Mathis, Erin T. B.; Bierman, Karen L.
200 preschool children in Head Start (55% girls; 20% Hispanic, 25% African-American, 55% European American; M age = 4.80 years old) participated in a randomized-controlled trial of a home visiting intervention designed to promote their emergent literacy skills (the Research-based Developmentally Informed parent [REDI-P] program). This study explored concurrent changes in levels of parent support and child literacy skills that occurred over the course of the intervention, and examined the impact of pre-intervention parent support and child literacy skills as potential moderators of parent and child outcomes. Cross-lagged structural equation models and follow-up analyses indicated that intervention had the strongest impact on child literacy skills when parents were high on support at the pre-intervention assessment. Conversely, the REDI-Parent program promoted the greatest gains in parent support when parents entered the program with low levels. These findings suggest that families may benefit from home visit school readiness interventions in different ways: child skill acquisition may be greatest when parents are initially high in support, whereas parenting may improve most when parents are initially low in support. PMID:27279678
McNaughton, Diane B; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an adapted mother-child communication intervention for Latino immigrant mothers and their fourth- to sixth-grade children delivered after school. The intervention, Family Communication ("Comunicación Familiar"), was delivered at children's elementary schools in six sessions lasting 2 hr each. Significant improvements were found in children's reports of problem-solving communication, with their mother and mothers' reports of reduced family conflict. Strengths of the intervention are improved mother-child communication, acquisition of communication skills that can transfer to relationships within the classroom, and a design that allows delivery by nurses or other professional members of the school support team. PMID:24643757
McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent–child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an adapted mother–child communication intervention for Latino immigrant mothers and their fourth- to sixth-grade children delivered after school. The intervention, Family Communication (“Comunicación Familiar”), was delivered at children’s elementary schools in six sessions lasting 2 hr each. Significant improvements were found in children’s reports of problem-solving communication, with their mother and mothers’ reports of reduced family conflict. Strengths of the intervention are improved mother–child communication, acquisition of communication skills that can transfer to relationships within the classroom, and a design that allows delivery by nurses or other professional members of the school support team. PMID:24643757
Chong, Wan Har; Lee, Boon Ooi; Tan, Soo Yin; Wong, Shyh Shin; Yeo, Lay See
This article presents an overview of the range of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions based on the Singapore Education Ministry-developed whole-school framework for pupil management and support. At the preventive level, a range of school-wide programmes are implemented to provide learning, emotional, and behavioural support for…
Miller, David N.
Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…
Lavelle-Lore, Millicent D.
This study investigated the effects of a parent-child home numeracy intervention on the mathematics scores of first grade students attending urban, Catholic schools. The participants included 60 parents (29 Black; 2 Asian; 1 Latino; 26 White; and 2 other) from two urban, Catholic schools. Parents, randomly assigned to the experimental group,…
It is sad to know that many of the child negligence and child abuse cases, which are being frequently encountered in the society today, still remains unknown. This perhaps is due to lack of information on the part of the administrators, school counselors and other related bodies in the management of such cases. In this study, 50 school counselors…
This handbook on child abuse and neglect was written to assist school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school nurses, and school social workers in defining abuse and neglect and in developing policy and training programs to best address the abuse issue. Topics addressed include: (1) understanding child abuse and neglect;…
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Robertson, Dylan L.
Investigated the effects of participation in the Title I Child-Parent Centers on substantiated reports of child maltreatment for 1,408 children. Found that 913 preschool participants had significantly lower rates of court petitions of maltreatment by age 17 than 495 children who participated in alternative kindergarten interventions. Four- to…
Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E; Kerns, Connor M; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C; Mandell, David S
This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child characteristics (including age, language ability, autism severity, social skills, adaptive behavior, co-occurring psychological symptoms, and restrictive and repetitive behavior) and outcome, as measured by changes in cognitive ability following one academic year of an intervention standardized across the sample were evaluated using linear regression with random effects for classroom. While several scales and subscales had statistically significant bivariate associations with outcome, in adjusted analysis, only age and the presence of symptoms associated with social anxiety, such as social avoidance and social fearfulness, as measured through the Child Symptom Inventory-4, were associated with differences in outcome. The findings regarding the role of social anxiety are new and have important implications for treatment. Disentangling the construct of social anxiety to differentiate between social fearfulness and social motivation has important implications for shifting the focus of early treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:25911092
McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to…
van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars B; El-Naaman, Bianca; Bugge, Anna; Nielsen, Birgit M; Heitman, Berit L
The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity was significant for the third and fourth quintile of arginine intake (2.5-2.8 and 2.8-3.2 g/d, respectively) compared with the first quintile ( < 2.2 g/d) (P for trend = 0.04). Protein intake (excluding arginine) was significantly associated with growth velocity; however, the association was weaker than the association between arginine intake and growth velocity (P for trend = 0.14). The results of the present study suggest a dose-dependent physiological role of habitual protein intake, and specifically arginine intake, on linear growth in normally growing children. However, since the study was designed in healthy children, we cannot firmly conclude whether arginine supplementation represents a relevant clinical strategy. Further research is needed to investigate whether dietary arginine may represent a nutritional strategy potentially advantageous for the prevention and treatment of short stature. PMID:23046689
Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Leardo, Michele; Aneja, Siddhartha; Elbel, Brian
IMPORTANCE Decreasing the amount of caloric beverages consumed and simultaneously increasing water consumption is important to promoting child health and decreasing the prevalence of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of water jets (electrically cooled, large clear jugs with a push lever for fast dispensing) on standardized body mass index, overweight, and obesity in elementary school and middle school students. Milk purchases were explored as a potential mechanism for weight outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This quasi-experimental study used a school-level database of cafeteria equipment deliveries between the 2008-2009 and 2012-2013 and included a sample of 1227 New York, New York, public elementary schools and middle schools and the 1 065 562 students within those schools. INTERVENTION Installation of water jets in schools. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Individual body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all students in the sample using annual student-level height and weight measurements collected as part of New York’s FITNESSGRAM initiative. Age- and sex-specific growth charts produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to categorize students as overweight and obese. The hypothesis that water jets would be associated with decreased standardized BMI, overweight, and obesity was tested using a difference-in-difference strategy, comparing outcomes for treated and nontreated students before and after the introduction of a water jet. RESULTS This study included 1 065 562 students within New York City public elementary schools and middle schools. There was a significant effect of water jets on standardized BMI, such that the adoption of water jets was associated with a 0.025 (95% CI, −0.038 to −0.011) reduction of standardized BMI for boys and a 0.022 (95% CI, −0.035 to −0.008) reduction of standardized BMI for girls (P < .01). There was also a significant effect on being overweight. Water jets were
Neal, S; Rice, F; Ng-Knight, T; Riglin, L; Frederickson, N
School transition at around 11-years of age can be anxiety-provoking for children, particularly those with special educational needs (SEN). The present study adopted a longitudinal design to consider how existing transition strategies, categorized into cognitive, behavioral or systemic approaches, were associated with post-transition anxiety amongst 532 typically developing children and 89 children with SEN. Multiple regression analysis indicated that amongst typically developing pupils, systemic interventions were associated with lower school anxiety but not generalized anxiety, when controlling for prior anxiety. Results for children with SEN differed significantly, as illustrated by a Group × Intervention type interaction. Specifically, systemic strategies were associated with lower school anxiety amongst typically developing children and higher school anxiety amongst children with SEN. These findings highlight strategies that schools may find useful in supporting typically developing children over the transition period, whilst suggesting that children with SEN might need a more personalized approach. PMID:27176785
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Newman, Elana; Varma, Vandana; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Shaw, Jon A.; Chrisman, Allan K.; Nitiéma, Pascal
This review summarizes current knowledge on the timing of child disaster mental health intervention delivery, the settings for intervention delivery, the expertise of providers, and therapeutic approaches. Studies have been conducted on interventions delivered during all phases of disaster management from pre event through many months post event. Many interventions were administered in schools which offer access to large numbers of children. Providers included mental health professionals and school personnel. Studies described individual and group interventions, some with parent involvement. The next generation of interventions and studies should be based on an empirical analysis of a number of key areas. PMID:26295009
Buser, Juleen K.; Saponara, Erin
Children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) often suffer a range of physical, behavioral, emotional, and familial consequences (Holt, Buckley, & Whelan, 2008). School counselors may be in a key position to implement prevention programs around this issue, identify children who have witnessed IPV, and to engage in intervention efforts.…
Jones, Stephanie M.; Bub, Kristen L.; Raver, C. Cybele
Research Findings: This study examines the theory of change of the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), testing a sequence of theory-derived mediating mechanisms that include the quality of teacher-child relationships and children's self-regulation. The CSRP is a multicomponent teacher and classroom-focused intervention, and its…
The importance of prompt treatment of the school phobic child, and the need for good communication among those concerned, are addressed in this article. The manifestation of school phobia is described and intervention methods are reviewed. (Author/MT)
Ray, Dee C.
This article discusses a study investigating the impact of two school counseling interventions, child-centered play therapy (CCPT) and teacher consultation, on teacher-child relationship stress. CCPT and teacher consultation were conducted with 93 (pre-kindergarten to fifth grade) elementary school students across three elementary schools deemed…
Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat
Background Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation. Methods This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts) were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model. Results None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = <0.001) higher score in the post-test after adjusting for pre-test score and other covariates in a multi-level linear regression model. Conclusions These results suggest that school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level
Because of the large number of children being maltreated, Colorado law mandates that suspected cases of child abuse be reported. It is essential that professionals working with children understand how to recognize and report suspected abuse. This handbook was written to assist teachers, counselors, and social workers in defining child abuse and…
Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E.; Kerns, Connor M.; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C.; Mandell, David S.
This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child…
Child health is a growing concern at the global level, as infectious diseases and preventable conditions claim hundreds of lives of children under the age of five in low-income countries. Approximately 7.6 million children under five years of age died in 2011, calculating to about 19 000 children each day and almost 800 every hour. About 80 percent of the world’s under-five deaths in 2011 occurred in only 25 countries, and about half in only five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China. The implications and burden of such statistics are huge and will have dire consequences if they are not corrected promptly. This paper reviews essential interventions for improving child health, which if implemented properly and according to guidelines have been found to improve child health outcomes, as well as reduce morbidity and mortality rates. It also includes caregivers and delivery strategies for each intervention. Interventions that have been associated with a decrease in mortality and disease rates include exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding strategies, routine immunizations and vaccinations for children, preventative zinc supplementation in children, and vitamin A supplementation in vitamin A deficient populations. PMID:25177974
Lassi, Zohra S; Mallick, Dania; Das, Jai K; Mal, Lekho; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Child health is a growing concern at the global level, as infectious diseases and preventable conditions claim hundreds of lives of children under the age of five in low-income countries. Approximately 7.6 million children under five years of age died in 2011, calculating to about 19,000 children each day and almost 800 every hour. About 80 percent of the world's under-five deaths in 2011 occurred in only 25 countries, and about half in only five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China. The implications and burden of such statistics are huge and will have dire consequences if they are not corrected promptly. This paper reviews essential interventions for improving child health, which if implemented properly and according to guidelines have been found to improve child health outcomes, as well as reduce morbidity and mortality rates. It also includes caregivers and delivery strategies for each intervention. Interventions that have been associated with a decrease in mortality and disease rates include exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding strategies, routine immunizations and vaccinations for children, preventative zinc supplementation in children, and vitamin A supplementation in vitamin A deficient populations. PMID:25177974
Healey, Jean B.
Peer abuse in the form of bullying is now recognised as an endemic feature of school life and in terms of impact, outcomes and intervention requirements can be equated with other forms of child abuse. It is argued in the light of data presented here that the parallels between peer abuse and more generally accepted forms of child abuse must be…
Mashoto, Kijakazi O; Astrøm, Anne N; Skeie, Marit S; Masalu, Joyce R
This study aimed to examine the evaluative properties of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) inventory and to estimate treatment-associated changes in the OIDP and self-reported oral health following atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) and oral health education (OHE). A total of 1,306 school attendees in Kilwa, Tanzania, completed the Child-OIDP inventory before, and 6 months after, treatment. The post-treatment questionnaire assessed change in perceived oral health. Complete baseline and follow-up data were obtained for 104, 117, and 1,085 participants who received, respectively, ART fillings (Group A), ART fillings and tooth extraction (Group B), and OHE only (Group C). The longitudinal validity, responsiveness, and treatment-associated changes were calculated using anova, effect sizes, and repeated general linear models (GLM). The follow-up prevalence was 73.8%. The mean changes in the OIDP total- and subscale scores were negative within those who reported 'worsened' oral health, and positive in subjects reporting 'improved' oral health. Effect sizes for the total OIDP score ranged from -0.2 within the category 'worsened' to 0.4 within the category 'improved'. Changes following treatment were more extensive in Group B compared with Groups A and C, and in Group C compared with Group A. The Child-OIDP showed promising evaluative properties and responsiveness to change following ART fillings, ART fillings and tooth extraction, and OHE. PMID:21083625
Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda
The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…
Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.
School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…
... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series Title: Numbers and Trends Author(s): Child Welfare ... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series: Numbers and Trends Year Published: 2016 https:// ...
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Varma, Vandana; Nelson, Summer D.; Newman, Elana
Children face innumerable challenges following exposure to disasters. To address trauma sequelae, researchers and clinicians have developed a variety of mental health interventions. While the overall effectiveness of multiple interventions has been examined, few studies have focused on the individual components of these interventions. As a preliminary step to advancing intervention development and research, this literature review identifies and describes nine common components that comprise child disaster mental health interventions. This review concluded that future research should clearly define the constituent components included in available interventions. This will require that future studies dismantle interventions to examine the effectiveness of specific components and identify common therapeutic elements. Issues related to populations studied (eg, disaster exposure, demographic and cultural influences) and to intervention delivery (eg, timing and optimal sequencing of components) also warrant attention. PMID:25225954
Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Dill, Edward J.; Little, Todd D.; Sargent, John A.
Background: While school-based anti-bullying programs are widely used, there have been few controlled trials of effectiveness. This study compared the effect of manualized School Psychiatric Consultation (SPC), CAPSLE (a systems and mentalization focused whole school intervention), and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in reducing aggression and…
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Newman, Elana; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal; Shaw, Jon A; Chrisman, Allan K.; Noffsinger, Mary A
This review of child disaster mental health intervention studies describes the techniques used in the interventions and the outcomes addressed, and it provides a preliminary evaluation of the field. The interventions reviewed here used a variety of strategies such as cognitive behavioral approaches, exposure and narrative techniques, relaxation, coping skill development, social support, psychoeducation, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and debriefing. A diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or posttraumatic stress reactions were the most commonly addressed outcomes although other reactions such as depression, anxiety, behavior problems, fear, and/or traumatic grief also were examined. Recommendations for future research are outlined. PMID:25914863
Ergün, Sibel; Kalkim, Asli; Dolgun, Eda
Students encounter many risks for injury, which can impact their health and educational success; prevention of these injuries are paramount for school nurses. These article report results of a study conducted to determine the efficacy of training given to children regarding prevention of school injuries and to compare the effectiveness of instructor-to-child training to that of the child-to-child training method in affecting student attitudes toward the prevention of school injuries. An interventional teaching program was developed with the objective of positively impacting students' attitudes toward preventing school injuries. The health care training using instructor-to-child and child-to-child training produced a similar effect in changing the attitudes of students with respect to preventing school injuries. Given the high ratio of children to school nurses within the school systems in Turkey, nurses could consider the use of child-to-child training to supplement their own health care training to support changes in students' attitudes toward prevention of school injuries. PMID:23263266
Jacobs, Ellen; And Others
This paper examines on-site, school-age child care and the relationship between attendance at on-site, after-school child care programs and familial, environmental, and developmental factors. Topics discussed include: (1) the quality of school-based environments in kindergarten and child care; (2) the socioeconomic status and size of families of…
Bergren, Martha Dewey
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that data on children's deaths in school should be recorded, analyzed and reported at the local, state and national level. The systematic review of data on child deaths is necessary to drive interventions and policies that will decrease mortality from injuries, violence, acute…
Broadhurst, Diane D.
The booklet provides an overview on the school-related issues involved in child abuse and neglect. Definitions, causes, and effects of abuse and neglect are reviewed in the first chapter; guidelines for identifying physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment are offered in chapter 2. Aspects of reporting abuse are noted as are…
Provides advice on how to set up child day-care services within a school to allow teen mothers to continue their education. Among the advice given are to provide a comprehensive program, be prepared for resistance, tap multiple funding sources, pay attention to staff training and necessary paperwork, have clear guidelines and rules, and be…
Smith, Peter K; Ananiadou, Katerina; Cowie, Helen
In the last 2 decades, school bullying has become a topic of public concern and research around the world. This has led to action to reduce the problem. We review interventions targeted at the school level (for example, whole school policy, classroom climate, peer support, school tribunal, and playground improvement), at the class level (for example, curriculum work), and at the individual level (for example, working with specific pupils). Effectiveness of interventions has been sporadically assessed. We review several systematically evaluated, large-scale, school-based intervention programs. Their effectiveness has varied, and we consider reasons for this. We suggest ways to improve the evaluation and comparability of studies, as well as the effectiveness of future interventions. PMID:14631879
Macmillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine; Barlow, Jane; Fergusson, David M; Leventhal, John M; Taussig, Heather N
Although a broad range of programmes for prevention of child maltreatment exist, the effectiveness of most of the programmes is unknown. Two specific home-visiting programmes-the Nurse-Family Partnership (best evidence) and Early Start-have been shown to prevent child maltreatment and associated outcomes such as injuries. One population-level parenting programme has shown benefits, but requires further assessment and replication. Additional in-hospital and clinic strategies show promise in preventing physical abuse and neglect. However, whether school-based educational programmes prevent child sexual abuse is unknown, and there are currently no known approaches to prevent emotional abuse or exposure to intimate-partner violence. A specific parent-training programme has shown benefits in preventing recurrence of physical abuse; no intervention has yet been shown to be effective in preventing recurrence of neglect. A few interventions for neglected children and mother-child therapy for families with intimate-partner violence show promise in improving behavioural outcomes. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for sexually abused children with symptoms of post-traumatic stress shows the best evidence for reduction in mental-health conditions. For maltreated children, foster care placement can lead to benefits compared with young people who remain at home or those who reunify from foster care; enhanced foster care shows benefits for children. Future research should ensure that interventions are assessed in controlled trials, using actual outcomes of maltreatment and associated health measures. PMID:19056113
Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde
This longitudinal study examines the teacher-perceived effect of a school-based intervention (i.e. Playing-2-gether) targeting teacher-child interactions to reduce externalising problem behaviour (EPB) amongst preschoolers. Boys with the highest score for EPB in the classroom and their teacher participated in the study. Teacher-child dyads…
Martínez Riera, José Ramón
The school plays a prominent role in the health of the community since it is where you identify address, teach and modify many of the habits and behaviors that can achieve good health both individually and collectively. It should be noted the important role, as co-teachers, nurses have in the EPS in school, in conjunction with other professional health teams. In Spain today the figure of the school nurse can exist only in privately managed schools and-or foreign origin (French School, European School British Institute, etc.), Or in special schools, and have not developed indicators of activity and quality no evidence could be measured and relevance. Therefore, it has conducted a literature review on the school nurse in the countries where it is consolidated in order to identify both the reasons for its existence and effectiveness. The most important conclusion is worth noting that in Spain the figure of the school nurse, as a freelancer isolated from the health team is unfounded since there is a network of well structured and accessible care and community nurses have the skills to to cover health needs at school, from a holistic perspective. In addition the specialty of Family and Community Nursing was established as a key element in this regard. PMID:21428009
Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.
Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…
Gambrill, E D
The range of factors identified as related to child maltreatment has expanded over the years. The literature clearly calls for an ecological approach in which individual, family, community, and societal factors are considered. The behavioral literature to date reflects an unevenness in terms of acceptance of such an approach. Studies are also uneven concerning the faithfulness with which hallmarks of a behavioral approach have been applied. These include individually tailored assessment and intervention based on empirical data and planning for generalization and maintenance. Most intervention programs do attend to positive as well as negative parent behaviors. Little attention is devoted to environmental characteristics, such as poverty level incomes and impoverished social support systems that may contribute to maltreatment. Lack of comprehensive assessment and intervention programs is no doubt responsible for the modest changes described in many reports. Behavioral studies suffer from uncritical acceptance of the term "abuse" or "at risk" in a number of ways, one of which is a failure to clearly describe the nature of the alleged maltreatment and the immediate situational context. Another is in the assumption that one particular factor is responsible for the maltreatment, such as ineffective parenting skills. Too often a label identifies only one characteristic of a person, ignoring other attributes and related factors. Like all deviant labels, the poor and minority groups are more likely to receive negative labels (Newberger et al., 1976). Investigaters have not taken advantage of relevant literature in the area of child welfare. Familiarity with this material would be helpful in avoiding myths in the field to which many have fallen prey, such as the myth of classlessness of child maltreatment. Acceptance of this myth interferes with the development of programs that deal with difficult environmental problems. Reports suggest that a behavioral approach is
ERS Spectrum, 1992
Innovative school-age day care programs include Tennessee's Extended School Program; Hawaii's After-School Plus program; San Antonio's Kid's Involvement Network (offering middle school supervision); Aurora, Colorado's state-licensed Year-Round School Recreation Plan; and Pomona, California's Child Development Program. These public school programs…
Cappella, Elise; Reinke, Wendy M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.
School psychology research focused on child outcomes is critical for understanding which social and behavioral interventions affect children in schools. Yet effective interventions fulfill their promise when they fit their implementation contexts, are implemented well with existing resources, and can be sustained or scaled up to new populations.…
Each year, half a million teenagers become mothers in the United States. School-based child care programs are a positive way for educational institutions to encourage young mothers to return to or stay in school, prepare for employment, and acquire accurate information about child development and appropriate parenting practices. Nationwide,…
Fazel, Mina; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stephan, Sharon; Ford, Tamsin
Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is needed that focuses on system-level implementation and maintenance of interventions over time. Both ethical and scientific justifications exist for integration of mental health and education: integration democratises access to services and, if coupled with use of evidence-based practices, can promote the healthy development of children. PMID:26114092
Yocom, Ben H.
The focus of this research is in the area of academic interventions and their effect on graduation rates in secondary schools in Missouri. In light of the regulations within the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and its accountability requirements for schools, this study is important and timely in order to provide valuable examples of effective…
Yoo, Jane; Brooks, Devon; Patti, Rino
Organizational context, including line worker characteristics and service settings, may help explain the equivocal findings of intervention studies in the field of child welfare. Yet organizational context has been largely ignored in studies of child welfare interventions. The purpose of this article is to expound upon the likely role of the…
Treatment protocol review technique was used to summarize characteristics of effective interventions from nine studies of child maltreatment examining recovery from abuse or effects of maltreatment on child and parent outcomes. Findings suggested that stronger effects are yielded by: targeting parents and the parent-child interaction context in…
Isaacs, J S; Davis, B D; La Montagne, M J
Young children dependent on gastrostomy feeding are examples of special-needs children now eligible for expanded nutrition services in schools through Public Law 99-457. With the implementation of this law, nutritionists have an opportunity to expand their roles as consultants to special education teachers. A team approach involving nutrition, nursing, and special education was used to prepare a gastrostomy-fed preschool child and his family for school. The family of the multihandicapped child had been isolated by the child's feeding problems and viewed the problems as barriers to his entering school. Components of a nutrition care plan for an interdisciplinary team included oral feeding readiness, nutritional adequacy and timing of meals, and mechanical aspects of gastrostomy feeding in the classroom. Nutrition interventions were adjusted for the classroom from those used in the home or clinical setting. The major activity in the transition program was behavioral management of the child's rumination, which affected nutritional status and feeding. The major outcome of the transition program was enrollment of the child in school, with gastrostomy feeding as a routine activity. A transition program for a gastrostomy-fed child is an appropriate mechanism for expanding the role of the nutritionist into the classroom. PMID:2114432
LeBuffe, James R.; Hargreaves, Sherran A.
Currently at least 5 million children--some estimates are as high as 15 million--are left unsupervised before or after school for 3 or more hours a day. In response to the problems of these latchkey children, many public schools are now developing some form of school-based or school-related before- and after-school child care programs. The purpose…
The Child Development Project (CDP) is a comprehensive, whole-school intervention program that seeks to foster students' social, ethical, and intellectual development through helping elementary schools become "caring communities of learners"environments that are characterized by care and supportive relationships and collaboration among and between…
Toth, Sheree L.; Gravener-Davis, Julie A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante
It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment. PMID:24342858
Lane, Julie M.; Jones, David R.
The 1997 Amendments of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that children placed in private schools by their parents are no longer afforded the right to special education services. However, IDEA does state that child find activities between public school representatives and private schools are to remain intact. This study…
Osher, David; Kendziora, Kimberly; Spier, Elizabeth; Garibaldi, Mark L.
Schools play a key role in child and youth development as both social microcosms of the broader society and reciprocally influencing people and communities. As such, schools can function as a protective factor that promotes safety, motivation, relationships, and support for positive student outcomes. However, schools may also function as a risk…
Child abuse is largely recognized as a significant issue within the school system and the larger society. In the schools, incidents of child abuse can take any of physical, sexual and psychological forms. This paper would restrict itself to bullying, by more specifically providing a clearer understanding of the concept of bullying, its prevalence,…
Bresee, S; Caruso, B A; Sales, J; Lupele, J; Freeman, M C
As part of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in low-income settings, it is frequently assumed that pupils can disseminate information and catalyze change at home, yet this assumption has not been rigorously assessed. We employed qualitative research methods in two phases to assess the potential for children to be change agents in five schools in rural Zambia. Phase 1 included role-play and focus group discussions among pupils on their percieved ability to serve as change agents. Children were then given 'homework' that included information on health messages and on how to build a handwashing station, and were encouraged to engage their family. In Phase 2, we conducted separate focus group discussions with pupils and mothers on their experiences with the 'homework'. We found that, in general, pupils were enthusiastic about engaging with parents-typically male heads of household-and were successful at constructing handwashing stations. Mothers reported high levels of trust in children to relay health information learned at school. Pupils were able to enact small changes to behavior, but not larger infrastructure changes, such as construction of latrines. Pupils are capable of communicating knowledge and behaviors to family members; however, discrete activities and guidance is required. PMID:27206442
Hussein, S. A.; Vostanis, P.
School-based interventions involving teacher training programmes have been shown to benefit teachers' ability to identify and manage child mental health problems in developed countries. However, very few studies have been conducted in low-income countries with limited specialist services. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the…
Jaycox, Lisa H.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Stein, Bradley D.; Langley, Audra K.; Wong, Marleen
Developed out a community participatory research partnership with schools, the Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools Program is a targeted intervention for school children who have experienced a traumatic or violent event and have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This article describes the original development of the…
Ondeck, Lynnette; Combe, Laurie; Feeser, Cindy Jo; King, Rebecca
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that prevention, early recognition, intervention and treatment of child maltreatment are critical to the physical well-being and academic success of students. Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in the recognition…
Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David
Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a social skills intervention plan for a preschool child who is blind and has no additional disabilities. After the plan was implemented, the child demonstrated an increased frequency and range of play behaviors and social interactions. (Contains 3 figures.)
Chinitz, Susan; Stettler, Erin M.; Giammanco, Denise; Silverman, Marian; Briggs, Rahil D.; Loeb, Joanne
Infants most vulnerable to trauma are often the least able to access interventions. Universal child-serving systems, such as primary pediatrics, early care and education, and the child welfare system, can offer a port of entry for millions of children annually for trauma-related supports and services. However, practitioners in these systems have…
Lukefahr, James L.; Kellogg, Nancy D.; Anderst, James D.; Gavril, Amy R.; Wehner, Karl K.
Objective: In a rural area of the US state of Texas, in April 2008, the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services (DFPS) responded to evidence of widespread child abuse in an isolated religious compound by removing 463 individuals into state custody. This mass child protection intervention is the largest such action that has ever occurred…
Ickes, Melinda J.; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj
Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy. PMID:25170684
Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna
Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…
Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice. PMID:26404552
Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido
This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…
Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo
Child wellbeing at school and enjoyment of the learning environment are important economic outcomes, in particular because a growing body of research shows they are strongly linked to later educational attainments and labour market success. However, the standard working assumption in the economics of education is that parents choose schools on the…
Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.
Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…
Kennedy, Allison M.; Gust, Deborah A.
The school system plays an important role in a child's vaccination status, whether by directly offering immunization services, maintaining immunization records, or providing an incentive for up-to-date immunizations through the enforcement of school entry laws. Within the American educational system, however, children do not all attend the same…
Special needs of the Native American child in school are addressed including adjustment problems in the "white" school and value conflicts concerning competition, individualism, acquisitiveness; personal praise; generosity; concept of time; nonverbal and verbal communication; individual freedom and independence; eye contact, humility, respect; and…
Goldman, Juliette D G; Grimbeek, Peter
The importance of preservice university teacher training about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting intervention is addressed in educational literature, although very little is known about student teachers' learning interests and preferences in this area. In this article, student teachers refer to students in university who are training to become teachers whose training includes teaching experiences in schools. This study examines the content about child sexual abuse and its intervention that student teachers believe they should learn. Results based on quantitative analyses show the relative importance of gender in determining responses to questions about university training and, to a lesser extent, the importance of a previous acquaintance with victims of sexual abuse, previous employment, and the length of the university course. Results based on qualitative data show that content knowledge preferred by elementary/primary and secondary school student teachers includes the teacher's role in mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse and signs, experiences, and responses to student disclosure. Student teachers prefer content examples of school professionals' responses and procedures after disclosure and prefer direct learning content from intervening school professionals. These outcomes could usefully guide teachers and educators who design intervention curricula on child sexual abuse for preservice teachers. PMID:24393087
Landry, Dena F.
The reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) allows states the use of a process based on a child's response to scientific, research-based intervention as a means to assist in the determination of a specific learning disability (SLD). As a result, the traditional role of the school psychologist as a test…
The paper reviews cost-effectiveness evaluations of child maltreatment interventions. Though methodologically sound research is limited, existing research suggests that home health visitors, lay group counseling, and family and group therapy are promising interventions. Medical foster care substantially reduces costs, but its effectiveness has not…
Peery, Annette I.; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin S.
Diabetes is a common chronic illness among school-age children. The school nurse collaborates with the student, parents, and teachers to help the child manage their diabetes effectively. Very little is known about the relationship between school nurse interventions and parent/teacher perceptions of the child's self-management. We examined this…
Cappella, Elise; Hamre, Bridget K.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Henry, David B.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Atkins, Marc S.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.
Objective To examine effects of a teacher consultation and coaching program delivered by school and community mental health professionals on change in observed classroom interactions and child functioning across one school year. Method Thirty-six classrooms within five urban elementary schools (87% Latino, 11% Black) were randomly assigned to intervention (training + consultation/coaching) and control (training only) conditions. Classroom and child outcomes (n = 364; 43% girls) were assessed in the fall and spring. Results Random effects regression models showed main effects of intervention on teacher-student relationship closeness, academic self-concept, and peer victimization. Results of multiple regression models showed levels of observed teacher emotional support in the fall moderated intervention impact on emotional support at the end of the school year. Conclusions Results suggest teacher consultation and coaching can be integrated within existing mental health activities in urban schools and impact classroom effectiveness and child adaptation across multiple domains. PMID:22428941
Fox, Michele I.
Response to Intervention has the potential to help schools reach the goals of both the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) 2004. The course of action with the Response to Intervention model is to apply instructionally sound practices based on students' needs, monitor…
Robins, Jennifer; Antrim, Patricia
Response to Intervention (RtI) is a three-tiered model of instruction that increases learning for all students. RtI meets the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act to provide research-based instruction and interventions for students as needed. RtI is supported with federal funds from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and…
Ju, Yucui; Wang, Shuqiong; Zhang, Wenxin
Intervention research on school bullying was conducted in a primary school with an action research method. After conducting a five-week intervention program, the occurrence ratio of being bullied on the way to school and back home and the degree to which children were bullied dropped significantly, but the rate of reduction in grade three was…
Tranter, Daniel C; Wobbema, Amanda Teresa; Norlien, Kathleen; Dorschner, Dale F
Elevated concentrations of allergens in the indoor environment may cause allergic sensitization and symptoms. Occupant exposure to indoor allergens in educational facilities should and can be controlled. This study (1) assessed the presence of indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers, (2) characterized the distribution of allergens in different materials, and (3) evaluated the effect of building and maintenance interventions on allergen concentrations. Settled dust samples were collected from carpet, vinyl tile floors, and upholstered furniture in six schools and seven child care centers before and after interventions. Interventions included changes to cleaning, ventilation, entry mats, furnishings, flooring, and classroom items. The amount of total dust, culturable fungi, and indoor allergens--cockroach, dust mite, cat, and dog--were quantified in the dust samples. Cockroach and dust mite allergens were generally low and below the detection limit, but one dust mite allergen was detected in some areas. Cat and dog allergens were frequently detected at elevated levels, with half the samples above the provisional sensitization risk thresholds and a few samples above the symptom thresholds. Allergen concentrations were highest in upholstered furniture, followed by carpeting and then vinyl floor tile. Cat and dog allergens were lower after the interventions. Cat and dog allergens, but not dust mite and cockroach allergens, seem to be ubiquitous in child care and elementary schools of the U.S. Midwest. These allergens may contribute to sensitization in atopic individuals and occasionally cause symptoms in sensitized allergic individuals. Fleecy materials that are not adequately cleaned, such as upholstered furniture, appear to be the most significant allergen reservoirs. Modest environmental interventions can be implemented by building staff, which should result in lower allergen concentrations. PMID:19585331
Features contributing to the success of six city-wide, comprehensive school-age program models are highlighted. Models are Seattle, Washington's Community Partnerships for School-Age Child Care; Madison, Wisconsin's School-Age Child Care Project; Irvine, California's Irvine Child Care Project; Houston, Texas' After-School Partnership; Los Angeles,…
Coombe, Jacqueline; Mackenzie, Lisa; Munro, Robyn; Hazell, Trevor; Perkins, David; Reddy, Prasuna
Objectives: This review sought to identify, describe and assess the effectiveness of teacher-mediated interventions that aim to support child and adolescent recovery after a natural or man-made disaster. We also aimed to assess intervention applicability to rural and remote Australian school settings. Method: A systematic search of the academic literature was undertaken utilising six electronic databases (EBSCO, Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and CINAHL) using terms that relate to: teacher-mediated and school-based interventions; children and adolescents; mental health and wellbeing; natural disasters and man-made disasters. This was supplemented by a grey literature search. Results: A total of 20 articles reporting on 18 separate interventions were identified. Nine separate interventions had been evaluated using methodologically adequate research designs, with findings suggesting at least short-term improvement in student wellbeing outcomes and academic performance. Conclusions: Although none of the identified studies reported on Australian-based interventions, international interventions could be adapted to the Australian rural and remote context using existing psychosocial programs and resources available online to Australian schools. Future research should investigate the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of implementing interventions modelled on the identified studies in Australian schools settings. PMID:26767147
Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping
This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID
Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping
This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents' child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents' knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID
Nuttall, Clare; Woods, Kevin
Evaluation of successful professional intervention for two case studies of female adolescents' school refusal behaviour is presented. Data gathered from the young person, professionals, and parents in each case are synthesised to propose a multi-level, ecologically situated model of intervention for school refusal behaviour. The proposed…
Trivette, Carol M.; Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.
The extent to which the influences of family-systems intervention practices could be traced to variations in parent-child interactions and child development was investigated by meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM). MASEM is a procedure for producing a weighted pooled correlation matrix and fitting a structural equation model to the…
Batchelor, Ervin S.; And Others
Examined incidence of child sexual abuse (CSA) reports to school psychologists and perceived quality of services to child victims and surveyed usage of CSA prevention and screening programs. Subjects included 171 school psychologists who reported 498 CSA cases. Results suggest need for training school psychologists in assessment of child sexual…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…
The Parent-Infant Care Center, a component of the School Based Youth Services program, was designed to enable parenting students who needed child care support to continue attending school. This practicum project devised an intervention at the Center to address teen parents' lack of knowledge, experience, and skills needed to appropriately care for…
Hayakawa, Momoko; Englund, Michelle M.; Candee, Allyson; Lease, Erin; Sullivan, Molly; Warner-Richter, Mallory; Reynolds, Arthur J.
The Midwest Expansion of the Child-Parent Center Education Program (MCPC) is a pre-K to 3rd grade intervention program aimed at improving economically disadvantaged children's school success by enhancing continuity in instruction and increasing parental involvement. Opened in Chicago in the 1960s, this school reform model has undergone significant…
Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.
This activity kit was designed for parents to use with their preschool children and focuses on the development of skills through play. Sixty activities are described. Descriptions are accompanied by a photograph, a list of materials needed, directions, the purpose of the activity, and a statement of what the child will learn from it. Many of the…
Piers, James C.
"Fostering the School Age Child" is a manual for use in training families providing service to children in foster care. Including instructor's materials and participants' course content, this instructor's manual is divided into eight lessons. Separate instructional sessions focus on development and behavior; building discipline and teaching…
Ogletree, Earl J.
This paper presents an overview of the philosophy, psychology of learning, teaching methods, and curriculum of the Waldorf Schools. Most Waldorf teachers are influenced by the esoteric form of critical idealism propounded by Rudolf Steiner. The child is considered by Steiner to be a spiritual being who has reincarnated on to earth in a physical…
Gore, Jane S.; And Others
A formative and summative evaluation was made of eight school-age child care (SACC) training workshops conducted in 1989-90 for 190 participants in upstate New York. (The focus of the SACC workshops was to "train the trainers," as well as to provide trainees with quality materials and instruction for future training with their staff members.) All…
Leiter, Jeffrey; Johnsen, Matthew C.
Compares a large random sample of maltreated children (n=2,219) to smaller random samples of the general population and children receiving social services to investigate the effects of abuse and neglect on school performance. School-outcome deficits associated with maltreatment are substantively similar to those of children receiving social…
Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Mendelsohn, Alan L
Poverty related disparities in early child development and school readiness are a major public health crisis, the prevention of which has emerged in recent years as a national priority. Interventions targeting parenting and the quality of the early home language environment are at the forefront of efforts to address these disparities. In this article we discuss the innovative use of the pediatric primary care platform as part of a comprehensive public health strategy to prevent adverse child development outcomes through the promotion of parenting. Models of interventions in the pediatric primary care setting are discussed with evidence of effectiveness reviewed. Taken together, a review of this significant body of work shows the tremendous potential to deliver evidence-based preventive interventions to families at risk for poverty related disparities in child development and school readiness at the time of pediatric primary care visits. We also addresss considerations related to scaling and maximizing the effect of pediatric primary care parenting interventions and provide key policy recommendations. PMID:27044688
Fleming, Darcy; McDonald, Linda; Drummond, Jane; Kysela, Gerald M.; Watson, Shelley L.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the Natural Teaching Strategies (NTS) parent training intervention on parent and child behaviour during free play. A pretest/posttest experimental design was used with families recruited from Head Start programs. Measures of observed behaviour were used to determine the use of contingent…
Gaudin, James M., Jr.
This manual provides a state-of-the art review of child neglect in the United States, its nature, causes, and the implications of that knowledge for preventive and remedial intervention. After an introduction, the first chapter considers the definition of neglect including types of neglect, the withholding of medically indicated treatment from…
Reynolds, Arthur J.
Although early intervention programs have enjoyed popular and legislative support, little hard data exist on the long-term consequences of these efforts. This study examined the long-term effects of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) program in Chicago. Begun in 1967, the program operates out of 24 centers, located in proximity to the elementary…
Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa
Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions. PMID:24673167
Hack, Walter G.
The rhythm and intensity of judicial activity, questions and issues adjudicated by the courts, judicial approaches and strategies, and the roles played by the courts are discussed with regard to court intervention in state school finance systems. (DS)
Bryant, Jill K.
A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…
Wimmer, Mary B.
Anxiety-based school refusal occurs in 2% of school-age children. The reasons why they refuse to go school range from mental illness and learning problems to general defiance and a desire for attention. Early identification and multi-faceted assessment and interventions are critical to addressing the problem. This book offers concise, practical…
Yeo, Lay See; Goh, Valerie Grace; Liem, Gregory Arief D.
Background: With children today being tested at younger ages, test anxiety has an earlier onset age. There is relatively limited research on test anxiety management programs with elementary school children. The theoretical basis for this nonrandomized pre-post intervention study is grounded in cognitive and behavioral interventions for test…
This article describes the incidence, symptoms, management, and other aspects of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) in relation to children in school. The disease is probably caused by an enterovirus and is characterized by extreme fatigue, muscle pain, an inability to concentrate, impaired speech, and sensory disturbances. Suggestions for managing…
Escovar, Peggy L.; Lazarus, Philip J.
The knowledge of cross-cultural child-rearing practices to aid school psychologists is illustrated in this paper. A literature review of child-rearing practices is provided, focusing on: (1) children's social, cultural, and psychological development; (2) the school psychologist's identification of culturally bound aspects of child development; and…
Feuerborn, Laura L.; Sarin, Kathryn; Tyre, Ashli D.
Many schools are turning to response to intervention (RTI) models to meet the needs of their students. The promise of RTI is that it will enable schools to better and more efficiently meet the learning needs of a large continuum of students by providing evidence-based schoolwide instruction, supplemental supports, and intensive individualized…
Bernstein, Gail A.; Layne, Ann E.; Egan, Elizabeth A.; Tennison, Dana M.
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three school-based interventions for anxious children: group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children, group CBT for children plus parent training group, and no-treatment control. Method: Students (7-11 years old) in three elementary schools (N = 453) were screened using the Multidimensional…
Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E
Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PMID:24798817
Almirall, Daniel; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
The treatment or prevention of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) disorders often requires an individualized, sequential approach to intervention, whereby treatments (or prevention efforts) are adapted over time based on the youth's evolving status (e.g., early response, adherence). Adaptive interventions are intended to provide a replicable guide for the provision of individualized sequences of interventions in actual clinical practice. Recently, there has been great interest in the development of adaptive intervenions by investigators working in CAMH. The development of such replicable, real-world, individualized sequences of decision rules to guide the treatment or prevention of CAMH disorders represents an important "next step" in interventions research. The primary purpose of this special issue is to showcase some recent work on the science of adaptive interventions in CAMH. In this overview article, we review why individualized sequences of interventions are needed in CAMH, provide an introduction to adaptive interventions, briefly describe each of the articles included in this special issue, and describe some exciting areas of ongoing and future research. A hopeful outcome of this special issue is that it encourages other researchers in CAMH to pursue creative and significant research on adaptive interventions. PMID:27310565
Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura
This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…
Kline, Donald F.
Intended for such school personnel as teachers, administrators, school board members, school bus drivers, cafeteria workers, and parent-teacher organizations, the volume provides basic information on child abuse and neglect. Sections cover the following topics: child abuse and neglect as an historical phenomenon, causes (including characteristics…
Hay, T; Jones, L
A framework for understanding child maltreatment in terms of complex and interacting factors from the individual to the societal level can aid in conceptualizing and implementing prevention efforts. Research on interventions at the societal level can guide a broad range of activities, increasing their effectiveness and viability. Fundamental approaches include evaluation of specific interventions and systems-level research on implementation and development of best practice in prevention activities for different portions of society. Research can indicate the roles that each individual, agency, organization, community, and level of government can play. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a useful framework for societal level change to improve the welfare of children and families. PMID:7924560
Frenn, Marilyn; Pruszynski, Jessica E; Felzer, Holly; Zhang, Jiannan
PURPOSE.: The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and initial efficacies of parent- and/or child-focused online interventions and variables correlated with child body mass index percentile change. DESIGN AND METHODS.: A feasibility and cluster randomized controlled pilot study was used. RESULTS.: Recruitment was more effective at parent-teacher conferences compared with when materials were sent home with fifth- to eighth-grade culturally diverse students. Retention was 90% for students and 62-74% for parents. Authoritative parent feeding behaviors were associated with lower child body mass index. A larger study is warranted. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.: Online approaches may provide a feasible option for childhood obesity prevention and amelioration. PMID:23289456
Davis, Robert A
In this essay, Robert Davis argues that much of the moral anxiety currently surrounding children in Europe and North America emerges at ages and stages curiously familiar from traditional Western constructions of childhood. The symbolism of infancy has proven enduringly effective over the last two centuries in associating the earliest years of children's lives with a peculiar prestige and aura. Infancy is then vouchsafed within this symbolism as a state in which all of society's hopes and ideals for the young might somehow be enthusiastically invested, regardless of the complications that can be anticipated in the later, more ambivalent years of childhood and adolescence. According to Davis, the understanding of the concept of infancy associated with the rise of popular education can trace its pedigree to a genuine shift in sensibility that occurred in the middle of the eighteenth century. After exploring the essentially Romantic positions of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Friedrich Fröbel and their relevance to the pattern of reform of early childhood education in the United Kingdom and the United States, Davis also assesses the influence of figures such as Stanley Hall and John Dewey in determining the rationale for modern early childhood education. A central contention of Davis's essay is that the assumptions evident in the theory and practice of Pestalozzi and his followers crystallize a series of tensions in the understanding of infancy and infant education that have haunted early childhood education from the origins of popular schooling in the late eighteenth century down to the policy dilemmas of the present day. PMID:20662168
Leyland, Anna F; Pickett, Kate E; Barber, Sally; McEachan, Rosemary; Wright, John
We explored primary school teacher-reported experiences, prevalence and management of child health and developmental problems and medication administration from one multi-ethnic urban community in England. A survey was delivered to 90 reception class teachers in 45 primary schools, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight respondents. Fifty-six percent of teachers completed the questionnaire. Findings suggest that teachers and school staff may represent an underused resource for identifying children with developmental and health conditions and that the connections formed between schools and families could be utilized by other services by delivering interventions in schools where possible. Whilst most schools use a policy to inform the management of child health in school, some key areas such as training and documentation of medication administration may not be followed in practice. Interview findings supported and expanded on survey data by identifying barriers to collaboration between services and families. PMID:25713008
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for teenagers. The rate has increased by 300% since the 1950s. By establishing a comprehensive, well-organized crisis intervention program, schools can do a great deal to prevent teenage suicide, and to help the school community survive if a tragedy cannot be averted. This book provides professionals…
Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S
Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health. PMID:11978356
Jones, R A; Lubans, D R; Morgan, P J; Okely, A D; Parletta, N; Wolfenden, L; de Silva-Sanigorski, A; Gibbs, L; Waters, E
Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Once established it is difficult to treat, therefore well-designed and evaluated prevention interventions are vitally important. Schools have an important role in the prevention of childhood obesity, however, their involvement can be limited by a number of constraints and barriers, which need to be considered when designing interventions. Members of the Prevention Stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network have extensive experience in implementing and evaluating school-based obesity prevention initiatives. Based on their collective experience and evidence from implementation research, the aim of this paper was to highlight six areas to consider when designing, implementing and evaluating obesity prevention initiatives in schools. Further, this paper aimed to provide guidance for overcoming some of the challenges and barriers faced in school-based obesity prevention research. The six key areas discussed include: design and analysis; school-community engagement; planning and recruitment; evaluation; implementation; and feedback and sustainability. PMID:25263839
Seligson, Michelle; Coltin, Lillian
This ERIC Digest provides basic information about school-age day care programs. Discussion focuses briefly on options available to families with school-age children, developmental needs of school-age children, characteristics of high quality school-age programs, supportive services for self-care, and ways of improving school-age child care…
Hahn, Ellen J.; Hall, Lynne A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Myers, April V.; Bonnel, Galadriel
The study purpose was to test the effect of a school- and home-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention program on reducing environmental, parent, and child risk factors for ATOD use. The design was a three-group pretest-posttest with interviews at baseline and 1 and 6 months post-intervention. The sample was 126 parents and their…
Harrington, Marjorie; DesJardin, Jean L.; Shea, Lynn C.
The goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationships between early child factors (i.e., age at identification, enrollment in early intervention, oral language skills) and school readiness skills (i.e., conceptual knowledge) in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Standardized language, cognition, and conceptual…
Deighton, Jessica; Tymms, Peter; Vostanis, Panos; Belsky, Jay; Fonagy, Peter; Brown, Anna; Martin, Amelia; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda
Early detection of child mental health problems in schools is critical for implementing strategies for prevention and intervention. The development of an effective measure of mental health and well-being for this context must be both empirically sound and practically feasible. This study reports the initial validation of a brief self-report…
Nettles, Saundra Murray; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; O'Campo, Patricia J.
Examining recent research on neighborhood influences on child development, this review focuses on social influences on school adjustment in the early elementary years. A model to guide community research and intervention is presented. The components of the model of integrated processes are neighborhoods and their effects on academic outcomes and…
Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.
Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…
... after-school activities for the first time. Because time management skills are usually not explicitly taught in school, ... your child's non-academic commitments to help with time management. It's also a good idea to make sure ...
Isaacs, C D
foundation for future researchers to formulate new, more effective intervention programs. Future researchers should focus on identifying those aspects of existing programs that lend themselves to empirical study and have led to more successful parent-child relationships. PMID:7118758
Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid
Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…
Harper, Randolph T.; And Others
A preliminary report is provided on a therapeutic nursery school program at Louisiana State University Medical Center in New Orleans. The program emphasizes the mother-child unit rather than the child as a single individual. Within the mother-child relationship, attention is given to altering perceptions and expectations, to experience of and…
Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo
Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…
Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne
The role of school-related stress in the life of the disabled child is examined, and parents and teachers are given suggestions to reduce stress and help the child cope. Stress is defined as the emotional and physical reaction to the pressures that society places upon the child to conform and live up to expectations. Among sources of stress are…
Purvis, J. R.; And Others
Describes steps in establishing crisis intervention team in schools: determining goals, performing needs assessment, finding model programs, developing membership pool, developing training program, preparing and maintaining list of resources and plans for support services, establishing communication network, designating base of operations,…
Milsom, Amy; Gallo, Laura L.
A main characteristic of a bully is his or her need to gain control over another. Bullies can gain control over others through physical force or threats, verbal teasing, and exclusion from peers. This article talks about bullying in United States middle schools, and prevention and intervention strategies for bullying. In this article, the authors…
Rasberry, Catherine N; Slade, Sean; Lohrmann, David K; Valois, Robert F
BACKGROUND The new Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model, designed to depict links between health and learning, is founded on concepts of coordinated school health (CSH) and a whole child approach to education. METHODS The existing literature, including scientific articles and key publications from national agencies and organizations, was reviewed and synthesized to describe (1) the historical context for CSH and a whole child approach, and (2) lessons learned from the implementation and evaluation of these approaches. RESULTS The literature revealed that interventions conducted in the context of CSH can improve health-related and academic outcomes, as well as policies, programs, or partnerships. Several structural elements and processes have proved useful for implementing CSH and a whole child approach in schools, including use of school health coordinators, school-level and district-level councils or teams; systematic assessment and planning; strong leadership and administrative support, particularly from school principals; integration of health-related goals into school improvement plans; and strong community collaborations. CONCLUSIONS Lessons learned from years of experience with CSH and the whole child approaches have applicability for developing a better understanding of the WSCC model as well as maximizing and documenting its potential for impacting both health and education outcomes. PMID:26440817
Harris, Alma; Allen, Tracey
This article considers the challenges and issues facing school leaders in the implementation of Every Child Matters. It outlines the factors that contribute to the effective delivery of Every Child Matters and outlines some of the barriers that make the delivery of this agenda more difficult. The article concludes that school leaders play a…
Thomas, Veronica G.
The past two decades have witnessed a significant growth in the number of school improvement programs and in the accompanying efforts to evaluate such programs. Passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act in 2002 has intensified the need for evaluations to assess and understand the quality and value of educational interventions. Well over a…
Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M
The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. PMID:25380194
Langley, Audra K.; Gonzalez, Araceli; Sugar, Catherine A.; Solis, Diana; Jaycox, Lisa
Objective To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based intervention for diverse children exposed to a range of traumatic events, and to examine its effectiveness in improving symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety. Method Participants were 74 school children (grades 1-5) and their primary caregivers. All participating students endorsed clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms. School clinicians were trained to deliver Bounce Back, a 10-session cognitive-behavioral group intervention. Children were randomized to Immediate or Delayed (3-month waitlist) Intervention. Parent- and child-report of posttraumatic stress and depression, and child report of anxiety symptoms, were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results Bounce Back was implemented with excellent clinician fidelity. Compared to children in the Delayed condition, children who received Bounce Back immediately demonstrated significantly greater improvements in parent- and child-reported posttraumatic stress and child-reported anxiety symptoms over the 3-month intervention. Upon receipt of the intervention, the Delayed intervention group demonstrated significant improvements in parent- and child-reported posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms. The Immediate treatment group maintained or showed continued gains in all symptom domains over the 3-month follow-up period (6 month assessment). Conclusions Findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of the Bounce Back intervention as delivered by school-based clinicians for children with traumatic stress. Implications are discussed. PMID:26302251
Tsai, Shu-Fei; Cheney, Douglas
This study investigated the effect of the adult-child relationship on students' social outcomes, academic competence and school engagement in a two-year Tier 2 intervention, the Check, Connect and Expect program. One hundred and three students from 2nd through 5th grade, their classroom teachers, and nine school-based coaches participated in this…
Holley, Clare E; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma
While numerous studies have investigated the efficacy of interventions at increasing children's vegetable consumption, little research has examined the effect of individual characteristics on intervention outcomes. In previous research, interventions consisting of modelling and rewards have been shown to increase children's vegetable intake, but differences were identified in terms of how much children respond to such interventions. With this in mind, the current study investigated the role of parental feeding practices, child temperament, and child eating behaviours as predictors of intervention success. Parents (N = 90) of children aged 2-4 years were recruited from toddler groups across Leicestershire, UK. Parents completed measures of feeding practices, child eating behaviours and child temperament, before participating in one of four conditions of a home-based, parent led 14 day intervention aimed at increasing their child's consumption of a disliked vegetable. Correlations and logistic regressions were performed to investigate the role of these factors in predicting intervention success. Parental feeding practices were not significantly associated with intervention success. However, child sociability and food fussiness significantly predicted intervention success, producing a regression model which could predict intervention success in 61% of cases. These findings suggest that future interventions could benefit from being tailored according to child temperament. Furthermore, interventions for children high in food fussiness may be better targeted at reducing fussiness in addition to increasing vegetable consumption. PMID:27263070
Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Wouters, Sofie; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde
The school-based Playing-2-gether is a 12-week intervention with two components aimed at decreasing child externalizing behavior through improving teacher-child interactions. The first component is rooted in attachment theory and aimed at enhancing teacher-child relationship quality, and the second is based on learning theory and aimed at improving teachers' behavior management. In this three-wave randomized study, effects of Playing-2-gether on the teacher-child relationship quality and on teacher-rated child behavioral adjustment were investigated. To this aim, 175 dyads consisting of male preschoolers with relatively high levels of externalizing problem behavior and their teachers were randomly assigned to Playing-2-gether (n = 89) or an education-as-usual control condition (n = 86). Teacher-rated questionnaires were collected at pre-test, after the first intervention component, and at post-test. At post-test, the intervention group showed a larger decrease in teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems, and child hyperactivity/inattention. Supplementary analyses showed that all positive effects were already visible after the first intervention component and that teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention did not further reduce during the second component. In addition, an increase in closeness was found following the first component, but subsequently disappeared at post-test. PMID:25028283
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
As used here, the term school-based crisis intervention refers to a range of responses schools can plan and implement in response to crisis events and reactions. All school-based and school-linked staff can play an important role in crisis intervention. This quick training aid presents a brief set of resources to guide those providing an…
Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency, and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior, and health by strengthening parenting, classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a "pre-kindergarten education as usual" control condition. Intervention included a family program (a 13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88 %) of the pre-kindergarten population (N = 1,050; age 4) enrolled in the trial, and nearly 60 % of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on parenting knowledge, positive behavior support, and teacher-rated parent involvement. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23 % of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families. PMID:24590412
Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior and health by strengthening parenting, early childhood classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a “pre-kindergarten education as usual” control condition. Intervention included a family program (13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88%) of the pre-kindergarten population (N=1050; age 4) enrolled in the trial and nearly 60% of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on knowledge, positive behavior support and teacher-rated parent involvement in early learning. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23% of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families. PMID:24590412
Tolan, Patrick H; Hanish, Laura D; McKay, Mary M; Dickey, Mitchell H
This article reports on 2 studies designed to develop and validate a set of measures for use in evaluating processes of child and family interventions. In Study 1 responses from 187 families attending an outpatient clinic for child behavior problems were factor analyzed to identify scales, consistent across sources: Alliance (Satisfactory Relationship with Interventionist and Program Satisfaction), Parenting Skill Attainment, Child Cooperation During Session, Child Prosocial Behavior, and Child Aggressive Behavior. Study 2 focused on patterns of scale scores among 78 families taking part in a 22-week preventive intervention designed to affect family relationships, parenting, and child antisocial and prosocial behaviors. The factor structure identified in Study 1 was replicated. Scale construct validity was demonstrated through across-source convergence, sensitivity to intervention change, and ability to discriminate individual differences. Path analysis validated the scales' utility in explaining key aspects of the intervention process. Implications for evaluating processes in family interventions are discussed. PMID:12085734
Sugai, George; Horner, Robert H.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and No Child Left Behind emphasize the use of scientifically based research to improve outcomes for students. From this emphasis, response-to-intervention has evolved. We present one perspective on the defining features of response-to-intervention and application of those features to school-wide…
Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Ana; Vila, Maria; Pérez, Maria José; Manresa, Josep Maria; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Roure, Eulàlia; Castells, Conxa
Background Obesity has become a global public health problem, which also affects children. It has been proposed that the educational interventions during childhood could be a key strategy in the prevention of obesity. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an intervention on food habits and physical activity in school children. Methods A 2-year cluster-randomised prospective study with two parallel arms was used to evaluate an intervention programme in children in their first year of primary schooling (5–6 years of age) in schools in the city of Granollers. The intervention consisted of the promotion of healthy eating habits and physical activity by means of the educational methodology Investigation, Vision, Action and Change (IVAC). At the beginning and at the end of the study (2006 and 2008) the weight and height of each child was measured in situ, while the families were given a self-report physical activity questionnaire and the Krece Plus quick test. Results Two years after the beginning of the study, the body mass index of the children in the control group was 0.89 kg/m2 higher than that of the intervention schools. The intervention reduced by 62% the prevalence of overweight children. Similarly, the proportion of children that ate a second piece of fruit and took part in an after-school physical activity increased in the intervention group. In the control group, the weekly consumption of fish was reduced. Conclusions The educational intervention in healthy eating habits and physical activity in the school could contribute to lessen the current increase in child obesity. PMID:21398682
Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Urzua, Sergio
There is a strongly held view that a narrow window exists for effective nutritional interventions and a widely known stylized depiction of age-dependent economic rates of returns to investments in cognitive and socioemotional development. Both indicate critical periods in early life. Moreover, the fact that both the physical and cognitive development of a child in these early years are highly dependent on childcare practices and on the characteristics of the caregivers motivates an interest in finding effective means to enhance stimulation in the context of nutritional programs, or vice versa. Nevertheless, there is relatively little evidence to date on how to align integrated interventions to these age-specific patterns and how to undertake benefit-cost analyses for integrated interventions. Thus, many core questions need further consideration in order to design integrated nutritional and stimulation programs. This paper looks at some of these questions and provides some guidelines as to how the economic returns from joint nutrition and stimulation programs might be estimated. PMID:24405371
Council on Child Day Care and Early Childhood Programs, Richmond, VA.
School-age child care (SACC) programs based on-site in Virginia elementary schools were surveyed to determine the scope of such programs across the commonwealth, and to look more comprehensively at existing programs in terms of operators, activities, affordability, and other issues. In January 1993, the survey was sent to school superintendents in…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... school attendance for child age 18. The child will be asked to submit (on a form furnished by the Board... statement from an official of the school verifying that the child is attending school full-time. The...
Malekpour, Mokhtar; Aghababaei, Sara; Hadi, Samira
The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The multistage random sampling method was used to select the 60…
Levine, Darren G.; Ducharme, Joseph M.
The current study evaluated the effects of a teacher-conducted play intervention on preschool-aged children's compliance in child care settings. Study participants included 8 children ranging in age from 3 to 5 years and 5 early childhood education teachers within 5 classrooms across 5 child care centers. A combination ABAB and multiple baseline…
This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor, disadvantaged…
Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.
Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…
Hebert, Elizabeth Baltus
Due to the numerous interventions available for children with autism, parents are faced with challenging decisions regarding treatments from the time of diagnosis and throughout their child's life. This exploratory qualitative study investigated the reasons behind parents' decisions about interventions for their child with autism.…
Interventions that aim to improve child dietary quality and reduce disease risk often involve parents. The most effective methods to engage parents remain unclear. A systematic review of interventions designed to change child and adolescent dietary behavior was conducted to answer whether parent inv...
Campbell, Frances A.; And Others
Primary goals of this study were to determine: (1) whether a child-centered educational preschool program and/or a parent-centered early elementary educational intervention program for disadvantaged children had effects on the child rearing beliefs and values of parents; and (2) whether parents' child rearing beliefs and educational values were…
Boomstra, Nienke W.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; van Geert, Paul L. C.
This article describes a study on mutuality in mother-child interaction during reading and playing sessions. Within mother-child interaction, mutuality is seen as important in language acquisition. The study was executed within a group of Netherlands Antillean mother-child dyads who participated in an intervention programme. Mutuality was…
Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike
Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…
Hackett, Alison J
School nurses are the only health professionals with a remit specifically to address the health needs of school-aged children and young people in the U.K. However, evidence within one Scottish city suggests that the health needs of vulnerable school-aged children are not always identified or met by the school nurse. Using a qualitative approach, a purposive sample of six school nurses was selected to explore their perceptions of their role in child protection and to identify training needs. Data collection comprised semistructured interviews and the data were analysed thematically. The school nurses in this study perceived that there was confusion and lack of clarity in relation to their role and involvement in child protection. Report writing, child trafficking, and legal issues were identified as training needs. PMID:24383164
Gardiner, Mary E.; Canfield-Davis, Kathy; Anderson, Keith LeMar
This exploratory study investigated how six practicing school principals responded to the requirements of the No Child Left Behind law (United States Congress Public Law 107-110, 2002, January, No Child Left Behind Act, http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/107-110.pdf ) in light of the multicultural leadership demands presented by an urban…
Ford, Harriett H.; Schindler, Claudia B.; Medway, Frederic J.
Reports the results of two studies comparing school professionals' attributions of blame to a child victim, a father/perpetrator, and a nonparticipating mother in hypothetical vignettes of father-daughter incest. Results indicate that all professional groups assigned some degree of blame to the child victim and nonparticipating mother and very…
Weshah, Hani A.; Al-Faori, Oraib; Sakal, Reham M.
The purpose of this research was to report on a Child-Friendly School (CFS) initiative pilot project in Jordan, which aims at initiating the creation of CFS and to raise stakeholders' awareness of the importance of this project in promoting and implementing Child Rights Conviction (CRC) in Jordan. The study was conducted by a joint team selected…
Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen
A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…
Child poverty is a global issue that affects around half the children in the world; it is inextricably bound to the poverty experienced by their parents and families and has been identified by the United Nations as a human rights issue. Child poverty can be a barrier to children and young people accessing school education or achieving any form of…
Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline; Tyldesley, Kath; Farrell, Peter; Humphrey, Neil
Child protection and safeguarding are important aspects of work for all professionals working with children. The current article outlines the international context of school psychologists' work in relation to child protection and safeguarding and describes the United Kingdom context in more detail. Given the relatively recent broadening of the UK…
Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa
Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…
Nadeem, Erum; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Langley, Audra K.; Stein, Bradley D.
This article describes implementation experiences “scaling up” the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS)—an intervention developed using a community partnered research framework. Case studies from two sites that have successfully implemented CBITS are used to examine macro- and school-level implementation processes and strategies used to address implementation issues and create a successful implementation support system. Key elements of the implementation support system include pre-implementation work, ongoing clinical and logistical implementation supports, promotion of fidelity to the intervention’s core components, tailored implementation to fit the service context, and a value on monitoring child outcomes. PMID:27346911
Merrell, Kenneth W.; Gueldner, Barbara A.; Ross, Scott W.; Isava, Duane M.
Research on effectiveness of school bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across studies. The authors conducted a meta-analytic study of school bullying intervention research across the…
Mills, Janis E.
This causal-comparative study was designed to address an increasing educational trend: providing interventions to students who passed a No Child Left Behind tested course but who failed the accompanying high school assessment in one Maryland public school system. The purpose of the study was to determine which of three intervention types…
Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…
Woodward, Jenny; Sahota, Pinki; Pike, Jo; Molinari, Rosie
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design and implement interventions to increase free school meal (FSM) uptake in pilot schools. This paper describes the interventions, reports on acceptability (as perceived by school working parties) and explores the process of implementing change. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research consisted of two…
Prewett, Sara; Mellard, Daryl F.; Deshler, Donald D.; Allen, Justin; Alexander, Ryan; Stern, Amelia
Response to intervention (RTI) is advocated in elementary school as a system-wide, multitiered model of academic and behavioral interventions. Middle schools have begun adopting RTI models based on these existing elementary models. This investigation into current middle school RTI practices describes technical aspects as well as some of cultural…
Change in schools is ever present. This study looks at change in regard to the implementation of Response to Intervention. Response to Intervention is being implemented in schools around the country. With this implementation come many changes to a school--in the administration, the faculty, and the students. Very little research exists concerning…
Gruman, Diana H.; Hoelzen, Brian
School districts are in the process of adopting the Response to Intervention (RTI) approach to identify and remediate academic and behavioral deficits. As an integral member of the school behavior team, school counselors must use data on individual interventions to contribute to the data-based decision making process in RTI. This article presents…
... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...
... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...
... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...
... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...
What Works Clearinghouse, 2014
"Fast Track" is a comprehensive intervention designed to reduce conduct problems and promote academic, behavioral, and social improvement. The program's components include the "Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies" curriculum, parent groups, parent-child sharing time, child social skills training, home visiting, child…
Fram, Maryah Stella; Frongillo, Edward A.; Fishbein, Eliza M.; Burke, Michael P.
Food insecurity is associated with a range of child developmental, behavioral, and emotional challenges, all of which can inhibit a child's school success. Schools offer a number of formal and informal services aimed at reducing food insecurity, but the problems associated with identifying children in need, addressing issues of stigma, and…
Maher, Charles A.
The Behavioral-Systems Approach (BSA), a broad-based approach to intervention with a range of school social systems, is presented and some outcome evidence of the utility of the approach for practicing school psychologists reported. (Author/BW)
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.
This document, a curriculum guide in home economics on child development, for secondary schools, is one of six guides developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson…
Schaefer, Earl S.; Edgerton, Marianna
The goal of this study is to broaden the scope of a conceptual model for child behavior by analyzing constructs relevant to cognition, conation, and affect. Two samples were drawn from school populations. For the first sample, 28 teachers from 8 rural, suburban, and urban schools rated 193 kindergarten children. Each teacher rated up to eight…
Meyer, Mary Kay; Lambert, Laurel; Blackwell, Ann
A parent telephone survey (n=300) was conducted to identify the primary customer of elementary school food programs. Results show that the decision to eat school lunch was most frequently made jointly by parent and child and the factor most frequently influencing the decision was the nutritional value of the meal. (Contains 15 references.) (JOW)
The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…
Seltzer, Michelle Seligson
This paper provides portions of a workshop discussion at the Wheelock Conference on School-Age Child Care concerning the role of family day care for school-age children. The workshop participants included family day care providers affiliated with the day care system in the Greater Boston area, administrators of a family day care system which also…
Turman, Lynette; Blatt, Bobby
Carthay Center Elementary School, an urban school in Los Angeles, developed Individualized Instruction through Open Structure in order to meet the needs of a changing student population. The program attempts to excite children about learning and to reinforce basic academic skills. The child's interest, needs, and abilities are integrated into the…
Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco
Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…
Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.
Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…
Steinberg, Laurence; Elmen, Julie D.
Examined are the relationships of student responsibility and parent-adolescent relations to the school performance of middle-school-age youth. A total of 120 families with a first-born child between 11 and 16 years of age participated in the study. Assessment of adolescent responsibility included measures of self-reliance, work orientation,…
Arthritis is a condition often associated with the elderly. However, arthritis affects approximately 275,000 children nationwide. Symptoms may vary from one swollen joint to multiply affected joints coupled with fatigue, fever, and rash. Its effect on the school-age child can range from missing a few days of school per year to hospitalizations…
Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou
We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…
O'Malley, Meagan D.
In an effort to understand how schools are coping with incidents of peer victimization, this study explored the types of related interventions currently being offered by public schools in Northern California. School psychologists' perceptions of the importance of the available interventions were also examined (N = 96). The interventions reported…
Keith, Patricia B.; Wetherbee, Michael J.; Kindzia, Debora L.
Since motivation is an essential element in school success, it becomes critical that school psychologists understand how academic motivation influences middle school students' academic achievement. The behavior characteristics exhibited by academically motivated middle school students and some interventions for at-risk students are reported. The…
Recognizing that child care located in the schools has many benefits, this manual was prepared for those planning or implementing school-age child care partnerships for kindergarten and primary grade children. Reporting on programs in the Ontario (Canada) area, the manual notes five issues that are central to developing such a program: (1)…
Webb, J K
Child to Child is an approach to health education of the primary school-age child. In developing countries, infants and young children spend much of their lives in the care of an older brother or sister. Morley, a paediatrician, saw the potential of teaching these older children to provide better care for their siblings. Working with colleagues in education, Child to Child was launched in 1978, the International Year of the Child. Teaching material was prepared covering developmental needs, nutrition, common illnesses and aspects of the environment; a book was published describing an activity-oriented teaching method. This material was distributed to developing countries world-wide, with encouragement to use the material and ideas freely, adapting, translating, or innovating as found useful. Child to Child is now in use in 60 or more countries, and in at least 15 languages. It is being used by agencies like the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO, and OXFAM as a way of reinforcing community education in the search for 'Health for All by 2000'. A world-wide review of Child to Child is in hand. Information from this will help to provide firm guidelines on implementation in the different contexts where its value has already been established. PMID:3217290
Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.
Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…
Crone, Deanne A.; Stoolmiller, Michael; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank
The primary aim of the Middle School Intervention Project (MSIP) is to evaluate the impact of a multi-component intervention for struggling adolescent readers on reading outcomes. The intervention consists of: (1) targeted, Tier 2 reading and (2) school engagement interventions, and (3) data-based-decision-making (DBDM) teams to review and act on…
McNaughton, Diane B; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Mexican immigrants are exposed to multiple ecological risks that heighten their likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms. In previous studies, affirming parent-child communication has been found to be protective against depressive symptoms in Hispanic youth. Interventions focused on enhancing communication between parents and youth have the possibility of strengthening protective factors for children. The aims of this study were to (1) adapt an evidence-based parent-child communication intervention (Mission Possible) for cultural relevance for low-income, low-literacy Mexican immigrant mothers and their children and (2) assess feasibility of delivering the adapted intervention in a school setting. Adaptation took place in a series of focus groups of mother-child dyads. The revised intervention was delivered to 27 mother-child dyads in two elementary schools. Feasibility was supported by high participant satisfaction, 80% attendance rate, and 75% retention rate. This preliminary work suggests strategies for school nurses to partner with immigrant families and outlines a potential intervention that expands the school nursing role. PMID:23616468
McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Mexican immigrants are exposed to multiple ecological risks that heighten their likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms. In previous studies, affirming parent–child communication has been found to be protective against depressive symptoms in Hispanic youth. Interventions focused on enhancing communication between parents and youth have the possibility of strengthening protective factors for children. The aims of this study were to (1) adapt an evidence-based parent–child communication intervention (Mission Possible) for cultural relevance for low-income, low-literacy Mexican immigrant mothers and their children and (2) assess feasibility of delivering the adapted intervention in a school setting. Adaptation took place in a series of focus groups of mother–child dyads. The revised intervention was delivered to 27 mother–child dyads in two elementary schools. Feasibility was supported by high participant satisfaction, 80% attendance rate, and 75% retention rate. This preliminary work suggests strategies for school nurses to partner with immigrant families and outlines a potential intervention that expands the school nursing role. PMID:23616468
Ruel, Marie T; Alderman, Harold
Acceleration of progress in nutrition will require effective, large-scale nutrition-sensitive programmes that address key underlying determinants of nutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions. We reviewed evidence of nutritional effects of programmes in four sectors--agriculture, social safety nets, early child development, and schooling. The need for investments to boost agricultural production, keep prices low, and increase incomes is undisputable; targeted agricultural programmes can complement these investments by supporting livelihoods, enhancing access to diverse diets in poor populations, and fostering women's empowerment. However, evidence of the nutritional effect of agricultural programmes is inconclusive--except for vitamin A from biofortification of orange sweet potatoes--largely because of poor quality evaluations. Social safety nets currently provide cash or food transfers to a billion poor people and victims of shocks (eg, natural disasters). Individual studies show some effects on younger children exposed for longer durations, but weaknesses in nutrition goals and actions, and poor service quality probably explain the scarcity of overall nutritional benefits. Combined early child development and nutrition interventions show promising additive or synergistic effects on child development--and in some cases nutrition--and could lead to substantial gains in cost, efficiency, and effectiveness, but these programmes have yet to be tested at scale. Parental schooling is strongly associated with child nutrition, and the effectiveness of emerging school nutrition education programmes needs to be tested. Many of the programmes reviewed were not originally designed to improve nutrition yet have great potential to do so. Ways to enhance programme nutrition-sensitivity include: improve targeting; use conditions to stimulate participation; strengthen nutrition goals and actions; and optimise women's nutrition, time
Allen, Melissa; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Stott, Kathryn A.
The long-term effects of crisis and tragedy can be improved significantly by immediate intervention and emergency mental health services. Providing crisis intervention in rural schools poses challenges related to lack of financial resources, community resources, and trained personnel; isolation of rural schools; and long distances between school…
Lentz, Francis E., Jr.; And Others
Presents a conceptual model of strong school-based interventions. Notes strong interventions are ecological in nature, naturalistic in scope, contain elements from the research base that are predictive for success, and incorporate the constructs of social validity in a practical manner. Provides suggestions and implications for strong school-based…
Villarreal, Victor; Ponce, Christopher; Gutierrez, Heveli
Treatment acceptability (TA) is critical when selecting and implementing an intervention, as TA is associated with treatment outcomes. The significance of TA is reflected in school psychology models for services that state that school psychologists should address TA during development, implementation, and evaluation of interventions. However, the…
Jaksec, Charles M., III
Despite their best and frequently heroic efforts, school crisis intervention teams often find themselves unprepared for the many types of tragedies they face. This timely text prompts crisis intervention team members to reevaluate their beliefs and practices and consider a new approach to dealing with school crises. The author, a longtime school…
Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Newsome, W. Sean; Nay, Stephanie
This study builds on two studies that explored the effect of a social skills intervention on problem behaviors displayed by elementary school children during recess. Findings conclude that social skills intervention significantly decreased problem behaviors among school children at recess. Implications for behavioral management and healthy school…
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Thousands and thousands of middle school students around the world participate in reading intervention programs, many that are very expensive with limited effectiveness. We wanted to know if an after-school intervention focused on close reading procedures could improve student achievement. Close reading of complex text involves annotations,…
Brezis, Rachel S; Weisner, Thomas S; Daley, Tamara C; Singhal, Nidhi; Barua, Merry; Chollera, Shreya P
In many low and middle income countries where autism-related resources are scarce, interventions must rely on family and parents. A 3-month Parent-Child Training Program (PCTP) at Action For Autism, New Delhi, India is aimed at empowering and educating parents, encouraging acceptance of their child, and decreasing parent stress. Forty couples were asked to describe their child with autism using the Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS), an open-ended narrative method, before and after the program. Parents described a wide range of child behaviors, primarily social and cognitive skills. While all families were of a relatively affluent strata compared to the general Indian population, there were nonetheless significant differences in parents' narratives based on their income levels. Coming into the program, parents with relatively less income focused on their child's immediate and material needs, while higher income parents discussed their parental roles and vision for society. After the PCTP, parents were more likely to reflect on their child beyond comparisons to 'normality,' and beyond the here-and-now. Mothers were more likely than fathers to reflect on themselves and their relationships with their child. Understanding parents' experiences and narratives is essential for the evaluation of interventions such as the PCTP, as Indian parents are incorporated into a growing global network of 'parents of children with autism.' PMID:25739529
Rue, Lisa; Chandran, Raj; Pannu, Aman; Bruce, David; Singh, Rana; Traxler, Karen
Outcomes associated with an abstinence education intervention were evaluated using a single group design with a 12-month longitudinal follow-up. The intervention group of adolescents ages 12-14 years (N = 427) were enrolled in an 11.5-hour abstinence education intervention offered during the school day. Significant differences were found in the…
Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark. T.
This study examines gender, grade-level, and baseline depressive symptoms as potential moderators of a school-based mindfulness intervention's impact on the self-regulatory outcomes of urban youth. Ninety-seven participants from four urban public schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list control condition. Fourth and fifth…
Froiland, John Mark
School psychologists can work within a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework to increasingly promote the mental health of students. This article shares the unfolding of two composite case studies that exemplify how a practicing school psychologist can use a problem-solving framework to deliver effective mental health interventions to individual…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...
Watts Pappas, Nicole; McAllister, Lindy; McLeod, Sharynne
Parental beliefs and experiences regarding involvement in speech intervention for their child with mild to moderate speech sound disorder (SSD) were explored using multiple, sequential interviews conducted during a course of treatment. Twenty-one interviews were conducted with seven parents of six children with SSD: (1) after their child's initial…
Plotnick, Robert D.; Deppman, Laurie
Presents a case for using benefit-cost analysis to structure evaluations of child-abuse prevention and intervention programs. Presents the basic concept of benefit-cost analysis, its application in the context of assessing these types of child welfare programs, and limitations on its application to social service programs. (Author)
Barnes, Brendon R.; Mathee, Angela; Shafritz, Lonna B.; Krieger, Laurie; Zimicki, Susan
Indoor air pollution has been causally linked to acute lower respiratory infections in children younger than 5. The aim of this study was to identify target behaviors for a behavioral intervention to reduce child exposure to indoor air pollution by attempting to answer two research questions: Which behaviors are protective of child respiratory…
Asawa, Lindsay E.; Hansen, David J.; Flood, Mary Fran
Due to the destructive impact of child maltreatment and limited available funding to address its consequences, the value of preventive measures is evident. Early Childhood Intervention Programs (ECIPs) provide excellent opportunities to prevent and identify cases of child maltreatment, among other varied objectives. These programs are typically…
Sabalauskas, Kara L.; Ortolani, Charles L.; McCall, Matthew J.
Child welfare providers are increasingly required to demonstrate that strengths-based, evidence-informed practices are central to their intervention methodology. This case study describes how a large child welfare agency instituted cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as the core component of a strength-based practice model with the goal of…
Berquist, Robert, Ed.
Photographs, diagrams, and words are used to tell about the nursery school at Stanford University. Supported largely by tuition, this school enrolls 270 pupils who attend school during one of three different session schedules. A full-time staff of 12 is assisted by students from psychology, education, and nursing. The environment offers…
... news/fullstory_160380.html How to Get Your Child Ready for a Successful School Year Good sleep, ... are heading back to school, according to a child health expert. "As children grow, it's essential to ...
Reid, Kristen; Temple, Judy
With increasing numbers of parents at work or in training and education programs when children get out of school, the existence and quality of school-age child care (SACC) affects not only families, but the community as a whole. Texas school district involvement with SACC was examined, and qualities of model programs and barriers to developing…
Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.
This report is based upon survey responses from 139 school districts and 59 nonpublic schools in Minnesota that offer School Age Child Care (SACC), or extended day programs. The report presents data on public and private SACC programs related to: (1) administration and growth; (2) number of children served; (3) types of services offered; (4)…
Hicks, Taylor B.; Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.; Carlson, John S.; Palejwala, Mohammed H.
The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate Nationally Certified School Psychologists' (NCSP) training in and use of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for child behavior concerns as well as their reported implementation barriers. A modified Tailored Design Method (TDM; Dillman, Smyth, & Christian, 2009) using up to four…
Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Magnusson, Kristjan Th.; Thorsdottir, Inga; Johannsson, Erlingur
Abstract Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a two-year school-based intervention, consisting of integrated and replicable physical activity and nutritional education on weight, fat percentage, cardiovascular risk factors, and blood pressure. Design and setting. Six elementary schools in Reykjavik were randomly assigned to be either intervention (n = 3) or control (n = 3) schools. Seven-year-old children in the second grade in these schools were invited to participate (n = 321); 268 (83%) underwent some or all of the measurements. These 286 children were followed up for two years. Intervention. Children in intervention schools participated in an integrated and replicable physical activity programme, increasing to approximately 60 minutes of physical activity during school in the second year of intervention. Furthermore, they received special information about nutrition, and parents, teachers, and school food service staff were all involved in the intervention. Subjects. 321seven-year-old schoolchildren. Main outcome measures. Blood pressure, obesity, percentage of body fat, lipid profile, fasting insulin. Results. Children in the intervention group had a 2.3 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and a 2.9 mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over the two-year intervention period, while children in the control group increased SBP by 6.7 mmHg and DPB by 8.4 mmHg. These changes were not statistically significant. Furthermore there were no significant changes in percentage body fat, lipid profile, or fasting insulin between the intervention and control schools. Conclusion. A two-year school-based intervention with increased physical activity and healthy diet did not have a significant effect on common cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25424464
Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren
Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…
Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan
Background: Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Method: Children with ASD were…
Knox, Karen S.; Roberts, Albert R.
The need for crisis intervention plans and programs in schools has become more evident during the past decade with the increased incidence of school violence and other traumatic situations experienced by students, educators, school personnel, parents, and relatives of those involved. This need has resulted in an increase of professional…
Eber, Lucille; Sugai, George; Smith, Carl R.; Scott, Terrance M.
This article explores how the school-based wraparound approach and a school-wide systems approach to positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) work together to create more effective school environments and improved outcomes for students with or at risk of behavioral challenges. Complementary aspects of these wraparound and PBIS…
Weismuller, Penny C.; Grasska, Merry A.; Alexander, Marilyn; White, Catherine G.; Kramer, Pat
Regular school attendance is a necessary part of the learning process; student absenteeism has a direct association with poor academic performance. School nurses can influence student attendance. This study describes the impact of school nurse interventions on student absenteeism and student health. A retrospective review of 240 randomly selected…
Topping, K. J.; Thurston, A.; Tolmie, A.; Christie, D.; Murray, P.; Karagiannidou, E.
The use of cooperative learning in secondary school is reported--an area of considerable concern given attempts to make secondary schools more interactive and gain higher recruitment to university science courses. In this study the intervention group was 259 pupils aged 12-14 years in nine secondary schools, taught by 12 self-selected teachers.…
Lembke, Erica S.; Garman, Carol; Deno, Stanley L.; Stecker, Pamela M.
We provide a description of how a culturally and linguistically diverse elementary school in the Midwest implemented core features of a response-to-intervention (RTI) framework for improving school-wide reading instruction and decision making. A multi-year timeline illustrates how this school implemented additional elements of the RTI framework…
Mellard, Daryl F.; Frey, Bruce B.; Woods, Kari L.
Although response to intervention (RTI) has been widely discussed in education literature and is increasingly being implemented in schools throughout the U.S., few studies provide empirical evidence of improved school-wide student outcomes. Presented here are data and an effect size analysis of school-wide student reading gains in five elementary…
Tramonte, Michael R.
This paper summarizes information concerning homicide crisis intervention in a multicultural school that would be useful for school psychologists. School psychologists are encouraged to be introspective about their own beliefs about death, grief, and multiculturalism. This paper discusses the eight factors to consider when providing services to…
Wolfe, Linda C.
This paper presents findings from a quantitative, correlational study that examined selected school nursing services, student academic outcomes, and school demographics. Ex post facto data from the 2011-2012 school year of Delaware public schools were used in the research. The selected variables were school nurse interventions provided to students…
Østbye, Truls; Mann, Courtney M.; Vaughn, Amber E.; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Hales, Derek; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Ward, Dianne S.
Background Obesity is a major public health problem for which early preventive interventions are needed. Large numbers of young children are enrolled in some form of child care program, making these facilities influential environments in children’s development. Family child care homes (FCCH) are a specific type of child care in which children are cared for within the provider’s own residence. FCCHs serve approximately 1.5 million children in the U.S.; however, research to date has overlooked FCCH providers and their potential to positively influence children’s health-related behaviors. Methods Keys to Healthy Family Child Care Homes (Keys) is a cluster-randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of an intervention designed to help providers become healthy role models, provide quality food- and physical activity-supportive FCCH environments, and implement effective business practices. The intervention is delivered through workshops, home visits, tailored coaching calls, and educational toolkits. Primary outcomes are child physical activity measured via accelerometry data and dietary intake data collected using direct observation at the FCCH. Secondary outcomes include child body mass index, provider weight-related behaviors, and observed obesogenic environmental characteristics. Conclusion Keys is an innovative approach to promoting healthy eating and physical activity in young children. The intervention operates in a novel setting, targets children during a key developmental period, and addresses both provider and child behaviors to synergistically promote health. PMID:25460337
DeGarmo, David S.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Leve, Leslie D.; Price, Joe
Objective: The authors conduct a within intervention group analysis to test whether caregiver engagement (e.g., participation, homework completion, openness to ideas, apparent satisfaction) in a group-based intervention moderates risk factors for foster child outcomes in a state-supported randomized trial of caregiver parent training. Methods: The…
Ricciardi, Joseph N.; Luiselli, James K.; Camare, Marianne
We evaluated contact desensitization (reinforcing approach responses) as intervention for specific phobia with a child diagnosed with autism. During hospital-based intervention, the boy was able to encounter previously avoided stimuli. Parental report suggested that results were maintained postdischarge. (Contains 1 figure.)
Soenksen, Delann; Alper, Sandra
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a Social Story [TM] intervention in teaching a young child with hyperlexia to appropriately obtain the attention of his peers. The Social Story intervention consisted of verbal and visual cues incorporated into an age-appropriate storybook format. Attempting to obtain the attention of a…
Matthews, Alice; Rix, Jonathan
Early intervention activities for very young disabled children are frequently linked to developmental targets and goals. A key challenge for parents and practitioners involved in early intervention programmes is to encourage their child to play and develop creatively through enjoyable, everyday childhood experiences. This paper reports on a…
Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Zucker, Tricia; Crawford, April D.; Solari, Emily F.
This study examined mother-child shared book reading behaviors before and after participation in a random-assignment responsive parenting intervention called Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) that occurred during infancy (PALS I), the toddler-preschool (PALS II) period, or both as compared with a developmental assessment (DAS) intervention (DAS…
Suma, Katharine; Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Robins, Diana L.; Abrams, Danielle N.
This study documents the relation between an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, increases in intervention, and changes in parent-child interaction quality. Information about intervention and observations of interaction were collected before diagnosis and a half year after diagnosis for 79 low-risk toddlers who had screened positive for ASD…
Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Huang, Bin; Slap, Gail B.; Gordon, Judith S.
We conducted a randomized trial of parents and their 9- to 16-year-old children to pilot test an emergency department (ED)-based intervention designed to increase parent-child tobacco communication. Intervention group (IG) parents received verbal/written instructions on how to relay anti-tobacco messages to their children; control group (CG)…
OBJECTIVE: This article presents an overview of child abuse among culturally diverse populations in Hawaii, substance use among culturally diverse students in Hawaii, and culturally based interventions for preventing child abuse and substance abuse in Native Hawaiian families. OBSERVATIONS: Native Hawaiians accounted for the largest number of cases of child abuse and neglect in Hawaii between 1996 and 1998. Alcohol and other drugs have increasingly been linked with child maltreatment. Native Hawaiian youths report the highest rate of substance use in Hawaii. Cultural factors such as spirituality, family, and cultural identification and pride are important in interventions with Native Hawaiians. CONCLUSION: Human services should continue to emphasize interventions that integrate "mainstream" and cultural-specific approaches. PMID:12435831
This manual was designed to assist concerned individuals and organizations within communities in New Mexico to develop and plan effective school-age child care programs. Emphasized are the first steps in initiating and implementing school-age child care in a community. Chapter I discusses the need for school-age child care programs and the…