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Sample records for schizophrenic patients showed

  1. Testamentary capacity of the schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Bergman-Levy, Tal; Heinik, Jeremia; Melamed, Yuval

    2014-03-01

    Testamentary capacity refers to an individual's capability to write his or her own will. Psychiatrists are required occasionally to give expert opinions regarding the testamentary capacity of individuals with a medical history or suspected diagnosis of a mental illness. This may stem from the patient/lawyer/ family initiative to explore the current capacity to testate in anticipation of a possible challenge, or may be sought when testamentary capacity of a deceased has been challenged. In this article we examine the medico-legal construct of testamentary capacity of the schizophrenic patient, and discuss the various clinical situations specific to schizophrenic patients, highlighting their impact on the medical opinion regarding testamentary capacity through examining the rulings of Israel's Supreme Court in a specific case where the testamentary capacity of a mentally ill individual who was challenged postmortem, and provide a workable framework for the physician to evaluate the capacity of a schizophrenic patient to write a will.. PMID:24761700

  2. Spectral and brain mapping analysis of EEG based on Pwelch in schizophrenic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Y.; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the differences of power spectral distribution in various frequency bands between healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients. Subjects in this study were 8 people consisting of 4 schizophrenic patients and 4 healthy subjects. Subjects were recorded from 12 electrodes with Electroencephalography (EEG). EEG signals were recorded during a resting eye-closed state for 4-6 minutes. Data were extracted and analyzed by centering and filtering, then performed using Welch Periodogram technique for the spectral estimation with a Hamming window. The results of this study showed that delta power spectral in schizophrenic patients increased ten times from healthy subjects; theta power spectral in schizophrenic patients increased three times from healthy subjects; alpha power spectral in schizophrenic patients decreased with an increase of one third of healthy subjects. These results were confirmed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showing there were significant differences between schizophrenic and healthy subjects on delta, theta and alpha brain wave. Based on the results of Brain Mapping analysis showed that there was significant increasing in the activity of delta waves and theta waves in frontal lobe of schizophrenics, whereas the alpha waves indicated a decrease in the occipital lobe in all schizophrenic patients.

  3. Thioridazine improves affective symptoms in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, R L; Valentino, D; Kass, D J

    1993-01-01

    Consenting schizophrenic patients ranging in age from 18 to 63 years were withdrawn from antipsychotics for at least 1 week and randomly assigned to receive identical capsules of thioridazine (n = 13), molindone (n = 10), or haloperidol (n = 12) for a minimum of 6 weeks. Compared with the molindone- and haloperidol-treated patients, the thioridazine-treated patients were significantly improved over time as measured by Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) total scores. Improvement in BPRS scores was due largely to improvement in symptoms of anxiety and depression. Subjects did not differ significantly on other measures, with the important exception of weight. On average, molindone patients lost 5 pounds over the 6 weeks of treatment, whereas thioridazine patients gained 6 pounds. Haloperidol-treated patients had no significant weight changes. PMID:8290673

  4. Patterns of Spontaneous Magnetoencephalographic Activity in Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Siekmeier, Peter J.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) non-invasively measures the magnetic fields produced by the brain. Pertinent research articles from 1993 to 2009 that measured spontaneous, whole-head MEG activity in schizophrenic patients were reviewed. Data on localization of oscillatory activity and correlation of these findings with psychotic symptoms are summarized. While the variety of measures used by different research groups makes a quantitative meta-analysis difficult, it appears that MEG activity in patients may exhibit identifiable patterns, defined by topographic organization and frequency band. Specifically, 11 of the 12 studies showed increased theta (48 Hz) and delta (14 Hz) band oscillations in the temporal lobes of patients; of the 10 studies that examined the relationship between oscillatory activity and symptomatology, 8 found a positive correlation between temporal lobe theta activity and positive schizophrenic symptoms. Abnormally high frontal delta activity was not seen. These findings are analyzed in comparison to the EEG literature on schizophrenics, and possible confounds (e.g., medication effects) are discussed. In the future, MEG might be used to assist in diagnosis, or might be fruitfully used in conjunction with new neuroscience research approaches such as computational modeling, which may be able to link oscillatory activity and cellular-level pathology. PMID:20461010

  5. Chromosomal fragile sites in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Demirhan, O; Tastemir, D; Sertdemir, Y

    2006-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a common and complex mental disorder. Cytogenetic and molecular studies have shown that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia. As a preliminary step in the search for chromosomal location of a susceptible gene predisposing to schizophrenia, cytogenetic screening patients might be useful. Therefore, this report is aimed at studying the relationship between chromosomal fragile sites (FS: gaps, breaks, triradial figures, and several rearrangements) and the etiology of schizophrenia. Because of this, we were compared the frequencies of folate-sensitive FS from schizophrenic patients and normal individuals in short-term whole blood cultures. The rate of FS expression in the patients was considerably higher than in the controls. We determined 15 common FS (cFS) (1q21, 1q32, 2q21, 2q31, 3p14, 4q31, 5q31, 6q21, 6q26, 7q22, 7q32, 10q22, 13q32, Xp22 and Xq22), 6 rare FS (rFS) (6p21, 8q22, 11q23, 12q24, 16q22, and Xq26) and 2 previously unknown FS (3p25 and 5q22). Among these expressed FS, there was a significantly higher frequency of 12 FS at 2q31, 3p25, 3p14, 5q31, 6q21, 7q22, 7q32, 10q22, 11q23, 12q24, Xq22 and Xq26 in patient group than in controls by chi2 test (P = between 0.0001 to 0.036). Sites 3p14, 5q31 and 7q22 were also the most frequently observed cFS. Males exhibited twice as many FS as females, but no age effects were observed. The potential relationship between increased FS frequency and the occurrence of schizophrenia in these patients is discussed. PMID:16915931

  6. [Some aspects of cognitive activities in schizophrenic patient (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Burnand, Y; Zutter, A M; Burgermeister, J J; Tissot, R

    1981-01-01

    Nine paranoid schizophrenics, five control subjects of the same age and four hebephrenic schizophrenics were examined using Piaget's genetic psychology tests. The study of assimilation/accommodation equilibrium in the cognitive activities of schizophrenic patients confirmed our previous results which primarily dealt with hebephrenic patients [12]. The thinking of paranoid schizophrenics is dominated by increased assimilation which explains their tendency to deform observables and their difficulty in generalising reasoning. The assimilation/accommodation equilibrium of their logical operations is affected resulting in: a) difficulty in formulating reflecting abstractions and therefore the comprehension and extension of concepts; b) loss the feeling for logical necessity and a tendency to utilize magical thinking and subjective explanations. PMID:7227293

  7. [The information of the schizophrenic patient: actuality].

    PubMed

    Palazzolo, J; Brousse, G; Favre, P; Llorca, P-M

    2005-01-01

    Social isolation has got to be one of the greatest losses in schizophrenia. For many authors, people with schizophrenia can have no friends, no spouse, and sometimes no family. Two thirds of patients with schizophrenia return to their parents' house after discharge from a hospital for the first psychosi episode. Family members generally receive very little education as to what they can expect. They may not know the importance of medication compliance. Family members are the primary victims of violence from psychotic individuals, usually their own son or daughter, and most families cannot believe their own son or daughter would be capable of such a thing. Although families are usually the main care givers at the beginning of schizophrenia they often find their experience very frustrating for a number of reasons, and relationships suffer. Family education and support have been shown to improve outcomes considerably and family education is the second strongest factor in relapse prevention. Without education and good relapse prevention families often burst out. Most of the homeless mentally ill in downtown city cores have lost their family relationships. It is not a reflection on their families so much as the lack of adequate treatment and support. The families tried and tried and lost their ill relative. A patient writes: "My father lives just outside of Monaco. My mother developed Alzheimer's a couple of years ago or so and with a series of mild strokes died recently. I haven't seen either of them very much in the last fifteen years. I have a sister, Nicole, who also lives in Paris. I lost those relationships to some degree over the years. I am rebuilding them now. Enter the professional friend, the case manager, usually in cases where the individual is quite disabled by schizophrenia and/or at considerable risk of relapse, and usually when the individual has lost their family relationships to some degree. I had a case manager for several years and always looked forward to her visits. Case managers help negotiate compliance to medication, housing, meaningful activity, substance abuse, poverty, isolation, and everything else living in the community can throw at you. Without a spouse you tend to spend a lot of time alone. One of the main reasons Marie-Claude and I moved in with each other was that neither of us was enjoying living alone. It was very romantic at first but now we are just friends who see less and less of each other. I suspect schizophrenia interferes with the quality and depth of relationships you have with other people. Amongst the people I know, schizophrenia has meant a pretty solitary life of poverty. I have a lot of acquaintances, and colleagues, but few close friends when not at work. Over the last ten years of living with schizophrenia on medication it is celibacy that has hurt the most. It saps the life out of you, your self confidence, your self esteem. In some Scandinavian countries and Holland disabled people are allowed monthly visits by state approved sex workers. To me that is only common sense. To live without sex is unnatural and can only cause emotional suffering. We don't recognize the importance of quality sexual experience in keeping people healthy and happy in France. That doesn't mean it isn't I have a pretty high profile in my community through the meaningful activity I do. From having a half dozen names and faces to remember, I now have what seems like hundreds. I have a lot of trouble remembering people's names and faces. I am still meeting new people but I'm rarely invited to socialize with any after work. They have families, full time jobs, kids, cars, cottages, etc. My life at home is pretty solitary. It's a nuisance to travel across the city to visit people. There are few people that I share a similar background with. Since people with schizophrenia tend to have trouble learning new things, and change very little as a result, we tend to have trouble making new friends. People with schizophrenia can come alive talking about things in the past before they became ill. It's as if their life grinded to halt when they became sick. I'm stuck in the mid seventies, and that's the music I like. Everybody I know with schizophrenia is quite isolated socially and I don't really know why. That is especially true for the older people in my age group. Younger people seem to be doing much better. Many still live with their parents. Most older people live alone. There is also the odd person who recovers well, returns to a career, and marries someone without schizophrenia. In cases where marriage predates the onset of schizophrenia, the outcome is often divorce although women are more likely to stick with their husbands with schizophrenia than vice versa, especially if there are already children. I hope the next generation who appears to be less disabled survives better than people of my age with schizophrenia. The goal of community integration is one that requires: more effective treatments and/or more financial support and/or a compassionate non-discriminating community. The combination of early diagnosis and atypical medications will change the face of schizophrenia. I'm not expecting more financial support from the government, but many more people with schizophrenia will start working again instead. Their social networks will develop but social networks are probably the hardest hit in schizophrenia. It's better that you never lose your friends in the first place". This testimony shows how the information of the schizophrenic patient is necessary, and underlines the importance of the relationships between the patient and his family. Our article insists on this theme, rarely developed in the literature. PMID:15959449

  8. Adjunctive imipramine in substance-abusing dysphoric schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Siris, S G; Mason, S E; Bermanzohn, P C; Shuwall, M A; Aseniero, M A

    1993-01-01

    Previous controlled studies have presented evidence that adjunctive tricyclic antidepressant medication may be useful in the treatment of schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients with phenotypic post-psychotic depressions and that tricyclic antidepressants may be useful in the treatment of certain substance-abusing nonschizophrenic patients. The potential value of adjunctive antidepressant medication among substance-abusing dysphoric schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients, however, has not previously been addressed. The present report details the results of carefully controlled adjunctive antidepressant trials among 11 such substance-abusing schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients. The results of this acute treatment trial appeared to be favorable for at least some individuals and can be interpreted in the context of models that heretofore have been advanced for the understanding of this clinical situation. PMID:8378506

  9. Neurophysiological aspects and learning processes in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Penati, G; Maffei, C; Fornari, M G; Ponzano, M; Resele, L F; Scarone, S

    1977-07-01

    Two groups of schizophrenic patients (acute and chronic subjects) were observed in order to study possible differences in neuropsychological performances and their relationship with symptomatology. 16 acute and 16 chronic patients, aged 18 to 35 years were tested with a battery of neuropsychological tests (Word Association Test, Serial Verbal Learning, Weigl's test, Simple Reaction Times, Choice Continuous Reaction Time). Clinical profiles were evaluated by means of MMPI and WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale). Findings concerning cognitive processes show no significant differences between the two groups. Results suggest a correlation between clinical profiles and performances in acute patients, whereas in chronic subjects this correlation seems markedly reduced. Finally, chronicity (i.e. the length of illness) does not seem so be an important factor in determining consistent defects in neuropsychological performances. PMID:551685

  10. Sex Differences in Completed Suicide by Schizophrenic Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted on all studies of suicide mortality in follow-up studies of schizophrenic patients that presented data for male and female patients separately. The percentage of deaths from suicide was significantly greater for the male schizophrenic patients than for the female schizophrenic patients in studies where both sexes were…

  11. [Psychopathological correlates of dopaminergic dysfunction in alcoholic and schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Heinz, A

    1999-05-01

    It has been suggested that anhedonia, the loss of pleasure, is associated with a dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system in schizophrenic and alcohol-dependent patients. In a series of neuroendocrinological and brain imaging studies, we examined pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms of dopaminergic neurotransmission in non-human primates and in schizophrenic and alcohol-dependent patients. Among alcoholics, we found indicators of a sensitization of dopaminergic neurotransmission, which was associated with the relapse risk, but not with anhedonia or depression. Schizophrenics with neuroleptic blockade of striatal dopamine D2 receptors displayed psychomotor slowing and reduced motivation, but not anhedonia. Primate studies pointed to the importance of a temporocortical dysfunction in the pathogenesis of phasic dopaminergic dysregulation in the striatum. These observations indicate that a dysfunction of stimulus-dependent dopamine release may be associated with motivational deficits caused by a reduction in incentive salience, but not with anhedonia. PMID:10407835

  12. Catha edulis chewing effects on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Kotb El-Sayed, Mohamed-I; Amin, Hatem-K

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients. Patients and methods In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10) or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10). Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone) and h (haloperidol). Healthy male subjects (37) were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17) and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20). Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated. Results ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium. Conclusion Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. PMID:25926735

  13. Shape analysis of the middle cranial fossa of schizophrenic patients. A computerized tomographic study.

    PubMed

    Casanova, M F; Daniel, D G; Goldberg, T E; Suddath, R L; Weinberger, D R

    1989-01-01

    Recent morphometric studies indicate that both right and left temporal lobe volumes are reduced in schizophrenic patients. Subsequent studies suggested that this volumetric reduction is the result of focal or multifocal gray matter abnormalities. Since in early life brain growth or lack thereof influences the overlying skull configuration, we attempted to elucidate the time of onset of the temporal lobe lesion in schizophrenic patients by quantifying both the volume and shape of their middle cranial fossa. Computerized tomographic scans of 17 schizophrenic patients and an equal number of age-matched controls were digitized using a LOATS image analysis system. The middle cranial fossa was manually outlined and software routines allowed the quantification of volume and shape parameters. Our results showed that no significant differences were present between schizophrenic patients and controls. If the bilateral reduction in temporal lobe volumes in schizophrenic patients is the result of an early onset (e.g., developmental) lesion, the resultant foci of gray matter abnormality may occur distant to the base of the skull. Alternatively, tissue loss may be insufficient to alter the development of the overlying skull or to be detected by our methods. PMID:2487174

  14. Cytomegalovirus Antibody in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Schizophrenic Patients Detected by Enzyme Immunoassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller Torrey, E.; Yolken, Robert H.; Winfrey, C. Jack

    1982-05-01

    By means of enzyme immunoassay techniques to detect the presence of antibody to cytomegalovirus, the cerebrospinal fluid of 178 patients with schizophrenia, 17 patients with bipolar disorders, and 11 other psychiatric patients was compared with that of 79 neurological patients and 41 normal control subjects. The cerebrospinal fluid of 20 of the schizophrenic patients and 3 of the patients with bipolar disorders showed significant increases in immunoglobulin M antibody to cytomegalovirus; no difference was found in patients on or off psychotropic medications.

  15. Investigation of schizophrenic patients from Istanbul, Turkey for the presence of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Aslan, M; Kocazeybek, B; Turan, N; Karakose, A R; Altan, E; Yuksel, P; Saribas, S; Cakan, H; Caliskan, R; Torun, M M; Balcioglu, I; Alpay, N; Yilmaz, H

    2012-03-01

    Association of some neurotropic viruses like Borna Disease virus and Herpes virus with schizophrenia is better explained. However, the role of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in schizophrenia is not well documented. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate possible association between schizophrenia and presence of antibodies and WNV RNA in schizophrenic patients. For this, 200 blood samples from patients with schizophrenia and 200 from control groups were collected in Istanbul, Turkey. WNV RNA was not detected in any of the 200 patients and 200 controls analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. One hundred and twelve sera of schizophrenic patients and 162 of controls were analyzed for the presence of IgG antibodies to WNV by a commercial IgG-ELISA (Euroimmun, Germany). Antibodies to WNV were detected in 6 schizophrenic patients and 5 controls. ELISA positive patients had antipsychotic therapy. The difference between groups in terms of seropositivity to WNV was not statistically significant (p = 0.887, p = 0.148). Known symptoms of schizophrenia were observed in these patients, and interestingly majority had close contact to cats in the past and come from agricultural area of Turkey where potential area of mosquitoes and bird habitat. In conclusion, the results of this study show that antibodies to WNV in people do not seem to be associated with schizophrenia. However, detecting antibodies to WNV in schizophrenic patients suggests that WNV infection should be considered in endemic areas as it may play role in psychiatric diseases. PMID:21725713

  16. Unsuccessful Self-Enucleation in a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Noy Achiron, Romi; Paul, Michael; Achiron, Asaf

    2014-01-01

    Self-enucleation is a very unusual form of self-mutilation directly linked to mental illness. In this case we present a 26-year-old schizophrenic patient who attempted to enucleate his eye with a rollerball pen. Antipsychotic therapy and emergency surgery saved the patient eye and emphasize the importance of quick response and good collaboration between psychiatric and ophthalmic teams. PMID:25328735

  17. Neurocognitive performance in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Andresen, Burghard; Perro, Christian; Schickel, Marc; Krausz, Micheal; Naber, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Previous research on neuropsychological disturbances in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients has provided mixed results which can be partially attributed to methodological inconsistencies. For the present study, 70 schizophrenic patients (40 with chronic and 30 with first-episode schizophrenia) were compared to 30 healthy controls on a large battery of neuropsychological tests. Special attention was paid to potential confounds such as differences in psychopathology, age and educational level between the schizophrenic sub-samples. Healthy controls performed better than both first-episode and chronic patients in almost all cognitive domains (P < 0.01), while the patient samples did not differ in any of the tasks. Results were confirmed in a second series of analyses in which patient subgroups were equated for sociodemographic background variables. The present results confirm recent data collected in longitudinal studies, thus, lending further support for a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. It is suggested that neuropsychological disturbances occur early in schizophrenia and do not worsen in the course beyond age-related decrement. Possible reasons why previous research has produced contradictory findings are discussed. PMID:12056580

  18. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF COPING STYLES IN SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Raguram, R.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY The coping strategies employed by thirty schizophrenics were examined in relation to their psychopathology. A total of 251 coping styles were identified in the patient group. The commonly used techniques were behavioral control, cognitive methods and socialization. These findings suggest that schizophrenic patients employ active methods to handle the distressing symptoms experienced by them. The coping patterns were then studied in relation to specific symptoms. Schizophrenics with predominant thought disorder utilized specific task oriented methods in addition to a wide variety of cognitive approaches; those with delusions minimized their socialization and shifted their attention away from distressing thoughts and patients with hallucinations employed distraction techniques and increased their socialization. In contrast, those with non-psychotic symptoms resorted to more direct help from outside. The common method employed by patients in relation to both psychotic and neurotic symptoms was one of indulgence, usually excessive coffee consumption or smoking. The findings are discussed in relation to their practical applications and suggestions for future studies are outlined. PMID:21776162

  19. High prevalence of Human Herpesvirus 8 in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Hannachi, Neila; El Kissi, Yousri; Samoud, Samar; Nakhli, Jaafar; Letaief, Leila; Gaabout, Samia; Ali, Bechir Ben Hadj; Boukadida, Jalel

    2014-05-15

    Many studies have reported an association between Herpes family viruses and an increased risk of schizophrenia, but the role of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) has never been investigated. This study aimed to assess HHV8 prevalence in schizophrenic patients as well as the possible association between HHV8 infection and schizophrenia clinical features. We consecutively enrolled 108 patients meeting fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria of schizophrenia and 108 age and sex matched controls. Data about a number of demographic characteristics and potential HHV8 risk factors of infection were collected. Standardized psychopathology measures, disease severity and functioning level were obtained using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) and Global Assessment of functioning (GAF). The presence of anti-HHV8 antibodies was analyzed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay. A higher prevalence of HHV8 infection in schizophrenic patients than in controls was found. Marital status, having children, sexual behavior and risk factors of blood transmission were not associated with HHV8 prevalence. However, among schizophrenic patients, HHV8 prevalence was statically associated with positive symptoms. To our knowledge, this would be the first report of a possible role of HHV8 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To prove this hypothesis, further investigation of HHV8 in schizophrenia with larger samples is needed. PMID:24560611

  20. [Psychic change in schizophrenic patients produced group therapy].

    PubMed

    Amenta, Marcela; Campi, Mercedes; Goldchluk, Anbal; Postare, Fernando; Hamuy, Erica; Villar, Vernica

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of group therapy to produce psychic change in patients with schizophrenia and other related psychosis. The experience took place in a Public Psychiatric Hospital. It involved 96 patients with this condition who entered different groups from 1998 up to the present. During the year 2000, 66 of them were asked to answer a questionnaire especially designed to investigate the changes that they thought they had gone through during this treatment. On one hand, the results show the high valorization of the group appliance, while on the other hand the most valued operational categories were the facilitation of interpersonal links, the valorization of listening and being listened, the recognition of improvement and the recognition of one's own characteristics in the other person. On account of these discoveries, the mechanisms of these group appliances to produce such changes are postulated. In conclusion, group treatment for schizophrenic patients and related psychosis turns out to be useful for producing psychic changes different from those achieved with psychopharmacological agents. PMID:12478316

  1. Neglected basal cell carcinoma in a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hassan A; Lee, Hui Bae Harold; Nunery, William R

    2008-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent from patients with mental disorders can be a complicated and involved process, potentially resulting in decisions contrary to the advice of physicians. We present a schizophrenic patient with an invasive basal cell carcinoma involving the periocular structures and the right orbit. Exenteration was recommended with en bloc resection of the tumor. The ethical and legal committees decided against surgical intervention. Rather, the patient was admitted for medical treatment of his mental illness. A multidisciplinary approach with consultation of a psychiatrist, social worker, and ethical and legal committees is often necessary in the care of patients with mental illness. PMID:19033856

  2. Bioavailability of oral and intramuscular molindone hydrochloride in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Zetin, M; Cramer, M; Garber, D; Plon, L; Paulshock, M; Hoffman, H E; Schary, W L

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the bioequivalence of intramuscular molindone hydrochloride and marketed oral molindone. Ten schizophrenic patients (mean age, 30.2 years) received oral molindone in single daily doses of 100 or 150 mg for four to eight days followed by intramuscular molindone in single daily doses of 50 or 75 mg for four days. On the last day each molindone formulation was given, plasma samples were collected at baseline and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after administration. The pharmacokinetic measures of area under the curve and maximum concentration show that intramuscular molindone is 1.49 to 1.67 times more bioavailable than oral molindone. This finding indicates that once a patient's acute psychotic episode has been stabilized with intramuscular molindone, therapy can continue without interruption by substituting 1.5 mg of oral molindone for every 1 mg of intramuscular molindone. The time to maximum concentration occurred significantly earlier (P = 0.05) with intramuscular molindone (0.6 hours) than with oral molindone (1.1 hours). Elimination half-life values were approximately two hours for both formulations. PMID:3986861

  3. Neuropsychological correlates of reality distortion in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Paola; Castagna, Filomena; Marchiaro, Livio; Rasetti, Roberta; Rivoira, Elisa; Bogetto, Filippo

    2006-11-29

    The present study aims at exploring the relationship between content-related aspects of delusions and hallucinations in schizophrenia and the basic domains of cognition, controlling for the other clinical and demographic variables that could produce bias in the interpretation of the results. Seventy stable schizophrenic patients were evaluated through psychiatric assessment and a neuropsychological battery including tests on attention, memory, perceptual-motor speed and executive functions. We found that the severity of negative symptoms was strongly correlated with poor performance in almost all domains of cognitive functions, while only the attentional deficit was correlated with positive symptoms. The relationships between different cognitive domains and specific types of delusions and hallucinations showed that thought insertion, guilt, grandiose, religious and somatic delusions were associated with impairment in different cognitive functions (verbal and visual memory, attention and executive functions). Voices arguing and tactile hallucinations were correlated to delay-recall memory function. Our results suggest that no specific cognitive pattern is associated with typical-content delusions and hallucinations. On the basis of our findings, cognitive impairments associated with delusions and hallucinations, as measured by our battery, seem not to play a central role in the genesis and the maintenance of these symptoms, suggesting a more complex model of pathogenesis. PMID:17070602

  4. [Paranoid schizophrenic patient with unstable spinal fracture].

    PubMed

    Ydemann, Mogens

    2012-03-01

    The misdiagnosis of somatic illness in the psychiatric population can have grave consequences. Somatic symptoms are easily overseen or misinterpreted and a careful history and examination is essential when approaching this group of patients. We report a case of a patient with a history of paranoid schizophrenia, who had her somatic symptoms misinterpreted as being of psychiatric origin. This misinterpretation gave rise to an admission to a psychiatric ward of a patient who actually presented with an unstable spinal fracture. PMID:22395016

  5. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Schizophrenic Patients Using Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Ko, You-Kyung; Soh, Min-Ah; Kang, Shi-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in a large group of schizophrenic patients. Methods Sociodemographic and treatment data were collected from medical records of 1,103 inpatients and outpatients treated for schizophrenia at Seoul National Hospital in Seoul, Korea. Anthropometric measurement and blood testing were conducted for collection of physical and biochemical data and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Data for metabolic syndrome prevalence were compared by sex, age, metabolic syndrome markers present, treatment of markers, and types of antipsychotics and individual drug agents used. Results Mean prevalence of metabolic syndrome in all subjects was 43.9% and 40.1% according to adapted Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-IIIa) and International Diabetes Federation criteria, respectively. No significant differences were found in prevalence according to ATP-IIIa criteria between men (42.6%) and woman (45.9%). A trend toward higher prevalence with age was observed for both sexes until 50 years, followed by a continued increase for women but a decrease for men. Use of a combination of atypical antipsychotics was associated with the highest metabolic syndrome prevalence and use of aripiprazole with the lowest. High percentages of subjects with hypertension and dyslipidemia were not being treated for these conditions. Conclusion Despite their higher prevalence in schizophrenic patients, metabolic syndrome and its markers are not being adequately managed in these patients. Treatment of schizophrenic patients requires attention to not only their psychiatric conditions but also associated medical conditions by individual health care practitioners and hospitals as well as the public health care sector as a whole. PMID:24023552

  6. THE STABILITY OF SYMPTOMS AND SYNDROMES IN CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Borde, Milind; Davis, Elizabeth J.B.; Sharma, L.N.

    1992-01-01

    36 chronic schizophrenic patients meeting D.S.M. III - R criteria were assessed by a single rater using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Ratings were repeated 9 months later by the same rater. Negative symptoms and syndromes were much more stable over time than positive symptoms and syndromes. Only hallucinations had stability comparable to the negative symptoms. Positive and negative subtypes of schizophrenia based on the composite score were very stable. Relatively few symptoms from the general psychopathology subscale were stable over time. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21776113

  7. Fatal Heat Stroke in a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Gómez Ramos, María Jesús; Miguel González Valverde, Francisco; Sánchez Álvarez, Carmen; Ortin Katnich, Lisa; Pastor Quirante, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The case of a patient who developed a fatal post-exertional heat stroke is reported. Case Report. A 20-year-old man with a history of morbid obesity, hypertension, and schizophrenia was admitted to our intensive care unit because of multiorgan failure due to severe heat stroke. He had been working under the sun. Treatment included aggressive body cooling but, in spite of the best supportive care, the patient succumbed in a few hours. We concluded that the adverse event was possibly associated with his obesity and the use of antipsychotics. Histological evaluation revealed lesions consistent with severe hyperthermia and shock. Conclusions. Heat stroke is an uncommon clinical entity characterized by systemic heat and loss of the body's normal mechanisms for dealing with heat stress, such as sweating and temperature control. When heat stroke is diagnosed early and supportive care begins promptly the prognosis is optimal but it becomes a life-threatening disease when treatment is delayed. Lack of physical acclimatization and the use of certain medications that interfere with salt and water balance can impair thermoregulation under conditions of high environmental temperature. Health professionals must be adequately prepared to prevent, recognise, and treat them urgently. PMID:24860681

  8. [Atypical neuroleptics in the treatment of aggression and hostility in schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Briken, P; Nika, E; Krausz, M; Naber, D

    2002-03-01

    The treatment of aggressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients is a relevant clinical problem. We systematically review the efficacy of the different atypical neuroleptics on acute or persistent aggressive symptoms also regarding methodological problems. Currently typical neuroleptics are still first choice in treating acute aggressive symptoms, while risperidone and olanzapine could be alternatives. In persistent aggression clozapin shows the best specific results. Typical depot neuroleptics should be considered in cases when medication compliance is a problem. PMID:11880946

  9. Tc-99 HMPAO SPECT study of regional cerebral blood flow in olanzapine-treated schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Gonul, Ali Saffet; Kula, Mustafa; Sofuoglu, Seher; Tutus, Ahmet; Esel, Ertugrul

    2003-02-01

    Dopamine D(2) blocking typical antipsychotic drugs are known to change the cerebral perfusion patterns of schizophrenic patients, especially in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. In recent years atypical antipsychotics such as olanzapine, which have high serotonin 5-HT(2A)/dopamine D(2) occupation ratios, have been shown to be more effective in the treatment of schizophrenia symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine in a within-subject design. Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia participated as subjects in the study. Each subject was scanned in a medication-free state and after 6 weeks of 10 mg/day fixed dose olanzapine treatment. Despite the clinical improvement seen in the patients, repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that olanzapine produced no significant changes in cortical rCBF after the six-week treatment. This finding indicates that unlike typical antipsychotics olanzapine has no negative effect on cortical cerebral perfusion patterns of schizophrenic patients. PMID:12664310

  10. Schizophrenic neologism versus aphasic neologism: characteristics in writings of Japanese schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, N; Nakao, H

    1989-06-01

    Three cases of schizophrenia with ideographic neologisms in Japanese are presented and compared with aphasic neologisms reported in Japanese literature. Schizophrenic neologisms are different from aphasic neologisms in nature. The contrast becomes obvious when both are compared in Japanese writing based on the dual writing system of kanji (Chinese characters, ideogram) and kana (phonetic characters, syllabogram). PMID:2477575

  11. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.; Dowling-Zimmerman, S.; Pickar, D.; Boronow, J.; Morihisa, J.M.; van Kammen, D.P.; Carpenter, W.; Kessler, R.

    1985-01-01

    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern.

  12. Facial, vocal and musical emotion recognition is altered in paranoid schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Weisgerber, Anne; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre; De Graeuwe D'Aoust, Catherine; De Jaegere, Aline; Delatte, Benoît; Gillain, Benoît; De Longueville, Xavier; Constant, Eric

    2015-09-30

    Disturbed processing of emotional faces and voices is typically observed in schizophrenia. This deficit leads to impaired social cognition and interactions. In this study, we investigated whether impaired processing of emotions also affects musical stimuli, which are widely present in daily life and known for their emotional impact. Thirty schizophrenic patients and 30 matched healthy controls evaluated the emotional content of musical, vocal and facial stimuli. Schizophrenic patients are less accurate than healthy controls in recognizing emotion in music, voices and faces. Our results confirm impaired recognition of emotion in voice and face stimuli in schizophrenic patients and extend this observation to the recognition of emotion in musical stimuli. PMID:26210647

  13. The meaning of pharmacological treatment for schizophrenic patients1

    PubMed Central

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to understand the meaning of medication therapy for schizophrenic patients and formulate a theoretical model about the study phenomenon. METHOD: a qualitative approach was employed, using Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical and Grounded Theory as the methodological framework. The research was developed between 2008 and 2010 at three community mental health services in the interior of the State of São Paulo - Brazil. Thirty-six patients and thirty-six family members were selected through theoretical sampling. The data were mainly collected through open interviews and observation and simultaneously analyzed through open, axial and selective coding. RESULTS: the meaning of the pharmacotherapy is centered on the phenomenon "Living with a help that bothers", which expresses the patients' ambivalence towards the medication and determines their decision making. The insight, access, limitations for self-administration of the drugs and interactions with family members and the health team influenced the patient's medication-related behavior. CONCLUSION: the theory presented in this study provides a comprehensive, contextualized, motivational and dynamic understanding of the relation the patient experiences and indicates potentials and barriers to follow the medication treatment. PMID:25296152

  14. Protective Effects of Quetiapine on Metabolic and Inflammatory Abnormalities in Schizophrenic Patients during Exacerbated Stage.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Chen; Ko, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Sheng-Chiang; Liu, Yia-Ping

    2016-04-30

    Inflammation has been considered important in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Increasing evidence reveals that patients with schizophrenia have abnormal expression of cytokines, which are related to development of metabolic abnormalities. Metabolic abnormality has become a critical issue, though its longitudinal relationship with the disorder, such as the antipsychotics influence, is unclear. We aimed to investigate whether abnormalities of metabolic parameters and cytokine levels in acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients existed, and whether intervention of antipsychotic could help. The present study analyzed peripheral cytokines and metabolic/hemodynamic parameters in healthy controls and acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients hospitalized for three weeks under the unique treatment of quetiapine, a well-known second-generation antipsychotic. Our results showed that patients with schizophrenia were predisposed to metabolic abnormalities in acute exacerbation, including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). The patients were also prone to dysglycemia, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels, and higher blood pressure with concomitant of elevation of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in which IL-6 was associated with BMI. After quetiapine treatment, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 remained higher than the controls, but IL-10 was significantly decreased in follow-up comparison. Glycemic-related indexes, HDL-c and IL-10 levels were significantly changed by variance analysis. Results of the present study imply that acute exacerbated schizophrenic patients with metabolism abnormalities may involve disruption of expression of cytokines, and that quetiapine may have therapeutic effects. Nonetheless, metabolism parameters of patients undergoing treatment with quetiapine should be closely monitored. PMID:27080462

  15. Season of birth of siblings of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Pulver, A E; Liang, K Y; Wolyniec, P S; McGrath, J; Melton, B A; Adler, L; Childs, B

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis that mothers of winter-spring-born schizophrenics have an unusual pattern of conception which results in an excess of winter-spring births was tested by studying the distribution of birth-dates of 401 siblings of 120 winter-spring-born schizophrenics and 157 siblings of 59 winter-spring-born controls. All analyses were gender-specific. The results suggest there is no association between the probability of a winter-spring date of birth and being a sibling of a winter-spring-born schizophrenic or control. PMID:1544015

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika I; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2016-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite with neurotropic characteristics that can mediate neurodevelopmental disorders, including mental, behavioral and personality aspects of their hosts. Therefore, the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies has been studied in patients with different neurological disorders from different localities. On searching online databases, however, we could not find published studies on the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies among patients with neurodevelopmental disorders in Egypt. Therefore, the present preliminary study was conducted to determine the serological profile of T. gondii infection among patients with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders in Alexandria, Egypt. Data and blood samples were collected from 188 patients recruited for the study from four mental rehabilitation centers in the period from July 2014 to March 2015. The overall seropositivity rates of IgM and IgG among patients were 16.5% (31/188) and 50.0% (94/188), respectively. Of the studied patients' characteristics, only age was significantly associated with anti-Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity, with older patients being about twice more likely exposed to infection. However, no statistically significant association was found with IgM. In addition, seropositivity of anti-Toxoplasma IgG, but not IgM, was significantly associated with non-schizophrenic neurodevelopmental disorders; however, neither IgG nor IgM showed a significant association with cognitive impairment as indicated by the intelligence quotient scores. PMID:26656562

  17. [Nursing experience with a schizophrenic breast cancer patient after mastectomy].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Rong; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2014-10-01

    This case study used cognitive therapy to improve the life quality of a 46-year-old woman with chronic schizophrenia who had undergone a mastectomy for breast cancer. This case had suffered from schizophrenia for over 24 years and was hospitalized in the chronic ward of our hospital. Breast cancer was revealed during an annual comprehensive physical checkup. In May 2012, this case received a right mastectomy at a local hospital. After the surgery, she was readmitted to the psychiatric acute ward for further care from May 30th to August 28th, 2012. A holistic nursing assessment was conducted that addressed five major aspects. The major nursing problems found during hospitalization were: acute pain, body image disturbance, and low self-esteem. A decline in pain score from 10 to 4 was achieved by developing rapport with the patient, empathizing with her distress, and providing active care to the wound. Her body image changed because of loosing her breast. Her acceptance of the loss improved through helping her to explore her feelings of change. To improve her self-esteem, we offered cognitive therapy to change her negative thinking process. She became more sanguine and cheerful. Moreover, her dependence in terms of activities of daily living decreased. This individualized intervention contributed to the recovery of a post-mastectomy, schizophrenic patient from low self-esteem. PMID:25271038

  18. A retrospective study of clozapine and electroencephalographic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sun-Ju; Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kang, Ung-Gu; Koo, Young-Jin; Ha, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Gun; Kim, Yong-Sik

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence and nature of clozapine-associated electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities and the relationship between EEG abnormality and clozapine dosage in Korean schizophrenic patients. Fifty schizophrenic patients with normal baseline EEG and with additional EEG record examined during clozapine treatment more than once were included. Thirty-one patients (62%) showed abnormal EEGs after clozapine treatment, and two of them had seizures. The majority of EEG abnormalities presented as nonspecific slow waves (SW). Spikes (or spike and wave complexes; SP) and frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) were relatively rarely observed. The probability of EEG abnormality was linearly dependent on the daily dose of clozapine and patient's age. Our results can be summarized as follows: (1) a substantial proportion of Korean patients treated with clozapine develops EEG abnormalities, and its incidence is comparable to the published results in Caucasian patients; (2) EEG abnormalities occurred in a dose-dependent manner; and (3) the occurrence of EEG abnormalities did not necessarily lead to future seizure development, except in a small number of cases. PMID:11853104

  19. Token Reinforcement Therapeutic Approach is More Effective than Exercise for Controlling Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gholipour, A; Abolghasemi, SH; Gholinia, K; Taheri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise and token-behavior therapy on the negative symptoms of schizophrenic patients. Objective: Comparison of the effectiveness of exercise and token-behavior therapy on the negative symptoms of schizophrenic patients. Methods: This research was a randomized controlled clinical trial that was done on 45 schizophrenic patients, hospitalized in Rasht, Iran. Through systematic random allocation, the samples were placed in one control and two intervention groups, 15 patients in each. To assess the negative symptoms, the scale for the assessment of negative symptoms (SANS) was used. The effect of the interventions used (exercise and token-behavior therapy) was studied by completing the relevant checklists before and after using the interventions, and then, by comparing it with that of the studied control group. In order to analyze the collected data, one way ANOVA and Bonferroni's test and SPSS software were used. Results: Analyses showed that the token reinforcement approach was highly and significantly more effective than exercise for reducing the negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients (–36 ± 7 vs. –21 ± 8, respectively; P<0.001). Exercise was also shown to have a highly significant advantage over no therapy, in controls, to improve the negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients (–25 ± 8 vs. 0.2 ± 1.08, respectively; P<0.001). Conclusion: Both exercise and token-behavior therapies, along with drug treatment, are very effective in reducing the negative symptoms of schizophrenia; but the impact of token therapy issignificantly higher. PMID:22891147

  20. Compromised small-world efficiency of structural brain networks in schizophrenic patients and their unaffected parents.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hao; Tian, Lin; Wang, Qifeng; Zhao, Qiang; Yue, Weihua; Yan, Jun; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Dai

    2015-06-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that efficient information integration between brain regions is disrupted in schizophrenia. Abnormalities in white matter tracts that interconnect brain regions may be directly relevant to this pathophysiological process. As a complex mental disorder with high heritability, mapping abnormalities in patients and their first-degree relatives may help to disentangle the risk factors for schizophrenia. We established a weighted network model of white matter connections using diffusion tensor imaging in 25 nuclear families with schizophrenic probands (19 patients and 41 unaffected parents) and two unrelated groups of normal controls (24 controls matched with patients and 26 controls matched with relatives). The patient group showed lower global efficiency and local efficiency. The decreased regional efficiency was localized in hubs such as the bilateral frontal cortices, bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, and left precuneus. The global efficiency was negatively correlated with cognition scores derived from a 5-factor model of schizophrenic psychopathology. We also found that unaffected parents displayed decreased regional efficiency in the right temporal cortices, left supplementary motor area, left superior temporal pole, and left thalamus. The global efficiency tended to be lower in unaffected parents. Our data suggest that (1) the global efficiency loss in neuroanatomical networks may be associated with the cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia; and (2) genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia may influence the anatomical organization of an individual's brain networks. PMID:25813916

  1. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  2. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  3. What happens in the leucotomised brain? A postmortem morphological study of brains from schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Pakkenberg, B

    1989-01-01

    Volume measurements were carried out on 19 brains from leucotomised schizophrenic patients and 20 age- and sex-matched controls using a stereological method. The volume of the total fixed brain, hemispheres, cortex, white matter, and central grey matter were all significantly reduced compared with controls. White matter and central grey structures were significantly reduced compared with a group of non-leucotomised schizophrenic brains. No difference was found in the size of the lesions in patients who improved compared with the patients who remained unchanged and the outcome was unrelated to lesional asymmetry. Morphometric measurements were correlated to a number of clinical parameters. PMID:2703834

  4. Reduced high affinity cholecystokinin binding in hippocampus and frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Farmery, S.M.; Owen, F.; Poulter, M.; Crow, T.J.

    1985-02-04

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) binding sites were assessed in post-mortem brain membrane preparations from controls and schizophrenic patients. /sup 125/ I-BH CCK/sub 33/ specific binding was reduced by 40% (p < 0.02) in the hippocampus and by 20% (p < 0.01) in the frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients compared with controls. There were no differences in /sup 125/I-BH CCK/sub 33/ binding between the two groups in the amygdala, temporal cortex or caudate nucleus. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  5. [Development of a proverb test for assessment of concrete thinking problems in schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Barth, A; Küfferle, B

    2001-11-01

    Concretism is considered an important aspect of schizophrenic thought disorder. Traditionally it is measured using the method of proverb interpretation, in which metaphoric proverbs are presented with the request that the subject tell its meaning. Interpretations are recorded and scored on concretistic tendencies. However, this method has two problems: its reliability is doubtful and it is rather complicated to perform. In this paper, a new version of a multiple choice proverb test is presented which can solve these problems in a reliable and economic manner. Using the new test, it is has been shown that schizophrenic patients have greater deficits in proverb interpretation than depressive patients. PMID:11758092

  6. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Altered oxygen metabolism associated to neurogenesis of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from a schizophrenic patient.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Bruna da Silveira; de Moraes Maciel, Renata; Galina, Antonio; Souza da Silveira, Mariana; dos Santos Souza, Cleide; Drummond, Hannah; Nascimento Pozzatto, Ernesto; Silva, Hamilton; Chicaybam, Leonardo; Massuda, Raffael; Setti-Perdigo, Pedro; Bonamino, Martin; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo Silva; Castro, Newton Gonalves; Brentani, Helena; Rehen, Stevens Kastrup

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been defined as a neurodevelopmental disease that causes changes in the process of thoughts, perceptions, and emotions, usually leading to a mental deterioration and affective blunting. Studies have shown altered cell respiration and oxidative stress response in schizophrenia; however, most of the knowledge has been acquired from postmortem brain analyses or from nonneural cells. Here we describe that neural cells, derived from induced pluripotent stem cells generated from skin fibroblasts of a schizophrenic patient, presented a twofold increase in extramitochondrial oxygen consumption as well as elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), when compared to controls. This difference in ROS levels was reverted by the mood stabilizer valproic acid. Our model shows evidence that metabolic changes occurring during neurogenesis are associated with schizophrenia, contributing to a better understanding of the development of the disease and highlighting potential targets for treatment and drug screening. PMID:21975034

  8. Stroop and emotional Stroop interference in unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenic and bipolar disorders: distinct markers of vulnerability?

    PubMed

    Besnier, Nathalie; Richard, Floriane; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Kaladjian, Arthur; Mazzola-Pomietto, Pascale; Adida, Marc; Azorin, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Reduced inhibition has been demonstrated in both schizophrenic and bipolar patients through the findings of increased interference on the Stroop Colour-Word Task (SCWT) and increased emotional interference on specific versions of the Emotional Stroop Task (EST). Despite previous findings of enhanced interference in unaffected relatives of schizophrenic and bipolar patients, it remains unclear whether interference might be a candidate endophenotype to both disorders. Moreover, data regarding emotional interference in unaffected relatives are critically lacking. In the present study, we aimed to compare unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenia (SZ-rel, N = 30) and bipolar disorder (BD-rel, N= 30) with normal controls (N = 60) when performing the SCWT and an EST designed with neutral, depressive, paranoid and manic words. SZ-rel exhibited greater interference effect on both the SCWT and the EST as compared to either BD-rel or normal controls. BD-rel, and by contrast to SZ-rel and controls, showed increased emotional interference effect on the EST that was specifically associated to the disease-related words. The findings support the hypothesis of different markers of vulnerability to schizophrenic and bipolar disorders; impairment in cognitive inhibition could characterize high-risk individuals for schizophrenia whereas an emotional bias towards mood-related information could be a trait marker of bipolar disease. PMID:19707957

  9. The effects of psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Salomé, F; Boyer, P; Fayol, M

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this survey is to present an overview of research into psychopharmacology as regards the effects of different psychoactive drugs and neuroleptics (NL) on language in normal subjects and schizophrenic patients. Eighteen studies that have investigated the effects of different drugs (alcohol, amphetamines, secobarbital, L-dopa, psilocybin, ketamine, fenfluramine) and neuroleptics (conventional and atypical) on language are reviewed. There are no studies concerning the effects of neuroleptics on language in healthy subjects. The results of the effects of other molecules indicate that language production can be increased (alcohol, amphetamine, secobarbital), rendered more complex (d-amphetamine), more focused (L-dopa) or more unfocused (psilocybin) and clearly impaired (ketamine). For schizophrenic patients, most studies show that conventional neuroleptic treatments, at a therapeutic dosage and in acute or chronic mode, reduce language disorders at all levels (clinic, linguistic, psycholinguistic). In conjunction with other molecules, the classical NL, when administered at a moderate dosage and in chronic mode, modify language in schizophrenia, either by improving the verbal flow and reducing pauses and positive thought disorder (NL + amphetamine) or by inducing an impairment in the language measurements (NL + fenfluramine). Clinical, methodological and theoretical considerations of results are debated in the framework of schizophrenic language disorders. PMID:11175923

  10. Schizophrenic Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings Share Increased Resting-State Connectivity in the Task-Negative Network but Not Its Anticorrelated Task-Positive Network

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haihong; Kaneko, Yoshio; Ouyang, Xuan; Li, Li; Hao, Yihui; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Jiang, Tianzi; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Zhening

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abnormal connectivity of the anticorrelated intrinsic networks, the task-negative network (TNN), and the task-positive network (TPN) is implicated in schizophrenia. Comparisons between schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings enable further understanding of illness susceptibility and pathophysiology. We examined the resting-state connectivity differences in the intrinsic networks between schizophrenic patients, their unaffected siblings, and healthy controls. Methods: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were obtained from 25 individuals in each subject group. The posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were used as seed regions to identify the TNN and TPN through functional connectivity analysis. Interregional connectivity strengths were analyzed using overlapped intrinsic networks composed of regions common to all subject groups. Results: Schizophrenic patients and their unaffected siblings showed increased connectivity in the TNN between the bilateral inferior temporal gyri. By contrast, schizophrenic patients alone demonstrated increased connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus and left inferior temporal gyrus and between the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and right lateral parietal cortex in the TNN. Schizophrenic patients exhibited increased connectivity between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus in the TPN relative to their unaffected siblings, though this trend only approached statistical significance in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Resting-state hyperconnectivity of the intrinsic networks may disrupt network coordination and thereby contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Similar, though milder, hyperconnectivity of the TNN in unaffected siblings of schizophrenic patients may contribute to the identification of schizophrenia endophenotypes and ultimately to the determination of schizophrenia risk genes. PMID:20595202

  11. Smoking in schizophrenic patients: A critique of the self-medication hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Manzella, Francesca; Maloney, Susan E; Taylor, George T

    2015-01-01

    A common remark among laypeople, and notably also among mental health workers, is that individuals with mental illnesses use drugs as self-medication to allay clinical symptoms and the side effects of drug treatments. Roots of the self-medication concept in psychiatry date back at least to the 1980s. Observations that rates of smokers in schizophrenic patients are multiple times the rates for regular smoking in the general population, as well as those with other disorders, proved particularly tempting for a self-medication explanation. Additional evidence came from experiments with animal models exposed to nicotine and the identification of neurobiological mechanisms suggesting self-medication with smoking is a plausible idea. More recently, results from studies comparing smoking and non-smoking schizophrenic patients have led to the questioning of the self-medication hypothesis. Closer examination of the literature points to the possibility that smoking is less beneficial on schizophrenic symptomology than generally assumed while clearly increasing the risk of cancer and other smoking-related diseases responsible for early mortality. It is a good time to examine the evidence for the self-medication concept as it relates to smoking. Our approach is to focus on data addressing direct or implied predictions of the hypothesis in schizophrenic smokers. PMID:25815253

  12. Decreased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in schizophrenic patients with deficit syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Esra Soydaş; Albayrak, Yakup; Beyazyüz, Murat; Aksoy, Nurkan; Kuloglu, Murat; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a well-established neurotrophin that plays a role in the pathophysiology of numerous psychiatric disorders. Many studies have investigated the serum BDNF levels in patients with schizophrenia. However, there are restricted data in the literature that compare the serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit and nondeficit syndromes. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum BDNF levels between schizophrenic patients with deficit or nondeficit syndrome and healthy controls. Methods After fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 patients with schizophrenia and 36 healthy controls were included in the study. The patients were grouped as deficit syndrome (N=23) and nondeficit syndrome (N=35) according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. Three groups were compared in terms of the sociodemographic and clinical variants and serum BDNF levels. Results The groups were similar in terms of age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. The serum BDNF levels in patients with deficit syndrome were significantly lower than those in healthy controls. In contrast, the serum BDNF levels in patients with nondeficit syndrome were similar to those in healthy controls. Conclusion This study suggests that decreased BDNF levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenic patients with deficit syndrome. Nonetheless, additional studies using a larger patient sample size are needed to investigate the serum BDNF levels in schizophrenic patients with deficit syndrome. PMID:25848285

  13. Case study of a schizophrenic patient during social skills training in a forensic psychiatry ward.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J; Brand, H J; Hanekom, J M

    1993-02-01

    A schizophrenic patient's behaviour was monitored over 12 weeks using the Assessment Schedule and Adult Training Instrument, the patient's self-reports of his symptoms of anxiety, scores on the Social Behaviour Schedule, and the frequency of nocturnal enuresis. Contrary to expectations, the patient's functioning deteriorated generally, with the exception that the trend of deteriorating behaviour, as assessed by hospital staff, appeared to have slowed down during a period involving activities out of the ward. PMID:8451360

  14. Neuropsychology, social cognition and global functioning among bipolar, schizophrenic patients and healthy controls: preliminary data

    PubMed Central

    Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo A.; Fiorentini, Alessio; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Serati, Marta; Orsenigo, Giulia; Grillo, Paolo; Zago, Stefano; Caldiroli, Alice; Prunas, Cecilia; Giusti, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Altamura, A. Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic (SKZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan; it includes stabilized SKZ patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and HC (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB) that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however, the differences did not influence the results. BD patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to SKZ patients, even in “ecological” tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p < 0.0038) and BACS symbol coding (p < 0.0043). Regarding the ESCB tests, in the Hotel task SKZ patients completed significantly less tasks (p < 0.001), showed a greater number of errors in Multiple Errands Test (MET-HV) (p < 0.0248) and a worse performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tests (p < 0.001 for the Eyes test and Faux pas test). Both patients' groups performed significantly worse than HC. Finally, significant differences were found between the two groups in GAF scores, being greater among BD subjects (p < 0.001). GAF was correlated with BACS and ESCB scores showing the crucial role of cognitive and ecological performances in patients' global functioning. PMID:24146642

  15. Neural changes associated with appetite information processing in schizophrenic patients after 16 weeks of olanzapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Stip, E; Lungu, O V; Anselmo, K; Letourneau, G; Mendrek, A; Stip, B; Lipp, O; Lalonde, P; Bentaleb, L A

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that some atypical antipsychotics, including olanzapine, can produce unwanted metabolic side effects, weight gain and diabetes. However, neuronal correlates of change related to food information processing have not been investigated with these medications. We studied the effect of a pharmacological manipulation with an antipsychotic known to cause weight gain on metabolites, cognitive tasks and neural correlates related to food regulation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with a task requiring visual processing of appetitive stimuli in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls before and after 16 weeks of antipsychotic medication with olanzapine. In patients, the psychological and neuronal changes associated following the treatment correlated with appetite control measures and metabolite levels in fasting blood samples. After 16 weeks of olanzapine treatment, the patients gained weight, increased their waist circumference, had fewer positive schizophrenia symptoms, a reduced ghrelin plasma concentration and an increased concentration of triglycerides, insulin and leptin. In premotor area, somatosensory cortices as well as bilaterally in the fusiform gyri, the olanzapine treatment increased the neural activity related to appetitive information in schizophrenic patients to similar levels relative to healthy individuals. However, a higher increase in sensitivity to appetitive stimuli after the treatment was observed in insular cortices, amygdala and cerebellum in schizophrenic patients as compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, these changes in neuronal activity correlated with changes in some metabolites and cognitive measurements related to appetite regulation. PMID:22714121

  16. Neural changes associated with appetite information processing in schizophrenic patients after 16 weeks of olanzapine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stip, E; Lungu, O V; Anselmo, K; Letourneau, G; Mendrek, A; Stip, B; Lipp, O; Lalonde, P; Bentaleb, L A

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that some atypical antipsychotics, including olanzapine, can produce unwanted metabolic side effects, weight gain and diabetes. However, neuronal correlates of change related to food information processing have not been investigated with these medications. We studied the effect of a pharmacological manipulation with an antipsychotic known to cause weight gain on metabolites, cognitive tasks and neural correlates related to food regulation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with a task requiring visual processing of appetitive stimuli in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls before and after 16 weeks of antipsychotic medication with olanzapine. In patients, the psychological and neuronal changes associated following the treatment correlated with appetite control measures and metabolite levels in fasting blood samples. After 16 weeks of olanzapine treatment, the patients gained weight, increased their waist circumference, had fewer positive schizophrenia symptoms, a reduced ghrelin plasma concentration and an increased concentration of triglycerides, insulin and leptin. In premotor area, somatosensory cortices as well as bilaterally in the fusiform gyri, the olanzapine treatment increased the neural activity related to appetitive information in schizophrenic patients to similar levels relative to healthy individuals. However, a higher increase in sensitivity to appetitive stimuli after the treatment was observed in insular cortices, amygdala and cerebellum in schizophrenic patients as compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, these changes in neuronal activity correlated with changes in some metabolites and cognitive measurements related to appetite regulation. PMID:22714121

  17. The relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Asgharnejad Farid, Aliasghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a disorder with psychotic symptoms that severely affects personal performance. Assessing problem- focused strategies and quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia may help the clinicians to use appropriate interventions. This study was conducted to find the relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenic patients who referred to the clinic of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: Non-random sampling was used in two stages (quota and convenience sampling). Data were collected through Demographic Questionnaire, 5-point Likert-type scale World Health Organization Quality of Life and Problem-Focused Strategies Standard Questionnaire. Four dimensions of QoL which were assessed among schizophrenic patients were as follows: Physical health, mental health, social relationships and environmental factors. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression were used for data analysis. Results: The highest mean score (Mean= 2.7) belonged to environmental factors and the lowest score to social relationships (Mean= 2.55). Overall, there was a significant direct relationship between the QoL and problem-focused coping strategies (p= 0.024, r= 0.319). Conclusion: The Schizophrenic patients who used more problem- focused coping strategies had better QoL. Therefore, it is important to take into account problem- focus coping strategies when treating the patients. The application of this research will be crucial to clinicians and healthcare executives. PMID:26913251

  18. Differential activation of temporal cortex during sentence completion in schizophrenic patients with and without formal thought disorder.

    PubMed

    Kircher, T T; Bulimore, E T; Brammer, M J; Williams, S C; Broome, M R; Murray, R M; McGuire, P K

    2001-05-30

    The neural correlates of processing linguistic context in schizophrenic patients with formal thought disorder (FTD) were examined. Six right-handed male patients with prominent 'positive' FTD were compared with six schizophrenic patients without FTD and seven volunteers, matched for cognitive and demographic variables. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI) was used to measure cerebral activation while subjects read and completed sentence stems out loud. During a GENERATION condition, subjects were required to generate a word which completed the sentence stem appropriately. During a DECISION condition, subjects selected and articulated one of two presented terminal words. A READING condition served as baseline. The three conditions were compared with each other. Regions activated were identified in each group, and between-group differences were detected using an ANCOVA. When GENERATION was compared with READING, FTD patients showed less activation in the right superior temporal gyrus than patients without FTD or controls, but greater activation in the left inferior frontal, inferior temporal and fusiform gyri. FTD patients also showed an attenuated right temporal response when GENERATION was compared with DECISION. This differential engagement of the right temporal cortex was independent of differences in the speed or accuracy of responses, whereas the left fronto-temporal differences in activation were not evident after covarying for task errors. The attenuated engagement of right temporal cortex, which is implicated in language comprehension at the discourse level, is consistent with neuropsychological evidence linking thought disorder with deficits in processing linguistic context. PMID:11378312

  19. Driving simulator performance and psychomotor functions of schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Brunnauer, Alexander; Laux, Gerd; Zwick, Sarah

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the study is to compare schizophrenic inpatients under antipsychotic monotherapy regarding simulated driving behaviour and psychomotor functions related to driving ability. Schizophrenic inpatients (n = 80) were tested before discharge to outpatient treatment. Data were collected with the computerized Act & React Testsystem and the Wiener Testsystem measuring visual perception, reaction time, attention, vigilance and stress-tolerance. Besides, patients underwent various driving simulations on a static driving simulator (FT-SR 200). Before discharge to outpatient treatment, about 25% of schizophrenic patients must be considered as severely impaired with respect to driving skills. Differences between treatment groups could be shown both in psychomotor measures and in driving simulator performance with a better test performance of patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Controlling for age, psychopathologic symptoms and extrapyramidal signs, differences in psychomotor measures were most pronounced in concentration and vigilance. As mental disorders itself pose an increased risk of accidents, counselling patients with respect to differential effects of antipsychotic treatment is of great relevance. In addition to psychomotor tests computer-simulated driving seems to be a useful tool in assessing traffic safety under pharmacologic treatment. PMID:19593580

  20. Effects of olanzapine and haloperidol on serum prolactin levels in male schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Esel, E; Basturk, M; Saffet Gonul, A; Kula, M; Tayfun Turan, M; Yabanoglu, I; Sofuoglu, S

    2001-08-01

    It has been proposed that new atypical antipsychotics cause minimal prolactin (PRL) elevation compared to traditional antipsychotic agents because they spare dopamine blockade within the brain's tuberoinfundibular tract. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of olanzapine and haloperidol on PRL secretion in male schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine male schizophrenic inpatients were included in the study. Fifteen of them were given olanzapine in a fixed dose of 10 mg/day PO and 14 of them were given haloperidol in a fixed dose of 10 mg/day PO for 6 weeks after a 2-week drug washout period. Fifteen age-matched healthy control subjects were used as control group. PRL levels were measured both before and after the 6-week treatment period in the patients. At the end of the 6th week, the PRL values observed with olanzapine treatment were significantly less than those observed with haloperidol, but not different from those of the controls. There was a significant positive correlation between the PRL values and the severity of extrapyramidal side effects in only the haloperidol group after the six week's treatment period. Our data indicate that short-term olanzapine treatment at doses of 10 mg/day PO causes minimal elevations in PRL secretion in male schizophrenic patients in contrast to haloperidol. This finding is consistent with the previous reports and may be attributed to olanzapine's differential effects on dopamine neurotransmission. PMID:11403983

  1. Perception of the duration of emotional faces in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Liu, Yunzhe; Tan, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    The level of emotional timing deficit is a critical determinant of daily functions and social interactions in people with schizophrenia. This study demonstrated that people with schizophrenia have significant deficits in emotional time perception. Behaviorally, while the healthy controls overestimated the duration of happy and fearful faces, the patients underestimated the duration of emotional and neutral faces. Accordingly, an online ERP index of timing—the contingent negative variation (CNV) displayed larger amplitudes for emotional faces in the controls, whereas the CNV in the patients only showed overall smaller amplitudes when compared with the controls. In addition, the results of the N170 and the CNV suggest that the emotional processing and timing for facial expressions in schizophrenia might have a pattern of two-stage deterioration. Findings from the present work point to the importance of considering the time dimension of emotional processing in schizophrenia, based on which we are likely to discover aspects of emotional deficits that would be unnoticed in other studies. Furthermore, the perception deviation of the duration of emotional faces in schizophrenia suggests us to consider the magnitude of this temporal deviation as a quantitative biomarker for specific emotional/social dysfunctions in schizophrenia. PMID:26923667

  2. Perception of the duration of emotional faces in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Liu, Yunzhe; Tan, Shuping

    2016-01-01

    The level of emotional timing deficit is a critical determinant of daily functions and social interactions in people with schizophrenia. This study demonstrated that people with schizophrenia have significant deficits in emotional time perception. Behaviorally, while the healthy controls overestimated the duration of happy and fearful faces, the patients underestimated the duration of emotional and neutral faces. Accordingly, an online ERP index of timing-the contingent negative variation (CNV) displayed larger amplitudes for emotional faces in the controls, whereas the CNV in the patients only showed overall smaller amplitudes when compared with the controls. In addition, the results of the N170 and the CNV suggest that the emotional processing and timing for facial expressions in schizophrenia might have a pattern of two-stage deterioration. Findings from the present work point to the importance of considering the time dimension of emotional processing in schizophrenia, based on which we are likely to discover aspects of emotional deficits that would be unnoticed in other studies. Furthermore, the perception deviation of the duration of emotional faces in schizophrenia suggests us to consider the magnitude of this temporal deviation as a quantitative biomarker for specific emotional/social dysfunctions in schizophrenia. PMID:26923667

  3. Effects of gluten on schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Storms, L H; Clopton, J M; Wright, C

    1982-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a cereal- and milk-free diet may be beneficial to schizophrenics and that the gluten in regular diets is harmful to schizophrenics. In an effort to replicate these findings, with improved control vehicles, patients on a locked ward were placed on a cereal- and milk-free diet. Thirteen schizophrenics were given gluten-free peanut-flour supplementary cookies and 13 were given virtually identical cookies with gluten added. Tests and rating scales before and after the ten-day study period showed no greater improvement for those receiving the gluten-free cookies than for those receiving the gluten-added cookies. Contrary to expectations, the group receiving gluten-added cookies showed significantly greater improvement of Profile on Mood States measures of tension-anxiety and anger-hostility. Previous findings were not supported. Perhaps a longer time on the diet is required for any beneficial effects to appear. PMID:7065842

  4. Effects of gluten on schizophrenics.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Storms LH; Clopton JM; Wright C

    1982-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that a cereal- and milk-free diet may be beneficial to schizophrenics and that the gluten in regular diets is harmful to schizophrenics. In an effort to replicate these findings, with improved control vehicles, patients on a locked ward were placed on a cereal- and milk-free diet. Thirteen schizophrenics were given gluten-free peanut-flour supplementary cookies and 13 were given virtually identical cookies with gluten added. Tests and rating scales before and after the ten-day study period showed no greater improvement for those receiving the gluten-free cookies than for those receiving the gluten-added cookies. Contrary to expectations, the group receiving gluten-added cookies showed significantly greater improvement of Profile on Mood States measures of tension-anxiety and anger-hostility. Previous findings were not supported. Perhaps a longer time on the diet is required for any beneficial effects to appear.

  5. A study of theory of mind in a group of schizophrenic patients using a mental verb extension task.

    PubMed

    López-Herrero, Paz; Mendoza Lara, Elvira; Muñoz López, Juana; Fresneda López, Maria Dolores; Carballo García, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    An individual has a theory of mind (ToM) if he imputes mental states to himself and others and applies this system to make predictions about the behaviours of others. Findings of cognitive impairment could help us to understand faulty processing mechanisms in schizophrenia. The proposition is that individuals with schizophrenia may be unable to internalize adequately the points of view of others. We tested 27 schizophrenic patients (ICD; WHO). The positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) was used to assess psychopathology, and the three ToM tasks--first- and second-order false belief tasks and the mental verb extension task--were administered to each subject. Patients who perform well on the ToM first and second order stories do not show problems in the verb extension task. However, the mistakes made in the first and second order stories are also reflected in the verb extension task. The group having difficulties with the first-order story presented more problems in the mental verbs task than the group showing difficulties with the second-order story. This leads us to conclude that the impairments found on the first-order false belief task are more severe and profound than those on the second-order task, and such specific deficits are also seen in the organization of verbs of knowing. It would seem that some schizophrenic patients do not impute mental states to themselves and others, and therefore use the mental verbs wrongly. PMID:17652953

  6. Anti-brain autoantibodies in the serum of schizophrenic patients: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Margari, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Mianulli, Rossana; Toto, Maddalena; Pastore, Adriana; Bizzaro, Nicola; Tampoia, Marilina

    2013-12-30

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder with a multifactorial pathogenesis where autoimmune factors may play a significant role. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of anti-brain autoantibodies in the serum of schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls. Autoantibodies against brain were detected by the immunofluorescence method, utilizing sections of rat hippocampus and hypothalamus and of monkey cerebellum. Three different fluorescence patterns were observed, staining the nucleus-cytoplasm of neurons, the neuroendothelial of blood vessel and the neurofilaments. Search for other organ-specific and non organ-specific autoantibodies was performed in all sera by indirect immunofluorescence method, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results showed a significant association between schizophrenia and anti-brain autoantibodies against the neuroendothelium of blood vessel in hypothalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum; a significant nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of neurons was assessed only for the hippocampus. No other significant association was found, except between schizophrenia and anti-nuclear autoantibodies on HEp-2 cells. In conclusion, these results support the hypothesis of a significant association between schizophrenia and circulating anti-brain autoantibodies, suggesting a diffuse reactivity against the neuroendothelium of blood vessel and highlighting a nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of the neurons of hippocampus. PMID:24103908

  7. [Impact of neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia on sexual dysfunction in male schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Konarzewska, Beata; Szulc, Agata; Popławska, Regina; Galińska, Beata; Juchnowicz, Dariusz

    2008-01-01

    Human sexual function is complex and effected in many different ways by schizophrenia and the antipsychotic drugs used in its treatment. Although not extensively researched, sexual dysfunction seems to be frequent in patients with schizophrenia, especially in men. They appear, in significant part, to be a direct consequence of dopamine antagonism, combined with indirect effects due to increased serum prolactin (PRL) concentration. All of the typical antipsychotics and risperidone can cause substantial PRL elevation. Hyperprolactinemia in male schizophrenics might decrease libido, cause anorgasmia and lead to erectile dysfunction. These sexual side effects are closely associated with the patients' willingness to take antipsychotics, and can affect compliance. PMID:18567406

  8. The cross-sectional GRAS sample: A comprehensive phenotypical data collection of schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is the collective term for an exclusively clinically diagnosed, heterogeneous group of mental disorders with still obscure biological roots. Based on the assumption that valuable information about relevant genetic and environmental disease mechanisms can be obtained by association studies on patient cohorts of ≥ 1000 patients, if performed on detailed clinical datasets and quantifiable biological readouts, we generated a new schizophrenia data base, the GRAS (Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia) data collection. GRAS is the necessary ground to study genetic causes of the schizophrenic phenotype in a 'phenotype-based genetic association study' (PGAS). This approach is different from and complementary to the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on schizophrenia. Methods For this purpose, 1085 patients were recruited between 2005 and 2010 by an invariable team of traveling investigators in a cross-sectional field study that comprised 23 German psychiatric hospitals. Additionally, chart records and discharge letters of all patients were collected. Results The corresponding dataset extracted and presented in form of an overview here, comprises biographic information, disease history, medication including side effects, and results of comprehensive cross-sectional psychopathological, neuropsychological, and neurological examinations. With >3000 data points per schizophrenic subject, this data base of living patients, who are also accessible for follow-up studies, provides a wide-ranging and standardized phenotype characterization of as yet unprecedented detail. Conclusions The GRAS data base will serve as prerequisite for PGAS, a novel approach to better understanding 'the schizophrenias' through exploring the contribution of genetic variation to the schizophrenic phenotypes. PMID:21067598

  9. [Interpersonal sensorimotor coordination dynamics in schizophrenic patients: introducing a new experimental paradigm].

    PubMed

    Lazerges, P-E; Cermolacce, M; Fakra, E; Tassy, S; Azorin, J-M; Huguet, P; Scott Kelso, J A; Oullier, O

    2011-12-01

    Compared to healthy individuals, schizophrenic patients suffer from sensorimotor disorders including problems when tracking moving targets and perceiving biological motion. Recent advances in embodied cognition and social coordination dynamics have emphasized the important role played by bodily information exchange (e.g. facial expressions, posture, and movements) in the way people interact with and mutually influence each other. These experimental studies on healthy participants provide data on sensorimotor performances of a patient that are recorded at high temporal and spatial resolutions. They should therefore be considered in studies on schizophrenic patients. These functional, quantitive and dynamic aspects of sensorimotor coordination abilities, may offer promising perspectives and could lead to a better understanding of sensorimotor disorders in schizophrenia. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new experimental paradigm in schizophrenia inspired by the field of coordination dynamics, a theoretical and experimental approach born more than 30 years ago that has recently expanded to interpersonal interactions, the so-called social coordination dynamics. In our study, we hypothesize that the sensorimotor deficits associated with schizophrenia in social interaction may be, at least partially, due to a failure to properly pick up information about the movements of other people. We therefore designed a study where healthy individuals and schizophrenic patients were asked to intentionally track the oscillations of visual targets of various social relevance using hand movements. Four different rhythmic visual stimuli varying in degree of biological relevance (form and motion) are used: [1] an oscillating dot; [2] a computer generated hand moving up and down continuously driven by a sine function; [3] pre-recorded oscillatory movements of a real hand; and [4] the hand of a real individual (behind a curtain that occluded vision of the rest of the body). Two distinct dependent variables are computed to quantify the coordination between the movements of the participants and the visual stimuli: the relative phase and the power spectrum overlap between their own movements. In this preliminary study, analyses of kinematic data revealed that schizophrenic patients had trouble synchronizing to (the more) "biological" target unlike control healthy individuals. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia may suffer from sensorimotor coordination disabilities with socially relevant visual stimuli. The novel paradigm we introduce in research on schizophrenia should allow for a better understanding of the troubles these patients encounter when interacting with other people thanks to an approach rooted and building on social coordination dynamics as well as motor and social cognition. PMID:22212838

  10. Cotard Syndrome without Depressive Symptoms in a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Pedro; Ribeiro, Ricardo; Cerqueira, João J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cotard syndrome is a rare condition characterized by nihilistic delusions concerning body or life that can be found in several neuropsychiatry conditions. It is typically associated with depressive symptoms. Method. We present a case of Cotard syndrome without depressive symptoms in the context of known paranoid schizophrenia. A literature review of Cotard syndrome in schizophrenia was performed. Results. Although there are few descriptions of this syndrome in schizophrenia, patients usually present depressive mood and psychomotor retardation, features not seen in our patient. Loss of the sense of the inner self, present in schizophrenia, could explain patient's symptomatology but neurobiological bases of this syndrome remain unclear. Conclusion. Despite not being considered in actual classifications, Cotard syndrome is still relevant and psychiatric evaluation is critical to diagnosing and treating this condition in psychiatric patients. PMID:26101683

  11. Drama therapy as a means of rehabilitation for schizophrenic patients: our impressions.

    PubMed

    Bielańska, A; Cechnicki, A; Budzyna-Dawidowski, P

    1991-10-01

    The authors describe the development of drama therapy and its place in the system of psychosocial treatment of schizophrenic patients. Organizational and therapeutic elements are illustrated with the help of work done by a group of 12 patients on an adaptation of Shakespeare's Hamlet. The aim of this form of outpatient treatment is to use the acting technique in order to make it easier for patients to improve their understanding of themselves--their feelings, motivations and behaviors--and also of other people. The participation of a professional director and the general attractiveness of this type of therapy are considered to play an important role in motivating those patients who would not benefit from traditional psychotherapy. In this form of group psychotherapy verbalization of feelings and problems are structured by the role; thus creating a safe atmosphere and greater motivation to participate. The purpose of our work is to make the roles and the play a constructive aspect of the patient's functioning. This is only possible by uniting what for a schizophrenic patient is characteristically separate, namely, internal experience with external expression. Clinical effects are documented by two case vignettes. PMID:1781487

  12. A Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT study of regional cerebral blood flow in drug-free schizophrenic patients with deficit and non-deficit syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonul, Ali Saffet; Kula, Mustafa; E?el, Ertu?rul; Tutu?, Ahmet; Sofuoglu, Seher

    2003-07-30

    Twenty-nine patients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia were categorized into deficit syndrome (n=14) and non-deficit syndrome (n=15) subgroups on the basis of the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. The patients, who had all been free of antipsychotic medication for at least 3 weeks, and 17 sex- and age-matched normal controls were studied with single-photon emission computed tomography with Tc-99m HMPAO. Age at onset, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) total scores, BPRS positive symptom subscores and duration of illness were similar between the two schizophrenic subgroups. As expected, the deficit patients had more negative symptoms than the non-deficit patients. There were no statistically significant correlations between clinical parameters and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values. The deficit syndrome subgroup showed diminished rCBF in the frontal regions bilaterally, right parietal regions and right superior temporal region compared with the control groups. Deficit patients showed significantly lower rCBF perfusion ratios in the right superior and inferior frontal cortex than did the non-deficit patients. No differences were detected between the controls and the non-deficit schizophrenic patients in terms of rCBF perfusion indices. The results of the present study confirm previous reports of different patterns of rCBF in deficit vs. non-deficit schizophrenic subgroups. PMID:12928108

  13. [Clinical structure of institutionalization in schizophrenic patients (rehabilitation aspect)].

    PubMed

    Krasik, E D; Logvinovich, G V

    1977-01-01

    The results of the studies of hospitalism formation in 173 patients with continuous-progressive schizophrenia which have been treated in the mental hospital for the period of 10-35 years, are presented. Six clinical variants of hospitalism depending upon unfavourably influencing factors of long-term isolation, inadequate medical therapy and hyperguardianship are distinguished: aspontaneous, apatho-abulic, asthenic, variant of hyperguardianship and overcautiousness, variant of a negative attitude towards a discharge, mixed. The depiction of the clinical variants of hospitalism at the remote stages of schizophrenia permits to use more differentially and effectively prophylactic measures and rehabilitative programs in relation to the patient's long-term hospitalizations. PMID:596039

  14. Effect of molindone on weight change in hospitalized schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Parent, M M; Roy, S; Sramek, J; Lawson, W; Herrera, J

    1986-11-01

    A retrospective review was conducted to assess the effect of molindone on weight. Monthly weights and neuroleptic dosages during the first three months of psychiatric hospitalization were compared between matched groups of patients receiving molindone, a combination of molindone and other neuroleptics, or other neuroleptic drugs. We found no significant differences in weight gain among the three groups. Our results challenge the common opinion that molindone can be associated with a lack of weight gain compared to other antipsychotics. PMID:3780420

  15. Social functioning and quality of life in the schizophrenic patient: advantages of amisulpride.

    PubMed

    Saleem, P; Olié, J P; Loo, H

    2002-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant social, psychological and occupational dysfunction. Not only is this distressing for the patients and their family and friends, but it also results in high indirect costs. Reintegration back into society, one of the most important aspects of quality life for schizophrenic patients and their physicians, must therefore take into account a patient's social functioning and employability, as well as improvement in symptoms. Although the typical antipsychotics are effective in managing the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, they may not alleviate other aspects of the disorder. They are also associated with extrapyramidal symptoms and other severe adverse events that have significant consequences for quality of life and compliance. The atypical antipsychotic, amisulpride, has an improved safety and tolerability profile and has been shown to be significantly more effective than placebo and haloperidol on a number of quality of life and social functioning scales, including the Global Assessment of Functioning, the Quality of Life Scale, the Functional Status Questionnaire and the Psychosocial Aptitude Rating Scale. In conclusion, amisulpride, in addition to its proven clinical efficacy, may help reintegration of the schizophrenic patient back into society. PMID:11806403

  16. 5HTTLPR polymorphism in schizophrenic patients: further support for association with violent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Bayle, F J; Leroy, S; Gourion, D; Millet, B; Olié, J P; Poirier, M F; Krebs, M O

    2003-05-15

    Previous studies testing the functional polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin-transporter gene (5HTTLPR) in various psychiatric conditions have suggested that the association could be with an intermediate phenotype, impulsivity and/or violence rather than with a diagnosis. Schizophrenia is associated with a high risk of suicide, especially in patients with high impulsivity. We examined whether this polymorphism could be associated with violent suicide and/or impulsivity in schizophrenic patients. We genotyped the 5HTTLPR polymorphism in 185 unrelated schizophrenic patients from a French Caucasian population. The genotype frequencies significantly differed between patients who made violent suicide attempts and both, those who attempted suicide with a non-violent method (P = 0.013) and those who never attempted suicide (P = 0.026). The genotypes containing the low activity "short" allele was significantly more frequent in violent suicide attempters (P = 0.007) than in non-violent suicide attempters. No evidence was found for an association either with schizophrenia itself, when compared to gender and ethnically matched controls (n = 159) or with impulsivity, assessed using Barratt's Impulsivity Scale. Although replication studies are warranted, these results in schizophrenia further support the hypothesis that 5HTTLPR polymorphism is a risk factor for violent suicidal behavior. PMID:12707931

  17. [Clinical prognosis of schizophrenic patients with cannabis addiction. Between nihilism and hope].

    PubMed

    Schnell, T

    2014-09-01

    Comorbid substance use disorders in schizophrenia are mostly associated with an unfavorable course of the disease and with difficulties in clinical management. Therefore, some therapists tend to react to these patients in a resigned manner. However, there is growing evidence for higher cognitive functioning and less severe deficits in brain morphology of these patients compared to patients without cannabis use. A common interpretation refers to relatively low vulnerability for psychosis in some of these patients, who mainly became schizophrenic because of the pro-psychotic properties of cannabis. Low vulnerability is reflected by a higher cognitive functioning; therefore, the pessimistic view of therapists seems unjustified for at least a subgroup of young patients. Provided that patients are treated in adequate therapeutic settings and that they stop using cannabis, a lower vulnerability may be associated with overall better socio-rehabilitative outcome parameters. PMID:24343109

  18. Genetic variability testing of neurodevelopmental genes in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Terzić, Tea; Kastelic, Matej; Dolžan, Vita; Plesničar, Blanka Kores

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the neurodevelopmental Disrupted In Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1 ), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NOTCH4 genes and the clinical symptoms and the occurrence of treatment-resistant schizophrenia in the Slovenian population. We included 138 schizophrenia patients, divided into treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant group and 94 healthy blood donors. All subjects were genotyped for eight polymorphisms (DISC1 rs6675281, DISC1 rs821616, NRG1 rs3735781, NRG1 rs3735782, NRG1 rs10503929, NRG1 rs3924999, BDNF rs6265, NOTCH rs367398) and investigated for associations with clinical variables. NOTCH4 rs367398 AA/AG was significantly associated with worse Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score. NOTCH4 rs367398 was not statistically significantly associated with the occurrence of treatment-resistant schizophrenia after the correction for multiple testing. Our data indicate that NOTCH4 polymorphism can influence clinical symptoms in Slovenian patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25529856

  19. Striatal D2 dopaminergic receptors assessed with positron emission tomography and (76Br)bromospiperone in untreated schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Martinot, J.L.; Peron-Magnan, P.; Huret, J.D.; Mazoyer, B.; Baron, J.C.; Boulenger, J.P.; Loc'h, C.; Maziere, B.; Caillard, V.; Loo, H.; )

    1990-01-01

    Striatal D2 dopaminergic receptors of 12 drug-free schizophrenic patients and 12 normal subjects were investigated with positron emission tomography and (76Br)bromospiperone. Patients were classified according to DSM-III criteria, and their clinical symptoms were rated according to Andreasen's negative and positive symptom scales. The ratio of striatal to cerebellar radioactivity was taken as an index of striatal D2 dopamine receptor density. There was no significant difference between the control subjects and the overall schizophrenic group and no significant relationship between this index and the symptom ratings. However, state-dependent variables could partly account for the striatal D2 receptor density variability.

  20. [The schizophrenic disorder].

    PubMed

    Bellomo, L E

    1987-12-01

    The author makes both a historical and up-to-date review of the "schizophrenic defect" concept (S.D.). He comes to the conclusion that this is the "morbid residual" or balance left as "ideo-affective" capital after every productive psychotic outbreak. The S.D. is studied in a "Medium and Long Term" Ward with prevailing statistics amounting to 33% D.E. patients plus 9% active schizophrenic patients over a total average of 100 chronic hospitalized patients. It was found out that 33% of that universe had some scattered family whereas 19% of these patients had no family at all. The latter showed strong tendency towards isolation, slovenliness and "hospitalism". They became "passive-dependent" patients. The situational framework is analyzed. Medical staff relation ships with patients, type of treatment and the illusion created by "fictitious discharge" of E.D. under no favorable psycho-environmental conditions are taken into account. Methods to improve the situation are then outlined and discussed. The following topics are considered: correct therapeutics, family therapy, sectorization, therapeutic community, transition homes (foyers), and current legislation. PMID:3330900

  1. Pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic patients: preponderance of off-label drug use.

    PubMed

    Pickar, David; Vinik, Jessie; Bartko, John J

    2008-01-01

    Multiple drug class combinations are often prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia, although antipsychotic monotherapy reflects FDA labeling and scientific justification for combinations is highly variable. This study was performed to gain current data regarding drug treatment of schizophrenia as practiced in the community and to assess the frequencies of off-label drug class combinations. 200 DSM IV-diagnosed schizophrenic patients recruited from community treatment sources participated in this cross-sectional study of community based schizophrenic patients. Drug class categories include First and Second Generation Antipsychotic drugs (FGA and SGA, respectively), mood stabilizers, antidepressants and anti-anxiety drugs. 25.5% of patients received antipsychotic monotherapy; 70% of patients received an antipsychotic and another drug class. A total of 42.5% of patients received more than one antipsychotic drug. The most common drug class combination was antipsychotic and a mood stabilizer. Stepwise linear discriminant function analysis identified the diagnosis of schizoaffective schizophrenia, history of having physically hurt someone and high scores on the General Portion of the PANSS rating scale predicted the combined use of an antipsychotic drug and a mood stabilizer. "Real world" pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia has developed its own established practice that is predominantly off-label and may have outstripped current data support. The economic implications for public sector payers are substantial as well as for the revenue of the pharmaceutical industry, whose promotion of off-label drug use is an increasingly problematic. These data are consistent with the recognition of the therapeutic limitations of both first and second generation antipsychotic drugs. PMID:18781198

  2. Evaluation of the usability of a serious game aiming to teach facial expressions to schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Isleyen, Filiz; Gulkesen, K Hakan; Cinemre, Buket; Samur, M Kemal; Zayim, Nese; Sen Kaya, Semiha

    2014-01-01

    In some psychological disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, loss of facial expression recognition skill may complicate patient's daily life. Information technology may help to develop facial expression recognition skill by educational software and games. We designed and developed an interactive web-based educational program with which we performed a usability study before investigating its effectiveness on the schizophrenia patients' ability of emotion perception. The purpose of this study is to describe the usability evaluation for a web-based game set that has been designed to teach facial expressions to schizophrenic patients. The usability study was done at two steps; first, we applied heuristic evaluation and the violations were rated in a scale from most to least severe and the major problems were solved. In the second step, think-aloud method was used and the web site was assessed by five schizophrenic patients. Eight experts participated in the heuristic evaluation, in which a total of 60 violations were identified with a mean severity of 2.77 (range: 0-4). All of the major problems (severity over 2.5) were listed and the usability problems were solved by the development team. After solving the problems, five users with a diagnosis of schizophrenia used the web site with the same scenario. They reported to have experienced minor, but different problems. In conclusion, we suggest that a combination of heuristic evaluation and think-aloud method may be an effective and efficient way for usability evaluations for the serious games that have been designed for special patient groups. PMID:25160269

  3. Impaired working speed and executive functions as frontal lobe dysfunctions in young first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Beate; Knappe, Susanne; Blanz, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to detect neuropsychological markers, such as sustained and selective attention and executive functions, which contribute to the vulnerability to schizophrenia especially in young persons. Performance was assessed in 32 siblings and children of schizophrenic patients and 32 matched controls using Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Colour-Word-Interference-Test, Trail Making Test, and d2-Concentration-Test. The first-degree relatives showed certain impairments on all four tests, in particular, slower times on all time-limited tests. These results suggest the need for more time when completing neuropsychological tasks involving selected and focused attention, as well as cognitive flexibility, as a possible indicator of genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia. PMID:16721500

  4. Identification of a missense mutation and several polymorphisms in the proenkephalin A gene of schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mikesell, M.J.; Sommer, S.S.; McMurray, C.T.

    1996-09-20

    Schizophrenia is a complex and severe disorder of unknown cause and pathophysiology. In this study, we examined the opioid hypothesis for schizophrenia at the molecular level, focusing on the dopamine-regulated proenkephalin A gene (chromosome 8q11.23-q12). We have screened 150 schizophrenic patients for sequence variations within the promoter region, entire coding sequence, and 3{prime}-untranslated region. We find one sequence change in a conserved amino acid that may be of functional significance. This mutation was found in a single schizophrenia patient but not in controls. Although several new, race-specific polymorphisms were identified, all other sequence changes appeared to be common polymorphisms, unlikely to contribute to the etiology of schizophrenia. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Microsurgical Penile Replantation after Self-inflicted Amputation in a Schizophrenic Patient: 5-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manish; Kim, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Summary: In this article, we report on the long-term follow-up of a microvascular penile replantation resulting from self-inflicted amputation in a schizophrenic patient. An interdisciplinary approach with the involvement of urology, plastic surgery, endocrinology, and psychiatry is imperative for optimal treatment of these catastrophic injuries. PMID:25878930

  6. Effect of Scopolamine Butylbromide on Clozapine-induced Hypersalivation in Schizophrenic Patients: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Ippei; Suzuki, Tatsuyo; Kishi, Taro; Kanamori, Daisuke; Hanya, Manako; Uno, Junji; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-30

    Clozapine has been demonstrated to be useful for treating refractory schizophrenia. However, hypersalivation occurs in 31.0- 97.4% of the patients treated with clozapine. Accordingly, some patients who are disturbed by their hypersalivation refuse to continue with clozapine treatment. This study investigated the efficacy of the anticholinergic agent scopolamine butylbromide against clozapine-induced hypersalivation. Five schizophrenia patients were coadministered scopolamine butylbromide (30-60 mg/ day) for 4 weeks. At the baseline and after 4 weeks' treatment, we subjectively evaluated hypersalivation using a visual analog scale and objectively assessed it using the Drooling Severity Scale and Drooling Frequency Scale. As a result, improvements in the patients' Drooling Severity Scale and Drooling Frequency Scale scores, but no improvements in their visual analog scale scores, were observed after scopolamine butylbromide treatment. These results indicate that at least some schizophrenic patients with clozapine-induced hypersalivation would benefit from scopolamine butylbromide treatment. We conclude that clozapine-induced hypersalivation is one factor of stress to patients. Subjective hypersalivation was not improved, but objective hypersalivation was, by scopolamine butylbromide treatment. However, scopolamine butylbromide and clozapine possess anticholinergic effects so clinicians should closely monitor patients who take scopolamine butylbromide. PMID:25912544

  7. Effect of apomorphine on growth hormone and prolactin secretion in schizophrenic patients, with or without oral dyskinesia, withdrawn from chronic neuroleptic therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Ettigi, P; Nair, N P; Lal, S; Cervantes, P; Guyda, H

    1976-01-01

    Serum growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) concentrations were measured after administration of the dopamine receptor agonist, apomorphine HC1 (0.75 mg subcutaneously), to 17 chronic schizophrenic patients, four of whom had an oral dyskinesia, who were withdrawn from chronic neuroleptic therapy for periods of two to 15 weeks, and in 21 control subjects (normal volunteers or physically healthy alcoholics not exposed to neuroleptics). Six of the schizophrenic patients, but none of the controls, had raised baseline levels of GH (greater than 6 ng/ml). After apomorphine all controls showed an increase in serum GH with a peak concentration of 9 ng/ml or more, whereas eight subjects withdrawn from neuroleptics showed an inadequate response (peak less than 6 ng/ml) and in two others an inadequate response was obtained on one of two trials. The peak GH concentration was significantly less after apomorphine in patients withdrawn from neuroleptics (11.90 +/- 3.19 ng/ml) compared with controls (20.80 +/- 2.11 ng/ml) (P less than 0.05). Among patients withdrawn from neuroleptics, those with an oral dyskinesia had significantly lower peak GH concentration 2.46 +/- 0.93 ng/ml) after apomorphine compared with those without (14.85 +/- 3.83 ng/ml) (P less than 0.05). There were no differences in serum PRL concentrations, before or after apomorphine administration, between patients withdrawn from neuroleptics and controls. In uncontrolled observations none of the four patients with an oral dyskinesia showed any worsening of the movement disorder after apomorphine. These data provide no evidence for supersensitivity of dopamine receptors in chronic schizophrenic patients withdrawn from chronic neuroleptic therapy. PMID:993808

  8. Central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in schizophrenic patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Halldin, C.; Sedvall, G.

    1988-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography and the carbon 11-labeled ligand raclopride, central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy in the putamen was determined in psychiatric patients treated with clinical doses of psychoactive drugs. Receptor occupancy in drug-treated patients was defined as the percent reduction of specific carbon 11-raclopride binding in relation to the expected binding in the absence of drug treatment. Clinical treatment of schizophrenic patients with 11 chemically distinct antipsychotic drugs (including both classic and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine) resulted in a 65% to 85% occupancy of D2-dopamine receptors. In a depressed patient treated with the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline, no occupancy was found. The time course for receptor occupancy and drug levels was followed after withdrawal of sulpiride or haloperidol. D2-dopamine receptor occupancy remained above 65% for many hours despite a substantial reduction of serum drug concentrations. In a sulpiride-treated patient, the dosage was reduced in four steps over a nine-week period and a curvilinear relationship was demonstrated between central D2-dopamine receptor occupancy and serum drug concentrations. The results demonstrate that clinical doses of all the currently used classes of antipsychotic drugs cause a substantial blockade of central D2-dopamine receptors in humans. This effect appears to be selective for the antipsychotics, since it was not induced by the antidepressant nortriptyline.

  9. Patterns of drug treatment of schizophrenic patients in Estonia, Spain and Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Kiivet, R A; Llerena, A; Dahl, M L; Rootslane, L; Sánchez Vega, J; Eklundh, T; Sjöqvist, F

    1995-01-01

    1. Patterns of drug treatment and the use of polypharmacy in schizophrenic in-patients were compared and evaluated in the University Teaching Hospitals of Psychiatry in Badajoz, Spain, Huddinge, Sweden, and Tartu, Estonia. 2. The medical records of up to 100 consecutively admitted patients were retrospectively reviewed using a standardized data form. 3. The male patients were significantly younger than females in all study locations, but there were no age differences between the locations. The length of stay was equal for the two series in the same hospital, but considerably longer in Tartu than in Badajoz and Huddinge. 4. The neuroleptic drugs used most commonly in Badajoz and Tartu were similar in prescription frequency and in the doses prescribed, but different from those used in Huddinge. Haloperidol was the most frequently prescribed neuroleptic in Badajoz and Tartu, accounting for one third of all neuroleptic prescriptions. In Huddinge the choice of neuroleptics was more evenly spread over several compounds. Intramuscular injections other than depot preparations were commonly used in Tartu and Badajoz, but not in Huddinge. 5. At least two neuroleptics were prescribed simultaneously on 73% of treatment days in Badajoz and 46% in both Huddinge and Tartu. The average cumulative daily doses of concomitant multiple neuroleptic treatment, expressed in chlorpromazine equivalents, were lower in Huddinge than in the other study locations and higher for male patients in Badajoz and Tartu. 6. Anticholinergics were used together with neuroleptics in 42% of treatment days in Badajoz and 30% in Huddinge as compared with 75% in Tartu. The use of anticholinergics increased in parallel to the increase in the number and the cumulative dose of concomitant neuroleptics in all study locations. 7. About 15% of patients in Badajoz and Tartu, but only 1% in Huddinge, received concomitant treatment with antidepressant drugs. The simultaneous use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines was inversely related to the number and the cumulative dose of neuroleptics in Badajoz and Tartu. In contrast, the cumulative dose and number of neuroleptics were greater, when additional benzodiazepines were prescribed in Huddinge. 8. The study in schizophrenic in-patients revealed that polypharmacy with concomitant multiple neuroleptics, additional anticholinergics and other psychotropics is an international phenomenon. PMID:8703651

  10. C3 Polymorphism Influences Circulating Levels of C3, ASP and Lipids in Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Nsaiba, Mohamed Jalloul; Lapointe, Marc; Mabrouk, Hajer; Douki, Wahiba; Gaha, Lotfi; Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude; Jrad, Besma Bel Hadj; Cianflone, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    Excessive activation of complement is associated with many diseases including schizophrenia. Investigation of C3 polymorphisms, circulating C3, cleavage product ASP/C3adesArg, and lipid metabolism. Cross-sectional analysis. C3 genotyping (CC vs GG for R102L) was performed on 434 Tunisian people consisting of 272 schizophrenic (SZ) patients and 162 control subjects. In a age- and gender-matched subgroups of the three genotypes (131 SZ and 112 NOR), plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol (C), LDL-C, HDL-C, ASP, and complement C3 were measured. C3 gene polymorphism influences BMI and plasma C3, ASP, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C among SZ patients (p < 0.05-0.0001), with increasing values demonstrated from CC (common form) to CG (heterozygote form) to GG (rare homozygote) forms. Significant correlations between plasma C3 and BMI, triglyceride, HDL-C and ASP (p < 0.05-0.0001) were observed, while ASP correlated with BMI and LDL-C (p = 0.005, p = 0.001, respectively) in SZ patients. Further, proportional conversion of C3 to ASP (%ASP/C3) also increased (p < 0.0001, GG>CG>CC). C3 polymorphisms and plasma C3, ASP and %ASP/C3 correlated with lipid parameters in this SZ population, suggesting that factors predisposing patients to schizophrenia are permissive for complement pathway activation and dyslipidemic influences. PMID:25720829

  11. Workplace violence on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ching; Wang, Jung-Der; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lin, Yi-Ping

    2007-07-01

    It has been noted that workplace violence most frequently occurs in psychiatric settings. The purpose of this study was to explore the workplace violence, including violence situation, victims' feeling, and the prevention strategies, on workers caring for long-term institutionalized schizophrenic patients in Taiwan. We conducted a face-to-face, in-depth, and semi-structured interview with 13 health care workers suffering from physical violence and/or sexual harassment by patients in 2002. First, the interviews were taped and/or paper-notes recorded, then transcribed, organized, and analyzed. Results found that all of the victims alleged they did not receive enough post-incident support, and more than a half of the victims could not call others for help during the violence. To avoid further attack, most victims offered prevention strategies which were considered valuable for establishing guidelines. However, some victims regarded workplace violence as inevitable and part of the job. The most common situations of workplace violence were during routine ward inspections, especially when the victims were alone. The most serious psychological harm was post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In conclusion, we recommended a re-engineering of the organization to a supportive and safe working environment for prevention of workplace violence in the study hospital. PMID:17690525

  12. [Structural correlation of schizophrenic thought and language disorders with delusional perception and variations of intentionality].

    PubMed

    Holm-Hadulla, R

    1988-01-01

    This study originated from a phenomenological and speech-act theoretical concept of schizophrenic concretism. An experimental study was performed showing a highly significant lack in the schizophrenic patients' ability to use metaphors correctly. Basing on the interpretation of proverbs, the hypothesis is rejected that false interpretations of schizophrenic patients are due to intermingling of personal conflicts. On the other hand, it could be shown that concretistic interpretations of proverbs represent an avoidance of conflicts. The concepts of "substitution" and "transfer" enabled us to measure pathological concreteness and "deconflictualisation". The differentiation between schizophrenic and nonpsychotic patients was found to be highly significant. In a complementary study it could be shown that the chronic schizophrenics' disability to transfer images of proverbs to an interpersonally relevant context does not differ significantly from that of patients with their first schizophrenic episode. Discussing our empirical findings, we try to show that the concretistic reduction of thought and speech is also a paradigma of delusion. The "incorrigibility" of schizophrenic delusion was seen to be based on reification of verbal signs and metaphors. After trying to show a connection between the concretistic "Lebensform" (Wittgenstein) and the disordered intentionality of schizophrenic patients, pointers towards psychotherapeutic implications are given. PMID:3345973

  13. Cognitive impairment and negative symptoms in geriatric chronic schizophrenic patients: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D; Lombardi, J; Leibman, M; White, L; Parrella, M; Powchik, P; Davidson, M

    1996-12-15

    Cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as an important aspect of schizophrenia. Since cognitive impairment has many features in common with the negative symptoms of the illness, it is possible that some of the characteristics attributed to negative symptoms are due to an association with cognitive impairments. In order to test this hypothesis, 174 chronically hospitalized geriatric schizophrenic patients were examined twice at a 1-year follow-up with ratings of the severity of their symptoms (using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale: PANSS) and assessments of cognitive functions with the Mini-Mental State Examination and a brief neuropsychological battery aimed at the typical impairments seen in dementia. Positive symptoms were unassociated with any of the cognitive variables, while negative symptom severity was correlated with each of the cognitive measures. In the cross-temporal analyses, cognitive impairments were more stable over time than negative symptom scores, but cognitive impairment did not predict the severity of any negative symptom over time. At each assessment, however, cognitive impairment was strongly correlated with each of the seven negative symptoms studied. These data indicate that cognitive impairments and negative symptoms are related, but discriminable, features in schizophrenia and that the considerable overlap between some negative symptoms and estimates of cognitive function may suggest a rethinking of the definition of some of these symptoms. PMID:9000319

  14. Lack of behavioral supersensitivity to d-amphetamine after pimozide withdrawal. A trial with schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    van Kammen, D P; Docherty, J P; Marder, S R; Schulz, S C; Bunney, W E

    1980-03-01

    The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia claims that increased dopamine activity underlies psychotic behavior. This hypothesis gets major support from the reported d-amphetamine-induced worsening of psychosis, because amphetamine increases dopamine activity in the brain. Dopamine receptor supersensitivity has been shown to be present in animals during the postneuroleptic period. In this study the postulated relationships between psychotic decompensation as observed after d-amphetamine infusion and the dopamine receptor supersensitivity expected to be present during the neuroleptic withdrawal period were examined. Twenty milligrams of d-amphetamine administered intravenously did not cause a stronger psychotogenic effect in 12 schizophrenic patients. One week after discontinuation of pimozide treatment, the d-amphetamine-induced change as indicated by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) paranoid disturbance cluster score, was not significantly different from the response to a similar infusion during the drug-free state. Unexpectedly, the increase in the BPRS mannerisms and posturing item and in the pulse rate response to d-amphetamine were decreased. These results raise questions about the role of dopamine in d-amphetamine effects and suggest postneuroleptic dopamine receptor subsensitivity. They challenge a simple dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:6102456

  15. Factors associated with the risk of relapse in schizophrenic patients after a response to electroconvulsive therapy: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Shibasaki, Chiyo; Takebayashi, Minoru; Fujita, Yasutaka; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression and schizophrenia. However, there is a high rate of relapse after an initial response to ECT, even with antidepressant or antipsychotic maintenance therapy. This study was carried out to examine the factors that influence the risk of relapse in schizophrenic patients after a response to ECT. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 43 patients with schizophrenia who received and responded to an acute ECT course. We analyzed the associated clinical variables and relapse after response to the acute ECT. Relapse was defined as a Clinical Global Impressions Improvement score ≥6 or a psychiatric rehospitalization. Results All patients were treated with neuroleptic medication after the acute ECT course. The relapse-free rate of all 43 patients at 1 year was 57.3%, and the median relapse-free period was 21.5 months. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of ECT sessions was associated with a significant increase in the risk of relapse (hazard ratio: 1.159; P=0.033). Patients who were treated with adjunctive mood stabilizers as maintenance pharmacotherapy after the response to the acute ECT course were at a lower risk of relapse than were those treated without mood stabilizers (hazard ratio: 0.257; P=0.047). Conclusion Our study on the recurrence of schizophrenia after a response to an acute ECT course suggests that the number of ECT sessions might be related to the risk of relapse and that adjunctive mood stabilizers might be effective in preventing relapse. PMID:25609968

  16. [Depressive syndromes within the scope of schizophrenic psychoses].

    PubMed

    Hinterhuber, H; Neumann, R

    1985-09-30

    In the present study two groups of 30 patients were compared. The first group included 30 acute schizophrenic patients, who were rated immediately after admission and 3 months later under depot-neuroleptics. The second group consisted of chronic schizophrenic outpatients, who were rated at the beginning of Fluphenazindecanoat-medication and 8 months later. As documentation PSE (present state examination) was used. Psychotic symptoms of the acute schizophrenic patients could be influenced well by the treatment, not in the same way, however, depressive and neurotic symptoms. The frequency of psychotic symptoms is lower in chronic schizophrenics than in acute ones at the beginning of therapy. 8 months later there are little more psychotic symptoms in chronic patients than in acute schizophrenics; the depressive symptoms follow the same design in a lower extant however. The scores of depressive symptoms in the acute-group are similar to those of chronic schizophrenics and do not change significantly in the course of 8 months lasting depot-neuroleptic therapy. Another study could show 1982, that 67 outpatients from 87 in the year 1972 still were in psychiatric care and control, 23% of them received antidepressiva because of depressive symptoms in connection with residual syndromes and only 4% because of exhaustion-syndromes after remission of the disease. PMID:3933187

  17. Morbidity risk of schizophrenia to parents and siblings of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, A; Kurachi, M; Yamaguchi, N; Torii, H; Isaki, K

    1987-03-01

    In order to estimate the familial morbidity risk of schizophrenia, parents and siblings of 1,691 inpatients meeting the DSM-III criteria for schizophrenia were investigated on the basis of a review of medical records, family history data and/or personal interviews. The morbidity risks of schizophrenia to parents and siblings of the schizophrenic probands were 4.0% and 4.1%, respectively, which were greater than the morbidity risk in the general population. Siblings of 118 probands whose parents suffered from schizophrenia were at a significantly greater risk of schizophrenia than siblings of 1,493 probands whose parents did not have schizophrenic illness. These findings support the notion of familial transmission of schizophrenia. A total of 16.4% of the schizophrenic probands had at least one first-degree relative with schizophrenia. This is significantly greater in the female probands than in the male probands. PMID:3626197

  18. Detecting Potential Adverse Reactions of Sulpiride in Schizophrenic Patients by Prescription Sequence Symmetry Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Lin, Swu-Jane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have demonstrated sulpiride to be significantly more effective than haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine in schizophrenic treatment; however, only limited information is available on the potential risks associated with sulpiride treatment. This study attempts to provide information on the potential risks of sulpiride treatment of schizophrenia, especially with regard to unexpected adverse effects. Materials and Methods Patients with schizophrenia aged 18 and older, newly prescribed with a single antipsychotic medication from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan in the period from 2003 to 2010 were included. A within-subject comparison method, prescription sequence symmetry analysis (PSSA) was employed to efficiently identify potential causal relationships while controlling for potential selection bias. Results A total of 5,750 patients, with a mean age of 39, approximately half of whom were male, constituted the study cohort. The PSSA found that sulpiride was associated with EPS (adjusted SR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.46–2.06) and hyperprolactinemia (12.04; 1.59–91.2). In comparison, EPS caused by haloperidol has a magnitude of 1.99 when analyzed with PSSA, and hyperprolactinemia caused by amisulpride has a magnitude of 8.05, respectively. Another finding was the unexpected increase in the use of stomatological corticosteroids, emollient laxatives, dermatological preparations of corticosteroids, quinolone antibacterials, and topical products for joint and muscular pain, after initiation of sulpiride treatment. Conclusions We found sulpiride to be associated with an increased risk of EPS and hyperprolactinemia, and the potential risk could be as high as that induced by haloperidol and amisulpride, respectively. Additionally, our study provides grounds for future investigations into the associations between sulpiride and the increased use of additional drugs for managing adverse effects, including stomatological, dermatological, and musculoskeletal or joint side effects, constipation, and pneumonia. PMID:24587038

  19. Nondirective counseling interventions with schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Gerwood, J B

    1993-12-01

    Counseling interventions with paranoid schizophrenics can be daunting. While chemical, directive, and behavioral controls often are considered important, nondirective counseling techniques used by the therapeutic staff may help schizophrenic patients explore their thoughts and feelings. Several nondirective concepts pioneered by Carl Rogers are examined. These methods, which represent basic concepts of the person-centered approach, are empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence. A brief illustration of an interaction with a patient diagnosed as paranoid schizophrenic is presented to suggest the effectiveness of Rogerian counseling. PMID:8115566

  20. Cognitive impairments and psychopathological parameters in patients of the schizophrenic spectrum.

    PubMed

    Kontaxaki, M-I V; Kattoulas, E; Smyrnis, N; Stefanis, N C

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia and it is considered by many researchers as one of the dimensional components of the disorder. Cognitive dysfunction occurs in 85% of schizophrenic patients and it is negatively associated with the outcome of the disorder, the psychosocial functioning of the patients, and non-compliance with treatment. Many different cognitive domains are impaired in schizophrenia, such as attention, memory, executive functions and speech. Nowadays, it is argued that apart from clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia, there is probable heterogeneity in the accompanying neurocognitive dysfunction. Recent studies for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia employ computerized assessment batteries of cognitive tests, designed to assess specific cognitive impairments. Computerized cognitive testing permits for more detailed data collection (e.g. precise timing scores of responses), eliminates researcher's measurement errors and bias, assists the manipulation of data collected, and improves reliability of measurements through standardized data collection methods. The aims of the present study are: the comparison of cognitive performance of our sample of patients and that of healthy controls, on different specific cognitive tests, and the testing for possible association between patients' psychopathological symptoms and specific cognitive impairments, using the Cogtest computerized cognitive assessment battery. 71 male inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic spectrum disorders (mean = 30.23 ± 7.71 years of age), admitted in a psychiatric unit of the First Department of Psychiatry, Athens University Medical School, Eginition Hospital (continuous admissions) were studied. Patients were excluded from the study if they suffered from severe neurological conditions, severe visual or hearing impairment, mental retardation, or if they abused alcohol or drugs. The patients' diagnoses were based on the semi-structured diagnostic interview "Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis" (DIP) and were clinically confirmed by two independent expert psychiatrists, according to the criteria of DSM-IVTM. Our healthy control group consisted of 20 healthy male participants (mean = 31.65 ± 5.90 years of age), who met the same inclusion criteria for the study as the patient group, as well as the same exclusion criteria from the study, having no history of psychiatric disorders. All statistical analyses were conducted using the statistical package SPSS.17. According to our results, healthy controls cognitively outperform our patient sample in all cognitive tests, with the differences between performances being statistically significant. Results concerning the association between psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits of our patients indicated that hallucinations, highly organized delusions, persecutory delusions, agitation, catatonia and inappropriate affect did not associate with any subtype of cognitive deficit. Blunted affect associated significantly with response inhibition ("GoNoGo test", p = 0.007), and poor speech associated significantly with declarative memory of faces ("FMT test", p = 0.002). Moreover, psychomotor ability (non-dominant hand) associated significantly with generalized delusions ("TST test", p = 0.033), and with constricted affect ("TST test", p = 0.026). Furthermore, there was a tendency towards significance association between persecutory delusions and executive function ("CPT test", p = 0.053), inappropriate affect and declarative face memory ("FMT test", p = 0.056), and psychomotor ability and poor speech (p = 0.086). PMID:24739500

  1. Enkephalin, dynorphin and substance P in postmortem substantia nigra from normals and schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Iadarola, M.J.; Ofri, D.; Kleinman, J.E. National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC )

    1991-01-01

    Three peptide neuromodulators that are found in high concentration in the subtantia nigra: dynorphin A 1,8-met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 and substance P, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays in nigral tissue from normals and schizophrenics postmortem. Substance P and dynorphin were unchanged between the two groups. However, the proenkephalin-derived peptide was significantly elevated in the schizophrenic group. The immunoreactivity was identified as authentic met5-enkephalin-arg6-gly7-leu8 by high pressure liquid chromatography. The data suggest that a different set of regulatory controls exists for nigral enkephalin peptides as compared to dynorphin and substance P, and that the former system may be disordered in schizophrenia.

  2. A Comparative Genomic Study in Schizophrenic and in Bipolar Disorder Patients, Based on Microarray Expression Profiling Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Logotheti, Marianthi; Papadodima, Olga; Venizelos, Nikolaos; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Kolisis, Fragiskos

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%–5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets. PMID:23554570

  3. Social networks, the family, and the schizophrenic patient: introduction to the issue.

    PubMed

    Beels, C C

    1978-01-01

    This article is an editor's introduction to the theme of a special issue of the Schizophrenia Bulletin. The origin of the social network concept is described. Ideology, morale, structure, and the larger social context are identified as aspects of the social network to be examined in future research. Consumer organizations of schizophrenics and their families are described, and their potential for network formation and cooperation with organized psychiatry is discussed. PMID:734364

  4. Bioequivalence of Generic and Brand Name Clozapine in Korean Schizophrenic Patients: A Randomized, Two-Period, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Young Sup; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Hun; Seo, Jeong Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Clozapine is the treatment of choice for refractory schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of the brand name (Clozaril) formulation and a generic formulation (Clzapine) of clozapine in Korean schizophrenic patients. Methods A prospective, randomized, crossover study was conducted to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetic profiles of Clozaril and Clzapine. Schizophrenic patients were randomized to receive either the brand name or generic formulation (100 mg twice daily) for 10 days, followed by the other formulation for 10 days. Plasma samples were collected on the last day of each treatment period. Results Twenty-two of 28 patients (78.6%) completed the study. The mean Cmax,ss values for Clzapine and Clozaril were 524.62 and 551.18 ng/mL, and the mean AUC0-12 values were 4479.90 hr·ng/mL and 4724.56 hr·ng/mL, respectively. The 90% CI values for the natural logarithmically transformed Cmax,ss and AUC0-12 ratios (Clzapine to Clozaril) after a single oral dose (100 mg) were 0.934 (0.849-1.028) and 0.936 (0.869-1.008), respectively. Five patients (20.8%) among 24 patients who took Clzapine reported 11 adverse events and six adverse events were reported by four patients (15.4%) among 26 who took Clozaril; there were no significant differences on physical examination or in vital signs, ECG, and laboratory tests between groups. Conclusion Generic clozapine (Clzapine) appears to be bioequivalent to brand name clozapine (Clozaril). PMID:26207129

  5. Identifying Some Risk Factors of Time to Relapses in Schizophrenic Patients using Bayesian Approach with Event-Dependent Frailty Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Maryam; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Fadaei, Farbod; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Cheraghi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Schizophrenia patients often experience relapses once and even more with no limit on number of relapses. The time among relapses are rarely considered in studies. The aim of this study was to identify some risk factors of time to elapses in schizophrenic patients with recurrent events model in survival analysis. Methods: In a retrospective longitudinal study, the medical records of 159 schizophrenic patients who referred to Razi hospital in Tehran from 2003 to 2005 were conveniently sampled, investigated and followed until the end of 2009. The time to recurrent relapses were considered in weeks. The patients with at least one relapse in this duration were included in the study. Event-dependent frailty model, using Bayesian approach, was applied to fit the data and identify the risk factors of time to relapses. Results: In this recurrent failure time model, the effects of age of onset (95% CI = (0.058, 0.086)), gender (95% CI = (0.146, 0.686)), marital status (95% CI = (0.475, 0.965)) and family history (95% CI = (0.115, 0.543)) were significant on the hazard time to relapses. According to the credible interval of frailty variance, elapsed time to relapse is dependent on patients’ characteristics (95% CI = (0.084, 0.369)). Subsequent relapses are likely to be influenced by the occurrence of the first relapse, too (95% CI = (2.504, 3.079)), with decreasing hazard of time to relapse. Conclusions: Subsequent relapses are likely dependent on the first and previous relapses. Age of onset, gender, marital status and family history are important risk factors influencing hazard of time to relapses. More studies are required to clear out the effect of other covariates with this model. PMID:26884789

  6. Progressive integrated system for the rehabilitation of long-term schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Anttinen, E E; Jokinen, R; Ojanen, M

    1985-01-01

    An integrative stepwise rehabilitation model for schizophrenics, especially those hospitalized for long periods, is described. The basic entities of this model are rehabilitation homes. The client moves from one step to the next according to their particular needs. The steps for living are: small homes, supported lodgings, rented quarters and own apartments. The steps of activities are: day care homes and day clubs, therapeutic sheltered workshop, test working, vocational training and labour market. The central rehabilitative aspects are the therapeutic community, living learning experiences, supporting of selfesteem and integrating with the social network. The psychiatric care system on the other hand and an important work of volunteers and friend services on the other support the rehabilitation. This work has shown during 14 years that the majority of clients can be rehabilitated to live as fairly independent and responsible persons. PMID:3931422

  7. Pleckstrin homology domain containing 6 protein (PLEKHA6) polymorphisms are associated with psychopathology and response to treatment in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Spellmann, Ilja; Rujescu, Dan; Musil, Richard; Meyerwas, Sebastian; Giegling, Ina; Genius, Just; Zill, Peter; Dehning, Sandra; Cerovecki, Anja; Seemller, Florian; Schennach, Rebecca; Hartmann, Annette M; Schfer, Martin; Mller, Norbert; Mller, Hans-Jrgen; Riedel, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Pleckstrin homology domain (PH domain) comprises approximately 120 amino acids and is integrated in a wide range of proteins involved in intracellular signaling or as constituents of the cytoskeleton. This domain can bind phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate and phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-biphosphate and proteins such as the ??-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and protein kinase C. Associations with psychiatric diseases have not been investigated yet. To identify genes involved in response to antipsychotics, mice were treated with haloperidol (1mg/kg, n = 11) or saline (n = 12) for one week. By analyzing microarray data, we observed an increase of pleckstrin homology domain containing 6 (PLEKHA6) gene expression. Furthermore, we genotyped 263 schizophrenic patients, who were treated monotherapeutically with different antipsychotics within randomized-controlled trials. Psychopathology was measured weekly using the PANSS for a minimum of four and a maximum of twelve weeks. Correlations between PANSS subscale scores at baseline and PANSS improvement scores after four weeks of treatment and genotypes were calculated by using a linear model for all investigated SNPs. We found associations between four PLEKHA6 polymorphisms (rs17333933 (T/G), rs3126209 (C/T), rs4951338 (A/G) and rs100900571 (T/C)) and different PANSS subscales at baseline. Furthermore two different polymorphisms (rs7513240 (T/C), rs4951353 (A/G)) were found to be associated with therapy response in terms of a significant correlation with different PANSS improvement subscores after four weeks of antipsychotic treatment. Our observation of an association between genetic polymorphisms of a protein of the PH domain and psychopathology data in schizophrenic patients might be indicative for an involvement of PLEKHA6 in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and the therapy response towards antipsychotics. PMID:24576533

  8. Response to "Effects of caffeine on behavior of schizophrenic inpatients".

    PubMed

    Hyde, A P

    1990-01-01

    This article addresses itself to the apparent conflict between those reports indicating that caffeine affects schizophrenic behavior and the present study which failed to show substantial behavior or medication changes with caffeine. It is suggested that there are important subgroups of schizophrenic patients who are unusually sensitive to caffeine's apparent psychotogenic actions as reported in case reports and data on violence and destruction. It is also suggested that there are subgroups of schizophrenia which seem to require increased medication doses to "cover" caffeine effects. PMID:1981106

  9. Schizophrenics for Whom Phenothiazines May Be Contraindicated or Unnecessary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Maurice; And Others

    In this study of young male schizophrenic patients who reported they were not taking antipsychotic medication at follow-up, those treated with placebos in contrast to those treated with chlorpromazine while hospitalized showed significantly greater long term clinical improvement, less pathology at follow-up, fewer rehospitalizations and better…

  10. Correlation between neuropsychological and social cognition measures and symptom dimensions in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Altamura, A Carlo; Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Grillo, Paolo; Prunas, Cecilia; Caldiroli, Alice; Zago, Stefano

    2015-12-15

    Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits have been largely reported in Schizophrenia (SKZ) but their association with psychopathology remains uncertain. Our purpose was to explore the relationship between symptom dimensions and neuropsychological performances. We enrolled 35 stabilized schizophrenic outpatients of the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan, who completed psychiatric Rating Scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB). Disorganized dimension seems to have the most significant impact on cognition, being associated with performance in several BACS subtests (verbal memory, working memory, motor speed, symbol coding, Tower of London) and ESCB tasks (MET and Hotel task number of tasks attempted, number of broken MET rules, sum of deviations in Hotel Task). Positive dimension correlated with performance in verbal fluency, negative dimension with IOWA Test results, cognitive dimension with MET number of inefficiencies and Eyes test score. Impulsive-aggressive and depressive dimensions weakly correlated only with Faux Pas test. Our study supports the existence of a specific disorganized dimension in SKZ, separated from cognitive dimension evaluated through clinical instruments (e.g. PANSS), but capable of influencing cognitive abilities. Furthermore, it strengthens the validity of ecological tasks in evaluating cognition in SKZ. PMID:26350702

  11. [Disease models and change in attitude of involuntarily admitted schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, J; Ulmar, G; Starzinski, T

    1995-12-01

    The attitude to illness and therapy of 28 involuntary and 31 voluntary patients admitted to a state psychiatric hospital was investigated by means of a questionnaire at the time of admission and prior to discharge. Involuntary patients have less illness consciousness, and only 17.9% of them but 67.7% of the voluntary patients show insight into their illness; they favour a medical-somatic model of illness and express less positive therapy expectations. Their whole attitude proves to be dysfunctional concerning compliance with medical treatment. Attitudes of involuntary patients changed during the hospital stay and became similar to those of voluntary patients, which hardly changed. This attitudinal change extended to illness consciousness, insight into illness and therapy expectations, whereas models of illness were found to be very stable. One third of the involuntary patients stayed in hospital voluntarily for further treatment. It is discussed that patients attitudes to illness and therapy should be taken more often into consideration and integrated into the planning of therapy. PMID:8586351

  12. Predictive Validity of Proposed Remission Criteria in First-Episode Schizophrenic Patients Responding to Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Wunderink, Lex; Nienhuis, Fokko J.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the predictive validity of the remission criteria proposed by Andreasen et al in first-episode patients responding to antipsychotics. Antipsychotic responsive patients with first-episode schizophrenia showing symptom remission (n = 60) were compared with patients who did not fulfill the proposed criteria (n = 65). Outcome in terms of symptom severity, social functioning, and quality of life was assessed after 18 months. Patients in the remission group showed a significantly better outcome during follow-up on all Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale subscale scores (positive, negative, and general symptom subscales) and a significantly higher level of social functioning. Quality of life did not differ between groups. The proposed multidimensional criteria for symptomatic remission convey significant information when applied to first-episode patients who responded to antipsychotics, predicting outcome on the domains of both psychopathology and social functioning. The criteria represent a practicable benchmark with clinical relevance. Their implementation should be promoted in research settings, clinical practice, and routine outcome assessment procedures. PMID:16894026

  13. Increased co-expression of genes harboring the damaging de novo mutations in Chinese schizophrenic patients during prenatal development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Miaoxin; Yang, Zhenxing; Hu, Xun; Wu, Hei-Man; Ni, Peiyan; Ren, Hongyan; Deng, Wei; Li, Mingli; Ma, Xiaohong; Guo, Wanjun; Zhao, Liansheng; Wang, Yingcheng; Xiang, Bo; Lei, Wei; Sham, Pak C; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a heritable, heterogeneous common psychiatric disorder. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that de novo variants (DNVs) contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We performed exome sequencing in Chinese patients (N = 45) with schizophrenia and their unaffected parents (N = 90). Forty genes were found to contain DNVs. These genes had enriched transcriptional co-expression profile in prenatal frontal cortex (Bonferroni corrected p < 9.1 × 10−3), and in prenatal temporal and parietal regions (Bonferroni corrected p < 0.03). Also, four prenatal anatomical subregions (VCF, MFC, OFC and ITC) have shown significant enrichment of connectedness in co-expression networks. Moreover, four genes (LRP1, MACF1, DICER1 and ABCA2) harboring the damaging de novo mutations are strongly prioritized as susceptibility genes by multiple evidences. Our findings in Chinese schizophrenic patients indicate the pathogenic role of DNVs, supporting the hypothesis that schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disease. PMID:26666178

  14. D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naive schizophrenic patients. A positron emission tomography study with (11C)raclopride

    SciTech Connect

    Farde, L.; Wiesel, F.A.; Stone-Elander, S.; Halldin, C.; Nordstroem, A.L.H.; Hall, H.; Sedvall, G. )

    1990-03-01

    Several groups have reported increased densities of D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia of schizophrenic brains postmortem. The significance of this finding has been questioned, since an upregulation of receptor number may be a neuronal response to neuroleptic drug treatment. We have used positron emission tomography and ({sup 11}C)raclopride to examine central D2 dopamine receptor binding in 20 healthy subjects and 18 newly admitted, young, neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia. An in vivo saturation procedure was applied for quantitative determination of D2 dopamine receptor density (Bmax) and affinity (Kd). When the two groups were compared, no significant difference in Bmax or Kd values was found in the putamen or the caudate nucleus. The hypothesis of generally elevated central D2 dopamine receptor densities in schizophrenia was thus not supported by the present findings. In the patients but not in the healthy controls, significantly higher densities were found in the left than in the right putamen but not in the caudate nucleus.

  15. Association study of T102C 5-HT2A polymorphism in schizophrenic patients: diagnosis, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Humberto; De Marco, Luiz; Boson, Wolfanga; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Antó L.; Campo, Valdir R.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between the serotonin (5-HT)2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. We studied 129 subjects who met the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia according to a structured clinicai interview (MINI-PLUS), Patients underwent a semistructured interview to assess suicide attempt history and its characteristics, in addition, at least one close relative of the patient was interviewed to assess prohand and family suicidal behavior. Healthy controls were students and hospital staff members free of psychiatric and medical illness. Genotypes were determined after polymerase chain reaction amplification of the region of 5-HT2A/T102C containing the polymorphic site and digestion with the restriction enzyme Hpall, We found no association between suicidal attempt history and suicide attempt characteristics and genotypic or aileie frequencies. Suicidal behavior was also not associated with demographic or psychopathological characteristics. These results suggest that the S-HT2A gene polymorphism (102T/C) is not involved in genetic susceptibility to suicidal behavior, but further studies in a larger sample are needed. PMID:17506229

  16. Determination of Drugs in Plasma Samples by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Schizophrenic Patients.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Pinto, Mônia Aparecida Lemos; de Souza, Israel Donizeti; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecilio; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia Costa

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development of a simple, sensitive and selective method based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) to determine antipsychotics (olanzapine, quetiapine, clozapine, haloperidol and chlorpromazine) along with antidepressants (mirtazapine, paroxetine, citalopram, sertraline, imipramine, clomipramine and fluoxetine), anticonvulsants (carbamazepine and lamotrigine) and anxiolytics (diazepam and clonazepam) in plasma samples obtained from schizophrenic patients. The samples were prepared by protein precipitation. The target drugs were separated on an XSelect SCH C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm × 2.5 µm) within 8.0 min by means of gradient elution. The drugs were then detected on a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source, operating in the multiple reactions monitoring mode and in the positive ionization mode. The LC-MS-MS method was linear range from subtherapeutic to toxic concentrations with lower limit of quantification values ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng mL(-1), precision with coefficient of variation values lower than 12%, and accuracy ranged from 90 to 108%. The developed method enabled successful analysis of the target drugs in plasma samples obtained from 51 schizophrenic patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring revealed that many of the evaluated schizophrenic patients presented altered plasma concentrations of the analyzed drugs. These altered concentrations resulted from pharmacokinetic interactions among the medications prescribed to treat schizophrenia. PMID:26333987

  17. [Which schizophrenic patients improve under work therapy, which ones don't?].

    PubMed

    Wiedl, K H; Kemper, K; Uhlhorn, S; Schöttke, H

    2005-11-01

    This investigation is part of a multicenter study, where only small effects and no superiority compared to creative ergotherapy was found for four weeks of inpatient work therapy. The criteria were three scales of the Osnabrück-Working Capabilities Profile (O-AFP) assessing basic learning ability, social communication ability and adaptation at the work place. The goal of this investigation is to identify subgroups of patients within the work therapy group, which differ in their course of ability level during the intervention. Three subgroups were identified for each scale. Subgroups with improvements comprise 24 % (learning ability) and 15 % (social communication) of the sample. Adaptation level decreases in a group of 9 % of the patients. The remaining clusters show constancy of abilities at different levels. Comparison of the clusters with neurocognitive, symptom and motivational variables shows that for learning ability mainly neurocognitive variables yield salient differences, whereas for social communication abilities, symptoms and motivation, together with a specific aspect of memory, seem to be characteristic. Only positive symptoms are related to adaptation. Also, there are hints for variables that specifically characterize patients with improvement of ability level. The discussion deals with issues of assessment and prognosis in rehabilitation, contributions to the neurocognitive theory of schizophrenia and to the development of person-centered interventions. PMID:16283611

  18. Analysis of clozapine response and polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) in schizophrenic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shaikh, S.; Collier, D.A.; Sham, P.

    1995-12-18

    We have examined the hypothesis that a variable number of tandem repeats in the third cytoplasmic loop of the dopamine D4 receptor influences clinical response to clozapine using a sample of 189 schizophrenic patients. Alleles of the 48-bp repeat, which range from two to ten copies in the normal human population, were analysed by the polymerase chain reaction using genomic DNA as template. Association between these alleles and response to clozapine was tested using the difference in pre- and post-treatment GAS scores as a measure of response. We found no statistically significant variation between genotypic groups and response by analysis of variance. We conclude that the variation of the number of 48-bp repeats alone does not determine response to clozapine. Larger studies are underway to determine if there is a more subtle relationship with sequence variation within the repeats or at other polymorphic sites within the gene that may provide evidence for a component of clozapine`s action being at D4 receptors. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Interrater reliability levels of multiple clinical examiners in the evaluation of a schizophrenic patient: quality of life, level of functioning, and neuropsychological symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, D V; Rosenheck, R; Showalter, D; Charney, D; Cramer, J

    1999-05-01

    Sir Ronald Fisher used a single-subject design to derive the concepts of appropriate research design, randomization, sensitivity, and tests of statistical significance. The seminal work of Broca demonstrated that valid and generalizable findings can and have emerged from studies of a single patient in neuropsychology. In order to assess the reliability and/or validity of any clinical phenomena that derive from single subject research, it becomes necessary to apply appropriate biostatistical methodology. The authors develop just such an approach and apply it successfully to the evaluation of the functioning, quality of life, and neuropsychological symptomatology of a single schizophrenic patient. PMID:10949157

  20. Different patterns of sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. Results of an investigation by semistructured interview of schizophrenic and neurotic patients and methadone-substituted opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Teusch, L; Scherbaum, N; Böhme, H; Bender, S; Eschmann-Mehl, G; Gastpar, M

    1995-05-01

    Little is known about sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. In the present study schizophrenic patients (n = 45, mostly under neuroleptic treatment), neurotic patients (n = 50, mostly treated without medication), methadone-substituted opiate addicts (n = 37), and normal controls (n = 41) were included. They were interviewed with the aid of a sex-differentiated semistructured questionnaire on sexual function. All the methadone-substituted opiate addicts and nearly all the schizophrenic patients suffered from dysfunctions in at least one criterion. The three clinical groups differed significantly from the controls in sexual interest, emotional arousal, physiological arousal (erectile function/vaginal lubrication), performance (ejaculatory function/vaginism, dyspareunia), and orgasm satisfaction. Characteristic patterns of dysfunction were found in the male patients. The schizophrenic patients had significantly more dysfunctions of interest, physiological arousal, performance, and orgasm than the controls. Emotional arousal, erectile and ejaculatory functions, and orgasm satisfaction were impaired more frequently in the male schizophrenics than in the neurotic patients. Reduced sexual interest, emotional arousal, and orgasm satisfaction were reported more frequently by the methadone-substituted opiate addicts than by the neurotic men. Emotional arousal was even more frequently reduced than in the schizophrenic men. There was no correlation between sexual dysfunction and particular neuroleptics or neuroleptic or methadone dosage. The results are compared with the literature and suggestions made for further investigations. PMID:7568370

  1. Neuroleptic-resistant schizophrenic patients treated by clozapine: clinical evolution, plasma and red blood cell clozapine and desmethylclozapine levels.

    PubMed

    Aymard, N; Baldacci, C; Leyris, A; Smagghe, P O; Tribolet, S; Vacheron, M N; Viala, A; Caroli, F

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this open study was to determine a more rational therapeutic approach for psychotic patients treated with clozapine for several months, using measurement of plasma and red blood cell levels (P, RBC) of clozapine (cloza) and N-desmethylclozapine (descloza), the major metabolite of clozapine, which has been reported to be less active but more toxic (agranulocytosis) than clozapine itself. The RBC concentration may be considered as more representative of the free fraction drug. The study concerned 7 patients suffering from chronic paranoid schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV criteria. All of them were treatment-refractory schizophrenic inpatients (4 men, 3 women, mean age +/- SD: 38.2 +/- 8.4 years; mean duration of illness +/- SD: 14.4 +/- 5.1 years). They had received at least two different neuroleptics, for 6 weeks, before entering the study. Treatment started in our hospitalization unit with clozapine 25 mg up to a maximum of 900 mg/d (mean stabilized daily dose +/- SD: 507 +/- 211 mg and mean daily dose per kg: 6.91 +/- 3.08 mg). Clinical evaluations (Quality of Life Scale: QLS), regular blood monitoring and biological samples were conducted at the same time, weekly for 18 weeks and then monthly (duration of the study: 4 to 38 months; mean +/- SD: 12.9 +/- 11.5 months). Plasma and RBC (after lysis) levels were determined by reversed phase HPLC and UV detection after extraction with hexane. All the patients improved very quickly after the first week of treatment and six were able to leave the hospitalization unit and start outpatient care such as daily hospitalization, returning home or in sheltered accommodation. With the following plasma (P) and RBC levels: mean cloza +/- SD: (P = 294 +/- 146 ng/ml; RBC = 110 +/- 82 ng/ml) and mean descloza +/- SD: (P = 173 +/- 106 ng/ml; RBC = 76 +/- 54 ng/ml); none of the seven patients developed agranulocytosis. The blood levels, ensuring better surveillance, have a predictive value for clinical improvement. A linear pharmacoclinical correlation was only found between RBC cloza concentrations and the evolution of the QLS scores. Clozapine fulfils the criteria for therapeutic drug monitoring, and determination of plasma, and more particularly RBC, cloza and descloza levels may help to find the lowest effective dose with the fewest side effects. PMID:9366107

  2. Effects of cabergoline on hyperprolactinemia, psychopathology, and sexual functioning in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Kalkavoura, Christina S; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Arvanitakis, Periklis; Theodoropoulou, Pitsa; Dimopoulou, Konstantina; Tzebelikos, Errikos; Lykouras, Lefteris

    2013-08-01

    Antipsychotic medications are associated to different degrees with sexual dysfunction mainly through their potential to induce hyperprolactinemia. Prolactin (PRL) secretion is mainly regulated by the hypothalamic dopaminergic systems. We conducted this 6-month, parallel-group study to prospectively investigate the effects of the dopamine agonist cabergoline on sexual dysfunction in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV, AP 194) and hyperprolactinemia (PRL > 20 ng/ml for men and PRL > 25 ng/ml for women). In total 80 patients were enrolled; 33 were receiving risperidone, 17 haloperidol, 11 amisulpride, and 8 risperidone microspheres long acting. Based on PRL levels (< 50, 50-99, or > 100 ng/ml), patients were assigned in 3 cabergoline doses (0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/day in 38, 23, and 19 patients, respectively). The psychopathology was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrom Scale (PANSS), and sexual dysfunction was evaluated using the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX). PRL levels were reduced in all patients, from 73.3 (± 46.8) to 42.0 (± 27.8) at Month 3 and 27.1 (± 20.4) at Month 6 (p < .001). ASEX scores declined from 19.1 (± 5.1) to 17.6 (± 5.5) at Month 3 and 15.0 (± 6.5) at Month 6 (p < .001). PANSS scores were reduced in the third and in the sixth month (p = .001 at 6 month vs. baseline). The decrease in PRL was not statistically different between groups. Our data suggest that cabergoline administration to clinically stable patients with schizophrenia may improve sexual functioning without adversely affecting their psychopathologic status, provided that the dose has been suited to the severity of the hyperprolactinemia. PMID:23834553

  3. Persistent hiccups associated with switching from risperidone to aripiprazole in a schizophrenic patient with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Antipsychotics are thought to be effective in the treatment of hiccups; however, they are rarely reported to induce hiccups. We report a case of persistent hiccups after administration of aripiprazole in a patient with concurrence of schizophrenia and cerebral palsy. Prior brain injury and switching antipsychotics may precipitate the development of hiccups in the present case. Aripiprazole with a partial agonist of dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin 1A receptors may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of hiccups. PMID:21768798

  4. Severe Burns and Amputation of Both Arms in the First Psychotic Episode of a Schizophrenic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Cruzado, Lizardo; Villafane-Alva, Ronald; Caballero-Atencio, Katia; Cortez-Vergara, Carla; Núñez-Moscoso, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    An alleged reduction of sensitivity to pain in people with schizophrenia has been reported, but the nature of this complex phenomenon has not been elucidated yet. Reports of insensitivity to burns from people with schizophrenia are extremely rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old man who set both of his arms on fire during the first break of paranoid schizophrenia. As a result of severe tissue damage, both of his limbs had to be amputated. Today, at the age of 59, the patient is physically and mentally rehabilitated and is adherent to treatment. Additionally, given the uncertainty about the true nature of the alleged hypoalgesia in schizophrenia, we postulate the need for a comprehensive phenomenological approach in the study of embodiment in people with this condition. PMID:26417469

  5. Factors in Suicide Completions and Suicide Attempts among Schizophrenic, Other Psychotic and Nonpsychotic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; And Others

    Some researchers have attempted to connect suicide to a general history of mental illness; others have searched for diagnosis-free suicide risk factors; and still others have argued that different risk profiles may emerge for different diagnoses. In addition to these issues, it appears that suicide completers and suicide attempters show somewhat

  6. Nicotine reduces antisaccade errors in task impaired schizophrenic subjects.

    PubMed

    Larrison-Faucher, Abigail L; Matorin, Anu A; Sereno, Anne B

    2004-05-01

    Nicotine and/or smoking have been shown to reduce various cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Here, we examine the effects of nicotine gum on repeated performance on a simple eye movement task. Eight schizophrenic subjects and eight controls participated in three days of testing on saccade (S) and antisaccade (AS) tasks. On each testing day, subjects participated in four testing sessions and received both of two nicotine gum treatments (4 and 6 mg) and both of two control conditions (placebo gum and no gum), each followed by a recovery period. Overall, schizophrenics showed significant impairments on the AS task. However, upon individual examination only four schizophrenics showed significant differences in AS errors or reaction times (RTs) when compared to controls. The other four schizophrenic subjects showed control level performance. All schizophrenic subjects showed normal and better than control level performance on the simple S task. Furthermore, no effects of nicotine were seen on the simple S task. There were significant treatment effects on the AS task. Nicotine treatment significantly decreased errors in the task impaired schizophrenic group and this effect was most pronounced at the 6 mg level. No nicotine effects were demonstrated for non-impaired schizophrenic subjects or controls. This study demonstrates a benefit of short exposure to nicotine in cognitively impaired schizophrenic subjects. These results support previous findings of cognitive benefits of nicotine in schizophrenics. PMID:15093958

  7. Correlational patterns of cerebral glucose metabolism in never-medicated schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Katz, M; Buchsbaum, M S; Siegel, B V; Wu, J; Haier, R J; Bunney, W E

    1996-01-01

    We studied 18 never-mediated schizophrenic patients and 22 normal control subjects with 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography. Patients and controls performed the continuous performance test during FDG uptake. Cortical and subcortical structures comprising two circuits selected on the basis of several theoretical models of schizophrenia were examined. The correlation of glucose metabolic rate (GMR) for each structure in each circuit with connected structures was calculated and tested for two-tailed significance. Schizophrenics showed significantly different patterns of intercorrelations for both circuits. The largest difference was in the correlation of GMR in the anterior thalamus with the frontal cortex, a key element in the thalamo-cortical-striatal circuit suggested to be abnormal in some models of schizophrenia. Correlations of the frontal lobe with other regions were also more positive in normal controls than schizophrenics; controls had three correlational paths from the frontal cortex (to temporal cortex, ventral anterior thalamus, and dorsal medial thalamus) with significantly more positive correlations than schizophrenics perhaps consistent with other findings of frontal cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia. Normal controls also had both more significant positive and more significant negative correlations between the occipital cortex and other brain areas than schizophrenics. Correlations between homologous areas in the right and left hemispheres were prominent in both groups. PMID:8821368

  8. HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WHO LATER BECAME SCHIZOPHRENIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOWER, ELI M.; AND OTHERS

    THE STUDY IDENTIFIED A GROUP OF 44 INSTITUTIONALIZED MALE SCHIZOPHRENIC PATIENTS AGED 19 TO 26 AND SURVEYED DESCRIPTIONS OF THEIR HIGH SCHOOL BEHAVIOR FOR PREDICTIVE SYMPTOMS. INTERVIEWS USING AN 18-ITEM BEHAVIOR RATING FORM WERE CONDUCTED WITH THE PATIENTS' FORMER HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS. CONTROL SUBJECTS WERE ALSO RATED. ADDITIONAL DATA WERE…

  9. Association between psychopathology and problems of psychosocial functioning in the long-term outcome of patients diagnosed with schizophrenic, schizoaffective and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Bottlender, Ronald; Strauss, Anton; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-03-01

    Mental health problems do significantly impact on a person's functioning. In the past, problems with psychosocial functioning were mainly associated with the diagnoses of schizophrenia. However, nowadays it is clear that impaired psychosocial functioning is also a common phenomenon in people suffering from affective disorders. Only few studies have investigated psychosocial functioning in patients with affective, schizoaffective and schizophrenic disorders in the long-term and in a comparative approach. In the present study, we analysed the association between psychopathology and psychosocial functioning. This question is relevant as symptom remission and sufficient levels of functioning are considered as important indicators of patients' recovery from their mental health problems. The here reported findings refer to the data of a sample of 177 patients with life-time diagnoses belonging to the schizophrenic, schizoaffective or affective spectrum according to the ICD-10 criteria. Psychopathological, socio-demographic and other illness-related variables were assessed at the index hospitalisation and at the 15-year follow-up evaluation. In the present study, psychopathology is focused on data assessed with the PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). Information about patients' psychosocial functioning was assessed by using a modified and extended version of the WHO disability assessment scale (WHO-DAS-M). The association between psychosocial functioning and psychopathology was analysed by correlation analyses with the total sample and diagnostic subsamples. The consistency of correlations across the diagnostic groups and domains of psychosocial functioning was calculated. Findings revealed for all diagnostic groups that higher levels of psychopathology were associated with higher levels of problems in psychosocial functioning in various domains. Though there seem to be some differences between psychopathological dimensions and their effects on different aspects of psychosocial functioning, findings across the three diagnostic categories were fairly consistent. The present findings do highlight the importance of symptom remission in achieving social recovery and preventing impairment in psychosocial functioning in all major psychiatric disorders. PMID:22722960

  10. Cognition, negative symptoms, and diagnosis: a comparison of schizophrenic, bipolar, and control samples.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, K A; Hoffman, R E; Quinlan, D M; Rakfeldt, J; Docherty, N M; Sledge, W H

    1997-01-01

    Forty-six schizophrenic, 22 bipolar, and 26 normal control subjects were administered negative and positive symptoms scales and tests of cognitive function. Test performance was related to diagnosis and to positive and negative symptom ratings within the schizophrenic group. Bipolar patients were significantly superior in cognitive status when compared with all schizophrenic patients, but less so when compared only with those who did not have key negative symptoms (affective nonresponsivity and poverty of speech). The schizophrenic patients with negative symptoms displayed severe impairment, performing significantly worse than the control, bipolar, and other schizophrenic subjects. Negative symptoms thus are significantly implicated in the cognitive inferiority of schizophrenic to bipolar patients. Although the data suggest bipolar patients may also have cognitive deficiencies, these findings are inconclusive and require cross-validation. PMID:9017533

  11. Attitude of schizophrenics to computer videogames.

    PubMed

    Samoilovich, S; Riccitelli, C; Schiel, A; Siedi, A

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the initial attitude of 10 chronic, defected schizophrenic patients to a computer videogame session. Six of them enjoyed the experience and wanted to repeat it. Cooperation and performance were compared by means of videogames and a standard psychometric test (WAIS). Videogame performance correlated with the execution test IQ more than with the verbal test IQ. Computer games could be useful in these patients for evaluation of attitudes and responses, psychologic testing, motivation and reward. PMID:1448536

  12. Lateralization effects of image-guided 31P magnetoresonance spectroscopic parameters in the frontal lobe of schizophrenics and healthy controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Gabriele; Volz, Hans-Peter; Riehemann, Stefan; Wenda, Berit; Roessger, Grit; Rzanny, Reinhard; Sauer, Heinrich

    1999-05-01

    Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) has gained much interest in schizophrenia research in the last years since it allows the non-invasive measurement of high- energy phosphates and phospholipids in vivo. We investigated hemispherical differences of the concentrations of different phosphorus compounds in the frontal lobes. For this purpose, well defined volumes in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of 32 healthy controls and 51 schizophrenic patients were examined. Schizophrenic patients showed significant lateralization effects of phosphodiesters (PDE) and the intracellular pH-value. Differences in the lateralization of 31P-MRS parameters between patients and healthy volunteers were only detected for the pH-value. While healthy controls exhibit lower pH-values in the left frontal lobe (6.96), in schizophrenic patients we found lower pH-values in the right (6.89). Detailed examinations showed that this effect is mainly based on the subgroup of schizophrenics who received atypical neuroleptic medication.

  13. A group approach to psychopharmacology with schizophrenics.

    PubMed Central

    Skolnick, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and practical issues involved in integrating pharmacotherapy and psychosocial therapy in a long-term day hospital for schizophrenics are addressed. The limitations and risks of relying too heavily on a biomedical conceptual framework are discussed. In addition to diagnosis, target symptoms, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics, individual interpersonal, family, and institutional dynamics can exert profound effects on the effectiveness of medication. Through case illustrations it is shown how an open systems model and a group approach can allow for an integration of the many variables involved in the medication process. A weekly medication group which emphasizes education, informed choice, patient responsibility, and the examination of the boundary between medication effect and the need for psychological work is described. It is shown that the chemical control of psychosis alone may reinforce the psychosocial aspects of the schizophrenic syndrome. A distinction is drawn between chemical control of psychosis and the sensitive use of medication as a facilitator of growth-promoting psychosocial treatment. PMID:2864762

  14. Visual search performance by paranoid and chronic undifferentiated schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Portnoff, L A; Yesavage, J A; Acker, M B

    1981-10-01

    Disturbances in attention are among the most frequent cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenia. Recent research has suggested that some schizophrenics have difficulty with visual tracking, which is suggestive of attentional deficits. To investigate differential visual-search performance by schizophrenics, 15 chronic undifferentiated and 15 paranoid schizophrenics were compared with 15 normals on two tests measuring visual search in a systematic and an unsystematic stimulus mode. Chronic schizophrenics showed difficulty with both kinds of visual-search tasks. In contrast, paranoids had only a deficit in the systematic visual-search task. Their ability for visual search in an unsystematized stimulus array was equivalent to that of normals. Although replication and cross-validation is needed to confirm these findings, it appears that the two tests of visual search may provide a useful ancillary method for differential diagnosis between these two types of schizophrenia. PMID:7312527

  15. Recognition and Repair of Communicative Failures: The Interaction between Theory of Mind and Cognitive Complexity in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Bono, Adele; Bara, Bruno G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to perform a detailed and empirical investigation of schizophrenia patients' deficits in recognizing and recovering a communicative failure. In particular, this paper investigates the role of Theory of Mind (ToM) and of the complexity of the mental representations involved in explaining patients' deficits in…

  16. Recognition and Repair of Communicative Failures: The Interaction between Theory of Mind and Cognitive Complexity in Schizophrenic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Francesca M.; Bono, Adele; Bara, Bruno G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to perform a detailed and empirical investigation of schizophrenia patients' deficits in recognizing and recovering a communicative failure. In particular, this paper investigates the role of Theory of Mind (ToM) and of the complexity of the mental representations involved in explaining patients' deficits in

  17. Scanning for unstable trinucleotide repeats in neuropsychiatric disorders: Detection of a large CTG expansion in a schizophrenic patient

    SciTech Connect

    Sirugo, G.; Haaf, T.; Kidd, K.K.

    1994-09-01

    Expansion of unstable trinucleotide repeats have been associated so far with seven human genetic disorders including fragile X, myotonic dystrophy and Huntington disease. This newly discovered class of genetic mutations is almost invariably associated with genetic anticipation. Anticipation has been recently reported in bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia pedigrees, suggesting a possible implication of genes with unstable triplets in these disorders. To explore this hypothesis we have analyzed large schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder kindreds by means of the Repeat Expansion Detection Method (RED) described by Schalling and modified in our laboratory. This method uses genomic DNA as a template for the annealing and ligation of repeat-specific oligonucleotides. The reactions were subjected to denaturing PAGE and then transferred onto nylon membrane by capillary transfer. The multimers were revealed after hybridization with an oligoprobe and 5 hours exposure on film. To date the kindreds have been screened for the presence of unstable (CTG)n. CTG multimers ranging from 51 to 119 CTG units were detected in both affected and normal individuals corresponding to a normal variation in length of one or more CTG loci. Although our results indicate that (CTG)n expansions are not the mechanism causing schziophrenia or bipolar affective disorder, in one schizophrenia patient we have detected a large (CTG)n constituted by at least 204 CTG units. The incomplete structure of the family does not allow us to determine if this large repeat segregates with the disease. Localization of this expanded locus by in situ hybridization is underway. Similar in situ studies using PCR-generated CCA multimers up to 1 kb in length as a probe have revealed the presence of long tracts of CCA repeats at discrete sites in the human genome. This shows the feasibility of the in situ approach to localize large arrays of triplets in the human genome.

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics. Tests using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method

    SciTech Connect

    Ariel, R.N.; Golden, C.J.; Berg, R.A.; Quaife, M.A.; Dirksen, J.W.; Forsell, T.; Wilson, J.; Graber, B.

    1983-03-01

    Measurements of intrahemispheric and bilateral regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) for gray and white matter were compared in 29 schizophrenic patients and 22 normal controls, using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method. Results showed significantly lower CBF values for all brain regions in the schizophrenic group, and post hoc comparisons showed relatively greater reduced gray-matter CBF values in the anterior areas of the brain. There was also a left-hemisphere frontal loss similar to that reported previously, although it was in the context of a generalized loss in anterior functioning. Interhemispheric comparison within both groups showed no differences between homologous regions for gray matter, and greater white-matter CBF values in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. The findings support a hypothesis of a bilateral anterior deficit in schizophrenia.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow in schizophrenics. Tests using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method.

    PubMed

    Ariel, R N; Golden, C J; Berg, R A; Quaife, M A; Dirksen, J W; Forsell, T; Wilson, J; Graber, B

    1983-03-01

    Measurements of intrahemispheric and bilateral regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) for gray and white matter were compared in 29 schizophrenic patients and 22 normal controls, using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method. Results showed significantly lower CBF values for all brain regions in the schizophrenic group, and post hoc comparisons showed relatively greater reduced gray-matter CBF values in the anterior areas of the brain. There was also a left-hemisphere frontal loss similar to that reported previously, although it was in the context of a generalized loss in anterior functioning. Interhemispheric comparison within both groups showed no differences between homologous regions for gray matter, and greater white-matter CBF values in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. The findings support a hypothesis of a bilateral anterior deficit in schizophrenia. PMID:6830405

  20. Psychopathological characteristics and treatment response of first episode compared with multiple episode schizophrenic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Michael; Messer, Thomas; Laux, Gerd; Pfeiffer, Herbert; Naber, Dieter; Schmidt, Lutz G.; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Huff, Wolfgang; Heuser, Isabella; Kühn, Kai-Uwe; Lemke, Matthias R.; Rüther, Eckart; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Gastpar, Markus; Bottlender, Ronald; Strauß, Anton; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    Objective The aim was to investigate the hypothesis that patients with first episode schizophrenic disorders have a more favorable treatment response than those with multiple episodes. Method A total of 400 inpatients from an ongoing multi-centre, follow-up program who fulfilled ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenic disorders (F2) were assessed at admission to and discharge from hospital using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results At admission, first episode patients (n = 121) showed higher levels of positive symptoms (PANSS positive subscore) and lower ones of negative symptoms (PANSS negative subscore) than multiple episode patients (n = 279), whereas the global disease severity (PANSS total score) was comparable. Analyses of covariance revealed that treatment response (adjusted symptom levels at discharge) was more favorable in first-episode patients, with respect to both positive and negative symptoms. Conclusion The results are compatible with the hypothesis that treatment response becomes less favorable during the course of schizophrenic illness. This finding might be associated with progressive neurobiological alterations. PMID:17033915

  1. [Music in the picture -- musical scores and other music-related pictorial elements in the visual artworks of schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Simon, Mária

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century music scores and other music releated pictoral elements have repeteadly appeared in psychotic patients' visual artworks. Interestingly, little attention was paid to these enigmatic forms of psychopathological art expression till the 1970s. This essay investigates the underlying psychopathology and the psychodynamic basis of musical elements applied in psychotic patients' visual art expression within a phenomenological- intersubjective framework integrating the art-historical context of the 20th century. As an illustration, artworks of the psychopathological art collection of the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Faculty, University of Pecs, Hungary are presented. PMID:26202621

  2. Improvement in verbal memory following SSRI augmentation of antipsychotic treatment is associated with changes in the expression of mRNA encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in PMC of schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Mandiuk, Nina; Einoch, Reef; Susser, Ehud; Danovich, Lena; Bilker, Warren; Youdim, Moussa; Weinreb, Orly

    2015-05-01

    Verbal memory impairment in schizophrenia is associated with abnormalities in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) systems. Recent evidence from animal and clinical studies that adding fluvoxamine to antipsychotics alters the expression of transcripts encoding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF led us to postulate that fluvoxamine augmentation may improve memory in schizophrenia. To test this, we examined the effect of add-on fluvoxamine on verbal memory and other cognitive functions and related it to the expression of mRNA coding for the GABA-A receptor and BDNF in peripheral mononuclear cells (PMC) of schizophrenic patients. Twenty-nine patients completed a 6-week study in which fluvoxamine (100 mg/day) was added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Verbal memory, abstraction working memory, object and face recognition, and psychomotor speed and clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Blood samples were taken at baseline and weeks 1, 3, and 6 and PMC was assayed for the GABA-A beta3 receptor and BDNF mRNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Associative and logical verbal memory improved significantly and showed a significant correlation with changes in PMC BDNF and GABA-A beta3 receptor mRNA, which increased during treatment. Abstraction and object recognition improved, but this did not correlate with PMC measures. Negative and positive symptoms improved significantly; the latter showed significant correlations with changes in PMC measures. Addition of fluvoxamine to antipsychotics improves verbal memory. It is postulated that the mechanism involves enhanced GABA-A receptor/BDNF-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. PMID:25756551

  3. Continuing clozapine treatment with lithium in schizophrenic patients with neutropenia or leukopenia: brief review of literature with case reports

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Memduha; Ilhan, Bilge Cetin; Calisir, Saliha; Yildirim, Seda; Eren, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic used for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Despite its effectiveness, clozapine is largely underused due to serious side effects such as leukopenia or neutropenia. We aimed to review whether to continue, discontinue or rechallenge clozapine treatment after such haematological side effects. Methods: We reviewed and summarized the literature on the use of clozapine, how to deal with its side effects, and suitable options in case of any haematological problems. Then, we described several cases successfully treated with clozapine and lithium after development of neutropenia or leukopenia Results: We present three patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. While they had demonstrated poor response to multiple antipsychotic trials, clozapine was started. Clozapine induced neutropenia; or leukopenia developed in some cases that was successfully reversed after lithium onset. Increased serious side effects related with coprescription of lithium and clozapine were not observed. Conclusion: Lithium increases neutrophil and total white blood cell count as a side effect that may be useful in patients who develop neutropenia or leukopenia while being treated with clozapine. PMID:26913176

  4. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows. PMID:27142954

  5. Season of birth among siblings of schizophrenics. A test of the parental conception habits interpretation.

    PubMed

    McNeil, T; Kaij, L; Dzierzykray-Rogalska, M

    1976-10-01

    Many studies have shown schizophrenics to be born with unusual frequency in the period January-April, and one interpretation of this seasonality of birth is that the parents of schizophrenics have an unusually strong general tendency to conceive offspring who will be born in January-April. This parental conception habits interpretation may be tested by studying whether the siblings of schizophrenics are also born with increased frequency in January-April. The present study investigated the season of birth of 288 full siblings and 44 half-siblings in 91 families of male schizophrenics. Approximately 5% of the siblings were known to be schizophrenic; with the schizophrenic siblings excluded from the analyses, the full siblings showed a birth pattern much closer (nonsignificant) to that of the schizophrenics than to that of the general population. Half-siblings showed January-April birth rates at or below the population level. Although the mechanisms responsible for the current results still remain unclear, the study suggests that seasonality of births of schizophrenics may be related to the parents' conception habits as well as to an etiological or triggering effect on the development of schizophrenia in the offspring. PMID:998325

  6. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper

    PubMed Central

    Aboud, Asad A.; Tidball, Andrew M.; Kumar, Kevin K.; Neely, M. Diana; Han, Bingying; Ess, Kevin C.; Hong, Charles C.; Erikson, Keith M.; Hedera, Peter; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson’s disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD. PMID:25315681

  7. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Asad A; Tidball, Andrew M; Kumar, Kevin K; Neely, M Diana; Han, Bingying; Ess, Kevin C; Hong, Charles C; Erikson, Keith M; Hedera, Peter; Bowman, Aaron B

    2015-01-01

    Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD. PMID:25315681

  8. The effects of token reinforcement and feedback on the delusional verbal behavior of chronic paranoid schizophrenics1

    PubMed Central

    Wincze, John P.; Leitenberg, Harold; Agras, W. Stewart

    1972-01-01

    Prior research with token reinforcement in the psychiatric population has been directed at work adjustment, more than at major symptomatic behaviors. The purpose of the present research, on the other hand, was to investigate the effects of feedback and token reinforcement on the modification of delusional verbal behavior in chronic psychotics. Six male and four female paranoid schizophrenic patients participated in the study. The results indicated that the effects of feedback were effective about half the time in reducing percentage delusional talk, but in at least three cases produced adverse reactions. Token reinforcement, however, showed more consistency and reduced the percentage of delusional verbal behavior in seven of the nine subjects exposed to this procedure. The effects of both feedback and token reinforcement were quite specific to the environment in which they were applied and showed little generalization to other situations. It would appear that using token reinforcement can reduce the percentage delusional speech of chronic paranoid schizophrenics. PMID:16795347

  9. Self Administered Aversive Stimulation With Hallucinating Hospitalized Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weingaertner, Arthur H.

    1971-01-01

    Study results indicated that schizophrenics who shocked themselves upon experiencing auditory hallucinations failed to show significantly greater improvement than the control group. Thus the general conclusion drawn is that conditioning did not appear to be the mechanism by which most of the significant therapeutic changes occurred. (Author)

  10. An Investigation of Factors Increasing the Risk of Aggressive Behavior among Schizophrenic Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Lejoyeux, Michel; Nivoli, Fabrizia; Basquin, Anne; Petit, Aymeric; Chalvin, Florence; Embouazza, Houcine

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study: This study tried to identify risk factors of aggressive behavior in a population of schizophrenic inpatients. We tested the association between aggressive behavior and socio-demographic characteristics, addictive disorders, history of suicide attempt, and sexual violence, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. Methods: All consecutive schizophrenic inpatients (100) were assessed during 6 months. Aggressive behavior was quantified with a standardized scale, the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). We studied socio-demographic characteristics and the history of suicide attempt and sexual violence with a specific standardized questionnaire. Addictive disorders were identified with the Fagerström and CAGE questionnaires and with the DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria for nicotine, alcohol, cannabis opiates, and cocaine abuse and dependence disorders. Lastly, we studied sensation seeking with the Zuckerman scale and impulsivity with the Barratt scale. Results: Linear regression identified four factors associated with aggressive behavior: male gender (odd ratio = 12.8), history of sexual violence (odd ratio = 3.6), Fagerström score (odd ratio = 1.3), number of cigarettes smoked each day (odd ratio = 1.16). Patients with nicotine use or dependence had significantly higher levels of OAS scores. This difference was not observed between patients with or without alcohol dependence. OAS scores were correlated to the number of cigarettes smoked each day and to Fagerström scores. Patients with a higher level of sensation seeking and impulsivity also had higher OAS scores. Conclusion: A typical schizophrenic patient at risk of showing aggressive behavior is a man, who smokes and presents a history of sexual violence. PMID:24027539

  11. Patient Experience Shows Little Relationship with Hospital Quality Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Groene, Oliver; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Wagner, Cordula; Bartels, Paul D.; Kristensen, Solvejg; Saillour, Florence; Thompson, Andrew; Thompson, Caroline A.; Pfaff, Holger; DerSarkissian, Maral; Sunol, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Patient-reported experience measures are increasingly being used to routinely monitor the quality of care. With the increasing attention on such measures, hospital managers seek ways to systematically improve patient experience across hospital departments, in particular where outcomes are used for public reporting or reimbursement. However, it is currently unclear whether hospitals with more mature quality management systems or stronger focus on patient involvement and patient-centered care strategies perform better on patient-reported experience. We assessed the effect of such strategies on a range of patient-reported experience measures. Materials and Methods We employed a cross-sectional, multi-level study design randomly recruiting hospitals from the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey between May 2011 and January 2012. Each hospital contributed patient level data for four conditions/pathways: acute myocardial infarction, stroke, hip fracture and deliveries. The outcome variables in this study were a set of patient-reported experience measures including a generic 6-item measure of patient experience (NORPEQ), a 3-item measure of patient-perceived discharge preparation (Health Care Transition Measure) and two single item measures of perceived involvement in care and hospital recommendation. Predictor variables included three hospital management strategies: maturity of the hospital quality management system, patient involvement in quality management functions and patient-centered care strategies. We used directed acyclic graphs to detail and guide the modeling of the complex relationships between predictor variables and outcome variables, and fitted multivariable linear mixed models with random intercept by hospital, and adjusted for fixed effects at the country level, hospital level and patient level. Results Overall, 74 hospitals and 276 hospital departments contributed data on 6,536 patients to this study (acute myocardial infarction n = 1,379, hip fracture n = 1,503, deliveries n = 2,088, stroke n = 1,566). Patients admitted for hip fracture and stroke had the lowest scores across the four patient-reported experience measures throughout. Patients admitted after acute myocardial infarction reported highest scores on patient experience and hospital recommendation; women after delivery reported highest scores for patient involvement and health care transition. We found no substantial associations between hospital-wide quality management strategies, patient involvement in quality management, or patient-centered care strategies with any of the patient-reported experience measures. Conclusion This is the largest study so far to assess the complex relationship between quality management strategies and patient experience with care. Our findings suggest absence of and wide variations in the institutionalization of strategies to engage patients in quality management, or implement strategies to improve patient-centeredness of care. Seemingly counterintuitive inverse associations could be capturing a scenario where hospitals with poorer quality management were beginning to improve their patient experience. The former suggests that patient-centered care is not yet sufficiently integrated in quality management, while the latter warrants a nuanced assessment of the motivation and impact of involving patients in the design and assessment of services. PMID:26151864

  12. Computerized EEG as a predictor of drug response in treatment resistant schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Shapiro, D; Schneider, S J; Francis, I B

    1981-10-01

    Thirteen chronic schizophrenics were identified who failed to improve with physician's choice medication and 1 year of systematic treatment with a long acting phenothiazine. These patients were considered to be treatment resistant. Computer analyzed electroencephalogram (CEEG) or these treatment resistant schizophrenics was characterized by a large amount of alpha activity and less fast activity, in comparison with previous results from therapy responsive schizophrenics. The therapy resistant subjects did not display the typical neuroleptic CEEG profile following test dosages of four neuroleptics, and instead displayed CEEG profiles which more closely resembled the typical profile for psychostimulants. These findings may point to an altered metabolism, neurotransmitter defect, or other problem which alters the physiological and clinical response of therapy resistant schizophrenics to neuroleptic medication. PMID:6116742

  13. Schizophrenic psychosis associated with aqueduct stenosis in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J K; Trimble, M R; Robertson, M

    1983-01-01

    The case histories of five adult patients with hydrocephalus and aqueduct stenosis are presented. All the cases were associated with prominent psychotic symptoms (delusions, hallucinations or thought disorder). In the three cases where operative intervention was carried out the diagnosis was made in adult life. Using the Present State Examination all five cases were classified as having schizophrenic psychosis. The possible reasons for this association are discussed. PMID:6644313

  14. [Psychoanalytical aspects regarding etiology and understanding of schizophrenic psychoses].

    PubMed

    Minauf, M

    2005-11-01

    The author -- specialized in Psychiatry and Neurology as well as a Psychoanalyst -- reports her experience during some decades of treating patients with schizophrenia in greatly different hospitals and institutions. Many examples demonstrate that psychoanalytical knowledge and recognizing psychodynamic connections can essentially contribute to understanding and treating psychotic patients. From the multitude of psychoanalytic theories on the etiology of schizophrenia some aspects are demonstrated, mainly those regarding their use in practical work. Some of them are: ego-disturbance, the psychotic symptom as a defence mechanism and the problem of countertransference. Regarding the ego-disturbance some examples show that usually not all ego-functions are impaired. Thus, cognitive functions may not only frequently be preserved, but may be working even better than usual. Out of numerous mechanisms of defense in schizophrenia projection, identification, projective identification, splitting, denial and regression are especially important. Moreover, psychotic patients frequently show certain symptoms that are related to very personal experiences. They can often be recognized quite easily as defence mechanisms. Countertransference is of great importance when treating such patients. Three of these numerous phenomenous are mentioned especially: anxiety, compassion, which may lead to identification, and the incapacity to accept the limit of therapeutic measures. The author is convinced that the so-called "psychodynamic" and "biological" psychiatry are not in opposition. Splitting them is not justified because according to the different stages of illness treatment with drugs as well as with different psychotherapeutic methods, even with psychoanalytical ones and social rehabilitation, are necessary. The etiology of schizophrenic psychosis cannot be explained with psychoanalysis either. Yet, the knowledge of psychodynamic processes can contribute essentially to understanding the illness and treating the patient. The compliance accomplished thereby can improve the quality of life of the patient and possibly for the therapist too. PMID:16270249

  15. Repeat length variation in the dopamine D4 receptor gene shows no evidence of association with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.; Williams, J.; Asherson, P.

    1994-09-15

    The D4 receptor has been shown to exist in several allelic forms reflecting variation in the number of 48 base-pair sequence repeats in the putative cytoplasmic loop. We report a comparison of repeat length variation between schizophrenic patients and controls. Our sample of 106 unrelated schizophrenic cases and 119 controls showed no significant differences in allele or genotype distribution between patients and controls. In particular, we were unable to support the previous observation of an excess of 4-repeat homozygotes in patients. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Intensity of imperative signal influences on redundancy deficit and latency in process schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, K J; Steffy, R A

    1980-09-01

    The resilience of the redundancy deficit pattern of schizophrenic reaction time performance was explored by examining the resistance of redundancy deficit to an experimental manipulation of imperative signal intensity. Aversive levels of stimulation have been used to alter motivation and shown to normalize schizophrenic performance in other research. In this study, 20 schizophrenic patients were administered a reaction time task under conditions of usual motivation and, 1 day later, under conditions of aversive motivation induced by high decibel levels of stimulation. The redundancy deficit pattern was observed with usual motivation but not with so-called biological motivation. The results are discussed from the points of view of the utility of redundancy deficit as an index of vulnerability to schizophrenia, implications for attentional and motivational theories of schizophrenia, and finally, in terms of the more general role of aversive stimulation in schizophrenic deficit. The finding that redundancy deficit is ameliorated by aversive motivation is consistent with theories suggesting that schizophrenics respond primarily to negative motivation. Garmezy's suggestion that the common denominator of the multiplicity of schizophrenic deficits may lie in motivational factors, particularly the prepotent avoidance motive, is supported by these results. PMID:7411128

  17. Non-right-handedness and obstetrical complications in paranoid hallucinatory schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Sperling, W; Martus, P; Barocka, A

    1999-01-01

    In previous studies a link between pregnancy complications, minor physical anomalies and non-right-handedness was described in schizophrenic patients. There is evidence of an anomaly in the lateralization process in schizophrenia. Many studies of handedness and schizophrenia have found that schizophrenic patients have an increased rate of non-right-handedness compared with normal subjects. The contemporary neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia emerged from pathobiological findings. In addition there is evidence for early brain lesions and malformations in fetal brain development. Especially pregnancy and birth complications have been found to be a risk factor for the later development of schizophrenia. In this study we set out to test the possible association between diagnosis and handedness, diagnosis and risk factors, as well as gender and handedness for 60 patients (30 men, 30 women) and 60 controls. The percentage of non-right-handedness was significantly elevated in the patient group (p = 0.0025). In a gender-specific analysis this result could be confirmed only for male patients. Peri- and postnatal developmental risk factors were significantly elevated in schizophrenics compared with controls. The percentage of all risk factors in the male group of schizophrenic non-right-handers was significantly elevated compared with right-handed male schizophrenics. PMID:10494066

  18. Interaction between paliperidone extended release and TS-1®, an oral anticancer drug containing a 5-fluorouracil derivative, in a schizophrenic patient

    PubMed Central

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Hashimoto, Kojiro; Kubo, Kazutoshi; Tomita, Tetsu

    2013-01-01

    Until now there has been no information available on drug interaction between paliperidone and TS-1®, an oral anticancer drug containing a 5-fluorouracil derivative. The patient in the case presented here was a 39-year-old man with a 15-year history of schizophrenia. The patient’s usual treatment of 2 mg/day of risperidone was changed to 3 mg/day of paliperidone extended release. He experienced worsening psychotic symptoms after switching from risperidone to paliperidone while he was also receiving TS-1. Retrospective analyses showed plasma concentration of paliperidone was consistently lower during the treatment with TS-1 than without TS-1. This case suggests there is drug interaction between paliperidone extended-release tablets and TS-1. PMID:23487437

  19. Discrimination between and among schizophrenics and other pathologies using a Spanish version of the Whitaker Index of Schizophrenic Thinking.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Godoy JF; Fernandez M; Muela JA; Roldan G; Catena A; Puente AE

    1994-03-01

    A Spanish version of Forms A and B of the Whitaker Index of Schizophrenic Thinking (WIST) was administered to two sets of subjects. In the first study, the WIST was administered to 147 subjects of both sexes grouped into one of six categories: acute paranoid schizophrenic, acute nonparanoid schizophrenic, chronic paranoid schizophrenic, chronic nonparanoid schizophrenic, normal, and university student. Results revealed significant group differences; schizophrenics scored significantly higher. Further, chronic schizophrenics, regardless of the existence of paranoia, scored higher than acute subjects. In the second study, a heterogenous group of schizophrenics was compared to heroin addicts and depressed subjects (total N = 93). Significant group differences again were noted; the schizophrenics scored higher than the two other clinical samples.

  20. Tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia with second-generation antipsychotics in non-elderly schizophrenic patients unexposed to first-generation antipsychotics: a cross-sectional and retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seunghyong; Yoo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Choi, Ji Sun; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ha, Kyooseob; Kwon, Jun Soo; Hong, Kyung Sue

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates the clinical nature, prevalence rates, and associated factors of second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-related tardive dyskinesia and tardive dystonia. To date, these subjects have not been thoroughly investigated.The subjects were 80 non-elderly schizophrenic patients who received SGAs for more than 1 year without any previous exposure to first-generation antipsychotics. Multiple (≥2) direct assessments of movement symptoms were performed. Hospital records longer than 1 recent year describing any observed tardive movement symptoms were reviewed.A current or history of tardive dyskinesia and/or tardive dystonia associated with SGA was identified in 28 (35%) subjects. These patients were being treated with risperidone (n = 15), amisulpride, olanzapine, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, or clozapine at the time of the onset of the movement symptoms. Tardive dyskinesia was mostly in the orolingual area, and the most frequently observed tardive dystonia was torticollis. The median interval between the first exposure to the SGA and the movement syndrome onset was 15 months for tardive dyskinesia and 43 months for tardive dystonia. A history of acute dystonia was significantly associated with tardive dystonia, and comorbid obsessive-compulsive syndrome was related to both tardive movement syndromes.This study indicates that more clinical attention and research efforts are needed regarding SGA-associated tardive movement syndromes, including a larger-scale prevalence assessment. This study is the first to indicate that a comorbid obsessive-compulsive syndrome might be an associated factor of tardive movement syndrome. The association warrants further investigation. PMID:25485636

  1. Functionally aberrant electrophysiological cortical connectivities in first episode medication-naive schizophrenics from three psychiatry centers

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L.; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D.; Milz, Patricia; Herrmann, Werner M.; Koukkou, Martha; Saito, Naomi; Winterer, Georg; Kochi, Kieko

    2014-01-01

    Functional dissociation between brain processes is widely hypothesized to account for aberrations of thought and emotions in schizophrenic patients. The typically small groups of analyzed schizophrenic patients yielded different neurophysiological findings, probably because small patient groups are likely to comprise different schizophrenia subtypes. We analyzed multichannel eyes-closed resting EEG from three small groups of acutely ill, first episode productive schizophrenic patients before start of medication (from three centers: Bern N = 9; Osaka N = 9; Berlin N = 12) and their controls. Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) was used to compute intracortical source model-based lagged functional connectivity not biased by volume conduction effects between 19 cortical regions of interest (ROIs). The connectivities were compared between controls and patients of each group. Conjunction analysis determined six aberrant cortical functional connectivities that were the same in the three patient groups. Four of these six concerned the facilitating EEG alpha-1 frequency activity; they were decreased in the patients. Another two of these six connectivities concerned the inhibiting EEG delta frequency activity; they were increased in the patients. The principal orientation of the six aberrant cortical functional connectivities was sagittal; five of them involved both hemispheres. In sum, activity in the posterior brain areas of preprocessing functions and the anterior brain areas of evaluation and behavior control functions were compromised by either decreased coupled activation or increased coupled inhibition, common across schizophrenia subtypes in the three patient groups. These results of the analyzed three independent groups of schizophrenics support the concept of functional dissociation. PMID:25191252

  2. Prediction of the period of psychotic episode in individual schizophrenics by simulation-data construction approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Wang, Hsiao-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Jane; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Hu, Tsung-Ming; Loh, El-Wui

    2010-10-01

    Although schizophrenia can be treated, most patients still experience inevitable psychotic episodes from time to time. Precautious actions can be taken if the next onset can be predicted. However, sufficient information is always lacking in the clinical scenario. A possible solution is to use the virtual data generated from limited of original data. Data construction method (DCM) has been shown to generate the virtual felt earthquake data effectively and used in the prediction of further events. Here we investigated the performance of DCM in deriving the membership functions and discrete-event simulations (DES) in predicting the period embracing the initiation and termination time-points of the next psychotic episode of 35 individual schizophrenic patients. The results showed that 21 subjects had a success of simulations (RSS) ?70%. Further analysis demonstrated that the co-morbidity of coronary heart diseases (CHD), risks of CHD, and the frequency of previous psychotic episodes increased the RSS. PMID:20703629

  3. Psychotherapy and the Nonprofessional Therapist: Responses of Naive Therapists to "Therapeutic" Contact with Chronic Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, T.M.; And Others

    The current interest in using non-professional therapists to work with chronic schizophrenics is usually focused on the effect on the patients. Relatively little attention has been paid to the effect this particularly intransigent patient population may have on clinically unsophisticated students, especially students who are planning a career as…

  4. Components of Processing Deficit Among Paranoid and Nonparanoid Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Richard W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics were compared to normals in their performance on a sentence verification task. Results were related to past evidence and hypotheses about central processing performance among schizophrenics. (Editor/RK)

  5. Schizophrenic and Sibling: A Comparison of Parental Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Frank; Walsh, Froma

    1980-01-01

    Schizophrenics were differentiated from their siblings in tendencies to see themselves as symbiotically attached to their mothers and failing to be accommodated to by their fathers. Schizophrenics tend to be aligned with the same sex parent. Findings may help explain the psychosexual identification difficulties of schizophrenics. (Author)

  6. Validity of the Schizophrenia Diagnosis of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults (PIMRA): A Comparison of Schizophrenic Patients with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linaker, Olav M.; Helle, Jon

    1994-01-01

    This study found that the schizophrenia subscale of the Psychopathology Instrument for Mentally Retarded Adults was a valid quantitative measure of schizophrenia if one item was removed from the scale. Comparison with a nonretarded population indicated that mentally retarded patients had less delusions and more incoherence and flat affect. They…

  7. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 Gene Polymorphisms in Schizophrenic Patients with Neuroleptic Drug-Induced Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, S A; Filipenko, M L; Vyalova, N M; Voronina, E N; Pozhidaev, I V; Osmanova, D Z; Ivanov, M V; Fedorenko, O Yu; Semke, A V; Bokhan, N A

    2016-03-01

    Polymorphic variants of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 genes of the cytochrome P450 system were studied in patients with schizophrenia with drug-induced motor disorders and hyperprolactinemia against the background of long-term neuroleptic therapy. We revealed an association of polymorphic variant C-163A CYP1A2*1F of CYP1A2 gene with tardive dyskinesia and association of polymorphic variant 1846G>A CY2D6*4 and genotype A/A of CYP2D6 gene (responsible for debrisoquin-4-hydroxylase synthesis) with limbotruncal tardive dyskinesia in patients with schizophrenia receiving neuroleptics for a long time. PMID:27021090

  8. The sensitivity of the Spontaneous Selective Attention Test (SSAT): a study of schizophrenic inpatients and outpatients versus normal controls.

    PubMed

    Myles-Worsley, M; Coon, H; Byerley, W

    1998-05-25

    The Spontaneous Selective Attention Task (SSAT) is a visual word-identification task that measures the type of selective attention that occurs spontaneously when there are multiple stimuli, all potentially relevant, and insufficient time to process each of them fully. The present study was designed to examine the sensitivity of the SSAT by comparing the performance of 40 schizophrenic inpatients and 30 schizophrenic outpatients to that of 70 normal controls. The pattern of results reported previously for schizophrenic inpatients versus normals was replicated, and these findings were extended to include schizophrenic outpatients in partial symptom remission. Schizophrenic inpatients and outpatients were just as accurate in identifying words as normals, but spontaneous selective attention under conditions of predictability was abnormal in both patient groups. Furthermore, the ability of the SSAT to discriminate between schizophrenic patients and controls was confirmed. A ratio measure of spontaneous selective attention had a sensitivity of 77% and a base rate of 9% in a normal population (when a cutoff value was set to minimize false positives and false negatives). Thus, the SSAT is a sensitive measure of an attentional phenotype that may be useful in genetic studies of schizophrenia. PMID:9689717

  9. [Do the effects of inpatient vocational therapy and ergotherapy approaches differ in schizophrenic patients? Results of a controlled multicenter study of the german research network on schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Längle, Gerhard; Bayer, Wiltrud; Köster, Margitta; Salize, Hans Joachim; Höhl, Werner; Machleidt, Wielant; Wiedl, Karl H; Buchkremer, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    For some decades, vocational therapy approaches have been an integral part of inpatient psychiatric treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Like most sociotherapeutic measures, they are largely hypothesis-based. So far, their effectiveness has been subjected to very little scientific scrutiny. The results of a multicenter study in which five vocational therapy models were compared with creativity-oriented ergotherapy in a prospective, randomized control group design are presented. Target criteria were job-relevant skills, psychopathology, general level of functioning, quality of life, self-efficacy, and speed of cognitive performance. 227 patients were enrolled in the study, which was carried out within the framework of the German Research Network on Schizophrenia funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Multicenter analyses in a pre-post comparison revealed only minimum differences between the experimental and the control group over a four-week intervention period. Job-oriented approaches cannot currently be assumed to be superior to creativity-oriented ergotherapy. PMID:16389581

  10. Differing Lateralized Perceptual-Motor Patterns in Schizophrenic and Non-Psychotic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krynicki, Vitor E.; Nahas, Abbas D.

    1979-01-01

    A neuropsychological assessment stressing lateralized perceptual-motor and cogntive abilities was administered in two groups of hospitalized psychiatric patients (8 to 17 years old), 25 schizophrenics, and 25 nonpsychotics. The results supported the hypothesis that there may be left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia; however, no single…

  11. Responses of A and B Subjects to Normal, Neurotic, Schizophrenic, and Ambiguous Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffnung, Robert J.; Stein, Leonard S.

    1970-01-01

    This study investigated the initial reactions of 20 A and 20 B Ss to encounter situations in which they were asked for help by four hypothetical patients communicating in normal, neurotic, schizophrenic, or ambiguous styles. The results were related to previous A and B findings. (Author)

  12. The Schizophrenic Brain: Rewriting the Chapter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Joel

    1979-01-01

    Evidence of last two decades indicates schizophrenic disorders related to imbalance of brain chemicals. Recent discovery made of association between chronic schizophrenia and variety of structural abnormalities. Included are frontal lobe reversal and accipital lobe reversal. Computer tomography scans and data presented. (SA)

  13. Prodromal Signs and Symptoms of Schizophrenic Relapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Kenneth L.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.

    Increasing evidence that decompensation into acute psychosis by schizophrenics can often be avoided with active pharmacological and psychosocial intervention at the early signs of relapse has stimulated research into the signs and symptoms prodromal to acute psychosis. In this study, 6-week periods prior to 17 psychotic relapses and to 11 relapses…

  14. The Career Maturity of Schizophrenic Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciardiello, Jean A.; Bingham, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined dimensions of the schizophrenic process to determine how they interfere with vocational development. Explored ways that schizophrenia may be thwarting both individual career maturity and the efforts of rehabilitation programs. Offers programmatic suggestions to address these barriers to career maturity and successful vocational…

  15. Comparisons of methamphetamine psychotic and schizophrenic symptoms: a differential item functioning analysis.

    PubMed

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Wada, Kiyoshi; Marsden, John; Ali, Robert; Kongsakon, Ronnachai

    2011-06-01

    The concept of negative symptoms in methamphetamine (MA) psychosis (e.g., poverty of speech, flatten affect, and loss of drive) is still uncertain. This study aimed to use differential item functioning (DIF) statistical techniques to differentiate the severity of psychotic symptoms between MA psychotic and schizophrenic patients. Data of MA psychotic and schizophrenic patients were those of the participants in the WHO Multi-Site Project on Methamphetamine-Induced Psychosis (or WHO-MAIP study) and the Risperidone Long-Acting Injection in Thai Schizophrenic Patients (or RLAI-Thai study), respectively. To confirm the unidimensionality of psychotic syndromes, we applied the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) on the eight items of Manchester scale. We conducted the DIF analysis of psychotic symptoms observed in both groups by using nonparametric kernel-smoothing techniques of item response theory. A DIF composite index of 0.30 or greater indicated the difference of symptom severity. The analyses included the data of 168 MA psychotic participants and the baseline data of 169 schizophrenic patients. For both data sets, the EFA and CFA suggested a three-factor model of the psychotic symptoms, including negative syndrome (poverty of speech, psychomotor retardation and flatten/incongruous affect), positive syndrome (delusions, hallucinations and incoherent speech) and anxiety/depression syndrome (anxiety and depression). The DIF composite indexes comparing the severity differences of all eight psychotic symptoms were lower than 0.3. The results suggest that, at the same level of syndrome severity (i.e., negative, positive, and anxiety/depression syndromes), the severity of psychotic symptoms, including the negative ones, observed in MA psychotic and schizophrenic patients are almost the same. PMID:21277930

  16. [Chronicity or chronification among our schizophrenics].

    PubMed

    Bleuler, M

    1980-01-01

    We know of many different influences which are able either to prevent or to favour chronicity of schizophrenic psychoses: influences arising from treatment, from hospitalisation, from the relationship with others and even influences which have their origin in early childhood. All these good bad influences on the course of the psychoses, however, are not sufficient to explain the existence of chronification. Up to now it can be best understood by studying psychodynamics of chronic schizophrenics: they have reached an equilibrium between autistic and realistic thinking and perceiving. They protect their weak ego, with drawing partially into a fantastic world adapted to their dysharmonic nature and their dysharmonic surroundings, while they adapt themselves to reality as regards other experiences. PMID:7455609

  17. [Testing chronic schizophrenics with the HAWIE test (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fieguth, G; Goncalves, N

    1977-02-23

    The HAWIE test was given to 70 hospitalized chronic schizophrenics with the aim of 1. determining the intelligence level of the patients; 2. finding out to what extent possible changes in intelligence achievement are due to the sickness, the treatment, or the hospitalism. The test results were compared with the norm; they were also evaluated within the sample group, as a function of the amount of time spent in the institution. Compared with the norm, the intelligence level of the patients was low; one contributing factor was the duration of the hospitalization. In connection with the length of hospitalization, a deterioration of the non-verbal IQ was found; this is to be interpreted within the conceptual framework of the deprivation syndrome (hospitalism). Our test results have been compared with those of other studies focusing on the special HAWIE problem. PMID:843208

  18. Reducing delusional speech in chronic, paranoid schizophrenics1

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Robert Paul; Teigen, James; Patterson, Roger; Baker, Val

    1973-01-01

    Four schizophrenic patients with paranoid and grandiose delusions who had been hospitalized for an average of 17 yr were exposed to social reinforcement contingencies in a multiple baseline design. During the baseline period, each patient was interviewed for four 10-min sessions each day. The elapsed time from onset of conversation to onset of delusional talk was recorded. At the end of each day, the patients engaged in a 30-min informal chat with a nurse-therapist while relaxing with coffee, snacks, and cigarettes. The intervention introduced two contingencies: (1) The 10-min interviews were terminated as soon as the patient began talking delusionally; (2) The patients earned time for their evening chat by talking rationally during their daytime interviews. Increases of from 200 to 600% in the amount of rational talk exhibited during the interviews occurred as the contingencies were introduced for each patient sequentially over time. These increases were maintained in three patients when the amount of reinforcement was halved, but declined when the patients were confronted directly with their delusional ideas. A modest amount of generalization occurred from the day-time interviews to the evening chats but did not extend to the behavior of the patients on the ward. PMID:16795395

  19. Affective Interchange in Families with a Schizophrenic Son.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angermeyer, Matthias C.; And Others

    Sixty half-hour family discussions generated by the "revealed differences technique" were analyzed to determine the emotional intensity and quality (friendliness/attacking) of messages between individuals in families with schizophrenic and "normal" sons. Thirty families in each situation (schizophrenic/normal) were matched for comparison. Both…

  20. Encoding Orientation and the Remembering of Schizophrenic Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Soon D.; Peterson, Rolf A.

    1978-01-01

    This research examines different types of encoding strategies, in addition to semantic and organizational encodings, and their effects on schizophrenics' remembering. Based on Craik and Lockhart (1972), i.e., memory performance is a function of depth of encoding processing, this analysis compares schizophrenics' encoding processing with that of…

  1. A Test of Chapman's Theory of Schizophrenic Thought Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamsher, Kerry de S.; Arnold, Kristin O.

    1976-01-01

    This investigation tested the validity of Loren Chapman's thoery of schizophrenic thought disorder. The vocabulary test from the Shipley-Hartford Scale served as the control task, and the multiple-choice vocabulary test used by Boland and Chapman to disclose a schizophrenic deficit related to thought disorder served as the experimental task.…

  2. Attentional and emotional functioning in schizophrenia patients treated with conventional and atypical antipsychotic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kucharska-Pietura, Katarzyna; Tylec, Aneta; Czernikiewicz, Andrzej; Mortimer, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Effectiveness of antipsychotics in treating emotional and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia still remains controversial. The aim of our study was to assess emotional and cognitive functioning in schizophrenic inpatients currently treated with typical antipsychotics (perphenazine, perazine, fluphenazine, and haloperidol) and in another group of schizophrenic inpatients currently on atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine, risperidone, amisulpride, and quetiapine). Material/Methods One hundred patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (39 treated using typical antipsychotics and 61 treated with atypical antipsychotics) under naturalistic treatment conditions, and 50 healthy controls were given the following: Test of Everyday Attention, Facial Emotion Recognition Test, Facial Memory Recognition Test, and “Reading the mind in the eyes” Test. Results Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia revealed the following deficits: facial emotion perception, empathy/theory of mind, visual selective attention/speed, attentional switching, and auditory-verbal working memory. Our results show a significant difference between schizophrenic and healthy controls in all tasks, with schizophrenic patients performing worse than controls. Interestingly, our patients on atypical neuroleptics performed similarly compared to schizophrenic patients treated with conventional neuroleptics on all tasks provided. There were some significant relationships between emotional and cognitive deficits and clinical variables. Conclusions Our findings remain consistent with other recent studies in which atypical antipsychotics did not show a clear advantage over typical antipsychotics on both emotional and cognitive functioning. PMID:22207119

  3. Executive functioning and verbal memory in young patients with unipolar depression and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fossati, P; Amar, G; Raoux, N; Ergis, A M; Allilaire, J F

    1999-12-27

    Although neuropsychological studies have consistently reported executive deficits in schizophrenia, studies of executive functions in depression have produced equivocal results. The aim of this study was to examine the profile and the specificity of the executive impairment and its association with memory performance in young patients with unipolar depression. We compared patients with depression to normal control subjects and schizophrenics. Twenty young inpatients with unipolar depression, 14 schizophrenics and 20 age-, education- and IQ-matched control subjects were assessed with a neuropsychological battery including: (1) verbal memory task; (2) frontal tasks (WCST, Cognitive Estimate, Verbal fluency, verbal and visuo-spatial span) and a new complex sorting test (Delis test). Depressed patients and schizophrenics exhibited executive deficits. Unlike schizophrenics, depressed patients did not show memory impairment. Deficits in several 'higher-level' functions combined to produce executive impairments in patients with depression including complex integration for concept formation, spontaneous cognitive flexibility and initiation ability. Impaired functions in schizophrenia and in depressed patients were similar but were differently related to clinical variables. The pattern of memory failure in our schizophrenics is believed to reflect retrieval and encoding deficits. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of skills grouped under the term 'executive functions' that are vulnerable in depression or schizophrenia. PMID:10708264

  4. ER Docs Only Ask Half of Suicidal Patients about Guns, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... Docs Only Ask Half of Suicidal Patients About Guns, Study Shows Finding points to missed chances to ... EDs) are asked if they have access to guns, a new study finds. National guidelines say doctors ...

  5. Criminal recidivism and family histories of schizophrenic and nonschizophrenic fire setters: comorbid alcohol dependence in schizophrenic fire setters.

    PubMed

    Repo, E; Virkkunen, M

    1997-01-01

    Life-time criminality, family history, and situational factors during a fire-setting offense were compared between 44 fire setters who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia or delusional psychosis and 260 nonpsychotic fire setters who had undergone a pretrial forensic psychiatric evaluation. The same comparisons were made between alcoholic (n = 25) and nonalcoholic (n = 19) schizophrenic fire setters. Medical and criminal records were studied. Life-time criminal histories of schizophrenic and nonschizophrenic fire setters were not significantly different with respect to multiple fire setting and violent offenses. Nonschizophrenic and alcoholic schizophrenic fire setters had, in general, a high rate of criminal offenses. The family history of schizophrenic fire setters was often characterized by the father's alcoholism and the mother's psychosis. Comorbid familial alcoholism increased life-time criminal recidivism among schizophrenic fire setters. PMID:9213293

  6. Patient No-Show Predictive Model Development using Multiple Data Sources for an Effective Overbooking Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Patient no-shows in outpatient delivery systems remain problematic. The negative impacts include underutilized medical resources, increased healthcare costs, decreased access to care, and reduced clinic efficiency and provider productivity. Objective To develop an evidence-based predictive model for patient no-shows, and thus improve overbooking approaches in outpatient settings to reduce the negative impact of no-shows. Methods Ten years of retrospective data were extracted from a scheduling system and an electronic health record system from a single general pediatrics clinic, consisting of 7,988 distinct patients and 104,799 visits along with variables regarding appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the impact of variables on show or no-show status. Logistic regression was used to develop a no-show predictive model, which was then used to construct an algorithm to determine the no-show threshold that calculates a predicted show/no-show status. This approach aims to overbook an appointment where a scheduled patient is predicted to be a no-show. The approach was compared with two commonly-used overbooking approaches to demonstrate the effectiveness in terms of patient wait time, physician idle time, overtime and total cost. Results From the training dataset, the optimal error rate is 10.6% with a no-show threshold being 0.74. This threshold successfully predicts the validation dataset with an error rate of 13.9%. The proposed overbooking approach demonstrated a significant reduction of at least 6% on patient waiting, 27% on overtime, and 3% on total costs compared to other common flat-overbooking methods. Conclusions This paper demonstrates an alternative way to accommodate overbooking, accounting for the prediction of an individual patient’s show/no-show status. The predictive no-show model leads to a dynamic overbooking policy that could improve patient waiting, overtime, and total costs in a clinic day while maintaining a full scheduling capacity. PMID:25298821

  7. Effects of aripiprazole, risperidone, and olanzapine on 5-HT1A receptors in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lerond, Jérôme; Lothe, Amélie; Ryvlin, Philippe; Bouvard, Sandrine; d'Amato, Thierry; Ciumas, Carolina; Daléry, Jean; Poulet, Emmanuel; Saoud, Mohamed

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the impact of various antipsychotic drugs on the 5-HT1A serotoninergic system, we performed a [F]4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(N-2-pirydynyl)-p-luorobenzamido]-ethyl-piperazine PET study in 19 schizophrenic patients treated with either aripiprazole, which has a partial agonist activity at 5-HT1A receptors, or second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) (olanzapine or risperidone), which do not demonstrate such property. We used a simplified reference tissue model to generate parametric images of [F]MPPF-binding potential (BPND). A significant reduction of [F]MPPF BPND was found in treated schizophrenic patients compared to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. These modifications were mainly localized in the frontal and orbitofrontal cortex and may reflect either the pathophysiology of schizophrenia or medication effects. The schizophrenic patients treated with aripiprazole showed a reduction of global [F]MPPF BPND compared with healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients with SGA treatment. In addition, compared with matched controls, the reduction of regional [F]MPPF BPND was more marked in the schizophrenic patients treated with aripiprazole compared with those receiving SGA treatment, possibly reflecting the partial agonist of aripiprazole activity at 5-HT1A receptors. PMID:23277246

  8. Three patients with mood disorders showing catatonia and frontotemporal lobes atrophy.

    PubMed

    Utumi, Yushi; Iseki, Eizo; Arai, Heii

    2013-12-01

    Here we report the cases of three patients with mood disorders showing catatonia and frontotemporal lobe atrophy. Catatonia is a syndrome linked to frontal dysfunction that most frequently occurs in patients with mood disorders. The diagnostic criteria of catatonia and frontotemporal dementia partly overlap. In the present patients, catatonia might be closely related to frontal dysfunction caused by frontotemporal lobe atrophy. With regard to therapeutics for catatonia, we found that administering a low dose of lorazepam alone or after electroconvulsive therapy may be useful for treating and preventing catatonia. We also found that administering glutaminate antagonists such as memantine may be useful for treating lorazepam-resistant catatonia. PMID:24164753

  9. Low Seroprevalence of Toxocara Infection in Schizophrenic Inpatients in Durango, Mexico: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Cisneros-Martínez, Jorge Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric patients have a higher seroprevalence of toxocariasis than general population. However, there is poor knowledge about any specific psychiatric diagnosis associated with toxocariasis. The aim of the study was to determine whether seropositivity to Toxocara was associated with schizophrenia. Through an age and gender-matched case-control seroprevalence study in Durango City, Mexico, 50 schizophrenic inpatients in a public psychiatric hospital and 100 control subjects of the general population were compared for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One of the 50 (2%) schizophrenic inpatients, and 3 (3%) of the 100 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. No statistically significant difference in Toxocara seroprevalence among cases and controls was found (P=0.59). The Toxocara positive schizophrenic patient suffered from paranoid schizophrenia (F20.0) and had a number of putative risk factors for Toxocara exposure including contact with cats, dogs and other animals, worked in agriculture, and consumed undercooked meat, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and untreated water. Results suggest that seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was low and not associated with schizophrenia in psychiatric inpatients in Durango, Mexico. However, further studies to elucidate the association of toxocariasis with schizophrenia are needed. PMID:25598759

  10. A Patient with Idiopathic Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis Showing a Sustained Pulmonary Function due to Treatment with Pirfenidone.

    PubMed

    Sato, Seidai; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Mikiko; Fukuda, Yuh; Morizumi, Shun; Toyoda, Yuko; Goto, Hisatsugu; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 68-year-old man presenting with body weight loss and exertional dyspnea. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed dense subpleural consolidation with traction bronchiectasis and volume loss predominantly in bilateral apical lesions and upper lobes. A histopathological analysis of a specimen of the right upper lobe showed histological patterns which were consistent with idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastotis (IPPFE). Treatment with pirfenidone was introduced with the expectation of its potential benefit. The effect of pirfenidone was satisfactory, and a decline in forced vital capacity was inhibited during treatment. This is the first case report suggesting the efficacy of pirfenidone for patients with IPPFE. PMID:26935370

  11. Multiple sclerosis patients show sexual dimorphism in cytokine responses to myelin antigens

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, Ioana R.; Cotleur, Anne C.; Zamor, Natacha; Butler, Robert S.; Pelfrey, Clara M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis affects more women than men. The reasons for this are unknown. Previously, we have shown significant differences in women versus men in inflammatory cytokine responses to the major protein component of myelin, proteolipid protein (PLP), which is thought to be a target in MS patients. Here, using the ELISPOT assay, we examined sex differences in single-cell secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines from freshly isolated PBMC between relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients and healthy individuals. Cells were stimulated with MS-associated antigens including proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), and non-disease related antigens. Our data show a sex bias in the cytokine responses to multiple MS-relevant myelin antigens: Women with MS show IFNγ-skewed responses and men with MS show IL-5-skewed responses. These data extend our previous findings (Pelfrey et al., 2002): (1) by demonstrating gender skewing in cytokine responses to an expanded myelin antigen repertoire, which includes MBP, MOG and PLP; (2) by showing TNFα and IL-10 do not display comparable gender skewing compared to IFNγ and IL5; (3) by defining the patient population as early, untreated RR MS patients to avoid confounding factors, such as different disease stages/disability and immunomodulatory therapy; and (4) by showing HLA type does not appear to underlie the gender differences. These findings may explain increased susceptibility to MS in women and could contribute to the differences in disease severity between men and women. PMID:18022700

  12. Torque and Schizophrenic Vulnerability: As the World Turns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Theodore H.

    1977-01-01

    Based upon reports of parents and guardians, with subjects at an average age of 21 years, it was found that 11 of the youngsters who had exhibited torque had in the interim been diagnosed as schizophrenic. (Author)

  13. MRI volumetry shows increased anterior thalamic volumes in patients with absence seizures.

    PubMed

    Betting, Luiz Eduardo; Mory, Susana Barreto; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Li, Li Min; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Guerreiro, Carlos A M; Cendes, Fernando

    2006-05-01

    The interaction between thalamus and cortex appears to be critical to the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs). The objective of this study was to investigate thalamic volumes of a group of patients with IGEs using high-resolution MRI. Thalamic segmentation was performed by the same rater, who was unaware of the diagnosis. Thalamic volumes were divided into anterior half and posterior half. One hundred forty-seven patients were scanned (71 with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, 49 with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only, and 27 with absence epilepsy). Subgroup analyses with corrections for multiple comparisons showed that, when compared with those of controls, anterior thalamic volumes were increased in patients with absence epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy with absence seizures, but not in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy without absence seizures. Our results demonstrated that the anterior thalamus is structurally different in patients with IGEs and absence seizures as compared with patients with IGEs without absence seizures. PMID:16530016

  14. The fear of object loss, responsiveness to subliminal stimuli, and schizophrenic psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Litwack, T R; Wiedemann, C F; Yager, J

    1979-02-01

    Thirty schizophrenic patients were seen individually for three sessions in a balanced design. In each session, following subliminal stimulation with a neutral stimulus, a baseline assessment of pathology was made. Then, in different sessions, in counterbalanced order, each patient received one of three experimental (or "critical") stimuli: a) a neutral control stimulus; b) a message--CANNIBAL EATS PERSON--intended to activate aggressive ideation; c) a message--I AM LOSING MOMMY--intended to activate fantasies of object loss. Each of these conditions was followed by an initial and later assessment of pathology, and finally by a measure of the patients' sense of differentiation from a mothering figure. In the final session other measures were also obtained, including each patient's conscious association to the critical stimuli when presented supraliminally. The major results were: a) as in previous experiments, the subliminal aggressive message intensified pathology and aggressive ideation--especially for relatively undifferentiated and relatively nondefended patients; b) subliminal stimulation of fantasies of object loss also increased pathology--especially for nondefended patients--and also increased the patients' sense of merging with the mothering object; c) the patients' response to subliminal stimuli--including presumably neutral ones--was a function of the conscious meaning(s) of such stimuli. It was concluded that: a) the threat of object loss (real or fantasied) may be one of the motivations supporting the development of pathology in schizophrenics; b) the activation of fantasies of aggressive destruction can exacerbate schizophrenic pathology--perhaps by activating fantasies of object loss; c) future research with subliminal stimulation should consider carefully the differential responsiveness of subjects to the content of particular messages. PMID:762544

  15. [Evaluation of efficacy and tolerance of amisulpride in treatment of schizophrenic psychoses].

    PubMed

    Chabannes, J P; Pelissolo, A; Farah, S; Gerard, D

    1998-01-01

    Amisulpride is a benzamide derivative atypical antipsychotic characterized by selective blockade of dopamine D3 and D2 receptors, limbic selectivity and preferential blockade of dopamine autoreceptors at low doses. Its efficacy on predominant negative symptoms of schizophrenia at low doses, and on the positive symptoms at doses from 400 to 1,200 mg/day has been demonstrated in several controlled studies. The aim of our study was to assess the use in psychiatric clinical practice under naturalistic conditions, efficacy and safety of amisulpride and patient's ability to cope with social skills during a 3-month period of treatment with a follow-up at 6 months. A total of 445 patients (293 men and 152 women), between 18 and 45 years of age, were included in the study DSM III-R criteria of schizophrenia, paranoid type (295.3), or schizophreniform disorder (295.4) were required for inclusion. The patients received amisulpride with flexible dosage between 600 and 1,200 mg/d during a 3-month period (792 mg/d +/- 318). Evaluation was based on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), on the Positive And Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), and on Clinical Global Improvement scale, completed at D0, D14, D28, D60 and D90. Safety was also assessed with a comprehensive statement of adverse events and with the Simpson-Angus scale of extra pyramidal symptoms. A scale of social adaptation (Echelle d'Adaptation PsychoSociale) was completed at D0, D90 and D180. During the 3-month period of treatment, 124 patients (27.9%) dropped out the trial, including 24 cases of inefficacy and 27 cases of concomitant events. Intent-to-treat analysis showed a significant improvement of BPRS scores (40.2 vs 67.6; p < 0.0001), of positive PANSS scores (13.9 vs 27.7; p < 0.0001), and negative PANSS scores (17.45 vs 28.3; p < 0.0001) between D0 and D90. CGI results confirmed these figures. Follow-up assessment at D180 showed a sustained response on BPRS ans PANSS scores. Amisulpride was well tolerated in the study, with 21% of patients reporting adverse events, in majority psychiatric or endocrine disturbances. Only seven adverse events were assessed as serious. Extra pyramidal symptoms remained low during the study, as measured with Simpson-Angus scale. The EAPS scale showed a significant improvement of social adaptation during the treatment, with a sustained response during the 3-month follow-up period. In conclusion, 600-1 200 mg/d of amisulpride is an effective and well tolerated treatment of schizophrenic disorders, as demonstrated through this 3-month study carried in a large sample of 445 patients. Besides results suggest that under treatment with amisulpride in schizophrenic patients patients' ability to social adaptation can be improved, which could facilitate their rehabilitation. PMID:9809244

  16. Provider portrayals and patient-provider communication in drama and reality medical entertainment television shows.

    PubMed

    Jain, Parul; Slater, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    Portrayals of physicians on medical dramas have been the subject of research attention. However, such research has not examined portrayals of interactions between physicians and patients, has not compared physician portrayals on medical dramas versus on medical reality programs, and has not fully examined portrayals of physicians who are members of minority groups or who received their education internationally. This study content-analyzes 101 episodes (85 hours) of such programs broadcast during the 2006-2007 viewing season. Findings indicate that women are underrepresented as physicians on reality shows, though they are no longer underrepresented as physicians on dramas. However, they are not as actively portrayed in patient-care interactions as are male physicians on medical dramas. Asians and international medical graduates are underrepresented relative to their proportion in the U.S. physician population, the latter by almost a factor of 5. Many (but certainly not all) aspects of patient-centered communication are modeled, more so on reality programs than on medical dramas. Differences in patient-provider communication portrayals by minority status and gender are reported. Implications for public perception of physicians and expectations regarding provider-patient interaction are discussed. PMID:23581602

  17. Cytokine profiles show heterogeneity of interferon-β response in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Hegen, Harald; Adrianto, Indra; Lessard, Christopher J.; Millonig, Alban; Bertolotto, Antonio; Comabella, Manuel; Giovannoni, Gavin; Guger, Michael; Hoelzl, Martina; Khalil, Michael; Fazekas, Franz; Killestein, Joep; Lindberg, Raija L.P.; Malucchi, Simona; Mehling, Matthias; Montalban, Xavier; Rudzki, Dagmar; Schautzer, Franz; Sellebjerg, Finn; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Deisenhammer, Florian; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate serum cytokine profiles for their utility to determine the heterogeneous responses to interferon (IFN)–β treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome receiving de novo IFN-β treatment were included in this prospective, observational study. Number of relapses and changes in disability were assessed 2 years prior to and 2 years after initiation of treatment. Sera were collected at baseline and after 3 months on therapy. Cytokine levels in sera were assessed by Luminex multiplex assays. Baseline cytokine profiles were grouped by hierarchical clustering analysis. Demographic features, changes in cytokines, and clinical outcome were then assessed in the clustered patient groups. Results: A total of 157 patients were included in the study and clustered into 6 distinct subsets by baseline cytokine profiles. These subsets differed significantly in their clinical and biological response to IFN-β therapy. Two subsets were associated with patients who responded poorly to therapy. Two other subsets, associated with a good response to therapy, showed a significant reduction in relapse rates and no worsening of disability. Each subset also had differential changes in cytokine levels after 3 months of IFN-β treatment. Conclusions: There is heterogeneity in the immunologic pathways of the RRMS population, which correlates with IFN-β response. PMID:26894205

  18. Individuals with psychometric schizotypy show similar social but not physical anhedonia to patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Lui, Simon S Y; Zou, Lai-quan; Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Qing; Yan, Chao; Hong, Xiao-hong; Tan, Shu-ping; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-05-15

    Very few studies have examined physical and social anhedonia across the spectrum of schizophrenia. In the present study, we recruited three groups of participants (n=84 in each group): patients with schizophrenia, schizotypy and non-schizotypy as assessed by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). All participants completed the self-reported trait anhedonia scales (the Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale and the Social Anhedonia Scale). The clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). We found that the three groups differed in both physical and social anhedonia. The schizotypy group reported higher levels of physical anhedonia than the non-schizotypy group, and the patient group reported higher levels of physical anhedonia than the schizotypy group. For social anhedonia, the non-schizotypy group differed significantly from both the schizotypy and the patient group, while no significant difference was found between the last two groups. Our findings show that individuals with schizotypy exhibits similar social but not physical anhedonia compared with patients with schizophrenia, which further suggests that decreased pleasure experiences in the social environment may be a valuable target for identification and early intervention in high-risk populations. PMID:24589449

  19. Comparative study on gene tags of the neurotransmission system in schizophrenic and suicidal subjects.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Sven; Mihanović, Mate; Grah, Majda; Kezić, Slobodanka; Filaković, Pavo; Degmecić, Dunja

    2010-12-01

    Schizophrenia and suicidal behaviour are sever and complex mental disorders, largely determined by factors of inheritance. Both disorders present pathological changes in the catecholamine neurotransmitter system. The study was conducted on three groups; a group of subjects suffering from schizophrenia, a second compounded by individuals who attempted suicide and a third group of phenotypically healthy examinees. The blood samples of schizophrenic patients as of those who attempted suicide were obtained at the Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan" in Zagreb in the year 2004. Tests were conducted on the statistic relation between a total of 18 SNPs within three candidate-genes of the dopamine and adrenergic system (DRD4, SLC6A3 and ADRA2B) and the manifestation of schzophrenia and suicidal behaviour. Cases were genotyped by use of SNPlex system. Statistically significant differences were determined in the allelic frequency between the mentioned groups. Findings show a significant connection between 4 SNPs (ADRA2B rs749457, SLC6A3 rs464094, DRD4 rs11246226 and rs4331145) and schizophrenia, and 2 SNPs with suicidal attempt (ADRA2B rs1018351 i SLC6A3 rs403636). In addition, this is the first study that highlights the potential role/effect of polymorphisms in ADRA2B on the manifestation of schizophrenia, as on suicidal behaviour. PMID:21874733

  20. Platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peitl, Vjekoslav; Vidrih, Branka; Karlović, Zoran; Getaldić, Biserka; Peitl, Milena; Karlović, Dalibor

    2016-05-30

    Depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia, but so far they have received less attention than other symptom domains. Impaired serotonergic neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia. The objectives of this study were to investigate platelet serotonin concentrations in schizophrenic patients with and without depressive symptoms, and to investigate the association between platelet serotonin concentrations and symptoms of schizophrenia, mostly depressive symptoms. A total of 364 patients were included in the study, 237 of which had significant depressive symptoms. Significant depressive symptoms were defined by the cut-off score of 7 or more on Calgary Depression Rating Scale (CDSS). Platelet serotonin concentrations were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prevalence of depression in patients with schizophrenia was 65.1%. Schizophrenic patients with depressive symptoms showed lower platelet serotonin concentrations (mean±SD; 490.6±401.2) compared to schizophrenic patients without depressive symptoms (mean±SD; 660.9±471.5). An inverse correlation was established between platelet serotonin concentration and depressive symptoms, with more severe symptoms being associated with lower platelet serotonin concentrations. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be associated with reduced concentrations of platelet serotonin. PMID:27137969

  1. Narcoleptic Patients Show Fragmented EEG-Microstructure During Early NREM Sleep.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Alena; Brodbeck, Verena; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Morzelewski, Astrid; von Wegner, Frederic; Laufs, Helmut

    2015-07-01

    Narcolepsy is a chronic disorder of the sleep-wake cycle with pathological shifts between sleep stages. These abrupt shifts are induced by a sleep-regulating flip-flop mechanism which is destabilized in narcolepsy without obvious alterations in EEG oscillations. Here, we focus on the question whether the pathology of narcolepsy is reflected in EEG microstate patterns. 30 channel awake and NREM sleep EEGs of 12 narcoleptic patients and 32 healthy subjects were analyzed. Fitting back the dominant amplitude topography maps into the EEG led to a temporal sequence of maps. Mean microstate duration, ratio total time (RTT), global explained variance (GEV) and transition probability of each map were compared between both groups. Nine patients reached N1, 5 N2 and only 4 N3. All healthy subjects reached at least N2, 19 also N3. Four dominant maps could be found during wakefulness and all NREM- sleep stages in healthy subjects. During N3, narcolepsy patients showed an additional fifth map. The mean microstate duration was significantly shorter in narcoleptic patients than controls, most prominent in deep sleep. Single maps' GEV and RTT were also altered in narcolepsy. Being aware of the limitation of our low sample size, narcolepsy patients showed wake-like features during sleep as reflected in shorter microstate durations. These microstructural EEG alterations might reflect the intrusion of brain states characteristic of wakefulness into sleep and an instability of the sleep-regulating flip-flop mechanism resulting not only in pathological switches between REM- and NREM-sleep but also within NREM sleep itself, which may lead to a microstructural fragmentation of the EEG. PMID:25168255

  2. [For how long should antipsychotic medication be continued after the first psychotic episode in schizophrenics?].

    PubMed

    van Harten, P N; Hoek, H W

    1998-06-13

    Four patients, two women aged 24 and 62 years and two men aged 25 and 24, respectively, were admitted because of psychosis. A Dutch consensus paper advises treating patients with a first episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder with neuroleptics for two years as secondary prophylaxis. However, this advice should be tailored to the individual patient's characteristics. Thus, the first patient was given prophylactic medication for five years because she had many schizophrenic symptoms and a positive family history. In the second patient, the diagnosis was much less certain and, because of her advanced age, the risk of developing tardive dyskinesia was considerable. Prophylaxis was given for three months only. The third patient used drugs and did not really want to be treated. In the fourth patient the affective symptoms could not be interpreted for certain as part of a basic schizophrenic defect. In addition, he would be seriously handicapped professionally if he developed tardive dyskinesia. In his case, two years of secondary prophylaxis was advised. PMID:9752021

  3. Hamartomas from patients with tuberous sclerosis show loss of heterozygosity for chromosome 9q34

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.J.; Sepp, T.; Yates, J.R.W. |

    1994-09-01

    We have previously shown allele loss in hamartomas from cases of tuberous sclerosis (TSC) for markers in the region of the recently characterized TSC2 gene on chromosome 16p13.3. Germline deletions in the TSC2 gene have been shown in 5% of patients with TSC. These data strongly suggest that the TSC2 gene acts as a tumor suppressor gene. We hypothesised that hamartomas from patients with TSC can also show allele loss for markers on chromosome 9q34 in the region of the TSC1 gene. We studied 7 hamartomas (3 renal angiomyolipomas, 3 giant cell astrocytomas, and a cardiac rhabdomyoma) from 7 cases of TSC, none of which showed allele loss for markers on chromosome 16p13.3. Eight microsatellite markers were analyzed, comprising from centromeric to telomeric, ASS - D9S64 - D9S149 -D9S150 - DBH - D9S66 - D9S114 - D9S67. Two hamartomas (one renal angiomyolipoma and one giant cell astrocytoma) showed allele loss for at least two markers. The region of allele loss involved the TSC1 locus, but did not include D9S149 or D9S67. We have shown allele loss in two of seven TSC hamartomas in the region of the TSC1 gene on 9q34. Based on this deletion mapping, we suggest that the TSC1 gene on 9a34, like the TSC2 gene, acts as a tumor suppressor gene.

  4. Non-Coronary Patients with Severe Chest Pain Show More Irrational Beliefs Compared to Patients with Mild Pain

    PubMed Central

    Bahremand, Mostafa; Saeidi, Mozhgan

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite providing insufficient medical evidence of the existence of a real cardiac condition, patients with non-coronary chest pain still interpret their pain incorrectly. The present study, therefore, sought to compare the irrational beliefs in non-coronary patients with mild chest pain against those with severe chest pain. Methods A cross-sectional design was used. The statistical population comprised non-coronary patients who presented to the Heart Emergency Center of Kermanshah city, Iran. Using a matching method, 96 participants were selected and studied in two groups of 48. The instruments used were the Comorbidity Index, Brief Pain Index, and the Jones Irrational Beliefs Test (short-form). The multivariate analysis of variance, chi-square test, and t-test were used for data analysis. Results Controlling for the effects of age and comorbid conditions, the severity of three types of irrational beliefs, including emotional irresponsibility (P<0.001), hopelessness changes (P<0.001), and problem avoiding (P=0.002) was higher among patients with severe chest pain (according to effect level). However, in terms of demand for approval, no difference was seen between the two groups (P=0.180). Conclusion Non-coronary patients with severe chest pain showed a greater number of irrational beliefs in comparison to patients with mild pain. Irrational beliefs are common mental occurrences in patients with non-coronary chest pain, and they should be attended to by health professionals, especially in severe non-coronary chest pain. Further investigation to determine the association between irrational beliefs and non-coronary chest pain is necessary. PMID:26217482

  5. Sensory gating deficits in parents of schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, M.; Madison, A.; Freedman, R.

    1995-12-18

    Although schizophrenia clusters in families, it is not inherited in Mendelian fashion. This suggests that there may be alternative phenotypic expressions of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia, such as more elementary physiological or biochemical defects. One proposed phenotype is impaired inhibitory gating of the auditory evoked potential to repeated stimuli. Normally, the amplitude of the P50 response to the second stimulus is significantly less than the response to the first, but this gating of response is generally impaired in schizophrenia. Clinically unaffected individuals within a pedigree who have both an ancestral and descendant history of schizophrenia may be useful for studying whether this physiological defect is a possible alternative phenotype. We have studied inhibitory gating of the auditory P50 response to pairs of auditory stimuli in 17 nuclear families. In 11, there was one parent who had another relative with a chronic psychotic illness, in addition to the schizophrenic proband. AR of the parents with family histories of schizophrenia had gating of the P50 response similar to their schizophrenia offspring, whereas only 7% of the parents without family history had gating of the P50 response in the abnormal range. These results support loss of gating of the auditory P50 wave as an inherited deficit related to schizophrenia and suggest that studies of parents may help elucidate the neurobiological expression of genes that convey risk for schizophrenia. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Cancer-related fatigue shows a stable association with diurnal cortisol dysregulation in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martina E; Semik, Johanna; Habermann, Nina; Wiskemann, Joachim; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Steindorf, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Fatigue is a major burden for breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy. Yet, its pathophysiology is still not well understood. Hypothesized mechanisms include dysregulations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be reflected in alterations in the diurnal cortisol patterns. However, studies on the association between cortisol and fatigue during adjuvant cancer therapy are rare. We therefore assessed salivary cortisol at awakening, 0.5h post-awakening, noon, 5pm and 10pm/bedtime in 265 breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy at three timepoints. Cancer-related fatigue was assessed with the Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ) covering the physical, affective, and cognitive fatigue dimensions. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed cross-sectionally at the three timepoints as well as longitudinally considering changes in cortisol and fatigue over time. The results showed that the physical dimension of cancer-related fatigue was significantly associated with increased evening cortisol levels and higher overall cortisol secretion. These associations were independent of depressive symptoms. Morning cortisol levels, the cortisol awakening response and the diurnal slope were not consistently associated with physical fatigue. Affective and cognitive fatigue showed no clear association with any of the cortisol parameters. In conclusion, the physical but not the affective or cognitive dimension of fatigue seems associated with cortisol dysregulations in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy, characterized by an unaffected cortisol level in the morning but blunted decline to the evening level. Research focusing on disturbances of the cortisol rhythm and HPA dysregulations during and after cancer treatment may open new strategies to reduce cancer-related fatigue. PMID:26456694

  7. [Psychophysiology of schizophrenic disorders of attention--concepts, findings and working hypotheses].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, G; Gaebel, W

    1987-09-01

    Starting from early clinical descriptions according to which there exists a polarity of attentional behavior in schizophrenia, we compare a number of pertinent theoretical concepts put forward up to now. Special attention is given to the question of functional hemispherical asymmetries, and here especially to a working hypothesis according to which the neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenics result from a coordination deficit of two differently lateralized attention systems. Taking into consideration certain neurophysiological (especially electro-encephalographical) findings, we discuss a model which places in opposition sensory intake behaviors and sensory rejection behaviors. Then we give a condensed presentation of relevant findings of our own. In particular, it could be shown that clinical improvement goes along with a certain change of the topographical distribution of absolute alpha-power, and that the intensity of some psychopathological symptoms correlates with the lateralization of posterior absolute alpha-power. Relationships also occurred between psychopathology on the one hand and the performance level in a visuo-motor tracking task or the eye movement behavior recorded during a picture viewing task, on the other. A concluding synopsis, comprising both empirically proven and theoretically postulated relationships, serves to formulate working hypotheses for clinical-psychophysiological correlation studies to be done in the future. In contrast to the current practice of assigning patients to the usual diagnostic subgroups, we advocate from a research-oriented point of view the grouping of those patients who show certain combinations of clinical and psychophysiological signs at a certain moment. Such a procedure holds out a prospect of solving a central problem of schizophrenia research consisting of the considerable intra- and individual variability of findings. Instead of changeable sick persons, defined systems states would be classified. Knowledge of the dynamics of such systems states could contribute to a rational therapy in the individual patient. PMID:3311950

  8. Inducing Assertive Behavior in Chronic Schizophrenics: A Comparison of Socioenvironmental Desensitization, and Relaxation Therapies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Bernard; And Others

    1972-01-01

    It is concluded that systematic desensitization or relaxation therapy is not effective in inducing assertive behavior in the male chronic schizophrenic. The treatment of choice for the older chronic male schizophrenic remains socioenvironmental therapy. (Author)

  9. The relatedness of borderline and schizophrenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, J G

    1979-01-01

    This article is an editor's introduction to the theme of a special issue of the Schizophrenia Bulletin devoted to borderline conditions. The editor reviews various approaches to defining borderline patients and concludes that these descriptive efforts are now showing considerable consensus. Questions remain, however, about whether borderline patients constitute a diagnostic category that is unrelated to schizophrenia or some other established diagnostic group. The historical origins of these questions are briefly reviewed, and then the multiple interpretations given to the current research efforts to answer them are described. PMID:441689

  10. Two Aboriginal registered nurses show us why black nurses caring for black patients is good medicine.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Lynne; Nielsen, Anne-Maree

    In Queensland, Aboriginal nurses are limited in number in comparison to the mainstream nursing workforce. More Aboriginal registered nurses are needed to cater for Aboriginal patients in our Australian healthcare system in view of today's burgeoning Indigenous health crisis. It is a foregone conclusion that Aboriginal nurses are the most suitable nurses to provide optimal cross cultural care for Aboriginal patients, due to having similar cultural backgrounds. The following paper will show how two Aboriginal registered nurses are optimistic about the possibilities of expanding the ranks of Aboriginal registered nurses through role modelling, and are channelling their research to achieve this with the aim of promoting better health outcomes for their people. A qualitative research approach has been used to examine the subjective human experience of the participants. Three dominant themes emerged from the research and will be expanded upon within the body of this paper to support the authors' thesis that Aboriginal nurses are a valuable commodity to address the Aboriginal health crisis. PMID:21591832

  11. [A Patient with Early-Stage Multiple System Atrophy Showing Augmented Nystagmus in Light].

    PubMed

    Oguri, Masayoshi; Nakamura, Yousuke; Hara, Ayako; Kitano, Hiroya; Motokura, Toru

    2015-04-01

    The ability to fix the eyes on a target, visual fixation, is important for the maintenance of equilibrium. The visual suppression (VS) test is one method of measuring the function of visual fixation. The test records caloric nystagmus by electrooculography, and the maximum slow phase velocity of caloric nystagmus in darkness is compared with the slow phase velocity in light with eyes fixed. Lesions of the cerebellum, brain stem, and cerebrum cause abnormalities of VS. We report a patient whose VS became a clue in the diagnosis of a disorder of the central nervous system. A 54-year-old man complained of dizziness, which gradually increased in frequency over 5 months. He visited several clinics, where vestibular neutritis and cervical spondylosis were suspected and treated without improvement. Although a pure-tone auditory test revealed bilateral normal hearing, a caloric test showed a weak response and VS was lost with augmentation of caloric nystagmus in light on both sides. Both eye tracking and optokinetic nystagmus tests were abnormal. Although magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities, single photon emission computed tomography revealed decreased blood flow in the parietal area. VS of caloric nystagmus towards the side of a lesion is reduced or abolished after unilateral flocculus damage, and is abolished bilaterally after bilateral flocculus damage. In the case of a parietal lobe or pontine lesion, VS is strongly abolished, and even augmentation of caloric nystagmus may be observed. In the present case, the patient was diagnosed with multiple-system atrophy after onset of dizziness. PMID:26536776

  12. Influencing and moderating factors analyzed in the group art therapy of two schizophrenic inpatients.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chung-Chieh; Ku, Yung-Wen

    2015-12-01

    Art therapy has been considered a guideline treatment for schizophrenia. Due to difficulty in the outcome measurement, the research is difficult and controversial. Here, we presented two schizophrenic patients receiving the regular art group therapy. We compared their characteristics and different outcome. Art therapy is difficult to quantify. However, we could qualify the improvement from the individual case. Further study might be focus on how to make appropriate qualification of art therapy and individualized difference instead of enrollment of huge data bank. PMID:26615540

  13. A de-novo STXBP1 gene mutation in a patient showing the Rett syndrome phenotype.

    PubMed

    Romaniello, Romina; Saettini, Francesco; Panzeri, Elena; Arrigoni, Filippo; Bassi, Maria T; Borgatti, Renato

    2015-03-25

    This study reports on a 9-year-old girl who developed West syndrome and showed clinical features fulfilling the main revised diagnostic criteria for typical Rett syndrome (hand washing, severe cognitive impairment with absence of language, ataxic gait, progressive scoliosis and autistic features). Mutation analyses for methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2), cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5/STK9), ARX and Forkhead box G1 (FOXG1) genes were carried out, with negative results. A known de-novo c.1217G>A missense mutation in exon 14 leading to the substitution of a conserved residue, p.R406H in domain3b of the syntaxin-binding protein 1 (STXBP1) gene, was detected. The STXBP1 gene encodes the syntaxin-binding protein 1, a neuron-specific protein involved in synaptic vesicle release at both glutaminergic and GABAergic synapses. This function is also affected by MECP2 gene mutations, which are known to lead to a decrease in glutamate and GABA receptors' density. It is possible to speculate that the impairment in synaptic plasticity represents the pathogenic link between MECP2 and STXBP1 gene mutations. On reviewing the clinical features of the reported patients with the same mutation in the STXBP1 gene, it has been observed that poor eye contact, tremour, dyskinesia, head/hand stereotypies and both cognitive and motor progressive deterioration are common symptoms, although never considered as indicative of a Rett syndrome phenotype. In conclusion, the case described here suggests a relationship between the Rett syndrome and the STXBP1 gene not described so far, making the search for STXBP1 gene mutations advisable in patients with Rett syndrome and early onset of epilepsy. PMID:25714420

  14. When patients run the show: the Sderot Psychiatric Center's Puppet Theater.

    PubMed

    Katz, Adriana; Hadas, Ruth; Beck, Tamar; Benjamin, Jonathan; Scharf, Shimon

    2004-01-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation combats the damaging effects of mental illness on living, occupational and social skills, and strives to help patients lead creative and fulfilling lives. Medical and social changes, as well as financial pressure, have all increased the need for community rather than institutional rehabilitation. New philosophical emphases highlight patient self-actualization and empowerment. This paper describes the development of a puppet theater, whose members and artistic director are almost all chronic psychiatric patients; the project has achieved steady sheltered employment status and been awarded the first Zussman-JDC prize by the president of Israel. Interviews with patients elicited major differences between patient perceptions of traditional rehabilitation frameworks and the theater. Theater is more creative than typical sheltered employment opportunities for mental patients, and puppet theater has unique aspects that may be especially suited to their needs. Patients found participation an empowering experience. PMID:15160657

  15. Evidence for a chromosome 22q susceptibility locus for some schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Pulver, A.E.; Wolyniec, P.; Nestadt, G.

    1994-09-01

    Recent reports from linkage studies suggests that in some families there may be a gene associated with schizophrenia on chromosome 22q. Given the probable heterogeneity of schizophrenia, further exploration of this region was undertaken. The region was examined for candidate genes and diseases reported to have some psychiatric manifestations. Studies were initiated to examine the the potential phenotypic and molecular similarity between schizophrenia and velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS), a syndrome associated with an interstitial deletion of 22q11.2. Phenotypic expression: (1) psychiatric evaluations of VCFS patients and their relatives found a high rate of DSM III-R schizophrenia in the patients and of psychotic illness in their 2nd and 3rd degree relatives. (2) 160 schizophrenic patients from the Maryland Epidemiology Sample (MES) were evaluated for the presence of typical facies seen in VCFS. Rating a 5-point scale, {open_quotes}5{close_quotes} being most likely, 15 (9.4%) were rated {open_quotes}5{close_quotes} and 27 (16.9%) were rated {open_quotes}4{close_quotes} for the VCFS-like facial features. Molecular characteristics: fluorescent in situ hybridization methods (FISH) identified 3 schizophrenics among 60 in the MES with the microdeletion of probe sc11.lab commonly deleted in VCFS subjects. This work provides a model for the mapping of complex phenotypes such schizophrenia using both genetic and epidemiological methods.

  16. LDL from obese patients with the metabolic syndrome show increased lipid peroxidation and activate platelets

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Romain; Sassolas, Agnès; Guichardant, Michel; Cugnet-Anceau, Christine; Moret, Myriam; Moulin, Philippe; Lagarde, Michel; Calzada, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis This study was aimed at assessing oxidative stress in LDL from obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared with LDL from type 2 diabetic patients or control volunteers, and determining their effects on platelets. Methods The profiles of lipids, fatty acids and fatty acid oxidation products were determined in LDL isolated from plasma of MetS patients, type 2 diabetic patients and volunteers (n=10 per group). The effects of LDL isolated from these participants on platelet arachidonic acid signaling cascade and aggregation were investigated. Results Compared with LDL from control volunteers, LDL from obese MetS and type 2 diabetic patients contained lower cholesteryl esters, higher triacylglycerols and lower ethanolamine plasmalogens levels. Proportions of linoleic acid were decreased in phosphatidylcholine and cholesteryl esters in patients’ LDL. Among the markers of lipid peroxidation, oxidation products of linoleic acid (hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids) and malondialdehyde were increased by 59% and 2-fold, respectively in LDL from MetS patients and to the same extent in LDL from type 2 diabetic patients. LDL from MetS patients were as potent as LDL from type 2 diabetic patients in activating platelet arachidonic acid signaling cascade through increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and cytosolic phospholipase A2, and increased thromboxane B2 formation. LDL from patients with MetS and type 2 diabetes potentiated 3-fold and 3.5-fold respectively platelet aggregation whereas control LDL had no activating effects on platelets. Conclusions/interpretation MetS in obese patients, without or with diabetes, is associated with increased oxidative stress in LDL, which trigger platelet activation. The protocol is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00932087. PMID:21847583

  17. Alzheimer's disease treated patients showed different patterns for oxidative stress and inflammation markers.

    PubMed

    Gubandru, Miriana; Margina, Denisa; Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Goutzourelas, Nikos; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Ilie, Mihaela; Tsatsakis, Aristidis Michael; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2013-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia accounting for 60-80% of the reported cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of certain parameters of oxidative stress and markers of endothelial dysfunction in the blood of 21 AD patients under standard treatment compared with 10 controls, in an attempt to elucidate the contribution of AD to the total oxidative stress status of the patients. Results indicate that IL-6, TNF-α, ADMA and homocysteine levels were significantly elevated in AD patients. Protein carbonyls levels were higher in AD group, while glutathione reductase and total antioxidant capacity were lower, depicting decreased defense ability against reactive oxygen species. Besides, a higher level of advanced glycation end-products was observed in AD patients. Depending on the treatment received, a distinct inflammatory and oxidative stress profile was observed: in Rivastigmine-treated group, IL6 levels were 47% lower than the average value of the remaining AD patients; homocysteine and glutathione reductase were statistically unchanged in the Rivastigmine and Donepezil-Memantine, respectively Donepezil group. Although the study is based on a limited population, the results could constitute the basis for further studies regarding the effect of medication and diet on AD patients. PMID:23871825

  18. Lexical and sub-lexical reading skills and their correlation to clinical symptoms in young Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiuju; Wang, Pengfei; Xia, Zhichao; Liu, Jin; Quan, Wenxiang; Tian, Ju; Wydell, Taeko N; Dong, Wentian

    2015-12-30

    Patients with schizophrenia often experience severe reading deficits such as oral reading and reading comprehension deficits. However, it is not known whether different types of lexical or sub-lexical components in reading are also impaired. In order to address this issue, the present study had 22 young Chinese patients with schizophrenia and 22 young Chinese normal controls undergo a battery of reading tests, which specifically measures lexical and sub-lexical components of reading in Chinese. The schizophrenic group further underwent Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) in order to ascertain the severity of patients' clinical symptoms. The results showed that compared to the controls, (1) the schizophrenic patients performed significantly poorly in orthographic processing, orthography-phonology mapping, and orthography-semantic mapping tests and further that (2) their performances in orthographic processing, and orthography-semantic mapping skill tests negatively correlated with the BPRS score. Note however that their ability to access their mental lexicon was intact. There is thus a clear need for studies with a larger sample-size and neurobiological measures which would lead to our better understanding of the behavioral as well as the neural relationships between schizophrenic patients, and their reading processing impairments, thus developing effective reading intervention programs for the schizophrenic patients. PMID:26611156

  19. Sex-Specific Brain Deficits in Auditory Processing in an Animal Model of Cocaine-Related Schizophrenic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Patricia A.; Rosenbaum, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is a psychostimulant in the pharmacological class of drugs called Local Anesthetics. Interestingly, cocaine is the only drug in this class that has a chemical formula comprised of a tropane ring and is, moreover, addictive. The correlation between tropane and addiction is well-studied. Another well-studied correlation is that between psychosis induced by cocaine and that psychosis endogenously present in the schizophrenic patient. Indeed, both of these psychoses exhibit much the same behavioral as well as neurochemical properties across species. Therefore, in order to study the link between schizophrenia and cocaine addiction, we used a behavioral paradigm called Acoustic Startle. We used this acoustic startle paradigm in female versus male Sprague-Dawley animals to discriminate possible sex differences in responses to startle. The startle method operates through auditory pathways in brain via a network of sensorimotor gating processes within auditory cortex, cochlear nuclei, inferior and superior colliculi, pontine reticular nuclei, in addition to mesocorticolimbic brain reward and nigrostriatal motor circuitries. This paper is the first to report sex differences to acoustic stimuli in Sprague-Dawley animals (Rattus norvegicus) although such gender responses to acoustic startle have been reported in humans (Swerdlow et al. 1997 [1]). The startle method monitors pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) as a measure of the loss of sensorimotor gating in the brain's neuronal auditory network; auditory deficiencies can lead to sensory overload and subsequently cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine addicts and schizophrenic patients as well as cocaine treated animals are reported to exhibit symptoms of defective PPI (Geyer et al., 2001 [2]). Key findings are: (a) Cocaine significantly reduced PPI in both sexes. (b) Females were significantly more sensitive than males; reduced PPI was greater in females than in males. (c) Physiological saline had no effect on startle in either sex. Thus, the data elucidate gender-specificity to the startle response in animals. Finally, preliminary studies show the effect of cocaine on acoustic startle in tandem with effects on estrous cycle. The data further suggest that hormones may play a role in these sex differences to acoustic startle reported herein. PMID:24961412

  20. Survey using incognito standardized patients shows poor quality care in China's rural clinics.

    PubMed

    Sylvia, Sean; Shi, Yaojiang; Xue, Hao; Tian, Xin; Wang, Huan; Liu, Qingmei; Medina, Alexis; Rozelle, Scott

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decade, China has implemented reforms designed to expand access to health care in rural areas. Little objective evidence exists, however, on the quality of that care. This study reports results from a standardized patient study designed to assess the quality of care delivered by village clinicians in rural China. To measure quality, we recruited individuals from the local community to serve as undercover patients and trained them to present consistent symptoms of two common illnesses (dysentery and angina). Based on 82 covert interactions between the standardized patients and local clinicians, we find that the quality of care is low as measured by adherence to clinical checklists and the rates of correct diagnoses and treatments. Further analysis suggests that quality is most strongly correlated with provider qualifications. Our results highlight the need for policy action to address the low quality of care delivered by grassroots providers. PMID:24653216

  1. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira; Santos, Bruno F. de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M. Francisco; de Oliveira, Daniel Pio; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all‑cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 – 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 – 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. PMID:25352460

  2. Screening for THAP1 Mutations in Polish Patients with Dystonia Shows Known and Novel Substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Golanska, Ewa; Gajos, Agata; Sieruta, Monika; Szybka, Malgorzata; Rudzinska, Monika; Ochudlo, Stanislaw; Kmiec, Tomasz; Liberski, Pawel P.; Bogucki, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of DYT6 mutations in Polish patients with isolated dystonia and to characterize their phenotype. We sequenced THAP1 exons 1, 2 and 3 including exon-intron boundaries and 5’UTR fragment in 96 non-DYT1 dystonia patients. In four individuals single nucleotide variations were identified. The coding substitutions were: c. 238A>G (p.Ile80Val), found in two patients, and c.167A>G (p.Glu56Gly), found in one patient. The same variations were present also in the patients’ symptomatic as well as asymptomatic relatives. Mutation penetration in the analyzed families was 50-66.7%. In the fourth patient, a novel c.-249C>A substitution in the promoter region was identified. The patient, initially suspected of idiopathic isolated dystonia, finally presented with pantothenate kinase 2-associated neurodegeneration phenotype and was a carrier of two PANK2 mutations. This is the first identified NBIA1 case carrying mutations in both PANK2 and THAP1 genes. In all symptomatic THAP1 mutation carriers (four probands and their three affected relatives) the first signs of dystonia occurred before the age of 23. A primary localization typical for DYT6 dystonia was observed in six individuals. Five subjects developed the first signs of dystonia in the upper limb. In one patient the disease began from laryngeal involvement. An uncommon primary involvement of lower limb was noted in the THAP1 and PANK2 mutations carrier. Neither of these THAP1 substitutions were found in 150 unrelated healthy controls. To the contrary, we identified a heterozygous C/T genotype of c.57C>T single nucleotide variation (p.Pro19Pro, rs146087734) in one healthy control, but in none of the patients. Therefore, a previously proposed association between this substitution and DYT6 dystonia seems unlikely. We found also no significant difference between cases and controls in genotypes distribution of the two-nucleotide -237-236 GA>TT (rs370983900 & rs1844977763) polymorphism. PMID:26087139

  3. Abnormal Sense of Agency in Patients with Schizophrenia: Evidence from Bimanual Coupling Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Garbarini, Francesca; Mastropasqua, Angela; Sigaudo, Monica; Rabuffetti, Marco; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Pia, Lorenzo; Rocca, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A fruitful approach to the understanding the human awareness of action is the study of those pathologies in which some aspects of it are altered. Previous evidences showed that patients with schizophrenia tend to attribute someone else’ actions to their own, as internally, rather than externally, generated. Here, we asked whether schizophrenics have an “excessive” sense of agency, while observing others’ movements. We took advantage from the circles-lines task, known to show bimanual interferences. Twenty schizophrenics and 20 age-matched healthy controls were administered: (a) the bimanual version of the task: drawing lines with one hand and circles with the other; and (b) a modified version: drawing lines while observing the examiner drawing circles. In the bimanual version, patients and controls showed a comparable interference effect. In the observation version, schizophrenics, compared to controls, showed a significantly greater interference effect of the examiners’ hand drawing circles on the own hand drawing lines. This effect was significantly correlated to the strength of the positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) and to the alteration of the sense of agency, reported during the task. These findings suggest that an altered sense of agency, as shown by schizophrenics, can induce objective consequences on the motor system. PMID:27014005

  4. Abnormal Sense of Agency in Patients with Schizophrenia: Evidence from Bimanual Coupling Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Garbarini, Francesca; Mastropasqua, Angela; Sigaudo, Monica; Rabuffetti, Marco; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Pia, Lorenzo; Rocca, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A fruitful approach to the understanding the human awareness of action is the study of those pathologies in which some aspects of it are altered. Previous evidences showed that patients with schizophrenia tend to attribute someone else' actions to their own, as internally, rather than externally, generated. Here, we asked whether schizophrenics have an "excessive" sense of agency, while observing others' movements. We took advantage from the circles-lines task, known to show bimanual interferences. Twenty schizophrenics and 20 age-matched healthy controls were administered: (a) the bimanual version of the task: drawing lines with one hand and circles with the other; and (b) a modified version: drawing lines while observing the examiner drawing circles. In the bimanual version, patients and controls showed a comparable interference effect. In the observation version, schizophrenics, compared to controls, showed a significantly greater interference effect of the examiners' hand drawing circles on the own hand drawing lines. This effect was significantly correlated to the strength of the positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) and to the alteration of the sense of agency, reported during the task. These findings suggest that an altered sense of agency, as shown by schizophrenics, can induce objective consequences on the motor system. PMID:27014005

  5. Use of the Terms "Schizophrenia" and "Schizophrenic" in the South Korean News Media: A Content Analysis of Newspapers and News Programs in the Last 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Hyun; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong-Woo; Gim, Min-Sook

    2012-01-01

    Objective In this study, we explored the meaning attributed to the words "jungshinbunyeolbyung" (schizophrenia) and "jungshinbunyeol" (schizophrenic) in South Korean newspapers and news programs in the last 10 years. Methods We screened the websites of three national newspapers and the broadcasts of three nationwide television news programs from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010. We classified a total of 490 articles and 257 news segments by category and quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed them. The articles and news segments were assigned to one of the following categories based on their use of the term "schizophrenia": 1) negative, 2) neutral or positive, 3) incidental, and 4) metaphorical. Results The negative viewpoint accounted for 349 incidences (46.7%), while the neutral and positive viewpoints included 225 incidences (30.1%). Incidental uses accounted for 95 incidences (12.7%), and metaphorical uses accounted for 78 incidences (10.4%). The majority of the negative uses focused on violence or dangers posed by patients (137 mentions, 37.8%), while the metaphorical uses mainly focused on the idea of splitting (51 mentions, or 65%). Conclusion This study showed that the South Korean news media do not provide balanced information about schizophrenia to the public. This study also showed that no significant move has been made toward a more positive use of the term since a previous study was conducted on the subject. Although the term schizophrenia has given way to "attunement disorder," it will be difficult to establish the new term as the standard if the South Korean media continue to use the term "schizophrenic symptom." Even though the term has been changed, guidelines are necessary to encourage the mass media to provide balanced articles and reduce prejudice. PMID:22396680

  6. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  7. Patients with bipolar disorder show differential executive dysfunctions: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Leung, Meranda M W; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Ya; Tsui, Chi F; Au, Angie C W; Yeung, Hera K H; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Li, Zhi; Cheng, Chi-Wai; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-04-30

    Executive deficits in euthymic bipolar I disorder were examined in a fractionated manner based on the "Supervisory Attentional System" (SAS) model, and the relationship between the degree of executive impairment and the demographic and clinical characteristics of bipolar I participants was explored. A battery of neurocognitive tests capturing specific components of executive function was administered on 30 patients with bipolar I disorder in euthymic state, and compared with 30 healthy controls who were matched by age, gender and IQ. A differential impairment in executive function was demonstrated in euthymic bipolar I participants by using a fractionated approach of the SAS. Euthymic bipolar I patients were found to have significantly poorer performance in immediate and delayed visual memory; and in the executive domains of "initiation", "sustained attention", and "attention allocation and planning". Those with a greater number of executive impairments had lower IQ and higher negative sub-scores on PANSS. These findings might provide a the basis for further studies on identifying the executive components that are associated with particular disease characteristics of bipolar disorder, and those with poorer functional outcome, so that rehabilitation can be focused on the selective domains concerned. PMID:27086222

  8. Fibroblasts from patients with major depressive disorder show distinct transcriptional response to metabolic stressors

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, K A; Vereczkei, A; Kálmán, S; Wang, L; Korade, Ž; Shelton, R C; Mirnics, K

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is increasingly viewed as interplay of environmental stressors and genetic predisposition, and recent data suggest that the disease affects not only the brain, but the entire body. As a result, we aimed at determining whether patients with major depression have aberrant molecular responses to stress in peripheral tissues. We examined the effects of two metabolic stressors, galactose (GAL) or reduced lipids (RL), on the transcriptome and miRNome of human fibroblasts from 16 pairs of patients with MDD and matched healthy controls (CNTR). Our results demonstrate that both MDD and CNTR fibroblasts had a robust molecular response to GAL and RL challenges. Most importantly, a significant part (messenger RNAs (mRNAs): 26–33% microRNAs (miRNAs): 81–90%) of the molecular response was only observed in MDD, but not in CNTR fibroblasts. The applied metabolic challenges uncovered mRNA and miRNA signatures, identifying responses to each stressor characteristic for the MDD fibroblasts. The distinct responses of MDD fibroblasts to GAL and RL revealed an aberrant engagement of molecular pathways, such as apoptosis, regulation of cell cycle, cell migration, metabolic control and energy production. In conclusion, the metabolic challenges evoked by GAL or RL in dermal fibroblasts exposed adaptive dysfunctions on mRNA and miRNA levels that are characteristic for MDD. This finding underscores the need to challenge biological systems to bring out disease-specific deficits, which otherwise might remain hidden under resting conditions. PMID:25756806

  9. Patients treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin show selective activation of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Tjon, A S W; Tha-In, T; Metselaar, H J; van Gent, R; van der Laan, L J W; Groothuismink, Z M A; te Boekhorst, P A W; van Hagen, P M; Kwekkeboom, J

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used to treat autoimmune and systemic inflammatory diseases caused by derailment of humoral and cellular immunity. In this study we investigated whether IVIg treatment can modulate regulatory T cells (Tregs) in humans in vivo. Blood was collected from IVIg-treated patients with immunodeficiency or autoimmune disease who were treated with low-dose (n = 12) or high-dose (n = 15) IVIg before, immediately after and at 7 days after treatment. Percentages and activation status of circulating CD4+CD25+forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3+) Tregs and of conventional CD4+FoxP3− T-helper cells (Tconv) were measured. The suppressive capacity of Tregs purified from blood collected at the time-points indicated was determined in an ex-vivo assay. High-dose, but not low-dose, IVIg treatment enhanced the activation status of circulating Tregs, as shown by increased FoxP3 and human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) expression, while numbers of circulating Tregs remained unchanged. The enhanced activation was sustained for at least 7 days after infusion, and the suppressive capacity of purified Tregs was increased from 41 to 70% at day 7 after IVIg treatment. The activation status of Tconv was not affected by IVIg. We conclude that high-dose IVIg treatment activates Tregs selectively and enhances their suppressive function in humans in vivo. This effect may be one of the mechanisms by which IVIg restores imbalanced immune homeostasis in patients with autoimmune and systemic inflammatory disorders. PMID:23607448

  10. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ana Carla Pereira de; Santos, Bruno F de Oliveira; Calasans, Flavia Ricci; Pinto, Ibraim M Francisco; Oliveira, Daniel Pio de; Melo, Luiza Dantas; Andrade, Stephanie Macedo; Tavares, Irlaneide da Silva; Sousa, Antonio Carlos Sobral; Oliveira, Joselina Luzia Menezes

    2014-11-01

    Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1) or positive (G2) for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%). During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016). The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022) and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.Fundamento: Estudos têm demonstrado a acurácia diagnóstica e o valor prognóstico da ecocardiografia com estresse físico na doença arterial coronária, mas a predição de mortalidade e de eventos cardíacos maiores, em pacientes com teste ergométrico positivo para isquemia miocárdica, é limitada. Objetivo: Avaliar a predição de mortalidade e de eventos cardíacos maiores pela ecocardiografia com estresse físico em pacientes com teste ergométrico positivo para isquemia miocárdica. Métodos: Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva em que foram estudados 866 pacientes consecutivos, com teste ergométrico positivo para isquemia miocárdica, submetidos à ecocardiografia com estresse físico. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: ecocardiografia com estresse físico negativa (G1) ou positiva (G2) para isquemia miocárdica. Os desfechos avaliados foram mortalidade por qualquer causa e eventos cardíacos maiores, definidos como óbito cardíaco e infarto agudo do miocárdio não fatal. Resultados: O G2 constituiu-se de 205 (23,7%) pacientes. Durante o seguimento médio de 85,6 ± 15,0 meses, ocorreram 26 óbitos, sendo seis por causa cardíaca, e 25 casos de infarto agudo do miocárdio não fatais. Os preditores independentes de mortalidade foram idade, diabetes melito e a ecocardiografia com estresse físico + (hazard ratio: 2,69; intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,20 - 6,01; p = 0,016), com os seguintes eventos cardíacos maiores: idade, doença arterial coronária prévia, ecocardiografia com estresse físico + (hazard ratio: 2,75; intervalo de confiança de 95%: 1,15 - 6,53; p = 0,022) e ausência do incremento de 10% na fração de ejeção. A mortalidade por qualquer causa e os eventos cardíacos maiores foram significativamente superiores no G2 (p < 0, 001 e p = 0,001, respectivamente). Conclusão: A ecocardiografia com estresse físico oferece informações prognósticas adicionais em pacientes com teste ergométrico positivo para isquemia miocárdica. PMID:25352460

  11. Patients' perceptions of physicians: a pilot study of the influence of prime-time fictional medical shows.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Mary Elizabeth; Heischmidt, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Much criticism has fallen onto prime-time crime shows for skewing the perception the public has on crime. Could the same criticism apply to prime-time medical dramas, which tend to be among the most watched television shows today, for skewing patients' expectations? In the past, physicians on prime-time fictional medical shows tended to be depicted in a positive manner. However, today's medical dramas often portray physicians in a less positive context. The results of this study showed that television exposure only negatively affect patients' perceptions of physicians in regards to physical attractiveness and character, but not to physician propriety, power, communication, sociability, extroversion, competence, and composure. In addition, this study showed that prime-time fictional shows affect patient-physician interactions. PMID:22416926

  12. Overview: the heuristic need for subgroups of the schizophrenic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bellak, L; Strauss, J S

    1979-01-01

    This article is an editor's introduction to the theme of an issue of the Schizophrenia Bulletin devoted to subgroups of the schizophrenic syndrome. The issue includes articles on subtyping from various points of view: neurological, genetic, biochemical, and descriptive. It is hoped that the wide range of findings being applied in ongoing classificatory efforts will produce subgroups with etiologic, prognostic, and treatment validity. PMID:482878

  13. Quadruplet hallucinations. Phenotypic variations of a schizophrenic genotype.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, D; Quinn, O W

    1977-07-01

    This article provides an in-depth analysis of hallucinations in monozygous quadruplets concordant for schizophrenia. Since all four are genetically identical, deviations among them with regard to various aspects of hallucinations probably represent the effects that nongenetic factors can produce in hallucinating schizophrenics. Concordance probably represent the effects of genetic factors. We present here findings based on this research strategy, and a brief review of the literature on hallucinations. PMID:560180

  14. John Nash, game theory, and the schizophrenic brain.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2011-03-01

    This article focuses on John Nash, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1994, and subject of the Award winning 2001 film A Beautiful Mind, who was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia in 1958 at the age of 29. After presenting an account of the emergence, course, and eventual remission of his illness, the article argues for the relevance of his contribution to game theory, known as the Nash equilibrium, for which he received the Nobel Prize, to research studies of the schizophrenic brain and how it deviates from the normal brain. The case is made that the Nash equilibrium is descriptive of the normal brain, whereas the game theory formulated by John van Neumann, which Nash's theory challenges, is descriptive of the schizophrenic brain. The fact that Nash and his colleagues in mathematics did not make the association between his contributions to mathematics and his mental breakdown and that his later recovery exemplified the validity of this contribution are noted and discussed. Religious themes in his delusional system, including his view of himself as a secret messianic figure and the biblical Esau, are interpreted in light of these competing game theories and the dysfunctions of the schizophrenic brain. His recognition that his return to normalcy came at the price of his sense of being in relation to the cosmos is also noted. PMID:19862621

  15. De novo WDR45 mutation in a patient showing clinically Rett syndrome with childhood iron deposition in brain.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Chihiro; Nabatame, Shin; Iijima, Yoshitaka; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Miyake, Noriko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Ozono, Keiichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2014-05-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly caused by MECP2 mutations. We identified a de novo WDR45 mutation, which caused a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, in a patient showing clinically typical RTT. The mutation (c.830+1G>A) led to aberrant splicing in lymphoblastoid cells. Sequential brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that iron deposition in the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra was observed as early as at 11 years of age. Because the patient showed four of the main RTT diagnostic criteria, WDR45 should be investigated in patients with RTT without MECP2 mutations. PMID:24621584

  16. Peritoneal macrophages from patients with cirrhotic ascites show impaired phagocytosis and vigorous respiratory burst

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abdel Motaal M.; Bomford, Adrian; Nouri-Aria, Kayhan T.; Davies, Ted; Smith, Roger; Williams, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients (CPs) are susceptible to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Aim of this study was to examine if this susceptibility was related to peritoneal macrophages' (PMs) altered host defence. Absorbance of phagocytosed particles by PMs from CPs was lower than that of control (31.88% vs. 77.2%). Particle opsonisation increased the absorbance to 41% in CPs' PMs, and this value remains lower than the control; 77.2%. Respiratory burst (RB) was expressed as fluorescence index values, and these were higher in PMs from CPs than in controls (82 vs. 41, 73 vs. 26 and 71 vs. 26). IFN-? made no further increase of RB values in PMs from CPs. CD14 expression was also higher in CPs' PMs. IFN-? significantly downregulated CD14 expression in both CPs' PMs and control. Reduced phagocytosis by predominantly CD14-positive PMs from CPs could be related to intense RB. Findings suggest altered host defence that could contribute to susceptibility to SBP. PMID:24371553

  17. Heritability and Familiality of Temperament and Character Dimensions in Korean Families with Schizophrenic Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Dae; Park, Je Min; Lee, Young Min; Moon, Eunsoo; Jeong, Hee Jeong; Chung, Young In; Yi, Young Mi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Categorical syndromes such as schizophrenia may represent complexes of many continuous psychological structural phenotypes along several dimensions of personality development/degeneration. The present study investigated the heritability and familiality of personality dimensions in Korean families with schizophrenic linkage disequilibrium (LD). Methods We recruited 179 probands (with schizophrenia) as well as, whenever possible, their parents and siblings. We used the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) to measure personality and symptomatic dimensions. The heritability of personality dimensions in a total of 472 family members was estimated using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). To measure familiality, we compared the personality dimensions of family members with those of 336 healthy unrelated controls using analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis. Results Three of the seven TCI variables were significantly heritable and were included in subsequent analyses. The three groups (control, unaffected first-degree relative, case) were found to significantly differ from one another, with the expected order of average group scores, for all heritable dimensions. Conclusion Despite several study limitations with respect to family recruitment and phenotyping, our results show that aberrations in several personality dimensions related to genetic-environment coactions or interactions may underlie the complexity of the schizophrenic syndrome. PMID:27121432

  18. Risk factors for homelessness among schizophrenic men: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Caton, C L; Shrout, P E; Eagle, P F; Opler, L A; Felix, A; Dominguez, B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. To identify risk factors for homelessness among the severely mentally ill, we conducted a case-control study of 100 indigent schizophrenic men meeting criteria for literal homelessness and 100 such men with no homeless history. METHODS. Subjects were recruited from shelter, clinic, and inpatient psychiatric programs in Upper Manhattan. Clinical interviewers employed standardized research instruments to probe three domains of risk factors: severity of mental illness, family background, and prior mental health service use. RESULTS. Homeless subjects showed significantly higher levels of positive symptoms, higher rates of a concurrent diagnosis of drug abuse, and higher rates of antisocial personality disorder. Homeless subjects experienced greater disorganization in family settings from birth to 18 years and less adequate current family support. Fewer homeless subjects than subjects in the never-homeless comparison group had a long-term therapist. These differences remained when demographic variables were adjusted statistically. CONCLUSIONS. Homeless schizophrenic men differed from their domiciled counterparts in all three domains we investigated; family background, nature of illness, and service use history. Findings are discussed in relation to policy and programs for the severely mentally ill. PMID:8296951

  19. Detection of Recurrence by 18F-FDG PET in Patients with Endometrial Cancer Showing No Evidence of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kidong; Kim, Younha; Park, Sang-Il; Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Don; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Byung Il

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) in the post-therapy surveillance for patients with endometrial cancer showing no evidence of disease (NED). From April 1997 to June 2007, 127 patients with endometrial cancer showing NED were performed 18F-FDG PET scan. The feasibility of 18F-FDG PET for the early detection of recurrence in patients with endometrial cancer was evaluated retrospectively. Of the 127 patients, 32 patients showed positive lesions on 18F-FDG PET scan. Nineteen (19/127 cases, 15%) of them were confirmed to have a recurrence clinically or histologically. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value of 18F-FDG PET for detecting recurrences in patients with endometrial cancer were 100%, 88%, 59% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, 18F-FDG PET may be a useful method for the post-therapy surveillance in patients with endometrial cancer. PMID:20592894

  20. Early onset APOE E4-negative Alzheimer's disease patients show faster cognitive decline on non-memory domains.

    PubMed

    Smits, Lieke L; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; van der Vlies, Annelies E; Koedam, Esther L G E; Bouwman, Femke H; Reuling, Ilona E W; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M

    2015-07-01

    Age at onset and APOE E4-genotype have been shown to influence clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated rate of decline in specific cognitive domains according to age at onset and APOE E4-genotype in patients with AD. 199 patients with probable AD underwent at least two annual neuropsychological assessments. Patients were classified according to age-at-onset (≤ 65 years vs >65 years) and APOE genotype (positive vs negative). The neuropsychological test battery compromised tests for memory, language, attention, executive and visuo-spatial functioning. For each domain compound z-scores were calculated, based on the baseline performance of patients. Average duration of follow-up was 1.5 ± 1 years. We used linear mixed models (LMM) to estimate effects of age, APOE and age⁎APOE on cognitive decline over time. At baseline, patients were 65 ± 8 years, 98(49%) were female and MMSE was 22 ± 4. LMM showed that early onset patients declined faster on executive functioning (β ± SE:-0.09 ± 0.06) than late onset patients, but age was not related to decline in the other cognitive domains. APOE E4 negative patients declined faster on language than APOE E4 positive patients (β ± SE:-0.1 ± 0.06). When we took age and APOE genotype into account simultaneously, we found that compared to late onset-E4 positive patients, early onset-E4 negative patients declined faster on language (β ± SE:-0.36 ± 0.1), attention (β ± SE:-0.42 ± 0.1), executive (β ± SE:-0.41 ± 0.1) and visuo-spatial functioning (β ± SE:-0.43 ± 0.1). Late onset-E4 negative and early onset-E4 positive patients showed intermediate rates of decline. We found no differences in decline on memory. We found that patients who develop AD despite absence of the two most important risk factors, show steepest cognitive decline on non-memory cognitive domains. PMID:25891378

  1. Decreased cytochrome-c oxidase activity and lack of age-related accumulation of mitochondrial DNA deletions in the brains of schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Cavelier, L.; Jazin, E.E.; Eriksson, I.

    1995-09-01

    Defects in mitochondrial energy production have been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To study the contribution of mitochondrial defects to Alzheimer disease and schizophrenia, cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity and levels of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion in postmortem brain tissue specimens of patients were compared with those of asymptomatic age-matched controls. No difference in COX activity was observed between Alzheimer patients and controls in any of five brain regions investigated. In contrast, schizophrenic patients had a 63% reduction of the COX activity in the nucleus caudatus (P<0.0001) and a 43% reduction in the cortex gyrus frontalis (P<0.05) as compared to controls. The average levels of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion did not differ significantly between Alzheimer patients and controls, and the deletion followed similar modes of accumulation with age in the two groups. In contrast, no age-related accumulation of mtDNA deletions was found in schizophrenic patients. The reduction in COX activity in schizophrenic patients did not correlate with changes in the total amount of mtDNA or levels of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion. The lack of age-related accumulation of the mtDNA{sup 4977} deletion and reduction in COX activity suggest that a mitochondrial dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Chemical Modulation of Mutant mGlu1 Receptors Derived from Deleterious GRM1 Mutations Found in Schizophrenics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex and highly heterogeneous psychiatric disorder whose precise etiology remains elusive. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified risk genes, they have failed to determine if rare coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) contribute in schizophrenia. Recently, two independent studies identified 12 rare, deleterious nsSNPS in the GRM1 gene, which encodes the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGlu1), in schizophrenic patients. Here, we generated stable cell lines expressing the mGlu1 mutant receptors and assessed their pharmacology. Using both the endogenous agonist glutamate and the synthetic agonist DHPG, we found that several of the mutant mGlu1 receptors displayed a loss of function that was not due to a loss in plasma membrane expression. Due to a lack of mGlu1 positive allosteric modulators (PAM) tool compounds active at human mGlu1, we optimized a known mGlu4 PAM/mGlu1 NAM chemotype into a series of potent and selective mGlu1 PAMs by virtue of a double “molecular switch”. Employing mGlu1 PAMs from multiple chemotypes, we demonstrate that the mutant receptors can be potentiated by small molecules and in some cases efficacy restored to that comparable to wild type mGlu1 receptors, suggesting deficits in patients with schizophrenia due to these mutations may be amenable to intervention with an mGlu1 PAM. However, in wild type animals, mGlu1 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are efficacious in classic models predictive of antipsychotic activity, whereas we show that mGlu1 PAMs have no effect to slight potentiation in these models. These data further highlight the heterogeneity of schizophrenia and the critical role of patient selection strategies in psychiatric clinical trials to match genotype with therapeutic mechanism. PMID:25137254

  3. Chemical modulation of mutant mGlu1 receptors derived from deleterious GRM1 mutations found in schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyekyung P; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Brogan, John T; Hopkins, Corey R; Niswender, Colleen M; Rodriguez, Alice L; Venable, Daryl F; Morrison, Ryan D; Bubser, Michael; Daniels, J Scott; Jones, Carrie K; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2014-10-17

    Schizophrenia is a complex and highly heterogeneous psychiatric disorder whose precise etiology remains elusive. While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified risk genes, they have failed to determine if rare coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) contribute in schizophrenia. Recently, two independent studies identified 12 rare, deleterious nsSNPS in the GRM1 gene, which encodes the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGlu1), in schizophrenic patients. Here, we generated stable cell lines expressing the mGlu1 mutant receptors and assessed their pharmacology. Using both the endogenous agonist glutamate and the synthetic agonist DHPG, we found that several of the mutant mGlu1 receptors displayed a loss of function that was not due to a loss in plasma membrane expression. Due to a lack of mGlu1 positive allosteric modulators (PAM) tool compounds active at human mGlu1, we optimized a known mGlu4 PAM/mGlu1 NAM chemotype into a series of potent and selective mGlu1 PAMs by virtue of a double "molecular switch". Employing mGlu1 PAMs from multiple chemotypes, we demonstrate that the mutant receptors can be potentiated by small molecules and in some cases efficacy restored to that comparable to wild type mGlu1 receptors, suggesting deficits in patients with schizophrenia due to these mutations may be amenable to intervention with an mGlu1 PAM. However, in wild type animals, mGlu1 negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) are efficacious in classic models predictive of antipsychotic activity, whereas we show that mGlu1 PAMs have no effect to slight potentiation in these models. These data further highlight the heterogeneity of schizophrenia and the critical role of patient selection strategies in psychiatric clinical trials to match genotype with therapeutic mechanism. PMID:25137254

  4. Phenomenological correlates of metabolic activity in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wolf, A.P.; Van Gelder, P.; Brodie, J.D.; Overall, J.E.; Cancro, R.; Gomez-Mont, F.

    1987-02-01

    Using (11C)-deoxy-D-glucose and positron emission tomography (PET), the authors measured brain metabolism in 18 patients with chronic schizophrenia to assess which of the metabolic measures from two test conditions was more closely related to the patients' differing clinical characteristics. The two conditions were resting and activation, and an eye tracking task was used. Patients with more negative symptoms showed lower global metabolic rates and more severe hypofrontality than did the patients with fewer negative symptoms. Differences among the patients were distinguished by the task: sicker patients failed to show a metabolic activation response. These findings suggest that cerebral metabolic patterns reflect clinical characteristics of schizophrenic patients.

  5. Divergent Thinking Abilities across the Schizophrenic Spectrum and Other Psychological Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigue, Amanda L.; Perkins, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on the connection between psychopathology and creativity is vast and recent research has focused on the relationship between the schizophrenic spectrum and creativity. The schizophrenic spectrum includes genetically related disorders that share certain symptom features. It has been suggested that schizotypal personality disorder, a…

  6. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =

  7. Revisiting the Association of Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in Schizophrenic Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuner, Tanja; Hubner-Liebermann, Bettina; Hausner, Helmut; Hajak, Goran; Wolfersdorf, Manfred; Spiessl, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Our study investigated the association of aggression and suicidal behavior in schizophrenic inpatients. Eight thousand nine hundred one admissions for schizophrenia (1998-2007) to a psychiatric university hospital were included. Schizophrenic suicides (n = 7)/suicide attempters (n = 40) were compared to suicides (n = 30)/suicide attempters (n =…

  8. [Innovative structuring in German care for schizophrenics].

    PubMed

    Weinmann, S; Puschner, B; Becker, T

    2009-01-01

    In a narrative literature review, innovative models of mental health care for people with schizophrenia are described. Structural aspects of mental health care such as the integration of services, new care paradigms, and innovative research questions are discussed. Key targets of innovative care include: improving continuity of care, introducing team-based community care, improving cooperation of all therapists, and integrating mental health, medical care, and social services. Models of current care for people with schizophrenia such as case management, crisis intervention, home treatment, and supported employment are described; and the evidence supporting these interventions is discussed. In the models of integrated care, there is an enhanced integration of psychosocial modules or service elements. One of the key challenges in mental health service systems is to consider the needs and aims of people with severe mental illness, to take into account biological vulnerability, symptoms of illness, and cognitive impairment of patients (whenever interventions are possible). One of the guiding principles is patient/user autonomy and a focus on user perspective. This implies that people suffering from schizophrenia should have the right to live in the least restrictive environment possible. PMID:19137275

  9. [Diagnostics and therapy of depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients].

    PubMed

    Bottlender, R; Hampel, H; Sievers, M; Möller, H J

    2005-05-17

    The occurrence of depressive symptoms in schizophrenia is fairly common. In contrast to earlier assumptions, they usually have unfavorable consequences on the course of the disease. The response of depressive symptoms to therapy is well documented by empirical evidence and studies. In reality, however, the treatment of depressive symptoms in cases of schizophrenia occurs too rarely. This lack of medical treatment is partially explained by the clinicians' apprehension that antidepressive therapy could provoke a flare up of the psychosis. Nonetheless, this situation is often founded on the incorrect assessment of the depressive symptoms as negative symptoms that, in turn, are regarded by many clinicians as having limited treatability. In regards to this circumstance, a rethinking is desirable and, as a matter of principle, necessary. PMID:15968875

  10. Urogenital and Rectal Multisystem Organ Injury After Detonation of an Explosive Substance in the Rectum of a Schizophrenic Man

    PubMed Central

    Zumrutbas, Ali E.; Baser, Aykut; Acar, Cenk I.; Ozlulerden, Yusuf; Okutan, Aysegul; Sahin, Umit Y.; Aybek, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating injuries are caused by the injury of perineal area with gun or stab wounds, which may cause complex injuries or multiple organ injuries. Infections, bleeding, necrotizing fasciitis, ureterocutaneous fistulas, diverticulum, abscesses, narrowing, and incontinence may arise after urethral injuries. Although there are several case reports of urogenital system traumas in the literature, this case reports a schizophrenic patient who had a multisystem genitourinary and rectal trauma after self-detonation of an explosive in the rectum and managed with reconstructive surgery without any postoperative complications. Lower urinary tract anatomy was preserved and full continence was achieved after the surgical procedure.

  11. Nasal cycle dominance and hallucinations in an adult schizophrenic female.

    PubMed

    Shannahoff-Khalsa, David; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-03-30

    Nasal dominance, at the onset of hallucinations, was studied as a marker of both the lateralized ultradian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system and the tightly coupled ultradian rhythm of alternating cerebral hemispheric dominance in a single case study of a schizophrenic female. Over 1086 days, 145 hallucination episodes occurred with left nostril dominance significantly greater than the right nostril dominant phase of the nasal cycle. A right nostril breathing exercise, that primarily stimulates the left hemisphere, reduces symptoms more quickly for hallucinations. PMID:25660663

  12. Five patients with a chromosome 1q21.1 triplication show macrocephaly, increased weight and facial similarities.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, Anke; van der Werf, Ilse M; Reyniers, Edwin; Scheers, Stefaan; Azage, Meron; Siefkas, Kiana; Van der Aa, Nathalie; Lacroix, Amy; Rosenfeld, Jill; Argiropoulos, Bob; Davis, Kellie; Innes, A Micheil; Mefford, Heather C; Mortier, Geert; Meuwissen, Marije; Kooy, R Frank

    2015-10-01

    Recurrent rearrangements of chromosome 1q21.1 that occur as a consequence of non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) show considerable variability in phenotypic expression and penetrance. Chromosome 1q21.1 deletions (OMIM 612474) have been associated with microcephaly, intellectual disability, autism, schizophrenia, cardiac abnormalities and cataracts. Phenotypic features in individuals with 1q21.1 duplications (OMIM 612475) include macrocephaly, learning difficulties, developmental delay, intellectual disability and mild dysmorphic features. Half of these patients show autistic behavior. For the first time, we describe five patients, including monozygotic twins, with a triplication of the 1q21.1 chromosomal segment. Facial features common to all patients include a high, broad forehead; a flat and broad nasal bridge; long, downslanted palpebral fissures and dysplastic, low-set ears. Likely associated features include macrocephaly and increased weight. We observed that the triplications arose through different mechanisms in the patients: it was de novo in one patient, inherited from a triplication carrier in two cases, while the father of the twins is a 1q21.1 duplication carrier. The de novo triplication contained copies of both maternal alleles, suggesting it was generated by a combination of inter- and intrachromosomal recombination. PMID:26327614

  13. Phenothiazine effects on auditory signal detection in paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, M; Silverman, J; Hopkins, H K; Hall, K

    1971-11-12

    The differential effects of phenothiazine medication on auditory signal detection performance were compared in two types of schizophrenic subjects and in normal subjects. With increasing phenothiazine dosage a decrease in efficiency of signal detection performance occurred among nonparanoid schizophrenics and an increase in efficiency occurred among paranoid schizophrenics. These and related findings were interpreted in terms of differences in neuropsychological response and information processing characteristics in the two types of schizophrenics. The primary deficit in information processing in nonparanoid schizophrenics may be related primarily to their hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli, whereas in paranoids it may be related primarily to their impaired focusing of attention. Phenothiazines appear to decrease sensitivity to stimuli in nonparanoids but increase the ability to focus attention in paranoids. The possibility of treatment regimens which take into account the differential effects of phenothiazine medication was suggested. PMID:5123424

  14. Ageing shows a pattern of cerebellar degeneration analogous, but not equal, to that in patients suffering from cerebellar degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Hulst, Thomas; van der Geest, Jos N; Thürling, M; Goericke, S; Frens, Maarten A; Timmann, Dagmar; Donchin, Opher

    2015-08-01

    Ageing generally leads to impairments in cognitive function and the ability to execute and learn new movements. While the causes of these impairments are often multi-factorial, integrity of the cerebellum in an elderly population is an important predictive factor of both motor function and cognitive function. A similar association between cerebellar integrity and function is true for cerebellar patients. We set out to investigate the analogies between the pattern of cerebellar degeneration of a healthy ageing population and cerebellar patients. We quantified cerebellar regional volumes by applying voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to a publicly available dataset of MR images obtained in 313 healthy subjects aged between 18 and 96 years and a dataset of MR images of 21 cerebellar patients. We observed considerable overlap in regions with the strongest loss of cerebellar volume in the two datasets. In both datasets, the anterior lobe of the cerebellum (lobules I-V) and parts of the superior cerebellum (primarily lobule VI) showed the strongest degeneration of cerebellar volume. However, the most significant voxels in cerebellar patients were shifted posteriorly (lobule VII) compared to the voxels that degenerate most with age in the healthy population. The results showed a pattern of significant degeneration of the posterior motor region (lobule VIIIb) in both groups, and significant degeneration of lobule IX and X in the healthy population, but not in cerebellar patients. Furthermore, we saw strong volumetric degeneration of functionally defined cerebellar regions associated with cerebral somatomotor function in both groups. Predominance of degeneration in the anterior lobe and lobule VI suggests impairment of motor function in both groups, while we suggest that the posterior shift of degeneration in cerebellar patients would be associated with relatively stronger impairment of higher motor function and cognitive function. Thus, these results may explain the specific symptomology associated with cerebellar degeneration in ageing and in cerebellar patients. PMID:25896930

  15. [Neuronal structure abnormality in the orbito-frontal cortex of schizophrenics].

    PubMed

    Senitz, D; Winkelmann, E

    1991-01-01

    Changes were described in the neuronal structure of neurones, impregnated after the method of Golgi-Bubenaite in schizophrenic patients. Investigations were done in area 11 (Brodmann 1909) of patients with paranoid-hallucinatory schizophrenia. Control cases were patients without any clinical or morphological brain diseases and patients with catatonic schizophrenia. 1.1 We investigated numerous typical triangle cells in lamina VI of patients with paranoid-hallucinatory schizophrenia. Only few were seen in the controls. 1.2 In the paranoid-hallucinatory schizophrenia brains there are lamina VI pyramidal cells with ramified apical dendrites reaching lamina II. 2. In lamina V there are many pyramidal cells with two to five apical dendrites, such cells were never seen in controls, these pyramids have only one main apical dendrite. 3. A small group of L III pyramids have atypical long spines. A lot of these spines have splitted spine heads. The spine number is significantly increased. 4. There is an atypical simplified angioarchitecture in paranoid hallucinatory schizophrenia-patients and no normal arborization of the brain vessels in three planes, like in controls. We think that the abnormal findings in paranoid-hallucinatory schizophrenia are not the consequence of specific therapeutics. We interpret our findings as possible variabilities of a normal brain structure. PMID:1791296

  16. Patterns of psychiatric hospitalizations in schizophrenic psychoses within the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Miettunen, Jouko; Lauronen, Erika; Veijola, Juha; Koponen, Hannu; Saarento, Outi; Isohanni, Matti

    2006-01-01

    We report patterns of hospitalization in schizophrenic psychoses by age 34 in a longitudinal population-based cohort. We test the predictive ability of various demographic and illness-related variables on patterns of hospitalization, with a special focus on the length of the first psychiatric hospitalization. All living subjects of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort with DSM-III-R schizophrenia (n=88) and other schizophrenia spectrum cases (n=27) by the year 1997 in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register were followed for an average of 10.5 years. Measures of psychiatric hospitalization included time to re-hospitalization (as continuous and as re-hospitalization within 2 years) and the number of hospital episodes. Length of the first hospitalization, other illness-related and various socio-demographic predictors were used to predict hospitalization patterns. After adjusting for gender, age at first admission and number of hospital days a short (1-14 days) first hospitalization (reference >30 days; adjusted odds ratio 6.39; 95% CI 2.00-20.41) and familial risk of psychosis (OR 3.36; 1.09-10.39) predicted re-hospitalization within 2 years. A short first hospitalization also predicted frequent psychiatric admissions defined as the first three admissions within 3 years (OR 13.77; 3.92-48.36). A short first hospitalization was linked to increased risk of re-hospitalizations. Although short hospitalization is recommended by several guidelines, there may be a group of patients with schizophrenic psychoses in which too short a hospitalization may lead to inadequate treatment response. PMID:16923637

  17. Concordance between Chart Review and Structured Interview Assessments of Schizophrenic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Ayman H.; Amdur, Richard L.; O'Neill, Francis A.; Walsh, Dermot; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether direct structured interviews are able to capture the full range of psychopathology in schizophrenia, as is required in diagnostic assessments or clinical ratings. We examined agreement between symptom ratings derived from direct patient interviews and from review of casenotes. Methods The study sample comprised 1021 schizophrenic subjects collected as part of the Irish Case-Control Study of Schizophrenia (ICCSS). Diagnostic interviews utilized a modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. Symptoms were rated by the interviewer. In addition, the Casenote Rating Scale was used to rate symptoms based on medical record information. For each negative and positive symptom, we calculated the Pearson correlation between the interview and the casenote rating. Using the mean of the interview and casenote rating for each symptom, exploratory factor analysis using Varimax rotation was performed. Results Three factors were extracted in factor analysis: positive, negative, and Schneiderian symptoms. The highest correlations between interview and casenote ratings were for negative symptoms, in which all symptoms were significantly correlated. Positive and Schneiderian symptoms were significantly correlated with the exception of thought insertion, thought withdrawal, voices speaking in sentences, and somatic hallucinations. Significant correlations were generally moderate (0.2–0.55) Conclusion Most schizophrenic symptoms, especially negative symptoms, can be assessed by direct interviews as the sole source of information with moderate reliability. However, the presence of some Schneiderian and possibly less prevalent positive symptoms may be difficult to determine without a review of records, which may include longitudinal observations and information from multiple observers. PMID:21658694

  18. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of occupational status in schizophrenic psychoses--follow-up within the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Miettunen, Jouko; Lauronen, Erika; Veijola, Juha; Koponen, Hannu; Saarento, Outi; Taanila, Anja; Isohanni, Matti

    2007-04-15

    We studied occupational status of persons with schizophrenic psychoses by age 34 in a longitudinal population-based cohort and predicted which demographic and illness-related factors could support the patients to maintain their occupational capacity. Subjects of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort with the diagnosis of DSM-III-R schizophrenic psychoses (n=113) by the year 1997 were followed until the end of year 2000. Various illness and socio-demographic factors at the time of onset of illness were used as predictors. At the end of the follow-up time 50 (44%) of patients were not pensioned and 22 (20%) were also working at least half of the time during year 2000. After adjusting for gender, being unemployed at onset, educational level and proportion of time spent in psychiatric hospitals, those who were married or cohabiting at the time of onset of illness were less often on pension than those who were single (OR 6.51; 95% CI 1.83-23.12). Thus, nearly half of the patients with schizophrenic psychoses were not pensioned after an average 10 years follow-up. Based on our findings, those who were single at time of their onset of illness probably need most support to retain their contacts to work life. PMID:17316827

  19. Chemotherapy Agents Alter Plasma Lipids in Breast Cancer Patients and Show Differential Effects on Lipid Metabolism Genes in Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Monika; Tuaine, Jo; McLaren, Blair; Waters, Debra L.; Black, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications have emerged as a major concern for cancer patients. Many chemotherapy agents are cardiotoxic and some appear to also alter lipid profiles, although the mechanism for this is unknown. We studied plasma lipid levels in 12 breast cancer patients throughout their chemotherapy. Patients received either four cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel or three cycles of epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and 5’-fluorouracil followed by three cycles of docetaxel. Patients demonstrated a significant reduction (0.32 mmol/L) in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) levels (0.18 g/L) and an elevation in apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels (0.15 g/L) after treatment. Investigation of the individual chemotherapy agents for their effect on genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism in liver cells showed that doxorubicin decreased ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) via a downregulation of the peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) transcription factors. In contrast, ABCA1 levels were not affected by cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel. Likewise, apoA1 levels were reduced by doxorubicin and remained unaffected by cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel. Doxorubicin and paclitaxel both increased apoB protein levels and paclitaxel also decreased low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein levels. These findings correlate with the observed reduction in HDL-C and apoA1 and increase in apoB levels seen in these patients. The unfavourable lipid profiles produced by some chemotherapy agents may be detrimental in the longer term to cancer patients, especially those already at risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This knowledge may be useful in tailoring effective follow-up care plans for cancer survivors. PMID:26807857

  20. Multiple Rapid Swallow Maneuver Enhances the Clinical Utility of High-Resolution Manometry in Patients Showing Ineffective Esophageal Motility

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yang Won; Shin, Inseub; Son, Hee Jung; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The clinical significance of ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) together with multiple rapid swallow (MRS) has not been yet evaluated in the Chicago Classification v3.0. This study evaluated the adjunctive role of MRS in IEM and determined the criteria of abnormal MRS to maximize the utility of IEM. We analyzed 186 patients showing IEM or normal esophageal motility (NEM), who underwent esophageal high-resolution impedance–manometry for esophageal symptoms. Two different criteria for abnormal MRS were applied to IEM subjects, resulting in 2 corresponding subgroups: IEM-A when distal contractile integral (DCI) ratio between an average wet swallows and MRS contraction was <1 and IEM-B when MRS contraction DCI was <450 mm Hg-s-cm. One IEM subject inadequately performed MRS. Among the remaining 52 IEM subjects, 18 (34.6%) were classified into IEM-A and 23 (44.2%) into IEM-B. IEM subjects showed less complete bolus transit (median 0.0%, interquartile range 0.0–20.0% vs 60.0%, 30.0–80.0; P < 0.001) resulting in higher impaired bolus transit than NEM subjects (98.1% vs 66.9%, P = 0.001). IEM-B subjects showed additionally higher pathologic bolus exposure than NEM subjects (55.6% vs 29.3%, P = 0.001), whereas IEM-A subjects could not. Although IEM-B subjects had the highest prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease among the subjects groups, it did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, IEM patients with abnormal MRS contraction have an increased risk of prolonged bolus clearance, poor bolus transit, and pathologic bolus exposure. IEM patients need to be assessed concerning whether MRS contraction DCI is <450 mm Hg-s-cm to segregate clinically relevant patients. PMID:26448010

  1. Brain structure changes in schizophrenics with high serum titers of antibodies to herpes virus.

    PubMed

    Pandurangi, A K; Pelonero, A L; Nadel, L; Calabrese, V P

    1994-02-01

    We compared five indices of brain structure between two groups of schizophrenics, namely, those with high and normal levels of antibody in the serum to herpes virus. Eleven 'immuno-positive' and 21 'immuno-normal' subjects obtained from a concomitant study of serum IgG antibody to viruses underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizing a 1 Tesla magnet and 8 mm thick slices. We measured ventricle-brain ratio (VBR), 3rd ventricle width, cortical atrophy, area of corpus callosum, and frontal lobe area. The differences between groups were assessed by t-test and chi-square analysis. Eight of 11 immuno-positives compared to 7 of 21 immuno-normals showed evidence of cortical atrophy (chi 2 = 4.49, p < 0.03). The immuno-positives had smaller left frontal area (mean + s.d = 125.69 + 21.30 versus 143.76 + 19.84, t = 2.07, p < 0.05) and larger 2nd quadrant of the corpus callosum (mean + s.d. = 1.58 + 0.39 versus 1.27 + 0.52, t = 2.68, p < 0.01). The right frontal area also was smaller in immuno-positives but not significant. VBR, 3rd ventricle and the 1st, 3rd and 4th callosal quadrants did not differ between the groups. We conclude that high antibody titers to herpes found in the sera of some schizophrenics might reflect an earlier pathogenetic process that affected brain development. Further studies of antibodies in CSF and brain structure in these or similar subjects and those suspected to be exposed to viral infections in utero should be vigorously pursued to obtain definitive evidence for this hypothesis. PMID:8193063

  2. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Patients with Huntington’s Disease Show CAG Repeat Expansion Associated Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mattis, Virginia B; Svendsen, Soshana P; Ebert, Allison; Svendsen, Clive N; King, Alvin R; Casale, Malcolm; Winokur, Sara T; Batugedara, Gayani; Vawter, Marquis; Donovan, Peter J; Lock, Leslie F; Thompson, Leslie M; Zhu, Yu; Fossale, Elisa; Singh Atwal, Ranjit; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Li, Jian-hong; Seong, IhnSik; Shen, Yiping; Chen, Xiaoli; Wheeler, Vanessa C; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Akimov, Sergey; Arbez, Nicolas; Juopperi, Tarja; Ratovitski, Tamara; Chiang, Jason H; Kim, Woon Roung; Chighladze, Eka; Watkin, Erin; Zhong, Chun; Makri, Georgia; Cole, Robert N; Margolis, Russell L; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guoli; Ross, Christopher A; Kaye, Julia A; Daub, Aaron; Sharma, Punita; Mason, Amanda R; Finkbeiner, Steven; Yu, Junying; Thomson, James A; Rushton, David; Brazier, Stephen P; Battersby, Alysia A; Redfern, Amanda; Tseng, Hsui-Er; Harrison, Alexander W; Kemp, Paul J; Allen, Nicholas D; Onorati, Marco; Castiglioni, Valentina; Cattaneo, Elena; Arjomand, Jamshid

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expanded stretch of CAG trinucleotide repeats that results in neuronal dysfunction and death. Here, the HD consortium reports the generation and characterization of 14 induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from HD patients and controls. Microarray profiling revealed CAG expansion-associated gene expression patterns that distinguish patient lines from controls, and early onset versus late onset HD. Differentiated HD neural cells showed disease associated changes in electrophysiology, metabolism, cell adhesion, and ultimately cell death for lines with both medium and longer CAG repeat expansions. The longer repeat lines were however the most vulnerable to cellular stressors and BDNF withdrawal using a range of assays across consortium laboratories. The HD iPSC collection represents a unique and well-characterized resource to elucidate disease mechanisms in HD and provides a novel human stem cell platform for screening new candidate therapeutics. PMID:22748968

  3. Improved tumor oxygenation and survival in glioblastoma patients who show increased blood perfusion after cediranib and chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Tracy T.; Gerstner, Elizabeth R.; Emblem, Kyrre E.; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Snuderl, Matija; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Polaskova, Pavlina; Pinho, Marco C.; Jennings, Dominique; Plotkin, Scott R.; Chi, Andrew S.; Eichler, April F.; Dietrich, Jorg; Hochberg, Fred H.; Lu-Emerson, Christine; Iafrate, A. John; Ivy, S. Percy; Rosen, Bruce R.; Loeffler, Jay S.; Wen, Patrick Y.; Sorensen, A. Greg; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy has shown clear activity and improved survival benefit for certain tumor types. However, an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action of antiangiogenic agents has hindered optimization and broader application of this new therapeutic modality. In particular, the impact of antiangiogenic therapy on tumor blood flow and oxygenation status (i.e., the role of vessel pruning versus normalization) remains controversial. This controversy has become critical as multiple phase III trials of anti-VEGF agents combined with cytotoxics failed to show overall survival benefit in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (nGBM) patients and several other cancers. Here, we shed light on mechanisms of nGBM response to cediranib, a pan-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, using MRI techniques and blood biomarkers in prospective phase II clinical trials of cediranib with chemoradiation vs. chemoradiation alone in nGBM patients. We demonstrate that improved perfusion occurs only in a subset of patients in cediranib-containing regimens, and is associated with improved overall survival in these nGBM patients. Moreover, an increase in perfusion is associated with improved tumor oxygenation status as well as with pharmacodynamic biomarkers, such as changes in plasma placenta growth factor and sVEGFR2. Finally, treatment resistance was associated with elevated plasma IL-8 and sVEGFR1 posttherapy. In conclusion, tumor perfusion changes after antiangiogenic therapy may distinguish responders vs. nonresponders early in the course of this expensive and potentially toxic form of therapy, and these results may provide new insight into the selection of glioblastoma patients most likely to benefit from anti-VEGF treatments. PMID:24190997

  4. Integrative Analyses of Colorectal Cancer Show Immunoscore Is a Stronger Predictor of Patient Survival Than Microsatellite Instability.

    PubMed

    Mlecnik, Bernhard; Bindea, Gabriela; Angell, Helen K; Maby, Pauline; Angelova, Mihaela; Tougeron, David; Church, Sarah E; Lafontaine, Lucie; Fischer, Maria; Fredriksen, Tessa; Sasso, Maristella; Bilocq, Amélie M; Kirilovsky, Amos; Obenauf, Anna C; Hamieh, Mohamad; Berger, Anne; Bruneval, Patrick; Tuech, Jean-Jacques; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Le Pessot, Florence; Mauillon, Jacques; Rafii, Arash; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Speicher, Michael R; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Michel, Pierre; Sesboüe, Richard; Frebourg, Thierry; Pagès, Franck; Valge-Archer, Viia; Latouche, Jean-Baptiste; Galon, Jérôme

    2016-03-15

    Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer predicts favorable outcomes. However, the mechanistic relationship between microsatellite instability, tumor-infiltrating immune cells, Immunoscore, and their impact on patient survival remains to be elucidated. We found significant differences in mutational patterns, chromosomal instability, and gene expression that correlated with patient microsatellite instability status. A prominent immune gene expression was observed in microsatellite-instable (MSI) tumors, as well as in a subgroup of microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors. MSI tumors had increased frameshift mutations, showed genetic evidence of immunoediting, had higher densities of Th1, effector-memory T cells, in situ proliferating T cells, and inhibitory PD1-PDL1 cells, had high Immunoscores, and were infiltrated with mutation-specific cytotoxic T cells. Multivariate analysis revealed that Immunoscore was superior to microsatellite instability in predicting patients' disease-specific recurrence and survival. These findings indicate that assessment of the immune status via Immunoscore provides a potent indicator of tumor recurrence beyond microsatellite-instability staging that could be an important guide for immunotherapy strategies. PMID:26982367

  5. Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Catechol-O-Methyltransferase and Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase Genes in the Pakistani Schizophrenic Population: A Study with Special Emphasis on Cannabis and Smokeless Tobacco.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Rukhsana; Siddiqui, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neuropsychiatric disorder in which abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex lead to impaired synthesis of dopamine. It is associated with hallucination, psychosis and hearing impairments. Many susceptible genes have been identified in schizophrenia such as catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and serine/threonine kinase (AKT1). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes have not been identified in Pakistan. Therefore, we investigated the allelic and genotypic frequencies in COMT and AKT1 genes in the Pakistani population. Polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing were used to identify SNPs in the genes. The present study shows that COMT Val and COMT Met allelic frequencies for the controls were p=0.52, q=0.48 and for the schizophrenic cases they were p=0.34, q=0.66 respectively. The distribution of polymorphism in COMT Val158Met genotype by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was P=0.61 for controls and P=0.005 for cases. The data reveal that SNP rs1130214 T allele mutation was found neither in patients nor in controls in the 5' untranslated region (UTR). This proves that no association of AKT1 and positive association of COMT with schizophrenia exist in the population of Pakistan. Moreover, a study based on a single family showed COMT Met allele inheritance in schizophrenic offspring. This suggested that COMT allele alteration influences susceptibility to at least some forms of psychosis in the Pakistani population. Interestingly, according to our socio-economical survey, COMT genotype has no association with cannabis but it is strongly associated with tobacco. The Pakistani population with Val158Met SNP showed more susceptibility towards developing schizophrenia. This study highlights the genetic differences between Pakistani and other Caucasian populations. PMID:25801838

  6. Brain natriuretic peptide is a potent vasodilator in aged human microcirculation and shows a blunted response in heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Edvinsson, Marie-Louise; Uddman, Erik; Edvinsson, Lars; Andersson, Sven E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is normally present in low levels in the circulation, but it is elevated in parallel with the degree of congestion in heart failure subjects (CHF). BNP has natriuretic effects and is a potent vasodilator. It is suggested that BNP could be a therapeutic alternative in CHF. However, we postulated that the high levels of circulating BNP in CHF may downregulate the response of microvascular natriuretic receptors. This was tested by comparing 15 CHF patients (BNP > 3000 ng/L) with 10 matched, healthy controls. Methods Cutaneous microvascular blood flow in the forearm was measured by laser Doppler Flowmetry. Local heating (+44°C, 10 min) was used to evoke a maximum local dilator response. Results Non-invasive iontophoretic administration of either BNP or acetylcholine (ACh), a known endothelium-dependent dilator, elicited an increase in local flow. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, l-N-Arginine- methyl-ester (L-NAME), blocked the BNP response (in controls). Interestingly, responses to BNP in CHF patients were reduced to about one third of those seen in healthy controls (increase in flow: 251% in CHF vs. 908% in controls; P < 0.001). In contrast, the vasodilator responses to ACh and to local heating were only somewhat attenuated in CHF patients. Thus, dilator capacity and nitric oxide signalling were not affected to the same extent as BNP-mediated dilation, indicating a specific downregulation of the latter response. Conclusions The findings show for the first time that microvascular responses to BNP are markedly reduced in CHF patients. This is consistent with the hypothesis of BNP receptor function is downregulated in CHF. PMID:24748882

  7. Common risk genes for affective and schizophrenic psychoses.

    PubMed

    Maier, Wolfgang

    2008-06-01

    The familial-genetic relationship between affective and schizophrenic disorders is receiving a re-emergence of interest. The reasons are a series of cross-diagnostic molecular-genetic discoveries: specific alleles in the genes for dysbindin (DTNBP1), neuregulin (NRG1) and DAOA (G72/G30) reveal associations for each of both groups of disorders in the same direction in some but not all reported studies. These findings cannot just be false positives because of confirming metaanalyses. Furthermore there is some pathophysiological support: the mentioned genes are involved in biochemical pathways, which are contributing to both disorders partly in a similar and partly in a different manner. The new levels of evidence enrich the classical continuity/discontinuity debate on the relationship between both groups of disorders. PMID:18516516

  8. Mice Lacking the Serotonin Htr2B Receptor Gene Present an Antipsychotic-Sensitive Schizophrenic-Like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pitychoutis, Pothitos M; Belmer, Arnauld; Moutkine, Imane; Adrien, Joëlle; Maroteaux, Luc

    2015-11-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity share common ground with numerous mental disorders, including schizophrenia. Recently, a population-specific serotonin 2B (5-HT2B) receptor stop codon (ie, HTR2B Q20*) was reported to segregate with severely impulsive individuals, whereas 5-HT2B mutant (Htr2B(-/-)) mice also showed high impulsivity. Interestingly, in the same cohort, early-onset schizophrenia was more prevalent in HTR2B Q*20 carriers. However, the putative role of 5-HT2B receptor in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has never been investigated. We assessed the effects of the genetic and the pharmacological ablation of 5-HT2B receptors in mice subjected to a comprehensive series of behavioral test screenings for schizophrenic-like symptoms and investigated relevant dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurochemical alterations in the cortex and the striatum. Domains related to the positive, negative, and cognitive symptom clusters of schizophrenia were affected in Htr2B(-/-) mice, as shown by deficits in sensorimotor gating, in selective attention, in social interactions, and in learning and memory processes. In addition, Htr2B(-/-) mice presented with enhanced locomotor response to the psychostimulants dizocilpine and amphetamine, and with robust alterations in sleep architecture. Moreover, ablation of 5-HT2B receptors induced a region-selective decrease of dopamine and glutamate concentrations in the dorsal striatum. Importantly, selected schizophrenic-like phenotypes and endophenotypes were rescued by chronic haloperidol treatment. We report herein that 5-HT2B receptor deficiency confers a wide spectrum of antipsychotic-sensitive schizophrenic-like behavioral and psychopharmacological phenotypes in mice and provide first evidence for a role of 5-HT2B receptors in the neurobiology of psychotic disorders. PMID:25936642

  9. Happy employees lead to loyal patients. Survey of nurses and patients shows a strong link between employee satisfaction and patient loyalty.

    PubMed

    Atkins, P M; Marshall, B S; Javalgi, R G

    1996-01-01

    A strong relationship exists between employee satisfaction and patients' perceptions of the quality of their care, measured in terms of their intent to return and to recommend the hospital to others. Employee dissatisfaction can negatively affect quality of care and have an adverse effect on patient loyalty and, thus hospital profitability. Therefore, health care marketers should regularly measure employee satisfaction as one way to monitor service quality. Health care marketers must work more closely with their human-resource departments to understand and influence employees' work environment and maintain a high level of job satisfaction. Marketers also should place an increased emphasis on both employee and patient perceptions of satisfaction when developing internal and external strategic marketing plans and formulating future research. PMID:10169075

  10. (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding sites increased in autopsied brains of chronic schizophrenics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanada, S.; Mita, T.; Nishino, N.; Tanaka, C.

    1987-01-19

    (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity in the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus of autopsied brains from 19 chronic schizophrenics and 17 control subjects were investigated. In the schizophrenics, saturation analysis with varying concentrations of (/sup 3/H)muscimol revealed an increase in the number GABA/sub A/ receptors, but there was no significant difference in the affinity. In addition, the enhancement of (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding by diazepam was significantly greater in schizophrenics than in controls. GAD activity did not differ between controls and schizophrenics. The possibility that GABAergic mechanisms might play a role in case of chronic schizophrenia should be given further attention.

  11. Relationships between perceived stigma, coping orientations, self-esteem, and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ow, Chien-Yi; Lee, Boon-Ooi

    2015-03-01

    Stigmatization of mental disorders has detrimental consequences for psychiatric patients. This study examined how perceived stigma and coping orientations of secrecy, withdrawal, and education were related to schizophrenic patients' self-esteem and quality of life (QOL). Coping orientations as mediators of perceived stigma on the outcome variables were also investigated. A total of 80 schizophrenic patients in Singapore participated in the study. Results show that perceived stigma predicted self-esteem over and above gender and depression, perceived stigma and education predicted QOL over and above depression, and education partially mediated the effect of perceived stigma on QOL. Findings indicate that stigma perceptions and education coping are important focus areas in clinical interventions. PMID:23239750

  12. Renal transplant patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation show specific unresponsiveness to donor antigens the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR)

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, D.; Saper, V.; Strober, S.

    1987-06-01

    A group of 25 cadaveric renal transplant recipients received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) before transplantation, rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin on alternate days for 10 days after transplantation, and low dose prednisone (5 to 10 mg/day) as the sole maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. Allograft function and the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) were monitored serially. After 18 to 30 mo, nine patients were selected on the basis of a return of the MLR such that the mean stimulation index to a panel of normal stimulator cells was greater than or equal to 5, a stable serum creatinine level which was less than or equal to 2 mg/dl, and a history of no more than one rejection episode. The MLR of these patients' post-transplant peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) against cryopreserved donor cells was compared with that against cryopreserved normal third-party cells. In control experiments, the MLR of cryopreserved pre-TLI recipient PBML or fresh normal PBML were tested against the same panel of donor and third-party stimulator cells. Seven of the nine recipients showed a pattern of specific unresponsiveness to the donor cells more than 18 mo after transplantation. Preliminary attempts to identify antigen specific suppressor cells were unsuccessful. The pattern of unresponsiveness may indicate a state of specific immune tolerance to the allogeneic graft.

  13. Next-Generation Sequencing of Plasmodium vivax Patient Samples Shows Evidence of Direct Evolution in Drug-Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Flannery, Erika L.; Wang, Tina; Akbari, Ali; Corey, Victoria C.; Gunawan, Felicia; Bright, A. Taylor; Abraham, Matthew; Sanchez, Juan F.; Santolalla, Meddly L.; Baldeviano, G. Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A.; Rosales, Luis A.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Bafna, Vineet; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax, the parasite that causes the most widespread form of human malaria, is complicated by the lack of a suitable long-term cell culture system for this parasite. In contrast to P. falciparum, which can be more readily manipulated in the laboratory, insights about parasite biology need to be inferred from human studies. Here we analyze the genomes of parasites within 10 human P. vivax infections from the Peruvian Amazon. Using next-generation sequencing we show that some P. vivax infections analyzed from the region are likely polyclonal. Despite their polyclonality we observe limited parasite genetic diversity by showing that three or fewer haplotypes comprise 94% of the examined genomes, suggesting the recent introduction of parasites into this geographic region. In contrast we find more than three haplotypes in putative drug-resistance genes, including the gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase and the P. vivax multidrug resistance associated transporter, suggesting that resistance mutations have arisen independently. Additionally, several drug-resistance genes are located in genomic regions with evidence of increased copy number. Our data suggest that whole genome sequencing of malaria parasites from patients may provide more insight about the evolution of drug resistance than genetic linkage or association studies, especially in geographical regions with limited parasite genetic diversity. PMID:26719854

  14. Event-related potentials elicited during a context-free homograph task in normal versus schizophrenic subjects

    PubMed Central

    SALISBURY, DEAN F.; O’DONNELL, BRIAN F.; MCCARLEY, ROBERT W.; NESTOR, PAUL G.; SHENTON, MARTHA E.

    2009-01-01

    Thought disorder in schizophrenia may involve abnormal semantic activation or faulty working memory maintenance. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while sentences reading “THE NOUN WAS ADJECTIVE/VERB” were presented to 34 schizophrenic and 34 control subjects. Some nouns were homographs with dominant and subordinate meanings. Their sentence ending presented information crucial for interpretation (e.g., The bank was [closed, steep]). Greatest N400 activity to subordinate homograph-meaning sentence endings in schizophrenia would reflect a semantic bias to strong associates. N400 to all endings would reflect faulty verbal working memory maintenance. Schizophrenic subjects showed N400 activity to all endings, suggesting problems in contextual maintenance independent of content, but slightly greater N400 activity to subordinate endings that correlated with the severity of psychosis. Future research should help determine whether a semantic activation bias in schizophrenia toward strong associates is reflected in ERP activity or whether this effect is overshadowed by faulty verbal working memory maintenance of context. PMID:10934904

  15. Common glycoproteins expressing polylactosamine-type glycans on matched patient primary and metastatic melanoma cells show different glycan profiles.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Mitsui, Yosuke; Kakoi, Naotaka; Yamada, Keita; Hayakawa, Takao; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2014-02-01

    Recently, we reported comparative analysis of glycoproteins which express cancer-specific N-glycans on various cancer cells and identified 24 glycoproteins having polylactosamine (polyLacNAc)-type N-glycans that are abundantly present in malignant cells [ Mitsui et al., J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2012 , 70 , 718 - 726 ]. In the present study, we applied the technique to comparative studies on common glycoproteins present in the matched patient primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. Metastatic melanoma cells (WM266-4) contained a large amount of polyLacNAc-type N-glycans in comparison with primary melanoma cells (WM115). To identify the glycoproteins expressing these N-glycans, glycopeptides having polyLacNAc-type N-glycans were captured by a Datura stramonium agglutinin (DSA)-immobilized agarose column. The captured glycopeptides were analyzed by LC/MS after removing N-glycans, and some glycoproteins such as basigin, lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1), and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) were identified in both WM115 and WM266-4 cells. The expression level of polyLacNAc of CSPG4 in WM266-4 cells was significantly higher than that in WM115 cells. In addition, sulfation patterns of chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains in CSPG4 showed dramatic changes between these cell lines. These data show that characteristic glycans attached to common proteins observed in different stages of cancer cells will be useful markers for determining degree of malignancies of tumor cells. PMID:24354860

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with human fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva show increased mineralization and cartilage formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Abnormal activation of endochondral bone formation in soft tissues causes significant medical diseases associated with disability and pain. Hyperactive mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type 1 receptor ACVR1 lead to fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a rare genetic disorder characterized by progressive ossification in soft tissues. However, the specific cellular mechanisms are unclear. In addition, the difficulty obtaining tissue samples from FOP patients and the limitations in mouse models of FOP hamper our ability to dissect the pathogenesis of FOP. Methods To address these challenges and develop a “disease model in a dish”, we created human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) derived from normal and FOP dermal fibroblasts by two separate methods, retroviral integration or integration-free episomal vectors. We tested if the ability to contribute to different steps of endochondral bone formation was different in FOP vs. control iPS cells. Results Remarkably, FOP iPS cells showed increased mineralization and enhanced chondrogenesis in vitro. The mineralization phenotypes could be suppressed with a small-molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling, DMH1. Our results indicate that the FOP ACVR1 R206H mutation favors chondrogenesis and increases mineral deposition in vitro. Conclusions Our findings establish a FOP disease cell model for in vitro experimentation and provide a proof-of-concept for using human iPS cell models to understand human skeletal disorders. PMID:24321451

  17. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-06-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural highresolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00+-29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70+-22.26) (p less than 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics. PMID:25963262

  18. Paranoid-nonparanoid schizophrenic distinctions in implementing external conceptual constraints.

    PubMed

    Dobson, D J; Neufeld, R W

    1982-10-01

    Using procedures originated by Bruner et al. (Bruner, J. S., Goodnow, J. J., and Austin, G. A Study of Thinking. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1956), paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenics and nonpatients were compared on performance in identifying rules for organizing multidimensional items. Successive item selections were accompanied by feedback as to whether or not each corresponded to the rule currently in effect (either conjunctive, inclusive-disjunctive, or biconditional). The most pronounced aspects of deficit associated with paranoid status were related to performance latency. Examination of results in the light of component operations underlying the present task indicated that paranoids' lower performance stemmed from difficulties in initially translating stimulus properties into a task-facilitative format. Findings were related to earlier paranoid distinctives in (choice) reaction time latencies, as well as to earlier findings on rule definition learning involving procedures closely related to the present ones. As well, inferences were drawn as to conditions of rule acquisition where differential latency aspects of performance are likely to be most pronounced among paranoids. PMID:7108496

  19. Building models for postmortem abnormalities in hippocampus of schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Benes, Francine M

    2015-09-01

    Postmortem studies have suggested that there is abnormal GABAergic activity in the hippocampus in schizophrenia (SZ). In micro-dissected human hippocampal slices, a loss of interneurons and a compensatory upregulation of GABAA receptor binding activity on interneurons, but not PNs, has suggested that disinhibitory GABA-to-GABA connections are abnormal in stratum oriens (SO) of CA3/2, but not CA1, in schizophrenia. Abnormal expression changes in the expression of kainate receptor (KAR) subunits 5, 6 and 7, as well as an inwardly-rectifying hyperpolarization-activated cationic channel (Ih3; HCN3) may play important roles in regulating GABA cell activity at the SO CA3/2 locus. The exclusive neurons at this site are GABAergic interneurons; these cells also receive direct projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA). When the BLA is stimulated by stereotaxic infusion of picrotoxin in rats, KARs influence axodendritic and presynaptic inhibitory mechanisms that regulate both inhibitory and disinhibitory interneurons in the SO-CA3/2 locus. The rat model described here was specifically developed to extend our understanding of these and other postmortem findings and has suggested that GABAergic abnormalities and possible disturbances in oscillatory rhythms may be related to a dysfunction of disinhibitory interneurons at the SO-CA3/2 site of schizophrenics. PMID:25749020

  20. Hip Fractures: What Information Does the Evidence Show That Patients and Families Need to Decrease 30-Day Readmission?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kristin OʼMara

    2015-01-01

    The current bundled payment reimbursement from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services will not cover the additional cost of hospital readmission for the same diagnosis, and patients with hip fractures have one of the highest cost-saving opportunities when compared with other admission reasons. Common reasons for readmission to the hospital after hip fracture include pneumonia, dehydration, and mobility issues. The learning modalities including visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic were used to make recommendations on how the education can be incorporated into the instruction of patients with hip fractures and their families. These learning techniques can be used to develop education to decrease possibility of 30-day readmission after hip fracture. Nurses must focus their education to meet the needs of each individual patient, adapting to different types of adult learners to increase the health literacy of patients with hip fractures and their families. PMID:26575502

  1. Sepsis Patients with First and Second-Hit Infections Show Different Outcomes Depending on the Causative Organism

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Matt P.; Szakmany, Tamas; Power, Sarah G.; Olaniyi, Patrick; Hall, Judith E.; Rowan, Kathy; Eberl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Objective: With improving rates of initial survival in severe sepsis, second-hit infections that occur following resolution of the primary insult carry an increasing burden of morbidity. However, despite the clinical relevance of these infections, no data are available on differential outcomes in patients with first and second-hit infections depending on the nature of the causative organism. This study aims to explore any differences in these subgroups. Design: In a retrospective, observational cohort study, the United Kingdom Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre (ICNARC) database was used to explore the outcomes of patient with first-hit infections leading to sepsis, and sepsis patients with second-hit infections grouped according to the Gram status of the causative organism. Setting: General critical care units in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland participating in the ICNARC programme between 1 January, 2007 and 30 June, 2012. Patients: Patient groups analyzed included 2119 patients with and 1319 patients without sepsis who developed an intensive care unit acquired infection in blood. Subgroups included patients with trauma, emergency neurosurgery, elective surgery, and cardiogenic shock. Measurements and main results: Gram-negative organisms were associated with poorer outcomes in first-hit infections. The 90-day mortality of patients who developed a Gram-negative infection was 43.6% following elective surgery and 27.9% following trauma. This compared with a mortality of 25.6 and 20.6%, respectively, in Gram-positive infections. Unexpectedly, an inverse relationship between Gram status and mortality was observed in second-hit infections. Patients with an initial diagnosis of sepsis who developed secondary infections caused by Gram-negative organisms had a 90-day mortality of 40.4%, compared with 43.6% in Gram-positive infections. Conclusions: Our study identifies a fundamental difference in patient outcomes between first-hit and second-hit bacterial infections, which may be due to genetic, microbiological, immunological, and environmental factors. This finding has direct implications for risk stratification and defines future research priorities. PMID:26955367

  2. A novel germline mutation in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome showing cystic lesion in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Ryo; Kurosawa, Manabu; Sato, Masaaki; Kono, Tomoya; Takubo, Yasutaka; Okai, Shinsaku; Yamada, Keisuke; Shinkura, Reiko; Date, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) manifests multiple defects involving the skin, endocrine and nervous systems, eyes and bones. Mutations in the patched homologue 1 (PTCH1) gene are the underlying causes of NBCCS, leading to aberrant cell proliferation through constitutive activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway. We identified a novel frameshift mutation (c.1207dupT) of PTCH1 in a NBCCS patient, which might explain multiple cystic lesions and neoplastic growth in the patient.

  3. Aberrant CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotypes do not show increased frequency in patients undergoing ECT after antidepressant therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirzakhani, Hooman; van Dormolen, Juliët; van der Weide, Karen; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; van Noorden, Martijn S; Swen, Jesse

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the accumulation of aberrant CYP2D6 genotypes and predicted metabolizer phenotypes (ultrarapid metabolizer, intermediate metabolizer and poor metabolizer) potentially affecting the antidepressant treatment response in depressive patients indicated for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) compared with patients with a single episode of depression. Seventy-six Dutch White patients with unipolar or bipolar treatment-resistant depression who underwent ECT were genotyped using the Amplichip CYP450 Test for CYP2D6. Two hundred and eight patients with a single episode of unipolar or bipolar depression were used as controls. No difference was observed in the prevalence of CYP2D6 phenotypes (poor metabolizer, intermediate metabolizer, extensive metabolizer and ultrarapid metabolizer) between the ECT and the control patients (5.3, 38.7, 56.0 and 0.0% vs. 6.4, 51.0, 42.6 and 0.0%, respectively). The types of depression (odds ratio = 0.33, P = 0.018) and age (odds ratio = 1.55 for a 10-year increase, P < 0.001), but not CYP2D6 phenotype or activity score were associated with the response to antidepressant treatment. In conclusion, preemptive genotyping for CYP2D6 currently appears to have no clinical implications in treatment-resistant depressive patients indicated for ECT. PMID:26230381

  4. Efficacy of yoga therapy on subjective well-being and basic living skills of patients having chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Paikkatt, Babu; Singh, Amool Ranjan; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Jahan, Masroor

    2012-01-01

    Background: Scientific studies demonstrate efficacy of yogic treatment methods in stress and anxiety related disorders, psychosomatic disorders and physical illness. Very few studies have been conducted on schizophrenic patients. Aims: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of yoga therapy on subjective well-being, basic living skills, self-care, interpersonal, communicational and routine functions of schizophrenic patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty chronic schizophrenic hospitalized patients were selected from Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences, Ranchi and were randomly assigned to the experimental group (yoga therapy along with Pharmacotherapy, n=15), and to control group (Pharmacotherapy alone, n=15). Baseline assessment was done using Post Graduate Institute general well-being measure (GWBM), Checklist for basic living skills and Indian disability evaluation and assessment scale (IDEAS). The experimental group attended yoga therapy every day for about 1 h including motivational and feedback session. After 1 month post-assessment was done for both the groups. Statistical Analysis: Pearson Chi-square test was used for comparing the results. Results: At the end of 1 month experimental group showed better rating in comparison to control group in PGI GWBM, basic living skills and IDEAS. Conclusion: Yoga could improve patients subjective well-being, their daily basic living functioning, personal hygiene, self-care, interpersonal activities and communication, and prompted more involvement in routine work. PMID:24250042

  5. Pharmacogenetic Trial of a Cannabinoid Agonist Shows Reduced Fasting Colonic Motility in Patients with Non-Constipated Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Banny S.; Camilleri, Michael; Busciglio, Irene; Carlson, Paula; Szarka, Lawrence A.; Burton, Duane; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cannabinoid receptors are located on cholinergic neurons. Genetic variants that affect endocannabinoid metabolism are associated with colonic transit in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D). We compared the effects of dronabinol, a non-selective agonist of the cannabinoid receptor, with those of placebo on colonic motility and sensation in patients with IBS, and examined the effects of IBS subtype and specific genetic variants in cannabinoid mechanisms. Methods Seventy-five individuals with IBS (35 with IBS with constipation [IBS-C], 35 with IBS-D, and with 5 IBS-alternating [IBS-A]) were randomly assigned to groups that were given 1 dose of placebo or 2.5 mg or 5.0 mg dronabinol. We assessed left colonic compliance, the motility index (MI), tone, and sensation, during fasting and after a meal. We analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphisms CNR1 rs806378, FAAH rs324420, and MGLL rs11538700. Results In all patients, dronabinol decreased fasting proximal left colonic MI, compared with placebo (overall P=.05; for 5 mg dronabinol, P=.046), decreased fasting distal left colonic MI (overall P=.08; for 5 mg, P=.13), and increased colonic compliance (P=.058). The effects of dronabinol were greatest in patients with IBS-D or -A (proximal colonic MI, overall P=.022; compliance, overall, P=.03). Dronabinol did not alter sensation or tone. CNR1 rs806378 (CC vs CT/TT) appeared to affect fasting proximal MI in all patients with IBS (P=.075). Dronabinol affected fasting distal MI in patients, regardless of FAAHrs324420 variant (CA/AA vs CC) (P=.046); the greatest effects were observed among IBS-C patients with the FAAH CC variant (P=.045). Dronabinol affected fasting proximal MI in patients with IBS-D or -A with the variant FAAH CA/AA (P=.013). Conclusion In patients with IBS-D or -A, dronabinol reduces fasting colonic motility; FAAH and CNR1 variants could influence the effects of this drug on colonic motility. PMID:21803011

  6. The influence of Antonovsky’s sense of coherence (SOC) and psychoeducational family intervention (PEFI) on schizophrenic outpatients’ perceived quality of life: a longitudinal field study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antonovsky’s sense of coherence (SOC) as well as psychoeducational interventions has a convincing impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients suffering from schizophrenia. This study explores the influence of SOC on QOL among participants of a PEFI group (PG) compared to a control group (CG). Methods In a quasi-experimental field study 46 schizophrenic outpatients had an option to participate together with their family members the PG (n = 25) or the CG (n = 21). They were assessed amongst others with the Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-29). The efficacy of the PG on QOL was compared to the CG within two different SOC levels. Results Before intervention patients with high SOC scores had significant higher levels in GAF and QOL and a trend of lower PANSS scores. The strongest relationship was found between SOC and QOL. Regarding the SOC level after intervention PG participants had higher QOL values than the CG within the last three measurements. The highest benefit due to QOL was observed within PG participants with high SOC scores. Conclusions The results of the study suggest that SOC is a good predictive variable for clinical outcomes including QOL. Generally, the influence of the SOC level on QOL was stronger than the effect of PEFI. Hence schizophrenic patients with high SOC scores did benefit most from participating in a PG regarding their QOL. To optimize the effect of PEFI more efforts are needed to enhance the SOC of the participants. Altogether PEFI seems to be an important completion to the standard treatment for schizophrenic outpatients. PMID:23294596

  7. Modification of Two Operants (Verbal and Non-Verbal) of Near-Mute Schizophrenics Using Reinforcement and Modeling Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundel, Martin

    Major variables related to reinstatement of speech in hospitalized mute and near-mute schizophrenics were isolated and investigated. The study consisted of four parts: (1) verbal conditioning of mute and near-mute chronic schizophrenics using four experimental groups and two control groups, (2) four extra-laboratory measures for testing…

  8. Association and synergistic interaction between promoter variants of the DRD4 gene in Japanese schizophrenics

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Mizuho; Hattori, Eiji; Yamada, Kazuo; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Toyota, Tomoko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Sugihara, Genichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Iyo, Masaomi; Hoshika, Akinori

    2006-01-01

    Recent association studies suggest that polymorphisms in the promoter and exon 1 upstream region of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene play a functional role in the development of common psychiatric illnesses, although there are also conflicting results. In this study, we re-sequenced this region to identify all genomic variants, and tested them for association with schizophrenia. A total of 570 Japanese schizophrenic cases with matched controls were studied by genotyping all identified/validated common polymorphisms (−1106T>C, −906T>C, −809G>A, −616G>C, −521T>C, −376C>T, −291C>T and 12-bp repeat) and a known microsatellite (120-bp tandem duplication) in the upstream region. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) −809G>A in the promoter region was found to be significantly associated with disease (P=0.018 and 0.032 for allelic and genotypic comparisons, respectively), although not surviving after Bonferroni correction. Logistic regression analysis showed that a combination of the four polymorphisms, −809G>A, −616G>C, −291C>T and the 12-bp repeat, conferred a susceptibility to schizophrenia. These results suggest that the upstream variants have a primary functional effect in the etiology of schizophrenia in the Japanese population. PMID:17089069

  9. Ponatinib inhibits polyclonal drug-resistant KIT oncoproteins and shows therapeutic potential in heavily pretreated gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Rana; Vodala, Sadanand; Schrock, Alexa; Zhou, Tianjun; Serrano, Cesar; Eilers, Grant; Zhu, Meijun; Ketzer, Julia; Wardwell, Scott; Ning, Yaoyu; Song, Youngchul; Kohlmann, Anna; Wang, Frank; Clackson, Tim; Heinrich, Michael C.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Bauer, Sebastian; Rivera, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose KIT is the major oncogenic driver of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib are approved therapies; however, efficacy is often limited by the acquisition of polyclonal secondary resistance mutations in KIT, with those located in the activation (A) loop (exons 17/18) being particularly problematic. Here we explored the KIT inhibitory activity of ponatinib in preclinical models and describe initial characterization of its activity in GIST patients. Experimental Design The cellular and in vivo activities of ponatinib, imatinib, sunitinib and regorafenib against mutant KIT were evaluated using an accelerated mutagenesis assay and a panel of engineered and GIST-derived cell lines. The ponatinib-KIT co-structure was also determined. The clinical activity of ponatinib was examined in three GIST patients previously treated with all 3 FDA-approved agents. Results In engineered and GIST-derived cell lines, ponatinib potently inhibited KIT exon 11 primary mutants and a range of secondary mutants, including those within the A-loop. Ponatinib also induced regression in engineered and GIST-derived tumor models containing these secondary mutations. In a mutagenesis screen, 40 nM ponatinib was sufficient to suppress outgrowth of all secondary mutants except V654A, which was suppressed at 80 nM. This inhibitory profile could be rationalized based on structural analyses. Ponatinib (30 mg daily) displayed encouraging clinical activity in two of three GIST patients. Conclusion Ponatinib possesses potent activity against most major clinically-relevant KIT mutants, and has demonstrated preliminary evidence of activity in patients with refractory GIST. These data strongly support further evaluation of ponatinib in GIST patients. PMID:25239608

  10. Smooth pursuit latency in gap and non-gap conditions in schizophrenic subjects.

    PubMed

    Knox, P C; O'Mullane, G; Gray, R

    1999-08-20

    It has been demonstrated in normal subjects that smooth pursuit latency is reduced in gap pursuit tasks. We have now measured smooth pursuit latency in a group of schizophrenic subjects in both gap and non-gap conditions. In non-gap tasks pursuit latency was longer in the schizophrenic subjects than in controls. While the addition of gaps produced reductions in pursuit latency in the schizophrenic subjects, the effect was more variable than in controls, with a greater asymmetry between rightward and leftward pursuit latencies. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that pursuit initiation is modified in schizophrenia and that as with the gap effect on saccades, the gap effect on pursuit is also modified. PMID:10574383

  11. Schizophrenic consciousness, spiritual experience, and the borders between things, images and words.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2005-12-01

    A prototypical feature of schizophrenic consciousness is that it undergoes a solidification of the imaginary space in which mental events take place. The bipartition between images and 'real' things is jeopardized and imagination is transformed into 'physical' forms. Parallel to this solidification of imaginary space in schizophrenic consciousness, more generally the rigid tripartite separation of things, images and words upon which the spatial order of consciousness is founded starts to erode. I explore different spiritual and philosophical traditions which shed light on and make more understandable the schizophrenic consciousness that call into question this separatedness. I argue that these traditions indicate that our current commonsensical approach to the separatedness between things, images and words is historically and culturally determined. PMID:16570520

  12. Mutation analysis in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients from Bulgaria shows a peculiar distribution of breakpoints by intron

    SciTech Connect

    Todorova, A.; Bronzova, J.; Kremensky, I.

    1996-10-02

    For the first time in Bulgaria, a deletion/duplication screening was performed on a group of 84 unrelated Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients, and the breakpoint distribution in the dystrophin gene was analyzed. Intragenic deletions were detected in 67.8% of patients, and intragenic duplications in 2.4%. A peculiar distribution of deletion breakpoints was found. Only 13.2% of the deletion breakpoints fell in the {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} hot spot in intron 44, whereas the majority (> 54%) were located within the segment encompassing introns 45-51, which includes intron 50, the richest in breakpoints (16%) in the Bulgarian sample. Comparison with data from Greece and Turkey points at the probable existence of a deletion hot spot within intron 50, which might be a characteristic of populations of the Balkan region. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Efficacy of Muscle Exercise in Patients with Muscular Dystrophy: A Systematic Review Showing a Missed Opportunity to Improve Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Silvia; Pecoraro, Valentina; Lambiase, Simone; Gatti, Roberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Moja, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background Although muscular dystrophy causes muscle weakness and muscle loss, the role of exercise in the management of this disease remains controversial. Objective The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of exercise interventions on muscle strength in patients with muscular dystrophy. Methods We performed systematic electronic searches in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and Pedro as well as a list of reference literature. We included trials assessing muscle exercise in patients with muscular dystrophy. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and appraised risk of bias. Results We identified five small (two controlled and three randomized clinical) trials comprising 242 patients and two ongoing randomized controlled trials. We were able to perform two meta-analyses. We found an absence of evidence for a difference in muscle strength (MD 4.18, 95% CIs - 2.03 to 10.39; p?=?0.91) and in endurance (MD ?0.53, 95% CIs 1.11 to 0.05; p?=?0.26). In both, the direction of effects favored muscle exercise. Conclusions The first included trial about the efficacy of muscular exercise was published in 1978. Even though some benefits of muscle exercise were consistently reported across studies, the benefits might be due to the small size of studies and other biases. Detrimental effects are still possible. After several decades of research, doctors cannot give advice and patients are, thus, denied basic information. A multi-center randomized trial investigating the strength of muscles, fatigue, and functional limitations is needed. PMID:23894268

  14. Horizon's patient-centered medical home program shows practices need much more than payment changes to transform.

    PubMed

    Patel, Urvashi B; Rathjen, Carl; Rubin, Elizabeth

    2012-09-01

    Skyrocketing costs and the uneven quality of patient care challenge the US health care system. Some health insurance companies are exploring patient-centered medical homes as a way to change incentives and transform the health care delivery system by increasing primary care providers' accountability for care coordination and outcomes. Horizon Healthcare Services, Inc., New Jersey's oldest and largest health insurance company, developed medical home programs that include financial incentives with essential support tools. Our experience in implementing and evaluating various approaches indicates that medical homes require intensive and targeted patient care coordination supported by committed primary care leadership, as well as new payment structures that include a monthly care coordination fee and outcome-based payments. Our experience also indicates that considerable nonmonetary support-such as an education program for population care coordinators, a medical home guide that offers effective ways to transform a practice into a medical home, and useful data sharing-are needed to improve the quality of care and reduce costs. PMID:22949451

  15. Sensory gating-out and gating-in in normal and schizophrenic participants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lingli; Boutros, Nash N; Jansen, Ben H

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to sensory gating, the brain's ability to re-respond to relevant stimuli and the potential differences between healthy and schizophrenic participants have not been studied in great detail. Here, we explore what auditory paradigms are useful to measure this re-responding ability. Evoked potentials (EPs) were obtained from the Cz channel using 3 paired stimulus paradigms (pairs with equal stimuli {PE}, the second stimulus being lower {PL} or higher {PH} in frequency) and 2 short-train paradigms in which 5 identical stimuli were followed by a lower frequency stimulus (train lower {TL}) or higher frequency stimulus (train higher {TH}). Data were collected from 17 healthy control participants (NC) and 17 age and gender-matched patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Up to 4 data sets obtained on 4 different days were available for each participant. Ensemble averages were computed for each session, from which the P50, N100, and P200 latencies and amplitudes were obtained. No significant differences in amplitude or latency of the various EP components were found between the responses to the second stimulus obtained with the 5 paradigms. Neither did the responses to the fifth and sixth stimuli differ for the TL and TH paradigm, with the exception of the N100 latency of the fifth stimulus, which was longer for TH than TL for NC. Healthy participants had larger amplitudes and shorter latencies than the patients with schizophrenia for the responses to the first stimuli, with the latency differences continuing for the fifth and sixth response. Also, the amplitude and latency of the first response was larger than for the second response in both populations. In conclusion, none of the paradigms studied here, with the employed parameters, are useful to measure the re-responding ability of the brain. Also, the shorter latencies for the repeated stimulus suggest that the neural mechanism underlying attenuation of repeated stimuli is of a facilitating nature. PMID:22423548

  16. Whole-Genome Sequencing Shows That Patient-to-Patient Transmission Rarely Accounts for Acquisition of Staphylococcus aureus in an Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Price, James R.; Golubchik, Tanya; Cole, Kevin; Wilson, Daniel J.; Crook, Derrick W.; Thwaites, Guy E.; Bowden, Rory; Walker, A. Sarah; Peto, Timothy E. A.; Paul, John; Llewelyn, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Strategies to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infection in hospitals focus on patient-to-patient transmission. We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the role of colonized patients as the source of new S. aureus acquisitions, and the reliability of identifying patient-to-patient transmission using the conventional approach of spa typing and overlapping patient stay. Methods. Over 14 months, all unselected patients admitted to an adult intensive care unit (ICU) were serially screened for S. aureus. All available isolates (n = 275) were spa typed and underwent whole-genome sequencing to investigate their relatedness at high resolution. Results. Staphylococcus aureus was carried by 185 of 1109 patients sampled within 24 hours of ICU admission (16.7%); 59 (5.3%) patients carried methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Forty-four S. aureus (22 MRSA) acquisitions while on ICU were detected. Isolates were available for genetic analysis from 37 acquisitions. Whole-genome sequencing indicated that 7 of these 37 (18.9%) were transmissions from other colonized patients. Conventional methods (spa typing combined with overlapping patient stay) falsely identified 3 patient-to-patient transmissions (all MRSA) and failed to detect 2 acquisitions and 4 transmissions (2 MRSA). Conclusions. Only a minority of S. aureus acquisitions can be explained by patient-to-patient transmission. Whole-genome sequencing provides the resolution to disprove transmission events indicated by conventional methods and also to reveal otherwise unsuspected transmission events. Whole-genome sequencing should replace conventional methods for detection of nosocomial S. aureus transmission. PMID:24336829

  17. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows no association between the SNP rs1800469 in TGFB and late radiotherapy toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Gillian C.; Elliott, Rebecca M.; Alsner, Jan; Andreassen, Christian N.; Abdelhay, Osama; Burnet, Neil G.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Coles, Charlotte E.; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Fuentes-Raspall, Maria J.; Alonso-Muñoz, Maria C.; Kerns, Sarah; Raabe, Annette; Symonds, R. Paul; Seibold, Petra; Talbot, Chris J.; Wenz, Frederik; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Yarnold, John; Dunning, Alison M.; Rosenstein, Barry S.; West, Catharine M.L.; Bentzen, Søren M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Reported associations between risk of radiation-induced normal tissue injury and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TGFB1, encoding the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), remain controversial. To overcome publication bias, the international Radiogenomics Consortium collected and analysed individual patient level data from both published and unpublished studies. Materials and methods TGFB1 SNP rs1800469 c.-1347T>C (previously known as C-509T) genotype, treatment- related data, and clinically-assessed fibrosis (measured at least 2 years after therapy) were available in 2782 participants from 11 cohorts. All received adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Associations between late fibrosis or overall toxicity, reported by STAT (Standardised Total Average Toxicity) score, and rs1800469 genotype were assessed. Results No statistically significant associations between either fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype were observed with univariate or multivariate regression analysis. The multivariate odds ratio (OR), obtained from meta-analysis, for an increase in late fibrosis grade with each additional rare allele of rs1800469 was 0.98 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.85–1.11). This CI is sufficiently narrow to rule out any clinically relevant effect on toxicity risk in carriers vs. non-carriers with a high probability. Conclusion This meta-analysis has not confirmed previous reports of association between fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype in breast cancer patients. It has demonstrated successful collaboration within the Radiogenomics Consortium. PMID:23199655

  18. In Urban And Rural India, A Standardized Patient Study Showed Low Levels Of Provider Training And Huge Quality Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Das, Jishnu; Holla, Alaka; Das, Veena; Mohanan, Manoj; Tabak, Diana; Chan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the quality of care delivered by private and public providers of primary health care services in rural and urban India. To measure quality, the study used standardized patients recruited from the local community and trained to present consistent cases of illness to providers. We found low overall levels of medical training among health care providers; in rural Madhya Pradesh, for example, 67 percent of health care providers who were sampled reported no medical qualifications at all. What’s more, we found only small differences between trained and untrained doctors in such areas as adherence to clinical checklists. Correct diagnoses were rare, incorrect treatments were widely prescribed, and adherence to clinical checklists was higher in private than in public clinics. Our results suggest an urgent need to measure the quality of health care services systematically and to improve the quality of medical education and continuing education programs, among other policy changes. PMID:23213162

  19. Fluctuation of latent inhibition along the estrous cycle in the rat: modeling the cyclicity of symptoms in schizophrenic women?

    PubMed

    Arad, Michal; Weiner, Ina

    2008-11-01

    Latent inhibition (LI) is a cross-species selective attention phenomenon manifested as poorer conditioning of stimuli that had been experienced as irrelevant prior to conditioning. Disruption of LI by pro-psychotic agents such as amphetamine and its restoration by antipsychotic drugs (APDs) is a well-established model of psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. There is evidence that in schizophrenic women symptom severity and treatment response fluctuate along the menstrual cycle. Here we tested whether hormonal fluctuation along the estrous cycle in female rats (as determined indirectly via the cellular composition of the vaginal smears) would modulate the expression of LI and its response to APDs. The results showed that LI was seen if rats were in estrus during pre-exposure stage and in metestrus during the conditioning stage of the LI procedure (estrus-metestrus) but not along the remaining sequential phases of the cycle (metestrus-diestrus, diestrus-proestrus and proestrus-estrus). Additionally, the efficacy of typical and atypical APDs, haloperidol and clozapine, respectively, in restoring LI depended on estrous condition. Only LI disruption in proestrus-estrus exhibited sensitivity to both APDs, whereas LI disruption in the other two phases was alleviated by clozapine but not haloperidol. Our results show for the first time that both the expression of LI and its sensitivity to APDs are modulated along the estrous cycle, consistent with fluctuations in psychotic symptoms and response to APDs seen along women's menstrual cycle. Importantly, the results indicate that although both low and high levels of hormones may give rise to psychotic-like behavior as manifested in LI loss, the pro-psychotic state associated with low hormonal level is more severe due to reduced sensitivity to typical APDs. The latter constellation may mimic states of increased vulnerability to psychosis coupled with reduced treatment response documented in schizophrenic women during periods associated with low levels of hormones. PMID:18819755

  20. Gene expression profiling in circulating endothelial cells from systemic sclerosis patients shows an altered control of apoptosis and angiogenesis that is modified by iloprost infusion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Circulating endothelial cells are increased in patients affected by systemic sclerosis (SSc) and their number strongly correlates with vascular damage. The effects of iloprost in systemic sclerosis are only partially known. We aimed at studying the gene expression profile of circulating endothelial cells and the effects of iloprost infusion and gene expression in patients with systemic sclerosis. Methods We enrolled 50 patients affected by systemic sclerosis, 37 patients without and 13 patients with digital ulcers. Blood samples were collected from all patients before and 72 hours after either a single day or five days eight hours iloprost infusion. Blood samples were also collected from 50 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Circulating endothelial cells and endothelial progenitors cells were detected in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis by flow cytometry with a four-colour panel of antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS 16 statistical package.Circulating endothelial cells were then isolated from peripheral blood by immunomagnetic CD45 negative selection for the gene array study. Results The number of both circulating endothelial cells and progenitors was significantly higher in patients affected by systemic sclerosis than in controls and among patients in those with digital ulcers than in patients without them. Circulating endothelial cells and progenitors number increased after iloprost infusion. Gene array analysis of endothelial cells showed a different transcriptional profile in patients compared to controls. Indeed, patients displayed an altered expression of genes involved in the control of apoptosis and angiogenesis. Iloprost infusion had a profound impact on endothelial cells gene expression since the treatment was able to modulate a very high number of transcripts. Conclusions We report here that circulating endothelial cells in patients with systemic sclerosis show an altered expression of genes involved in the control of apoptosis and angiogenesis. Moreover we describe that iloprost infusion has a strong effect on endothelial cells and progenitors since it is able to modulate both their number and their gene expression profile. PMID:20609215

  1. Hepatic Infiltrates in Operational Tolerant Patients After Liver Transplantation Show Enrichment of Regulatory T Cells Before Proinflammatory Genes Are Downregulated.

    PubMed

    Taubert, R; Danger, R; Londoño, M-C; Christakoudi, S; Martinez-Picola, M; Rimola, A; Manns, M P; Sánchez-Fueyo, A; Jaeckel, E

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppression can be discontinued from selected and stable patients after liver transplantation resulting in spontaneous operational tolerance (SOT), although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Thus, we analyzed serial liver biopsy specimens from adult liver recipients enrolled in a prospective multicenter immunosuppression withdrawal trial that used immunophenotyping and transcriptional profiling. Liver specimens were collected before the initiation of weaning, at the time of rejection, or at 1 and 3 years after complete drug discontinuation. Unexpectedly, the tolerated grafts developed portal tract expansion with increased T cell infiltration after immunosuppression withdrawal. This was associated with transient and preferential accumulation of CD4(+) FOXP3(+) cells and a trend toward upregulation of immune activation and regulatory genes, without signs of rejection. At the same time, no markers of endothelial damage or activation were noted. Portal infiltrates persisted at 3 years but were characterized by decreased expression of genes associated with chronic immunological damage. Further, SOT was not associated with a progressive liver fibrosis up to 5 years. These data suggest that SOT involves several mechanisms: a long-lasting local immune cell persistence with a transient regulatory T cells accumulation followed by a downregulation of immune-activated genes over years. These results have important implications for designs and follow-up of weaning trials. PMID:26603835

  2. AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE. Patients with LRBA deficiency show CTLA4 loss and immune dysregulation responsive to abatacept therapy.

    PubMed

    Lo, Bernice; Zhang, Kejian; Lu, Wei; Zheng, Lixin; Zhang, Qian; Kanellopoulou, Chrysi; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Zhiduo; Fritz, Jill M; Marsh, Rebecca; Husami, Ammar; Kissell, Diane; Nortman, Shannon; Chaturvedi, Vijaya; Haines, Hilary; Young, Lisa R; Mo, Jun; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Bleesing, Jack J; Mustillo, Peter; Stephens, Michael; Rueda, Cesar M; Chougnet, Claire A; Hoebe, Kasper; McElwee, Joshua; Hughes, Jason D; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Matthews, Helen F; Price, Susan; Su, Helen C; Rao, V Koneti; Lenardo, Michael J; Jordan, Michael B

    2015-07-24

    Mutations in the LRBA gene (encoding the lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor protein) cause a syndrome of autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and humoral immune deficiency. The biological role of LRBA in immunologic disease is unknown. We found that patients with LRBA deficiency manifested a dramatic and sustained improvement in response to abatacept, a CTLA4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4)-immunoglobulin fusion drug. Clinical responses and homology of LRBA to proteins controlling intracellular trafficking led us to hypothesize that it regulates CTLA4, a potent inhibitory immune receptor. We found that LRBA colocalized with CTLA4 in endosomal vesicles and that LRBA deficiency or knockdown increased CTLA4 turnover, which resulted in reduced levels of CTLA4 protein in FoxP3(+) regulatory and activated conventional T cells. In LRBA-deficient cells, inhibition of lysosome degradation with chloroquine prevented CTLA4 loss. These findings elucidate a mechanism for CTLA4 trafficking and control of immune responses and suggest therapies for diseases involving the CTLA4 pathway. PMID:26206937

  3. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  4. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best

  5. Dream Content of Schizophrenic, Nonschizophrenic Mentally Ill, and Community Control Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjez, Jack; Stein, Daniel; Gabbay, Uri; Bruckner, Judith; Meged, Sorin; Barak, Yoram; Elizur, Avner; Weizman, Abraham; Rotenberg, Vadim S.

    2003-01-01

    Study compared dream content of schizophrenic adolescent inpatients, adolescent inpatient s with other mental disorders, and community controls. Results suggest that psychopathology per se, rather than the specific psychiatric disturbance, may be associated with impoverishment of dream content; and that negative, rather than positive,…

  6. iPSC-derived neurons from GBA1-associated Parkinson's disease patients show autophagic defects and impaired calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Schöndorf, David C; Aureli, Massimo; McAllister, Fiona E; Hindley, Christopher J; Mayer, Florian; Schmid, Benjamin; Sardi, S Pablo; Valsecchi, Manuela; Hoffmann, Susanna; Schwarz, Lukas Kristoffer; Hedrich, Ulrike; Berg, Daniela; Shihabuddin, Lamya S; Hu, Jing; Pruszak, Jan; Gygi, Steven P; Sonnino, Sandro; Gasser, Thomas; Deleidi, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the acid β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) gene, responsible for the lysosomal storage disorder Gaucher's disease (GD), are the strongest genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) known to date. Here we generate induced pluripotent stem cells from subjects with GD and PD harbouring GBA1 mutations, and differentiate them into midbrain dopaminergic neurons followed by enrichment using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Neurons show a reduction in glucocerebrosidase activity and protein levels, increase in glucosylceramide and α-synuclein levels as well as autophagic and lysosomal defects. Quantitative proteomic profiling reveals an increase of the neuronal calcium-binding protein 2 (NECAB2) in diseased neurons. Mutant neurons show a dysregulation of calcium homeostasis and increased vulnerability to stress responses involving elevation of cytosolic calcium. Importantly, correction of the mutations rescues such pathological phenotypes. These findings provide evidence for a link between GBA1 mutations and complex changes in the autophagic/lysosomal system and intracellular calcium homeostasis, which underlie vulnerability to neurodegeneration. PMID:24905578

  7. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, the previously reported upregulation of muscimol binding sites and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding sites in the prefrontal and adjacent cingulate cortex of schizophrenics are possibly due to posttranscriptional modifications of mRNAs and their translated polypeptides.

  8. Exploring imagined movements in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Rossetti, Yves; d'Amato, Thierry; Dalery, Jean; Saoud, Mohamed

    2002-04-16

    Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate impairments indicative of an inability to accurately monitor internally generated images. Motor imagery measures the ability to generate internal images of intended but not executed motor movements. Ten patients with schizophrenia completed actual and imagined versions of a pointing task with a well defined speed-accuracy trade-off function. For controls, movement time increases as target size decreases for both actual and imagined movements. Despite showing the expected speed-accuracy trade-off for actual movements, the imagined movements of schizophrenics showed no reliable relationship to target size. This was true for each patient and appeared to be independent of symptom profile. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia are unable to generate accurate internal images of their own motor movements. PMID:11973455

  9. Graves’ Disease Patients with Persistent Hyperthyroidism and Diffuse Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltration in the Thyroid Show No Histopathological Compatibility with IgG4-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Eijun; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Ito, Mitsuru; Fukata, Shuji; Nakamura, Hirotoshi; Amino, Nobuyuki; Miyauchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Background IgG4-related disease is a novel disease entity characterized by diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and fibrosis into multiple organs. There is still controversy over whether some thyroid diseases are actually IgG4-related disease. The objective of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological features of Graves’ disease with diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the thyroid. Patients and Methods Among 1,484 Graves’ disease patients who underwent thyroidectomy, we examined their histopathological findings including the degree of lymphoplasmacytic and fibrotic infiltration and levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid. Their clinical pictures were defined by laboratory and ultrasonographic evaluation. Results A total of 11 patients (0.74%) showed diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the stroma of the thyroid gland. Meanwhile, other patients showed variable lymphoid infiltration ranging from absent to focally dense but no aggregation of plasma cells in the thyroid gland. Based on the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-related disease, 5 of the 11 subjects had specifically increased levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid. Fibrotic infiltration was present in only 1 patient developing hypothyroidism after anti-thyroid drug treatment for 4 years, but not in the other 10 patients with persistent hyperthyroidism. Obliterative phlebitis was not identified in any of the 11 subjects. Thyroid ultrasound examination showed 1 patient developing hypothyroidism who had diffuse hypoechogenicity, but the other hyperthyroid patients had a coarse echo texture. Conclusions In our study, Graves’ disease patients with persistent hyperthyroidism who had diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid showed no concomitant fibrosis or obliterative phlebitis. PMID:26218874

  10. Cognitive Function, Plasma MnSOD Activity, and MnSOD Ala-9Val Polymorphism in Patients With Schizophrenia and Normal Controls

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang Y.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive reactive oxygen species are thought to produce oxidative damage that underlies neurodegeneration and cognitive impairment in several disorders including schizophrenia. The functional Ala-9Val polymorphism of the mitochondrial enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which detoxifies superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide, has been associated with schizophrenia. However, no study has reported its role in cognitive deficits of schizophrenia as mediated through MnSOD activity. We recruited 923 schizophrenic inpatients and 566 healthy controls and compared them on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), plasma MnSOD activity, and the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism. We assessed patient psychopathology using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. We showed that the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism may not contribute directly to the susceptibility to schizophrenia. The Ala variant was associated with worse attention performance among chronic schizophrenic patients but not among normal controls. Plasma MnSOD activity was significantly decreased in patients compared with that in normal controls. Moreover, MnSOD activity among the schizophrenic Ala allele carriers was correlated with the degree of cognitive impairments, especially attention and RBANS total score. We demonstrated an association between the MnSOD Ala-9Val variant and poor attention in schizophrenia. The association between higher MnSOD activity and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is dependent on the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism. PMID:23588476

  11. Unique technological voice method (The YUBA Method) shows clear improvement in patients with cochlear implants in singing.

    PubMed

    Yuba, T; Itoh, T; Kaga, K

    2009-01-01

    It is known that children with cochlear implants tend to sing off-key, monotonously, and flat. There are a few reports that it is possible to improve off-key singing mainly through instruction using the falsetto voice for people with normal hearing. We examined whether their singing skills could be improved through instruction. Eight subjects (five boys and three girls aged 10.4+/-2.4 years) with cochlear implants were selected. Speech perception scores of short sentences were on average 66.5%+/-26.5%. We diagnosed their singing acuity by letting them sing a nursery song, well known to all of them, before and after the instruction. The mean fundamental frequencies of their singing approached the mean Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI)-specified frequencies as references and the deviation between fundamental frequencies of their singing and reference MIDI sounds became smaller. This study shows a clear improvement in the singing ability of children with cochlear implants through a unique technological voice method, mainly focused on the falsetto voice in this experiment. PMID:17904798

  12. [Non-invasive brain stimulation for treatment of schizophrenic psychoses].

    PubMed

    Hasan, A; Wobrock, T; Palm, U; Strube, W; Padberg, F; Falkai, P; Fallgatter, A; Plewnia, C

    2015-12-01

    Despite many different available pharmacological and psychosocial treatment options, an optimal control of symptoms is only partly possible for most schizophrenia patients. Especially, persistent auditory hallucinations, negative symptoms and cognitive impairment are difficult to treat symptoms. Several non-invasive brain stimulation techniques are increasingly being considered as new therapeutic add on options for the management of schizophrenia, targeting these symptom domains. The technique which has been available for the longest time and that is best established in clinical care is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). New stimulation techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) allow a more pathophysiological-based approach. This review article introduces various non-invasive brain stimulation techniques and discusses recent treatment studies on schizophrenia. In total, the novel brain stimulation techniques discussed here can be considered relevant add on therapeutic approaches for schizophrenia. In this context, the best evidence is available for the application of rTMS for the treatment of negative symptoms and persistent auditory hallucinations; however, negative studies have also been published for both indications. Studies using other non-invasive brain stimulation techniques showed promising results but further research is needed to establish the clinical efficacy. Based on a growing pathophysiological knowledge, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques provide new treatment perspectives for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26341690

  13. Impact of an Electronic Cigarette on Smoking Reduction and Cessation in Schizophrenic Smokers: A Prospective 12-Month Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Caponnetto, Pasquale; Auditore, Roberta; Russo, Cristina; Cappello, Giorgio Carlo; Polosa, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is a tough addiction to break. This dependence is the most common dual diagnosis for individuals with schizophrenia. Currently three effective drugs are approved for smoking cessation: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline and bupropion. However, some serious side effects of varenicline have been reported, including depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicide. The use of bupropion also has side effects. It should not be used by people who have epilepsy or any condition that lowers the seizure threshold, nor by people who take a specific class of drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Hence, there are pharmacodynamic reason to believe they could precipitate or exacerbate psychosis. For its capacity to deliver nicotine and provide a coping mechanism for conditioned smoking cues by replacing some of the rituals associated with smoking gestures, electronic-cigarettes may reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms without serious side effects. Our recent work with ECs in healthy smokers not intending to quit consistently show surprisingly high success rates. We hypothesised that these positive findings could be replicated in difficult patients with schizophrenia This tool may help smokers with schizophrenia remain abstinent during their quitting attempts or to reduce cigarette consumption. Efficacy and safety of these devices in long-term smoking cessation and/or smoking reduction studies have never been investigated for this special population. Methods: In this study we monitored possible modifications in smoking habits of 14 smokers (not intending to quit) with schizophrenia experimenting with the “Categoria” e-Cigarette with a focus on smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. Study participants were invited to attend six study visits: at baseline, week-4, week-8, week-12 week-24 and week 52. Product use, number of cigarettes smoked, carbon monoxide in exhaled breath (eCO) and positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia levels were measured at each visit. Smoking reduction and abstinence rates were calculated. Adverse events were also reviewed. Results: Sustained 50% reduction in the number of cig/day at week-52 was shown in 7/14 (50%) participants; their median of 30 cig/day decreasing significantly to 15 cig/day (p = 0.018). Sustained smoking abstinence at week-52 was observed in 2/14 (14.3%) participants. Combined sustained 50% reduction and smoking abstinence was shown in 9/14 (64.3%) participants. Nausea was observed in 2/14 (14.4%) of participants, throat irritation in 2/14 (14.4%) of participants, headache in 2/14 (14.4%) of participants , and dry cough in 4/14 (28.6%) of participants. However, these adverse events diminished substantially by week-24. Overall, one to two cartridges/day were used throughout the study. Positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia are not increased after smoking reduction/cessation in patients using e-cigarettes. Conclusions: We have shown for the first time that the use of e-cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in chronic schizophrenic patients who smoke not intending to quit. This was achieved without negative impacts on the symptoms of schizophrenia as assessed by SAPS and SANS symptoms scales. PMID:23358230

  14. Therapeutic effect of trans-drain administration of antibiotics in patients showing intractable pancreatic leak-associated pus drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-In; Cho, Yu-Jeong; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims To cope with intractable pus drainage from persistent pancreatic leak after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), we have empirically performed local administration of high-concentration antibiotics cocktail solution into abdominal drains. The purpose of this study was to assess its therapeutic effect in patients showing intractable pus drainage after PD. Methods The study group was 10 patients who underwent trans-drain administration of high-concentration antibiotics cocktail solution. Another 10 patients were selected through propensity score matching for the control group. Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed with focus on comparison of pancreatic fistula (PF)-associated clinical sequences. Results Postoperative PF of grade B and C occurred in 7 and 3 patients in the study group and 9 and 1 patient in the control group, respectively (p=0.58). In the study group, a mean of 1.8 sessions of antibiotics cocktail solution (imipenem 500 mg and vancomycin 500 mg dissolved in 20 ml of normal saline) was administered. Two patients showed procedure-associated febrile episodes that were spontaneously controlled within 48 hours. At 2-4 days after the first-session of antibiotics administration, pus-like drain discharge turned to be serous with significantly decreased amount. The study group showed shortened postoperative hospital stay comparing to the control group (25.2±4.6 vs. 31.8±5.6 days, p=0.011). In both groups, no patient received radiological or surgical intervention due to PF-associated complications. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrated that trans-drain administration of antibiotics could be an effective therapeutic option for pancreaticojejunostomy leak-associated infection. Further validation of our result is necessary in large patient populations from multiple centers. PMID:26155272

  15. Aortic arch calcification on chest X-ray combined with coronary calcium score show additional benefit for diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Shin; Kim, Weon; Kwon, Se Hwan; Youn, Hyo Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Bae; Kim, Soo Joong; Kim, Woo-Shik; Kim, Kwon Sam

    2016-01-01

    Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC) and aortic arch calcification (AoAC) are individually associated with cardiovascular disease and outcome. This study investigated the predictive value of AoAC combined with CAC for cardiovascular diagnosis and outcome in patients with angina. Methods A total of 2018 stable angina patients who underwent chest X-ray and cardiac multi-detector computed tomography were followed up for four years to assess adverse events, which were categorized as cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or repeated revascularization. The extent of AoAC on chest X-ray was graded on a scale from 0 to 3. Results During the four years of follow-up, 620 patients were treated by coronary stenting and 153 (7%) adverse events occurred. A higher grade of AoAC was associated with a higher CAC score. Cox regression showed that the CAC score, but not AoAC, were associated with adverse events. In patients with CAC score < 400, AoAC showed an additive predictive value in detecting significant coronary artery disease (CAD). A gradual increases in the risk of adverse events were noted if AoAC was present in patients with similar CAC score. Conclusions As AoAC is strongly correlated with the CAC score regardless of age or gender, careful evaluation of CAD would be required in patients with AoAC on conventional chest X-rays. PMID:27103916

  16. Conformity and Psychopathology: A Comparative Study of Conformity Behaviors in Manic-depressive, Paranoid Schizophrenic and Normal Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsella, Anthony J.

    1975-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between conformity and psychopathology in male and female manic-depressive (MD), paranoid schizophrenics (PS), and normals (N) on two conformity tasks under conditions of live social pressure. (Author)

  17. High risk of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in autoimmune disease patients showing no immediate increase in hepatic enzyme under steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Shunichiro; Nagoya, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Tateda, Kenji; Takahashi, Hiroki; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study is to determine the relationship between liver function and the incidence of ONF after steroid therapy in AID patients. The present study investigated 58 AID patients who had received high-dose systemic steroid therapy to determine whether a correlation exists between parameters of hepatic function and steroid-induced ONF at the precise time-point when steroid-induced ONF develops. The patients were divided into two groups on the basis of MRI findings: ONF (n = 31) and non-ONF (n = 27). The ONF group showed no increase in AST, ALT, or LDH within 4 weeks after the commencement of steroid therapy. By contrast, the non-ONF group showed an immediate and significant increase in all of these parameters. In the ONF group, hepatic steatosis and elevated triglyceride levels were also observed. Following 4 weeks of steroid therapy, there were no significant differences in biochemical data between two groups. Patients showing no immediate increase in ALT and AST in response to steroid therapy were at high risk of ONF. These findings provide important insights into the pathogenesis of steroid-induced ONF and may facilitate the development of prevention strategies in patients with AID. PMID:22215042

  18. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  19. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients. PMID:1358128

  20. A Combined Proteomic and Transcriptomic Approach Shows Diverging Molecular Mechanisms in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Development in Patients with Tricuspid- And Bicuspid Aortic Valve*

    PubMed Central

    Kjellqvist, Sanela; Maleki, Shohreh; Olsson, Therese; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Branca, Rui Miguel Mamede; Lehtiö, Janne; Pinet, Florence; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Eriksson, Per

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a pathological local dilatation of the aorta, potentially leading to aortic rupture or dissection. The disease is a common complication of patients with bicuspid aortic valve, a congenital disorder present in 1–2% of the population. Using two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis proteomics followed by mRNA expression, and alternative splicing analysis of the identified proteins, differences in dilated and nondilated aorta tissues between 44 patients with bicuspid and tricuspid valves was examined. The pattern of protein expression was successfully validated with LC-MS/MS. A multivariate analysis of protein expression data revealed diverging protein expression fingerprints in patients with tricuspid compared with the patients with bicuspid aortic valves. From 302 protein spots included in the analysis, 69 and 38 spots were differentially expressed between dilated and nondilated aorta specifically in patients with tricuspid and bicuspid aortic valve, respectively. 92 protein spots were differentially expressed between dilated and nondilated aorta in both phenotypes. Similarly, mRNA expression together with alternative splicing analysis of the identified proteins also showed diverging fingerprints in the two patient groups. Differential splicing was abundant but the expression levels of differentially spliced mRNA transcripts were low compared with the wild type transcript and there was no correlation between splicing and the number of spots. Therefore, the different spots are likely to represent post-translational modifications. The identification of differentially expressed proteins suggests that dilatation in patients with a tricuspid aortic valve involves inflammatory processes whereas aortic aneurysm in patients with BAV may be the consequence of impaired repair capacity. The results imply that aortic aneurysm formation in patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valves involve different biological pathways leading to the same phenotype. PMID:23184916

  1. A clinical study shows safety and efficacy of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell therapy to improve quality of life in muscular dystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Badhe, Prerna; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Kulkarni, Pooja; Lohiya, Mamta; Biju, Hema; Jacob, V C

    2013-01-01

    Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder with no definite cure. A study was carried out on 150 patients diagnosed with muscular dystrophy. These included Duchenne muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and Becker muscular dystrophy variants. They were administered autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells intrathecally and intramuscularly at the motor points of the antigravity weak muscles followed by vigorous rehabilitation therapy. No significant adverse events were noted. Assessment after transplantation showed neurological improvements in trunk muscle strength, limb strength on manual muscle testing, gait improvements, and a favorable shift on assessment scales such as the Functional Independence Measure and the Brooke and Vignos Scales. Furthermore, imaging and electrophysiological studies also showed significant changes in selective cases. On a mean follow-up of 12 ± 1 months, overall 86.67% cases showed symptomatic and functional improvements, with six patients showing changes with respect to muscle regeneration and a decrease in fatty infiltration on musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging and nine showing improved muscle electrical activity on electromyography. Fifty-three percent of the cases showed an increase in trunk muscle strength, 48% showed an increase in upper limb strength, 59% showed an increase in lower limb strength, and approximately 10% showed improved gait. These data were statistically analyzed using Student's paired t test and found to be significant. The results show that this treatment is safe and efficacious and also improves the quality of life of patients having muscular dystrophy. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) supplement issue of Cell Transplantation. PMID:24070109

  2. Lsr2 Peptides of Mycobacterium leprae Show Hierarchical Responses in Lymphoproliferative Assays, with Selective Recognition by Patients with Anergic Lepromatous Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Chaduvula, Mehervani; Murtaza, A.; Misra, Namita; Narayan, N. P. Shankar; Ramesh, V.; Prasad, H. K.; Rani, Rajni; Chinnadurai, R. K.

    2012-01-01

    Lsr2 protein of Mycobacterium leprae was shown earlier to elicit B and T cell responses in leprosy patients (20, 28). Lymphoproliferation to M. leprae and Lsr2 antigens was observed in >70% of tuberculoid (T) patients and in 16 and 34% of lepromatous (L) patients, respectively. We focused on the M. leprae nonresponders in the lepromatous group using 22 synthetic Lsr2 peptides (end-to-end peptides A to F and overlapping peptides p1 to p16) in in vitro T cell responses. A total of 125 leprosy and 13 tuberculosis patients and 19 healthy controls from the area of endemicity (here, healthy controls, or HC) were investigated. The highest responses were observed (67 to 100%) in HC for all peptides except p1 to p3, and the lowest was observed in tuberculosis patients. Significant differences in lymphoproliferation were observed in T, L, and HC groups (analysis of variance [ANOVA], P = 0.000 to 0.015) for all end-to-end peptides except B and for p5 and p7 to p10. Hierarchical recognition between lepromatous and tuberculoid leprosy was noted for p8 (P < 0.05) and between the HC and L groups for p7 to p10, p15, and p16 (P < 0.005 to P < 0.02). Significant lymphoproliferation was observed to peptides A to F and p1 to p9, p11, p12, p15, p16 (P = 0.000 to 0.001) with 40% responding to peptides C and p16 in L patients. Lepromatous patients also showed significantly higher levels of a gamma interferon (IFN-γ) response to peptide C than to other peptides (P < 0.05). Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II bias for peptide recognition was not observed. These studies indicate that Lsr2 has multiple T cell epitopes that induce in vitro T cell responses in the highly infective lepromatous leprosy patients. PMID:22144494

  3. Th.o.m.a.s.: an exploratory assessment of Theory of Mind in schizophrenic subjects.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Francesca M; Colle, Livia; De Fazio, Silvia; Bono, Adele; Ruberti, Saverio; Tirassa, Maurizio

    2009-03-01

    A large body of literature agrees that persons with schizophrenia suffer from a Theory of Mind (ToM) deficit. However, most empirical studies have focused on third-person, egocentric ToM, underestimating other facets of this complex cognitive skill. Aim of this research is to examine the ToM of schizophrenic persons considering its various aspects (first- vs. second-order, first- vs. third-person, egocentric vs. allocentric, beliefs vs. desires vs. positive emotions vs. negative emotions and how each of these mental state types may be dealt with), to determine whether some components are more impaired than others. We developed a Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th.o.m.a.s.) and administered it to 22 persons with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia and a matching control group. Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview which allows a multi-component measurement of ToM. Both groups were also administered a few existing ToM tasks and the schizophrenic subjects were administered the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the WAIS-R. The schizophrenic persons performed worse than control at all the ToM measurements; however, these deficits appeared to be differently distributed among different components of ToM. Our conclusion is that ToM deficits are not unitary in schizophrenia, which also testifies to the importance of a complete and articulated investigation of ToM. PMID:18667334

  4. Positive withdrawal and the quest for meaning: the reconstruction of experience among schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Corin, E; Lauzon, G

    1992-08-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation often remains entrapped within a restrictive definition. It is characterized by a normative orientation, which predetermines the objectives to achieve, and by an approach from outside of the person, which emphasizes the functional aspects of rehabilitation. In this context, marks of withdrawal, lack of involvement, or inactivity are interpreted as signs of passivity or as residual or negative symptoms, which are often associated with a negative prognosis. In parallel, as data regarding the heterogeneity of evolution of schizophrenia begin to accumulate, some authors have defended the idea that studies have to concentrate on the course of the disorder and on the associated processes (Harding et al. 1987; Strauss 1986). They propose going beyond an objective evaluation of signs and behaviors in order to situate them within a larger life-frame. This draws attention to the potential polysemy of symptoms, including the so-called negative symptoms, which can reflect a diversity of influences and therefore possess various psychiatric meanings (Strauss 1989). Yet, the systematic study of "meaning" in psychiatry is still in its infancy and lacks clear conceptual and methodological points of reference (Strauss and Estroff 1989). On another hand, implications for rehabilitation of a meaning-centered approach to psychiatric symptoms have not been fully elaborated. An intensive study conducted in Montreal with patients diagnosed as schizophrenics sought to describe the factors and processes associated with different types of insertion in the community, and particularly to understand the rehabilitative strategies and the specific forms of being-in-the-world associated with an ability to remain in the community. Data collected through open-ended interviews were both quantitatively analyzed and subjected to content and qualitative analysis. The conceptual reference frame was derived from anthropology and from the European school of psychiatric phenomenology. Data indicate that non-rehospitalization is associated with a stance of "positive withdrawal" (Corin 1990); it is characterized by a position at a distance from social roles and social relationships, combined with various strategies for keeping more tenuous links with the social environment. The case study presented here illustrates the complex organization of these various elements in a given life-frame. It also demonstrates the role played by symbols and meanings in developing a new articulation of personal experience. PMID:1509013

  5. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI < 17.5 kg/m2) and overweight (obesity with BMI 30–40, 40–50 and >50 kg/m2, n = 14–15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2, n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9–85 kg/m2, n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = −0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating. PMID:26089773

  6. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m(2)), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI < 17.5 kg/m(2)) and overweight (obesity with BMI 30-40, 40-50 and >50 kg/m(2), n = 14-15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m(2), n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m(2), n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m(2), n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = -0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating. PMID:26089773

  7. Fibroblasts from patients with Diamond-Blackfan anaemia show abnormal expression of genes involved in protein synthesis, amino acid metabolism and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Avondo, Federica; Roncaglia, Paola; Crescenzio, Nicoletta; Krmac, Helena; Garelli, Emanuela; Armiraglio, Marta; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Campagnoli, Maria Francesca; Ramenghi, Ugo; Gustincich, Stefano; Santoro, Claudio; Dianzani, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Background Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA) is a rare inherited red cell hypoplasia characterised by a defect in the maturation of erythroid progenitors and in some cases associated with malformations. Patients have an increased risk of solid tumors. Mutations have been found in several ribosomal protein (RP) genes, i.e RPS19, RPS24, RPS17, RPL5, RPL11, RPL35A. Studies in haematopoietic progenitors from patients show that haplo-insufficiency of an RP impairs rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis. DBA lymphocytes show reduced protein synthesis and fibroblasts display abnormal rRNA processing and impaired proliferation. Results To evaluate the involvement of non-haematopoietic tissues in DBA, we have analysed global gene expression in fibroblasts from DBA patients compared to healthy controls. Microarray expression profiling using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133A 2.0 Arrays revealed that 421 genes are differentially expressed in DBA patient fibroblasts. These genes include a large cluster of ribosomal proteins and factors involved in protein synthesis and amino acid metabolism, as well as genes associated to cell death, cancer and tissue development. Conclusion This analysis reports for the first time an abnormal gene expression profile in a non-haematopoietic cell type in DBA. These data support the hypothesis that DBA may be due to a defect in general or specific protein synthesis. PMID:19765279

  8. Show Me ECHO-Hepatitis C: A telemedicine mentoring program for patients with hepatitis C in underserved and rural areas in Missouri as a model in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Veysel; Almashhrawi, Ashraf; Mutrux, Rachel; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-11-01

    Project (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) (ECHO) is a telemedicine case-based training model for primary care providers to treat complex diseases by mentoring academicians of universities. It was first developed by the University of New Mexico for rural and underserved areas in New Mexico. The project Show Me ECHO- Hepatitis C (HCV) is an adaptation of Project ECHO to improve healthcare and hepatitis C therapy in the entire state of Missouri, including rural and underserved areas. Show Me ECHO- HCV uses telemedicine as videoconferencing technology for the case-based learning. The medical specialists of the University of Missouri-Columbia provide training and mentoring to primary care providers working in rural and urban underserved areas to deliver the best evidence-based care for patients with hepatitis C. This type of a model is promising in the management of patients with hepatitis C in developing countries with the availability of basic internet connections and potential voluntary participants. PMID:26510085

  9. Lymphocyte Subsets Show Different Response Patterns to In Vivo Bound Natalizumab—A Flow Cytometric Study on Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Einhaeupl, Max; Oppermann, Katrin; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Wipfler, Peter; Sellner, Johann; Golaszewski, Stefan; Afazel, Shahrzad; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Trinka, Eugen; Kraus, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Natalizumab is an effective monoclonal antibody therapy for the treatment of relapsing- remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and interferes with immune cell migration into the central nervous system by blocking the α4 subunit of very-late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4). Although well tolerated and very effective, some patients still suffer from relapses in spite of natalizumab therapy or from unwanted side effects like progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). In search of a routine-qualified biomarker on the effectiveness of natalizumab therapy we applied flow cytometry and analyzed natalizumab binding to α4 and α4 integrin surface levels on T-cells, B-cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and NKT cells from 26 RRMS patients under up to 72 weeks of therapy. Four-weekly infusions of natalizumab resulted in a significant and sustained increase of lymphocyte-bound natalizumab (p<0.001) which was paralleled by a significant decrease in detectability of the α4 integrin subunit on all lymphocyte subsets (p<0.001). We observed pronounced natalizumab accumulations on T and B cells at single measurements in all patients who reported clinical disease activity (n = 4). The natalizumab binding capacity of in vitro saturated lymphocytes collected during therapy was strongly diminished compared to treatment-naive cells indicating a therapy-induced reduction of α4. Summing up, this pilot study shows that flow cytometry is a useful method to monitor natalizumab binding to lymphocytes from RRMS patients under therapy. Investigating natalizumab binding provides an opportunity to evaluate the molecular level of effectiveness of natalizumab therapy in individual patients. In combination with natalizumab saturation experiments, it possibly even provides a means of studying the feasability of patient-tailored infusion intervals. A routine-qualified biomarker on the basis of individual natalizumab saturation on lymphocyte subsets might be an effective tool to improve treatment safety. PMID:22363732

  10. Patients Lacking Sustainable Long-Term Weight Loss after Gastric Bypass Surgery Show Signs of Decreased Inhibitory Control of Prepotent Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S.; Sundbom, Magnus; Nilsson, Victor C.; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2015-01-01

    Background A considerable number of bariatric patients report poor long-term weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. One possibility for an underlying cause is an impairment of cognitive control that impedes this patient group’s dietary efforts. Objective To investigate if patients having either poor or good weight loss response, ~12 years after RYGB-surgery, differ in their ability to inhibit prepotent responses when processing food cues during attentional operations—as measure of cognitive control. Methods In terms of weight loss following RYGB-surgery, 15 ‘poor responders’ and 15 ‘good responders’, matched for gender, age, education, preoperative body mass index, and years since surgery, were administered two tasks that measure sustained attention and response control: a go/no-go task and a Stroop interference task; both of which are associated with maladaptive eating behaviours. Results The poor responders (vs. good responders) needed significantly more time when conducting a go/no-go task (603±134 vs. 519±44 msec, p = 0.03), but the number of errors did not differ between groups. When conducting a Stroop interference task, poor responders read fewer inks than good responders (68±16 vs. 85±10 words, p = 0.002). Conclusion Patients lacking sustainable weight loss after RYGB-surgery showed poorer inhibitory control than patients that successfully lost weight. In the authors’ view, these results suggest that cognitive behavioral therapies post-RYGB-surgery may represent a promising behavioral adjuvant to achieve sustainable weight loss in patients undergoing this procedure. Future studies should examine whether these control deficits in poor responders are food-specific or not. PMID:25774526

  11. Study of Relationship Between Depression and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shargh, Najmeh Abedi; Rostami, Bahareh; Kosari, Bahareh; Toosi, Zakiye; Majelan, Ghazaleh Ashrafzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Depression is among the personality traits of schizophrenic patients, which results from psychotic features or is a consequence of a period of psychosis. Depression in schizophrenic patients is one of the important factors affecting their quality of life. The study population of this descriptive and analytic study consists of patients with chronic schizophrenia in Zahedan in 2014. The sample included 60 patients who simultaneously suffered from depression and were selected using random sampling (30 males and 30 females). The research instruments included the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (the inventory was filled out by the tester). In order to form a statistics analysis, we used Pearson correlation and regression multivariate. Investigating the study hypotheses showed that there was a negative correlation between the high level of depression and low quality of life. the relationship between depression and the quality of life subscales showed that in women, the variable of symptoms and complications was a significant predictor; however, the other two variables (energy and motivation and psychosocial) were not significant predictors. In case of men, psychosocial variable was a significant predictor; however, the other two variables (energy and motivation and symptoms and complications) were not significant predictors. In general, depression on these patients makes discontent of life on them; therefore, elimination of their depression on their treatment is necessary. PMID:26493412

  12. Aggressive CD5-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma showing c-myc rearrangements developed in a patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Sonoki, T; Matsuzaki, H; Asou, N; Hata, H; Matsuno, F; Yoshida, M; Nagasaki, A; Kuribayashi, N; Kudo, H; Takatsuki, K

    1996-01-01

    A case of CD5-positive diffuse large cell lymphoma in a patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is reported. The patient was diagnosed with AIHA in December 1988. Three and a half years later, the patient complained of fever and left sided flank pain. Abnormal lymphocytes appeared in the peripheral blood and were positive for HLA-DR, CD5, CD19, CD20, and surface immunoglobulin (mu, lambda). The pathological diagnosis of the cervical lymphnode was non-Hodgkin lymphoma; diffuse large cell type with a starry sky-like appearance. Although the 8q24 translocation was not detected by karyotypic analysis of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC), Southern blot analysis revealed that the c-myc rearrangements had occurred. This case showed two rearranged bands with Eco RI, Bam HI, or Bgl II digestion, and a germline band with Hin dIII digestion using a second exon fragment of the c-myc gene as a probe. Despite intensive chemotherapy, this patient died 6 months after being diagnosed with malignant lymphoma. We discuss the c-myc rearrangements in this aggressive CD5-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma. PMID:8713579

  13. Insular cortex abnormalities in schizophrenia: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study of first-episode patients.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Facorro, B; Kim, J; Andreasen, N C; O'Leary, D S; Bockholt, H J; Magnotta, V

    2000-11-30

    The insular cortex is a limbic integration region that is engaged in emotional and cognitive functions. To investigate possible insular cortex abnormalities in schizophrenia, we measured insular gray matter volume and cortical surface size in drug-naive first-episode patients. Magnetic resonance images were used to explore the morphology of the insular cortex of 25 healthy male volunteers, and 25 male schizophrenic patients. Groups were matched for age, sex, height, and parental socio-economic status. Clinical dimension scores were correlated with insular gray matter volume and cortical surface area. Patients had a significant reduction in cortical surface area [patients=2020 (206); controls=2142 (204); F=5.83, df=1, 47; P=0.01] and gray matter volume [patients=8.12 (0.77); controls=8.57 (0.94); F=3.93, df=1,47; P=0.05] in the left insular cortex. Insular gray matter volume and cortical surface size correlated negatively and significantly with the psychotic symptom dimension. Schizophrenic patients show morphological abnormalities in the insular cortex at early stages of the illness. These abnormalities are related to the severity of psychotic symptoms. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the role of the insula in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:11099884

  14. Prevalence and attributes of criminality in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ghoreishi, Abolfazl; Kabootvand, Soleiman; Zangani, Ebrahim; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ahmadi, Alireza; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Existing research in law and psychiatry point to schizophrenia as a risk factor for violence and offense behaviors. The present study aims to: 1) report on the prevalence and types of offensive or criminal acts in patients with schizophrenia; 2) identify attributes of schizophrenic offenders; and 3) examine factors associated with offensive or criminal behaviors within a sample of schizophrenic offenders. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 358 patients with schizophrenia who were admitted to a psychiatric ward in Iran between 2004 and 2008. Study data was collected using patients’ medical, criminal records, as well as via personal interview with the family member. Study variables included criminality or offensive behavior, types of schizophrenia (paranoid vs. nonparanoid), experiencing hallucination, disease onset, and patients’ demographics. Results: Of the sample, 64.8% were male, 80.7% were 45 years old or younger, and 74.1% were either single or divorced. Slightly over 59 % were offenders with criminal status, of which, 9.8% were legal offenders and 48.6% were hidden offenders. The results of unadjusted logistic regression between these variables and criminality show, except for employment, marital status, and opium use, all other variables were statically associated with criminality. Conclusions: Methodological difficulties arising from this study, as well as, the role of mental health professionals, family, and legal system for prevention of violence in and by patients with schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:24879076

  15. Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Sustained Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia Show Up-Regulation of KCNN3 and KCNJ2 Genes and CACNG8-Linked Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Roselló-Lletí, Esther; Gil-Cayuela, Carolina; Lago, Francisca; González-Juanatey, Jose-Ramón; Cinca, Juan; Jorge, Esther; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; Portolés, Manuel; Rivera, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Aims Disruptions in cardiac ion channels have shown to influence the impaired cardiac contraction in heart failure. We sought to determine the altered gene expression profile of this category in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients and relate the altered gene expression with the clinical signs present in our patients, such as ventricular dysfunction and sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (SMVT). Methods and Results Left ventricular (LV) tissue samples were used in RNA-sequencing technique to elucidate the transcriptomic changes of 13 DCM patients compared to controls (n = 10). We analyzed the differential gene expression of cardiac ion channels, and we found a total of 34 altered genes. We found that the calcium channel CACNG8 mRNA and protein levels were down-regulated and highly and inversely related with LV ejection fraction (LVEF) (r = –0.78, P<0.01). Furthermore, the potassium channels KCNN3 and KCNJ2 mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated and showed also a significant and inverse correlation with LVEF (r = –0.61, P<0.05; r = –0.60, P<0.05) in patients with SMVT. Conclusion A broad set of deregulated genes have been identified by RNA-sequencing technique. The relationship of CACNG8, KCNN3 and KCNJ2 with LVEF, and the up-regulation of KCNN3 and KCNJ2 in all patients with SMVT, irrespective of CACNG8 expression, suggest a significant role for these three ion flux related genes in the LV dysfunction present in this cardiomyopathy and an important relationship between KCNN3 and KCNJ2 up-regulation and the presence of SMVT. PMID:26710323

  16. Schizophrenia shows a unique metabolomics signature in plasma

    PubMed Central

    He, Y; Yu, Z; Giegling, I; Xie, L; Hartmann, A M; Prehn, C; Adamski, J; Kahn, R; Li, Y; Illig, T; Wang-Sattler, R; Rujescu, D

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe complex mental disorder affecting 0.5–1% of the world population. To date, diagnosis of the disease is mainly based on personal and thus subjective interviews. The underlying molecular mechanism of schizophrenia is poorly understood. Using targeted metabolomics we quantified and compared 103 metabolites in plasma samples from 216 healthy controls and 265 schizophrenic patients, including 52 cases that do not take antipsychotic medication. Compared with healthy controls, levels of five metabolites were found significantly altered in schizophrenic patients (P-values ranged from 2.9 × 10−8 to 2.5 × 10−4) and in neuroleptics-free probands (P-values ranging between 0.006 and 0.03), respectively. These metabolites include four amino acids (arginine, glutamine, histidine and ornithine) and one lipid (PC ae C38:6) and are suggested as candidate biomarkers for schizophrenia. To explore the genetic susceptibility on the associated metabolic pathways, we constructed a molecular network connecting these five aberrant metabolites with 13 schizophrenia risk genes. Our result implicated aberrations in biosynthetic pathways linked to glutamine and arginine metabolism and associated signaling pathways as genetic risk factors, which may contribute to patho-mechanisms and memory deficits associated with schizophrenia. This study illustrated that the metabolic deviations detected in plasma may serve as potential biomarkers to aid diagnosis of schizophrenia. PMID:22892715

  17. Stability and relationships between trait or state anhedonia and schizophrenic symptoms in schizophrenia: a 13-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Loas, Gwenolé; Monestes, Jean Louis; Ingelaere, Audrey; Noisette, Carole; Herbener, Ellen S

    2009-04-30

    The aim of the present study was to explore the stability of anhedonia and its relationships with schizophrenic symptoms across a 13-year study period. We tested the hypothesis that trait anhedonia, rated by the Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), was stable and independent of schizophrenic symptoms across this period, while measures of state anhedonia were not. Sixty schizophrenic subjects were evaluated at two time points, at hospital admission or during an ambulatory psychiatric consultation and 13 years later. Trait anhedonia was assessed using the Chapman Physical Anhedonia Scale, while state anhedonia was assessed with a subscale extracted from the Beck Depression Inventory. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to rate schizophrenic symptomatology. Unlike trait anhedonia, state anhedonia decreased significantly over time. Based on results from multiple regressions, negative and depressive dimensions were significant predictors of state anhedonia. Trait anhedonia was not associated with negative symptoms, but was associated with severity of disorganization symptoms at baseline and with our state measure of anhedonia at follow-up. In the current study, state and trait anhedonia were correlated, but depressive symptoms in general were not associated with physical anhedonia. The results indicated that trait anhedonia, in contrast to state anhedonia, had absolute stability, was independent of the negative dimension, as measured by the PANSS, of schizophrenic symptomatology and correlated with specific aspects of depressive anhedonia. PMID:19272653

  18. ColoPulse tablets perform comparably in healthy volunteers and Crohn's patients and show no influence of food and time of food intake on bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Maurer, J M; Schellekens, R C A; van Rieke, H M; Stellaard, F; Wutzke, K D; Buurman, D J; Dijkstra, G; Woerdenbag, H J; Frijlink, H W; Kosterink, J G W

    2013-12-28

    ColoPulse tablets are an innovative development in the field of oral drug delivery and are characterized by a colon-specific release. Until now ColoPulse dosage forms (only capsules) have been studied in healthy volunteers having a standardized breakfast three hours after administration but not in specific patient groups and not with a shorter interval between administration and breakfast. Information on bioavailability and release characteristics of ColoPulse tablets in Crohn's patients and the influence of food and time of food intake is a prerequisite to properly design future clinical studies with active substances in these patients. In the current cross-over study bioavailability and drug release characteristics of ColoPulse tablets were compared in healthy volunteers and in Crohn's patients in remission. Furthermore the influence of food and time of food intake on the in vivo drug release behavior of ColoPulse tablets was investigated. In this study the dual label isotope strategy was used which means that a ColoPulse tablet containing (13)C-urea and an uncoated, immediate release tablet containing (15)N2-urea were taken simultaneously. Breath and urine samples were collected during the test day for isotope analysis. The appearance of the stable isotopes in breath and/or urine provides information on the site of release from the dosage form, release characteristics and bioavailability. Both tablets were administered on two different days in a cross-over design: the first day with a breakfast (non-standardized) one hour after administration and the second day with a standardized breakfast three hours after administration of the tablets. There was no difference in instructions for administration between both days. Results of 16 healthy volunteers and 14 Crohn's patients were evaluated. At least 86% (51 out of 59) of all ColoPulse tablets administered in this study released their contents at the desired intestinal region. There was no significant difference in bioavailability between healthy volunteers and Crohn's patients on both days (day 1 75.8% vs 90.2%, p=0.070 and day 2 83.4% vs 91.4%, p=0.265). There was also no significant influence of food and time of food intake on bioavailability in healthy volunteers (75.8% and 83.4%, p=0.077) and in Crohn's patients (90.2% and 91.4%, p=0.618) when day 1 and day 2 were compared. Release characteristics did not significantly differ between healthy volunteers and Crohn's patients. However, food and time of food intake had some, clinically non-relevant, influence on the release characteristics within both groups which is in line with the fact that food affects gastro-intestinal transit times. This study shows that ColoPulse tablets enable the site-specific delivery of drugs or other compounds (e.g. diagnostics) deep in the ileo-colonic region of the intestine of Crohn's patients in a comparable amount and rate as in healthy volunteers. Food and time of food intake had no relevant influence on bioavailability. In conclusion ColoPulse delivery systems are promising and deserve further research for local therapy with immunosuppressive drugs in Crohn's patients in the near future. PMID:24096020

  19. Integration-Free Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells From Type 1 Diabetes Patient Skin Fibroblasts Show Increased Abundance of Pancreas-Specific microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Joglekar, Mugdha V.; Sumer, Huseyin; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Teede, Halena; Verma, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a disease that is typically associated with multigenetic changes as well as environmental triggers. Disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are preferable cell sources to study T1D, as they are derived from patient cells and therefore capture the disease genotype in a stem cell line. The purpose of this study was to generate integration-free iPSCs from adult skin fibroblasts with T1D. iPSCs were generated by transfection of synthetic mRNAs encoding transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, c-MYC, and LIN28. Phase-contrast microscopy, immunocytochemistry, karyotyping, bisulfite genomic sequencing, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and teratoma formation assay were used to determine reprogramming efficiency, pluripotency, and differentiation potential. Following 18 consecutive days of synthetic mRNA transfections, the T1D patient skin fibroblasts underwent morphological changes, and the aggregated clumps exhibited a human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like morphology with a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. Highly efficient generation of iPSCs was achieved using the mRNA reprogramming approach. The disease-specific iPSCs expressed pluripotency markers, maintained a normal karyotype, and formed teratomas containing tissues representative of the three germ layers when injected into immune-deficient mice. Of interest, the iPSCs showed upregulations of pancreas-specific microRNAs, compared with parental fibroblasts. These data indicate that T1D patient skin fibroblasts can be reprogrammed to pluripotency using a synthetic mRNA approach. These cells can serve as a useful tool for the identification of genes that are involved in autoimmune reactions as well as generating patient-matched β-cells for cell-based therapy. PMID:26858889

  20. Parkinson’s disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye-hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects

    PubMed Central

    Lukos, Jamie R.; Snider, Joseph; Hernandez, Manuel E.; Tunik, Eugene; Hillyard, Steven; Poizner, Howard

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Parkinson’s disease on hand-eye coordination and corrective response control during reach-to-grasp tasks remains unclear. Moderately impaired Parkinson’s disease patients (PD, n=9) and age-matched controls (n=12) reached to and grasped a virtual rectangular object, with haptic feedback provided to the thumb and index fingertip by two 3-degree of freedom manipulanda. The object rotated unexpectedly on a minority of trials, requiring subjects to adjust their grasp aperture. On half the trials, visual feedback of finger positions disappeared during the initial phase of the reach, when feedforward mechanisms are known to guide movement. PD patients were tested without (OFF) and with (ON) medication to investigate the effects of dopamine depletion and repletion on eye-hand coordination online corrective response control. We quantified eye-hand coordination by monitoring hand kinematics and eye position during the reach. We hypothesized that if the basal ganglia are important for eye-hand coordination and online corrections to object perturbations, then PD patients tested OFF medication would show reduced eye-hand spans and impoverished arm-hand coordination responses to the perturbation, which would be further exasperated when visual feedback of the hand was removed. Strikingly, PD patients tracked their hands with their gaze, and their movements became destabilized when having to make online corrective responses to object perturbations exhibiting pauses and changes in movement direction. These impairments largely remained even when tested in the ON state, despite significant improvement on the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. Our findings suggest that basal ganglia-cortical loops are essential for mediating eye-hand coordination and adaptive online responses for reach-to-grasp movements, and that restoration of tonic levels of dopamine may not be adequate to remediate this coordinative nature of basal ganglia modulated function. PMID:24056196

  1. Skewed Fc glycosylation profiles of anti-proteinase 3 immunoglobulin G1 autoantibodies from granulomatosis with polyangiitis patients show low levels of bisection, galactosylation, and sialylation.

    PubMed

    Wuhrer, Manfred; Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Koeleman, Carolien A M; Selman, Maurice H J; Harper, Lorraine; Jacobs, Bart C; Savage, Caroline O S; Jefferis, Roy; Deelder, André M; Morgan, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is associated with circulating immunoglobulin (Ig) G anti-proteinase 3 specific (anti-PR3) anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA), which activate cytokine primed neutrophils via Fcgamma receptors. ANCA are class switched IgG antibodies implying T cell help in their production. Glycosylation of IgG Fc, under the control of T cell cytokines, determines the interaction between IgG and its receptors. Previous studies have reported aberrant glycosylation of Ig Fc in GPA patients. We investigated whether aberrant Fc glycosylation was present on anti-PR3 ANCA as well as whole IgG subclass preparations compared to healthy controls and whether this correlated with Birmingham vasculitis activity scores (BVAS), serum cytokines, and time to remission. Here, IgG Fc glycosylation of GPA patients and controls and anti-PR3 ANCA Fc glycosylation were determined by mass spectrometry of glycopeptides. IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses from GPA patients showed reduced galactosylation, sialylation, and bisection compared to healthy controls. Anti-PR3 IgG1 ANCA Fc galactosylation, sialylation, and bisection were reduced compared to total IgG1 in GPA. Galactosylation of anti-PR3 ANCA Fc correlated with inflammatory cytokines and time to remission but not BVAS. Bisection of anti-PR3 ANCA Fc correlated with BVAS. Total IgG1 and anti-PR3 IgG1 Fc galactosylation were weakly correlated, while bisection of IgG1 and anti-PR3 showed no correlation. Our data indicate that aberrant ANCA galactosylation may be driven in an antigen-specific manner. PMID:25761865

  2. [Various aspects of cognitive activities of schizophrenics. III. Maladjustment assimilation/accommodation and generalization of reasoning].

    PubMed

    Blein, G; Azorin, J M; Vollrath, J L; Andréoli, A; Tissot, R

    1987-05-01

    Paranoid schizophrenics are unable to balance affirmation and negation. Using the terms of Jean Piaget, they therefore only partially achieve the "équilibrations majorantes" of level II and never those of level III. In their thinking, they have access to the "généralisations inductives" (often excessive ones), but rarely to the "généralisations constructives complétives". They do not have access to the "généralisations synthétisantes" or to the feeling that logic is necessary. They oscillate between the positivist need to measure or verify and absolute beliefs issued from magical thinking. PMID:3688697

  3. Selective impairment of express saccade generation in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Currie, J; Joyce, S; Maruff, P; Ramsden, B; McArthur-Jackson, C; Malone, V

    1993-01-01

    When a temporal gap is introduced between the offset of a central fixation point and the onset of a peripheral saccadic target, normal subjects generate an increased number of short latency (90-150 ms) saccades, termed express saccades, and the profile of express saccade frequency across different gap sizes for any individual subject, even if untrained in the task, shows a high test-retest reliability. In patients with schizophrenia, the generation of express saccades was also normal for gap sizes of 200-300 ms or in an overlap task (gap = 0 ms). However, for temporal gaps of 50-150 ms, the generation of express saccades was significantly impaired in the schizophrenic subjects. This selective deficit appeared to be independent of the patients' neuroleptic medication status and did not correlate with the severity of schizophrenic symptoms. It is postulated that the successful execution of an express saccade requires that the cognitive operations of disengagement of visual attention and selection of the appropriate motor command to generate a saccade both be commenced or completed during the temporal gap between fixation offset and peripheral target onset. Our results suggest that, in schizophrenia, there is an impairment in the cortical/subcortical neural network that generates express saccades and controls these cognitive operations. Potential sites for such dysfunction in schizophrenia include the parietal cortex and the GABA-ergic function of the superior colliculus. PMID:8150054

  4. A patient with a large intrathoracic malignant schwannoma who showed a complete clinical response to rAd-p53-combined with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keqiang; Zhao, Jing; Jiang, Huayong; Ma, Jingbo; Tan, Jian; Pei, Yingxin; Chen, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    The prognosis of postoperatively recurred malignant schwannoma is poor and there is no effective treatment. We had a patient who was found to have a large intrathoracic tumor 1 year after surgery and could not tolerate an operation for the second time. We then decided to evaluate the synergistic effect of recombinant adenovirus-p53 (rAd-p53) combined with radiotherapy for the patient. rAd-p53 was injected intratumorally twice a week before radiotherapy, a total of 10 times, over a course of treatment. Radiotherapy then followed gene therapy at five fractions a week for 5 weeks, with a total dosage of 80.6 Gy/31f in the center part of the tumor and 62 Gy/31f in other locations. The pathological diagnosis of malignant schwannoma indicated that the p53 expression was strongly positive and vascular endothelial growth factor and Bcl-2 were positive before treatment on protein immunohistochemical staining. After treatment, the diameter of the tumor was noticeably reduced and the center part of the tumor presented as a fluid anechoic area and cavities on computed tomographic scanning. The result of the puncture biopsy showed that there were many fibronecrotic tissues and no significant tumor cells. The p53 expression was weakly positive, Vascular endothelial growth factor was negative, and Bcl-2 was weakly positive after treatment on protein immunohistochemical staining. PMID:26146864

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Triphasic Viral Dynamics in Patients with HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Showing Response to 24-Week Clevudine Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwi Young; Kwon, Hee-Dae; Jang, Tae Soo; Lim, Jisun; Lee, Hyo-Suk

    2012-01-01

    Background Modeling of short-term viral dynamics of hepatitis B with traditional biphasic model might be insufficient to explain long-term viral dynamics. The aim was to develop a novel method of mathematical modeling to shed light on the dissociation between early and long-term dynamics in previous studies. Methods We investigated the viral decay pattern in 50 patients from the phase III clinical trial of 24-week clevudine therapy, who showed virological response and HBsAg decline. Immune effectors were added as a new compartment in the model equations. We determined some parameter values in the model using the non-linear least square minimization method. Results Median baseline viral load was 8.526 Log10copies/mL, and on-treatment viral load decline was 5.683 Log10copies/mL. The median half-life of free virus was 24.89 hours. The median half-life of infected hepatocytes was 7.39 days. The viral decay patterns were visualized as triphasic curves with decreasing slopes over time: fastest decay in the first phase; slowest in the third phase; the second phase in between. Conclusions In the present study, mathematical modeling of hepatitis B in patients with virological response and HBsAg decline during 24-week antiviral therapy showed triphasic viral dynamics with direct introduction of immune effectors as a new compartment, which was thought to reflect the reduction of clearance rate of infected cells over time. This modeling method seems more appropriate to describe long-term viral dynamics compared to the biphasic model, and needs further validation. PMID:23209728

  6. Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC) Shows No Change in Cartilage Structural Composition after Viscosupplementation in Patients with Early-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    van Tiel, Jasper; Reijman, Max; Bos, Pieter K.; Hermans, Job; van Buul, Gerben M.; Bron, Esther E.; Klein, Stefan; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M. A.; Weinans, Harrie; Kotek, Gyula; Oei, Edwin H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid (HA) of osteoarthritic (OA) knee joints has a well-established positive effect on clinical symptoms. This effect, however, is only temporary and the working mechanism of HA injections is not clear. It was suggested that HA might have disease modifying properties because of its beneficial effect on cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is a highly reproducible, non-invasive surrogate measure for sGAG content and hence composition of cartilage. The aim of this study was to assess whether improvement in cartilage structural composition is detected using dGEMRIC 14 weeks after 3 weekly injections with HA in patients with early-stage knee OA. Methods In 20 early-stage knee OA patients (KLG I-II), 3D dGEMRIC at 3T was acquired before and 14 weeks after 3 weekly injections with HA. To evaluate patient symptoms, the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and a numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain were recorded. To evaluate cartilage composition, six cartilage regions in the knee were analyzed on dGEMRIC. Outcomes of dGEMRIC, KOOS and NRS before and after HA were compared using paired t-testing. Since we performed multiple t-tests, we applied a Bonferroni-Holm correction to determine statistical significance for these analyses. Results All KOOS subscales (‘pain’, ‘symptoms’, ‘daily activities’, ‘sports’ and ’quality of life’) and the NRS pain improved significantly 14 weeks after Viscosupplementation with HA. Outcomes of dGEMRIC did not change significantly after HA compared to baseline in any of the cartilage regions analyzed in the knee. Conclusions Our results confirm previous findings reported in the literature, showing persisting improvement in symptomatic outcome measures in early-stage knee OA patients 14 weeks after Viscosupplementation. Outcomes of dGEMRIC, however, did not change after Viscosupplementation, indicating no change in cartilage structural composition as an explanation for the improvement of clinical symptoms. PMID:24223194

  7. The Use of Patient Education in a Prison Mental Health Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Charles; Brown, Calvin

    1987-01-01

    Presented four-hour multimedia workshop for 31 schizophrenic prison inmates to help them understand schizophrenia and its treatment. Comparison of pretest and posttest showed highly significant increase in knowledge about symptoms of schizophrenia, causes, and treatment. (Author)

  8. Efficacy of Yoga therapy for the management of psychopathology of patients having chronic schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Paikkatt, Babu; Singh, Amool Ranjan; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Jahan, Masroor; Ranjan, Jay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a large body of literature and scientific data regarding the efficacy of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for schizophrenia, however, studies on Yoga therapy is scanty. Yoga is a means of balancing and harmonizing the body, mind and emotion, and for enlightening the mind and upliftment of the total personality. Aims: The present study was conducted to determine the efficacy of Yoga therapy as an adjunctive therapy and to see its effects on psychopathology on the patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia. Settings and Design: Pre- and post-test design with the control group. Materials and Methods: It is a study using purposive sampling technique by which 30 chronic schizophrenic patients were selected and 15 patients were randomly assigned to Yoga therapy along with pharmacotherapy (experimental group), and 15 were assigned pharmacotherapy alone (control group) after the baseline assessment using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The Yoga group attended Yoga therapy everyday for about 1½ h including motivational and feedback session. Results: At the end of 1 month postassessment was done, and schizophrenic patients, who received the yogic intervention showed better rating than those in pharmacotherapy alone on PANSS variables. Conclusion: Yoga could be a right choice for improving psychopathology resulting in better quality of life along with other pharmacological management and psychosocial interventions. PMID:26816423

  9. ALE Meta-Analysis of Schizophrenics Performing the N-Back Task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, Zachary

    2010-10-01

    MRI/fMRI has already proven itself as a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of many illnesses of the brain, including cognitive problems. By exploiting the differences in magnetic susceptibility between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, fMRI can measure blood flow in various regions of interest within the brain. This can determine the level of brain activity in relation to motor or cognitive functions and provide a metric for tissue damage or illness symptoms. Structural imaging techniques have shown lesions or deficiencies in tissue volumes in schizophrenics corresponding to areas primarily in the frontal and temporal lobes. These areas are currently known to be involved in working memory and attention, which many schizophrenics have trouble with. The ALE (Activation Likelihood Estimation) Meta-Analysis is able to statistically determine the significance of brain area activations based on the post-hoc combination of multiple studies. This process is useful for giving a general model of brain function in relation to a particular task designed to engage the affected areas (such as working memory for the n-back task). The advantages of the ALE Meta-Analysis include elimination of single subject anomalies, elimination of false/extremely weak activations, and verification of function/location hypotheses.

  10. Self-Disturbance and the Bizarre: On Incomprehensibility in Schizophrenic Delusions.

    PubMed

    Sass, Louis A; Byrom, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The notion of 'bizarre delusion' has come into question in contemporary anglophone psychopathology. In DSM-5, it no longer serves as a special criterion for diagnosing schizophrenia nor as an exclusion criterion for delusional disorder. Empirical studies influencing this development have, however, been relatively sparse and subject to methodological criticism. Major reviews have concluded that current conceptualizations of bizarre delusions may require rethinking and refinement. Defining bizarreness entails a return to Jaspers, whose influential views on the supposed incomprehensibility of bizarre delusions and schizophrenic experience are more nuanced than is generally recognized. Jaspers insisted we must 'get behind' three 'external characteristics' (extraordinary conviction, imperviousness, impossible content) in order to acknowledge a 'primary experience traceable to the illness' in the 'delusions proper' of schizophrenia. He also denied that one could empathize with or otherwise 'understand' this basis. Here, we focus on three features of bizarre delusions that Jaspers foregrounded as illustrating schizophrenic incomprehensibility: disturbance of the cogito, certitude combined with inconsequentiality, delusional mood. We link these with the contemporary ipseity disturbance model of schizophrenia, arguing that Jaspers' examples of incomprehensibility can be understood as manifestations of the three complementary aspects of ipseity-disturbance: diminished self-presence, hyperreflexivity and disturbed grip/hold. We follow Jaspers' lead in acknowledging a distinctive strangeness that defies ready comprehension, but we challenge the absolutism of Jaspers' skepticism by offering a phenomenological account that comprehends bizarreness in two ways: rendering it psychologically understandable, and fitting the various instances of bizarreness into a comprehensive explanatory framework. PMID:26346263

  11. The contingent negative variation in antisocial behaviour: a pilot study of Broadmoor patients.

    PubMed

    Fenton, G W; Fenwick, P B; Ferguson, W; Lam, C T

    1978-04-01

    Using a classical click/flash paradigm, the CNV was recorded from the following three groups of subjects at Broadmoor Hospital: (1) 14 'psychopathic' patients selected by use of the 4/9 MMPI profile and confirmed by independent clinical diagnosis; (2) 15 'non psychopathic' patients, all psychotic and mainly schizophrenic; (3) 14 healthy staff control subjects. All three groups were matched for age and sex; the two patients groups were also matched for length of stay. Two series of 32 paired stimuli were used, separated by an interval of 30 minutes. The mean CNV voltage was significantly lower in the 'non-psychopathic' patients. The amplitude of the 'psychopath's' CNV response did not differ significantly from that of the staff controls, but the response variability between the first and second series of trials was much greater in the 'psychopathic' patients than in the other two subject groups. The 'psychopathic' subjects tended to show more rapid initial development of the CNV. PMID:638390

  12. Effects of Marital Discord on the School Behavior of Children and Schizophrenic, Affectively Disordered, and Normal Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Marital discord accounted for much of the association between having a parent with bipolar disorder or unipolar depression and school problem behavior, but the same variable did not explain the relationship between having a schizophrenic parent and problems in school. (Author/CL)

  13. A high resolution case study of a patient with recurrent Plasmodium vivax infections shows that relapses were caused by meiotic siblings.

    PubMed

    Bright, Andrew Taylor; Manary, Micah J; Tewhey, Ryan; Arango, Eliana M; Wang, Tina; Schork, Nicholas J; Yanow, Stephanie K; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2014-06-01

    Plasmodium vivax infects a hundred million people annually and endangers 40% of the world's population. Unlike Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax parasites can persist as a dormant stage in the liver, known as the hypnozoite, and these dormant forms can cause malaria relapses months or years after the initial mosquito bite. Here we analyze whole genome sequencing data from parasites in the blood of a patient who experienced consecutive P. vivax relapses over 33 months in a non-endemic country. By analyzing patterns of identity, read coverage, and the presence or absence of minor alleles in the initial polyclonal and subsequent monoclonal infections, we show that the parasites in the three infections are likely meiotic siblings. We infer that these siblings are descended from a single tetrad-like form that developed in the infecting mosquito midgut shortly after fertilization. In this natural cross we find the recombination rate for P. vivax to be 10 kb per centimorgan and we further observe areas of disequilibrium surrounding major drug resistance genes. Our data provide new strategies for studying multiclonal infections, which are common in all types of infectious diseases, and for distinguishing P. vivax relapses from reinfections in malaria endemic regions. This work provides a theoretical foundation for studies that aim to determine if new or existing drugs can provide a radical cure of P. vivax malaria. PMID:24901334

  14. G2019S LRRK2 mutant fibroblasts from Parkinson's disease patients show increased sensitivity to neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium dependent of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M S; Bravo-San Pedro, Jos M; Gmez-Snchez, Rubn; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Rodrguez-Arribas, Mario; Climent, Vicente; Aiastui, Ana; Lpez de Munain, Adolfo; Fuentes, Jos M; Gonzlez-Polo, Rosa A

    2014-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. It is considered as a multifactorial disease dependent on environmental and genetic factors. Deregulation in cell degradation has been related with a significant increase in cell damage, becoming a target for studies on the PD etiology. In the present study, we have characterized the parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced damage in fibroblasts from Parkinson's patients with the mutation G2019S in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 protein (LRRK2) and control individuals without this mutation. The results reveal that MPP(+) induces mTOR-dependent autophagy in fibroblasts. Moreover, the effects of caspase-dependent cell death to MPP(+) were higher in cells with the G2019S LRRK2 mutation, which showed basal levels of autophagy due to the G2019S LRRK2 mutation (mTOR-independent). The inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment reduces these sensitivity differences between both cell types, however, the inhibition of autophagosome-lysosome fusion by bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1) increases these differences. This data confirm the importance of the combination of genetic and environmental factors in the PD etiology. Thereby, the sensitivity to the same damage may be different in function of a genetic predisposition, reason why individuals with certain mutations can develop some early-onset diseases, such as individuals with G2019S LRRK2 mutation and PD. PMID:25017139

  15. A High Resolution Case Study of a Patient with Recurrent Plasmodium vivax Infections Shows That Relapses Were Caused by Meiotic Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Andrew Taylor; Manary, Micah J.; Tewhey, Ryan; Arango, Eliana M.; Wang, Tina; Schork, Nicholas J.; Yanow, Stephanie K.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax infects a hundred million people annually and endangers 40% of the world's population. Unlike Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax parasites can persist as a dormant stage in the liver, known as the hypnozoite, and these dormant forms can cause malaria relapses months or years after the initial mosquito bite. Here we analyze whole genome sequencing data from parasites in the blood of a patient who experienced consecutive P. vivax relapses over 33 months in a non-endemic country. By analyzing patterns of identity, read coverage, and the presence or absence of minor alleles in the initial polyclonal and subsequent monoclonal infections, we show that the parasites in the three infections are likely meiotic siblings. We infer that these siblings are descended from a single tetrad-like form that developed in the infecting mosquito midgut shortly after fertilization. In this natural cross we find the recombination rate for P. vivax to be 10 kb per centimorgan and we further observe areas of disequilibrium surrounding major drug resistance genes. Our data provide new strategies for studying multiclonal infections, which are common in all types of infectious diseases, and for distinguishing P. vivax relapses from reinfections in malaria endemic regions. This work provides a theoretical foundation for studies that aim to determine if new or existing drugs can provide a radical cure of P. vivax malaria. PMID:24901334

  16. Bosutinib shows low cross intolerance, in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated in fourth line. Results of the Spanish compassionate use program.

    PubMed

    García-Gutiérrez, Valentín; Martinez-Trillos, Alejandra; Lopez Lorenzo, Jose Luis; Bautista, Guiomar; Martin Mateos, Maria Luisa; Alvarez-Larrán, Alberto; Iglesias Pérez, Ana; Romo Collado, Andrés; Fernandez, Angeles; Portero, Angeles; Cuevas, Beatriz; Ruiz, Concepción; Romero, Esperanza; Ortega, Fernando; Mata, Isabel; Tallón, José; García Garay, Maria Del Carmen; Ramirez Sánchez, María José; de Las Heras, Natalia; Giraldo, Pilar; Bobillo, Sabela; Guinea, José María; Deben, Guillermo; Valencia, Sandra; Sebrango, Ana; Boqué, Concepción; Maestro, Begoña; Steegmann, Juan Luis

    2015-05-01

    The role of bosutinib as rescue treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients after failing three previous tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is currently unknown. We report here the largest series (to our knowledge) of patients treated with bosutinib in fourth-line, after retrospectively reviewing 30 patients in chronic phase, and pretreated with imatinib, nilotinib, and dasatinib. With a median follow up of 11.1 months, the probability to either maintain or improve their CCyR response was 56.6% (17/30) and 11 patients (36.7%) achieved or maintained their baseline MMR. In patients not having baseline CCyR, the probabilities of obtaining CCyR, MMR, and MR4.5 were 13, 11, and 14%, respectively. The probabilities of obtaining MMR and deep molecular response MR4.5 in patients with baseline CCyR were 40.0% (6/15) and 20.0% (3/15). At 20 months, progression-free survival was 73%. Grade 3-4 hematological toxicities were more frequent in resistant than intolerant patients (45.4 vs. 0.0%). Nonhematological toxicities were also more frequent in resistant patients, being diarrhea the most conspicuous one. Bosutinib seems to be an appropriate treatment option for patients resistant or intolerant to three prior TKI's. PMID:25683327

  17. Elucidating semantic disorganisation from a word comprehension task: do patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show differential processing of nouns, verbs and adjectives?

    PubMed

    Rossell, Susan L; Batty, Rachel A

    2008-07-01

    Memory deficits have been reported in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the precise impact of semantic memory deficits on word comprehension, particularly across grammatical categories, has not been adequately investigated in these disorders. Furthermore, previous studies examining semantic memory have predominantly been designed so that most healthy controls perform at ceiling, questioning the validity of observed differences between patient and control groups. A new word definition task examined word comprehension across grammatical categories, i.e. nouns, verbs and adjectives, and was designed to overcome the ceiling effect. It was administered to 32 schizophrenia patients, 28 bipolar disorder patients and 32 matched healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients had a global impairment on the task but bipolar patients were only impaired on a recognition memory component. Word comprehension, however, across grammatical categories was comparable across groups. PMID:18495434

  18. Healthy co-twins of patients with affective disorders show reduced risk-related activation of the insula during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy first-degree relatives of patients with affective disorders are at increased risk for affective disorders and express discrete structural and functional abnormalities in the brain reward system. However, value-based decision making is not well understood in these at-risk individuals. Methods We investigated healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorders (high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively) using functional MRI during a gambling task. We assessed group differences in activity related to gambling risk over the entire brain. Results We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response in the ventral striatum to increasing gambling risk and negatively correlated with individual risk-taking behaviour. Compared with low-risk twins, the high-risk twins showed a bilateral reduction of risk-related activity in the middle insula extending into the temporal cortex with increasing gambling risk. Post hoc analyses revealed that this effect was strongest in dizygotic twins. Limitations The relatively old average age of the mono- and dizygotic twin cohort (49.2 yr) may indicate an increased resilience to affective disorders. The size of the monozygotic high-risk group was relatively small (n = 13). Conclusion The reduced processing of risk magnitude in the middle insula may indicate a deficient integration of exteroceptive information related to risk-related cues with interoceptive states in individuals at familial risk for affective disorders. Impaired risk processing might contribute to increased vulnerability to affective disorders. PMID:26395812

  19. Schizophrenic delusions among Koreans, Korean-Chinese and Chinese: a transcultural study.

    PubMed

    Kim, K I; Li, D; Jiang, Z; Cui, X; Lin, L; Kang, J J; Park, K K; Chung, E K; Kim, C K

    1993-01-01

    In this transcultural study of schizophrenic delusions among Koreans, Korean-Chinese and Chinese, many delusions were shown to be different among the three groups in their frequency and content and the differences could be explained by sociocultural and political factors. Delusional themes sensitive to influence by sociocultural or political situations and changes seem to be 'family', 'love affairs', 'religious matters', 'economic matters', 'specific physical damage' and 'political themes.' Delusions about 'family', 'love affair', 'being raped', 'religious matters' and 'economic and business matters' were most frequent in Koreans. Delusions of 'blood-relatedness', 'longevity' and 'political themes' were most frequent in Korean-Chinese. Delusions of 'bloodsucking and brain or viscera extracted' and 'poison or being pricked by poisoned needle' were most prominent in Chinese. PMID:8225815

  20. Cognitive dysfunction at baseline predicts symptomatic 1-year outcome in first-episode schizophrenics.

    PubMed

    Moritz, S; Krausz, M; Gottwalz, E; Lambert, M; Perro, C; Ganzer, S; Naber, D

    2000-01-01

    The present study addresses the consequences of cognitive disturbances on symptomatic outcome. Fifty-three first-episode schizophrenics were reassessed (n = 32) 1 year after admission. Simple regression analyses revealed that several self-perceived cognitive deficits at baseline as measured with the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire significantly predicted increased Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale global scores at follow-up (p = 0.05 to p = 0.005). A stepwise regression analysis proved memory dysfunction to be the strongest predictor of symptomatic worsening (p = 0.005). It is suggested that the exploration and treatment of neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia is of great clinical importance with regard to its impact on both functional and symptomatic outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:10601828

  1. [Schizophreniform disorder: a comparative study of the active phases of schizophrenic disorders].

    PubMed

    Castillón Zazurca, J J

    1989-01-01

    An attempt is made to clinically differentiate between schizophreniform and schizophrenic disorders through the data obtained from a computerized clinical record. The information was handled by the SPSSX statistical program package. A group of 15 variables (flat affect, altered spontaneous attention, delusional mood, primary delusion, thoughts of suicide, disturbed sleep, D and Pt scores of the MMPI, axis V of DSM-III, secondary effects evaluated after a month of treatment, length of hospitalization, disorder development time and migration) enabled the two disorders to be differentiated, and of these, four (migration, Pt score on the MMPI, BPRS score after a month of treatment and the secondary effects after one month treatment) formed a discriminant function that differentiated 100% of the cases studied. PMID:2631574

  2. High levels of Anti-GAD65 and Anti-Ro52 autoantibodies in a patient with major depressive disorder showing psychomotor disturbance.

    PubMed

    Ching, Kathryn H; Burbelo, Peter D; Carlson, Paul J; Drevets, Wayne C; Iadarola, Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Autoimmune disease and/or autoantibodies have been reported in mood disorder patients. We screened for autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), gastric H+/K+ ATPase (ATP4B), and Ro52 in a psychiatric patient cohort. A 24-year-old woman with major depressive disorder (MDD) with reduced psychomotor activity was identified with unusually high serum GAD65 and Ro52 autoantibody titers. Anti-GAD65 and anti-Ro52 autoantibodies were also elevated in the CSF from this patient. Longitudinal examination revealed a four-fold increase in anti-GAD65 serum antibody titers which correlated with exacerbation of psychomotor symptomatology. These results suggest the possibility that CNS autoimmunity may be responsible for the psychomotor impairment in this MDD patient. PMID:20227114

  3. Which employment interview skills best predict the employability of schizophrenic patients?

    PubMed

    Charisiou, J; Jackson, H J; Boyle, G J; Burgess, P M; Minas, I H; Joshua, S D

    1989-06-01

    To examine the effects of verbal and nonverbal interview microbehaviors and interview characteristics on employability, Simulated Employment Interviews were conducted with 46 psychiatric inpatients who each met the DSM-III criteria for a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Each interview was videotaped and shown to two raters, who generated independent ratings for six microbehaviors (eye-contact, facial gestures, body posture, verbal content, voice volume, and length of speech) and six subject characteristics (motivation, self-confidence, ability to communicate, manifest adjustment, manifest intelligence and overall interview skill). A panel of three Commonwealth Employment Service psychologists viewed the same videotaped interviews and generated employability ratings. Verbal and nonverbal microbehaviors were relatively independent while subject characteristics were highly interdependent. Microbehaviors and characteristics correlated at a high level. Of the 12 interview microbehaviors and characteristics, manifest adjustment and ability to communicate accounted for 64% of the total variance in predicting employability. Interviewees who were perceived as behaving in an adjusted manner and as being good communicators were rated as more employable. PMID:2748774

  4. Population pharmacokinetic analysis for 10-monohydroxy derivative of oxcarbazepine in pediatric epileptic patients shows no difference between Japanese and other ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Ikuo; Bouillon, Thomas; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hikoe; Hirota, Takashi; Fink, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an anti-epileptic drug, which is almost completely metabolized by cytosolic enzymes in the liver to the active 10-monohyroxy metabolite (MHD) following oral administration. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of MHD were evaluated in pediatric epileptic patients and a possible ethnic difference in PK of MHD between Japanese and non-Japanese pediatric patients was assessed. A non-linear mixed effect modeling approach was used to determine the PK of MHD. A one-compartment population model with first-order absorption appropriately described the PK of MHD. No clinically relevant differences were found for using body surface area or weight to explain between-patient variability, therefore the final model included the effects of body weight on apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent volume of distribution (V/F) of MHD, and in addition, the effect of 3 concomitant anti-epileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin) on CL/F of MHD. Inclusion of ethnicity as a covariate in the final model, concluded no ethnic difference with respect to CL/F of MHD between Japanese and non-Japanese patients. Hence, oxcarbazepine can be generally applied using the same dosage and administration for the treatment of partial onset seizures in pediatric patients, regardless of ethnicity. PMID:25989891

  5. Metal bar prevents phantom limb motion: case study of an amputation patient who showed a profound change in the awareness of his phantom limb.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Noritaka; Mita, Tomoki

    2009-12-01

    This case report describes an amputee (patient A.S., a 60-year-old male forelimb amputee) who had an extraordinary experience with a phantom limb. He complained that he could not move the wrist of his phantom limb because a metal bar was perceived to be grasped by the hand. As a solution for removing the metal bar, we invited the patient to undergo mirror reflection-induced visual feedback therapy. The patient reported that the metal bar previously grasped by his hand was successfully removed from the phantom during the course of therapy. Interestingly, this experience was accompanied by profound changes in the EMG modulation in the residual wrist muscles. In this article, the possible mechanisms underlying this interesting phenomenon will be discussed. PMID:19585348

  6. Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome. PMID:25379240

  7. [The IPT integrative program of psychological therapy for schizophrenia patients: new perspectives].

    PubMed

    Pomini, Valentino

    2004-04-01

    The integrated psychological treatment for schizophrenic patients IPT is composed by six modules that can be implemented either separately or in an articulated way. In that case, the treatment begins with a cognitive remediation phase which is followed by a social skills training phase. In the first phase, exercises specifically focalize on selective attention, memory, logical reasoning, perception and communication skills. The second phase of the program offers three other modules that train other skills: 1) social skills, 2) emotional management, 3) interpersonal problem solving. The IPT program belong to the so called second generation of social skills training programmes. It has been validated by numerous controlled studies, either in its complete form or in partial forms containing only one ore more of its sub-programmes. The results of these studies are globally positive. They show that IPT is an interesting therapeutic contribution for the rehabilitation practice with schizophrenic patients. A third generation of social skills training has been elaborated on the basis of the current IPT program. These new adjunctions to the IPT tend to favour the utilization in the real life of the competencies trained in the sessions, either by adding specific homeworks, in-vivo or booster sessions, or by designating new programmes directed to specific rehabilitation objectives, such as the integration in a apartment, the management of leisure times or the return to a workplace. These new programmes have been studied. They are promising and seem to be a useful complement to the original IPT. PMID:15209052

  8. Study of 201 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Given Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy Shows Local Control Dependence on Dose Calculation Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Latifi, Kujtim; Oliver, Jasmine; Baker, Ryan; Dilling, Thomas J.; Stevens, Craig W.; Kim, Jongphil; Yue, Binglin; DeMarco, MaryLou; Zhang, Geoffrey G.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Feygelman, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Pencil beam (PB) and collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithms differ significantly when used in the thorax. However, such differences have seldom been previously directly correlated with outcomes of lung stereotactic ablative body radiation (SABR). Methods and Materials: Data for 201 non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with SABR were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated with 50 Gy in 5 fractions of 10 Gy each. The radiation prescription mandated that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) receive the prescribed dose. One hundred sixteen patients were planned with BrainLab treatment planning software (TPS) with the PB algorithm and treated on a Novalis unit. The other 85 were planned on the Pinnacle TPS with the CCC algorithm and treated on a Varian linac. Treatment planning objectives were numerically identical for both groups. The median follow-up times were 24 and 17 months for the PB and CCC groups, respectively. The primary endpoint was local/marginal control of the irradiated lesion. Gray's competing risk method was used to determine the statistical differences in local/marginal control rates between the PB and CCC groups. Results: Twenty-five patients planned with PB and 4 patients planned with the CCC algorithms to the same nominal doses experienced local recurrence. There was a statistically significant difference in recurrence rates between the PB and CCC groups (hazard ratio 3.4 [95% confidence interval: 1.18-9.83], Gray's test P=.019). The differences (Δ) between the 2 algorithms for target coverage were as follows: ΔD99{sub GITV} = 7.4 Gy, ΔD99{sub PTV} = 10.4 Gy, ΔV90{sub GITV} = 13.7%, ΔV90{sub PTV} = 37.6%, ΔD95{sub PTV} = 9.8 Gy, and ΔD{sub ISO} = 3.4 Gy. GITV = gross internal tumor volume. Conclusions: Local control in patients receiving who were planned to the same nominal dose with PB and CCC algorithms were statistically significantly different. Possible alternative explanations are described in the report, although they are not thought likely to explain the difference. We conclude that the difference is due to relative dosimetric underdosing of tumors with the PB algorithm.

  9. Disturbances of spontaneous empathic processing relate with the severity of the negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: a behavioural pilot-study using virtual reality technology.

    PubMed

    Thirioux, Bérangère; Tandonnet, Louis; Jaafari, Nematollah; Berthoz, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Behavioural and neuroimaging data have recently pointed out that empathy (feeling into someone else) is associated with mental imagery and transformation related to one's and other's visuo-spatial perspectives. Impairments of both empathic and visuo-spatial abilities have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Especially, it has been suggested that schizophrenics are altered in spontaneously simulating another individual's first-person experience. However, there is so far only little evidence regarding the relationship between deficits in empathy and disturbances in spontaneous heterocentered coding in schizophrenia. In the present pilot-study, we tested with schizophrenic patients our behavioural paradigm that enables to measure from the bodily postures and movements whether individuals in ecologically more valid conditions are interacting with another individual by using egocentered - as in sympathy (feeling with someone else) - or heterocentered - as in empathy - visuo-spatial mechanisms. For that, ten patients and ten controls, standing and moving, interacted with a virtual tightrope walker, displayed life-sized, standing and moving as well. We show that patients with higher negative symptoms had, in most cases, deficits in spontaneously using heterocentered visuo-spatial mechanisms and employed preferentially an egocentered referencing to interact with the avatar. In contrast, preserved spontaneous heterocentered visuo-spatial strategies were not linked to a prevailing negative or positive symptomatology. Our data suggest that the severity of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia relates with disturbances of spontaneous ("on-line") empathic processing in association with lower scoring self-reported trait cognitive empathy. PMID:25014409

  10. Routine Depression Screening in an HIV Clinic Cohort Identifies Patients with Complex Psychiatric Co-morbidities Who Show Significant Response to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    McCullumsmith, Cheryl; Mugavero, Michael J.; Ingle-Pang, Paige E.; Raper, James L.; Willig, James H.; You, Zhiying; Batey, D. Scott; Crane, Heidi; Lawrence, Sarah T.; Wright, Charles; Treisman, Glenn; Saag, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This study described characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses and response to treatment among patients in an outpatient HIV clinic who screened positive for depression. Depressed (25 %) were less likely to have private insurance, less likely to have suppressed HIV viral loads, had more anxiety symptoms, and were more likely to report current substance abuse than not depressed. Among depressed, 81.2 % met diagnostic criteria for a depressive disorder; 78 % for an anxiety disorder; 61 % for a substance use disorder; and 30 % for co-morbid anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Depressed received significantly more treatment for depression and less HIV primary care than not depressed patients. PHQ-9 total depression scores decreased by 0.63 from baseline to 6-month follow-up for every additional attended depression treatment visit. HIV clinics can routinely screen and treat depressive symptoms, but should consider accurate psychiatric diagnosis as well as co-occurring mental disorders. PMID:23086427

  11. Influence of Patient Caregivers on Course of Patient Illness. "Expressed Emotion" and Alternative Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottschalk, Louis A.; Keatinge, Carolyn

    1993-01-01

    Examines historical context, generalizability, methodological strengths and limitations of construct of "expressed emotion" (EE), designed to explore impact of family and social environment on vulnerability to relapse of schizophrenic patients, and Camberwell Family Interview, as well as nature and effects of treatment intervention programs…

  12. Value of Fused 18F-Choline-PET/MRI to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Relapse in Patients Showing Biochemical Recurrence after EBRT: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Piccardo, Arnoldo; Paparo, Francesco; Picazzo, Riccardo; Naseri, Mehrdad; Ricci, Paolo; Marziano, Andrea; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Biscaldi, Ennio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Farsad, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We compared the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI with that of multiparametric MRI (mMRI), 18F-Choline-PET/CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT (CeCT) in detecting relapse in patients with suspected relapse of prostate cancer (PC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We assessed the association between standard uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods. We evaluated 21 patients with biochemical relapse after EBRT. Patients underwent 18F-Choline-PET/contrast-enhanced (Ce)CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and mMRI. Imaging coregistration of PET and mMRI was performed. Results. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI was positive in 18/21 patients, with a detection rate (DR) of 86%. DRs of 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI were 76%, 43%, and 81%, respectively. In terms of DR the only significant difference was between 18F-Choline-PET/MRI and CeCT. On lesion-based analysis, the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI, 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI was 99%, 95%, 70%, and 85%, respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity, and NPV of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI were significantly higher than those of both mMRI and CeCT. On whole-body assessment of bone metastases, the sensitivity of 18F-Choline-PET/CT and 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of CeCT. Regarding local and lymph node relapse, we found a significant inverse correlation between ADC and SUV-max. Conclusion. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI is a promising technique in detecting PC relapse. PMID:24877053

  13. Combination therapies with oxaliplatin and oral capecitabine or intravenous 5-FU show similar toxicity profiles in gastrointestinal carcinoma patients if hand-food syndrome prophylaxis is performed continuously.

    PubMed

    Wehler, Thomas C; Cao, Yang; Galle, Peter R; Theobald, Matthias; Moehler, Markus; Schimanski, Carl C

    2012-06-01

    The use of anticancer drugs in palliative settings is often limited by their severe toxic effects. In gastrointestinal carcinomas the 5-fluorouracil-based palliative regimen FOLFOX-4 is often preferred to the equally effective, but more convenient oral capecitabine-based regimen XELOX. This preference is mainly based on the fact that the highly effective oral agent capecitabine induces hand-foot syndrome (HFS). In this study, we investigated whether the continuous administration of skin prophylaxis (10% urea, panthenol, bisabolol, vitamin A, C and E) is capable of protecting against capecitabine-induced HFS and allowing a more convenient oral therapeutic option. In this retrospective analysis, the toxicity profiles, according to NCI CTCAE 3.0 criteria, of 54 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who received either XELOX (34 patients) or FOLFOX-4 (20 patients) were compared using Fisher tests. The treatment protocols that were compared, herein, did not differ significantly in the majority of the analyzed items, with the exception of increased nausea (XELOX-70), fatigue (XELOX-130) and tumor pain (XELOX-70 and XELOX-130). No significant differences were observed among the various groups with regard to emesis, diarrhea, mucositis, exanthema, alopecia, loss of weight and the incidence of infections. In particular, no significant differences in toxicity levels occurred in terms of dose, and HFS was limited if skin prophylaxis was performed continuously. XELOX-based palliative regimens provide an equally effective and comparably toxic therapeutic alternative to FOLFOX-4 if HFS prophylaxis is performed continuously. Since the oral administration of capecitabine is a more convenient method of application, it provides patients with a quality of life-preserving therapeutic alternative. PMID:22783416

  14. [An acute severe heat stroke patient showing abnormal diffuse high intensity of the cerebellar cortex in diffusion weighted image: a case report].

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Yusuke; Yasui, Keizo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Akira; Sobue, Gen

    2009-10-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of general convulsion, loss of consciousness and hyperthermia. A diagnosis of acute heat stroke was made clinically and neuroradiologically. As the consciousness level ameliorated, he developed severe abulia and mutism, then cerebellar ataxic syndrome (viz. truncal ataxia, hypermetria, ataxic speech and nystagmus). An MRI (diffusion weighted image; DWI) disclosed abnormal diffuse high signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex with reduced apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Two months later after the onset, truncal ataxia and dysarthria significantly improved, while dysmetria of the extremities rather worsened. At that time, the abnormal signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex disappeared, and the cerebellum became atrophic. The cerebellar blood flow was significantly decreased on brain SPECT (99mTc-ECD). The abnormal DWI signal intensity of the cerebellar cortex in the present patient may represent the cytotoxic edema of Purkinje cells resulting from heat stroke-related hyperthermia It is essential to repeat MRI examination for cerebellar pathology and to obtain better insight into sequelae in patients with acute heat stroke. Protirelin tartrate seemed to be valid for improvement of abulia in the present patient. Further study is indicated. PMID:19999144

  15. Protective factors in patients aged over 65 with stroke treated by physiotherapy, showing cognitive impairment, in the Valencia Community. Protection Study in Older People (EPACV)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Family function may have an influence on the mental health deterioration of the caregivers of dependent family members and it could have a varying importance on the care of dependents. Little attention has been paid to the preparation of minor stroke survivors for the recovery trajectory or the spouse for the caregiving role. Therefore, this study protocol intends to analyze the influence of family function on the protection of patients with stroke sequels needing physiotherapy in the family environment. Methods/Design This is an analytical observational design, prospective cohort study and using a qualitative methodology by means of data collected in the “interviews of life”. The study will be carried out by the Rehabilitation Service at Hospital of Elda in the Valencia Community. All patients that have been diagnosed with stroke and need physiotherapy treatment, having a dependency grade assigned and consent to participate in the study, will undergo a monitoring of one year in order to assess the predictive factors depending on the dependence of the people affected. Discussion Our research aims to analyze the perception of caregivers, their difficulties to work, and the influence of family function. Moreover, it aims to register the perception of the patients with stroke sequel over the care received and whether they feel protected in their family environment. PMID:23039063

  16. [Case of renal artery stenosis in an elderly patient after nephrectomy diagnosed by ultrasound sonography, showing improvement of blood pressure and renal dysfunction after renal artery stenting].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Kojiro; Kusunose, Kenya; Nishio, Susumu; Taketani, Yoshio; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Sata, Masataka; Kondo, Naoki; Kishi, Fumi; Kishi, Seiji; Araoka, Toshikazu; Matsuura, Motokazu; Mima, Akira; Abe, Hideharu; Murakami, Taichi; Nakamura, Masayuki; Doi, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic renal artery stenosis is one of the increasingly common diseases that affects many aged patients. There are various non-invasive methods to diagnose renal artery stenosis, such as contrast enhanced CT or MRI. However, these methods are not appropriate for patients with renal dysfunction. Ultrasound sonography is becoming one of the promising methods to diagnose artery stenosis because of photographic improvements. In this case, a 72-year-old woman was hospitalized 7 months after nephrectomy because of severe hypertension, heart failure and kidney dysfunction. The heart failure was quite uncontrollable in spite of massive administration of diuretics, and finally, hemodialysis was started to control her volume status. In consideration of her past history and abdominal bruit, we evaluated the renal artery stenosis by ultrasound sonography and confirmed the diagnosis by renal angiography. To improve hypertension control, we performed renal artery stenting, which resulted in an impressive improvement of her blood pressure and renal function. We recognized the importance of careful causal evaluation of renal dysfunction, even though it is difficult to apply invasive therapy to patients after nephrectomy. PMID:21370580

  17. Defibrillation threshold testing fails to show clinical benefit during long-term follow-up of patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator implantation

    PubMed Central

    Michowitz, Yoav; Lellouche, Nicolas; Contractor, Tahmeed; Bourke, Tara; Wiener, Isaac; Buch, Eric; Boyle, Noel; Bersohn, Malcolm; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2011-01-01

    Background The utility of defibrillation threshold testing in patients undergoing implantable cardioverter–defibrillator (ICD) implantation is controversial. Higher defibrillation thresholds have been noted in patients undergoing implantation of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D). Since the risks and potential benefits of testing may be higher in this population, we sought to assess the impact of defibrillation safety margin or vulnerability safety margin testing in CRT-D recipients. Methods and results A total of 256 consecutive subjects who underwent CRT-D implantation between January 2003 and December 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were divided into two groups based on whether (n= 204) or not (n= 52) safety margin testing was performed. Patient characteristics, tachyarrhythmia therapies, procedural results, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Baseline characteristics, including heart failure (HF) severity, were comparable between the groups. Four cases of HF exacerbation (2%), including one leading to one death, were recorded in the tested group immediately post-implantation. No complications were observed in the untested group. After a mean follow-up of 32 ± 20 months, the proportion of appropriate shocks in the two groups was similar (31 vs. 25%, P = 0.49). There were three cases of failed appropriate shocks in the tested group, despite adequate safety margins at implantation, whereas no failed shocks were noted in the untested group. Survival was similar in the two groups. Conclusion Defibrillation efficacy testing during implant of CRT-D was associated with increased morbidity and did not predict the success of future device therapy or improve survival during long-term follow-up. PMID:21252192

  18. Missense mutation in immunodeficient patients shows the multifunctional roles of coiled-coil domain 3 (CC3) in STIM1 activation.

    PubMed

    Maus, Mate; Jairaman, Amit; Stathopulos, Peter B; Muik, Martin; Fahrner, Marc; Weidinger, Carl; Benson, Melina; Fuchs, Sebastian; Ehl, Stephan; Romanin, Christoph; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Prakriya, Murali; Feske, Stefan

    2015-05-12

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a universal Ca(2+) influx pathway that is important for the function of many cell types. SOCE occurs upon depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores and relies on a complex molecular interplay between the plasma membrane (PM) Ca(2+) channel ORAI1 and the ER Ca(2+) sensor stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1. Patients with null mutations in ORAI1 or STIM1 genes present with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-like disease. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which a loss-of-function STIM1 mutation (R429C) in human patients abolishes SOCE. R429 is located in the third coiled-coil (CC3) domain of the cytoplasmic C terminus of STIM1. Mutation of R429 destabilizes the CC3 structure and alters the conformation of the STIM1 C terminus, thereby releasing a polybasic domain that promotes STIM1 recruitment to ER-PM junctions. However, the mutation also impairs cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization and abolishes STIM1-ORAI1 interactions. Thus, despite its constitutive localization at ER-PM junctions, mutant STIM1 fails to activate SOCE. Our results demonstrate multifunctional roles of the CC3 domain in regulating intra- and intermolecular STIM1 interactions that control (i) transition of STIM1 from a quiescent to an active conformational state, (ii) cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization, and (iii) STIM1-ORAI1 binding required for ORAI1 activation. PMID:25918394

  19. Missense mutation in immunodeficient patients shows the multifunctional roles of coiled-coil domain 3 (CC3) in STIM1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Maus, Mate; Jairaman, Amit; Stathopulos, Peter B.; Muik, Martin; Fahrner, Marc; Weidinger, Carl; Benson, Melina; Fuchs, Sebastian; Ehl, Stephan; Romanin, Christoph; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Prakriya, Murali; Feske, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a universal Ca2+ influx pathway that is important for the function of many cell types. SOCE occurs upon depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ stores and relies on a complex molecular interplay between the plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+ channel ORAI1 and the ER Ca2+ sensor stromal interaction molecule (STIM) 1. Patients with null mutations in ORAI1 or STIM1 genes present with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-like disease. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms by which a loss-of-function STIM1 mutation (R429C) in human patients abolishes SOCE. R429 is located in the third coiled-coil (CC3) domain of the cytoplasmic C terminus of STIM1. Mutation of R429 destabilizes the CC3 structure and alters the conformation of the STIM1 C terminus, thereby releasing a polybasic domain that promotes STIM1 recruitment to ER–PM junctions. However, the mutation also impairs cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization and abolishes STIM1–ORAI1 interactions. Thus, despite its constitutive localization at ER–PM junctions, mutant STIM1 fails to activate SOCE. Our results demonstrate multifunctional roles of the CC3 domain in regulating intra- and intermolecular STIM1 interactions that control (i) transition of STIM1 from a quiescent to an active conformational state, (ii) cytoplasmic STIM1 oligomerization, and (iii) STIM1–ORAI1 binding required for ORAI1 activation. PMID:25918394

  20. History of Abuse and Neglect in Patients with Schizophrenia Who Have a History of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Bennouna-Greene, Valerie; Berna, Fabrice; Defranoux, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of five forms of abuse/neglect during childhood and adolescence in a group of schizophrenic patients with a history of violence. Methods: Twenty-eight patients hospitalized in a highly secured psychiatric unit were included. Abuse and neglect during patients' growth were evaluated with the childhood trauma

  1. History of Abuse and Neglect in Patients with Schizophrenia Who Have a History of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Bennouna-Greene, Valerie; Berna, Fabrice; Defranoux, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of five forms of abuse/neglect during childhood and adolescence in a group of schizophrenic patients with a history of violence. Methods: Twenty-eight patients hospitalized in a highly secured psychiatric unit were included. Abuse and neglect during patients' growth were evaluated with the childhood trauma…

  2. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  3. Faecal Escherichia coli isolates show potential to cause endogenous infection in patients admitted to the ICU in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Nagarjuna, D.; Mittal, G.; Dhanda, R.S.; Verma, P.K.; Gaind, R.; Yadav, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are acquired during hospital treatment or in a hospital environment. One such infecting agent, Escherichia coli, harbours many virulence genes that enable it to become pathogenic, causing damage to the host. The mechanism of the E. coli virulence factors provenance to cause infection in host environments is not clearly elucidated. We investigated the virulence and pathogenicity of E. coli affected by the host environment. For this, blood (n = 78) and faecal (n = 83) E. coli isolates were collected from patients with and without sepsis, respectively, who had been admitted to the intensive care unit. The E. coli genomic DNA was isolated; the phylogenetic grouping was conducted by triplex PCR. The occurrence of nine virulence genes among the all the isolates was confirmed by gene-specific PCR. The prevalence of E. coli in blood isolates was more in phylogenetic groups B2 and D compared to groups A and B1. However, in faecal isolates, there was no significant difference. The prevalence of adhesin and toxin (papG, sfa, afa, cnf1, hlyA) genes was higher in blood compared to faecal E. coli isolates. However, the prevalence of aer, traT and PAI was similar as well as higher among both of these groups. These observations indicate a role of external environment (hospital setting) on host susceptibility (development of infection) in the faecal E. coli isolates, thereby making the patient prone to a sepsis condition. PMID:26257914

  4. Mathematical modeling shows exenatide improved beta-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin or metformin and a sulfonylurea.

    PubMed

    Mari, A; Nielsen, L L; Nanayakkara, N; DeFronzo, R A; Ferrannini, E; Halseth, A

    2006-12-01

    The incretin mimetic exenatide improved glycemic control and reduced body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin+/-a sulfonylurea. We assessed postprandial beta-cell function by mathematical modeling, independent of confounding effects from differing ambient glucose levels among treatments. Subjects were 63% males, 55+/-10 years, BMI 33+/-6 kg/m2, HbA1C 8.1+/-1.1% (+/- SD) randomized to 5 microg exenatide or placebo twice daily for 4 weeks. Subsequently, one arm remained at 5 microg twice daily, one arm escalated to 10 microg twice daily, and one treatment arm remained on placebo for 26 weeks. Subjects continued metformin+/-a sulfonylurea. A subset with meal tests at baseline and week 30 were analyzed (n=73). Outcome measures were the model-based beta-cell function parameters dose-response relating insulin secretion to glucose concentration, rate sensitivity, and potentiation. Exenatide reduced postprandial glucose excursions. Modeling predicted an upward shift of the beta-cell dose-response. Model-predicted insulin secretion rate at a reference glucose concentration increased 72% (10 microg), increased 40% (5 microg), or decreased 21% (placebo) at week 30 [ p=0.015 (10 microg); p=0.045 (5 microg); vs. placebo]. At week 30, the 2-hour post-meal to basal potentiation factor ratio was increased to 1.53+/-0.10 (10 microg; p=0.0142 vs. placebo) or 1.40+/-0.08 (5 microg; p=0.0402 vs. placebo) compared with 1.15+/-0.06 (placebo). Exenatide caused an upward shift of the beta-cell dose-response and enhanced potentiation of insulin secretion. This model suggests exenatide improved beta-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin+/-a sulfonylurea. PMID:17163361

  5. A Pharmacogenetics Study in Mozambican Patients Treated with Nevirapine: Full Resequencing of TRAF3IP2 Gene Shows a Novel Association with SJS/TEN Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Ciccacci, Cinzia; Rufini, Sara; Mancinelli, Sandro; Buonomo, Ersilia; Giardina, Emiliano; Scarcella, Paola; Marazzi, Maria C.; Novelli, Giuseppe; Palombi, Leonardo; Borgiani, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Steven–Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are severe adverse drug reactions, characterized by extensive epidermal detachment and erosions of mucous membrane. SJS/TEN is one of the most serious adverse reactions to Nevirapine (NVP) treatment, commonly used in developing countries as first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In the last years TRAF3IP2 gene variants had been described as associated with susceptibility to several diseases such as psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. We hypothesized that this gene, involved in immune response and in NF-κB activation, could also be implicated in the SJS/TEN susceptibility. We performed a full resequencing of TRAF3IP2 gene in a population of patients treated with NVP. Twenty-seven patients with NVP-induced SJS/TEN and 78 controls, all from Mozambique, were enrolled. We identified eight exonic and three intronic already described variants. The case/control association analysis highlighted an association between the rs76228616 SNP in exon 2 and the SJS/TEN susceptibility. In particular, the variant allele (C) resulted significantly associated with a higher risk to develop SJS/TEN (p = 0.012 and OR = 3.65 (95% CI 1.33–10.01)). A multivariate analysis by logistic regression confirmed its significant contribution (p = 0.027, OR = 4.39 (95% CI 1.19–16.23)). In conclusion, our study suggests that a variant in TRAF3IP2 gene could be involved in susceptibility to SJS/TEN. PMID:25775161

  6. Psychiatric patients' religon and MMPI responses.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Groesch SJ; Davis WE

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between psychiatric patients' psychological test responses and their religion has been overlooked in the past. MMPI protocols were obtained from samples of 18 Roman Catholic schizophrenic, 18 Protestant drug-dependent male patients. The profiles reflected significant religion related differences in scales L, HY, D; MF, PA and SC. The results suggest that the religion of the psychiatric patient is a potentially important S variable that could influence the psychiatric diagnosis and subsequent treatment.

  7. Psychiatric patients' religon and MMPI responses.

    PubMed

    Groesch, S J; Davis, W E

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between psychiatric patients' psychological test responses and their religion has been overlooked in the past. MMPI protocols were obtained from samples of 18 Roman Catholic schizophrenic, 18 Protestant drug-dependent male patients. The profiles reflected significant religion related differences in scales L, HY, D; MF, PA and SC. The results suggest that the religion of the psychiatric patient is a potentially important S variable that could influence the psychiatric diagnosis and subsequent treatment. PMID:833295

  8. Seasonality effects on schizophrenic births in multiplex families in a tropical island.

    PubMed

    Carrin-Baralt, Jose R; Smith, Christopher J; Rossy-Fullana, Enrique; Lewis-Fernndez, Roberto; Davis, Kenneth L; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2006-05-30

    Many studies have found that individuals with schizophrenia have been born in winter months in disproportionately high numbers. Temperature and weather effects, such as hot summers or cold winters, have been among the suggested explanations for this seasonality effect. We studied the relationship between schizophrenia and season of birth in Puerto Rico, a tropical island with mild seasonal variation of temperature and virtually no cold periods. Our sample consisted of 132 subjects (57 with schizophrenia, 75 without) from 24 multiplex families. Schizophrenic family members were significantly more likely to be born during the winter months (21/57; 36.8%) than their unaffected relatives (16/75; 21.3%). These results suggest that extreme temperatures are not a sufficient explanation for the seasonality effect and that other factors associated with seasonality may have an effect on the later development of schizophrenia. The fact that a seasonality effect was found in a group likely to have an increased genetic loading for schizophrenia suggests that seasonality may be associated with a second, environmental "hit" in a "two-hit hypothesis" of schizophrenia. PMID:16516305

  9. Granuloma Annulare Mimicking Sarcoidosis: Report of Patient With Localized Granuloma Annulare Whose Skin Lesions Show 3 Clinical Morphologies and 2 Histology Patterns.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R; Carlos, Casey A

    2015-07-01

    Granuloma annulare, a benign dermatosis of undetermined etiology, typically presents in a localized or generalized form. It has 3 distinctive histologic patterns: an infiltrative (interstitial) pattern, a palisading granuloma pattern, and an epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) pattern. A man whose granuloma annulare skin lesions mimicked sarcoidosis is described. His localized granuloma annulare presented with a total of 3 lesions that each had a distinctive clinical morphology: an annular lesion of individual papules, a dermal nodule, and a linear arrangement of 3 papules. Two of his lesions showed a palisading granuloma histology pattern of granuloma annulare; however, the linear papules on his posterior neck lesion demonstrated noncaseating granulomas consistent with either the epithelioid nodule histology pattern of granuloma annulare or sarcoidal granuloma compatible with sarcoidosis. A comprehensive evaluation excluded the diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on granuloma annulare, epithelioid nodule, sarcoidal granuloma, and sarcoidosis. The histology patterns of granuloma annulare-emphasizing the history and differentiating features of the epithelioid nodule pattern from cutaneous sarcoidosis-were reviewed. The epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) histology pattern of granuloma annulare is uncommon and may mimic the histology changes observed in sarcoidosis skin lesions; the absence of asteroid or other giant cell inclusions and an increase in mucin deposition between the collagen bundles favor the diagnosis of granuloma annulare. In addition, the epithelioid nodule pattern of granuloma annulare can rarely also show other histologic patterns of granuloma annulare in the same biopsy specimen or concurrently present with other clinical lesions of granuloma annulare that demonstrate a palisading granuloma, or possibly an infiltrative, histology pattern. However, the presence of an isolated skin lesion demonstrating sarcoidal granulomas--even when concurrently appearing with other lesions of granuloma annulare showing either an infiltrative or a palisading granuloma histologic pattern--may prompt the clinician to evaluate and exclude the possibility of systemic sarcoidosis. PMID:25140662

  10. Abnormally differentiating keratinocytes in the epidermis of systemic sclerosis patients show enhanced secretion of CCN2 and S100A9.

    PubMed

    Nikitorowicz-Buniak, Joanna; Shiwen, Xu; Denton, Christopher P; Abraham, David; Stratton, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Skin involvement with dermal fibrosis is a hallmark of systemic sclerosis (SSc), and keratinocytes may be critical regulators of fibroblast function through secretion of chemo-attracting agents, as well as through growth factors and cytokines influencing the phenotype and proliferation rate of fibroblasts. Epithelial-fibroblast interactions have an important role in fibrosis in general. We have characterized the SSc epidermis and asked whether SSc-injured epidermal cells release factors capable of promoting fibrosis. Our results show that the SSc epidermis is hypertrophic, and has altered expression of terminal differentiation markers involucrin, loricrin, and filaggrin. Multiplex profiling revealed that SSc epidermal explants release increased levels of CCN2 and S100A9. CCN2 induction was found to spread into the upper papillary dermis, whereas S100A9 was shown to induce fibroblast proliferation and to enhance fibroblast CCN2 expression via Toll-like receptor 4. These data suggest that the SSc epidermis provides an important source of pro-fibrotic CCN2 and proinflammatory S100A9 in SSc skin, and therefore contributes to the fibrosis and inflammation seen in the disease. PMID:24933320

  11. Treatment with Ziprasidone for schizophrenia patients with OCD.

    PubMed

    Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Fostick, Leah; Cwikel-Hamzany, Shlomit; Balaban, Evgenya; Zohar, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been observed in about 15% of schizophrenic patients and has been associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for specific treatment options for these patients (schizo-obsessive, ScOCD). This is an open, prospective study, aiming to test the efficacy of Ziprasidone (80-200mg/d) in ScOCD patients and comparing the response to the treatment between stable schizophrenic (N=16) and stable ScOCD (N=29) patients. Treatment effect with Ziprasidone was different in schizophrenic patients when stratified based on OCD comorbidity. Overall, the effect on OCD symptoms (as measured by the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, YBOCS) was found to be bimodal-either no response or exacerbation (for 45% of the patients, n=13) or significant improvement of symptoms (55%, n=16). Those who improved in OCD symptoms, improved also in negative and general schizophrenia symptoms, while ScOCD-unimproved group worsened in all symptoms. Whereas schizophrenic patients without OCD responded in a modest Gaussian distribution, they improved in schizophrenia negative symptoms and in general anxiety. This data suggests that schizo-obsessive disorder is a distinct and complex condition with more than one underlying pathogenesis. Definition of these ScOCD subgroups defined by their response to Ziprasidone might contribute to personalized medicine within the OCD-schizophrenia spectrum. Moreover, this finding suggests that ScOCD may be considered as a special schizophrenic subtype and its inclusion in schizophrenia treatment studies need to be further explored due to its divergent response. PMID:25048540

  12. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  13. Hypothyroid patients showing shortened responsiveness to oral iodized oil have paradoxically low serum thyroglobulin and low thyroid reserve. Thyroglobulin/thyrotropin ratio as a measure of thyroid damage.

    PubMed

    Contempre, B; Duale, G L; Gervy, C; Alexandre, J; Vanovervelt, N; Dumont, J E

    1996-03-01

    In Central Africa, all of northern Zaire is very severely deficient in iodine. A peculiar feature of this endemia is that iodine deficiency and the ensuing thyroid gland stimulation not only leads to goitre formation but also to progressive thyroid involution and to myxoedematous cretinism. An iodine supplementation trial based on oral administration of small doses of iodine was made in 81 schoolchildren. All of them received a small dose of iodine (0.1 ml containing 48 mg) per os and the thyroid status was followed during 4 months. Blood and urine samples were collected at the start of the study, then 2 weeks, 2 months and 4 months after iodine administration. Before iodine supplementation the mean urinary iodine level was 0.18 +/- 0.02 micromol/l, and 10% of the subjects had a urinary iodine level below 0.08 micromol/l. Fifty-two percent of the subjects had a serum thyrotropin (TSH) level above 10 mU/l. All the subjects responded to the administration of iodine. and all of them recovered a euthyroid status. Most of them were still euthyroid at the end of the study. However. within 4 or even 2 months, some subjects (15 % of the total) reverted to hypothyroidism. At the entry of the study these subjects were all hypothyroid and had elevated TSH and paradoxically low serum thyroglobulin (TG) values. In myxoedematous cretins living in the same area, even lower serum TG levels were found. Together with the absence of goitre, a paradoxically low serum TG Suggests a low thyroid reserve, and in the present case a reduced amount of functional thyroid tissue. We show that the serum TG/TSH ratio may be used as a predictive index of thyroid reserve and of positive response to iodine administration. These data further suggest that thyroid damage is not confined to myxoedematous cretins. but is widely distributed in the phenotypically normal population. Widely distributed thyroid damage may render iodine prophylaxis based on oral administration unpredictable. PMID:8616533

  14. Concomitant Use of Topiramate Inducing Neutropenia in a Schizophrenic Male Stabilized on Clozapine.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pravesh; Davis, Jeffrey; Rachamallu, Vivekananda; Aligeti, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This is a case of a 23-year-old African American male with a history of paranoid schizophrenia that developed neutropenia on a clozapine-topiramate therapy. Clozapine had well addressed the patient's psychotic symptoms, while topiramate was used as a weight-lowering agent. The patient had fairly stable leukocyte counts for eight months on clozapine 300 mg and topiramate 100 mg daily. Doubling the dosage of topiramate led to severe neutropenia after two months. Reviewing the patient's laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of neutrophils occurring at a lower dosage, followed by a rapid decline after an increased dosage. In this case, we report that not only did topiramate act as the neutropenic agent, but also it might have done so in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26904343

  15. Concomitant Use of Topiramate Inducing Neutropenia in a Schizophrenic Male Stabilized on Clozapine

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pravesh; Davis, Jeffrey; Rachamallu, Vivekananda; Aligeti, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This is a case of a 23-year-old African American male with a history of paranoid schizophrenia that developed neutropenia on a clozapine-topiramate therapy. Clozapine had well addressed the patient's psychotic symptoms, while topiramate was used as a weight-lowering agent. The patient had fairly stable leukocyte counts for eight months on clozapine 300 mg and topiramate 100 mg daily. Doubling the dosage of topiramate led to severe neutropenia after two months. Reviewing the patient's laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of neutrophils occurring at a lower dosage, followed by a rapid decline after an increased dosage. In this case, we report that not only did topiramate act as the neutropenic agent, but also it might have done so in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:26904343

  16. Exaggerated Leftward Bias in the Mental Number Line of Patients with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavezian, Celine; Rossetti, Yves; Danckert, James; d'Amato, Thierry; Dalery, Jean; Saoud, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Several visuo-motor tasks can be used to demonstrate biases towards left hemispace in schizophrenic patients, suggesting a minor right hemineglect. Recent studies in neglect patients used a new number bisection task to highlight a lateralized defect in their visuo-spatial representation of numbers. To test a possible lateralized representational…

  17. [Treatment of psychotic patients with music therapy].

    PubMed

    Inselmann, U

    1995-01-01

    The present contribution describes the experience taken from music therapy of psychotic patients. The emotional and cognitive music perception and its possible influence on self perception and strengthening of ego are discussed. Since exercise instructions were limited the observed improvement of communication seems rather due to intra- and interpersonal effects of active improvisation than to a training process. With regard to schizophrenic patients possible effects of music therapy are discussed in the light of self-object-differentiation. PMID:7645316

  18. Efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program in a sample of schizophrenic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Gil-Sanz, David; Fernández-Modamio, Mar; Bengochea-Seco, Rosario; Arrieta-Rodríguez, Marta; Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela

    2014-02-01

    Objective: Social cognition is recognized to be a deficit in individuals suffering from schizophrenia. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between social cognition and social functioning in outpatients with schizophrenia through the use of different social cognition training programs. This study examines the efficacy of the Social Cognition Training Program (PECS in Spanish) in adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Methods: Data were derived from a sample of 44 non-hospitalized adult patients, who presented with a DSM-IV-R Axis I diagnosis of schizophrenia, and 39 healthy controls. Patients were divided into an experimental group and a control task group, that received cognitive training. Healthy controls did not receive any treatment. Sociodemographic and clinic variables correlates were computed. 2-way ANOVA was conducted to examine differences between groups in pre and post-treatment measures. Intragroup differences were explores using the paired-samples t-test. Results: At the end of the training, patients in the experimental group showed a higher performance compared to patients in the control task group, in the Hinting Task Test and in the emotion recognition of sadness, anger, fear, and disgust. Conclusions: The PECS proved to be effective in the improvement of some areas of theory of mind and emotion recognition, in outpatients with schizophrenia. The PECS is one of the first programs developed in Spanish to train social cognition, and the data obtained support the importance of expand the social cognition programs to non-English language samples. PMID:24496043

  19. Antigen-specific CD4 T cells are induced after intravesical BCG-instillation therapy in patients with bladder cancer and show similar cytokine profiles as in active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Elsäßer, Julia; Janssen, Martin W; Becker, Frank; Suttmann, Henrik; Schmitt, Kai; Sester, Urban; Stöckle, Michael; Sester, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Specific T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis is associated with a decrease in multifunctionality. However, it is unknown whether cytokine profiles differ in patients with primary infection and those with prior contact. We therefore used intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated live Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in patients with urothelial carcinoma as a model to characterise the induction of systemic immunity towards purified protein derivate (PPD) and to study whether cytokine profiles differ depending on pre-existing immunity. Eighteen patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer were recruited during the BCG-induction course. Fifty-four healthy individuals served as controls. Interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 producing PPD-specific CD4 T cells were analysed longitudinally before each instillation using a rapid flow-cytometric whole blood immunoassay. Baseline levels of IFN-γ producing PPD-specific T cells were comparable to controls. T cells showed a 5-fold increase to 0.23% by week 2/3, and further increased 8-fold by week 4/5 (to 0.42%, p=0.0007). Systemic immunity was induced in all patients, although the increase was less pronounced in patients with pre-existing immunity. As in active TB, cytokine profiling during therapy revealed a lower percentage of multifunctional IFN-γ/IL-2 double-positive T cells compared to controls (60.2% vs. 71.9%, p=0.0003). Of note, when comparing patients with and without pre-existing immunity, cytokine profiles in patients with primary immunity were shifted towards IL-2 single producing T cells (p=0.02), whereas those in patients with pre-existing immunity were shifted towards IFN-γ single-positivity (p=0.01). In conclusion, systemic T cell responses were induced after BCG-therapy, and their kinetics and cytokine profile depended on pre-existing immunity. Decreased functionality is a typical feature of specific immunity in both patients with active tuberculosis and BCG-therapy. Among patients with active infection, a shift towards IL-2 or IFN-γ single-positive cells may allow distinction between patients with primary infection and cases with boosted immunity after prior contact, respectively. PMID:24039703

  20. Antigen-Specific CD4 T Cells Are Induced after Intravesical BCG-Instillation Therapy in Patients with Bladder Cancer and Show Similar Cytokine Profiles as in Active Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Frank; Suttmann, Henrik; Schmitt, Kai; Sester, Urban; Stöckle, Michael; Sester, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Specific T cell immunity in patients with active tuberculosis is associated with a decrease in multifunctionality. However, it is unknown whether cytokine profiles differ in patients with primary infection and those with prior contact. We therefore used intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated live Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) in patients with urothelial carcinoma as a model to characterise the induction of systemic immunity towards purified protein derivate (PPD) and to study whether cytokine profiles differ depending on pre-existing immunity. Eighteen patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer were recruited during the BCG-induction course. Fifty-four healthy individuals served as controls. Interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 producing PPD-specific CD4 T cells were analysed longitudinally before each instillation using a rapid flow-cytometric whole blood immunoassay. Baseline levels of IFN-γ producing PPD-specific T cells were comparable to controls. T cells showed a 5-fold increase to 0.23% by week 2/3, and further increased 8-fold by week 4/5 (to 0.42%, p=0.0007). Systemic immunity was induced in all patients, although the increase was less pronounced in patients with pre-existing immunity. As in active TB, cytokine profiling during therapy revealed a lower percentage of multifunctional IFN-γ/IL-2 double-positive T cells compared to controls (60.2% vs. 71.9%, p=0.0003). Of note, when comparing patients with and without pre-existing immunity, cytokine profiles in patients with primary immunity were shifted towards IL-2 single producing T cells (p=0.02), whereas those in patients with pre-existing immunity were shifted towards IFN-γ single-positivity (p=0.01). In conclusion, systemic T cell responses were induced after BCG-therapy, and their kinetics and cytokine profile depended on pre-existing immunity. Decreased functionality is a typical feature of specific immunity in both patients with active tuberculosis and BCG-therapy. Among patients with active infection, a shift towards IL-2 or IFN-γ single-positive cells may allow distinction between patients with primary infection and cases with boosted immunity after prior contact, respectively. PMID:24039703

  1. Deficits in language-mediated mental operations in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Bruce E; Donegan, Nelson; Stevens, Alexander A; Jacob, Sharif A

    2002-01-15

    We found previously that a subgroup of schizophrenic patients who passed screening tests of attentional competence showed memory deficits on word memory tasks, but were comparable with controls on tone memory tasks. To better understand the nature of language-specific memory deficits in this subgroup of patients, the present experiment was designed to bypass early perceptual processing of verbal material and determine if patients continue to show impaired performance on verbal memory tasks. Patients who passed the screening tests ('discriminator' patients; DSz) received four serial position tasks. In two, familiar sounds or line drawings were presented and subjects were required to remember the word associated with each stimulus item. In the other two, subjects received hard-to-label auditory and visual stimuli (birdsongs or snowflakes).DSz patients showed large memory deficits compared with controls when required to remember words associated with the familiar sounds or drawings, providing clear evidence of deficits in verbal memory processes independent of sensory processing of verbal stimuli. The interaction between diagnosis and labeling was highly significant, confirming that these patients have particular difficulty with verbal as opposed to non-verbal memory. This was particularly striking on the auditory tests where two patients out-performed all controls on the birdsong test, but were below all controls on the easy-to-label sounds test. The verbal memory tests were easier than the non-verbal memory tests for controls, thus deconfounding task difficulty and deficit specificity. PMID:11738530

  2. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  3. Subjective Symptoms in Euthymic Bipolar Disorder and Remitted Schizophrenia Patients: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Mondal, Anwesha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Subjective experience means subtle, not yet psychotic abnormalities of experience that might be present during remitted phase and also in prodromal phase of schizophrenia and might be accurately efficient in identifying individuals at risk of eminent psychosis (Parnas et al., 2003). Apart from schizophrenic patients, bipolar patients also experience certain subjective symptoms in their euthymic state. They often experience subtle cognitive impairment and functional disturbances during their euthymic states. These subjective experiences may be related to distorted cognitive functions in these patients. These experiences include a great variety of cognitive dysfunction complaints about attention, perception, memory, thinking, language, movement, and emotion. Objective: To measure the experience of subjective symptoms and compare them between euthymic bipolar and remitted schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty euthymic bipolar patients and 30 remitted schizophrenia patients as per International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision were selected for the purpose of the study. At first, sociodemographic data were collected. And then, the patients were assessed using the scales; positive and negative syndrome scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-24. Results: Both the groups showed significant differences in terms of subjective symptoms. However, no significant correlation has been found between the objective psychopathology and subjective experience in the two groups. Conclusion: It can be suggested that the patients with schizophrenia show significantly higher subjective experience when compared with the patients of bipolar disorder. PMID:27114621

  4. A randomized controlled trial with a Canadian electronic pill dispenser used to measure and improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Stip, Emmanuel; Vincent, Philippe D.; Sablier, Juliette; Guevremont, Catherine; Zhornitsky, Simon; Tranulis, Constantin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Medication adherence is extremely important in preventing relapse and lowering symptoms in schizophrenic patients. However, estimates show that nearly half of these patients have poor adherence. The Brief Adherence Rating Scale (BARS) seems to be the most reliable tool assessing adherence in schizophrenia and shows that the antipsychotic adherence ratio (AAR) is about 49.5% in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test if an electronic pill dispenser named DoPill® improved AAR of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we compared AAR obtained by the DoPill® and the BARS, in order to verify whether the DoPill® provides reliable assessment of medication adherence. Methods: The DoPill® is a smart pill dispenser that beeps and flashes at the appropriate time of the day. Each of its 28 compartments is covered by a plastic lamina that, when taken off, sends a signal to the pharmacist. Patients were randomized to the DoPill® or treatment as usual groups for 6 weeks. The BARS was used as a reference measure. Results: Forty-six percent of patients were deemed to be non-adherent with antipsychotic medication. The mean AAR was 67% after 6 weeks. DoPill® recorded better AAR than some of those found in the literature and were lower than the BARS estimate we found. Conclusion: These results suggest that DoPill® is a valid tool that provides more reliable and objective data for the clinician about their patient’s adherence, than existing assessment tools like the BARS. Furthermore, the device may help patients successfully manage their medication regimen. PMID:23950746

  5. Differences between patients with schizophrenia with and without co-occurring methamphetamine use disorders in a Taiwanese public psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hua; Huang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Hung-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the factors related to and the outcomes of schizophrenic patients with co-occurring methamphetamine use disorders (MUDs). All schizophrenic patients discharged from a psychiatric hospital between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2006, were monitored. This study compared the important demographic and clinical variables between patients with co-occurring MUDs and those without, and postdischarge measured time to rehospitalization during a 1-year period. Seven hundred fifty-six patients were included in this study. Of these patients, 88 (11.6%) reported the use of methamphetamine. Univariate analyses indicated that male sex, low educational level, discharge against medical advice, missed first appointment after discharge, co-occurring other illicit substance use disorder, age (younger), diazepam equivalents prescribed at discharge (higher), number of previous admissions within the past 5 years (higher), and length of hospital stay (longer) were predictive of patients with co-occurring MUDs. There were also significant differences in time to rehospitalization between these two groups during the follow-up periods. Many factors can be identified in schizophrenic patients with co-occurring MUDs. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients with co-occurring MUDs were more likely to be rehospitalized. Future studies in many different mental health systems are needed before these findings can be generalized. PMID:25268153

  6. Microsatellite marker analysis shows differentiation among Trypanosoma cruzi populations of peripheral blood and dejections of Triatoma infestans fed on the same chronic chagasic patients : microsatellite marker analysis and T. cruzi.

    PubMed

    Venegas, Juan; Miranda, Sandra; Coñoepan, William; Pîchuantes, Sergio; Jercic, María Isabel; González, Christian; Gajardo, Marta; Apt, Werner; Arribada, Arturo; Sánchez, Gittith

    2010-09-01

    To investigate whether Trypanosoma cruzi populations found in chagasic cardiopathic and non-cardiopathic patients are genetically differentiated, three molecular microsatellite markers were analysed. This analysis was also applied to compare T. cruzi samples from peripheral blood or dejections of Triatoma infestans fed on the blood of the same patients. In order to obtain the first objective, analyses of predominant T. cruzi genotypes were conducted using three approaches: a locus-by-locus analysis; a Fisher method across three loci; and analysis of molecular variance by Genepop and Arlequin programs. Only with one locus and on the blood samples was a significant differentiation detected among non-cardiopathic and cardiopathic groups, which was not confirmed by the other two methods. On the contrary, with the three approaches, it was found that T. cruzi clones present in the blood of patients are genetically differentiated from those detected in dejections of T. infestans fed on the same patients. Our results showed that the most frequent lineage both in blood as well as in triatomine dejection samples was TcI. No significant difference in T. cruzi lineage distribution was observed among chagasic cardiopathic and non-cardiopathic patients. The majority of the samples (50-60%) had only one T. cruzi clone (uniclonal) either in blood or dejection samples. PMID:20585804

  7. Gray Matter Volume Decreases in Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia: A Voxel-based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Caroline; Schuller, Anne Marie; Paulos, Carlos; Namer, Izzie; Pull, Charles; Danion, Jean Marie; Foucher, Jack René

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aged patients (>50 years old) with residual schizophrenic symptoms differ from young patients. They represent a subpopulation with a more unfavorable Kraepelinian course and have an increased risk (up to 30%) for dementia of unknown origin. However, our current understanding of age-related brain changes in schizophrenia is derived from studies that included less than 17% of patients who were older than 50 years of age. This study investigated the anatomical distribution of gray matter (GM) brain deficits in aged patients with ongoing schizophrenia. Methods: Voxel-based morphometry was applied to 3D-T1 magnetic resonance images obtained from 27 aged patients with schizophrenia (mean age of 60 years) and 40 age-matched normal controls. Results: Older patients with schizophrenia showed a bilateral reduction of GM volume in the thalamus, the prefrontal cortex, and in a large posterior region centered on the occipito-temporo-parietal junction. Only the latter region showed accelerated GM volume loss with increasing age. None of these results could be accounted for by institutionalization, antipsychotic medication, or cognitive scores. Conclusions: This study replicated most common findings in patients with schizophrenia with regard to thalamic and frontal GM deficits. However, it uncovered an unexpected large region of GM atrophy in the posterior tertiary cortices. The latter observation may be specific to this aged and chronically symptomatic subpopulation, as atrophy in this region is rarely reported in younger patients and is accelerated with age. PMID:21205677

  8. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  9. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  10. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  11. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  12. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  13. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  14. Stem cells isolated from adipose tissue of obese patients show changes in their transcriptomic profile that indicate loss in stemcellness and increased commitment to an adipocyte-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The adipose tissue is an endocrine regulator and a risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease when by excessive accumulation induces obesity. Although the adipose tissue is also a reservoir for stem cells (ASC) their function and “stemcellness” has been questioned. Our aim was to investigate the mechanisms by which obesity affects subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) stem cells. Results Transcriptomics, in silico analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blots were performed on isolated stem cells from subcutaneous abdominal WAT of morbidly obese patients (ASCmo) and of non-obese individuals (ASCn). ASCmo and ASCn gene expression clustered separately from each other. ASCmo showed downregulation of “stemness” genes and upregulation of adipogenic and inflammatory genes with respect to ASCn. Moreover, the application of bioinformatics and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) showed that the transcription factor Smad3 was tentatively affected in obese ASCmo. Validation of this target confirmed a significantly reduced Smad3 nuclear translocation in the isolated ASCmo. Conclusions The transcriptomic profile of the stem cells reservoir in obese subcutaneous WAT is highly modified with significant changes in genes regulating stemcellness, lineage commitment and inflammation. In addition to body mass index, cardiovascular risk factor clustering further affect the ASC transcriptomic profile inducing loss of multipotency and, hence, capacity for tissue repair. In summary, the stem cells in the subcutaneous WAT niche of obese patients are already committed to adipocyte differentiation and show an upregulated inflammatory gene expression associated to their loss of stemcellness. PMID:24040759

  15. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2012-08-11

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  16. The Misdiagnosis of Black Patients with Manic Depressive Illness

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.; Mehta, Harshad

    1980-01-01

    It has been shown repeatedly that, contrary to earlier beliefs, blacks may well demonstrate similar prevalence rates for manic depressive illness when compared with whites. Yet the authors believe that black manic depressive patients are frequently misdiagnosed as being chronic undifferentiated schizophrenics and treated with major tranquilizers when lithium is the drug of choice. This contention is supported by three case histories and some institutional dynamics that cause this form of iatrogenic morbidity to continue to prey upon black psychiatric patients. PMID:7365814

  17. Ventricular Tachycardia and Early Fibrillation in Patients With Brugada Syndrome and Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Show Predictable Frequency-Phase Properties on the Precordial ECG Consistent With the Respective Arrhythmogenic Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, David; Atienza, Felipe; Saiz, Javier; Martínez, Laura; Ávila, Pablo; Rubín, José; Herreros, Benito; Arenal, Ángel; García-Fernández, Javier; Ferrer, Ana; Sebastián, Rafael; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Jalife, José

    2015-01-01

    Background— Ventricular fibrillation (VF) has been proposed to be maintained by localized high-frequency sources. We tested whether spectral-phase analysis of the precordial ECG enabled identification of periodic activation patterns generated by such sources. Methods and Results— Precordial ECGs were recorded from 15 ischemic cardiomyopathy and 15 Brugada syndrome (type 1 ECG) patients during induced VF and analyzed in the frequency-phase domain. Despite temporal variability, induced VF episodes lasting 19.6±7.9 s displayed distinctly high power at a common frequency (shared frequency, 5.7±1.1 Hz) in all leads about half of the time. In patients with Brugada syndrome, phase analysis of shared frequency showed a V1–V6 sequence as would be expected from patients displaying a type 1 ECG pattern (P<0.001). Hilbert-based phases confirmed that the most stable sequence over the whole VF duration was V1–V6. Analysis of shared frequency in ischemic cardiomyopathy patients with anteroseptal (n=4), apical (n=3), and inferolateral (n=4) myocardial infarction displayed a sequence starting at V1–V2, V3–V4, and V5–V6, respectively, consistent with an activation origin at the scar location (P=0.005). Sequences correlated with the Hilbert-based phase analysis (P<0.001). Posterior infarction (n=4) displayed no specific sequence. On paired comparison, phase sequences during monomorphic ventricular tachycardia correlated moderately with VF (P<0.001). Moreover, there was a dominant frequency gradient from precordial leads facing the scar region to the contralateral leads (5.8±0.8 versus 5.4±1.1 Hz; P=0.004). Conclusions— Noninvasive analysis of ventricular tachycardia and early VF in patients with Brugada syndrome and ischemic cardiomyopathy shows a predictable sequence in the frequency-phase domain, consistent with anatomic location of the arrhythmogenic substrate. PMID:26253505

  18. Semaphorin and plexin gene expression is altered in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia patients with and without auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Gilabert-Juan, Javier; Sáez, Ana Rosa; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo; Sebastiá-Ortega, Noelia; González-Martínez, Rocio; Costa, Juan; Haro, Josep María; Callado, Luis F; Meana, J Javier; Nacher, Juán; Sanjuán, Julio; Moltó, María Dolores

    2015-10-30

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are clinical hallmarks of schizophrenia, however little is known about molecular genetics of these symptoms. In this study, gene expression profiling of postmortem brain samples from prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients without AH (SNA), patients with AH (SA) and control subjects were compared. Genome-wide expression analysis was conducted using samples of three individuals of each group and the Affymetrix GeneChip Human-Gene 1.0 ST-Array. This analysis identified the Axon Guidance pathway as one of the most differentially expressed network among SNA, SA and CNT. To confirm the transcriptome results, mRNA level quantification of seventeen genes involved in this pathway was performed in a larger sample. PLXNB1, SEMA3A, SEMA4D and SEM6C were upregulated in SNA or SA patients compared to controls. PLXNA1 and SEMA3D showed down-regulation in their expression in the patient's samples, but differences remained statistically significant between the SNA patients and controls. Differences between SNA and SA were found in PLXNB1 expression which is decreased in SA patients. This study strengthens the contribution of brain plasticity in pathophysiology of schizophrenia and shows that non-hallucinatory patients present more alterations in frontal regions than patients with hallucinations concerning neural plasticity. PMID:26243375

  19. Corneal temperature in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Roni; Munitz, Hanan; Portuguese, Shirley; Gross-Isseroff, Ruth; Sigler, Mayanit; Bodinger, Liron; Katz, Nachum; Stryjer, Rafael; Hermesh, Haggai; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-12-01

    Most data imply that dopaminergic transmission is essential for proper hypothalamic-mediated core temperature regulation. Altered central dopaminergic transmission is suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Thus, hypothetically, schizophrenia patients might be at increased risk of developing thermoregulatory dysregulation manifested by alterations in core temperature, as well as in peripheral tissue, the temperature of which has been shown to correlate with core temperature (e.g. cornea). Previous small pilot studies of ours showed that schizophrenia patients may exhibit corneal temperature abnormalities. Hence, we assessed corneal temperature in a controlled sample of drug-free ( n =11) and medicated ( n =28) schizophrenia patients compared to healthy comparison subjects ( n =9), using a FLIR thermal imaging camera. Drug-free schizophrenia patients exhibited significantly higher corneal temperature compared to healthy subjects, typical antipsychotic drug (APD)-treated patients ( n =16) and atypical APD-treated patients ( n =12) (37.08+/-1.46 degrees C vs. 33.37+/-2.51 degrees C, 31.08+/-1.43 degrees C and 31.67+/-0.44 degrees C respectively, p <0.0001; p <0.001 vs. each group separately). The healthy comparison subjects and the atypical APD-treated patients exhibited comparable corneal temperatures and these two groups exhibited higher corneal temperatures compared to the typical APD-treated patients ( p <0.01 and p =0.051 respectively). In conclusion, this study indicates that drug-free schizophrenia patients exhibit substantially higher corneal temperature compared to healthy comparison subjects or medicated patients, and that APDs may decrease corneal temperature either to normal (atypical APD) or to subnormal (typical APD) values. The relevance of these phenomena to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the biological mechanism underlying drug-induced corneal temperature alterations, the possible role of temperature-lowering drugs (neuroleptics or non-neuroleptics) on schizophrenic psychosis as well as the role of corneal temperature as a tool to evaluate adherence to APD treatment merit further investigation via larger samples of both medicated and drug-free schizophrenia patients compared to matched controlled subjects. PMID:15927092

  20. The Gamma-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase to Platelet Ratio Does not Show Advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in Diagnosing Significant Fibrosis and Cirrhosis in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Huang, Yuxian; Li, Xinyan; Zhuo, Qibin; Li, Weixia; Chen, Chong; Lu, Chuan; Qi, Xun; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is a new liver fibrosis model, which is reported to be more accurate than aspartate transaminase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index based on the four factors (Fib-4) for diagnosing significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in West Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of GPR for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in Chinese CHB patients, and explore whether GPR deserves to be popularized in China. A total of 372 CHB patients who underwent liver biopsies and routine laboratory tests were retrospectively studied. The Scheuer scoring system was adopted as the pathological standard of liver fibrosis. Using liver histology as a gold standard, the diagnostic accuracies of GPR, APRI, and Fib-4 for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis are evaluated and compared by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curves (AUROCs). Of these 372 patients, 176 (47.3%), 129 (34.7%), and 72 (19.4%) were classified as having significant fibrosis (≥ S2), severe fibrosis (≥ S3), and cirrhosis (S4), respectively. The AUROCs of GPR for significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.78; P = 0.01), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.80; P = 0.04), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.83; P = 0.02) were lower than those of APRI. The AUROCs of GPR and Fib-4 for diagnosing significant fibrosis (0.72 vs. 0.70; P = 0.29), severe fibrosis (0.75 vs. 0.73; P = 0.33), and cirrhosis (0.78 vs. 0.75; P = 0.38) were comparable. GPR is a new serum diagnostic model for liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, but does not show advantages than APRI and Fib-4 in identifying significant fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis in CHB patients in China. PMID:27100421

  1. The first double-blind, randomised, parallel-group certolizumab pegol study in methotrexate-naive early rheumatoid arthritis patients with poor prognostic factors, C-OPERA, shows inhibition of radiographic progression

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Ishiguro, Naoki; Tanaka, Yoshiya; Eguchi, Katsumi; Watanabe, Akira; Origasa, Hideki; Yasuda, Shinsuke; Yamanishi, Yuji; Kita, Yasuhiko; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Shoji, Toshiharu; Okada, Toshiyuki; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate efficacy and safety of combination therapy using certolizumab pegol (CZP) and methotrexate (MTX) as first-line treatment for MTX-naive, early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with poor prognostic factors, compared with MTX alone. Methods MTX-naive, early RA patients with ≤12 months persistent disease, high anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, and either rheumatoid factor positive and/or presence of bone erosions were enrolled in this multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo (PBO)-controlled study. Patients were randomised 1:1 to CZP+MTX or PBO+MTX for 52 weeks. Primary endpoint was inhibition of radiographic progression (change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS CFB)) at week 52. Secondary endpoints were mTSS CFB at week 24, and clinical remission rates at weeks 24 and 52. Results 316 patients randomised to CZP+MTX (n=159) or PBO+MTX (n=157) had comparable baseline characteristics reflecting features of early RA (mean disease duration: 4.0 vs 4.3 months; Disease Activity Score 28-joint assessment (DAS28)) (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)): 5.4 vs 5.5; mTSS: 5.2 vs 6.0). CZP+MTX group showed significantly greater inhibition of radiographic progression relative to PBO+MTX at week 52 (mTSS CFB=0.36 vs 1.58; p<0.001) and week 24 (mTSS CFB=0.26 vs 0.86; p=0.003). Clinical remission rates (Simple Disease Activity Index, Boolean and DAS28 (ESR)) of the CZP+MTX group were significantly higher compared with those of the PBO+MTX group, at weeks 24 and 52. Safety results in both groups were similar, with no new safety signals observed with addition of CZP to MTX. Conclusions In MTX-naive early RA patients with poor prognostic factors, CZP+MTX significantly inhibited structural damage and reduced RA signs and symptoms, demonstrating the efficacy of CZP in these patients. Trial registration number (NCT01451203). PMID:26139005

  2. [Physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: psychopathological investigation of 10 patients].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    We previously reported two schizophrenic patients with characteristic hallucinations consisting of auditory hallucinations accompanied by visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The patient sees the face of the hallucinatory speaker in his/her mind and hears the voice talking inwardly. We termed these experiences physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations. In this report, we present 10 patients with schizophrenia showing physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations and evaluate the characteristics of these clinical symptoms. Moreover we consider what the symptoms mean for patients and the metabasis from structural aspects. Lastly, we consider how we can treat these patients living autistic lives with the symptoms. During physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations, the realistic face moves its mouth and talks to the patient expressively. In early onset cases, the faces of various real people appear talking about ordinary things while in late onset cases, the faces can be imaginary but are mainly real people talking about ordinary or delusional things. We suppose that these characteristics of the symptoms unify the schizophrenic world overwhelmed by "a force of non-sense" to "the sense field". "The force of non-sense" is a substantial power but cannot be reduced to the real meaning. And we suppose that not visual reality but the intensity of auditory hallucinations of the face brings about the overwhelming intensity of symptoms and the substantiality of this intensity depends on the states of excessive fullness of "the force of non-sense". With these symptoms patients see the narration of auditory hallucinations through the facial image and the content of auditory hallucinations is compressed into the movement of visual hallucinations of the speaker's face. The form of symptoms is realistic but the speaker's face and voice are beyond ordinary time and space. The symptoms are essentially different from ordinary perception. The visual hallucinations of the speaker's face in "physiognomy-accompanying auditory hallucinations" has the same structural nature as typical auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Further the symptoms are different from the organic hallucinations caused by the pathology of consciousness. After onset the patients seem to restructure their living world to coexist with the symptoms. What we can do in treatment is to regard coexistence with the symptoms as a way of life and consider the roles of the symptoms in the patients' world and grope for the possibility that the patients may be able to live without depending on the pathological world. PMID:21381294

  3. Emotional prosody modulates attention in schizophrenia patients with hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Alba-Ferrara, L; de Erausquin, G A; Hirnstein, M; Weis, S; Hausmann, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that emotional prosody (EP) attracts attention involuntarily (Grandjean et al., 2008). The automat shift of attention toward emotionally salient stimuli can be overcome by attentional control (Hahn et al., 2010). Attentional control is impaired in schizophrenia, especially in schizophrenic patients with hallucinations because the "voices" capture attention increasing the processing load and competing for top-down resources. The present study investigates how involuntary attention is driven by implicit EP in schizophrenia with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) and without (NAVH). Fifteen AVH patients, 12 NAVH patients and 16 healthy controls (HC) completed a dual-task dichotic listening paradigm, in which an emotional vocal outburst was paired with a neutral vocalization spoken in male and female voices. Participants were asked to report the speaker's gender while attending to either the left or right ear. NAVH patients and HC revealed shorter response times for stimuli presented to the attended left ear than the attended right ear. This laterality effect was not present in AVH patients. In addition, NAVH patients and HC showed faster responses when the EP stimulus was presented to the unattended ear, probably because of less interference between the attention-controlled gender voice identification task and involuntary EP processing. AVH patients did not benefit from presenting emotional stimuli to the unattended ear. The findings suggest that similar to HC, NAVH patients show a right hemispheric bias for EP processing. AVH patients seem to be less lateralized for EP and therefore might be more susceptible to interfering involuntary EP processing; regardless which ear/hemisphere receives the bottom up input. PMID:23459397

  4. A male patient presenting with major clinical symptoms of glucocorticoid deficiency and skeletal dysplasia, showing a steroid pattern compatible with 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, but without obvious CYP17 gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Adachi, M; Tachibana, K; Asakura, Y; Suwa, S; Nishimura, G

    1999-04-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old boy with delayed puberty, who presented a complexity of clinical problems. An analysis of steroid hormones led to a diagnosis of 17alpha-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency (17OHD). Unlike typical cases of 17OHD, however, the patient had pubertal development without medical intervention. In addition, he never exhibited the symptoms of mineralocorticoid excess, showing instead the symptoms of glucocorticoid deficiency, including fatigability, emaciation, and weight-loss induced by minor infection. He also had dysmorphic features, which comprised marfanoid habitus, arachnodactyly and putative craniosynostosis. The combination of these malformations substantially resembled that of Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome. Direct sequencing of the CYPl7 gene did not reveal any significant aberrations in the exons or exon-intron boundaries. We speculate that the association of partial combined 17OHD with the Shprintzen-Goldberg phenotype in the present patient may result from an aberration of a hitherto unknown gene that controls both steroid hormone synthesis and skeletal development. PMID:10460013

  5. Nicotine dependence, symptoms and oxidative stress in male patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang Yang; Tan, Yun Long; Zhou, Dong Feng; Haile, Colin N; Wu, Gui Ying; Cao, Lian Yuan; Kosten, Therese A; Kosten, Thomas R

    2007-09-01

    The high rate of smoking in schizophrenia may reflect patients' attempts to reduce the side effects of antipsychotic medications, and one mechanism for this reduction may be a reduction in oxidative stress and free radical-mediated brain damage that may contribute to schizophrenic symptoms and to complications of its treatment. Symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), side effects were assessed with the Simpson and Angus Rating Scale (SAS), and malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in plasma. All of these measures were compared in 130 male inpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia: 104 smokers and 26 non-smokers. The results showed that the positive PANSS symptoms were lower in smokers than non-smokers (14.5 vs 17.5), while the negative symptoms were lower in those who smoked more cigarettes (r=-0.23). The SAS showed no differences. The CAT activity was correlated with both GSH-Px and SOD activities. Of the three enzymes only the CAT activity was significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers (2.9 vs 1.6 U/ml), but greater SOD activity correlated more cigarettes smoked (r=0.24). Consistent with some protection against oxidative stress, MDA also was significantly lower in smokers than non-smokers (9.2 vs 14.4 nmol/ml). The fewer positive symptoms in smokers and fewer negative symptoms in those who smoked more cigarettes may be a selection bias, but appears to be associated with decreased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in schizophrenics who smoke tobacco. PMID:17228336

  6. [Being a long-term patient: chronicity and institutional clinic approach].

    PubMed

    Renonciat, Clémence

    2013-01-01

    Some patients, especially schizophrenics, are hospitalised for a long time in psychiatric units. Evolving in a subjective and discontinued space-time, these "chronic" patients destabilise the professionals who support them in their daily life and in their "projects". Community psychiatry settles chronicity inside health care function by ensuring these patients are offered continuity as well as the layout of a subjective pathway. PMID:24059143

  7. Manic Symptoms during a Switch from Paliperidone ER to Paliperidone Palmitate in a Patient with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Keleş, Süleyman; Demirdaş, Arif; Korucu, Cafer Çağrı

    2015-01-01

    Some antipsychotic drugs have treatment efficacy for mania and bipolar disorder. However, these drugs may rarely cause manic symptoms in some schizophrenic patients. We hereby report a 22-year-old female patient with schizophrenia who experienced a manic episode during a switch from paliperidone ER to paliperidone palmitate. This case is an important reminder that an abrupt switch from oral paliperidone to paliperidone palmitate may predispose certain patients to hypomanic or manic symptoms. PMID:26539300

  8. Manic Symptoms during a Switch from Paliperidone ER to Paliperidone Palmitate in a Patient with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Kadir; Keleş, Süleyman; Demirdaş, Arif; Korucu, Cafer Çağrı

    2015-01-01

    Some antipsychotic drugs have treatment efficacy for mania and bipolar disorder. However, these drugs may rarely cause manic symptoms in some schizophrenic patients. We hereby report a 22-year-old female patient with schizophrenia who experienced a manic episode during a switch from paliperidone ER to paliperidone palmitate. This case is an important reminder that an abrupt switch from oral paliperidone to paliperidone palmitate may predispose certain patients to hypomanic or manic symptoms. PMID:26539300

  9. [The changes of the function of lymphocytes natural killers in schizophrenics].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, E F; Kushner, S G; Abramova, L I; Kaleda, V G; Tsutsul'kovskaia, M Iu

    2002-01-01

    Cytotoxic activity and lymphocyte natural killers (NK) number as well as gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN) production were studied in patients with paranoid (22 patients) and progressive attack-like (39 patients) schizophrenia (47 male and 14 female patients aged 16-62 years). Compared to controls, a decrease of NK activity and a trend towards gamma-IFN production decrease were found. In the patients, NK lymphocytes number was not changed. Cytotoxic activity was reduced only in the male patients, a frequency of cases with lower activity level being the highest in those with more severe form of paranoid schizophrenia. A significant difference of both indices was detected between men and women. In the men, the longer was the disease duration, the higher was cytotoxic activity and lymphocyte number increase. It was shown in vitro that monocytes are not involved in mechanisms changing the level of lymphocyte cytotoxicity in the patients and immune modulator enkad stimulats cytotoxic activity in the male patients. PMID:12233256

  10. Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158076.html Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise Baricitinib helped patients who failed other ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis showed promise in a new six-month trial. ...

  11. Increased anti-streptococcal antibodies in patients with Tourette's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Müller, N; Riedel, M; Straube, A; Günther, W; Wilske, B

    2000-04-24

    Infection or postinfectious phenomena have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of children afflicted with the typical symptoms of Tourette's syndrome (TS). We investigated whether an increase of titers of antistreptococcal antibodies can be reproduced in our children with TS, and whether this increase is restricted to children. We examined the titers of two different antistreptococcal antibodies, antistreptolysin (ASL) and anitDNase B, both in children and adults. Titer s of ASO and antiDNase B were measured (1) in 13 children/adolescents suffering from TS and in an aged-matched comparison group;(2) in 23 adult patients, a comparison group of 23 aged-matched controls, and in another group of 17 aged-matched, non-medicated acute schizophrenics. ASO and antiDNase B titers were determined by laser nephelometry using a commercially available kit. Two antistreptococcal cut-off levels were compared (> 250 U/ml and 400 U/ml). As expected, increases ASO titers (>400 IU/ml) were found in a higher portion of children/adolescents with TS compared to controls. Regarding adults, titers >250 U/ml for both antistreptococcal antigens were found in significantly more TS patients than in schizophrenic patients or healthy control subjects. The mean values of ASO and antiDNase titers were significantly higher in both groups of TS patients compared to control children/adolescents, to the comparison groups of healthy adults and to schizophrenics. No difference in antistreptococcal titers was found between schizophrenics and the group of healthy adults. TS patients exhibited higher antistreptococcal titers than age-matched comparison groups of both children/adolescents and adults using different types of calculation. Our findings support the theory that a postinfectious immune mechanism may play a role in the pathogenesis of TS. The mechanism still needs to be elucidated. PMID:10788676

  12. Gender Differences in Remission and Recovery of Schizophrenic and Schizoaffective Patients: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Carpiniello, Bernardo; Pinna, Federica; Tusconi, Massimo; Zaccheddu, Enrico; Fatteri, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to evaluate rates of clinical remission and recovery according to gender in a cohort of chronic outpatients attending a university community mental health center who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder according to DSM-IV-TR. A sample of 100 consecutive outpatients (70 males and 30 females) underwent comprehensive psychiatric evaluation using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis of Axis I and II DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II, Version R) and an assessment of psychopathology, social functioning, clinical severity, subjective wellbeing, and quality of life, respectively by means of PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), PSP (Personal and Social Performance), CGI-SCH (Clinical Global Impression—Schizophrenia scale), SWN-S (Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics—scale), and WHOQOL (WHO Quality of Life). Rates of clinical remission and recovery according to different criteria were calculated by gender. Higher rates of clinical remission and recovery were generally observed in females than males, a result consistent with literature data. Overall findings from the paper support the hypothesis of a better outcome of the disorders in women, even in the very long term. PMID:22966440

  13. [Psychotherapy of positive symptoms in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia psychosis].

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, G; Klingberg, S

    2003-01-01

    While the treatment of positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenic psychosis appeared until recently to be solely pharmacotherapeutic, new research findings show the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy (CBT) on positive symptoms in chronic psychotic patients. In addition, the effectiveness even in acute and recent-onset psychosis could be shown in some studies. The effects of CBT and standard care in psychosis compared to standard care alone and to other psychosocial interventions plus standard care are reviewed. The results of several studies and one meta-analysis show that CBT in schizophrenia patients has a direct effect on psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations as well as on relapse prevention. In routine settings,however,CBT has until now only rarely been delivered to these patients. In so-called large pragmatic trials, which might be subsumed as phase IIIb studies, the effects are tested. The therapeutic approach with the components of CBT for psychosis are described: building a therapeutic relationship, cognitive-behavioural coping strategies, developing an understanding of the experience of psychosis,working on hallucinations and delusions, addressing negative self-evaluations, anxiety, and depression,managing risk of relapse and social disability. Further clinical implications are described (capability of learning the therapeutic strategies, deliverability in broader clinical settings, acceptability by patients, combination with atypical neuroleptic drugs,and treatment of choice in risk populations). PMID:12596031

  14. [Stabilisation of post-acute stage schizophrenics: from the hospital to the city].

    PubMed

    Dammak, A; Stiti, M; Vacheron, M N

    2014-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating disease that usually begins in young adulthood, at a time when a person would usually make the transition to independent living, but it can occur at any age. The symptoms and behaviour associated with psychosis and schizophrenia have a distressing impact on the individual, and the family. The course of schizophrenia varies considerably. Although most patients will recover, some will have persisting difficulties or remain vulnerable to future episodes. Therefore, stabilisation of patients in acute phases and avoidance of relapse are major objectives of management throughout the course of this disease. The purpose of this article is to clarify the stabilisation, to study the contributing factors and strategies to implement to achieve stability, through a literature review and key guidelines. Thus, the patient is stabilised when productive symptoms and behavioural problems have decreased. So, the stable phase represents a prolonged period of treatment and rehabilitation during which symptoms are under adequate control and the focus is on improving functioning and recovery. Important predictive criteria of stabilisation include: positive symptoms, the number of previous relapses, cooperation with the patient and family, good adherence to treatment and the use of long acting injectable second-generation antipsychotics. After an acute relapse, the careful organization of the discharge and the development of a proposed ambulatory care in tailored care structures will help consolidate stabilisation and obtain remission. Accepting the idea of continuing treatment is a complex decision in which the psychiatrist plays a central role beside patients and their families. The course of integrated actions on modifiable risk factors such as psychosocial support, addictive comorbidities, identification of prodromes, active information for the therapeutic education of patients and families and access to care will also be supported. This would improve the functional abilities of patients, their social adaptation and particularly their quality of life. PMID:25238904

  15. Synthesis and pH-responsive "schizophrenic" aggregation of a linear-dendron-like polyampholyte based on oppositely charged polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lili; Chen, Tao; Fang, Wenxiang; Wen, Ying; Lin, Shaoliang; Lin, Jiaping; Cai, Chunhua

    2013-12-01

    A novel linear-dendron-like polyampholyte, poly(L-lysine)-b-D2-poly(L-glutamic acid) [PLL-b-D2-(PLGA)4], where D2 is the second generation of poly(amido amine), was prepared by hydrolyzing poly(ε-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysine)-b-D2-poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) copolymer which was synthesized via a combination of ring-opening polymerization and click chemistry. The pH-responsive self-assembly behaviors of PLL-b-D2-(PLGA)4 were investigated in detail. It is found that PLL-b-D2-(PLGA)4 can self-assemble into PLGA-core aggregates at acidic pH and PLL-core aggregates at alkaline pH, which was accompanied with the coil-to-helix conformational transition of PLGA and PLL segments, respectively. The self-assembled aggregates with various morphologies, such as large compound micelles, worm-like micelles, large compound vesicles, simple vesicles, and rigid tubular structures have been obtained in "schizophrenic" aggregation process with simply increasing the solution pH. The hierarchical assembled fractal structures of PLL-b-D2-(PLGA)4 were observed during the solvent evaporation at high pH value. PMID:24219355

  16. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.; Preus, Alexander P.; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2009-01-01

    We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called “default network”, a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

  17. A Cognitive Neuroscience View of Schizophrenic Symptoms: Abnormal Activation of a System for Social Perception and Communication.

    PubMed

    Wible, Cynthia G; Preus, Alexander P; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2009-03-01

    We will review converging evidence that language related symptoms of the schizophrenic syndrome such as auditory verbal hallucinations arise at least in part from processing abnormalities in posterior language regions. These language regions are either adjacent to or overlapping with regions in the (posterior) temporal cortex and temporo-parietal occipital junction that are part of a system for processing social cognition, emotion, and self representation or agency. The inferior parietal and posterior superior temporal regions contain multi-modal representational systems that may also provide rapid feedback and feed-forward activation to unimodal regions such as auditory cortex. We propose that the over-activation of these regions could not only result in erroneous activation of semantic and speech (auditory word) representations, resulting in thought disorder and voice hallucinations, but could also result in many of the other symptoms of schizophrenia. These regions are also part of the so-called "default network", a network of regions that are normally active; and their activity is also correlated with activity within the hippocampal system. PMID:19809534

  18. Depressive Symptoms during an Acute Schizophrenic Episode: Frequency and Clinical Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Depressive symptoms are common in schizophrenia and are associated with poorer functioning, lower quality of life, and an elevated risk of suicidal behaviour. There are few studies on the occurrence and correlates of these symptoms in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia. Method. 72 acutely ill patients with schizophrenia were assessed for depression using the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS). A cut-off score of ≥6 on the CDSS was used to identify clinically significant depressive symptoms. The relationship between depression and illness variables, including psychotic symptom dimensions as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS), was examined. Results. Eleven (15.3%) patients had clinically significant depressive symptoms. These patients scored higher on the positive and general psychopathology scales of the PANSS and had higher rates of suicidal behavior and poorer functioning. The severity of depressive symptoms was positively correlated with the PANSS positive subscale and negatively correlated with the PANSS negative subscale. Discussion. These findings confirm previous reports that depressive symptoms in active schizophrenia is related to the severity of positive psychotic symptoms and is a risk factor for suicidal behaviour in these patients. PMID:26664745

  19. [How dangerous are patients with mental disorders?].

    PubMed

    Haller, Reinhard; Dittrich, Isabel; Kocsis, Esther

    2004-08-01

    The question of potential violence on the part of people with a mental disease has caused considerable controversy in recent decades. While in the eighties the prevailing opinion was that they have no increased risk of aggression, recent studies, especially from Scandinavia and Canada, show a moderate but reliable coherence between violent crime and paranoid and schizophrenic diseases. The danger of people with a mental disease is assessed essentially through the following five study-approaches: Studies to assess the criminal rate of hospitalised patients, the prevalence of mental disorder, studies on prisoners who are committed to a psychiatric facility, and long-term analyses of cohorts. Special emphasis is attached to investigations on homicides. Other investigative questions are concerned with the influence of psychopathological symptoms, the importance of comorbid disturbances and sociological aspects. The studies agree that the risk of violence is decisively increased in people who suffer from schizophrenia, through additional substance abuse, comorbidity with personality disorders, absence of treatment and social desintegration. An unprejudiced approach to this sensitive theme of aggression in people with schizophrenia with regard to further effective prevention and therapy is required. PMID:15490764

  20. Relationship Between Metabolic Syndrome and Clinical Features, and Its Personal-Social Performance in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Saatcioglu, Omer; Kalkan, Murat; Fistikci, Nurhan; Erek, Sakire; Kilic, Kasim Candas

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria and also to investigate the effects of MS on medical treatment, clinical course and personal and social performance in patients with schizophrenia. One hundred-sixteen patients with schizophrenia were included in the study. Measurements of MS were calculated in all patients. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) were applied. The frequency of MS according to IDF criteria was 42.2 % among the patients. There was no significant difference between patients with and without MS in terms of age. The ratios of MS were 62.5 % for the group taking typical and atypical antipsychotics together and 35.7 % for the group taking two or more atypical antipsychotics together. The duration of disorder in patients with MS was higher than those without MS. Furthermore there was no significant difference between the schizophrenic patients with and without MS, in terms of PSP scores. Our findings showed that the duration of illness, high scores of BMI, use of clozapine or concurrent use of typical and atypical antipsychotics, depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were significant risk factors for the development of MS. PMID:26174109

  1. FAMILY ENVIRONMENT OF PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS: STUDY OF A NORTH INDIAN SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Preet; Gautam, Shiv

    1992-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out the relationship of family environment to schizophrenia, affective disorders and neurosis in comparison to control group matched on socio-economic status in a North Indian Sample. 600 subjects-150 schizophrenic patients, 150 patients with affective disorders, 150 neurotics, diagnosed according to ICD-9, were studied. Results (one way ANOVA) revealed that there exists a significant difference in family environment of three categories of patients with psychiatric disorders as well as in comparison to control group. Significantly low scores of cohesiveness, independence, expressiveness, active-recreational orientation and organization, control and moral religious emphasis were found in schizophrenics. Similarly in the families of patients with affective disorders there were less cohesion and control and more expressiveness, conflict, independence and moralrelegious emphasis, while the family of neurotics had low levels of cohesion, intellectual-cultural orientation, active-recreational orientation, organisation and control. PMID:21776125

  2. [The newest therapeutic directions in the rehabilitation of patients with mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Wilkos, Ewelina; Tylec, Aneta; Kułakowska, Dorota; Kucharska, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors attempted to present the comprehensive literature review on the newest therapeutic interventions such as cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), social cognition and interaction training (SCIT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) which appeared promising whilst their implementing among schizophrenic patients, patients with anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and affective disorders. In the presented work particular attention was focused on two kinds of psychotherapeutic interventions: social cognitive trainings and cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) and their effectiveness in the rehabilitation process of schizophrenic patients. The growing body of research based on application of the above mentioned techniques in psychiatric population gives remarkable hope to improve quality of cognitive and psychosocial therapeutic interventions and to set up both complex and comprehensive therapeutic programme for patients with mental disorders. PMID:24946469

  3. [Specific features and problems in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenic psychoses in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Fegert, J M

    2002-10-01

    The present article reviews the specific problems of the off-label use of atypical and typical neuroleptics in the treatment of adolescent patients with schizophrenia. There is a considerable gap in the empirical knowledge of treatment efficacy and long term safety in adult populations as compared to children and adolescents. This means that in most in-patients with early onset schizophrenia some sort of typical or atypical neuroleptic drug is currently used beyond license. From a legal point of view there is no protection for treated children or adolescents and their parents as the manufacturer of these pharmaceutical products does not assume liability for off-label use. Whether the doctor can be held liable in these cases, depends on the quality of the information he provides to his patients and the patients' consent. Legal changes such as the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) and Pediatric Rule in the USA have brought forward more research to the benefit of children and adolescents. In 2002 a trend has been noticed in both the European and the German Parliament to improve the general conditions for using drugs that are well-established in adult medicine for the treatment of children. PMID:12474310

  4. Thirty Days without a Bite: Wernicke’s Encephalopathy in a Patient with Paranoid Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Mélanie; Doré, Marie-Claire; Laforce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Wernicke’s Encephalopathy (WE) is a preventable neurologic condition characterized by altered mental status, ophthalmoplegia, and ataxia. Although historically associated with alcoholism, a few authors have described WE in patients with non-alcohol related psychiatric disorders. We report herein the case of a 36-year-old young man with paranoid schizophrenia who was brought to hospital for confusion and difficulties with his vision. His roommate said he had gone about thirty days without eating ‘…because he was on a slimming cure’. History and physical examination suggested WE as a result of isolation and poor diet leading to nutritional deficiency. This was confirmed by brain magnetic resonance imaging showing classic thalamic, mammillary bodies and brainstem lesions. Of note, his cognitive profile was far more heterogeneous than what had classically been described in the literature and involved both cortical and subcortical pathology, generating memory but also significant executive deficits. Intravenous treatment with thiamine was given and our patient showed mild improvements in visual acuity and nystagmus. However, persistent cognitive and physical disabilities consistent with Korsakoff syndrome remained, and he now lives in a supervised home. This case illustrates the tragic consequences of nutritional deficiencies in a patient with paranoid schizophrenia. The threshold to suspect WE in schizophrenic patients should be lowered and in doubt prophylactic parenteral thiamine should be administered. PMID:27088109

  5. Metastatic breast cancer in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    MEYER, AARON A.; HWANG, M.; FARASATPOUR, M.; JANARDHAN, R.; MARGENTHALER, J.A.; VIRGO, K.S.; JOHNSON, FRANK E.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major health problem worldwide. The median survival duration for patients with metastatic breast cancer is two to three years. Approximately 1% of populations worldwide have schizophrenia. The manner in which schizophrenic patients fare when diagnosed with metastatic breast carcinoma (MBC) was evaluated. We queried the National Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA) datasets using computer codes for a pre-existing diagnosis of schizophrenia and a later diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Chart-based data concerning the identified subjects were then requested. Previously determined inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select evaluable patients from the medical records, prior to extracting demographic details and data concerning the treatment course in each subject. Ten patients had distant metastases at initial diagnosis, while seven developed MBC following prior curative-intent treatment. Two patients refused therapy. Ten did not comply with recommended management. Five harmed or threatened physicians, other caregivers or themselves. Schizophrenic patients with MBC often fail to understand the nature of their illnesses. Often they do not accept palliative treatment, while a number of them do not comply with therapy, once initiated. They often exhibit behaviors that are detrimental to themselves or others. Formal psychiatric consultation is therefore necessary in patients. Several detrimental behaviors may be predicted reliably by history alone. PMID:24649175

  6. Influencing Factors and Predictors of Early Response in Schizophrenia Patients Receiving the Paliperidone Extended-Release Tablets (Paliperidone ER)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Ho; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Yong-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Objective Paliperidone extended-release tablet (paliperidone ER) is a new oral psychotropic agent developed for schizophrenia treatment. There have been some studies about paliperidone's good efficacy and tolerability. Clinicians appear to change the antipsychotic medication to paliperidone ER. However, it is not known what patients are favorable responsive to paliperidone ER. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of early responders and investigate predictors of acute response when the medications changed to paliperidone ER. Methods Data were analyzed from schizophrenic patients who participated in a multi-center, open-label, non-comparative clinical trial. Total 320 patients were examined in this study. Sociodemographic, psychopathology, social function and metabolic data were evaluated. Unpaired t-test for continuous and χ2 for categorical data, respectively, were used to compare early responder and non-responders. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish a prediction model. Results 38.7% of study subjects (124 of 320) responded to paliperidone ER treatment. Logistic regression analysis showed that a good paliperidone ER response was more likely when patients were social drinkers, when patients had started medication at inpatient, when negative symptoms were less severe, and when patients' social relationship and self-care were better. Conclusion Early response to paliperidone ER treatment is associated with less negative symptoms and good social relationships and self-care. Strategies to reduce these symptoms may contribute to early response to paliperidone ER. PMID:24474991

  7. New Drug Shows Promise Against Severe Sinusitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157064.html New Drug Shows Promise Against Severe Sinusitis In early ... more severe patients are the target of the new treatment option," explained study author Dr. Claus Bachert, ...

  8. Elevated risks for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and blood disorders in Ashkenazi schizophrenic pedigrees suggest new candidate genes in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, A.B.

    1994-09-15

    Among relatives of Ashkenazi schizophrenic probands the rate of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 3/1,000, compared to expected population rates of approximately 2/100,000. Relative risk of bleeding disorders, including hematologic cancers, was increased more than three-fold compared to controls. Co-occurrence of motor neuron disease and blood dyscrasias, accompanied by psychosis, has long been recognized. A virally-mediated autoimmune pathogenesis has been proposed. However, the familial co-occurrence of these three disease entities raises the possibility that the disease constellation be considered as a manifestation of a common underlying genetic defect. Such expansion of the spectrum of affectation might enhance the power of both candidate gene and linkage studies. Based on these findings, the loci suggested as candidate regions in schizophrenia include a potential hot spot on chromosome 21q21-q22, involving the superoxide dismutase and amyloid precursor protein genes. Alternatively, genes on other chromosomes involved in the expression, transcription, or regulation of these genes, or associated with the illnesses of high frequency in these pedigrees are suggested. Candidates include the choroid plexus transport protein, transthyretin at 18q11.2-q12.1; the t(14;18)(q22;21) characterizing B-cell lymphoma-2, the most common form of hematologic cancer; and the 14q24 locus of early onset Alzheimer`s disease, c-Fos, transforming growth factor beta 3, and heat shock protein A2. Expression of hematologic cancers and the suggested candidate genes are known to involve retinoid pathways, and retinoid disregulation has been proposed as a cause of schizophrenia. 67 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Candida tropicalis Shows the Presence of Different Clonal Clusters and Fluconazole Susceptibility Profiles in Sequential Isolates from Candidemia Patients in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; de Freitas, Vera Lúcia Teixeira; Motta, Adriana Lopes; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The profiles of 61 Candida tropicalis isolates from 43 patients (28 adults and 15 children) diagnosed with candidemia at two teaching hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). For the 14 patients who had bloodstream infections, 32 isolates were serially collected from their blood and/or catheters. Thirty-nine diploid sequence types (DSTs) were differentiated. According to the C. tropicalis MLST database (http://pubmlst.org/ctropicalis/), 36 DSTs and 23 genotypes identified from the 61 isolates had not previously been described. This report represents the first study to characterize sequential isolates of C. tropicalis from candidemia cases in South America. Microvariation in a single gene was found in the sequential isolates from 7 patients. The main polymorphisms occurred in the alleles of the XYR1 gene, specifically at nucleotide positions 215, 242, and 344. Macrovariation in six gene fragments was detected in the isolates from 3 patients. eBURST analysis added two new groups to this study (groups 6 and 18). Additionally, susceptibility tests indicate that 3 isolates were resistant to fluconazole. No correlation was found between the DSTs and susceptibility to fluconazole and/or selective antifungal pressure. Two patients were sequentially infected with resistant and susceptible strains. MLST is an important tool for studying the genetic diversity of multiple/sequential isolates of patients with candidemia, allowing the comparison of our data with those from other regions of the world, as well as allowing an analysis of the genetic relationship among several clones in sequential isolates from the same or different candidemia patient sites (blood or catheter). PMID:23152555

  10. Alterations of Functional and Structural Networks in Schizophrenia Patients with Auditory Verbal Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiajia; Wang, Chunli; Liu, Feng; Qin, Wen; Li, Jie; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2016-01-01

    Background: There have been many attempts at explaining the underlying neuropathological mechanisms of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia on the basis of regional brain changes, with the most consistent findings being that AVH are associated with functional and structural impairments in auditory and speech-related regions. However, the human brain is a complex network and the global topological alterations specific to AVH in schizophrenia remain unclear. Methods: Thirty-five schizophrenia patients with AVH, 41 patients without AVH, and 50 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The whole-brain functional and structural networks were constructed and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. Inter-group differences in global network metrics (including small-world properties and network efficiency) were investigated. Results: We found that three groups had a typical small-world topology in both functional and structural networks. More importantly, schizophrenia patients with and without AVH exhibited common disruptions of functional networks, characterized by decreased clustering coefficient, global efficiency and local efficiency, and increased characteristic path length; structural networks of only schizophrenia patients with AVH showed increased characteristic path length compared with those of healthy controls. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that less “small-worldization” and lower network efficiency of functional networks may be an independent trait characteristic of schizophrenia, and regularization of structural networks may be the underlying pathological process engaged in schizophrenic AVH symptom expression. PMID:27014042

  11. Assessment of the need for care 15 years after onset of a Dutch cohort of patients with schizophrenia, and an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, D; Nienhuis, F J; Giel, R; de Jong, A; Slooff, C J

    1996-06-01

    Assessment of needs for care is crucial in the evaluation of ongoing changes from institutional care to various forms of day- and outpatient treatment. Do patients really do better in the community and are they adequately cared for? The 15-year follow-up of a Dutch incidence cohort of patients with schizophrenia and other functional non-affective psychoses showed that 47 (out of 63) patients had positive ratings of symptoms and disabilities. They were assessed by means of the Needs for Care Assessment Schedule, which articulates the problems and corresponding interventions resulting in a judgement of met or unmet need for treatment or assessment. There was a mean of 2.1 clinical problems and 2.1 social problems per patient. Few problems were considered to generate unmet needs: 14% of the clinical problems and only 7% of the social problems. Nevertheless, 32% of the patients had one or more unmet needs. These results were compared with data from six research centres in the United Kingdom (Camberwell, Oxford and South Glamorgan), Canada (Montreal), Italy (Verona) and Finland (Tampere). Despite differences in health care settings in the four countries, the ratio of met to unmet needs (about 4-5 to 1) among chronic, mostly schizophrenic patients is more or less the same with the exception of an apparently underserved hostel population in Oxford and the Finnish patient population probably due to high expectations with respect to independent community living. PMID:8766456

  12. No association of dopamine D2 receptor molecular variant Cys311 and schizophrenia in Chinese patients

    SciTech Connect

    Chia-Hsiang Chen; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Hai-Gwo Hwu

    1996-07-26

    A serine-to-cysteine mutation of dopamine D2 receptor at codon 311 (Cys311) was found to have higher frequency in schizophrenic patients than in normal controls in Japanese by Arinami et al. The Cys311 allele was found to be associated with patients with younger age-of-onset, positive family history, and more positive symptoms. To investigate the possible involvement of Cys311 in schizophrenia in the Chinese population, 114 unrelated Taiwanese Chinese schizophrenic patients with positive family history and 88 normal controls were genotyped for Cys311. Four patients and 5 normal controls were heterozygotes of Ser311/Cys311; no homozygotes of Cys311 were identified in either group. The allele frequencies of Cys311 in Chinese schizophrenic patients and normal controls were 2% and 3%, respectively. No significant difference was detected between the two groups. Our results do not support the argument that the Cys311 allele of DRD2 poses a genetic risk for certain types of schizophrenia in Chinese populations. 18 refs.

  13. Social functioning among older community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia: a review.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Paul D; Stek, Max L; Comijs, Hannie C; de Haan, Lieuwe; Patterson, Thomas L; Eikelenboom, Piet; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2010-10-01

    Social dysfunction is a hallmark of schizophrenia and a major constituent of its burden of disease. There is a need for more data on social functioning of older schizophrenic patients, because their numbers are rapidly growing and most are residing within the community. This article reviews existing evidence on social functioning in community-dwelling schizophrenic patients older than 55 years, focusing on social roles, social support, and social skills. Thirty-six publications proved fit for inclusion in the review. Studies from outside the United States were underrepresented. The available data suggest that the majority of older schizophrenic patients are well behind their healthy age-peers with respect to various aspects of social functioning. At the same time, a considerable heterogeneity among patients can be found. Cognitive abilities feature as a factor of major impact on social functioning, outweighing clinical symptoms. When evaluating social functioning both objective and subjective appraisals should be taken into account, because they may highlight different aspects of social functioning. Social support, impact of gender, and specific characteristics of older-old patients figure among areas that should be given priority in future research of social functioning in late life schizophrenia. PMID:20808137

  14. Performance on a pattern separation task by Alzheimer’s patients shows possible links between disrupted dentate gyrus activity and apolipoprotein E ∈4 status and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β42 levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Emerging evidence suggests that decreased adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents an early critical event in the course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In mice, adult neurogenesis is reduced by knock-in alleles for human apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ∈4. Decreased dentate gyrus (DG) neural progenitor cells proliferation has been observed in the triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD); this reduction being directly associated with the presence of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and an increase in the number of Aβ-containing neurons in the hippocampus. Cognitive tasks involving difficult pattern separations have been shown to reflect DG activity and thus potentially neurogenesis in both animals and man. This study involved the administration of a pattern separation paradigm to Alzheimer’s patients to investigate relationships between task performance and both ApoE status and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 levels. Methods The CDR System pattern separation task involves the presentation of pictures that must later be discriminated from closely similar pictures. This paper presents pattern separation data from 66 mild to moderate AD patients, of which 50 were genotyped and 65 in whom CSF Aβ42 was measured. Results ApoE ∈4 homozygotes were not compromised on the easy pattern separations compared with the other patients, but they were statistically significantly poorer at the difficult separations. In all patients CSF Aβ42 correlated significantly with the ability to make the difficult discriminations, but not easier discriminations. Pattern separation speed correlated negatively with CSF Aβ42, and thus the association was not due to increased impulsivity. Conclusions These are, to our knowledge, the first human pattern separation data to suggest a possible genetic link to poor hippocampal neurogenesis in AD, as well as a relationship to Aβ42. Therapies which target neurogenesis may thus be useful in preventing the early stages of AD, notably in ApoE ∈4 homocygotes. PMID:24735568

  15. Deep Sequencing of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Baseline Drug Resistance Showed No Indications for Hidden Resistance and Is Biased by Strong Interference of Hypermutation.

    PubMed

    Dauwe, Kenny; Staelens, Delfien; Vancoillie, Leen; Mortier, Virginie; Verhofstede, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Deep sequencing of plasma RNA or proviral DNA may be an interesting alternative to population sequencing for the detection of baseline transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance. Using a Roche 454 GS Junior HIV-1 prototype kit, we performed deep sequencing of the HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase genes on paired plasma and buffy coat samples from newly diagnosed HIV-1-positive individuals. Selection was based on the outcome of population sequencing and included 12 patients with either a revertant amino acid at codon 215 of the reverse transcriptase or a singleton resistance mutation, 4 patients with multiple resistance mutations, and 4 patients with wild-type virus. Deep sequencing of RNA and DNA detected 6 and 43 mutations, respectively, that were not identified by population sequencing. A subsequently performed hypermutation analysis, however, revealed hypermutation in 61.19% of 3,188 DNA reads with a resistance mutation. The removal of hypermutated reads dropped the number of additional mutations in DNA from 43 to 17. No hypermutation evidence was found in the RNA reads. Five of the 6 additional RNA mutations and all additional DNA mutations, after full exclusion of hypermutation bias, were observed in the 3 individuals with multiple resistance mutations detected by population sequencing. Despite focused selection of patients with T215 revertants or singleton mutations, deep sequencing failed to identify the resistant T215Y/F or M184V or any other resistance mutation, indicating that in most of these cases there is no hidden resistance and that the virus detected at diagnosis by population sequencing is the original infecting variant. PMID:27076656

  16. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    SciTech Connect

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N.; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-11-15

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 {mu}g/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High DDTs' levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patients' exposure to chemicals might have played a role in MND development.

  17. 10. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MOUNTINGS FROM TUNING DEVICE. VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING MOUNTINGS FROM TUNING DEVICE. VIEW SHOWS COPPER SHEETING ON WALLS. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  18. 1. Contextual view of cottage, showing front east elevation, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Contextual view of cottage, showing front east elevation, showing in distance blacksmith shop (left) and summer kitchen (right); camera facing southwest. - Lemmon-Anderson-Hixson Ranch, Cottage, 11220 North Virginia Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

  19. 4. View of west elevation, showing stone structure, showing a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of west elevation, showing stone structure, showing a portion of north elevation; camera facing southeast. - Lemmon-Anderson-Hixson Ranch, Cottage, 11220 North Virginia Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

  20. Hippocampal temporal-parietal junction interaction in the production of psychotic symptoms: a framework for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wible, Cynthia G.

    2012-01-01

    A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS) and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs, and cognitive deficits). Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly correlated with activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. Many positive symptoms of schizophrenia can be reframed as the erroneous sense of a presence or other who is observing, acting, speaking, or controlling; these qualia are similar to those evoked during abnormal activation of the TPJ. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production) of dynamic social, emotional, and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech and prosody, and social attentional gestures such as eye gaze). The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile), matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others). Stimulation of the TPJ resulting in activation of the self representation has been shown to result a feeling of a presence or multiple presences (due to heautoscopy) and also bizarre tactile experiences. Neurons in the TPJ are also tuned, or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech), a person or a touch. Over-activation could interfere with attentional/emotional gesture perception and production (negative symptoms). It could produce the unconscious feeling of being watched, followed, or of a social situation unfolding along with accompanying abnormal perception of intent and agency (delusions). Abnormal activity in the TPJ would also be predicted to create several cognitive disturbances that are characteristic of schizophrenia, including abnormalities in attention, predictive social processing, working memory, and a bias to erroneously perceive threat. PMID:22737114

  1. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  2. Effects of the acute administration of caffeine in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lucas, P B; Pickar, D; Kelsoe, J; Rapaport, M; Pato, C; Hommer, D

    1990-07-01

    Caffeine, 10 mg/kg, was administered to 13 schizophrenic patients in a double-blind placebo-controlled study of its behavioral effects. Some measures of psychopathology were significantly increased: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) total, BPRS subscales thought disorder, unusual thought content, and euphoria-activation, and several individual BPRS items. Nurses' Bunney-Hamberg ratings of psychosis and mania, comparing the day before with the day after pharmacological challenge, increased significantly. Compared to placebo, caffeine also produced significant increases of diastolic blood pressure and cortisol. Thus, these findings indicate that caffeine increases arousal and has a psychotogenic effect when administered to schizophrenic patients. The possible roles of various neurotransmitters is discussed with special emphasis on caffeine's actions on dopaminergic and adenosinergic systems. PMID:2375945

  3. Pain manifestations in schizophrenia - clinical and experimental aspects in human patients and animal models.

    PubMed

    Antioch, Iulia; Ciobica, Alin; Paulet, Manuel; Bild, Veronica; Lefter, Radu; Timofte, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Pain is a subjective phenomenon, not fully understood, which is manifesting abnormally in most of the disorders. Also, in the case of schizophrenia, a psychiatric disorder marked by gross distortion from reality, disturbances in thinking, feeling and behavior, pain behaves in an unpredictable manner, just like the evolution of this mental disorder. In this way, findings on this matter are contradictory, some pleading for decreased pain perception in schizophrenia, others for increased pain sensitivity, while there are also reports stating no differences between healthy controls and schizophrenic patients. Still, it is now generally accepted that pain perception is impaired in various ways in schizophrenics. Nevertheless, pain is a very important clinical issue in this population that needs to be clarified. Throughout this paper, we are going to review these contradictory information regarding pain manifestations in the context of schizophrenia in both human patients and animal models, emphasizing the importance of determining pain mechanism, its particularities and evolution in the context of schizophrenic disease, so that this phenomenon could be evaluated, quantified and controlled with the intention of obtaining a superior management for this disorder and to possibly raise hopes of higher life quality and expectancy in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Also, we would like to raise awareness on this matter, making psychiatrists, general practitioners, and other medical specialists more conscious of the importance of this problem, so that medical care could improve for these patients in the future. PMID:26057309

  4. Dermatoglyphics in patients with schizophrenia*

    PubMed Central

    Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Asadollahi, Ghorban Ali; Tabibi, Amirpooyan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are controversial evidences on the association between fingerprint traits and schizophrenia. We compared fingerprint traits of patients with schizophrenia and normal individuals in Iranian population. METHODS: Finger tip dermal ridge of 290 patients with schizophrenia and 290 normal subjects were studied for four dermal traits. Data was analyzed with Pearson correlation and student's tests. RESULTS: Finger print patterns and secondary creases were not significantly different between the two groups (p > 0.05). Although mean ridge counts of left and right index fingers of the case group were greater than the control group (p < 0.05), these differences were not significant in females. CONCLUSIONS: Probably the left index ridge counts and fluctuating asymmetry in schizophrenic patients are different from those of the normal population. This difference may serve as a diagnostic biological marker for screening people susceptible to schizophrenia. Further studies are needed to determine predictive value of fingerprint trait as a biomarker for the schizophrenia. PMID:22279482

  5. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. RNA from Borna disease virus in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective patients, and in their biological relatives.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Sandra Odebrechet Vargas; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Amarante, Marla Karine; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Miranda, Helen Cristina; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Matsuo, Tiemi; Vargas, Heber Odebrechet; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2008-01-01

    Numerous interactions of the immune system with the central nervous system have been described recently. Mood and psychotic disorders, such as severe depression and schizophrenia, are both heterogeneous disorders regarding clinical symptomatology, the acuity of symptoms, the clinical course, the treatment response, and probably also the etiology. Detection of p24 RNA from Borna disease virus (BDV) by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and in their biological relatives was evaluated. The subjects were 27 schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients, 27 healthy controls, 20 relatives without psychiatric disease, and 24 relatives with mood disorder, who attended the Psychiatric Ambulatory of Londrina State University, Paraná, Brazil. The subjects were interviewed by structured diagnostic criteria categorized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, axis I, (SCID-IV). The mean duration of illness in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients was 15.341+/-1.494 years and the median age at onset was 22.4+/-7.371 years. There were no significant differences in gender (P=0.297), age (P=0.99), albumin (P=0.26), and body mass index (kg/m(2)) (p=0.28), among patients, controls, and relatives. Patients and biological relatives had significantly higher positive p24 RNA BDV detection than controls (P=0.04); however, the clinical significance of BDV remains to be clarified. PMID:18623121

  7. Reviewing the Dissociative Symptoms in Patients With Schizophreniaand their Association With Positive and Negative Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ghoreishi, Abolfazl; Shajari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to clarify dissociative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and its association with negative and positive symptom of schizophrenia. Methods: Based on the 4th edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria, 80 schizophrenic subjects were randomly selected from patients who referred to the clinics of psychiatry hospital in Kerman, Iran. Eighty non-schizophrenic patients were chosen as the control group. Both groups were evaluated for dissociation symptom using the Dissociative Experience Scale (DES). Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score was also used in the case group for determination of positive and negative symptom of schizophrenia. Results: The prevalence of dissociation symptom was 13% and 4% among schizophrenic and control groups, respectively (p = 0.02). In addition, there was a statistical significant association between DES score and positive symptom in schizophrenia (p = 0.02). Conclusion: The association between dissociative symptom and schizophrenia was significant and dissociative symptoms were associated with positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Declaration of interest: None. PMID:24995025

  8. Olaparib shows promise in multiple tumor types.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    A phase II study of the PARP inhibitor olaparib (AstraZeneca) for cancer patients with inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations confirmed earlier results showing clinical benefit for advanced breast and ovarian cancers, and demonstrated evidence of effectiveness against pancreatic and prostate cancers. PMID:23847380

  9. Cerebral Inefficient Activation in Schizophrenia Patients and Their Unaffected Parents during the N-Back Working Memory Task: A Family fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang; Tian, Lin; Lu, Tianlan; Tan, Hao-Yang; Yan, Jun; Zhang, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that working memory deficits is a core feature of symptomatology of schizophrenia, which can be detected in patients and their unaffected relatives. The impairment of working memory has been found related to the abnormal activity of human brain regions in many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. This study investigated how brain region activation was altered in schizophrenia and how it was inherited independently from performance deficits. Method The authors used fMRI method during N-back task to assess working memory related cortical activation in four groups (N = 20 in each group, matching task performance, age, gender and education): schizophrenic patients, their unaffected biological parents, young healthy controls for the patients and older healthy controls for their parents. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients showed an exaggerated response in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (brodmann area [BA] 46) and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and had reduced activation in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9). In the conjunction analysis, the effect of genetic risk (parents versus older control) shared significantly overlapped activation with effect of disease (patients versus young control) in the right middle frontal gyrus (BA 46) and left inferior parietal gyrus (BA 40). Conclusions Physiological inefficiency of dorsal prefrontal cortex and compensation involvement of ventral prefrontal cortex in working memory function may one physiological characteristics of schizophrenia. And relatively inefficient activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex probably can be a promising intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:26270056

  10. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact

  11. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  12. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  13. Substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Winklbaur, Bernadette; Ebner, Nina; Sachs, Gabriele; Thau, Kenneth; Fischer, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    The comorbidity of schizophrenia and substance abuse has attracted increasing attention in the past years, with multiple potential links, including genetic vulnerability, neurobiological aspects, side effects of medications, and psychosocial factors being under discussion. The link between the use of substances and the development of psychoses is demonstrated by the high prevalence of substance abuse in schizophrenia. Apart from alcohol misuse, substances commonly abused in this patient group include nicotine, cocaine, and cannabis. In particular, heavy cannabis abuse has been reported to be a stressor eliciting relapse in schizophrenic patients. In general, substance use in psychosis is associated with poorer outcomes, including increased psychotic symptoms and poorer treatment compliance. Since both disorders have been observed to be closely interdependent, a particular treatment for schizophrenic patients with comorbidity of substance abuse is needed in order to provide more effective care. In this article, we discuss various potential modes of interaction and interdependence, and the possibility of embarking on new therapeutic paths for treating this particular population. PMID:16640112

  14. Irinotecan Plus S-1 Followed by Hepatectomy for a Patient with Initially Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases, Who Showed Severe Drug Rash with Oxaliplatin Plus 5-FU and Leucovorin (FOLFOX)

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Hiroyuki; Beppu, Toru; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Yuji; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Imai, Katsunori; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    For unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), hepatic resection with or without chemotherapy is the only curative treatment that sufficiently achieves long-term survival. However, occasional severe allergic responses to anticancer drugs necessitate treatment discontinuation. A 45-year-old woman presented with metachronous unresectable colorectal liver metastases. Chemotherapy with oxaliplatin plus 5-FU and leucovorin (FOLFOX) was initiated, but severe allergic dermatitis developed after the second cycle. Although she reported no prior history of adverse reactions to tegafur-uracil, a drug lymphocyte stimulation test showed an allergic response to 5-FU. We subsequently replaced with Irinotecan plus S-1 (IRIS) chemotherapy which was well tolerated and resulted in a partial response after 3 cycles. As a result, right trisectionectomy was successfully performed and no recurrence was detected in the following 3 years. A severe allergic reaction to intravenous 5-FU-containing drug regimens can be successfully alleviated by switching to S-1-containing regimens such as IRIS or S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX). PMID:25031875

  15. Irinotecan Plus S-1 Followed by Hepatectomy for a Patient with Initially Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases, Who Showed Severe Drug Rash with Oxaliplatin Plus 5-FU and Leucovorin (FOLFOX).

    PubMed

    Komori, Hiroyuki; Beppu, Toru; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Yuji; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Imai, Katsunori; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    For unresectable colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), hepatic resection with or without chemotherapy is the only curative treatment that sufficiently achieves long-term survival. However, occasional severe allergic responses to anticancer drugs necessitate treatment discontinuation. A 45-year-old woman presented with metachronous unresectable colorectal liver metastases. Chemotherapy with oxaliplatin plus 5-FU and leucovorin (FOLFOX) was initiated, but severe allergic dermatitis developed after the second cycle. Although she reported no prior history of adverse reactions to tegafur-uracil, a drug lymphocyte stimulation test showed an allergic response to 5-FU. We subsequently replaced with Irinotecan plus S-1 (IRIS) chemotherapy which was well tolerated and resulted in a partial response after 3 cycles. As a result, right trisectionectomy was successfully performed and no recurrence was detected in the following 3 years. A severe allergic reaction to intravenous 5-FU-containing drug regimens can be successfully alleviated by switching to S-1-containing regimens such as IRIS or S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX). PMID:25031875

  16. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  17. Multivariate Analysis of Relationship between Childhood Trauma and Psychotic Symptoms in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chae, Sungun; Sim, Minyoung; Lim, Mijeong; Na, Joonho; Kim, Daeho

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic patients after controlling for the possible confounding factors, such as depression and dissociative symptoms. Ninety-eight schizophrenic inpatients participated. Childhood trauma was examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaires (CTQ), which consists of physical abuse (PA), sexual abuse (SA), emotional abuse (EA), physical neglect (PN), and emotional neglect (EN). Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Dissociative Experience Scale (DES), and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered. Data were analyzed by partial correlation and general linear model. The total score of CTQ was positively correlated with positive, general, and total scores of PANSS. All five types of childhood trauma were associated with dissociative symptoms. EA and EN were positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Only SA significantly predicted positive symptoms of schizophrenia after controlling for age, sex, BDI, and DES scores, with a dose-response relationship between SA and positive symptoms. PMID:26207135

  18. Sleep disturbances in patients with schizophrenia : impact and effect of antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Cohrs, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep are frequently encountered in patients with schizophrenia. Disturbed sleep can be found in 30-80% of schizophrenic patients, depending on the degree of psychotic symptomatology. Measured by polysomnography, reduced sleep efficiency and total sleep time, as well as increased sleep latency, are found in most patients with schizophrenia and appear to be an important part of the pathophysiology of this disorder. Some studies also reported alterations of stage 2 sleep, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep variables, i.e. reduced REM latency and REM density. A number of sleep parameters, such as the amount of SWS and the REM latency, are significantly correlated to clinical variables, including severity of illness, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, outcome, neurocognitive impairment and brain structure.Concerning specific sleep disorders, there is some evidence that schizophrenic patients carry a higher risk of experiencing a sleep-related breathing disorder, especially those demonstrating the known risk factors, including being overweight but also long-term use of antipsychotics. However, it is still unclear whether periodic leg movements in sleep or restless legs syndrome (RLS) are found with a higher or lower prevalence in schizophrenic patients than in healthy controls.There are no consistent effects of first-generation antipsychotics on measures of sleep continuity and sleep structure, including the percentage of sleep stages or sleep and REM latency in healthy controls. In contrast to first-generation antipsychotics, the studied atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone and paliperidone) demonstrate a relatively consistent effect on measures of sleep continuity, with an increase in either total sleep time (TST) or sleep efficiency, and individually varying effects on other sleep parameters, such as an increase in REM latency observed for olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone, and an increase in SWS documented for olanzapine and ziprasidone in healthy subjects.The treatment of schizophrenic patients with first-generation antipsychotics is consistently associated with an increase in TST and sleep efficiency, and mostly an increase in REM latency, whereas the influence on specific sleep stages is more variable. On the other hand, withdrawal of such treatment is followed by a change in sleep structure mainly in the opposite direction, indicating a deterioration of sleep quality. On the background of the rather inconsistent effects of first-generation antipsychotics observed in healthy subjects, it appears possible that the high-potency drugs exert their effects on sleep in schizophrenic patients, for the most part, in an indirect way by suppressing stressful psychotic symptomatology. In contrast, the available data concerning second-generation antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and paliperidone) demonstrate a relatively consistent effect on measures of sleep continuity in patients and healthy subjects, with an increase in TST and sleep efficiency or a decrease in wakefulness. Additionally, clozapine and olanzapine demonstrate comparable influences on other sleep variables, such as SWS or REM density, in controls and schizophrenic patients. Possibly, the effects of second-generation antipsychotics observed on sleep in healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients might involve the action of these drugs on symptomatology, such as depression, cognitive impairment, and negative and positive symptoms.Specific sleep disorders, such as RLS, sleep-related breathing disorders, night-eating syndrome, somnambulism and rhythm disorders have been described as possible adverse effects of antipsychotics and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of disturbed or unrestful sleep in this population. PMID:18840034

  19. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  20. [Concomitant impact of organic pathology on the development of cognitive impairment in patients with attack-like paranoid schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Libin, L Ia; Tagil'tseva, A V; Lifanova, D E; Ganzenko, M A; Gritsevskaia, T M; Ivanov, M B

    2014-01-01

    The study included 47 patients (23 men, 24 women) with ICD-10 diagnosis of attack-like paranoid schizophrenia. Patients were divided into two groups: with- (25 patients) or without (22 patients) a concomitant organic disease. Memory, attention and thinking were assessed with psychometric tests. Inter- and intra-group differences were identified that indicated a considerable impact of a concomitant CNS organic pathology on the development of cognitive impairment in the schizophrenic process and active antipsychotic therapy. The data obtained can be used in the development of a differentiated approach to the treatment of patients with concomitant organic pathology. PMID:24988961

  1. ENVITEC shows off air technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.