trait characteristic of schizophrenia, and regularization of structural networks may be the underlying pathological process engaged in schizophrenic AVH symptom expression. PMID:27014042

  20. No association of dopamine D2 receptor molecular variant Cys311 and schizophrenia in Chinese patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chia-Hsiang Chen; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Hai-Gwo Hwu

    1996-07-26

    A serine-to-cysteine mutation of dopamine D2 receptor at codon 311 (Cys311) was found to have higher frequency in schizophrenic patients than in normal controls in Japanese by Arinami et al. The Cys311 allele was found to be associated with patients with younger age-of-onset, positive family history, and more positive symptoms. To investigate the possible involvement of Cys311 in schizophrenia in the Chinese population, 114 unrelated Taiwanese Chinese schizophrenic patients with positive family history and 88 normal controls were genotyped for Cys311. Four patients and 5 normal controls were heterozygotes of Ser311/Cys311; no homozygotes of Cys311 were identified in either group. The allele frequencies of Cys311 in Chinese schizophrenic patients and normal controls were 2% and 3%, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the two groups. Our results do not support the argument that the Cys311 allele of DRD2 poses a genetic risk for certain types of schizophrenia in Chinese populations. 18 refs.

  1. Hippocampal temporal-parietal junction interaction in the production of psychotic symptoms: a framework for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.

    2012-01-01

    A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs, and cognitive deficits). Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly correlated with activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. Many positive symptoms of schizophrenia can be reframed as the erroneous sense of a presence or other who is observing, acting, speaking, or controlling; these qualia are similar to those evoked during abnormal activation of the TPJ. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production) of dynamic social, emotional, and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech and prosody, and social attentional gestures such as eye gaze). The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile), matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others). Stimulation of the TPJ resulting in activation of the self representation has been shown to result a feeling of a presence or multiple presences (due to heautoscopy) and also bizarre tactile experiences. Neurons in the TPJ are also tuned, or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech), a person

  2. “Moving Along” in Psychotherapy With Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Alice

    2000-01-01

    Current treatment of the schizophrenic patient relies primarily on psychopharmacological management, psychoeducation, and family work. If individual psychotherapy is an adjunct, it is generally supportive. Recent focus on determinants of change in classical psychoanalysis suggests that noninterpretive mechanisms may have an impact at least equivalent to that of the well-timed transference interpretation. The author argues that the same noninterpretive mechanisms may be even more important for change in patients in a supportive process. A case study is used to illustrate that such an application of psychoanalytic principles and developmental research can be used to help even the most disturbed patients. PMID:10896741

  3. Patients' accounts of stress and coping in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, A B

    1989-11-01

    Many current approaches to the management of schizophrenia emphasize the influence of environmental stress on the course of the illness. Relatively neglected is the internal experience of schizophrenic patients as a source of stress and anxiety. The author draws on a wide range of first-person accounts by patients with schizophrenia to identify four internal sources of stress--altered perceptions, cognitive confusion, attentional deficit, and impaired identity--and to reveal the wisdom and creativity with which patients have come to terms with their illness. PMID:2680881

  4. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS 499-501, MUNOZ HOUSE (AZ-73-37) ON FAR RIGHT - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  5. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  6. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows similar response in patients with inflammatory or locally advanced breast cancer when compared with operable breast cancer: a secondary analysis of the GeparTrio trial data.

    PubMed

    Costa, Serban Dan; Loibl, Sibylle; Kaufmann, Manfred; Zahm, Dirk-Michael; Hilfrich, Jörn; Huober, Jens; Eidtmann, Holger; du Bois, Andreas; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Ataseven, Beyhan; Weiss, Erich; Tesch, Hans; Gerber, Bernd; Baumann, Klaus H; Thomssen, Christoph; Breitbach, Georg Peter; Ibishi, Shaip; Jackisch, Christian; Mehta, Keyur; von Minckwitz, Gunter

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by mastectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) or locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), but it is considered less effective in these diseases than in operable breast cancer (OBC). We report a prospective comparison of the GeparTrio trial of patients with IBC (cT4 days) or LABC (cT4a-c or cN3; stage IIIB or IIIC) and patients with OBC (cT2-3). PATIENTS AND METHODS Participants were stratified by stage and were randomly assigned to six or eight cycles of docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (TAC) or to two cycles of TAC followed by four cycles of vinorelbine/capecitabine. We present results of a secondary aim of the study, which was to compare pathologic complete response (pCR; ie, no remaining invasive/noninvasive tumor in breast and lymph nodes) in different stage groups. Results A total of 287 patients with IBC (n = 93) or LABC (n = 194) and 1,777 patients with OBC were entered onto the trial. At baseline, parameters were as follows for the three types of cancer, respectively: median tumor sizes: 8.0 cm, 7.0 cm, and 4.0 cm (P < .001); multiple lesions: 31.2%, 27.3%, and 19.6% (P < .001); nodal involvement: 86.6%, 71.2%, and 51.6% (P < .001); grade 3: 44.4%, 30.4%, and 39.9% (P = .178); lobular-invasive type: 7.5%, 17.5%, and 13.3% (P = .673); negative hormone receptor status: 38.0%, 20.0%, and 36.4% (P = .008); and positive human growth factor receptor 2 status: 45.1%, 38.9%, and 35.7% (P = .158). Response rates for IBC, LABC, and OBC, respectively, were 8.6%, 11.3%, and 17.7% for pCR (P = .002); 71.0%, 69.6%, and 83.4% for overall response by physical or sonographic examination (P < .001); and 12.9%, 33.0%, and 69.9% for breast conservation (P < .001). All P values were for IBC and LABC versus OBC. However, tumor stage itself was not an independent predictor for pCR in multivariable analysis (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.88 to 2.59; P = .13). CONCLUSION No evidence of a

  7. Deep Sequencing of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Baseline Drug Resistance Showed No Indications for Hidden Resistance and Is Biased by Strong Interference of Hypermutation.

    PubMed

    Dauwe, Kenny; Staelens, Delfien; Vancoillie, Leen; Mortier, Virginie; Verhofstede, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Deep sequencing of plasma RNA or proviral DNA may be an interesting alternative to population sequencing for the detection of baseline transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance. Using a Roche 454 GS Junior HIV-1 prototype kit, we performed deep sequencing of the HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase genes on paired plasma and buffy coat samples from newly diagnosed HIV-1-positive individuals. Selection was based on the outcome of population sequencing and included 12 patients with either a revertant amino acid at codon 215 of the reverse transcriptase or a singleton resistance mutation, 4 patients with multiple resistance mutations, and 4 patients with wild-type virus. Deep sequencing of RNA and DNA detected 6 and 43 mutations, respectively, that were not identified by population sequencing. A subsequently performed hypermutation analysis, however, revealed hypermutation in 61.19% of 3,188 DNA reads with a resistance mutation. The removal of hypermutated reads dropped the number of additional mutations in DNA from 43 to 17. No hypermutation evidence was found in the RNA reads. Five of the 6 additional RNA mutations and all additional DNA mutations, after full exclusion of hypermutation bias, were observed in the 3 individuals with multiple resistance mutations detected by population sequencing. Despite focused selection of patients with T215 revertants or singleton mutations, deep sequencing failed to identify the resistant T215Y/F or M184V or any other resistance mutation, indicating that in most of these cases there is no hidden resistance and that the virus detected at diagnosis by population sequencing is the original infecting variant. PMID:27076656

  8. A patient showing features of both SBBYSS and GPS supports the concept of a KAT6B-related disease spectrum, with mutations in mid-exon 18 possibly leading to combined phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Vlckova, Marketa; Simandlova, Martina; Zimmermann, Pavel; Stranecky, Viktor; Hartmannova, Hana; Hodanova, Katerina; Havlovicova, Marketa; Hancarova, Miroslava; Kmoch, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Zdenek

    2015-10-01

    Genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome (SBBYSS) are two distinct clinically overlapping syndromes caused by de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in the KAT6B gene encoding lysine acetyltransferase 6B, a part of the histone H3 acetyltransferase complex. We describe an 8-year-old girl with a KAT6B mutation and a combined GPS/SBBYSS phenotype. The comparison of this patient with 61 previously published cases with KAT6B mutations and GPS, SBBYSS or combined GPS/SBBYSS phenotypes allowed us to separate the KAT6B mutations into four groups according to their position in the gene (reflecting nonsense mediated RNA decay and protein domains) and their clinical outcome. We suggest that mutations in mid-exon 18 corresponding to the C-terminal end of the acidic (Asp/Glu-rich) domain of KAT6B may have more variable expressivity leading to GPS, SBBYSS or combined phenotypes, in contrast to defects in other regions of the gene which contribute more specifically to either GPS or SBBYSS. Notwithstanding the clinical overlap, our cluster analysis of phenotypes of all known patients with KAT6B mutations supports the existence of two clinical entities, GPS and SBBYSS, as poles within the KAT6B-related disease spectrum. The awareness of these phenomena is important for qualified genetic counselling of patients with KAT6B mutations. PMID:26370006

  9. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    SciTech Connect

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N.; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-11-15

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 {mu}g/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High DDTs' levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patients' exposure to chemicals might have played

  10. A Combined Analysis of 48 Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Risk Variants Shows No Discriminative Value to Predict Time to First Prescription of a Glucose Lowering Drug in Danish Patients with Screen Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hornbak, Malene; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Jensen, Majken Linnemann; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Witte, Daniel; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Sandbæk, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Andersson, Åsa; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the genetic influence of 48 type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants on disease progression measured as risk of early prescription redemption of glucose lowering drugs in screen-detected patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We studied type 2 diabetes progression in 1,480 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-Denmark study using information of redeemed prescriptions from the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics from 2001–2009 in Denmark. Patients were cluster randomized by general practitioners, who were randomized to treat type 2 diabetes according to either a conventional or a multifactorial intensive treatment algorithm. We investigated the genetic influence on diabetes progression by constructing a genetic risk score (GRS) of all 48 validated type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants, a GRS of 11 variants linked to β-cell function and a GRS of 3 variants linked to insulin sensitivity and assessed the association between number of risk alleles and time from diagnosis until first redeemed prescription of either any glucose lowering drug or an insulin drug. Results The GRS linked to insulin sensitivity only nominally increased the risk of an early prescription redemption with an insulin drug by 39% (HR [95% C.I.] = 1.39 [1.09–1.77], p = 0.009] in patients randomized to the intensive treatment group. Furthermore, the strongest univariate predictors of diabetes progression for the intensive treatment group (measured as time to first insulin) were younger age (HR [95% C.I.] = 0.96 [0.93–0.99]), increased BMI (1.05 [1.01–1.09]), increased HbA1c (1.50 [1.36–.66]), increased TG (1.24 [1.11–1.39]) and reduced fasting serum HDL (0.37 [0.17–0.80]) at baseline. Similar results were obtained for the conventional treatment group. Conclusion Higher levels of HbA1c, fasting circulating levels of triglyceride, lower HDL, larger BMI and younger age are significant determinants of early

  11. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  13. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood.

    PubMed

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2011-11-01

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD+opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 μg/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. PMID:21851830

  14. Most blood biomarkers related to vitamin status, one-carbon metabolism, and the kynurenine pathway show adequate preanalytical stability and within-person reproducibility to allow assessment of exposure or nutritional status in healthy women and cardiovascular patients.

    PubMed

    Midttun, Oivind; Townsend, Mary K; Nygård, Ottar; Tworoger, Shelley S; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Ueland, Per Magne

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of stability during sample transportation and changes in biomarker concentrations within person over time are paramount for proper design and interpretation of epidemiologic studies based on a single measurement of biomarker status. Therefore, we investigated stability and intraindividual vs. interindividual variation in blood concentrations of biomarkers related to vitamin status, one-carbon metabolism, and the kynurenine pathway. Whole blood (EDTA and heparin, n = 12) was stored with an icepack for 24 or 48 h, and plasma concentrations of 38 biomarkers were determined. Stability was calculated as change per hour, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and simple Spearman correlation. Within-person reproducibility of biomarkers was expressed as ICC in samples collected 1-2 y apart from 40 postmenopausal women and in samples collected up to 3 y apart from 551 patients with stable angina pectoris. Biomarker stability was similar in EDTA and heparin blood. Most biomarkers were essentially stable, except for choline and total homocysteine (tHcy), which increased markedly. Within-person reproducibility in postmenopausal women was excellent (ICC > 0.75) for cotinine, all-trans retinol, cobalamin, riboflavin, α-tocopherol, Gly, pyridoxal, methylmalonic acid, creatinine, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and Ser; was good to fair (ICC of 0.74-0.40) for pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, tHcy, cholecalciferol, flavin mononucleotide, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, sarcosine, anthranilic acid, cystathionine, homoarginine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, betaine, Arg, folate, total cysteine, dimethylglycine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, neopterin, symmetric dimethylarginine, and Trp; and poor (ICC of 0.39-0.15) for methionine sulfoxide, Met, choline, and trimethyllysine. Similar reproducibilities were observed in patients with coronary heart disease. Thus, most biomarkers investigated were essentially stable in cooled whole blood for up to 48 h and had a

  15. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  16. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  17. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  18. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  19. Multivariate Analysis of Relationship between Childhood Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chae, Sungun; Sim, Minyoung; Lim, Mijeong; Na, Joonho; Kim, Daeho

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients after controlling for the possible confounding factors, such as depression and dissociative symptoms. Ninety-eight schizophrenic inpatients participated. Childhood trauma was examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaires (CTQ), which consists of physical abuse (PA), sexual abuse (SA), emotional abuse (EA), physical neglect (PN), and emotional neglect (EN). Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered. Data were analyzed by partial correlation and general linear model. The total score of CTQ was positively correlated with positive, general, and total scores of PANSS. All five types of childhood trauma were associated with dissociative symptoms. EA and EN were positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Only SA significantly predicted positive symptoms of schizophrenia after controlling for age, sex, BDI, and DES scores, with a dose-response relationship between SA and positive symptoms. PMID:26207135

  20. Multivariate Analysis of Relationship between Childhood Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Sungun; Lim, Mijeong; Na, Joonho; Kim, Daeho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients after controlling for the possible confounding factors, such as depression and dissociative symptoms. Ninety-eight schizophrenic inpatients participated. Childhood trauma was examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaires (CTQ), which consists of physical abuse (PA), sexual abuse (SA), emotional abuse (EA), physical neglect (PN), and emotional neglect (EN). Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered. Data were analyzed by partial correlation and general linear model. The total score of CTQ was positively correlated with positive, general, and total scores of PANSS. All five types of childhood trauma were associated with dissociative symptoms. EA and EN were positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Only SA significantly predicted positive symptoms of schizophrenia after controlling for age, sex, BDI, and DES scores, with a dose-response relationship between SA and positive symptoms. PMID:26207135

  1. Sleep disturbances in patients with schizophrenia : impact and effect of antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Cohrs, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep are frequently encountered in patients with schizophrenia. Disturbed sleep can be found in 30-80% of schizophrenic patients, depending on the degree of psychotic symptomatology. Measured by polysomnography, reduced sleep efficiency and total sleep time, as well as increased sleep latency, are found in most patients with schizophrenia and appear to be an important part of the pathophysiology of this disorder. Some studies also reported alterations of stage 2 sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep variables, i.e. reduced REM latency and REM density. A number of sleep parameters, such as the amount of SWS and the REM latency, are significantly correlated to clinical variables, including severity of illness, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, outcome, neurocognitive impairment and brain structure.Concerning specific sleep disorders, there is some evidence that schizophrenic patients carry a higher risk of experiencing a sleep-related breathing disorder, especially those demonstrating the known risk factors, including being overweight but also long-term use of antipsychotics. However, it is still unclear whether periodic leg movements in sleep or restless legs syndrome (RLS) are found with a higher or lower prevalence in schizophrenic patients than in healthy controls.There are no consistent effects of first-generation antipsychotics on measures of sleep continuity and sleep structure, including the percentage of sleep stages or sleep and REM latency in healthy controls. In contrast to first-generation antipsychotics, the studied atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone and paliperidone) demonstrate a relatively consistent effect on measures of sleep continuity, with an increase in either total sleep time (TST) or sleep efficiency, and individually varying effects on other sleep parameters, such as an increase in REM latency observed for olanzapine

  2. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  3. Creating Slide Show Book Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harriet G.; Stuhlmann, Janice M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of "Kid Pix 2" software by fourth grade students to develop slide-show book reports. Highlights include collaboration with education majors from Louisiana State University, changes in attitudes of the education major students and elementary students, and problems with navigation and disk space. (LRW)

  4. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  5. Depression, Schizophrenia, and Social Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Philip C.; Murray, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    Compared the dysphoric mood induction and attraction that subjects reported after a vicarious experience with a depressed patient and a comparable experience with a schizophrenic patient. Results showed similar arousal of dysphoric mood and rejection for both patients. (RC)

  6. Analysis of Latvian familial melanoma patients shows novel variants in the noncoding regions of CDKN2A and that the CDK4 mutation R24H is a founder mutation.

    PubMed

    Veinalde, Rūta; Ozola, Aija; Azarjana, Kristīne; Molven, Anders; Akslen, Lars A; Doniņa, Simona; Proboka, Guna; Cēma, Ingrīda; Baginskis, Ainārs; Pjanova, Dace

    2013-06-01

    Hereditary cutaneous melanoma is associated with mutations in the high-risk CDKN2A gene in about 40% of melanoma-prone families. Mutations in the CDK4 gene are the cause in only a few pedigrees. In this study, we analyzed 20 Latvian familial melanoma probands and carried out a comprehensive analysis of CDKN2A including sequencing of its promoter/intronic regions and deletion screening. We also analyzed the critical second exon of the CDK4 gene. One novel intronic variant (IVS2+82C>T) of the CDKN2A gene and a small deletion (c.-20677_-20682delGTACGC) in its promoter region were found. Genotyping of the novel variants in larger melanoma and control groups indicated that the deletion increases the risk of melanoma (odds ratio=6.353, 95% confidence interval: 1.34-30.22, P=0.0168). The CDK4 gene analysis showed a Latvian melanoma family with the mutation R24H carried on the same haplotype as in two previously described Latvian CDK4-positive families. Our study suggests that the main risk gene in Latvian families with a strong family history of melanoma is CDK4 and that most of the other cases analyzed could be sporadic or associated with low-penetrance risk genes. PMID:23546221

  7. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  8. [Concomitant impact of organic pathology on the development of cognitive impairment in patients with attack-like paranoid schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Libin, L Ia; Tagil'tseva, A V; Lifanova, D E; Ganzenko, M A; Gritsevskaia, T M; Ivanov, M B

    2014-01-01

    The study included 47 patients (23 men, 24 women) with ICD-10 diagnosis of attack-like paranoid schizophrenia. Patients were divided into two groups: with- (25 patients) or without (22 patients) a concomitant organic disease. Memory, attention and thinking were assessed with psychometric tests. Inter- and intra-group differences were identified that indicated a considerable impact of a concomitant CNS organic pathology on the development of cognitive impairment in the schizophrenic process and active antipsychotic therapy. The data obtained can be used in the development of a differentiated approach to the treatment of patients with concomitant organic pathology. PMID:24988961

  9. Clinical usefulness of second-generation antipsychotics in treating children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar or schizophrenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Salvatore

    2011-10-01

    The onset of severe, chronic or recurrent psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia-spectrum and bipolar disorders, is a dramatic clinical event often detectable during adolescence and even in childhood. At any age, pharmacotherapy, along with enhancement of social skills and family support, is the mainstay for the management of such disorders. The aim of this review is to critically analyze findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated the clinical utility of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorders. Eighteen studies were considered, all of which were unfortunately impaired by methodologic limitations, such as the paucity of long-term data and lack of a three-arm comparison (SGA vs SGA vs placebo). Nevertheless, the results of this review allow us to suggest the effectiveness of three SGAs (aripiprazole, olanzapine, and risperidone) in the short-term treatment of both early-onset schizophrenia and bipolar mania, although such agents show different safety profiles. The use of clozapine should be strictly limited to patients with non-affective, psychotic symptoms who do not respond to any of these three SGAs. In contrast, the use of quetiapine and ziprasidone in young patients with either affective or non-affective psychosis is not yet supported by evidence-based information. Given our findings, further studies are urgently required to identify the best treatment option(s) for pediatric bipolar disorder (especially the depressive phase) and the long-term management of early-onset schizophrenia. PMID:21888443

  10. ENVITEC shows off air technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.

  11. Pretty patient - healthy patient? A study of physical attractiveness and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Martin, P J; Friedmeyer, M H; Moore, J E

    1977-10-01

    Recent research has shown that physically attractive persons are viewed by others, and by themselves, as "better" in many ways than less attractive persons. The trend in research findings is pervasive, and a stereotype has been proposed: "what is beautiful is good." This study explored the relationship between physical attractiveness and emotional adjustment of hospitalized schizophrenic patients. It was hypothesized (1) that judges would consider attractive patients better adjusted than unattractive patients; and (2) that attractive patients would appear healthier or better adjusted than unattractive patients on standard diagnostic measures. The results of multivariate analyses supported the first hypothesis, but consistently failed to support the second. Limitations of the present findings and of the "beautiful is good" stereotype are discussed. PMID:21893

  12. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  13. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  14. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  15. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  16. Self-Mutilation of Tongue and Lip in a Patient with Simple Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Munerato, Maria Cristina; Moure, Sabrina Pozatti; Machado, Vivian; Gomes, Fernando Grilo

    2011-01-01

    Self-inflicted lesions that cause mutilation are observed in schizophrenic patients. This case report describes the diagnosis and treatment of simple schizophrenia in a 31-year-old male patient who bit his own tongue and lower lip. The dental treatment proposed included the construction of a splint to prevent new lesions and to allow healing of existing ones. The treatment afforded to avoid tooth extraction before the patient responded to psychiatric drug treatment. The importance of a transdisciplinary approach to self-mutilation due to psychiatric disorders is stressed. The interaction between the two teams, stomatology and psychiatry, was crucial for the improvement of the patient’s condition. PMID:20852088

  17. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  18. [Subjective feeling of patient on his illness and his treatment].

    PubMed

    Llorca, P-M

    2013-09-01

    Subjective feeling of schizophrenic patients has been underestimated in the study of this illness. Subjective experience associated with the onset of the disease is of interest in a clinical point of view but also in the study of the underlying mechanisms. The fields of cognitive psychology, but also neuroscientific inputs, provide new paradigms to understand schizophrenia. In a more global perspective, subjective experience has an important impact on quality of life and is highly related to symptomatology and treatments. Identification of these subjective dimensions is needed to develop more efficacious strategies. PMID:24084429

  19. Morphological changes in gray matter volume correlate with catechol-O-methyl transferase gene Val158Met polymorphism in first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Li; Xiang, Bo; Li, Yin-Fei; Hu, Xun; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Wan-Jun; Lei, Wei; Huang, Chao-Hua; Zhao, Lian-Sheng; Li, Na; Ren, Hong-Yan; Wang, Hui-Yao; Ma, Xiao-Hong; Deng, Wei; Li, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is a schizophrenia susceptibility gene. A common functional polymorphism of this gene, Val158/158Met, has been proposed to influence gray matter volume (GMV). However, the effects of this polymorphism on cortical thickness/surface area in schizophrenic patients are less clear. In this study, we explored the relationship between the Val158Met polymorphism of the COMT gene and the GMV/cortical thickness/cortical surface area in 150 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 100 healthy controls. Main effects of diagnosis were found for GMV in the cerebellum and the visual, medial temporal, parietal, and middle frontal cortex. Patients with schizophrenia showed reduced GMVs in these regions. And main effects of genotype were detected for GMV in the left superior frontal gyrus. Moreover, a diagnosis × genotype interaction was found for the GMV of the left precuneus, and the effect of the COMT gene on GMV was due mainly to cortical thickness rather than cortical surface area. In addition, a pattern of increased GMV in the precuneus with increasing Met dose found in healthy controls was lost in patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that the COMTMet variant is associated with the disruption of dopaminergic influence on gray matter in schizophrenia, and the effect of the COMT gene on GMV in schizophrenia is mainly due to changes in cortical thickness rather than in cortical surface area. PMID:25564193

  20. Analysis of heart rate variability during auditory stimulation periods in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Akar, Saime Akdemir; Kara, Sadık; Latifoğlu, Fatma; Bilgiç, Vedat

    2015-02-01

    The vulnerability-stress model is a hypothesis for symptom development in schizophrenia patients who are generally characterized by cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Therefore, measures of heart rate variability (HRV) have been widely used in schizophrenics for assessing altered cardiac autonomic regulations. The goal of this study was to analyze HRV of schizophrenia patients and healthy control subjects with exposure to auditory stimuli. More specifically, this study examines whether schizophrenia patients may exhibit distinctive time and frequency domain parameters of HRV from control subjects during at rest and auditory stimulation periods. Photoplethysmographic signals were used in the analysis of HRV. Nineteen schizophrenic patients and twenty healthy control subjects were examined during rest periods, while exposed to periods of white noise (WN) and relaxing music. Results indicate that HRV in patients was lower than that of control subjects indicating autonomic dysfunction throughout the entire experiment. In comparison with control subjects, patients with schizophrenia exhibited lower high-frequency power and a higher low-frequency to high-frequency ratio. Moreover, while WN stimulus decreased parasympathetic activity in healthy subjects, no significant changes in heart rate and frequency-domain HRV parameters were observed between the auditory stimulation and rest periods in schizophrenia patients. We can conclude that HRV can be used as a sensitive index of emotion-related sympathetic activity in schizophrenia patients. PMID:24831932

  1. Analysis of the Complexity Measures in the EEG of Schizophrenia Patients.

    PubMed

    Akar, S Akdemir; Kara, S; Latifoğlu, F; Bilgiç, V

    2016-03-01

    Complexity measures have been enormously used in schizophrenia patients to estimate brain dynamics. However, the conflicting results in terms of both increased and reduced complexity values have been reported in these studies depending on the patients' clinical status or symptom severity or medication and age status. The objective of this study is to investigate the nonlinear brain dynamics of chronic and medicated schizophrenia patients using distinct complexity estimators. EEG data were collected from 22 relaxed eyes-closed patients and age-matched healthy controls. A single-trial EEG series of 2 min was partitioned into identical epochs of 20 s intervals. The EEG complexity of participants were investigated and compared using approximate entropy (ApEn), Shannon entropy (ShEn), Kolmogorov complexity (KC) and Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC). Lower complexity values were obtained in schizophrenia patients. The most significant complexity differences between patients and controls were obtained in especially left frontal (F3) and parietal (P3) regions of the brain when all complexity measures were applied individually. Significantly, we found that KC was more sensitive for detecting EEG complexity of patients than other estimators in all investigated brain regions. Moreover, significant inter-hemispheric complexity differences were found in the frontal and parietal areas of schizophrenics' brain. Our findings demonstrate that the utilizing of sensitive complexity estimators to analyze brain dynamics of patients might be a useful discriminative tool for diagnostic purposes. Therefore, we expect that nonlinear analysis will give us deeper understanding of schizophrenics' brain. PMID:26762866

  2. Lack of pain in schizophrenia: a patient whose arm was burned and amputated.

    PubMed

    Virit, Osman; Savas, Haluk Asuman; Altindag, Abdurrahman

    2008-01-01

    Diminished pain sensitivity or loss of pain sensation in schizophrenic patients has previously been reported. We report an interesting case of a schizophrenia patient who had the disease for 20 years and who had his forearm amputated below the elbow level due to severe burn injury to his muscles, tendons, nerve fibers and bone tissue, caused by direct exposure to flames from a liquefied petroleum gas cylinder, in an attempt to make himself warm during a medicine-free period with active symptoms and without pain sensation. PMID:18585546

  3. Some problems in the hospital management of criminal mental patients.

    PubMed

    Buchan, T

    1976-07-24

    In view of impending new legislation in Rhodesia, a survey of 256 criminal mental patients admitted to Ingutsheni Hospital was undertaken. These patients were all treated by the author and were admitted during the 5-year period 1 January 1970-31 December 1974. Among these patients there were 113 schizophrenics (44%) and 57 epileptics (22%); these proportions are not significantly different from those previously found among civil patients. The outcome was that 86 patients (33, 6%) were discharged to stand trial, 107 (41, 8%) were discharged in terms of a recommendation by the Mental Hospital Board and 57 (22, 3%) were returned to prison. Recommendations are made for the provision of a new forensic psychiatric unit, and some of its functions are discussed. PMID:968672

  4. The earliest published electrocardiogram showing ventricular preexcitation.

    PubMed

    Von Knorre, Georg H

    2005-03-01

    When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier. PMID:15733183

  5. Nogo-A-deficient Transgenic Rats Show Deficits in Higher Cognitive Functions, Decreased Anxiety, and Altered Circadian Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Petrasek, Tomas; Prokopova, Iva; Sladek, Martin; Weissova, Kamila; Vojtechova, Iveta; Bahnik, Stepan; Zemanova, Anna; Schönig, Kai; Berger, Stefan; Tews, Björn; Bartsch, Dusan; Schwab, Martin E.; Sumova, Alena; Stuchlik, Ales

    2014-01-01

    Decreased levels of Nogo-A-dependent signaling have been shown to affect behavior and cognitive functions. In Nogo-A knockout and knockdown laboratory rodents, behavioral alterations were observed, possibly corresponding with human neuropsychiatric diseases of neurodevelopmental origin, particularly schizophrenia. This study offers further insight into behavioral manifestations of Nogo-A knockdown in laboratory rats, focusing on spatial and non-spatial cognition, anxiety levels, circadian rhythmicity, and activity patterns. Demonstrated is an impairment of cognitive functions and behavioral flexibility in a spatial active avoidance task, while non-spatial memory in a step-through avoidance task was spared. No signs of anhedonia, typical for schizophrenic patients, were observed in the animals. Some measures indicated lower anxiety levels in the Nogo-A-deficient group. Circadian rhythmicity in locomotor activity was preserved in the Nogo-A knockout rats and their circadian period (tau) did not differ from controls. However, daily activity patterns were slightly altered in the knockdown animals. We conclude that a reduction of Nogo-A levels induces changes in CNS development, manifested as subtle alterations in cognitive functions, emotionality, and activity patterns. PMID:24672453

  6. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  7. Relationship between Self-Reflectivity, Theory of Mind, Neurocognition, and Global Functioning: An Investigation of Schizophrenic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giusti, Laura; Mazza, Monica; Pollice, Rocco; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Background: People with schizophrenia show impairments in metacognitive function, including awareness and monitoring of one's mental processes (Self-Reflectivity (SR)), recognition of the fallibility of one's thoughts, and the ability to infer others' emotions and intentions (Theory of Mind (ToM)). The aim of the present study was…

  8. Gene Therapy Shows Early Promise Against Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158046.html Gene Therapy Shows Early Promise Against Heart Failure Inserting new ... who suffer from heart failure: A trial using gene therapy appears to have boosted patients' cardiac function. "This ...

  9. Penis Reconstructions 'Life-Altering' for Men, Studies Show

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158725.html Penis Reconstructions 'Life-Altering' for Men, Studies Show Both transgender patients ... in the studies. But the procedure can be "life-altering," both for transgender men and for those ...

  10. Significant Effect of Valproate Augmentation Therapy in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Chung, Weilun; Tu, Kun-Yu; Wang, Hung-Yu; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Lin, Pao-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Valproate is an anticonvulsant, which is also widely used for treating psychiatric disorders. Some clinical trials have demonstrated benefits of valproate augmentation therapy in schizophrenia. Previous meta-analysis showed inconsistent findings because of limited literature at that time. The aim of this study is to update the newer published data by conducting a meta-analysis of clinical efficacy of valproate augmentation therapy in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Data sources include electronic research through platform of PubMed. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions were as follows: the inclusion criteria included articles discussing comparisons of the treatment effect in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic augmented with valproate and antipsychotics with/without placebo; articles on clinical trials in humans. The exclusion criteria were case reports or series and nonclinical trials. We compared the effect between antipsychotic treatment with valproate augmentation and antipsychotic monotherapy. Data from clinical trials were pooled by random-effects model, and possible confounding variables were examined through meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Data from 11 articles including 889 patients were included into current meta-analysis. We found patients treated with antipsychotics with valproate augmentation showed significantly more improvement in total psychopathology than those treated with antipsychotics only (P = 0.02). Results from open trials, but not from randomized controlled trials (P = 0.20), showed significant improvement (P = 0.01). In addition, the significance only persisted in the studies conducted with a shorter treatment duration (P < 0.001) rather than longer treatment duration (P = 0.23). There is no difference in the dropout rate between valproate augmentation and antipsychotic treatment only (P = 0.14). We could not perform a detailed meta-analysis for

  11. Cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia in patients taking antipsychotic drugs: cohort study using administrative data

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Sean; Bilker, Warren B; Knauss, Jill S; Margolis, David J; Kimmel, Stephen E; Reynolds, Robert F; Glasser, Dale B; Morrison, Mary F; Strom, Brian L

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine the rates of cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia in patients with treated schizophrenia and in non-schizophrenic controls. Design Cohort study of outpatients using administrative data. Setting 3 US Medicaid programmes. Participants Patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine, haloperidol, risperidone, or thioridazine; a control group of patients with glaucoma; and a control group of patients with psoriasis. Main outcome measure Diagnosis of cardiac arrest or ventricular arrhythmia. Results Patients with treated schizophrenia had higher rates of cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia than controls, with rate ratios ranging from 1.7 to 3.2. Overall, thioridazine was not associated with an increased risk compared with haloperidol (rate ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.7 to 1.2). However, thioridazine showed an increased risk of events at doses ⩾600 mg (2.6, 1.0 to 6.6; P=0.049) and a linear dose-response relation (P=0.038). Conclusions The increased risk of cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia in patients with treated schizophrenia could be due to the disease or its treatment. Overall, the risk with thioridazine was no worse than that with haloperidol. Thioridazine may, however, have a higher risk at high doses, although this finding could be due to chance. To reduce cardiac risk, thioridazine should be prescribed at the lowest dose needed to obtain an optimal therapeutic effect. What is already known on this topicThioridazine seems to prolong the electrocardiographic QT interval more than haloperidolAlthough QT prolongation is used as a marker of arrhythmogenicity, it is unknown whether thioridazine is any worse than haloperidol with regard to cardiac safetyWhat this study addsPatients taking antipsychotic drugs had higher risks of cardiac events than control patients with glaucoma or psoriasisOverall, the risk of cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia was not higher with thioridazine than haloperidolThioridazine may

  12. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  13. Endoxifen shows promise in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    In a phase I trial of endoxifen, a metabolite of tamoxifen, multiple patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer that was resistant to treatment with aromatase inhibitors had partial responses or long-lasting stable disease. PMID:24501306

  14. Subjective experiences in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.

    PubMed

    Arduini, Luca; Kalyvoka, Artemis; Stratta, Paolo; Gianfelice, Daniela; Rinaldi, Osvaldo; Rossi, Alessandro

    2002-02-01

    Studies comparing 'subjective experiences' in schizophrenic and affective disorders have reached inconclusive results. We investigated the pattern of 'subjective perceived cognitive disturbances' in a group of 55 schizophrenic patients and 39 bipolar patients hospitalized for an index psychotic episode. The assessment of the subjective experiences was made using the Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen (FBF). Comparing the two groups on the four FBF factors, schizophrenic patients showed significantly higher scores in the areas of 'central cognitive disturbances', 'perception and motility' other than a significantly higher FBF total score. Our results suggest that cognitive, perception and motility disturbances are the most characteristic subjective experiences of schizophrenic patients in comparison with bipolar patients. This finding need to be further explored in light of the issue of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:12056578

  15. Effects of antipsychotics on insight in schizophrenia: results from independent samples of first-episode and acutely relapsed patients.

    PubMed

    Misiak, Błażej; Frydecka, Dorota; Beszłej, Jan A; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Tybura, Piotr; Kucharska-Mazur, Jolanta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate whether antipsychotics differentially impact insight and whether these effects appear because of improvement in psychopathological manifestation in 132 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 201 acutely relapsed schizophrenic patients, who were followed up for 12 weeks. Olanzapine and risperidone were administered to first-episode schizophrenia patients, whereas acutely relapsed schizophrenic patients were treated with olanzapine, perazine and ziprasidone. The Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess psychopathology. Insight was assessed using the G12 item of PANSS. Unadjusted mixed-model regression analysis indicated a significant improvement in the PANSS G12 item score in both groups. There were no significant differences between distinct treatment subgroups of patients in terms of improvement in the PANSS G12 item score. After adjustment for the trajectories of changes in symptom dimensions, a decrease in the PANSS G12 item score was because of an improvement in positive, negative and excitement symptoms. A decrease in the PANSS G12 item score was also related to an increase in the severity of depressive symptomatology. Our results indicate that antipsychotics exert similar effects on insight in acute psychosis. These effects are likely because of an improvement in psychopathological manifestation. The improvement in insight might be related to the development of depressive symptoms. PMID:26836264

  16. QT Is Longer in Drug-Free Patients with Schizophrenia Compared with Age-Matched Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Hori, Hiroaki; Orui, Masami; Horie, Minoru; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    The potassium voltage-gated channel KCNH2 is a well-known gene in which mutations induce familial QT interval prolongation. KCNH2 is suggested to be a risk gene for schizophrenia. Additionally, the disturbance of autonomic control, which affects the QT interval, is known in schizophrenia. Therefore, we speculate that schizophrenic patients have characteristic features in terms of the QT interval in addition to the effect of antipsychotic medication. The QT interval of patients with schizophrenia not receiving antipsychotics (n = 85) was compared with that of patients with schizophrenia receiving relatively large doses of antipsychotics (n = 85) and healthy volunteers (n = 85). The QT interval was corrected using four methods (Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham or Hodges method). In ANCOVA with age and heart rate as covariates, patients not receiving antipsychotic treatment had longer QT intervals than did the healthy volunteers, but antipsychotics prolonged the QT interval regardless of the correction method used (P<0.01). Schizophrenic patients with and without medication had a significantly higher mean heart rate than did the healthy volunteers, with no obvious sex-related differences in the QT interval. The QT interval prolongation may be manifestation of a certain biological feature of schizophrenia. PMID:24887423

  17. Debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation and sulphamethazine N-acetylation in patients with schizophrenia and major depression

    PubMed Central

    HADAŠOVÁ, EVA; FRANKE, GERD; ZSCHIESCHE, MICHAEL; ČEŠKOVÁ, EVA; ZELENKOVÁ, OLGA; SIEGMUND, WERNER

    1996-01-01

    Debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation and sulphamethazine N-acetylation phenotypes were determined in 115 Czech drug-free in-patients with schizophrenia (n=64) or major depressive disorder (n=51). These data were compared with a control group of 321 healthy volunteers from the North-East German area of Greifswald. The distribution of debrisoquine hydroxylator phenotypes was almost identical in patients and healthy controls. Thus, there were 8.7% (95% CI 5.4–12.0%) of poor metabolizers (PM) among patients while 8.7% (95% CI 3.6–13.8%) PM among the control group. The prevalences of PM amongst patients with chronic schizophrenia and major depression were 10.9% (95% CI 4.5–21.3%) and 5.9 % (95% CI 1.24–16.3%), respectively (χ2 schizophrenics vs control=0.315, NS; χ2 depressive patients vs control=0.450, NS). However, within the group of EM patients there was a significant (P<0.01) shift towards higher debrisoquine metabolic ratios, reflecting a lower hydroxylation capacity in EM patients compared with EM healthy controls. The proportion of slow acetylators (SA) was 60.0% (95% CI 51.0–68.9%) in the entire group of psychiatric patients and 57.5% (95% CI 52.1–62.9%) in the control group (χ2 all patients vs control=0.195, NS). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of the SA phenotype between controls and schizophrenics or patients with major depression. Although the results of this modest study were negative, the presence of subtle differences in the metabolic capacity between psychiatric patients and a healthy population cannot be ruled out. PMID:8735687

  18. Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159462.html Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise Drug lowered viral activity, recurrence ... News) -- An experimental immune-boosting treatment for genital herpes shows promise, researchers report. The drug, called GEN- ...

  19. Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159854.html Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood Brain scans reveal ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene related to Alzheimer's disease may start to show ...

  20. A parallel genome-wide mRNA and microRNA profiling of the frontal cortex of HIV patients with and without HIV-associated dementia shows the role of axon guidance and downstream pathways in HIV-mediated neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is the most common dementia type in young adults less than 40 years of age. Although the neurotoxins, oxidative/metabolic stress and impaired activity of neurotrophic factors are believed to be underlying reasons for the development of HAD, the genomic basis, which ultimately defines the virus-host interaction and leads to neurologic manifestation of HIV disease is lacking. Therefore, identifying HIV fingerprints on the host gene machinery and its regulation by microRNA holds a great promise and potential for improving our understanding of HAD pathogenesis, its diagnosis and therapy. Results A parallel profiling of mRNA and miRNA of the frontal cortex autopsies from HIV positive patients with and without dementia was performed using Illumina Human-6 BeadChip and Affymetrix version 1.0 miRNA array, respectively. The gene ontology and pathway analysis of the two data sets showed high concordance between miRNA and mRNAs, revealing significant interference with the host axon guidance and its downstream signalling pathways in HAD brains. Moreover, the differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs identified in this study, in particular miR-137, 153 and 218, based on which most correlations were built cumulatively targeted neurodegeneration related pathways, implying their future potential in diagnosis, prognosis and possible therapies for HIV-mediated and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, this relationship between DE miRNAs and DE mRNAs was also reflected in correlation analysis using Bayesian networks by splitting-averaging strategy (SA-BNs), which revealed 195 statistically significant correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs according to Pearson’s correlation test (P<0.05). Conclusions Our study provides the first evidence on unambiguous support for intrinsic functional relationship between mRNA and miRNA in the context of HIV-mediated neurodegeneration, which shows that neurologic manifestation in HIV patients possibly

  1. Effects of quetiapine and olanzapine in patients with psychosis and violent behavior: a pilot randomized, open-label, comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Gabriella; Comai, Stefano; Debonnel, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients suffering from psychosis are more likely than the general population to commit aggressive acts, but the therapeutics of aggressive behavior are still a matter of debate. Methods This pilot randomized, open-label study compared the efficacy of quetiapine versus olanzapine in reducing impulsive and aggressive behaviors (primary endpoints) and psychotic symptoms (secondary endpoints) from baseline to days 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70, in 15 violent schizophrenic patients hospitalized in a maximum-security psychiatric hospital. Results Quetiapine (525±45 mg) and olanzapine (18.5±4.8 mg) were both efficacious in reducing Impulsivity Rating Scale from baseline to day 70. In addition, both treatments reduced the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale scores at day 70 compared to baseline, and no differences were observed between treatments. Moreover, quetiapine, but not olanzapine, yielded an improvement of depressive symptoms in the items “depression” in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and “blunted affect” in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Modified Overt Aggression Scale scores were also decreased from baseline to the endpoint, but due to the limited number of patients, it was not possible to detect a significant difference. Conclusion In this pilot study, quetiapine and olanzapine equally decreased impulsive and psychotic symptoms after 8 weeks of treatment. Double-blind, large studies are needed to confirm the validity of these two treatments in highly aggressive and violent schizophrenic patients. PMID:24855361

  2. No-Show Analysis. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, William D.; And Others

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress; Second Science Assessment No-Show Study assessed the magnitude and causation of nonresponse biases. A No-Show is defined as an individual who was selected as a sample respondent but failed to be present for regular assessment of the 17-year-old group. The procedure whereby a sample of eligible…

  3. Effects of Talk Show Viewing on Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stacy; Mares, Marie-Louise

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of talk-show viewing on high-school students' social-reality beliefs. Supports the hypothesis that viewers overestimate the frequency of deviant behaviors; does not find support for the hypothesis that viewers become desensitized to the suffering of others; and finds that talk-show viewing was positively related, among…

  4. Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Hyung-Jin; Dominick, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…

  5. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  6. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  7. Dysregulated 14-3-3 Family in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Ying; Sun, Liya; Yang, Chao; Jiang, Jie; Yang, Xuhan; Hu, Xiaowen; Cui, Donghong; Xu, Yifeng; He, Lin; Han, Dongmei; Wan, Chunling

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family, which is composed of seven distinct members in humans, plays important roles in the cell cycle, apoptosis, synaptic plasticity and neuronal differentiation and migration. Previous genetic and post-mortem gene expression studies have linked this family to schizophrenia. However, the direction of gene expression changes in these studies has been inconsistent, and reports of 14-3-3 gene expression in living schizophrenic patients are still lacking. Here, we assessed 14-3-3 gene and protein expression levels in peripheral blood leukocytes from drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenic patients and matched controls. mRNA and protein expression levels were quantified by qRT-PCR and UPLC-MRM/MS, respectively. Expression analysis revealed four downregulated and one upregulated mRNA transcripts as well as five downregulated protein levels of 14-3-3 isoforms in schizophrenia. Moreover, significant positive correlations between 14-3-3 mRNA and protein expression levels were found in schizophrenia, and we also identified negative correlations between ε, θ and ζ isoform expression levels and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Our results suggest that gene and protein expression levels for the 14-3-3 family are dysregulated in schizophrenia, perhaps owing to specific regulatory mechanisms, and we also suggest that expression of the 14-3-3ε, θ and ζ isoform genes could be useful indicators of disease severity. PMID:27030512

  8. RIGHT HEMISPHERIC FUNCTION IN NORMALS, AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Roy, Amal; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Davis, Rachel

    1996-01-01

    The happy-sad chimeric faces test has been established as a useful test of right hemispheric function. It is known to elicit a left hemifacial bias (LHF bias) in right handed subjects. 41 normals and 19 manic, depressive and schizophrenic patients each were tested. All subjects were strictly right handed. Normals and depressives showed significant LHF bias. Monies and schizophrenics did not show significant LHF Bias. This suggests right hemispheric dysfunction in both mania and schizophrenia. PMID:21584135

  9. Advanced Basal cell carcinoma in a patient with schizoaffective disorder: constraints and management.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Elise J; Golas, Liliya; Martel, Joseph R; Martel, James B

    2013-01-01

    The approach used by the authors for managing a patient with a schizoaffective disorder and advanced basal cell carcinoma involving the eyelids, orbit, and face is presented. Complexities included the advanced nature of the disease, neglect of the patient's condition due to schizoaffective disorder, the difficulty of obtaining informed consent, the required aggressive surgical intervention, reconstruction, and the necessary management during the postsurgical period. A multidisciplinary team approach with psychiatry, ophthalmology, ear, nose, and throat, plastic surgery, radiation oncology, oncology, legal, and bioethics specialties is required in patients with cognitive disabilities. Curative treatment requires complete excision, reconstruction, and proper postoperative care, which can be prohibitive in a schizophrenic patient from a surgical and ethical perspective. Staging of this condition after proper informed consent with biopsy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging is presented. The options for management are discussed, including surgical intervention and palliative care. PMID:23235512

  10. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  11. Spacecraft Image Mashup Shows Galactic Collision

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope shows two colliding galaxies more than a 100 million years after they first ...

  12. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  13. TRMM Satellite Shows Heavy Rainfall in Cristina

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite rainfall data was overlaid on an enhanced visible/infrared image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showing cloud and rainfall extent. Green areas indicate rainfall at over 20 mm...

  14. GOES Satellite Data Shows Tornado Development

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite data shows the development and movement of the weather system that spawned tornadoes affecting the southern and eastern U.S. states on April 27-29, 2014...

  15. Lightweight magnesium-lithium alloys show promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. T.; Cataldo, C. E.

    1964-01-01

    Evaluation tests show that magnesium-lithium alloys are lighter and more ductile than other magnesium alloys. They are being used for packaging, housings, containers, where light weight is more important than strength.

  16. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  17. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  18. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  19. 47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing required. (a) Except as provided in... radio art, or is investigating new unexplored concepts in radio transmission and communications; (4)...

  20. Multiple nontuberculous scrofulodermas showing dramatic response to clarithromycin.

    PubMed

    Parimalam, Kumar; Senthil, G; Vinnarasan, M; Arumugakani, V; Amutha, B M; Lalitha, S; Swarna, S

    2015-01-01

    Atypical mycobacteria are distinct from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium chelonae, a non-pigment producing rapid grower, can be found in many cutaneous sites; infection occurs most commonly after skin trauma from surgery, injections, or minor injuries. In immune competent patients, the infection is more frequently localized as a cellulitis or a nodule, whereas, in the immunocompromised patient, dissemination (more than five lesions) can occur. Because the organism is resistant to antituberculous therapy, abscess can develop and follow a chronic, indolent course. We report a case of multiple scrofuloderma due to nontuberculous infection caused by M. chelonae showing dramatic response to clarithromycin. PMID:25657914