Mathis, Erin T. B.; Bierman, Karen L.
200 preschool children in Head Start (55% girls; 20% Hispanic, 25% African-American, 55% European American; M age = 4.80 years old) participated in a randomized-controlled trial of a home visiting intervention designed to promote their emergent literacy skills (the Research-based Developmentally Informed parent [REDI-P] program). This study explored concurrent changes in levels of parent support and child literacy skills that occurred over the course of the intervention, and examined the impact of pre-intervention parent support and child literacy skills as potential moderators of parent and child outcomes. Cross-lagged structural equation models and follow-up analyses indicated that intervention had the strongest impact on child literacy skills when parents were high on support at the pre-intervention assessment. Conversely, the REDI-Parent program promoted the greatest gains in parent support when parents entered the program with low levels. These findings suggest that families may benefit from home visit school readiness interventions in different ways: child skill acquisition may be greatest when parents are initially high in support, whereas parenting may improve most when parents are initially low in support. PMID:27279678
McNaughton, Diane B; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an adapted mother-child communication intervention for Latino immigrant mothers and their fourth- to sixth-grade children delivered after school. The intervention, Family Communication ("Comunicación Familiar"), was delivered at children's elementary schools in six sessions lasting 2 hr each. Significant improvements were found in children's reports of problem-solving communication, with their mother and mothers' reports of reduced family conflict. Strengths of the intervention are improved mother-child communication, acquisition of communication skills that can transfer to relationships within the classroom, and a design that allows delivery by nurses or other professional members of the school support team. PMID:24643757
McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent–child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an adapted mother–child communication intervention for Latino immigrant mothers and their fourth- to sixth-grade children delivered after school. The intervention, Family Communication (“Comunicación Familiar”), was delivered at children’s elementary schools in six sessions lasting 2 hr each. Significant improvements were found in children’s reports of problem-solving communication, with their mother and mothers’ reports of reduced family conflict. Strengths of the intervention are improved mother–child communication, acquisition of communication skills that can transfer to relationships within the classroom, and a design that allows delivery by nurses or other professional members of the school support team. PMID:24643757
Chong, Wan Har; Lee, Boon Ooi; Tan, Soo Yin; Wong, Shyh Shin; Yeo, Lay See
This article presents an overview of the range of primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions based on the Singapore Education Ministry-developed whole-school framework for pupil management and support. At the preventive level, a range of school-wide programmes are implemented to provide learning, emotional, and behavioural support for…
Miller, David N.
Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…
Lavelle-Lore, Millicent D.
This study investigated the effects of a parent-child home numeracy intervention on the mathematics scores of first grade students attending urban, Catholic schools. The participants included 60 parents (29 Black; 2 Asian; 1 Latino; 26 White; and 2 other) from two urban, Catholic schools. Parents, randomly assigned to the experimental group,…
It is sad to know that many of the child negligence and child abuse cases, which are being frequently encountered in the society today, still remains unknown. This perhaps is due to lack of information on the part of the administrators, school counselors and other related bodies in the management of such cases. In this study, 50 school counselors…
This handbook on child abuse and neglect was written to assist school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school nurses, and school social workers in defining abuse and neglect and in developing policy and training programs to best address the abuse issue. Topics addressed include: (1) understanding child abuse and neglect;…
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Robertson, Dylan L.
Investigated the effects of participation in the Title I Child-Parent Centers on substantiated reports of child maltreatment for 1,408 children. Found that 913 preschool participants had significantly lower rates of court petitions of maltreatment by age 17 than 495 children who participated in alternative kindergarten interventions. Four- to…
Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E; Kerns, Connor M; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C; Mandell, David S
This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child characteristics (including age, language ability, autism severity, social skills, adaptive behavior, co-occurring psychological symptoms, and restrictive and repetitive behavior) and outcome, as measured by changes in cognitive ability following one academic year of an intervention standardized across the sample were evaluated using linear regression with random effects for classroom. While several scales and subscales had statistically significant bivariate associations with outcome, in adjusted analysis, only age and the presence of symptoms associated with social anxiety, such as social avoidance and social fearfulness, as measured through the Child Symptom Inventory-4, were associated with differences in outcome. The findings regarding the role of social anxiety are new and have important implications for treatment. Disentangling the construct of social anxiety to differentiate between social fearfulness and social motivation has important implications for shifting the focus of early treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:25911092
McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to…
van Vught, Anneke J A H; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Arts, Ilja C W; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars B; El-Naaman, Bianca; Bugge, Anna; Nielsen, Birgit M; Heitman, Berit L
The amino acid arginine is a well-known growth hormone (GH) stimulator and GH is an important modulator of linear growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary arginine on growth velocity in children between 7 and 13 years of age. Data from the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study during 2001-2 (baseline), and at 3-year and 7-year follow-up, were used. Arginine intake was estimated via a 7 d precoded food diary at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Data were analysed in a multilevel structure in which children were embedded within schools. Random intercept and slopes were defined to estimate the association between arginine intake and growth velocity, including the following covariates: sex; age; baseline height; energy intake; puberty stage at 7-year follow-up and intervention/control group. The association between arginine intake and growth velocity was significant for the third and fourth quintile of arginine intake (2.5-2.8 and 2.8-3.2 g/d, respectively) compared with the first quintile ( < 2.2 g/d) (P for trend = 0.04). Protein intake (excluding arginine) was significantly associated with growth velocity; however, the association was weaker than the association between arginine intake and growth velocity (P for trend = 0.14). The results of the present study suggest a dose-dependent physiological role of habitual protein intake, and specifically arginine intake, on linear growth in normally growing children. However, since the study was designed in healthy children, we cannot firmly conclude whether arginine supplementation represents a relevant clinical strategy. Further research is needed to investigate whether dietary arginine may represent a nutritional strategy potentially advantageous for the prevention and treatment of short stature. PMID:23046689
Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Leardo, Michele; Aneja, Siddhartha; Elbel, Brian
IMPORTANCE Decreasing the amount of caloric beverages consumed and simultaneously increasing water consumption is important to promoting child health and decreasing the prevalence of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of water jets (electrically cooled, large clear jugs with a push lever for fast dispensing) on standardized body mass index, overweight, and obesity in elementary school and middle school students. Milk purchases were explored as a potential mechanism for weight outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This quasi-experimental study used a school-level database of cafeteria equipment deliveries between the 2008-2009 and 2012-2013 and included a sample of 1227 New York, New York, public elementary schools and middle schools and the 1 065 562 students within those schools. INTERVENTION Installation of water jets in schools. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Individual body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all students in the sample using annual student-level height and weight measurements collected as part of New York’s FITNESSGRAM initiative. Age- and sex-specific growth charts produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to categorize students as overweight and obese. The hypothesis that water jets would be associated with decreased standardized BMI, overweight, and obesity was tested using a difference-in-difference strategy, comparing outcomes for treated and nontreated students before and after the introduction of a water jet. RESULTS This study included 1 065 562 students within New York City public elementary schools and middle schools. There was a significant effect of water jets on standardized BMI, such that the adoption of water jets was associated with a 0.025 (95% CI, −0.038 to −0.011) reduction of standardized BMI for boys and a 0.022 (95% CI, −0.035 to −0.008) reduction of standardized BMI for girls (P < .01). There was also a significant effect on being overweight. Water jets were
Neal, S; Rice, F; Ng-Knight, T; Riglin, L; Frederickson, N
School transition at around 11-years of age can be anxiety-provoking for children, particularly those with special educational needs (SEN). The present study adopted a longitudinal design to consider how existing transition strategies, categorized into cognitive, behavioral or systemic approaches, were associated with post-transition anxiety amongst 532 typically developing children and 89 children with SEN. Multiple regression analysis indicated that amongst typically developing pupils, systemic interventions were associated with lower school anxiety but not generalized anxiety, when controlling for prior anxiety. Results for children with SEN differed significantly, as illustrated by a Group × Intervention type interaction. Specifically, systemic strategies were associated with lower school anxiety amongst typically developing children and higher school anxiety amongst children with SEN. These findings highlight strategies that schools may find useful in supporting typically developing children over the transition period, whilst suggesting that children with SEN might need a more personalized approach. PMID:27176785
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Newman, Elana; Varma, Vandana; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Shaw, Jon A.; Chrisman, Allan K.; Nitiéma, Pascal
This review summarizes current knowledge on the timing of child disaster mental health intervention delivery, the settings for intervention delivery, the expertise of providers, and therapeutic approaches. Studies have been conducted on interventions delivered during all phases of disaster management from pre event through many months post event. Many interventions were administered in schools which offer access to large numbers of children. Providers included mental health professionals and school personnel. Studies described individual and group interventions, some with parent involvement. The next generation of interventions and studies should be based on an empirical analysis of a number of key areas. PMID:26295009
Buser, Juleen K.; Saponara, Erin
Children who witness intimate partner violence (IPV) often suffer a range of physical, behavioral, emotional, and familial consequences (Holt, Buckley, & Whelan, 2008). School counselors may be in a key position to implement prevention programs around this issue, identify children who have witnessed IPV, and to engage in intervention efforts.…
Jones, Stephanie M.; Bub, Kristen L.; Raver, C. Cybele
Research Findings: This study examines the theory of change of the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), testing a sequence of theory-derived mediating mechanisms that include the quality of teacher-child relationships and children's self-regulation. The CSRP is a multicomponent teacher and classroom-focused intervention, and its…
The importance of prompt treatment of the school phobic child, and the need for good communication among those concerned, are addressed in this article. The manifestation of school phobia is described and intervention methods are reviewed. (Author/MT)
Ray, Dee C.
This article discusses a study investigating the impact of two school counseling interventions, child-centered play therapy (CCPT) and teacher consultation, on teacher-child relationship stress. CCPT and teacher consultation were conducted with 93 (pre-kindergarten to fifth grade) elementary school students across three elementary schools deemed…
Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat
Background Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation. Methods This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts) were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model. Results None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = <0.001) higher score in the post-test after adjusting for pre-test score and other covariates in a multi-level linear regression model. Conclusions These results suggest that school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level
Because of the large number of children being maltreated, Colorado law mandates that suspected cases of child abuse be reported. It is essential that professionals working with children understand how to recognize and report suspected abuse. This handbook was written to assist teachers, counselors, and social workers in defining child abuse and…
Pellecchia, Melanie; Connell, James E.; Kerns, Connor M.; Xie, Ming; Marcus, Steven C.; Mandell, David S.
This study examined the extent to which clinical and demographic characteristics predicted outcome for children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included 152 students with autism spectrum disorder in 53 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms in a large urban public school district. Associations between child…
Child health is a growing concern at the global level, as infectious diseases and preventable conditions claim hundreds of lives of children under the age of five in low-income countries. Approximately 7.6 million children under five years of age died in 2011, calculating to about 19 000 children each day and almost 800 every hour. About 80 percent of the world’s under-five deaths in 2011 occurred in only 25 countries, and about half in only five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China. The implications and burden of such statistics are huge and will have dire consequences if they are not corrected promptly. This paper reviews essential interventions for improving child health, which if implemented properly and according to guidelines have been found to improve child health outcomes, as well as reduce morbidity and mortality rates. It also includes caregivers and delivery strategies for each intervention. Interventions that have been associated with a decrease in mortality and disease rates include exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding strategies, routine immunizations and vaccinations for children, preventative zinc supplementation in children, and vitamin A supplementation in vitamin A deficient populations. PMID:25177974
Lassi, Zohra S; Mallick, Dania; Das, Jai K; Mal, Lekho; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
Child health is a growing concern at the global level, as infectious diseases and preventable conditions claim hundreds of lives of children under the age of five in low-income countries. Approximately 7.6 million children under five years of age died in 2011, calculating to about 19,000 children each day and almost 800 every hour. About 80 percent of the world's under-five deaths in 2011 occurred in only 25 countries, and about half in only five countries: India, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan and China. The implications and burden of such statistics are huge and will have dire consequences if they are not corrected promptly. This paper reviews essential interventions for improving child health, which if implemented properly and according to guidelines have been found to improve child health outcomes, as well as reduce morbidity and mortality rates. It also includes caregivers and delivery strategies for each intervention. Interventions that have been associated with a decrease in mortality and disease rates include exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding strategies, routine immunizations and vaccinations for children, preventative zinc supplementation in children, and vitamin A supplementation in vitamin A deficient populations. PMID:25177974
Healey, Jean B.
Peer abuse in the form of bullying is now recognised as an endemic feature of school life and in terms of impact, outcomes and intervention requirements can be equated with other forms of child abuse. It is argued in the light of data presented here that the parallels between peer abuse and more generally accepted forms of child abuse must be…
Mashoto, Kijakazi O; Astrøm, Anne N; Skeie, Marit S; Masalu, Joyce R
This study aimed to examine the evaluative properties of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) inventory and to estimate treatment-associated changes in the OIDP and self-reported oral health following atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) and oral health education (OHE). A total of 1,306 school attendees in Kilwa, Tanzania, completed the Child-OIDP inventory before, and 6 months after, treatment. The post-treatment questionnaire assessed change in perceived oral health. Complete baseline and follow-up data were obtained for 104, 117, and 1,085 participants who received, respectively, ART fillings (Group A), ART fillings and tooth extraction (Group B), and OHE only (Group C). The longitudinal validity, responsiveness, and treatment-associated changes were calculated using anova, effect sizes, and repeated general linear models (GLM). The follow-up prevalence was 73.8%. The mean changes in the OIDP total- and subscale scores were negative within those who reported 'worsened' oral health, and positive in subjects reporting 'improved' oral health. Effect sizes for the total OIDP score ranged from -0.2 within the category 'worsened' to 0.4 within the category 'improved'. Changes following treatment were more extensive in Group B compared with Groups A and C, and in Group C compared with Group A. The Child-OIDP showed promising evaluative properties and responsiveness to change following ART fillings, ART fillings and tooth extraction, and OHE. PMID:21083625
Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda
The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…
Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.
School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…
... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series Title: Numbers and Trends Author(s): Child Welfare ... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series: Numbers and Trends Year Published: 2016 https:// ...
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Varma, Vandana; Nelson, Summer D.; Newman, Elana
Children face innumerable challenges following exposure to disasters. To address trauma sequelae, researchers and clinicians have developed a variety of mental health interventions. While the overall effectiveness of multiple interventions has been examined, few studies have focused on the individual components of these interventions. As a preliminary step to advancing intervention development and research, this literature review identifies and describes nine common components that comprise child disaster mental health interventions. This review concluded that future research should clearly define the constituent components included in available interventions. This will require that future studies dismantle interventions to examine the effectiveness of specific components and identify common therapeutic elements. Issues related to populations studied (eg, disaster exposure, demographic and cultural influences) and to intervention delivery (eg, timing and optimal sequencing of components) also warrant attention. PMID:25225954
Fonagy, Peter; Twemlow, Stuart W.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Dill, Edward J.; Little, Todd D.; Sargent, John A.
Background: While school-based anti-bullying programs are widely used, there have been few controlled trials of effectiveness. This study compared the effect of manualized School Psychiatric Consultation (SPC), CAPSLE (a systems and mentalization focused whole school intervention), and treatment-as-usual (TAU) in reducing aggression and…
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Newman, Elana; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal; Shaw, Jon A; Chrisman, Allan K.; Noffsinger, Mary A
This review of child disaster mental health intervention studies describes the techniques used in the interventions and the outcomes addressed, and it provides a preliminary evaluation of the field. The interventions reviewed here used a variety of strategies such as cognitive behavioral approaches, exposure and narrative techniques, relaxation, coping skill development, social support, psychoeducation, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and debriefing. A diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or posttraumatic stress reactions were the most commonly addressed outcomes although other reactions such as depression, anxiety, behavior problems, fear, and/or traumatic grief also were examined. Recommendations for future research are outlined. PMID:25914863
Ergün, Sibel; Kalkim, Asli; Dolgun, Eda
Students encounter many risks for injury, which can impact their health and educational success; prevention of these injuries are paramount for school nurses. These article report results of a study conducted to determine the efficacy of training given to children regarding prevention of school injuries and to compare the effectiveness of instructor-to-child training to that of the child-to-child training method in affecting student attitudes toward the prevention of school injuries. An interventional teaching program was developed with the objective of positively impacting students' attitudes toward preventing school injuries. The health care training using instructor-to-child and child-to-child training produced a similar effect in changing the attitudes of students with respect to preventing school injuries. Given the high ratio of children to school nurses within the school systems in Turkey, nurses could consider the use of child-to-child training to supplement their own health care training to support changes in students' attitudes toward prevention of school injuries. PMID:23263266
Jacobs, Ellen; And Others
This paper examines on-site, school-age child care and the relationship between attendance at on-site, after-school child care programs and familial, environmental, and developmental factors. Topics discussed include: (1) the quality of school-based environments in kindergarten and child care; (2) the socioeconomic status and size of families of…
Bergren, Martha Dewey
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that data on children's deaths in school should be recorded, analyzed and reported at the local, state and national level. The systematic review of data on child deaths is necessary to drive interventions and policies that will decrease mortality from injuries, violence, acute…
Broadhurst, Diane D.
The booklet provides an overview on the school-related issues involved in child abuse and neglect. Definitions, causes, and effects of abuse and neglect are reviewed in the first chapter; guidelines for identifying physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment are offered in chapter 2. Aspects of reporting abuse are noted as are…
Provides advice on how to set up child day-care services within a school to allow teen mothers to continue their education. Among the advice given are to provide a comprehensive program, be prepared for resistance, tap multiple funding sources, pay attention to staff training and necessary paperwork, have clear guidelines and rules, and be…
Smith, Peter K; Ananiadou, Katerina; Cowie, Helen
In the last 2 decades, school bullying has become a topic of public concern and research around the world. This has led to action to reduce the problem. We review interventions targeted at the school level (for example, whole school policy, classroom climate, peer support, school tribunal, and playground improvement), at the class level (for example, curriculum work), and at the individual level (for example, working with specific pupils). Effectiveness of interventions has been sporadically assessed. We review several systematically evaluated, large-scale, school-based intervention programs. Their effectiveness has varied, and we consider reasons for this. We suggest ways to improve the evaluation and comparability of studies, as well as the effectiveness of future interventions. PMID:14631879
Macmillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine; Barlow, Jane; Fergusson, David M; Leventhal, John M; Taussig, Heather N
Although a broad range of programmes for prevention of child maltreatment exist, the effectiveness of most of the programmes is unknown. Two specific home-visiting programmes-the Nurse-Family Partnership (best evidence) and Early Start-have been shown to prevent child maltreatment and associated outcomes such as injuries. One population-level parenting programme has shown benefits, but requires further assessment and replication. Additional in-hospital and clinic strategies show promise in preventing physical abuse and neglect. However, whether school-based educational programmes prevent child sexual abuse is unknown, and there are currently no known approaches to prevent emotional abuse or exposure to intimate-partner violence. A specific parent-training programme has shown benefits in preventing recurrence of physical abuse; no intervention has yet been shown to be effective in preventing recurrence of neglect. A few interventions for neglected children and mother-child therapy for families with intimate-partner violence show promise in improving behavioural outcomes. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for sexually abused children with symptoms of post-traumatic stress shows the best evidence for reduction in mental-health conditions. For maltreated children, foster care placement can lead to benefits compared with young people who remain at home or those who reunify from foster care; enhanced foster care shows benefits for children. Future research should ensure that interventions are assessed in controlled trials, using actual outcomes of maltreatment and associated health measures. PMID:19056113
Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Wouters, Sofie; Colpin, Hilde
This longitudinal study examines the teacher-perceived effect of a school-based intervention (i.e. Playing-2-gether) targeting teacher-child interactions to reduce externalising problem behaviour (EPB) amongst preschoolers. Boys with the highest score for EPB in the classroom and their teacher participated in the study. Teacher-child dyads…
Martínez Riera, José Ramón
The school plays a prominent role in the health of the community since it is where you identify address, teach and modify many of the habits and behaviors that can achieve good health both individually and collectively. It should be noted the important role, as co-teachers, nurses have in the EPS in school, in conjunction with other professional health teams. In Spain today the figure of the school nurse can exist only in privately managed schools and-or foreign origin (French School, European School British Institute, etc.), Or in special schools, and have not developed indicators of activity and quality no evidence could be measured and relevance. Therefore, it has conducted a literature review on the school nurse in the countries where it is consolidated in order to identify both the reasons for its existence and effectiveness. The most important conclusion is worth noting that in Spain the figure of the school nurse, as a freelancer isolated from the health team is unfounded since there is a network of well structured and accessible care and community nurses have the skills to to cover health needs at school, from a holistic perspective. In addition the specialty of Family and Community Nursing was established as a key element in this regard. PMID:21428009
Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.
Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…
Gambrill, E D
The range of factors identified as related to child maltreatment has expanded over the years. The literature clearly calls for an ecological approach in which individual, family, community, and societal factors are considered. The behavioral literature to date reflects an unevenness in terms of acceptance of such an approach. Studies are also uneven concerning the faithfulness with which hallmarks of a behavioral approach have been applied. These include individually tailored assessment and intervention based on empirical data and planning for generalization and maintenance. Most intervention programs do attend to positive as well as negative parent behaviors. Little attention is devoted to environmental characteristics, such as poverty level incomes and impoverished social support systems that may contribute to maltreatment. Lack of comprehensive assessment and intervention programs is no doubt responsible for the modest changes described in many reports. Behavioral studies suffer from uncritical acceptance of the term "abuse" or "at risk" in a number of ways, one of which is a failure to clearly describe the nature of the alleged maltreatment and the immediate situational context. Another is in the assumption that one particular factor is responsible for the maltreatment, such as ineffective parenting skills. Too often a label identifies only one characteristic of a person, ignoring other attributes and related factors. Like all deviant labels, the poor and minority groups are more likely to receive negative labels (Newberger et al., 1976). Investigaters have not taken advantage of relevant literature in the area of child welfare. Familiarity with this material would be helpful in avoiding myths in the field to which many have fallen prey, such as the myth of classlessness of child maltreatment. Acceptance of this myth interferes with the development of programs that deal with difficult environmental problems. Reports suggest that a behavioral approach is
ERS Spectrum, 1992
Innovative school-age day care programs include Tennessee's Extended School Program; Hawaii's After-School Plus program; San Antonio's Kid's Involvement Network (offering middle school supervision); Aurora, Colorado's state-licensed Year-Round School Recreation Plan; and Pomona, California's Child Development Program. These public school programs…
Cappella, Elise; Reinke, Wendy M.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.
School psychology research focused on child outcomes is critical for understanding which social and behavioral interventions affect children in schools. Yet effective interventions fulfill their promise when they fit their implementation contexts, are implemented well with existing resources, and can be sustained or scaled up to new populations.…
Each year, half a million teenagers become mothers in the United States. School-based child care programs are a positive way for educational institutions to encourage young mothers to return to or stay in school, prepare for employment, and acquire accurate information about child development and appropriate parenting practices. Nationwide,…
Fazel, Mina; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stephan, Sharon; Ford, Tamsin
Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is needed that focuses on system-level implementation and maintenance of interventions over time. Both ethical and scientific justifications exist for integration of mental health and education: integration democratises access to services and, if coupled with use of evidence-based practices, can promote the healthy development of children. PMID:26114092
Yocom, Ben H.
The focus of this research is in the area of academic interventions and their effect on graduation rates in secondary schools in Missouri. In light of the regulations within the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and its accountability requirements for schools, this study is important and timely in order to provide valuable examples of effective…
Yoo, Jane; Brooks, Devon; Patti, Rino
Organizational context, including line worker characteristics and service settings, may help explain the equivocal findings of intervention studies in the field of child welfare. Yet organizational context has been largely ignored in studies of child welfare interventions. The purpose of this article is to expound upon the likely role of the…
Treatment protocol review technique was used to summarize characteristics of effective interventions from nine studies of child maltreatment examining recovery from abuse or effects of maltreatment on child and parent outcomes. Findings suggested that stronger effects are yielded by: targeting parents and the parent-child interaction context in…
Isaacs, J S; Davis, B D; La Montagne, M J
Young children dependent on gastrostomy feeding are examples of special-needs children now eligible for expanded nutrition services in schools through Public Law 99-457. With the implementation of this law, nutritionists have an opportunity to expand their roles as consultants to special education teachers. A team approach involving nutrition, nursing, and special education was used to prepare a gastrostomy-fed preschool child and his family for school. The family of the multihandicapped child had been isolated by the child's feeding problems and viewed the problems as barriers to his entering school. Components of a nutrition care plan for an interdisciplinary team included oral feeding readiness, nutritional adequacy and timing of meals, and mechanical aspects of gastrostomy feeding in the classroom. Nutrition interventions were adjusted for the classroom from those used in the home or clinical setting. The major activity in the transition program was behavioral management of the child's rumination, which affected nutritional status and feeding. The major outcome of the transition program was enrollment of the child in school, with gastrostomy feeding as a routine activity. A transition program for a gastrostomy-fed child is an appropriate mechanism for expanding the role of the nutritionist into the classroom. PMID:2114432
LeBuffe, James R.; Hargreaves, Sherran A.
Currently at least 5 million children--some estimates are as high as 15 million--are left unsupervised before or after school for 3 or more hours a day. In response to the problems of these latchkey children, many public schools are now developing some form of school-based or school-related before- and after-school child care programs. The purpose…
The Child Development Project (CDP) is a comprehensive, whole-school intervention program that seeks to foster students' social, ethical, and intellectual development through helping elementary schools become "caring communities of learners"environments that are characterized by care and supportive relationships and collaboration among and between…
Osher, David; Kendziora, Kimberly; Spier, Elizabeth; Garibaldi, Mark L.
Schools play a key role in child and youth development as both social microcosms of the broader society and reciprocally influencing people and communities. As such, schools can function as a protective factor that promotes safety, motivation, relationships, and support for positive student outcomes. However, schools may also function as a risk…
Lane, Julie M.; Jones, David R.
The 1997 Amendments of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) states that children placed in private schools by their parents are no longer afforded the right to special education services. However, IDEA does state that child find activities between public school representatives and private schools are to remain intact. This study…
Toth, Sheree L.; Gravener-Davis, Julie A.; Guild, Danielle J.; Cicchetti, Dante
It is well established that child maltreatment has significant deleterious effects for the individual as well as for society. We briefly review research regarding the impact of child maltreatment on the attachment relationship, highlighting the need for relational interventions for maltreated children and their families to effectively thwart negative developmental cascades that are so often observed in the context of child maltreatment. Next, historical and contemporaneous perspectives on relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment are discussed with attention to the empirical evidence for and the current evidence-based status of several relationally based interventions for child maltreatment. Differential sensitivity to the environment is then discussed as a theoretical framework with important implications for interventions for individuals who have been reared in maltreating environments. Current research on neurobiology and maltreatment is then reviewed, with an emphasis on the need for future investigations on genetic variants, epigenetics, and the efficacy of relational interventions for maltreated children. We conclude with a discussion of the tenets of developmental psychopathology, their implications for relational interventions for child maltreatment, and recommendations for advancing the development, provision, and evaluation of relational interventions for individuals with histories of child maltreatment. PMID:24342858
Child abuse is largely recognized as a significant issue within the school system and the larger society. In the schools, incidents of child abuse can take any of physical, sexual and psychological forms. This paper would restrict itself to bullying, by more specifically providing a clearer understanding of the concept of bullying, its prevalence,…
Bresee, S; Caruso, B A; Sales, J; Lupele, J; Freeman, M C
As part of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in low-income settings, it is frequently assumed that pupils can disseminate information and catalyze change at home, yet this assumption has not been rigorously assessed. We employed qualitative research methods in two phases to assess the potential for children to be change agents in five schools in rural Zambia. Phase 1 included role-play and focus group discussions among pupils on their percieved ability to serve as change agents. Children were then given 'homework' that included information on health messages and on how to build a handwashing station, and were encouraged to engage their family. In Phase 2, we conducted separate focus group discussions with pupils and mothers on their experiences with the 'homework'. We found that, in general, pupils were enthusiastic about engaging with parents-typically male heads of household-and were successful at constructing handwashing stations. Mothers reported high levels of trust in children to relay health information learned at school. Pupils were able to enact small changes to behavior, but not larger infrastructure changes, such as construction of latrines. Pupils are capable of communicating knowledge and behaviors to family members; however, discrete activities and guidance is required. PMID:27206442
Hussein, S. A.; Vostanis, P.
School-based interventions involving teacher training programmes have been shown to benefit teachers' ability to identify and manage child mental health problems in developed countries. However, very few studies have been conducted in low-income countries with limited specialist services. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of the…
Jaycox, Lisa H.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Stein, Bradley D.; Langley, Audra K.; Wong, Marleen
Developed out a community participatory research partnership with schools, the Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools Program is a targeted intervention for school children who have experienced a traumatic or violent event and have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This article describes the original development of the…
Ondeck, Lynnette; Combe, Laurie; Feeser, Cindy Jo; King, Rebecca
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that prevention, early recognition, intervention and treatment of child maltreatment are critical to the physical well-being and academic success of students. Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in the recognition…
Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David
Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…
Chinitz, Susan; Stettler, Erin M.; Giammanco, Denise; Silverman, Marian; Briggs, Rahil D.; Loeb, Joanne
Infants most vulnerable to trauma are often the least able to access interventions. Universal child-serving systems, such as primary pediatrics, early care and education, and the child welfare system, can offer a port of entry for millions of children annually for trauma-related supports and services. However, practitioners in these systems have…
Lukefahr, James L.; Kellogg, Nancy D.; Anderst, James D.; Gavril, Amy R.; Wehner, Karl K.
Objective: In a rural area of the US state of Texas, in April 2008, the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services (DFPS) responded to evidence of widespread child abuse in an isolated religious compound by removing 463 individuals into state custody. This mass child protection intervention is the largest such action that has ever occurred…
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a social skills intervention plan for a preschool child who is blind and has no additional disabilities. After the plan was implemented, the child demonstrated an increased frequency and range of play behaviors and social interactions. (Contains 3 figures.)
Ickes, Melinda J.; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj
Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy. PMID:25170684
Burns, Matthew K.; Klingbeil, David A.; Ysseldyke, James E.; Petersen-Brown, Shawna
Methodological rigor in intervention research is important for documenting evidence-based practices and has been a recent focus in legislation, including the No Child Left Behind Act. The current study examined the methodological rigor of intervention research in four school psychology journals since the 1960s. Intervention research has increased…
Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon
School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice. PMID:26404552
Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido
This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…
Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.
Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…
Kennedy, Allison M.; Gust, Deborah A.
The school system plays an important role in a child's vaccination status, whether by directly offering immunization services, maintaining immunization records, or providing an incentive for up-to-date immunizations through the enforcement of school entry laws. Within the American educational system, however, children do not all attend the same…
Special needs of the Native American child in school are addressed including adjustment problems in the "white" school and value conflicts concerning competition, individualism, acquisitiveness; personal praise; generosity; concept of time; nonverbal and verbal communication; individual freedom and independence; eye contact, humility, respect; and…
Gibbons, Stephen; Silva, Olmo
Child wellbeing at school and enjoyment of the learning environment are important economic outcomes, in particular because a growing body of research shows they are strongly linked to later educational attainments and labour market success. However, the standard working assumption in the economics of education is that parents choose schools on the…
Goldman, Juliette D G; Grimbeek, Peter
The importance of preservice university teacher training about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting intervention is addressed in educational literature, although very little is known about student teachers' learning interests and preferences in this area. In this article, student teachers refer to students in university who are training to become teachers whose training includes teaching experiences in schools. This study examines the content about child sexual abuse and its intervention that student teachers believe they should learn. Results based on quantitative analyses show the relative importance of gender in determining responses to questions about university training and, to a lesser extent, the importance of a previous acquaintance with victims of sexual abuse, previous employment, and the length of the university course. Results based on qualitative data show that content knowledge preferred by elementary/primary and secondary school student teachers includes the teacher's role in mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse and signs, experiences, and responses to student disclosure. Student teachers prefer content examples of school professionals' responses and procedures after disclosure and prefer direct learning content from intervening school professionals. These outcomes could usefully guide teachers and educators who design intervention curricula on child sexual abuse for preservice teachers. PMID:24393087
Landry, Dena F.
The reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 2004) allows states the use of a process based on a child's response to scientific, research-based intervention as a means to assist in the determination of a specific learning disability (SLD). As a result, the traditional role of the school psychologist as a test…
The paper reviews cost-effectiveness evaluations of child maltreatment interventions. Though methodologically sound research is limited, existing research suggests that home health visitors, lay group counseling, and family and group therapy are promising interventions. Medical foster care substantially reduces costs, but its effectiveness has not…
Peery, Annette I.; Engelke, Martha Keehner; Swanson, Melvin S.
Diabetes is a common chronic illness among school-age children. The school nurse collaborates with the student, parents, and teachers to help the child manage their diabetes effectively. Very little is known about the relationship between school nurse interventions and parent/teacher perceptions of the child's self-management. We examined this…
Cappella, Elise; Hamre, Bridget K.; Kim, Ha Yeon; Henry, David B.; Frazier, Stacy L.; Atkins, Marc S.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.
Objective To examine effects of a teacher consultation and coaching program delivered by school and community mental health professionals on change in observed classroom interactions and child functioning across one school year. Method Thirty-six classrooms within five urban elementary schools (87% Latino, 11% Black) were randomly assigned to intervention (training + consultation/coaching) and control (training only) conditions. Classroom and child outcomes (n = 364; 43% girls) were assessed in the fall and spring. Results Random effects regression models showed main effects of intervention on teacher-student relationship closeness, academic self-concept, and peer victimization. Results of multiple regression models showed levels of observed teacher emotional support in the fall moderated intervention impact on emotional support at the end of the school year. Conclusions Results suggest teacher consultation and coaching can be integrated within existing mental health activities in urban schools and impact classroom effectiveness and child adaptation across multiple domains. PMID:22428941
Fox, Michele I.
Response to Intervention has the potential to help schools reach the goals of both the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) 2004. The course of action with the Response to Intervention model is to apply instructionally sound practices based on students' needs, monitor…
Robins, Jennifer; Antrim, Patricia
Response to Intervention (RtI) is a three-tiered model of instruction that increases learning for all students. RtI meets the requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act to provide research-based instruction and interventions for students as needed. RtI is supported with federal funds from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and…
Ju, Yucui; Wang, Shuqiong; Zhang, Wenxin
Intervention research on school bullying was conducted in a primary school with an action research method. After conducting a five-week intervention program, the occurrence ratio of being bullied on the way to school and back home and the degree to which children were bullied dropped significantly, but the rate of reduction in grade three was…
Tranter, Daniel C; Wobbema, Amanda Teresa; Norlien, Kathleen; Dorschner, Dale F
Elevated concentrations of allergens in the indoor environment may cause allergic sensitization and symptoms. Occupant exposure to indoor allergens in educational facilities should and can be controlled. This study (1) assessed the presence of indoor allergens in Minnesota schools and child care centers, (2) characterized the distribution of allergens in different materials, and (3) evaluated the effect of building and maintenance interventions on allergen concentrations. Settled dust samples were collected from carpet, vinyl tile floors, and upholstered furniture in six schools and seven child care centers before and after interventions. Interventions included changes to cleaning, ventilation, entry mats, furnishings, flooring, and classroom items. The amount of total dust, culturable fungi, and indoor allergens--cockroach, dust mite, cat, and dog--were quantified in the dust samples. Cockroach and dust mite allergens were generally low and below the detection limit, but one dust mite allergen was detected in some areas. Cat and dog allergens were frequently detected at elevated levels, with half the samples above the provisional sensitization risk thresholds and a few samples above the symptom thresholds. Allergen concentrations were highest in upholstered furniture, followed by carpeting and then vinyl floor tile. Cat and dog allergens were lower after the interventions. Cat and dog allergens, but not dust mite and cockroach allergens, seem to be ubiquitous in child care and elementary schools of the U.S. Midwest. These allergens may contribute to sensitization in atopic individuals and occasionally cause symptoms in sensitized allergic individuals. Fleecy materials that are not adequately cleaned, such as upholstered furniture, appear to be the most significant allergen reservoirs. Modest environmental interventions can be implemented by building staff, which should result in lower allergen concentrations. PMID:19585331
Features contributing to the success of six city-wide, comprehensive school-age program models are highlighted. Models are Seattle, Washington's Community Partnerships for School-Age Child Care; Madison, Wisconsin's School-Age Child Care Project; Irvine, California's Irvine Child Care Project; Houston, Texas' After-School Partnership; Los Angeles,…
Coombe, Jacqueline; Mackenzie, Lisa; Munro, Robyn; Hazell, Trevor; Perkins, David; Reddy, Prasuna
Objectives: This review sought to identify, describe and assess the effectiveness of teacher-mediated interventions that aim to support child and adolescent recovery after a natural or man-made disaster. We also aimed to assess intervention applicability to rural and remote Australian school settings. Method: A systematic search of the academic literature was undertaken utilising six electronic databases (EBSCO, Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, ERIC and CINAHL) using terms that relate to: teacher-mediated and school-based interventions; children and adolescents; mental health and wellbeing; natural disasters and man-made disasters. This was supplemented by a grey literature search. Results: A total of 20 articles reporting on 18 separate interventions were identified. Nine separate interventions had been evaluated using methodologically adequate research designs, with findings suggesting at least short-term improvement in student wellbeing outcomes and academic performance. Conclusions: Although none of the identified studies reported on Australian-based interventions, international interventions could be adapted to the Australian rural and remote context using existing psychosocial programs and resources available online to Australian schools. Future research should investigate the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of implementing interventions modelled on the identified studies in Australian schools settings. PMID:26767147
Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping
This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents’ child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents’ knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID
Liu, Xiangxiang; Yang, Jingzhen; Cheng, Fuyuan; Li, Liping
This paper intends to assess the effect of a maternity department intervention on improvement of knowledge and use of child safety seats (CSS) among newborn parents. An intervention study included three groups (one education plus free CSS intervention group, one education only group, and one control group). The participants were parents of newborns in the maternity department of two hospitals. Both of the intervention groups received a folded pamphlet of child passenger safety, a height chart and standardized safety education during their hospital stay after giving birth. The education plus free CSS intervention group received an additional free CSS and professional installation training at hospital discharge. The control group received a pamphlet with educational information about nutrition and food safety. Three months after enrollment, a telephone follow-up was conducted among participants in the three groups. Data on child passenger safety knowledge, risky driving behaviors, and use of CSS were evaluated before and after the intervention. A total of 132 newborn parents were enrolled in the study; of those, 52 (39.4%) were assigned into the education plus free CSS intervention group, 44 (33.3%) were in the education intervention only group, and 36 (27.3%) were in the control group. No significant differences existed in demographics among the three groups. There was a significant difference in newborn parents' child passenger safety knowledge and behaviors in the three groups before and after the intervention. In addition, the CSS use increased significantly in the education plus free CSS group after the intervention compared to parents in the education only or control groups. Education on safety, combined with a free CSS and professional installation training, were effective at increasing newborn parents' knowledge and use of CSS. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up are needed to determine a long-term effect of the intervention. PMID
Nuttall, Clare; Woods, Kevin
Evaluation of successful professional intervention for two case studies of female adolescents' school refusal behaviour is presented. Data gathered from the young person, professionals, and parents in each case are synthesised to propose a multi-level, ecologically situated model of intervention for school refusal behaviour. The proposed…
Trivette, Carol M.; Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.
The extent to which the influences of family-systems intervention practices could be traced to variations in parent-child interactions and child development was investigated by meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM). MASEM is a procedure for producing a weighted pooled correlation matrix and fitting a structural equation model to the…
Batchelor, Ervin S.; And Others
Examined incidence of child sexual abuse (CSA) reports to school psychologists and perceived quality of services to child victims and surveyed usage of CSA prevention and screening programs. Subjects included 171 school psychologists who reported 498 CSA cases. Results suggest need for training school psychologists in assessment of child sexual…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb
Using empirical methods, this paper examines household schooling and child labor decisions in rural Bangladesh. The results suggest the following: poverty and low parental education are associated with lower schooling and greater child labor; asset-owning households are more likely to have children combine child labor with schooling; households…
The Parent-Infant Care Center, a component of the School Based Youth Services program, was designed to enable parenting students who needed child care support to continue attending school. This practicum project devised an intervention at the Center to address teen parents' lack of knowledge, experience, and skills needed to appropriately care for…
Hayakawa, Momoko; Englund, Michelle M.; Candee, Allyson; Lease, Erin; Sullivan, Molly; Warner-Richter, Mallory; Reynolds, Arthur J.
The Midwest Expansion of the Child-Parent Center Education Program (MCPC) is a pre-K to 3rd grade intervention program aimed at improving economically disadvantaged children's school success by enhancing continuity in instruction and increasing parental involvement. Opened in Chicago in the 1960s, this school reform model has undergone significant…
Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.
This activity kit was designed for parents to use with their preschool children and focuses on the development of skills through play. Sixty activities are described. Descriptions are accompanied by a photograph, a list of materials needed, directions, the purpose of the activity, and a statement of what the child will learn from it. Many of the…
Piers, James C.
"Fostering the School Age Child" is a manual for use in training families providing service to children in foster care. Including instructor's materials and participants' course content, this instructor's manual is divided into eight lessons. Separate instructional sessions focus on development and behavior; building discipline and teaching…
Ogletree, Earl J.
This paper presents an overview of the philosophy, psychology of learning, teaching methods, and curriculum of the Waldorf Schools. Most Waldorf teachers are influenced by the esoteric form of critical idealism propounded by Rudolf Steiner. The child is considered by Steiner to be a spiritual being who has reincarnated on to earth in a physical…
Gore, Jane S.; And Others
A formative and summative evaluation was made of eight school-age child care (SACC) training workshops conducted in 1989-90 for 190 participants in upstate New York. (The focus of the SACC workshops was to "train the trainers," as well as to provide trainees with quality materials and instruction for future training with their staff members.) All…
Leiter, Jeffrey; Johnsen, Matthew C.
Compares a large random sample of maltreated children (n=2,219) to smaller random samples of the general population and children receiving social services to investigate the effects of abuse and neglect on school performance. School-outcome deficits associated with maltreatment are substantively similar to those of children receiving social…
Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Weisleder, Adriana; Mendelsohn, Alan L
Poverty related disparities in early child development and school readiness are a major public health crisis, the prevention of which has emerged in recent years as a national priority. Interventions targeting parenting and the quality of the early home language environment are at the forefront of efforts to address these disparities. In this article we discuss the innovative use of the pediatric primary care platform as part of a comprehensive public health strategy to prevent adverse child development outcomes through the promotion of parenting. Models of interventions in the pediatric primary care setting are discussed with evidence of effectiveness reviewed. Taken together, a review of this significant body of work shows the tremendous potential to deliver evidence-based preventive interventions to families at risk for poverty related disparities in child development and school readiness at the time of pediatric primary care visits. We also addresss considerations related to scaling and maximizing the effect of pediatric primary care parenting interventions and provide key policy recommendations. PMID:27044688
Fleming, Darcy; McDonald, Linda; Drummond, Jane; Kysela, Gerald M.; Watson, Shelley L.
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the Natural Teaching Strategies (NTS) parent training intervention on parent and child behaviour during free play. A pretest/posttest experimental design was used with families recruited from Head Start programs. Measures of observed behaviour were used to determine the use of contingent…
Reynolds, Arthur J.
Although early intervention programs have enjoyed popular and legislative support, little hard data exist on the long-term consequences of these efforts. This study examined the long-term effects of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) program in Chicago. Begun in 1967, the program operates out of 24 centers, located in proximity to the elementary…
Gaudin, James M., Jr.
This manual provides a state-of-the art review of child neglect in the United States, its nature, causes, and the implications of that knowledge for preventive and remedial intervention. After an introduction, the first chapter considers the definition of neglect including types of neglect, the withholding of medically indicated treatment from…
Bentley, Margaret E; Johnson, Susan L; Wasser, Heather; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Shroff, Monal; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Cunningham, Melissa
Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study--the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions. PMID:24673167
Hack, Walter G.
The rhythm and intensity of judicial activity, questions and issues adjudicated by the courts, judicial approaches and strategies, and the roles played by the courts are discussed with regard to court intervention in state school finance systems. (DS)
Bryant, Jill K.
A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…
Wimmer, Mary B.
Anxiety-based school refusal occurs in 2% of school-age children. The reasons why they refuse to go school range from mental illness and learning problems to general defiance and a desire for attention. Early identification and multi-faceted assessment and interventions are critical to addressing the problem. This book offers concise, practical…
Yeo, Lay See; Goh, Valerie Grace; Liem, Gregory Arief D.
Background: With children today being tested at younger ages, test anxiety has an earlier onset age. There is relatively limited research on test anxiety management programs with elementary school children. The theoretical basis for this nonrandomized pre-post intervention study is grounded in cognitive and behavioral interventions for test…
This article describes the incidence, symptoms, management, and other aspects of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) in relation to children in school. The disease is probably caused by an enterovirus and is characterized by extreme fatigue, muscle pain, an inability to concentrate, impaired speech, and sensory disturbances. Suggestions for managing…
Escovar, Peggy L.; Lazarus, Philip J.
The knowledge of cross-cultural child-rearing practices to aid school psychologists is illustrated in this paper. A literature review of child-rearing practices is provided, focusing on: (1) children's social, cultural, and psychological development; (2) the school psychologist's identification of culturally bound aspects of child development; and…
Feuerborn, Laura L.; Sarin, Kathryn; Tyre, Ashli D.
Many schools are turning to response to intervention (RTI) models to meet the needs of their students. The promise of RTI is that it will enable schools to better and more efficiently meet the learning needs of a large continuum of students by providing evidence-based schoolwide instruction, supplemental supports, and intensive individualized…
Bernstein, Gail A.; Layne, Ann E.; Egan, Elizabeth A.; Tennison, Dana M.
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three school-based interventions for anxious children: group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for children, group CBT for children plus parent training group, and no-treatment control. Method: Students (7-11 years old) in three elementary schools (N = 453) were screened using the Multidimensional…
Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E
Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PMID:24798817
Almirall, Daniel; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
The treatment or prevention of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) disorders often requires an individualized, sequential approach to intervention, whereby treatments (or prevention efforts) are adapted over time based on the youth's evolving status (e.g., early response, adherence). Adaptive interventions are intended to provide a replicable guide for the provision of individualized sequences of interventions in actual clinical practice. Recently, there has been great interest in the development of adaptive intervenions by investigators working in CAMH. The development of such replicable, real-world, individualized sequences of decision rules to guide the treatment or prevention of CAMH disorders represents an important "next step" in interventions research. The primary purpose of this special issue is to showcase some recent work on the science of adaptive interventions in CAMH. In this overview article, we review why individualized sequences of interventions are needed in CAMH, provide an introduction to adaptive interventions, briefly describe each of the articles included in this special issue, and describe some exciting areas of ongoing and future research. A hopeful outcome of this special issue is that it encourages other researchers in CAMH to pursue creative and significant research on adaptive interventions. PMID:27310565
Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura
This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…
Kline, Donald F.
Intended for such school personnel as teachers, administrators, school board members, school bus drivers, cafeteria workers, and parent-teacher organizations, the volume provides basic information on child abuse and neglect. Sections cover the following topics: child abuse and neglect as an historical phenomenon, causes (including characteristics…
Hay, T; Jones, L
A framework for understanding child maltreatment in terms of complex and interacting factors from the individual to the societal level can aid in conceptualizing and implementing prevention efforts. Research on interventions at the societal level can guide a broad range of activities, increasing their effectiveness and viability. Fundamental approaches include evaluation of specific interventions and systems-level research on implementation and development of best practice in prevention activities for different portions of society. Research can indicate the roles that each individual, agency, organization, community, and level of government can play. The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child provides a useful framework for societal level change to improve the welfare of children and families. PMID:7924560
Frenn, Marilyn; Pruszynski, Jessica E; Felzer, Holly; Zhang, Jiannan
PURPOSE.: The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and initial efficacies of parent- and/or child-focused online interventions and variables correlated with child body mass index percentile change. DESIGN AND METHODS.: A feasibility and cluster randomized controlled pilot study was used. RESULTS.: Recruitment was more effective at parent-teacher conferences compared with when materials were sent home with fifth- to eighth-grade culturally diverse students. Retention was 90% for students and 62-74% for parents. Authoritative parent feeding behaviors were associated with lower child body mass index. A larger study is warranted. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.: Online approaches may provide a feasible option for childhood obesity prevention and amelioration. PMID:23289456
Davis, Robert A
In this essay, Robert Davis argues that much of the moral anxiety currently surrounding children in Europe and North America emerges at ages and stages curiously familiar from traditional Western constructions of childhood. The symbolism of infancy has proven enduringly effective over the last two centuries in associating the earliest years of children's lives with a peculiar prestige and aura. Infancy is then vouchsafed within this symbolism as a state in which all of society's hopes and ideals for the young might somehow be enthusiastically invested, regardless of the complications that can be anticipated in the later, more ambivalent years of childhood and adolescence. According to Davis, the understanding of the concept of infancy associated with the rise of popular education can trace its pedigree to a genuine shift in sensibility that occurred in the middle of the eighteenth century. After exploring the essentially Romantic positions of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Friedrich Fröbel and their relevance to the pattern of reform of early childhood education in the United Kingdom and the United States, Davis also assesses the influence of figures such as Stanley Hall and John Dewey in determining the rationale for modern early childhood education. A central contention of Davis's essay is that the assumptions evident in the theory and practice of Pestalozzi and his followers crystallize a series of tensions in the understanding of infancy and infant education that have haunted early childhood education from the origins of popular schooling in the late eighteenth century down to the policy dilemmas of the present day. PMID:20662168
Leyland, Anna F; Pickett, Kate E; Barber, Sally; McEachan, Rosemary; Wright, John
We explored primary school teacher-reported experiences, prevalence and management of child health and developmental problems and medication administration from one multi-ethnic urban community in England. A survey was delivered to 90 reception class teachers in 45 primary schools, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight respondents. Fifty-six percent of teachers completed the questionnaire. Findings suggest that teachers and school staff may represent an underused resource for identifying children with developmental and health conditions and that the connections formed between schools and families could be utilized by other services by delivering interventions in schools where possible. Whilst most schools use a policy to inform the management of child health in school, some key areas such as training and documentation of medication administration may not be followed in practice. Interview findings supported and expanded on survey data by identifying barriers to collaboration between services and families. PMID:25713008
Suicide is the second leading cause of death for teenagers. The rate has increased by 300% since the 1950s. By establishing a comprehensive, well-organized crisis intervention program, schools can do a great deal to prevent teenage suicide, and to help the school community survive if a tragedy cannot be averted. This book provides professionals…
Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S
Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health. PMID:11978356
Jones, R A; Lubans, D R; Morgan, P J; Okely, A D; Parletta, N; Wolfenden, L; de Silva-Sanigorski, A; Gibbs, L; Waters, E
Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Once established it is difficult to treat, therefore well-designed and evaluated prevention interventions are vitally important. Schools have an important role in the prevention of childhood obesity, however, their involvement can be limited by a number of constraints and barriers, which need to be considered when designing interventions. Members of the Prevention Stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network have extensive experience in implementing and evaluating school-based obesity prevention initiatives. Based on their collective experience and evidence from implementation research, the aim of this paper was to highlight six areas to consider when designing, implementing and evaluating obesity prevention initiatives in schools. Further, this paper aimed to provide guidance for overcoming some of the challenges and barriers faced in school-based obesity prevention research. The six key areas discussed include: design and analysis; school-community engagement; planning and recruitment; evaluation; implementation; and feedback and sustainability. PMID:25263839
Seligson, Michelle; Coltin, Lillian
This ERIC Digest provides basic information about school-age day care programs. Discussion focuses briefly on options available to families with school-age children, developmental needs of school-age children, characteristics of high quality school-age programs, supportive services for self-care, and ways of improving school-age child care…
Harrington, Marjorie; DesJardin, Jean L.; Shea, Lynn C.
The goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the relationships between early child factors (i.e., age at identification, enrollment in early intervention, oral language skills) and school readiness skills (i.e., conceptual knowledge) in a group of young children with hearing loss (HL). Standardized language, cognition, and conceptual…
Hahn, Ellen J.; Hall, Lynne A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Myers, April V.; Bonnel, Galadriel
The study purpose was to test the effect of a school- and home-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention program on reducing environmental, parent, and child risk factors for ATOD use. The design was a three-group pretest-posttest with interviews at baseline and 1 and 6 months post-intervention. The sample was 126 parents and their…
Nettles, Saundra Murray; Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; O'Campo, Patricia J.
Examining recent research on neighborhood influences on child development, this review focuses on social influences on school adjustment in the early elementary years. A model to guide community research and intervention is presented. The components of the model of integrated processes are neighborhoods and their effects on academic outcomes and…
Deighton, Jessica; Tymms, Peter; Vostanis, Panos; Belsky, Jay; Fonagy, Peter; Brown, Anna; Martin, Amelia; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda
Early detection of child mental health problems in schools is critical for implementing strategies for prevention and intervention. The development of an effective measure of mental health and well-being for this context must be both empirically sound and practically feasible. This study reports the initial validation of a brief self-report…
Ryan, Sarah M.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Lochman, John E.
Although preventive interventions that include both parent and child components produce stronger effects on disruptive behavior than child-only interventions, engaging parents in behavioral parent training is a significant challenge. This study examined the effects of specific risk factors for child disruptive behavior on parent attendance in…
... after-school activities for the first time. Because time management skills are usually not explicitly taught in school, ... your child's non-academic commitments to help with time management. It's also a good idea to make sure ...
Isaacs, C D
foundation for future researchers to formulate new, more effective intervention programs. Future researchers should focus on identifying those aspects of existing programs that lend themselves to empirical study and have led to more successful parent-child relationships. PMID:7118758
Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne
The role of school-related stress in the life of the disabled child is examined, and parents and teachers are given suggestions to reduce stress and help the child cope. Stress is defined as the emotional and physical reaction to the pressures that society places upon the child to conform and live up to expectations. Among sources of stress are…
Harper, Randolph T.; And Others
A preliminary report is provided on a therapeutic nursery school program at Louisiana State University Medical Center in New Orleans. The program emphasizes the mother-child unit rather than the child as a single individual. Within the mother-child relationship, attention is given to altering perceptions and expectations, to experience of and…
Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo
Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…
Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid
Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…
Purvis, J. R.; And Others
Describes steps in establishing crisis intervention team in schools: determining goals, performing needs assessment, finding model programs, developing membership pool, developing training program, preparing and maintaining list of resources and plans for support services, establishing communication network, designating base of operations,…
Milsom, Amy; Gallo, Laura L.
A main characteristic of a bully is his or her need to gain control over another. Bullies can gain control over others through physical force or threats, verbal teasing, and exclusion from peers. This article talks about bullying in United States middle schools, and prevention and intervention strategies for bullying. In this article, the authors…
Rasberry, Catherine N; Slade, Sean; Lohrmann, David K; Valois, Robert F
BACKGROUND The new Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model, designed to depict links between health and learning, is founded on concepts of coordinated school health (CSH) and a whole child approach to education. METHODS The existing literature, including scientific articles and key publications from national agencies and organizations, was reviewed and synthesized to describe (1) the historical context for CSH and a whole child approach, and (2) lessons learned from the implementation and evaluation of these approaches. RESULTS The literature revealed that interventions conducted in the context of CSH can improve health-related and academic outcomes, as well as policies, programs, or partnerships. Several structural elements and processes have proved useful for implementing CSH and a whole child approach in schools, including use of school health coordinators, school-level and district-level councils or teams; systematic assessment and planning; strong leadership and administrative support, particularly from school principals; integration of health-related goals into school improvement plans; and strong community collaborations. CONCLUSIONS Lessons learned from years of experience with CSH and the whole child approaches have applicability for developing a better understanding of the WSCC model as well as maximizing and documenting its potential for impacting both health and education outcomes. PMID:26440817
Harris, Alma; Allen, Tracey
This article considers the challenges and issues facing school leaders in the implementation of Every Child Matters. It outlines the factors that contribute to the effective delivery of Every Child Matters and outlines some of the barriers that make the delivery of this agenda more difficult. The article concludes that school leaders play a…
Thomas, Veronica G.
The past two decades have witnessed a significant growth in the number of school improvement programs and in the accompanying efforts to evaluate such programs. Passage of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act in 2002 has intensified the need for evaluations to assess and understand the quality and value of educational interventions. Well over a…
Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M
The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. PMID:25380194
Tsai, Shu-Fei; Cheney, Douglas
This study investigated the effect of the adult-child relationship on students' social outcomes, academic competence and school engagement in a two-year Tier 2 intervention, the Check, Connect and Expect program. One hundred and three students from 2nd through 5th grade, their classroom teachers, and nine school-based coaches participated in this…
Langley, Audra K.; Gonzalez, Araceli; Sugar, Catherine A.; Solis, Diana; Jaycox, Lisa
Objective To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based intervention for diverse children exposed to a range of traumatic events, and to examine its effectiveness in improving symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety. Method Participants were 74 school children (grades 1-5) and their primary caregivers. All participating students endorsed clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms. School clinicians were trained to deliver Bounce Back, a 10-session cognitive-behavioral group intervention. Children were randomized to Immediate or Delayed (3-month waitlist) Intervention. Parent- and child-report of posttraumatic stress and depression, and child report of anxiety symptoms, were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Results Bounce Back was implemented with excellent clinician fidelity. Compared to children in the Delayed condition, children who received Bounce Back immediately demonstrated significantly greater improvements in parent- and child-reported posttraumatic stress and child-reported anxiety symptoms over the 3-month intervention. Upon receipt of the intervention, the Delayed intervention group demonstrated significant improvements in parent- and child-reported posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms. The Immediate treatment group maintained or showed continued gains in all symptom domains over the 3-month follow-up period (6 month assessment). Conclusions Findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of the Bounce Back intervention as delivered by school-based clinicians for children with traumatic stress. Implications are discussed. PMID:26302251
Holley, Clare E; Farrow, Claire; Haycraft, Emma
While numerous studies have investigated the efficacy of interventions at increasing children's vegetable consumption, little research has examined the effect of individual characteristics on intervention outcomes. In previous research, interventions consisting of modelling and rewards have been shown to increase children's vegetable intake, but differences were identified in terms of how much children respond to such interventions. With this in mind, the current study investigated the role of parental feeding practices, child temperament, and child eating behaviours as predictors of intervention success. Parents (N = 90) of children aged 2-4 years were recruited from toddler groups across Leicestershire, UK. Parents completed measures of feeding practices, child eating behaviours and child temperament, before participating in one of four conditions of a home-based, parent led 14 day intervention aimed at increasing their child's consumption of a disliked vegetable. Correlations and logistic regressions were performed to investigate the role of these factors in predicting intervention success. Parental feeding practices were not significantly associated with intervention success. However, child sociability and food fussiness significantly predicted intervention success, producing a regression model which could predict intervention success in 61% of cases. These findings suggest that future interventions could benefit from being tailored according to child temperament. Furthermore, interventions for children high in food fussiness may be better targeted at reducing fussiness in addition to increasing vegetable consumption. PMID:27263070
Vancraeyveldt, Caroline; Verschueren, Karine; Wouters, Sofie; Van Craeyevelt, Sanne; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde
The school-based Playing-2-gether is a 12-week intervention with two components aimed at decreasing child externalizing behavior through improving teacher-child interactions. The first component is rooted in attachment theory and aimed at enhancing teacher-child relationship quality, and the second is based on learning theory and aimed at improving teachers' behavior management. In this three-wave randomized study, effects of Playing-2-gether on the teacher-child relationship quality and on teacher-rated child behavioral adjustment were investigated. To this aim, 175 dyads consisting of male preschoolers with relatively high levels of externalizing problem behavior and their teachers were randomly assigned to Playing-2-gether (n = 89) or an education-as-usual control condition (n = 86). Teacher-rated questionnaires were collected at pre-test, after the first intervention component, and at post-test. At post-test, the intervention group showed a larger decrease in teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems, and child hyperactivity/inattention. Supplementary analyses showed that all positive effects were already visible after the first intervention component and that teacher-child conflict, child conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention did not further reduce during the second component. In addition, an increase in closeness was found following the first component, but subsequently disappeared at post-test. PMID:25028283
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
As used here, the term school-based crisis intervention refers to a range of responses schools can plan and implement in response to crisis events and reactions. All school-based and school-linked staff can play an important role in crisis intervention. This quick training aid presents a brief set of resources to guide those providing an…
Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency, and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior, and health by strengthening parenting, classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a "pre-kindergarten education as usual" control condition. Intervention included a family program (a 13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88 %) of the pre-kindergarten population (N = 1,050; age 4) enrolled in the trial, and nearly 60 % of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on parenting knowledge, positive behavior support, and teacher-rated parent involvement. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23 % of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families. PMID:24590412
Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior and health by strengthening parenting, early childhood classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a “pre-kindergarten education as usual” control condition. Intervention included a family program (13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88%) of the pre-kindergarten population (N=1050; age 4) enrolled in the trial and nearly 60% of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on knowledge, positive behavior support and teacher-rated parent involvement in early learning. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23% of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families. PMID:24590412
Tolan, Patrick H; Hanish, Laura D; McKay, Mary M; Dickey, Mitchell H
This article reports on 2 studies designed to develop and validate a set of measures for use in evaluating processes of child and family interventions. In Study 1 responses from 187 families attending an outpatient clinic for child behavior problems were factor analyzed to identify scales, consistent across sources: Alliance (Satisfactory Relationship with Interventionist and Program Satisfaction), Parenting Skill Attainment, Child Cooperation During Session, Child Prosocial Behavior, and Child Aggressive Behavior. Study 2 focused on patterns of scale scores among 78 families taking part in a 22-week preventive intervention designed to affect family relationships, parenting, and child antisocial and prosocial behaviors. The factor structure identified in Study 1 was replicated. Scale construct validity was demonstrated through across-source convergence, sensitivity to intervention change, and ability to discriminate individual differences. Path analysis validated the scales' utility in explaining key aspects of the intervention process. Implications for evaluating processes in family interventions are discussed. PMID:12085734
Sugai, George; Horner, Robert H.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and No Child Left Behind emphasize the use of scientifically based research to improve outcomes for students. From this emphasis, response-to-intervention has evolved. We present one perspective on the defining features of response-to-intervention and application of those features to school-wide…
Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Ana; Vila, Maria; Pérez, Maria José; Manresa, Josep Maria; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Roure, Eulàlia; Castells, Conxa
Background Obesity has become a global public health problem, which also affects children. It has been proposed that the educational interventions during childhood could be a key strategy in the prevention of obesity. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an intervention on food habits and physical activity in school children. Methods A 2-year cluster-randomised prospective study with two parallel arms was used to evaluate an intervention programme in children in their first year of primary schooling (5–6 years of age) in schools in the city of Granollers. The intervention consisted of the promotion of healthy eating habits and physical activity by means of the educational methodology Investigation, Vision, Action and Change (IVAC). At the beginning and at the end of the study (2006 and 2008) the weight and height of each child was measured in situ, while the families were given a self-report physical activity questionnaire and the Krece Plus quick test. Results Two years after the beginning of the study, the body mass index of the children in the control group was 0.89 kg/m2 higher than that of the intervention schools. The intervention reduced by 62% the prevalence of overweight children. Similarly, the proportion of children that ate a second piece of fruit and took part in an after-school physical activity increased in the intervention group. In the control group, the weekly consumption of fish was reduced. Conclusions The educational intervention in healthy eating habits and physical activity in the school could contribute to lessen the current increase in child obesity. PMID:21398682
Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R; Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Urzua, Sergio
There is a strongly held view that a narrow window exists for effective nutritional interventions and a widely known stylized depiction of age-dependent economic rates of returns to investments in cognitive and socioemotional development. Both indicate critical periods in early life. Moreover, the fact that both the physical and cognitive development of a child in these early years are highly dependent on childcare practices and on the characteristics of the caregivers motivates an interest in finding effective means to enhance stimulation in the context of nutritional programs, or vice versa. Nevertheless, there is relatively little evidence to date on how to align integrated interventions to these age-specific patterns and how to undertake benefit-cost analyses for integrated interventions. Thus, many core questions need further consideration in order to design integrated nutritional and stimulation programs. This paper looks at some of these questions and provides some guidelines as to how the economic returns from joint nutrition and stimulation programs might be estimated. PMID:24405371
Council on Child Day Care and Early Childhood Programs, Richmond, VA.
School-age child care (SACC) programs based on-site in Virginia elementary schools were surveyed to determine the scope of such programs across the commonwealth, and to look more comprehensively at existing programs in terms of operators, activities, affordability, and other issues. In January 1993, the survey was sent to school superintendents in…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... school attendance for child age 18. The child will be asked to submit (on a form furnished by the Board... statement from an official of the school verifying that the child is attending school full-time. The...
Malekpour, Mokhtar; Aghababaei, Sara; Hadi, Samira
The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effectiveness of family, child, and family-child based intervention on the rate of ADHD symptoms in third grade students. The population for this study was all of students with ADHD diagnoses in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The multistage random sampling method was used to select the 60…
Levine, Darren G.; Ducharme, Joseph M.
The current study evaluated the effects of a teacher-conducted play intervention on preschool-aged children's compliance in child care settings. Study participants included 8 children ranging in age from 3 to 5 years and 5 early childhood education teachers within 5 classrooms across 5 child care centers. A combination ABAB and multiple baseline…
This article presents the continued effects of a home-based intervention programme on child development outcomes and parenting practices in Bahrain. The intervention is the "Mother-Child Home Education Programme" (MOCEP) which was implemented in Arabic in the Kingdom of Bahrain beginning in 2001. One hundred and sixty-seven poor, disadvantaged…
Brendel, Kristen Esposito; Maynard, Brandy R.
Objective: This study compared the effects of direct child-parent interventions to the effects of child-focused interventions on anxiety outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Method: Systematic review methods and meta-analytic techniques were employed. Eight randomized controlled trials examining effects of family cognitive behavior…
Hebert, Elizabeth Baltus
Due to the numerous interventions available for children with autism, parents are faced with challenging decisions regarding treatments from the time of diagnosis and throughout their child's life. This exploratory qualitative study investigated the reasons behind parents' decisions about interventions for their child with autism.…
Interventions that aim to improve child dietary quality and reduce disease risk often involve parents. The most effective methods to engage parents remain unclear. A systematic review of interventions designed to change child and adolescent dietary behavior was conducted to answer whether parent inv...
Campbell, Frances A.; And Others
Primary goals of this study were to determine: (1) whether a child-centered educational preschool program and/or a parent-centered early elementary educational intervention program for disadvantaged children had effects on the child rearing beliefs and values of parents; and (2) whether parents' child rearing beliefs and educational values were…
Boomstra, Nienke W.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; van Geert, Paul L. C.
This article describes a study on mutuality in mother-child interaction during reading and playing sessions. Within mother-child interaction, mutuality is seen as important in language acquisition. The study was executed within a group of Netherlands Antillean mother-child dyads who participated in an intervention programme. Mutuality was…
Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike
Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…
Hackett, Alison J
School nurses are the only health professionals with a remit specifically to address the health needs of school-aged children and young people in the U.K. However, evidence within one Scottish city suggests that the health needs of vulnerable school-aged children are not always identified or met by the school nurse. Using a qualitative approach, a purposive sample of six school nurses was selected to explore their perceptions of their role in child protection and to identify training needs. Data collection comprised semistructured interviews and the data were analysed thematically. The school nurses in this study perceived that there was confusion and lack of clarity in relation to their role and involvement in child protection. Report writing, child trafficking, and legal issues were identified as training needs. PMID:24383164
Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen
A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…
Child poverty is a global issue that affects around half the children in the world; it is inextricably bound to the poverty experienced by their parents and families and has been identified by the United Nations as a human rights issue. Child poverty can be a barrier to children and young people accessing school education or achieving any form of…
Gardiner, Mary E.; Canfield-Davis, Kathy; Anderson, Keith LeMar
This exploratory study investigated how six practicing school principals responded to the requirements of the No Child Left Behind law (United States Congress Public Law 107-110, 2002, January, No Child Left Behind Act, http://www.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/107-110.pdf ) in light of the multicultural leadership demands presented by an urban…
Ford, Harriett H.; Schindler, Claudia B.; Medway, Frederic J.
Reports the results of two studies comparing school professionals' attributions of blame to a child victim, a father/perpetrator, and a nonparticipating mother in hypothetical vignettes of father-daughter incest. Results indicate that all professional groups assigned some degree of blame to the child victim and nonparticipating mother and very…
Weshah, Hani A.; Al-Faori, Oraib; Sakal, Reham M.
The purpose of this research was to report on a Child-Friendly School (CFS) initiative pilot project in Jordan, which aims at initiating the creation of CFS and to raise stakeholders' awareness of the importance of this project in promoting and implementing Child Rights Conviction (CRC) in Jordan. The study was conducted by a joint team selected…
Woods, Kevin; Bond, Caroline; Tyldesley, Kath; Farrell, Peter; Humphrey, Neil
Child protection and safeguarding are important aspects of work for all professionals working with children. The current article outlines the international context of school psychologists' work in relation to child protection and safeguarding and describes the United Kingdom context in more detail. Given the relatively recent broadening of the UK…
Clair, Nancy; Miske, Shirley; Patel, Deepa
Since the breakup of the Soviet Union and former Yugoslavia, Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have engaged in education reforms based on international frameworks. One of these, the Child-Friendly Schools (CFS) approach, is distinctively grounded in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). CFS standards are comprehensive,…
Nadeem, Erum; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Langley, Audra K.; Stein, Bradley D.
This article describes implementation experiences “scaling up” the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS)—an intervention developed using a community partnered research framework. Case studies from two sites that have successfully implemented CBITS are used to examine macro- and school-level implementation processes and strategies used to address implementation issues and create a successful implementation support system. Key elements of the implementation support system include pre-implementation work, ongoing clinical and logistical implementation supports, promotion of fidelity to the intervention’s core components, tailored implementation to fit the service context, and a value on monitoring child outcomes. PMID:27346911
Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…
Merrell, Kenneth W.; Gueldner, Barbara A.; Ross, Scott W.; Isava, Duane M.
Research on effectiveness of school bullying interventions has lagged behind descriptive studies on this topic. The literature on bullying intervention research has only recently expanded to a point that allows for synthesis of findings across studies. The authors conducted a meta-analytic study of school bullying intervention research across the…
Mills, Janis E.
This causal-comparative study was designed to address an increasing educational trend: providing interventions to students who passed a No Child Left Behind tested course but who failed the accompanying high school assessment in one Maryland public school system. The purpose of the study was to determine which of three intervention types…
Woodward, Jenny; Sahota, Pinki; Pike, Jo; Molinari, Rosie
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to design and implement interventions to increase free school meal (FSM) uptake in pilot schools. This paper describes the interventions, reports on acceptability (as perceived by school working parties) and explores the process of implementing change. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research consisted of two…
Prewett, Sara; Mellard, Daryl F.; Deshler, Donald D.; Allen, Justin; Alexander, Ryan; Stern, Amelia
Response to intervention (RTI) is advocated in elementary school as a system-wide, multitiered model of academic and behavioral interventions. Middle schools have begun adopting RTI models based on these existing elementary models. This investigation into current middle school RTI practices describes technical aspects as well as some of cultural…
Change in schools is ever present. This study looks at change in regard to the implementation of Response to Intervention. Response to Intervention is being implemented in schools around the country. With this implementation come many changes to a school--in the administration, the faculty, and the students. Very little research exists concerning…
Gruman, Diana H.; Hoelzen, Brian
School districts are in the process of adopting the Response to Intervention (RTI) approach to identify and remediate academic and behavioral deficits. As an integral member of the school behavior team, school counselors must use data on individual interventions to contribute to the data-based decision making process in RTI. This article presents…
... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...
... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...
... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...
... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...
What Works Clearinghouse, 2014
"Fast Track" is a comprehensive intervention designed to reduce conduct problems and promote academic, behavioral, and social improvement. The program's components include the "Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies" curriculum, parent groups, parent-child sharing time, child social skills training, home visiting, child…
Fram, Maryah Stella; Frongillo, Edward A.; Fishbein, Eliza M.; Burke, Michael P.
Food insecurity is associated with a range of child developmental, behavioral, and emotional challenges, all of which can inhibit a child's school success. Schools offer a number of formal and informal services aimed at reducing food insecurity, but the problems associated with identifying children in need, addressing issues of stigma, and…
Maher, Charles A.
The Behavioral-Systems Approach (BSA), a broad-based approach to intervention with a range of school social systems, is presented and some outcome evidence of the utility of the approach for practicing school psychologists reported. (Author/BW)
Turman, Lynette; Blatt, Bobby
Carthay Center Elementary School, an urban school in Los Angeles, developed Individualized Instruction through Open Structure in order to meet the needs of a changing student population. The program attempts to excite children about learning and to reinforce basic academic skills. The child's interest, needs, and abilities are integrated into the…
Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco
Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.
This document, a curriculum guide in home economics on child development, for secondary schools, is one of six guides developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson…
Schaefer, Earl S.; Edgerton, Marianna
The goal of this study is to broaden the scope of a conceptual model for child behavior by analyzing constructs relevant to cognition, conation, and affect. Two samples were drawn from school populations. For the first sample, 28 teachers from 8 rural, suburban, and urban schools rated 193 kindergarten children. Each teacher rated up to eight…
Meyer, Mary Kay; Lambert, Laurel; Blackwell, Ann
A parent telephone survey (n=300) was conducted to identify the primary customer of elementary school food programs. Results show that the decision to eat school lunch was most frequently made jointly by parent and child and the factor most frequently influencing the decision was the nutritional value of the meal. (Contains 15 references.) (JOW)
The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…
Seltzer, Michelle Seligson
This paper provides portions of a workshop discussion at the Wheelock Conference on School-Age Child Care concerning the role of family day care for school-age children. The workshop participants included family day care providers affiliated with the day care system in the Greater Boston area, administrators of a family day care system which also…
Steinberg, Laurence; Elmen, Julie D.
Examined are the relationships of student responsibility and parent-adolescent relations to the school performance of middle-school-age youth. A total of 120 families with a first-born child between 11 and 16 years of age participated in the study. Assessment of adolescent responsibility included measures of self-reliance, work orientation,…
Arthritis is a condition often associated with the elderly. However, arthritis affects approximately 275,000 children nationwide. Symptoms may vary from one swollen joint to multiply affected joints coupled with fatigue, fever, and rash. Its effect on the school-age child can range from missing a few days of school per year to hospitalizations…
Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.
Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…
Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou
We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…
O'Malley, Meagan D.
In an effort to understand how schools are coping with incidents of peer victimization, this study explored the types of related interventions currently being offered by public schools in Northern California. School psychologists' perceptions of the importance of the available interventions were also examined (N = 96). The interventions reported…
Keith, Patricia B.; Wetherbee, Michael J.; Kindzia, Debora L.
Since motivation is an essential element in school success, it becomes critical that school psychologists understand how academic motivation influences middle school students' academic achievement. The behavior characteristics exhibited by academically motivated middle school students and some interventions for at-risk students are reported. The…
Recognizing that child care located in the schools has many benefits, this manual was prepared for those planning or implementing school-age child care partnerships for kindergarten and primary grade children. Reporting on programs in the Ontario (Canada) area, the manual notes five issues that are central to developing such a program: (1)…
Webb, J K
Child to Child is an approach to health education of the primary school-age child. In developing countries, infants and young children spend much of their lives in the care of an older brother or sister. Morley, a paediatrician, saw the potential of teaching these older children to provide better care for their siblings. Working with colleagues in education, Child to Child was launched in 1978, the International Year of the Child. Teaching material was prepared covering developmental needs, nutrition, common illnesses and aspects of the environment; a book was published describing an activity-oriented teaching method. This material was distributed to developing countries world-wide, with encouragement to use the material and ideas freely, adapting, translating, or innovating as found useful. Child to Child is now in use in 60 or more countries, and in at least 15 languages. It is being used by agencies like the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO, and OXFAM as a way of reinforcing community education in the search for 'Health for All by 2000'. A world-wide review of Child to Child is in hand. Information from this will help to provide firm guidelines on implementation in the different contexts where its value has already been established. PMID:3217290
Morrison, Julie; Russo, Charles J.; Ilg, Timothy J.
Crisis in the context of a school has many unique features related to the social structure and sense of community within schools. A school crisis exposes children and staff to threat, loss, and trauma that undermine the safety and stability of the entire school. Crisis intervention has as its explicit aim the goal of providing immediate support to…
Crone, Deanne A.; Stoolmiller, Michael; Baker, Scott K.; Fien, Hank
The primary aim of the Middle School Intervention Project (MSIP) is to evaluate the impact of a multi-component intervention for struggling adolescent readers on reading outcomes. The intervention consists of: (1) targeted, Tier 2 reading and (2) school engagement interventions, and (3) data-based-decision-making (DBDM) teams to review and act on…
McNaughton, Diane B; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Mexican immigrants are exposed to multiple ecological risks that heighten their likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms. In previous studies, affirming parent-child communication has been found to be protective against depressive symptoms in Hispanic youth. Interventions focused on enhancing communication between parents and youth have the possibility of strengthening protective factors for children. The aims of this study were to (1) adapt an evidence-based parent-child communication intervention (Mission Possible) for cultural relevance for low-income, low-literacy Mexican immigrant mothers and their children and (2) assess feasibility of delivering the adapted intervention in a school setting. Adaptation took place in a series of focus groups of mother-child dyads. The revised intervention was delivered to 27 mother-child dyads in two elementary schools. Feasibility was supported by high participant satisfaction, 80% attendance rate, and 75% retention rate. This preliminary work suggests strategies for school nurses to partner with immigrant families and outlines a potential intervention that expands the school nursing role. PMID:23616468
McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis
Children of Mexican immigrants are exposed to multiple ecological risks that heighten their likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms. In previous studies, affirming parent–child communication has been found to be protective against depressive symptoms in Hispanic youth. Interventions focused on enhancing communication between parents and youth have the possibility of strengthening protective factors for children. The aims of this study were to (1) adapt an evidence-based parent–child communication intervention (Mission Possible) for cultural relevance for low-income, low-literacy Mexican immigrant mothers and their children and (2) assess feasibility of delivering the adapted intervention in a school setting. Adaptation took place in a series of focus groups of mother–child dyads. The revised intervention was delivered to 27 mother–child dyads in two elementary schools. Feasibility was supported by high participant satisfaction, 80% attendance rate, and 75% retention rate. This preliminary work suggests strategies for school nurses to partner with immigrant families and outlines a potential intervention that expands the school nursing role. PMID:23616468
Ruel, Marie T; Alderman, Harold
Acceleration of progress in nutrition will require effective, large-scale nutrition-sensitive programmes that address key underlying determinants of nutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions. We reviewed evidence of nutritional effects of programmes in four sectors--agriculture, social safety nets, early child development, and schooling. The need for investments to boost agricultural production, keep prices low, and increase incomes is undisputable; targeted agricultural programmes can complement these investments by supporting livelihoods, enhancing access to diverse diets in poor populations, and fostering women's empowerment. However, evidence of the nutritional effect of agricultural programmes is inconclusive--except for vitamin A from biofortification of orange sweet potatoes--largely because of poor quality evaluations. Social safety nets currently provide cash or food transfers to a billion poor people and victims of shocks (eg, natural disasters). Individual studies show some effects on younger children exposed for longer durations, but weaknesses in nutrition goals and actions, and poor service quality probably explain the scarcity of overall nutritional benefits. Combined early child development and nutrition interventions show promising additive or synergistic effects on child development--and in some cases nutrition--and could lead to substantial gains in cost, efficiency, and effectiveness, but these programmes have yet to be tested at scale. Parental schooling is strongly associated with child nutrition, and the effectiveness of emerging school nutrition education programmes needs to be tested. Many of the programmes reviewed were not originally designed to improve nutrition yet have great potential to do so. Ways to enhance programme nutrition-sensitivity include: improve targeting; use conditions to stimulate participation; strengthen nutrition goals and actions; and optimise women's nutrition, time
Jaksec, Charles M., III
Despite their best and frequently heroic efforts, school crisis intervention teams often find themselves unprepared for the many types of tragedies they face. This timely text prompts crisis intervention team members to reevaluate their beliefs and practices and consider a new approach to dealing with school crises. The author, a longtime school…
Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Newsome, W. Sean; Nay, Stephanie
This study builds on two studies that explored the effect of a social skills intervention on problem behaviors displayed by elementary school children during recess. Findings conclude that social skills intervention significantly decreased problem behaviors among school children at recess. Implications for behavioral management and healthy school…
Allen, Melissa; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Stott, Kathryn A.
The long-term effects of crisis and tragedy can be improved significantly by immediate intervention and emergency mental health services. Providing crisis intervention in rural schools poses challenges related to lack of financial resources, community resources, and trained personnel; isolation of rural schools; and long distances between school…
Lentz, Francis E., Jr.; And Others
Presents a conceptual model of strong school-based interventions. Notes strong interventions are ecological in nature, naturalistic in scope, contain elements from the research base that are predictive for success, and incorporate the constructs of social validity in a practical manner. Provides suggestions and implications for strong school-based…
Villarreal, Victor; Ponce, Christopher; Gutierrez, Heveli
Treatment acceptability (TA) is critical when selecting and implementing an intervention, as TA is associated with treatment outcomes. The significance of TA is reflected in school psychology models for services that state that school psychologists should address TA during development, implementation, and evaluation of interventions. However, the…
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Thousands and thousands of middle school students around the world participate in reading intervention programs, many that are very expensive with limited effectiveness. We wanted to know if an after-school intervention focused on close reading procedures could improve student achievement. Close reading of complex text involves annotations,…
Brezis, Rachel S; Weisner, Thomas S; Daley, Tamara C; Singhal, Nidhi; Barua, Merry; Chollera, Shreya P
In many low and middle income countries where autism-related resources are scarce, interventions must rely on family and parents. A 3-month Parent-Child Training Program (PCTP) at Action For Autism, New Delhi, India is aimed at empowering and educating parents, encouraging acceptance of their child, and decreasing parent stress. Forty couples were asked to describe their child with autism using the Five Minute Speech Sample (FMSS), an open-ended narrative method, before and after the program. Parents described a wide range of child behaviors, primarily social and cognitive skills. While all families were of a relatively affluent strata compared to the general Indian population, there were nonetheless significant differences in parents' narratives based on their income levels. Coming into the program, parents with relatively less income focused on their child's immediate and material needs, while higher income parents discussed their parental roles and vision for society. After the PCTP, parents were more likely to reflect on their child beyond comparisons to 'normality,' and beyond the here-and-now. Mothers were more likely than fathers to reflect on themselves and their relationships with their child. Understanding parents' experiences and narratives is essential for the evaluation of interventions such as the PCTP, as Indian parents are incorporated into a growing global network of 'parents of children with autism.' PMID:25739529
Rue, Lisa; Chandran, Raj; Pannu, Aman; Bruce, David; Singh, Rana; Traxler, Karen
Outcomes associated with an abstinence education intervention were evaluated using a single group design with a 12-month longitudinal follow-up. The intervention group of adolescents ages 12-14 years (N = 427) were enrolled in an 11.5-hour abstinence education intervention offered during the school day. Significant differences were found in the…
Gould, Laura Feagans; Dariotis, Jacinda K.; Mendelson, Tamar; Greenberg, Mark. T.
This study examines gender, grade-level, and baseline depressive symptoms as potential moderators of a school-based mindfulness intervention's impact on the self-regulatory outcomes of urban youth. Ninety-seven participants from four urban public schools were randomly assigned to an intervention or wait-list control condition. Fourth and fifth…
Froiland, John Mark
School psychologists can work within a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework to increasingly promote the mental health of students. This article shares the unfolding of two composite case studies that exemplify how a practicing school psychologist can use a problem-solving framework to deliver effective mental health interventions to individual…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1130 Section 35.1130 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... health care provider that a child of less than 6 years of age living in a public housing development...
Watts Pappas, Nicole; McAllister, Lindy; McLeod, Sharynne
Parental beliefs and experiences regarding involvement in speech intervention for their child with mild to moderate speech sound disorder (SSD) were explored using multiple, sequential interviews conducted during a course of treatment. Twenty-one interviews were conducted with seven parents of six children with SSD: (1) after their child's initial…
Sabalauskas, Kara L.; Ortolani, Charles L.; McCall, Matthew J.
Child welfare providers are increasingly required to demonstrate that strengths-based, evidence-informed practices are central to their intervention methodology. This case study describes how a large child welfare agency instituted cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) as the core component of a strength-based practice model with the goal of…
Barnes, Brendon R.; Mathee, Angela; Shafritz, Lonna B.; Krieger, Laurie; Zimicki, Susan
Indoor air pollution has been causally linked to acute lower respiratory infections in children younger than 5. The aim of this study was to identify target behaviors for a behavioral intervention to reduce child exposure to indoor air pollution by attempting to answer two research questions: Which behaviors are protective of child respiratory…
Asawa, Lindsay E.; Hansen, David J.; Flood, Mary Fran
Due to the destructive impact of child maltreatment and limited available funding to address its consequences, the value of preventive measures is evident. Early Childhood Intervention Programs (ECIPs) provide excellent opportunities to prevent and identify cases of child maltreatment, among other varied objectives. These programs are typically…
Plotnick, Robert D.; Deppman, Laurie
Presents a case for using benefit-cost analysis to structure evaluations of child-abuse prevention and intervention programs. Presents the basic concept of benefit-cost analysis, its application in the context of assessing these types of child welfare programs, and limitations on its application to social service programs. (Author)
Berquist, Robert, Ed.
Photographs, diagrams, and words are used to tell about the nursery school at Stanford University. Supported largely by tuition, this school enrolls 270 pupils who attend school during one of three different session schedules. A full-time staff of 12 is assisted by students from psychology, education, and nursing. The environment offers…
... news/fullstory_160380.html How to Get Your Child Ready for a Successful School Year Good sleep, ... are heading back to school, according to a child health expert. "As children grow, it's essential to ...
Reid, Kristen; Temple, Judy
With increasing numbers of parents at work or in training and education programs when children get out of school, the existence and quality of school-age child care (SACC) affects not only families, but the community as a whole. Texas school district involvement with SACC was examined, and qualities of model programs and barriers to developing…
Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.
This report is based upon survey responses from 139 school districts and 59 nonpublic schools in Minnesota that offer School Age Child Care (SACC), or extended day programs. The report presents data on public and private SACC programs related to: (1) administration and growth; (2) number of children served; (3) types of services offered; (4)…
Hicks, Taylor B.; Shahidullah, Jeffrey D.; Carlson, John S.; Palejwala, Mohammed H.
The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate Nationally Certified School Psychologists' (NCSP) training in and use of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for child behavior concerns as well as their reported implementation barriers. A modified Tailored Design Method (TDM; Dillman, Smyth, & Christian, 2009) using up to four…
Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Magnusson, Kristjan Th.; Thorsdottir, Inga; Johannsson, Erlingur
Abstract Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a two-year school-based intervention, consisting of integrated and replicable physical activity and nutritional education on weight, fat percentage, cardiovascular risk factors, and blood pressure. Design and setting. Six elementary schools in Reykjavik were randomly assigned to be either intervention (n = 3) or control (n = 3) schools. Seven-year-old children in the second grade in these schools were invited to participate (n = 321); 268 (83%) underwent some or all of the measurements. These 286 children were followed up for two years. Intervention. Children in intervention schools participated in an integrated and replicable physical activity programme, increasing to approximately 60 minutes of physical activity during school in the second year of intervention. Furthermore, they received special information about nutrition, and parents, teachers, and school food service staff were all involved in the intervention. Subjects. 321seven-year-old schoolchildren. Main outcome measures. Blood pressure, obesity, percentage of body fat, lipid profile, fasting insulin. Results. Children in the intervention group had a 2.3 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and a 2.9 mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over the two-year intervention period, while children in the control group increased SBP by 6.7 mmHg and DPB by 8.4 mmHg. These changes were not statistically significant. Furthermore there were no significant changes in percentage body fat, lipid profile, or fasting insulin between the intervention and control schools. Conclusion. A two-year school-based intervention with increased physical activity and healthy diet did not have a significant effect on common cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25424464
Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren
Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…
Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan
Background: Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Method: Children with ASD were…
Weismuller, Penny C.; Grasska, Merry A.; Alexander, Marilyn; White, Catherine G.; Kramer, Pat
Regular school attendance is a necessary part of the learning process; student absenteeism has a direct association with poor academic performance. School nurses can influence student attendance. This study describes the impact of school nurse interventions on student absenteeism and student health. A retrospective review of 240 randomly selected…
Topping, K. J.; Thurston, A.; Tolmie, A.; Christie, D.; Murray, P.; Karagiannidou, E.
The use of cooperative learning in secondary school is reported--an area of considerable concern given attempts to make secondary schools more interactive and gain higher recruitment to university science courses. In this study the intervention group was 259 pupils aged 12-14 years in nine secondary schools, taught by 12 self-selected teachers.…
Lembke, Erica S.; Garman, Carol; Deno, Stanley L.; Stecker, Pamela M.
We provide a description of how a culturally and linguistically diverse elementary school in the Midwest implemented core features of a response-to-intervention (RTI) framework for improving school-wide reading instruction and decision making. A multi-year timeline illustrates how this school implemented additional elements of the RTI framework…
Knox, Karen S.; Roberts, Albert R.
The need for crisis intervention plans and programs in schools has become more evident during the past decade with the increased incidence of school violence and other traumatic situations experienced by students, educators, school personnel, parents, and relatives of those involved. This need has resulted in an increase of professional…
Eber, Lucille; Sugai, George; Smith, Carl R.; Scott, Terrance M.
This article explores how the school-based wraparound approach and a school-wide systems approach to positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) work together to create more effective school environments and improved outcomes for students with or at risk of behavioral challenges. Complementary aspects of these wraparound and PBIS…
Tramonte, Michael R.
This paper summarizes information concerning homicide crisis intervention in a multicultural school that would be useful for school psychologists. School psychologists are encouraged to be introspective about their own beliefs about death, grief, and multiculturalism. This paper discusses the eight factors to consider when providing services to…
Mellard, Daryl F.; Frey, Bruce B.; Woods, Kari L.
Although response to intervention (RTI) has been widely discussed in education literature and is increasingly being implemented in schools throughout the U.S., few studies provide empirical evidence of improved school-wide student outcomes. Presented here are data and an effect size analysis of school-wide student reading gains in five elementary…
Wolfe, Linda C.
This paper presents findings from a quantitative, correlational study that examined selected school nursing services, student academic outcomes, and school demographics. Ex post facto data from the 2011-2012 school year of Delaware public schools were used in the research. The selected variables were school nurse interventions provided to students…
Østbye, Truls; Mann, Courtney M.; Vaughn, Amber E.; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.; Hales, Derek; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Ward, Dianne S.
Background Obesity is a major public health problem for which early preventive interventions are needed. Large numbers of young children are enrolled in some form of child care program, making these facilities influential environments in children’s development. Family child care homes (FCCH) are a specific type of child care in which children are cared for within the provider’s own residence. FCCHs serve approximately 1.5 million children in the U.S.; however, research to date has overlooked FCCH providers and their potential to positively influence children’s health-related behaviors. Methods Keys to Healthy Family Child Care Homes (Keys) is a cluster-randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of an intervention designed to help providers become healthy role models, provide quality food- and physical activity-supportive FCCH environments, and implement effective business practices. The intervention is delivered through workshops, home visits, tailored coaching calls, and educational toolkits. Primary outcomes are child physical activity measured via accelerometry data and dietary intake data collected using direct observation at the FCCH. Secondary outcomes include child body mass index, provider weight-related behaviors, and observed obesogenic environmental characteristics. Conclusion Keys is an innovative approach to promoting healthy eating and physical activity in young children. The intervention operates in a novel setting, targets children during a key developmental period, and addresses both provider and child behaviors to synergistically promote health. PMID:25460337
Ricciardi, Joseph N.; Luiselli, James K.; Camare, Marianne
We evaluated contact desensitization (reinforcing approach responses) as intervention for specific phobia with a child diagnosed with autism. During hospital-based intervention, the boy was able to encounter previously avoided stimuli. Parental report suggested that results were maintained postdischarge. (Contains 1 figure.)
Soenksen, Delann; Alper, Sandra
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a Social Story [TM] intervention in teaching a young child with hyperlexia to appropriately obtain the attention of his peers. The Social Story intervention consisted of verbal and visual cues incorporated into an age-appropriate storybook format. Attempting to obtain the attention of a…
Matthews, Alice; Rix, Jonathan
Early intervention activities for very young disabled children are frequently linked to developmental targets and goals. A key challenge for parents and practitioners involved in early intervention programmes is to encourage their child to play and develop creatively through enjoyable, everyday childhood experiences. This paper reports on a…
Landry, Susan H.; Smith, Karen E.; Swank, Paul R.; Zucker, Tricia; Crawford, April D.; Solari, Emily F.
This study examined mother-child shared book reading behaviors before and after participation in a random-assignment responsive parenting intervention called Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) that occurred during infancy (PALS I), the toddler-preschool (PALS II) period, or both as compared with a developmental assessment (DAS) intervention (DAS…
Suma, Katharine; Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Robins, Diana L.; Abrams, Danielle N.
This study documents the relation between an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, increases in intervention, and changes in parent-child interaction quality. Information about intervention and observations of interaction were collected before diagnosis and a half year after diagnosis for 79 low-risk toddlers who had screened positive for ASD…
DeGarmo, David S.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Leve, Leslie D.; Price, Joe
Objective: The authors conduct a within intervention group analysis to test whether caregiver engagement (e.g., participation, homework completion, openness to ideas, apparent satisfaction) in a group-based intervention moderates risk factors for foster child outcomes in a state-supported randomized trial of caregiver parent training. Methods: The…
Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Huang, Bin; Slap, Gail B.; Gordon, Judith S.
We conducted a randomized trial of parents and their 9- to 16-year-old children to pilot test an emergency department (ED)-based intervention designed to increase parent-child tobacco communication. Intervention group (IG) parents received verbal/written instructions on how to relay anti-tobacco messages to their children; control group (CG)…
... Bureau of Indian Affairs 25 CFR Chapter I No Child Left Behind School Facilities and Construction... that the No Child Left Behind School Facilities and Construction Negotiated Rulemaking Committee will.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The No Child Left Behind School Facilities and Construction Negotiated...
This manual was designed to assist concerned individuals and organizations within communities in New Mexico to develop and plan effective school-age child care programs. Emphasized are the first steps in initiating and implementing school-age child care in a community. Chapter I discusses the need for school-age child care programs and the…
OBJECTIVE: This article presents an overview of child abuse among culturally diverse populations in Hawaii, substance use among culturally diverse students in Hawaii, and culturally based interventions for preventing child abuse and substance abuse in Native Hawaiian families. OBSERVATIONS: Native Hawaiians accounted for the largest number of cases of child abuse and neglect in Hawaii between 1996 and 1998. Alcohol and other drugs have increasingly been linked with child maltreatment. Native Hawaiian youths report the highest rate of substance use in Hawaii. Cultural factors such as spirituality, family, and cultural identification and pride are important in interventions with Native Hawaiians. CONCLUSION: Human services should continue to emphasize interventions that integrate "mainstream" and cultural-specific approaches. PMID:12435831
Smutny, Joan Franklin
One of the most common questions the National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC) receives from parents is, "How should I advocate for my child in the classroom?" Dr. Joan Smutny first tackled this topic for "Parenting for High Potential" in 2002, but her practical, step-by-step approach is still very applicable today. Some…
Inkster Public Schools, MI. Lincoln Child Development Center.
An innovative kindergarten program was established as a federally funded project to pursue the following objectives: (1) to discover and develop the potential ability of each child, (2) to develop feelings of autonomy and self-worth, (3) to provide experiences for developing inquiring attitudes and for development of self-confidence and positive…
Williams, Dean E., Comp.
Teachers often report difficulty in knowing how to best help a child who stutters in the classroom. Many children who stutter can handle oral reading tasks satisfactorily, particularly if they are encouraged to practice at home. Some, however, will stutter severely while reading aloud in class. Teachers should always keep in mind that each child…
Mitchell, Mark W.
Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…
Dogini, Eric U.
Bullying behavior has reached pandemic proportions and is a growing concern in primary school. Most intervention programs in primary school are focused on bullying prevention or principally on the behavior of the bully. The purpose of this study was to explore whether a school-based bullying intervention program is an effective method for reducing…
In Germany child protection law is governed by the term "child endangerment". Based on a definition of that term recent research on child maltreatment is reviewed. Regarding etiology the need to go beyond risk factors and to consider risk mechanisms is highlighted. The discussion on the impact of child maltreatment focuses on the often underestimated effects of early neglect. After a review of progresses regarding the evaluation of maltreated children and the assessment of risk based on a systematic literature review suggestions for design of effective family interventions after abuse or neglect are made. PMID:20158166
Vohra, Rini; Madhavan, Suresh; Khanna, Rahul; Becker-Cottrill, Barbara
Survey data was collected from 301 primary caregivers of children with autism registered at West Virginia Autism Training Center (WV ATC), to examine the impact of child's autism severity on caregiver satisfaction with school services. Satisfaction with six school services was measured via a 3-point Likert scale: speech-language therapy, occupational therapy, social skills training, physical therapy, behavioral interventions, and assistance in improving study skills. Ordinal logistic regressions showed that caregivers of children with high autism severity were less likely to be satisfied with school services, as compared to caregivers of children with low autism severity (OR's from 0.45 to 0.39). No significant differences existed in caregiver satisfaction with services between high and low autism severity groups, after addition of caregiver burden to the model. Findings suggest that child's autism severity is a significant predictor of caregiver satisfaction with school services, and should be considered during development of child's Individualized Education Program(IEP) and evaluation of caregiver satisfaction with the IEP. PMID:25643472
This longitudinal study set out to examine the changes that took place in parents' evaluations of their child's school in the course of the child's complete 9-year-long compulsory education. Over the follow-up period, academically educated and vocationally educated mothers and fathers (N = 326) were asked to indicate their degree of satisfaction…
Hill, David L
The decision to exclude a child from day care or school leads to widespread educational, social, and economic ramifications for affected families. By understanding and improving how these decisions are made, health care providers and policy makers can promote child well-being throughout the state. PMID:27621349
Gregory, Anne; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara
This longitudinal study followed 142 children to determine whether the quality of mother-child interactions, as measured in kindergarten, predicted high school academic achievement and attainment. Findings showed that, regardless of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, and IQ, positive mother-child interactions in kindergarten were…
Kraft, Joan Marie; Wilkins, Karin Gwinn; Morales, Guiliana J.; Widyono, Monique; Middlestadt, Susan E.
Evidence-based behavior change interventions addressing gender dynamics must be identified and disseminated to improve child health outcomes. Interventions were identified from systematic searches of the published literature and a web-based search (Google and implementer's websites). Studies were eligible if an intervention addressed gender dynamics (i.e., norms, unequal access to resources), measured relevant behavioral outcomes (e.g., family planning, antenatal care, nutrition), used at least a moderate evaluation design, and were implemented in low- or middle-income countries. Of the 23 interventions identified, 22 addressed reproductive and maternal-child health behaviors (e.g., birth spacing, antenatal care, breastfeeding) that improve child health. Eight interventions were accommodating (i.e., acknowledged, but did not seek to change gender dynamics), and 15 were transformative (i.e., sought to change gender dynamics). The majority of evaluations (n = 12), including interventions that engaged men and women to modify gender norms, had mixed effects. Evidence was most compelling for empowerment approaches (i.e., participatory action for maternal-child health; increase educational and economic resources, and modify norms to reduce child marriage). Two empowerment approaches had sufficient evidence to warrant scaling-up. Research is needed to assess promising approaches, particularly those that engage men and women to modify gender norms around communication and decision making between spouses. PMID:25207450
Background The prevalence of childhood obesity, which has seen a rapid increase over the last decade, is now considered a major public health problem. Current treatment options are based on the two important frameworks of school- and family-based interventions; however, most research has yet to compare the two frameworks in the treatment of childhood obesity. The objective of this review is to compare the effectiveness of school-based intervention with family-based intervention in the treatment of childhood obesity. Methods Databases such as Medline, Pub med, CINAHL, and Science Direct were used to execute the search for primary research papers according to inclusion criteria. The review included a randomised controlled trial and quasi-randomised controlled trials based on family- and school-based intervention frameworks on the treatment of childhood obesity. Results The review identified 1231 articles of which 13 met the criteria. Out of the thirteen studies, eight were family-based interventions (n = 8) and five were school-based interventions (n = 5) with total participants (n = 2067). The participants were aged between 6 and 17 with the study duration ranging between one month and three years. Family-based interventions demonstrated effectiveness for children under the age of twelve and school-based intervention was most effective for those aged between 12 and 17 with differences for both long-term and short-term results. Conclusions The evidence shows that family- and school-based interventions have a considerable effect on treating childhood obesity. However, the effectiveness of the interventional frameworks depends on factors such as age, short- or long-term outcome, and methodological quality of the trials. Further research studies are required to determine the effectiveness of family- and school-based interventions using primary outcomes such as weight, BMI, percentage overweight and waist circumference in addition to the aforementioned
Jane Fleming describes the health education in schools programme launched by the Aga Khan Health Services in Kisumu, Kenya. The project has brought major improvements in child health and mortality rates as well as better health awareness to the community as a whole. PMID:2019516
Murphy-Graham, Erin; Leal, Graciela
This article examines the relationships between child marriage, agency, and schooling in rural Honduras. Through an in-depth qualitative case study, we address the following questions: (1) In what ways, if any, do girls exercise agency in their decision to marry? (2) How might education enhance girls' agency, expanding their choice sets and…
McCombie, Sally M.
The current media are laden with reports of the many significant problems facing today's youth. In fact, parenting has become a national topic of discussion. Parenting instruction, a responsibility that had previously rested in the home, has become part of educational curricula. Courses in child development are offered for high school students in…
Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…
Bassok, Daphna; French, Desiree; Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn
Attendance in preschool centers can yield short-term benefits for children from poor or middle-class families. Yet debate persists in Europe and the United States over whether centers yield gains of sufficient magnitude to sustain children's cognitive or social advantages as they move through primary school. We report on child care and home…
Georgiou, Stelios N.
The aim of this study was to propose and test a theory-driven model describing the network of effects existing between parental style and child involvement in bullying incidents at school. The participants were 377 Greek Cypriot children (mean age 11.6) and their mothers. It was found that a line of influence exists between maternal…
Although No Child Left Behind (NCLB) aims to close the achievement gap that parallels race and class, some of its key provisions are at odds with reforms that are successfully overhauling the large, comprehensive high schools that traditionally have failed students of color and low-income students in urban areas. While small, restructured schools…
... Prenatal Baby (0-12 mos.) Toddler 1-3yrs. Preschool 3-5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12- ... Disinfectants Influenza Prevention and Control: Strategies for Early Education and Child Care Programs (AAP.org) Last Updated ...
Seligson, Michelle; Fink, Dale B.
This ERIC Digest provides an overview of school-age child care (SACC) programs and suggests reasons for their growth. Discussion points out that escalating interest in SACC has paralleled the raising numbers of children left on their own, and that educators are only the latest in a parade of civic and professional groups which have gone on record…
Sanders, Matthew R.; Gooley, Shylaja; Nicholson, Jan
Conduct problems represent a complex set of symptoms and can have a range of negative effects in many areas of a child's life, including ongoing development; family functioning; peer relationships; and learning. These problems generally appear during the preschool years and early identification and intervention are critical to their treatment.…
Handa, Sudhanshu; Peterman, Amber
This study uses longitudinal data from South Africa to estimate the relationship between early childhood nutritional status and schooling outcomes five years later. Preferred estimates from the full sample aged zero to five, which treat prior nutritional status as endogenous, show no impact of past nutritional status on current schooling, in…
This guide, which is intended for parents in New South Wales, Australia, provides a description of primary school and its curriculum and guidelines for conducting learning activities with children both at school and at home. Introductory sections briefly discuss the topics of parents as children's first teachers, knowledge about children's…
This paper explores the role of the school in addressing the problem of alcoholic students in elementary schools. The first chapter provides a historical overview of alcohol abuse and society's response to it. Emphasis is placed on the program of Alcoholics Anonymous; the first National Committee on Education about Alcoholism; the Comprehensive…
The history of ADHD is in part a history of children who have not fitted in at school. Yet until recently, surges in diagnostic levels had not prompted a questioning of the school's complicity in the trend. Through an analysis of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM), the principal diagnostic guideline relating to ADHD,…
Federal Trade Commission, 2012
Back to school--an annual ritual that includes buying new notebooks, packing lunches, coordinating transportation, and filling out forms: registration forms, health forms, permission slips, and emergency contact forms, to name a few. Many school forms require personal and, sometimes, sensitive information. In the wrong hands, this information can…
Worldwide, 250,000–280,000 women die during pregnancy and childbirth every year and an estimated 6.55 million children die under the age of five. The majority of maternal deaths occur during or immediately after childbirth, while 43% of child death occurs during the first 28 days of life. However, the progress in limiting these has been slow and sporadic. In this supplement of five papers, we aim to systematically assess and summarize essential interventions for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health from relevant systematic reviews. This paper is an introductory paper detailing the background and methodology used for grading interventions. The following three papers summarize the evidence on essential interventions for pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, childbirth, postnatal (mother and neonatal) and child heath while the last paper describes the essential interventions as per the level of health care delivery and their proposed packages of care. PMID:25177879
Oudie, Eugenia; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian
We evaluated evidence of community interventions to improve Aboriginal child passenger safety (CPS) in terms of its scientific merit and cultural relevance. We included studies if they reported interventions to improve CPS in Aboriginal communities, compared at least pre- and postintervention conditions, and evaluated rates and severity of child passenger injuries, child restraint use, or knowledge of CPS. We also appraised quality and cultural relevance of studies. Study quality was associated with community participation and cultural relevance. Strong evidence showed that multicomponent interventions tailored to each community improves CPS. Interventions in Aboriginal communities should incorporate Aboriginal views of health, involve the community, and be multicomponent and tailored to the community’s circumstances and culture. PMID:24754652
Background The speeding increase and the high prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious problem for Public Health. Community Based Interventions has been developed to combat against the childhood obesity epidemic. However little is known on the efficacy of these programs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the effect of community based intervention on changes in lifestyle and surrogate measures of adiposity. Methods/design Parallel intervention study including two thousand 2249 children aged 8 to 10 years ( 4th and 5th grade of elementary school) from 4 Spanish towns. The THAO-Child Health Program, a community based intervention, were implemented in 2 towns. Body weight, height, and waist circumferences were measured. Children recorded their dietary intake on a computer-based 24h recall. All children also completed validated computer based questionnaires to estimate physical activity, diet quality, eating behaviors, and quality of life and sleep. Additionally, parental diet quality and physical activity were assessed by validated questionnaires. Discussion This study will provide insight in the efficacy of the THAO-Child Health Program to promote a healthy lifestyle. Additionally it will evaluate if lifestyle changes are accompanied by favorable weight management. Trial registration Trial Registration Number ISRCTN68403446 PMID:25174356
Adhvaryu, Achyuta R.; Nyshadham, Anant
We study the effects of accessing better healthcare on the schooling and labor supply decisions of sick children in Tanzania. Using variation in the cost of formal-sector healthcare to predict treatment choice, we show that accessing better healthcare decreases length of illness and changes children’s allocation of time to school and work. Children attend school for more days per week—but not for more hours per day—as a result of accessing better healthcare. There are no significant effects on child labor, but the results suggest that time spent in physically strenuous activities such as farming and herding increases. PMID:24353348
Shechtman, Zipora; Ifargan, Miriam
The goal of the study was to assess two types of school-based interventions--a class intervention (integrated) and a small group counseling (segregated) intervention for highly aggressive children--and to determine which is more efficacious in reducing individual and classroom aggression, lessening internalizing and externalizing behavior, and increasing positive classroom relationships. The study, conducted in Israel, included 904 children from 13 schools. In each school, one age level was selected and divided randomly into three experimental conditions: psychoeducational class intervention, small group counseling, and control. In all classrooms, the highly aggressive children were identified a priori (n=166). Analyses were conducted separately for the aggressive children and their nonaggressive classmates, in a nested procedure (mixed models). Results showed similar positive outcomes on all variables in both treatment groups, and higher compared with the control group. The discussion focuses on the strengths of each type of intervention. PMID:19466744
Andersen, William R.
Examines two recent school finance opinions and compares the two different styles of judicial intervention. Available from Washington Law Review, 1100 N.E. Campus Parkway, University of Washington, Condon Hall, JB-20, Seattle, WA 98105. (Author/IRT)
Lund, Emily M.; Blake, Jamilia J.; Ewing, Heidi K.; Banks, Courtney S.
A sample of 560 school psychologists and school counselors completed a Web-based survey regarding bullying in their schools, related training, and interventions used. Few school-based mental health professionals used evidence-based bullying interventions or were involved in the selection of interventions for their school, and administrators were…
Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan
Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country. PMID:25786214
Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan
Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10–12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country. PMID:25786214
Zucker, Gloria H.
Students with special needs require unique intervention strategies as they enter infant care and preschool environments. The techniques and materials discussed in this paper are designed especially for the child's unique abilities and disabilities. This paper will also focus on the skills needed for infants who have been identified as requiring…
Brotman, Laurie Miller; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kingston, Sharon; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rosenfelt, Amanda; Schwab, Amihai; Petkova, Eva
This study examines the efficacy of ParentCorps among 4-year-old children (N = 171) enrolled in prekindergarten in schools in a large urban school district. ParentCorps includes a series of 13 group sessions for parents and children held at the school during early evening hours and facilitated by teachers and mental health professionals. ParentCorps resulted in significant benefits on effective parenting practices and teacher ratings of child behavior problems in school. Intervention effects were of similar magnitude for families at different levels of risk and for Black and Latino families. The number of sessions attended was related to improvements in parenting. Study findings support investment in and further study of school-based family interventions for children from underserved, urban communities. PMID:21291441
Galemore, Cynthia A; Bowlen, Brandy; Combe, Laurie G; Ondeck, Lynnette; Porter, Jessica
The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child model released in 2015 as a collaboration between associations focuses renewed attention on the importance of improved physical, emotional, and social health to student learning. The model replaces and expands upon the Coordinated School Health Model that has been widely implemented in schools since the late 1980s. NASN celebrates this new model and calls school nurses to action in advocating for the implementation of this model in their communities. This article not only introduces this new model to school nurses but shares examples of school nurse advocacy initiatives. PMID:27260801
Cross, Wendi; West, Jennifer; Wyman, Peter A.; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; Teisl, Michael; Brown, C. Hendricks; Forgatch, Marion
Current measures of implementer fidelity often fail to adequately measure core constructs of adherence and competence, and their relationship to outcomes can be mixed. To address these limitations, we used observational methods to assess these constructs and their relationships to proximal outcomes in a randomized trial of a school-based preventive intervention (Rochester Resilience Project) designed to strengthen emotion self-regulation skills in 1st–3rd graders with elevated aggressive-disruptive behaviors. Within the intervention group (n = 203), a subsample (n = 76) of students was selected to reflect the overall sample. Implementers were 10 paraprofessionals. Videotaped observations of three lessons from Year 1 of the intervention (14 lessons) were coded for each implementer-child dyad on Adherence (content) and Competence (quality). Using multi-level modeling we examined how much of the variance in the fidelity measures was attributed to implementer and to the child within implementer. Both measures had large and significant variance accounted for by implementer (Competence, 68%; Adherence, 41%); child within implementer did not account for significant variance indicating that ratings reflected stable qualities of the implementer rather than the child. Raw Adherence and Competence scores shared 46% of variance (r = .68). Controlling for baseline differences and age, the amount (Adherence) and quality (Competence) of program delivered predicted children’s enhanced response to the intervention on both child and parent reports after six months, but not on teacher report of externalizing behavior. Our findings support the use of multiple observations for measuring fidelity and that adherence and competence are important components of fidelity which could be assessed by many programs using these methods. PMID:24736951
Cross, Wendi; West, Jennifer; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Xia, Yinglin; Tu, Xin; Teisl, Michael; Brown, C Hendricks; Forgatch, Marion
Current measures of implementer fidelity often fail to adequately measure core constructs of adherence and competence, and their relationship to outcomes can be mixed. To address these limitations, we used observational methods to assess these constructs and their relationships to proximal outcomes in a randomized trial of a school-based preventive intervention (Rochester Resilience Project) designed to strengthen emotion self-regulation skills in first-third graders with elevated aggressive-disruptive behaviors. Within the intervention group (n = 203), a subsample (n = 76) of students was selected to reflect the overall sample. Implementers were 10 paraprofessionals. Videotaped observations of three lessons from year 1 of the intervention (14 lessons) were coded for each implementer-child dyad on adherence (content) and competence (quality). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how much of the variance in the fidelity measures was attributed to implementer and to the child within implementer. Both measures had large and significant variance accounted for by implementer (competence, 68 %; adherence, 41 %); child within implementer did not account for significant variance indicating that ratings reflected stable qualities of the implementer rather than the child. Raw adherence and competence scores shared 46 % of variance (r = .68). Controlling for baseline differences and age, the amount (adherence) and quality (competence) of program delivered predicted children's enhanced response to the intervention on both child and parent reports after 6 months, but not on teacher report of externalizing behavior. Our findings support the use of multiple observations for measuring fidelity and that adherence and competence are important components of fidelity which could be assessed by many programs using these methods. PMID:24736951
Whitaker, Robert C.; And Others
Examined lunch entree choices by students in 16 elementary schools. During baseline period, low-fat entrees were available on 23% of days and selected by 39% of students. During intervention period, these figures were 71% of days and 29% of students. Across intervention, fat content of average meal dropped from 36% to 30% of calories from fat. (BC)
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.
This article presents the authors' response to Sharon Vaughn and colleagues' article "Response to Intervention for Middle School Students With Reading Difficulties: Effects of a Primary and Secondary Intervention." In Vaughn et al. article, a study in which they provided professional development to content area teachers, with the goal of…
Miranda, Ana; Jarque, Sonia; Tarraga, Raul
This article consists of a review of 16 research studies on treatments in school settings for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) carried out in the last decade. It includes both simple interventions and multicomponent interventions where different techniques are combined. Based on this revision, the conclusion is drawn…
With federal mandates to develop and implement programs for students with disabilities who have behavior problems that impede their educational performance, school personnel are faced with increasing responsibility for developing individualized interventions. Developing interventions that appropriately, effectively, and efficiently address the…
King, Seth A.; Lemons, Christopher J.; Hill, David R.
Secondary school administrators are increasingly finding themselves in the position of implementing Response to Intervention (RTI). This system of providing progressively intensive levels of intervention for the purposes of preventing academic failure and identifying children with learning disability may be useful at the secondary level. However,…
Crothers, Laura M.; Kolbert, Jered B.; Barker, William F.
In this study, 285 middle school students in the United States were surveyed to obtain their preferences regarding anti-bullying intervention strategies. Participants rated their preferences for 15 common anti-bullying intervention strategies involving teachers, students, and non-teaching staff. The strategies were generated based on a review of…
Hemelt, Steven W.; Roth, Kimberly B.; Eaton, William W.
This study exploits a randomized trial of two light-touch elementary school interventions to estimate long-run impacts on postsecondary attendance and attainment. The first is a classroom management technique for developing behavioral skills in children. The second is a curricular intervention aimed at improving students' core reading skills.…
Denham, Alexa; Hatfield, Sarah; Smethurst, Nicola; Tan, Elizabeth; Tribe, Craig
Social inclusion is currently a priority issue for all in education. Brent Educational Psychology Service implemented two social skills training interventions to promote social inclusion in six primary schools. Educational psychologists in training carried out an independent evaluation of these interventions. Analysis of quantitative and…
Teyhan, Alison; Galobardes, Bruna; Henderson, John
Background Eczema and asthma are common conditions in childhood that can influence children’s mental health. Despite this, little is known about how these conditions affect the well-being of children in school. This study examines whether symptoms of eczema or asthma are associated with poorer social and mental well-being in school as reported by children and their teachers at age 8 years. Methods Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Measures of child well-being in school were child-reported (n = 6626) and teacher reported (n = 4366): children reported on their enjoyment of school and relationships with peers via a self-complete questionnaire; teachers reported child mental well-being using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire [binary outcomes were high ‘internalizing’ (anxious/depressive) and ‘externalizing’ (oppositional/hyperactive) problems (high was >90th percentile)]. Child rash and wheeze status were maternally reported and symptoms categorised as: ‘none’; ‘early onset transient’ (infancy/preschool only); ‘persistent’ (infancy/preschool and at school age); and ‘late onset’ (school age only). Results Children with persistent (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.63) and late onset (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.14) rash were more likely to report being bullied, and children with persistent wheeze to feel left out (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.84). Late onset rash was associated with high teacher-reported internalising behaviours (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.54), and persistent rash with high externalising behaviours (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.84). Child sleep and maternal mental health explained some of the associations with teacher-reported mental well-being. Conclusion Symptoms of eczema or asthma can adversely affect a child’s social and mental well-being at primary school. This suggests interventions, such as additional support or education of peers, should begin at early stages in schooling. PMID
Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Huemer, Julia; Jandl-Jager, Elisabeth; Abensberg-Traun, Marihan; Marecek, Sonja; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Skala, Katrin
The experience of cumulative childhood adversities, such as exposure to domestic violence or abuse by caregivers, has been described as risk factor for poor mental health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. We performed an investigation of experience of violence in all patients aged 6 to 20 years who had consulted the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical University of Vienna, as outpatients during the period of one year. We were using the Childhood Trauma Interview (CTI) in order to obtain information on the kind of violence. Seventy-five percent of all patients had reported experiences of violence. These youth were significantly more often involved in acts of school violence, thus a significant correlation between experience of domestic violence and violence at school could be revealed. The results of our study emphasize the need for interventions preventing violence both in domestic and in school environments. PMID:26487648
O'Connor, Teresia; Johnston, Craig; Hughes, Sheryl; Moreno, Jennette; Chen, Tzu-An; Meltzer, Lisa; Baranowski, Janice
Abstract The causes of the current high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children are not clearly known. Schools have been implicated in the causal chain to high child obesity prevalence. Recent studies have compared school year versus summertime changes (herein called seasonal differences) in child adiposity or related phenomena. The most common seasonal pattern in six longitudinal descriptive studies was that overweight and obese children experienced accelerated gain in weight or some BMI indicator during the summer, whereas healthy weight children gained less or not at all. Four physical activity (PA) intervention studies demonstrated that school year fitness improvements were lost during the summer. One study showed that PA declined across the summer. Another study provided conflicting results of lower total energy expenditure in the summer, but no seasonal difference in total energy expenditure after adjusting for fat-free mass. This pattern of fairly rapid seasonal differences suggests that PA is the primary factor contributing to seasonal differences in weight or BMI, but the documented seasonal pattern in PA (i.e., higher in summer) does not support this relationship. Sleep duration has also been inversely related to child adiposity. Seasonal patterns in adiposity, PA, and sleep need to be clearly established separately for overweight and healthy weight children in further longitudinal research to provide a clear focus for national policy. PMID:24367922
O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice
Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…
Goodman-Scott, Emily; Betters-Bubon, Jennifer; Donohue, Peg
School counselors are tasked with contributing to a safe and preventative school climate serving students' academic, career, and social/emotional needs through comprehensive school counseling program implementation. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) prioritizes a positive school climate, is widely implemented in the United…
Betters-Bubon, Jennifer; Donohue, Peg
The implementation of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) has been shown to reduce behavioral incidents and lead to more positive school climates. Despite the growing popularity in schools, there lacks clear understanding of the school counselor role in this approach. We present the perspectives of an elementary…
Rupa, Megha; Hirisave, Uma; Srinath, Shoba
This report describes the process of psychotherapy for a 7-y-old boy who witnessed the gruesome murder of his mother by the father. Expressive therapy techniques such as play, art and storytelling were used to help the child emote, achieve independence and emotional maturity. The child was seen as an in-patient for 3 mo on a daily basis, followed by weekly and subsequently bi-monthly follow ups. During the ward stay, aggression towards other children and grandmother had reduced significantly. The child was able to verbalize the irreversibility and inevitability of death, and had developed healthy ways to resolve the grief. In the subsequent follow ups, although some behavior problems persisted, gains from therapy generalized to help him deal with challenges of real life, such as a constantly lurking fear of the father returning from prison. PMID:23604611
Whitney, Rondalyn V; Smith, Gigi
This study examines emotional disclosure through the activity of journaling as a means of coping with maternal stress associated with parenting a child with disruptive behaviors. Through a randomized control and pre-test post-test study design of an online journal writing intervention, change to maternal stress and quality of mother-child relationship for children with ASD, ADHD and SPD was addressed. Behavioral symptoms were found to be the primary source of parenting stress for mothers and a significant relationship between child characteristics and maternal stress was identified. Emotional disclosure through the online journal writing program (especially in the presence of high disclosure of negative emotions) was shown to reduce maternal stress and improve the quality of mother-child relationship. These findings suggest cost-effective telehealth interventions may support maternal health. Important clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25503483
Camblin, Lanthan D., Jr.; And Others
This document contains chapter 4 (7 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "School Counselors and the Reporting of Child Abuse: A Survey of State Laws and…
Morojele, Pholoho; Muthukrishna, Nithi
This paper draws on literature that has theorised child participation within the sociology of childhood framework to examine how children participate in governance within school spaces. Four children aged between 13 and 17 (in grades six and seven) who serve as prefects at a primary school in Lesotho were participants in this study. Data was…
Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2005
Several years after the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), there are persistently low-performing schools in every state that face increasingly strong consequences for failing to improve student achievement sufficiently. In particular, schools that fail to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) for five consecutive years must…
Horton, Connie Burrows; Cruise, Tracy K.
This book reviews the current knowledge on child maltreatment and links it specifically to practical applications in the schools. It is intended to be a guide for school-based mental-health practitioners, administrators, and teachers. It is also intended to serve as a text in graduate-level courses and clinical practica. Chapter titles reflect the…
Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina
The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Gischlar, Karen L.
School professionals, particularly new teachers and principals, are confronted with myriad challenges throughout their day. Recognizing and reporting child maltreatment is one of these challenges. Research suggests that school personnel are in the best position to identify and report maltreatment because they have consistent daily contact with…
Juhnke, Gerald A.
This book, designed for school counselors, provides information on identifying potentially violent youth, working with victims of school violence, and preparing schools to deal with violence. Chapter one, "Assessment and Diagnosis with Violent and Potentially Violent Students," describes the importance of assessment and diagnosis. It provides…
James, William H.; And Others
Outlines the process of intervention on the student substance user enrolled in public school. Proposes that, with careful planning, intervention for the student substance user is a firm, expeditious, and appropriate response to chemical dependency. Steps are outlined to help family and friends offer assistance to the chemically dependent students.…
Racey, Megan; O'Brien, Charlene; Douglas, Sabrina; Marquez, Olivia; Hendrie, Gilly; Newton, Genevieve
Background: Owing to the associations between diet and health, it is important that effective health promotion strategies establish healthful eating behaviors from an early age. We reviewed the intensity of school-based interventions aimed to modify dietary behavior in preadolescent and adolescents and related intervention characteristics to…
BACKGROUND We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. METHODS Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a multicomponent school-based intervention (21 schools) or assessment only (control, 21 schools). A total of 4603 students participated (mean [±SD] age, 11.3±0.6 years; 54.2% Hispanic and 18.0% black; 52.7% girls). At the beginning of 6th grade and the end of 8th grade, students underwent measurements of body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fasting glucose and insulin levels. RESULTS There was a decrease in the primary outcome — the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity — in both the intervention and control schools, with no significant difference between the school groups. The intervention schools had greater reductions in the secondary outcomes of BMI z score, percentage of students with waist circumference at or above the 90th percentile, fasting insulin levels (P = 0.04 for all comparisons), and prevalence of obesity (P = 0.05). Similar findings were observed among students who were at or above the 85th percentile for BMI at baseline. Less than 3% of the students who were screened had an adverse event; the proportions were nearly equivalent in the intervention and control schools. CONCLUSIONS Our comprehensive school-based program did not result in greater decreases in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity than those that occurred in control schools. However, the intervention did result in significantly greater reductions in various indexes of adiposity. These changes may reduce the risk of childhood-onset type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the American Diabetes Association; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029.) PMID:20581420
Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Beidas, Rinad S.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Cohen, Jeremy S.; Kendall, Philip C.
Anxiety disorders in youth are common and, if left untreated, can lead to a variety of negative sequelae. Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an efficacious treatment for anxiety disorders in youth with preliminary evidence showing that CBT can be successfully transported into schools. The…
Association of American Publishers, New York, NY.
This booklet offers parents guidance on teaching their children attitudes, learning skills, and study skills that will help them succeed in school. Section 1 focuses on the creation of a shared learning environment in the home. Parents are encouraged to set limits, establish routines, provide a secure atmosphere of encouragement and support,…
It has been called many names: Continuous Progress Format, Advancement Based on Competency (ABC), Continuous Progress Schools, and Continuous Progress Education. The idea of "Continuous Progress" refers to academic and developmental growth of students in a multi-age program. Students learn new materials as they are ready, regardless of their age,…
Parker, Frank C.; McCoy, James F.
Three procedures to modify excessive absenteeism were implemented by an elementary school principal and assessed with an across-subjects multiple baseline design. Intervention with parents, approval for attendance, and disapproval for absences produced sustained increases in attendance and parent-initiated contacts with the school. (Author)
As Response to Intervention (RTI) continues to be implemented in schools, it is important to consider how this initiative is perceived by the educational professionals involved in the implementation and effectiveness of the process. This study utilized a survey intended to investigate the perceptions of school psychologists regarding their…
Hoyle, Carol G.; Marshall, Kathleen J.; Yell, Mitchell L.
School personnel are using Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports in public schools throughout the United States. A number of studies have evaluated the universal level, or Tier 1, of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports. In this study, the authors describe and analyze the interventions offered as options for use for Tier 2 in middle schools…
Everhart, D. Erik
The effects of sleep disturbance on children are wide ranging and include alterations in behavior, mood, cognition, and academic performance. Screening and intervention for pediatric sleep disorders within the schools are not widely implemented, and the concept of integrating school personnel into the multidisciplinary sleep team has yet to be…
Couvillon, Michael; Peterson, Reece L.; Ryan, Joseph B.; Scheuermann, Brenda; Stegall, Joanna
Recent advocacy organization reports, Congressional hearings, and proposed federal legislation have called attention to the abusive use of physical restraint procedures in school settings. As a result, administrators and school officials wonder whether they should purchase "crisis intervention" training for staff and faculty members from outside…
Ballard, Mary; Argus, Tucky; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.
By addressing bullying issues, school personnel may prevent more serious violent behavior. This article reviews bullies' and victims' characteristics and describes a school-based intervention plan for managing bullying behavior on the playground and classroom, educating parent/teacher organizations and counselors, and publicizing and implementing…
Johnson, Evelyn S.; Smith, Lori A.
Response to Intervention (RTI) is a tiered model of service delivery being implemented in many middle grades schools. The authors provide an overview of RTI and describe the experience and outcomes of RTI implementation at Cheyenne Mountain Junior High. A discussion of lessons learned and implications for other middle schools considering RTI…
A very large body of international studies supports the world-wide concern with the issue of school bullying. Literature in this field is currently divided between analysis of the phenomenon's different characteristics and evaluation of various intervention programmes in schools. At the same time, teachers, parents and media are acquiring more and…
Timperley, Helen S.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.
Describes strategy used by New Zealand Ministry of Education to intervene in 26 self-managing schools by developing a partnership with the schools and their communities. Documents difficulties encountered in the first phase (year one) of the intervention and the successes of the second phase (year two). (Contains 1 figure, 3 tables, and 27…
Mautone, Jennifer A.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Sharman, Jaclyn; Eiraldi, Ricardo B.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Power, Thomas J.
Although numerous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of multi-modal psychosocial interventions for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, these programs are limited in that there has not beeti an explicit focus on the connection between fatnily and school. This study was designed to develop and pilot test a family-school ititervention, Family-School Success—Early Elementary (FSS-EE), for kindergarten and first-grade studetits with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Key components of FSS-EE were family-school behavioral consultatioti, daily report cards, and strategies to improve parent-child relationships atid family involvement in educatioti. FSS-EE was developed using a multistep iterative process. The piloted version consisted of 12 weekly sessions including 6 group meetings, 4 individualized family sessions, and 2 school-based consultations. Families participating in the study were given the choice of placing their childreti on medication; 25% of children were on medication at the time of random assignmetit. Childreti (n = 61) were randomly assigned to FSS-EE or a comparison group controlling for nonspecific treatment effects. Outcomes were assessed at post interventioti and 2-month follow-up. Study findings indicated that FSS-EE was feasible to implement and acceptable to paretits atid teachers. In addition, the findings provided preliminary evidence that FSS-EE is effective in improving parenting practices, child behavior at school, and the student-teacher relationship. PMID:24353368
Suma, Katharine; Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Robins, Diana L; Abrams, Danielle N
This study documents the relation between an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, increases in intervention, and changes in parent-child interaction quality. Information about intervention and observations of interaction were collected before diagnosis and a half year after diagnosis for 79 low-risk toddlers who had screened positive for ASD risk during a well-baby checkup. Children diagnosed with ASD (n = 44) were 2.69 times more likely to increase intervention hours. After ASD diagnosis, the relation between intervention and interaction quality was complex: although increases in intervention and interaction quality were only modestly related, the overall amount of intervention after diagnosis was associated with higher quality interactions. Moreover, lower quality interactions before diagnosis significantly increased the likelihood that intervention would increase post-diagnosis. PMID:27193183
Blackwell, Patricia L.
This article outlines historical, socio-cultural, and research information that attests to the fundamental relationship between touch and child development. It describes applications including touch therapies with very low-birthweight infants, with fragile premature infants, and with infants of depressed mothers. (Contains extensive references.)…
Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter
Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866477
Schuler, Maureen E.; Black, Maureen M.; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna
Objective To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. Method We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children’s mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Data analysis Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children’s mental, motor and language development over time. Results Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children’s mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Conclusion Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater
Topping, K. J.; Thurston, A.; Tolmie, A.; Christie, D.; Murray, P.; Karagiannidou, E.
The use of cooperative learning in secondary school is reported - an area of considerable concern given attempts to make secondary schools more interactive and gain higher recruitment to university science courses. In this study the intervention group was 259 pupils aged 12-14 years in nine secondary schools, taught by 12 self-selected teachers. Comparison pupils came from both intervention and comparison schools (n = 385). Intervention teachers attended three continuing professional development days, in which they received information, engaged with resource packs and involved themselves in cooperative learning. Measures included both general and specific tests of science, attitudes to science, sociometry, self-esteem, attitudes to cooperative learning and transferable skills (all for pupils) and observation of implementation fidelity. There were increases during cooperative learning in pupil formulation of propositions, explanations and disagreements. Intervened pupils gained in attainment, but comparison pupils gained even more. Pupils who had experienced cooperative learning in primary school had higher pre-test scores in secondary education irrespective of being in the intervention or comparison group. On sociometry, comparison pupils showed greater affiliation to science work groups for work, but intervention pupils greater affiliation to these groups at break and out of school. Other measures were not significant. The results are discussed in relation to practice and policy implications.
Hart, Stuart; Maxson, Suzanne
Child maltreatment, defined as acts of commission or omission that harm a child physically or psychologically, adversely affects millions of children nationwide. Since almost two-thirds of these children are of school age, schools could be among the best resources available to combat child maltreatment. This paper examines the responsibilities and…
... Bureau of Indian Affairs 25 CFR CHAPTER VI No Child Left Behind School Facilities and Construction... that the No Child Left Behind School Facilities and Construction Negotiated Rulemaking Committee will... Child Left Behind Act of 2001. DATES: The Committee's second meeting will begin at 8:30 a.m. on April...
... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.12 Claims against schools or child-care institutions. (a) State agencies, or FNSROs where... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Claims against schools or child-care institutions....
Mindrila, Diana L.
To describe and facilitate the identification of child school behavior patterns, we developed a typology of child school behavior (ages 6-11 years) using the norming data (N = 2,338) for the second edition of the Behavior Assessment System for Children Teacher Rating-Child form). Latent profile analysis was conducted with the entire data set,…
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims against schools or child-care institutions. 215... NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.12 Claims against schools or child-care institutions. (a) State agencies, or FNSROs...
Zibit, Melanie J.; Nardone, Elizabeth; DeMaria, Alfred; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Cui, Jing
Abstract Purpose: Educational interventions to reduce Lyme disease (LD) among at-risk school children have had little study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short in-class LD education program based on social learning theory and the Health Belief Model (HBM) impacted a child's knowledge, attitude, and preventive behavior. Methods: Students in grades 2–5 in 19 elementary schools were selected in an area that was highly endemic for LD. The children received an educational intervention or were on a wait list as controls. Their knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported preventive behaviors were surveyed before implementing the program and 1 year later. General linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and baseline variables were used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results: There were 3570 participants in the study: 1562 received the intervention, and 2008 were controls. The mean age for both groups was 9.1 years, with 53% women in the intervention group and 50% women in the control group. The children in the intervention group increased their overall knowledge of LD more than the children in the control group (overall knowledge score improvement, mean difference (SD) 1.38 (1.3) vs. 0.36 (1.3) p < 0.0001). All children in classes receiving the intervention reported an increase in precautionary behavior, positive attitude toward taking precautions, and self-efficacy compared with the wait list controls. Two LD cases were confirmed during the follow-up period, one in the intervention group and one in the controls. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that a short in-class educational program that includes elements of the HBM, including: (1) awareness and knowledge about the disease, (2) benefits of preventive behavior, and (3) confidence in ability to perform preventive behaviors can improve knowledge, attitude, and self-reported precautionary behavior among at-risk children. www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00594997 PMID
Johnson, Anna D; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The federal child-care subsidy program represents one of the government's largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child-care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n ≈ 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not directly linked to subsequent reading or social-emotional skills. However, subsidy receipt predicted lower math scores among children attending community-based centers. Supplementary analyses revealed that subsidies predicted greater use of center care, but this association did not appear to affect school readiness. PMID:23461769
Johnson, Anna D; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
The federal child care subsidy program represents one of the government’s largest investments in early care and education. Using data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this paper examines associations, among subsidy-eligible families, between child care subsidy receipt when children are 4 years old and a range of school readiness outcomes in kindergarten (sample n ≈ 1,400). Findings suggest that subsidy receipt in preschool is not directly linked to subsequent reading or social-emotional skills. However, subsidy receipt predicted lower math scores among children attending community-based centers. Supplementary analyses revealed that subsidies predicted greater use of center care, but this association did not appear to affect school readiness. PMID:23461769
Boyle, Lynn; Kelly, Michelle M; Reynolds, Kathryn; Conlan, Misty; Taylor, Felisha
Currently, in the United States, there are approximately 1 in 150 adults living with congenital heart disease (CHD) (). Infant and childhood mortality related to CHD decreased by 31% between 1987 and 2005 (). This survival trend is predicted to increase each year due to advancements in treatment and management of CHD. This significant shift in the epidemiology of CHD requires nurses to take action in preparing children with CHD and their families for their teenage years and young adulthood. The school-age child is the ideal age to begin teaching the child about their healthcare needs and how to care for themselves in preparation for the future. The school-age child with CHD has specific physical, intellectual, emotional, and developmental needs that must be considered and managed using a multidisciplinary approach. Pediatric nurses must be aware of these needs as they help the child and their family seamlessly and successfully transition into young adulthood as a happy and healthy CHD survivor. PMID:25330332
Massey, Oliver T.; Boroughs, Michael; Armstrong, Kathleen H.
The Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiative was designed to encourage collaboration among school districts and local community service providers in the provision of behavioral health prevention and early intervention efforts. These efforts would address the physical safety of students as well as provide mental health, violence prevention, and…
Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia
This report on group day care is designed to: (1) examine the kinds of group programs for school-age children which exist in Los Angeles County, (2) describe the conditions necessary for program operation, and (3) consider the issue of quality as it relates to community expansion of day care services for children of school age. The report is…
Miller, Nicholas J.
This paper examines the implementation of the Pyramid of Interventions (POI) at a suburban Georgia Middle School through an examination of teacher understanding, assessment of overall effectiveness, and the need for further professional development. The Pyramid of Interventions is the response to intervention (RTI) component of the Individuals…
The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.
The focus on RTI and evidence-based interventions in school psychology is heavily concentrated at the moment on academic skills and progress and less on mental health or social-emotional development. The emphasis is understandable given the demands of NCLB and the wisdom of tackling more measurable, manageable, academic skills first. School…
Landry, Susan H; Smith, Karen E; Swank, Paul R; Zucker, Tricia; Crawford, April D; Solari, Emily F
This study examined mother-child shared book reading behaviors before and after participation in a random-assignment responsive parenting intervention called Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) that occurred during infancy (PALS I), the toddler-preschool (PALS II) period, or both as compared with a developmental assessment (DAS) intervention (DAS I and/or II). The efficacy of PALS was previously demonstrated for improving mother and child behaviors within play contexts, everyday activities, and standardized measures of child language. We hypothesized that PALS effects would generalize to influence maternal and child behaviors during a shared reading task even though this situation was not a specific focus of the intervention and that this would be similar for children who varied in biological risk. Participation in at least PALS II was expected to have a positive effect due to children's increased capacity to engage in book reading at this age. Four groups of randomized mothers and their children (PALS I-II, PALS I-DAS II, DAS I-PALS II, DAS I-II) were observed in shared reading interactions during the toddler-preschool period and coded for (a) mother's affective and cognitive-linguistic supports and (b) child's responses to maternal requests and initiations. Support was found for significant changes in observed maternal and child behaviors, and evidence of mediation was found for the intervention to affect children's behaviors through change in maternal responsiveness behaviors. These results add to other studies supporting the importance of targeting a broad range of responsive behaviors across theoretical frameworks in interventions to facilitate children's development. PMID:22122475
Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T; Marshall, Stephen A; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J
This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; Grades 2-6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; ages 26-59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at postassessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child's homework performance. Parents at risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms. PMID:25496523
Watson, Ashley E.; Hill, Paul T.
Big-city school systems face many problems, including high dropout rates, low academic achievement, and achievement gaps between middle-class and low-income children. Many big-city systems are also losing enrollment and facing financial deficits. These problems inevitably lead to criticism of the boards that govern urban school districts, and…
Jones, Stephanie M.; Bub, Kristen L.; Raver, C. Cybele
This study examines the theory of change of the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), testing a sequence of theory-derived mediating mechanisms including the quality of teacher-child relationships and children’s self-regulation. The CSRP is a multi-component teacher- and classroom-focused intervention, and its cluster-randomized efficacy trial was conducted in 35 Head Start-funded classrooms. A series of increasingly complex and conservative structural equation models indicate that the CSRP carries its effects on children’s academic and behavioral outcomes through changes in teacher-child relationship quality and children’s self-regulation. PMID:24729666
Purpose. This review was done to explore the impact of water treatment, hygiene, and sanitary interventions on improving child health outcomes such as absenteeism, infections, knowledge, attitudes, and practices and adoption of point-of-use water treatment. Methods. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed and Google scholar for studies published between 2009 and 2012 and focusing on the effects of access to safe water, hand washing facilities, and hygiene education among school-age children. Studies included were those that documented the provision of water and sanitation in schools for children less than 18 years of age, interventions which assessed WASH practices, and English-language, full-text peer reviewed papers. Results. Fifteen studies were included in the final analysis. 73% (n = 11) of the studies were conducted in developing countries and were rural based (53%, n = 8). The child's age, gender, grade level, socioeconomic index, access to hygiene and sanitary facilities, and prior knowledge of hygiene practices were significantly associated with the outcomes. Nutrition practices which are key factors associated with the outcomes were rarely assessed. Conclusion. Further research is required to assess the long-term impact of such interventions in different settings. PMID:24454415
Mendes, Carla Silva
School violence (bullying), is currently considered a growing public health issue across the globe. It is essential to intervene in order to improve the quality of life of children/adolescents at school. Therefore, it should be a research priority to include the issue in the agenda of nurses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of an anti-violence program implemented with 307 secondary level students in a school in Lisbon. The evaluation before and after the program was performed using a questionnaire that was elaborated and validated for this study. We found that before the intervention, there was a high level of bullying (50% victims and 35% aggressors), and that the aggressions also included teachers (7%) and other school workers (9%). The program consisted of building awareness/preparation in teachers and parents and practicing social competencies among the students. After the intervention significant results were observed in the global reduction of school violence. PMID:21710061
Driscoll, Katherine C.; Pianta, Robert C.
Research Findings: This exploratory study encompassed a collaboration to implement and evaluate the early efficacy of Banking Time, a dyadic intervention designed to promote supportive teacher-child relationships. Banking Time is a set of one-on-one meetings between a teacher and a child consisting of child-led play and teacher facilitation…
The neglect situation of rural children in China is serious, which is more serious than the same age group of urban children, especially the behind children are more severe. Child neglect deeply affects children's physical and mental health of children and adolescents in rural areas (from physical neglect, emotional neglect, education neglect, safety neglect, medical neglect and social neglect six aspects). To effectively prevent and control rural child neglect and promote the development of the physical and mental health of rural children and adolescents in China, we must adopt comprehensive measures including social, family and children three aspects. We need to cause the attention of the government and the society, improve the prevention of child neglect of social support networks, promote the social multi departments cooperation and efforts, and from the different angles to take effective intervention measure. To strengthen family intervention for the neglected children, to provide support and help to parents and families, as much as possible to eliminate or reduce the influence factors of child neglect. Should be aimed at high-risk group of child neglect, to adopt the principle of "early detection, early intervention", through to help and support to prevent or reduce the occurrence of neglect. PMID:26813713
Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; Collet, Neusa; Eickmann, Sophie Helena; Lima, Marília de Carvalho
Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational action in child development surveillance performed by nurses working in primary health care. Methods: interventional study with a before-and-after type of design, carried out with 45 nurses and 450 mothers of children under 2 years of age. Initially, it was evaluated the practices and knowledge of nurses on child development surveillance and the mothers were interviewed about these practices. Subsequently, workshops were carried out with nurses and four months later, the knowledge of nurses and the maternal information were reevaluated. Results: after intervention there was significant increase in the frequency of the following aspects: from 73% to 100%, in relation to the practice of nurses of asking the opinion of mothers about their children's development; from 42% to 91%, regarding the use of the systematized instrument of evaluation; from 91% to 100% with respect to guidance to mothers on how to stimulate child development. Conclusions: the intervention contributed to the increase of knowledge of nurses and implementation of child development surveillance, showing the importance of this initiative to improve the quality of child health care. PMID:26487147
Goldman, Eliot E; Bauer, Daliah; Newman, Denise L; Kalka, Elaine; Lochman, John E; Silverman, Wendy K; Jensen, Peter S; Curry, John; Stark, Kevin; Wells, Karen C; Bannon, William M
The current study presents the implementation of a set of school based interventions in a greater New Orleans school district one year following Hurricane Katrina. The interventions included adaptation and implementation of evidence based treatments in a crisis situation with at-risk youth which involved training and clinical challenges. 386 students found to have significant depressive and/or disruptive disorder symptoms received treatment from the School Therapeutic Enhancement Program (STEP). Further, a district-wide mental health needs assessment of middle and high school students (N = 11,861) screened for behavioral and emotional difficulties at the beginning and end of the school year provided a benchmark for community youth's emotional and behavioral distress. High-need intervention students demonstrated clinically significant lower levels of emotional and behavioral problems, depression and inattention in comparison to pre-treatment levels as indicated by multiple informants (i.e., self, parent, teacher). Self-reported distress levels were also lower than screening group students at post-test. These findings support the efficacy of a school-based intervention for youth struggling with the aftereffects of a highly disruptive natural disaster. Implications for utilizing a flexible adaptation of an evidence-based training model involving coaching and consultation are discussed. PMID:25047869
Slaughter, Diana T.
The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…
Edgar-Bailey, Meredith; Kress, Victoria E.
This article presents a review of creative interventions that can be helpful in facilitating the resolution of traumatic grief in children and adolescents. Traumatic grief is conceptualized as a condition in which a person loses a close loved one (e.g., a parent or a sibling) in a traumatic manner, and ensuing trauma-related symptoms disrupt the…
Kaslow, Nadine J.; Broth, Michelle Robbins; Smith, Chaundrissa Oyeshiku; Collins, Marietta H.
Emotional and behavioral symptoms and disorders are prevalent in children and adolescents. There has been a burgeoning literature supporting evidence-based treatments for these disorders. Increasingly, family-based interventions have been gaining prominence and demonstrating effectiveness for myriad childhood and adolescent disorders. This article…
Campbell, Philippa H.; Coletti, Catherine Ehret
The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which multidiscipline early intervention providers identified and demonstrated caregiver-teaching strategies. A total of 78 providers submitted 205 videotaped segments to illustrate 1 of 5 caregiver-teaching strategies (i.e., demonstration; caregiver practice with feedback; guided practice;…
Hargrove, Patricia; Lund, Bonnie; Griffer, Mona
This article focuses on applying systematic reviews to the Early Intervention (EI) literature. Systematic reviews are defined and differentiated from traditional, or narrative, reviews and from meta-analyses. In addition, the steps involved in critiquing systematic reviews and an illustration of a systematic review from the EI literature are…
Romeo, Renee; Byford, Sarah; Knapp, Martin
Background: Recognition has grown over recent years of the need for economic information on the impacts of child and adolescent mental health problems and the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Methods: A range of electronic databases were examined using a predefined search strategy to identify economic studies which focused on services,…
Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.
This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…
Stuebing, Karla K.; Barth, Amy E.; Trahan, Lisa H.; Reddy, Radhika R.; Miciak, Jeremy; Fletcher, Jack M.
We conducted a meta-analysis of 28 studies comprising 39 samples to ask the question, "What is the magnitude of the association between various baseline child cognitive characteristics and response to reading intervention?" Studies were located via literature searches, contact with researchers in the field, and review of references from…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.730 Section 35.730 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
Zand, Debra H.; Pierce, Katherine J.; Bultas, Margaret W.; McMillin, Stephen Edward; Gott, Rolanda Maxim; Wilmott, Jennifer
Parents' involvement in early intervention (EI) services fosters positive developmental trajectories in young children. Although EI research on parenting skills has been abundant, fewer data are available on parents' knowledge of normative child development. Sixty-seven mothers of children participating in a Midwestern city's EI program completed…
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.830 Section 35.830 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.325 Section 35.325 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... risk assessment in accordance with 40 CFR 745.227(d). Interim controls of identified lead-based...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child with an environmental intervention blood lead level. 35.1225 Section 35.1225 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN...
Girvin, Heather; DePanfilis, Diane; Daining, Clara
Objective: An exploratory analysis of self-report data gathered by the Family Connections program is used to build a predictive model of program completion. Method: The sample includes 136 families in a poor, urban neighborhood who meet risk criteria for child neglect. Families are randomly assigned to receive 3- or 9-month interventions.…
Caringi, James C.; Lawson, Hal A.; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; McCarthy, Mary; Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Claiborne, Nancy
Workforce turnover in public child welfare is a national problem. Individual, supervisory, and organizational factors, individually and in combination, account for some of the turnover. Complex, comprehensive interventions are needed to address these several factors and their interactions. A research and development team is field testing one such…
Haight, Wendy L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah; Black, James; Szewczyk, Margaret; Schoppe, Sarah; Giorgio, Grace; Madrigal, Karen; Tata, Lakshmi
Mothers of young children recently placed in foster care participated in an intervention to enhance parent-child interaction during visits. The mothers all reported substantial loss and trauma histories. Immediately prior to the visits, the mothers were coached on strategies for separating from their children at the visit's end. The mothers…
Davis Bowman, Jennifer
This study focused on the experience of parents concerned with child social behavior and the perception of bibliotherapy as an intervention. Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, four families raising children between the ages of 4-12 participated in a series of interviews. The children's social needs varied, but parent concerns were…
Skibinski, Gregory J.
Three intervention programs for intrafamilial child sexual assaults are described, including Pretrial Diversion program (incarceration time is reduced for offenders who attend treatment programs); Post-Plea Diversion program (postpones the felony hearing pending the successful completion of an offender treatment program); and Prelegal Diversion…
Begle, Angela Moreland; Dumas, Jean E.
This study evaluated whether engagement (i.e., attendance and quality of participation) in the Parenting our Children to Excellence (PACE) program predicted positive child and parent outcomes. PACE in an 8-week preventive intervention aimed at parents of preschool children. The study investigated the relation of engagement to outcomes in an…
Research with child soldiers is crucial to improving mental health services after war. This research also can illuminate innovative approaches to treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adult soldiers, veterans and other trauma survivors in high-income countries. A key contribution is the role of social ecology for trauma-healing interventions. PMID:23999478
Whitney, Rondalyn V.; Smith, Gigi
This study examines emotional disclosure through the activity of journaling as a means of coping with maternal stress associated with parenting a child with disruptive behaviors. Through a randomized control and pre-test post-test study design of an online journal writing intervention, change to maternal stress and quality of mother-child…
Parents influence children's dietary intake in part through general parenting styles, feeding styles, and/or food parenting practices. Interventions aimed at improving child diet often include parent components. A systematic review was conducted to assess the effect of targeting parenting styles and...
Letourneau, Nicole; Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota; Giesbrecht, Gerald; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Bhogal, Sanjit; Watson, Barry
Early secure maternal-child attachment relationships lay the foundation for children's healthy social and mental development. Interventions targeting maternal sensitivity and maternal reflective function during the first year of infant life may be the key to promoting secure attachment. We conducted a narrative systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting maternal sensitivity and reflective function on maternal-child attachment security, as measured by the gold standard Strange Situation (M. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, B. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) and Q-set (E. Waters & K. Deane, 1985). Studies were identified from electronic database searches and included randomized or quasi-randomized controlled parallel-group designs. Participants were mothers and their infants who were followed up to 36 months' postpartum. Ten trials, involving 1,628 mother-infant pairs, were included. Examination of the trials that provided sufficient data for combination in meta-analysis revealed that interventions of both types increased the odds of secure maternal-child attachment, as compared with no intervention or standard intervention (n = 7 trials; odds ratio: 2.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 4.53, n = 965). Of the three trials not included in the meta-analyses, two improved the likelihood of secure attachment. We conclude that interventions aimed at improving maternal sensitivity alone or in combination with maternal reflection, implemented in the first year of infants' lives, are effective in promoting secure maternal-child attachments. Intervention aimed at the highest risk families produced the most beneficial effects. PMID:26112776
Zuber, Susan Way
A framework for gaining community involvement in planning for school-age child care initiatives is reported. The framework incorporates a plan than could be used as a model for the involvement of the public school system. Four primary components are described: (1) a "Kids' Council" Saturday meeting in which third graders in school-age child care…
Results of a recent study suggest that school expenditure is important in determining mothers' child-care time. There is a crowding-out effect between school expenditure and a mother's child-care time in lesser educated families. Existing studies may have overestimated school expenditure's true effects on student performance. (Contains 18…
... applicable, shall disallow any portion of a claim and recover any payment made to a School Food Authority or... notify the School Food Authority or child-care institutions of the reasons for such disallowance or demand and the School Food Authority or child-care institutions shall have full opportunity to...
... applicable, shall disallow any portion of a claim and recover any payment made to a School Food Authority or... notify the School Food Authority or child-care institutions of the reasons for such disallowance or demand and the School Food Authority or child-care institutions shall have full opportunity to...
... Bureau of Indian Affairs 25 CFR Chapter I No Child Left Behind School Facilities and Construction... that the No Child Left Behind School Facilities and Construction Negotiated Rulemaking Committee will... Left Behind School Facilities and Construction Negotiated Rulemaking Committee was established...
In this paper, using the "2005-2006 National Family Health Survey" dataset from India, we study the likelihood of a school-age child working, combining work with schooling or being idle, rather than attending school full time. Our analysis finds that with the inclusion of household chores in the child labour definition, boys are…
As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198
Black, Maureen M
As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. PMID:25619198
Want, Jerome H.
Characteristic behaviors and personality features of school phobia (anxiety, willfulness, dependency, depression, and unrealistic self image) are described, and 10 steps in a school-based intervention approach are listed (including assessing the family constellation, preparing teachers for the student's return to school, and encouraging therapy…
Menard, Scott; Grotpeter, Jennifer K.
Bully-Proofing Your School (BPYS), a school-based intervention program designed to reduce bullying and school violence, is evaluated for its impact on bullying and related aggressive behaviors in a multiple nonequivalent control group, pretest-posttest design with ex ante selection of treatment and comparison groups. Outcome measures included…
The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a school-initiated cognitive and behavioral program to reduce childhood obesity. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z scores were obtained at the beginning and end of the school year at an intervention school (n=1022)and at a con...
Dockery, Donna J.
School counselors are expected to develop programs that promote academic success for all students, including those at risk for dropping out of school. Knowledge of key indicators of potential dropouts and current trends in dropout prevention research may assist school counselors in better understanding this complex issue. Implementing recommended…
Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad
Background: Child abuse is an issue that has many physical and psychological consequences. Objectives: This study was designed and conducted to investigate the current situation regarding child abuse, which can be used as a guideline for planning future interventions. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive, analytic cross-sectional study on 700 Yazd secondary school students in 2013, using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS v.19 software and appropriate statistical tests and logistic regression analysis. P values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Overall, 700 students (43%) were boys. Child abuse frequency was 93.5% (92.2% of boys and 94.4% of girls). The most common domains of child abuse among all students were neglect (83.8%), psychological (76.1%), physical (36.1%) and sexual (28.8 %), respectively. The most common domains of child abuse among female students were neglect (84.9%), psychological (82.3%), physical (32.5%) and sexual (31.5 %), and among male students, these were neglect (82.3%), psychological (67.9%), physical (41%) and sexual (25.3%). Demographic variables included substance abuse of parents, father’s education, parents living status and having other jobs, which were significantly related variables to child abuse and neglect (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study is the first investigation performed on patients with LCH and its possible association with EBV in Iran. Considering the P = 0.004, which is statistically significant, the findings do support the hypothesis of a possible role for EBV in the pathogenesis of LCH. These results are in accordance with several previous investigations, with positive findings. PMID:26834803
Black, Maureen M; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have contributed to unprecedented reductions in poverty and improvement in the lives of millions of men, women, and children in low- and middle-income countries. Yet, hundreds of millions of children under 5 y of age are not reaching their developmental potential. This article reviews the scientific basis for early childhood nutrition and child development interventions, the impact of integrated interventions on children's linear growth and cognitive development, and implementation strategies for integrated nutrition and child development programs. Advances in brain science have documented that the origins of adult health and well-being are grounded in early childhood, from conception through age 24 mo (first 1000 d) and extending to age 5 y (second 1000 d). Young children with adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and opportunities for early learning have the best chances of thriving. Evidence from adoption, experimental, and quasi-experimental studies has shown that stunting prevention is sensitive during the first 1000 d, and sensitivity to child development interventions extends through the second 1000 d. Cognitive development responds to interventions post–1000 d with effect sizes that are inversely associated with initial age and length of program exposure. Integrated interventions need governance structures that support integrated policies and programming, with attention to training, supervision, and monitoring. The MDGs have been replaced by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with targets for the next 15 y. Achievement of the SDGs depends on children receiving adequate nutrition, nurturant caregiving, and learning opportunities from conception through age 5. PMID:26875208
Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia
Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged <5 y. Single-sector interventions representing either early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. PMID:26980819
Nguyen Thanh, Viêt; Clément, Juliette; Thélot, Bertrand; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Lamboy, Béatrice; Arwidson, Pierre
Child injuries represent an important public health problem. The aim of this paper is to review the current scientific knowledge on interventions designed to prevent child injuries. The current state of knowledge in this area was assessed by means of a specific method involving a review of literature reviews and a classification of health promotion interventions identified in these reviews (rapid reviews). We found a large number of effective or promising programmes devoted to the prevention of the most common child injuries: drowning, burns, falls, poisoning, electrocution, sports and leisure injuries. Some interventions are based on environmental measures, while others are educational or use law and regulatory processes. Some are primary prevention measures, others are secondary prevention measures, while others are multidimensional and can effectively reduce several types of injuries. For example, home safety education and provision of safety equipment, or home-based parenting interventions, can have an impact on injury rates. These findings present a number of limitations due to the marked diversity of the quality of the documents reviewed. It should also be stressed that interventions that are not listed in this article are not necessarily ineffective: they may simply lack a rigorous evaluation enabling them to be identified in our review. PMID:26751923
Prescott, Elizabeth; Milich, Cynthia
This paper presents a study of family day care services for school age children. The study involved telephone and home interviews concerning services provided by a sample of 247 family day care mothers from the Los Angeles area. The paper is divided into two parts. Part I describes the results of the interviews in numerical form and includes short…
Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Capaldi, Deborah; Kerr, David C R; Fisher, Philip A
The intergenerational transmission of school adjustment was explored in a sample of 213 children and their fathers. The fathers were participants in a longitudinal study that began when they were in the 4th grade, and their children have been assessed at the ages of 21 months and 3, 5, and 7 years. Two components of school adjustment were measured: academic achievement and peer relations. Results show that the fathers' academic achievement and peer relations were directly related to the same factors in their offspring even when the fathers' educational attainment, and both the fathers' and the children's general cognitive abilities were included in the models. When potential mechanisms of intergenerational transmission were examined, father's age at the birth of the child, income, and educational expectations for the child were links in the transmission of academic achievement from one generation to the next. For peer relations across generations, income, inconsistent parenting, and educational expectations were links in transmission. Implications of these findings are considered, including the possibility that interventions to improve school adjustment in one generation might have significant and long-reaching effects for the next. PMID:22612433
Smith, Ashlyn L; Hustad, Katherine C
The current study examined parent perceptions of communication, the focus of early intervention goals and strategies, and factors predicting the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for 26 two-year-old children with cerebral palsy. Parents completed a communication questionnaire and provided early intervention plans detailing child speech and language goals. Results indicated that receptive language had the strongest association with parent perceptions of communication. Children who were not talking received a greater number of intervention goals, had a greater variety of goals, and had more AAC goals than children who were emerging and established talkers. Finally, expressive language had the strongest influence on AAC decisions. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between parent perceptions and language skills, communication as an emphasis in early intervention, AAC intervention decisions, and the importance of receptive language. PMID:26401966
Dawson, Anne E.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Marshall, Stephen A.; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Power, Thomas J.
Objective This study investigated the extent to which parental Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms impact child and parent outcomes following a multimodal family-school intervention, the Family School Success (FSS) program, when compared to an active-control condition (CARE). Method Participants were 139 children with ADHD (67% male; 91% non-Hispanic; 77% Caucasian; grades 2–6) and their primary caretaker (91% female; aged 26–59) who participated in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of FSS. Associations were examined between parent-reported ADHD symptoms at baseline and intervention outcomes reported by parents and teachers after treatment and at a 3-month follow-up, including child homework and classroom impairments, child ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms, parenting behaviors, and parent-teacher relationship quality. Results Across both treatment conditions, parental ADHD was not associated with parent or child outcomes at post-assessment. However, differences emerged between the two treatment groups at follow-up for parents with ADHD, particularly when an empirically-supported symptom cutoff was used to identify parents at-risk for having ADHD. In FSS, but not in CARE, parental ADHD was associated with declines in treatment gains in the quality of the parent-teacher relationship and the child’s homework performance. Conclusions Parents at-risk for ADHD had difficulty maintaining treatment effects for themselves and their child in the FSS intervention, but not in CARE. The supportive and educational components central to the CARE intervention may be helpful in promoting the sustainability of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD who have parents with elevated ADHD symptoms. PMID:25496523
Burns, Barbara J.; Howell, James C.; Wiig, Janet K.; Augimeri, Leena K.; Welsh, Brendan C.; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David
Compared with juveniles who start offending in adolescence, child delinquents (age 12 and younger) are two to three times more likely to become tomorrow's serious and violent offenders. This propensity, however, can be minimized. These children are potentially identifiable either before they begin committing crimes or at the very early stages of…
Craigen, Laurie M.; Sikes, April; Healey, Amanda; Hays, Danica
Dating violence among adolescents is a major public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine five factors of which school counselors must be aware in order to recognize, intervene, and report incidence of dating violence. These factors are (a) understanding the diverse definitions of dating violence, (b) recognizing dating violence…
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and the comorbid physical and psychological health problems highlight a pressing need to identify effective treatments that address this public health problem during the childhood years. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a school-based pe...
Selekman, Janice; Thomas, Elizabeth; McLean, Kay
Describes the practices of homeopathy and how they affect the scope of practice of school nurses. Includes a definition of homeopathy, a discussion of remedies and the specific symptoms for which they are effective, and an examination of conditions treatable by homeopathic physicians. Nine guidelines for managing homeopathic products in the school…
Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M
This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. PMID:24673168
Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Kim, Jiyoung; Barolak, Michael; Citerman, Barbara; Laudel, Cindy; Essma, Angie; Fezzi, Nancy; Green, Deborah; Kontak, Dot; Mueller, Nancy; Thomas, Cheryl
Research has documented the educational difficulties that maltreated children face. No work exists, however, that examines how maltreated children are provided services by school social workers or how these services overlap and interface with services provided by child welfare. This article attempts to fill that gap by presenting data from the…
Childcare Resources, Birmingham, AL.
This manual for directors of school-age child care (SACC) programs contains six sections. Section I provides a rationale for SACC. Section II describes characteristics of school-age children. The extensive Section III discusses characteristics of high quality SACC. After an initial discussion of the importance of out-of-school time, the section…
Parenting interventions are relevant to many touch points of the child welfare system. This paper describes a multilevel system of parenting interventions called "Triple P" that matches intervention intensities to families, builds on a strong scientific base, provides multiple access points for parents, and offers a destigmatized, cost-efficient…
Coombes, Emma; Jones, Andy
Beat the Street aims to get children more active by encouraging them to walk and cycle in their neighbourhood using tracking technology with a reward scheme. This pilot study evaluates the impact of Beat the Street on active travel to school in Norwich, UK. Eighty children 8-10 yrs were recruited via an intervention and control school. They wore an accelerometer for 7 days at baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention (+20 weeks), and completed a travel diary. Physical activity overall was not higher at follow-up amongst intervention children compared to controls. However, there was a positive association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school commute times and the number of days on which children touched a Beat the Street sensor. This equated to 3.46min extra daily MVPA during commute times for children who touched a sensor on 14.5 days (the mean number of days), compared to those who did not engage. We also found weekly active travel increased at the intervention school (+10.0% per child) while it decreased at the control (-7.0%), p=0.056. Further work is needed to understand how improved engagement with the intervention might impact outcomes. PMID:26974232
Townsend, Dianna; Collins, Penny
The goal of this experimental intervention study was to determine if evidence-based instructional strategies for general vocabulary words are effective with middle school English learner (EL) students and academic vocabulary words. Participants showed significantly more growth in their knowledge of academic vocabulary during the treatment…
Beyers, Sarah J.; Lembke, Erica S.; Curs, Bradley
This study examined the technical adequacy of vocabulary-matching curriculum-based measurement (CBM) to identify and monitor the progress of 148 middle school students in social studies. In addition, the effectiveness of a reading comprehension intervention, Collaborative Strategic Reading (Klingner, Vaughn, Dimino, Schumm, & Bryant, 2001),…
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
This guide lists information and resources concerning school interventions to prevent youth suicide. Part 1 includes articles related to youth suicide, depression, and violence, along with a listing of basic facts, statistics, and myths about suicide. A general model of youth suicide is included followed by information on prevention. Part 2…
Prevatt, Frances; Kelly, F. Donald
Reviews the literature on dropout prevention for school-aged children. A review of dropout prevention programs identified in the literature highlights methodological concerns, with a discussion of design, sampling, statistical analysis, and implementation issues. The interventions employed with greatest frequency in the studies reviewed emphasized…
Allen, M.; Ashbaker, B. Y.
Two important questions arise when creating a school crisis plan: (a) Who should be trained as part of the crisis team? and (b) What type of training will be the most effective and practical? The authors suggest that paraprofessionals are a valuable resource to consider for assisting with crisis prevention and intervention. Practical suggestions…
Borawski, Elaine A.; Trapl, Erika S.; Lovegreen, Loren D.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Block, Tonya
Objectives: To examine effectiveness of abstinence-until-marriage curriculum on knowledge, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and behavior. Methods: Nonrandomized control trial involving 2069 middle school students with a 5-month follow-up. Results: Intervention students reported increases in knowledge and abstinence beliefs, but decreases in…
Ma, Xin; Nelson, Regena F.; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.
Using hierarchical linear modeling, the present study aimed to examine whether targeted intervention strategies implemented individually during a preschool program exhibited any short-term and long-term effects on children's school readiness in kindergarten, utilizing data gathered through the Supporting Partnerships to Assure Ready Kids…
Webb, Linda; Brigman, Greg A.
This article describes the Student Success Skills (SSS) small group intervention developed for school counselors targeting academic outcomes. The SSS program is based on extensive reviews of research about the skills students need to be successful. Studies supporting program effectiveness are briefly reviewed and show consistent patterns of…
Schmid, Rex E.
This article presents a prereferral assessment and intervention process implemented in an elementary school. Included in the description are procedures, examples of record forms, and a case study illustrating the operation of the process. The advantages and disadvantages of the process, as perceived by the faculty and staff, are listed. (Contains…
Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.
The authors summarize evidence from a multiyear study with secondary students with reading difficulties on (a) the potential efficacy of primary-level (Tier 1), secondary-level (Tier 2), and tertiary-level (Tier 3) interventions in remediating reading difficulties with middle school students, (b) the likelihood of resolving reading disabilities…
At age 3, children with hearing loss transition from Part C early intervention to Part B public school services. These children represent a heterogeneous population when considering factors such as communication approaches; speech, language, auditory and cognitive skills; social-emotional and motor development; parental involvement; hearing…
National Association of School Psychologists, Bethesda, MD.
This publication features articles on prevention of school violence and focuses upon promising practices that reflect practical approaches to positive behavioral interventions. Directed at both regular and special education students, these articles feature prosocial skills for improving student responsibility and discipline, effective parenting…
Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.
Despite the strong interest in research about collaboration among teachers, there are few longitudinal studies that have investigated improvements in collaborative activity among teachers through school-wide interventions. Drawing on data from a larger study, this article describes improvements in collaborative activity among 900 teachers at 28…
Resnicow, K; Orlandi, M A; Vaccaro, D; Wynder, E
A school-based cholesterol reduction intervention was offered to primary grade students in two New York City public schools. Subjects were participating in the "Know Your Body" school health program which includes an annual cholesterol screening for all students. Students with total serum cholesterol values greater than 170 mg/dl were eligible for a workshop designed to teach students to identify the amount and type of fat and fiber in various foods and to recognize the negative health consequences of eating a diet high in cholesterol and saturated fat as well as the benefits of eating a diet high in complex carbohydrate and fiber. Thirty-four students completed the five-session behavioral group intervention. Following the workshop, mean total cholesterol for the 34 intervention participants fell 9.0% from baseline (196.9 mg/dl to 179.1 mg/dl). Cholesterol levels decreased 6.6% for a matched sample of comparison subjects (n = 118) participating only in the "Know Your Body" program. While several methodological limitations existed in this pilot study, the results suggest school-site cholesterol reduction interventions for high-risk individuals are feasible, cost-effective, and potentially efficacious. PMID:2538679
Shaya, Fadia T.; Flores, David; Gbarayor, Confidence M.; Wang, Jingshu
Background: Childhood obesity is an impending epidemic. This article is an overview of different interventions conducted in school settings so as to guide efforts for an effective management of obesity in children, thus minimizing the risk of adult obesity and related cardiovascular risk. Methods: PubMed and OVID Medline databases were searched…
Beetz, Andrea; Winkler, Nora; Julius, Henri; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Kotrschal, Kurt
Early interventions aim at promoting a good mother-child relationship as basis for a good socio-emotional development, especially in high-risk populations, and at correcting already unfavorable patterns of interaction and are common today. Insecure attachment, both of the child and of the mother, has been identified as a risk factor for early…
Hawkins, J. David; Guo, Jie; Hill, Karl G.; Battin-Pearson, Sara; Abbott, Robert D.
This study examines the effects of intervention during the elementary grades on changes in school bonding from middle school through high school, using hierarchical linear modeling. Findings suggest that social development interventions through elementary school can have positive long-term effects on school bonding and demonstrate the importance…
Slifer, Keith J.; DeMore, Melissa; Vona-Messersmith, Natalie; Pulbrook-Vetter, Valerie; Beck, Melissa; Dalhquist, Lynnda; Bellipanni, Kimberly; Johnson, Elizabeth
This randomized clinical trial employed a 2-group (general child behavior management training vs. distraction for pain management training) design across repeated parent-administered needle procedures. Forty-seven children with a chronic illness requiring recurrent injections were observed at baseline and 2 intervention sessions. Videotaped observations of parent–child interactions were coded for child behavioral distress and parents’ use of behavior management strategies. Across groups, many children displayed minimal to no distress at baseline. Among participants with significant distress, neither intervention group displayed consistently decreased procedural distress or increased use of child behavior management strategies. PMID:20717485
Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers’ child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Methods Focus group interviews were held among 16 primary school teachers and 17 public health nurses and physicians. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to factors of the Integrated Change model, such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. Results Findings showed that although both groups of professionals are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge. The most salient differences between the two professional groups are related to attitude and (communication) skills. Conclusion The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process. On the basis of our findings, directions for improvement of child abuse detection and reporting are discussed. PMID:24007516
Lee, Eunjoo; Park, Hyejin; Nam, Mihwa; Whyte, James
The purpose of the study was to identify Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) interventions performed by Korean school nurses. The Korean data were then compared to U.S. data from other studies in order to identify differences and similarities between Korean and U.S. school nurse practice. Of the 542 available NIC interventions, 180 were…
Eisenmann, Joey C; Gentile, Douglas A; Welk, Gregory J; Callahan, Randi; Strickland, Sarah; Walsh, Monica; Walsh, David A
Background Although several previous projects have attempted to address the issue of child obesity through school-based interventions, the overall effectiveness of school-based programs on health-related outcomes in youth has been poor. Thus, it has been suggested that multi-level interventions that aim to influence healthy lifestyle behaviors at the community, school and family levels may prove more successful in the prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale, design, and implementation of a community-, school-, and family-based intervention aimed at modifying key behaviors (physical activity, screen time (Internet, television, video games), and nutrition) related to childhood obesity among third through fifth graders in two mid-western cities. The intervention involves a randomized study of 10 schools (5 intervention and 5 control schools). The intervention is being conducted during the duration of the academic year – approximately 9 months – and includes baseline and post-intervention measurements of physical activity, dietary intake, screen time and body composition. Discussion We hope this report will be useful to researchers, public health professionals, and school administrators and health professionals (nurses and physical/health educators) seeking to develop similar prevention programs. It is obvious that more collaborative, inter-disciplinary, multi-level work is needed before a proven, effective intervention package to modify behaviors related to childhood obesity can be generally recommended. It is our hope that SWITCH is a step in that direction. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00685555 PMID:18588706
Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M
The authors summarize evidence from a multiyear study with secondary students with reading difficulties on (a) the potential efficacy of primary-level (Tier 1), secondary-level (Tier 2), and tertiary-level (Tier 3) interventions in remediating reading difficulties with middle school students, (b) the likelihood of resolving reading disabilities with older students with intractable reading disabilities, (c) the reliability, validity, and use of screening and progress monitoring measures with middle school students, and (d) the implications of implementing response to intervention (RTI) practices at the middle school level. The authors provide guidance about prevailing questions about remediating reading difficulties with secondary students and discuss future directions for research using RTI frameworks for students at the secondary level. PMID:22491811
Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.
The authors summarize evidence from a multiyear study with secondary students with reading difficulties on (a) the potential efficacy of primary-level (Tier 1), secondary-level (Tier 2), and tertiary-level (Tier 3) interventions in remediating reading difficulties with middle school students, (b) the likelihood of resolving reading disabilities with older students with intractable reading disabilities, (c) the reliability, validity, and use of screening and progress monitoring measures with middle school students, and (d) the implications of implementing response to intervention (RTI) practices at the middle school level. The authors provide guidance about prevailing questions about remediating reading difficulties with secondary students and discuss future directions for research using RTI frameworks for students at the secondary level. PMID:22491811
Goldman, Juliette D. G.
This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…
Romano, Nicole; And Others
A national survey assessed principals' attitudes, beliefs, and practices concerning child abuse and its prevention. Of particular interest were principals': (1) attitudes concerning the amount and quality of child abuse education in schools; (2) responses to suspected cases of child abuse and neglect; (3) perceptions of possible barriers to…
Miller, David N.; DuPaul, George J.; Lutz, J. Gary
Examines the acceptability and effectiveness ratings of three psychosocial interventions for childhood depression among school psychologist practitioners. Interventions included cognitive restructuring, self-control therapy, and social skills training. Cognitive restructuring and self-control therapy were rated as significantly more acceptable and…
Bonell, Chris; Sorhaindo, Annik; Strange, Vicki; Wiggins, Meg; Allen, Elizabeth; Fletcher, Adam; Oakley, Ann; Bond, Lyndal; Flay, Brian; Patton, George; Rhodes, Tim
Purpose: Evidence from the USA/Australia suggests whole-school interventions designed to increase social inclusion/engagement can reduce substance use. Completeness of implementation varies but contextual determinants have not been fully explored. Informed by previous interventions, the paper aims to examine these topics in an English pilot of the…
Ingoldsby, Erin M
Engaging and retaining families in mental health prevention and intervention programs is critically important to insure maximum public health impact. We evaluated randomized-controlled trials testing methods to improve family engagement and retention in child mental health programs published since 1980 (N = 17). Brief, intensive engagement interventions in which providers explicitly addressed families' practical (e.g. schedules, transportation) and psychological (e.g. family members' resistance, beliefs about the treatment process) barriers as they entered treatment were effective in improving engagement in early sessions. The few interventions found to produce long-term impact on engagement and retention integrated motivational interviewing, family systems, and enhanced family stress and coping support strategies at multiple points throughout treatment. Few interventions have been tested in the context of prevention programs. There are promising approaches to increasing engagement and retention; they should be replicated and used as a foundation for future research in this area. PMID:20823946
Engaging and retaining families in mental health prevention and intervention programs is critically important to insure maximum public health impact. We evaluated randomized-controlled trials testing methods to improve family engagement and retention in child mental health programs published since 1980 (N = 17). Brief, intensive engagement interventions in which providers explicitly addressed families’ practical (e.g. schedules, transportation) and psychological (e.g. family members’ resistance, beliefs about the treatment process) barriers as they entered treatment were effective in improving engagement in early sessions. The few interventions found to produce long-term impact on engagement and retention integrated motivational interviewing, family systems, and enhanced family stress and coping support strategies at multiple points throughout treatment. Few interventions have been tested in the context of prevention programs. There are promising approaches to increasing engagement and retention; they should be replicated and used as a foundation for future research in this area. PMID:20823946
Silva, Kassondra M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J.; Valiente, Carlos; Huerta, Snjezana; Edwards, Alison; Eggum, Natalie D.; Kupfer, Anne S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Landry, Susan H.; Swank, Paul R.; Assel, Michael A.; Taylor, Heather B.
Research Findings The purpose of this study was to examine the relations of children’s effortful control and quality of relationships with teachers to school attitudes longitudinally in an ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged sample. Data were collected as part of a larger intervention project during mid-fall, winter, and late spring (ns = 823, 722, and 758, respectively) for 2 cohorts of 3- to 5-year-olds (collected during 2 different school years). Children’s effortful control was assessed in the fall with parents’ and teachers’ reports and 2 behavioral measures. Teacher–child relationship quality was assessed mid-year with teachers’ reports of closeness and conflict. Attitudes toward school were assessed in late spring using teachers’ and students’ reports of school avoidance and liking. Effortful control, in general, was positively correlated with teacher–child closeness and school liking and negatively correlated with conflict and school avoidance. Using structural equation modeling and controlling for sex and ethnicity, we found that effortful control was positively related to teacher–child relationship quality, which in turn was positively related to school attitudes. Furthermore, the relation of effortful control to school attitudes was mediated by teacher–child relationship quality. Practice or Policy Results provide evidence for the importance of relational processes that take place within the classroom context and have implications for teachers and clinicians working to increase school success in ethnic minority and low-income children. PMID:22573932
Benjamins, Maureen R.; Whitman, Steven
Background: Despite the growing number of school-based interventions designed to reduce childhood obesity or otherwise promote health, no models or materials were found for Jewish schools. The current study describes an effort within a Jewish school system in Chicago to create, implement, and evaluate a school-based intervention tailored to the…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James
Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths’ substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths’ attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths’ attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25247027
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C; Ungaro, Rocío; Schmeidler, James
Truancy continues to be a major problem, affecting most school districts in the U.S. Truancy is related to school dropout, with associated adverse consequences, including unemployment and delinquency. It is important to obtain a more complete picture of truants' educational experience. First, the present study sought to examine the longitudinal growth (increasing/decreasing trend) in truant youths' attitudes toward school and misbehavior in school (disobedience, inappropriate behavior, skipping school). Second, this study focused on examining the impact of a Brief Intervention (BI) targeting the youths' substance use, as well as socio-demographic and background covariates, on their attitudes toward school and school behavior problems over time. A linear growth model was found to fit the attitudes toward school longitudinal data, suggesting the youths' attitudes toward school are related across time. An auto-regressive lag model was estimated for each of the school misbehaviors, indicating that, once initiated, youth continued to engage in them. Several socio-demographic covariates effects were found on the youths' attitudes towards school and school misbehaviors over time. However, no significant, overall BI effects were uncovered. Some statistically significant intervention effects were found at specific follow-up points for some school misbehaviors, but none were significant when applying the Holm procedure taking account of the number of follow-ups. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25247027
TWINE, RHIAN; COLLINSON, MARK A.; POLZER, TARA J.; KAHN, KATHLEEN
Background: In April 1998, the South African government introduced the child-support grant as a poverty-alleviation measure to support the income of poor households and enable them to care for the child. Aims: This research aimed to measure equity of access to applications for the child-support grant in an area characterized by poverty. Three questions were addressed: (i) How does socioeconomic status affect the probability of a household applying for a child-care grant? (ii) What household and caregiver characteristics are associated with child-care-grant application? (iii) What barriers to access are experienced by households that do not apply for the child-care grant? Methods: The study population of 6,725 households with at least one age-eligible child was drawn from the Agincourt field site, a rural sub-district of South Africa. Data used were obtained from health and demographic surveillance, a child-grant questionnaire, and a household-asset survey. Descriptive cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression were used in the analysis. Results: Although these grants are intended as a pro-poor intervention, the poorest households are less likely to apply for grants than those in higher socioeconomic bands. Households in lower socioeconomic bands experienced barriers in accessing grants; these related to lack of official documentation, education level of the caregiver and household head, and distance from government service offices. Conclusions: Enhancing access will require improved provision of birth certificates and identity documents, efficient coordination and service provision from a range of rural government offices, and creative methods of communication. PMID:17676512
Yasui, Miwa; Dishion, Thomas J.
This article links the empirical literature on race and ethnicity in developmental psychopathology with interventions designed to reduce adolescent problem behavior. We present a conceptual framework in which culture is endogenous to the socialization of youth and the development of specific self-regulatory strategies. The importance of cultural…
Lee, Sunghee; Kahn, James V.
This study examined the contributions of six variables (age at start, disability severity, mother's marital status, mother's education level, mother's employment status, and program intensity) to cognitive and motor developmental progress of 75 young children in an early-intervention program. Cognitive development was most affected by age at…
Data from Ecuador's Living Standard and Measurement Surveys were used to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. Of particular interest was the influence of adult wages on child labor. Survey data on children aged 10-17 included sex, age, rural or urban residence, monthly wages, whether or not attending school,…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.
This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…
Primont, Diane F.; Domazlicky, Bruce
The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act requires that schools make ''annual yearly progress'' in raising student achievement, or face possible sanctions. The No Child Left Behind Act places added emphasis on test scores, such as scores from the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP), to evaluate the performance of schools. In this paper, we investigate…
... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Child find for parentally-placed private school children... ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Children with Disabilities Enrolled by Their Parents in Private Schools § 300.131 Child find for parentally-placed...
... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Child find for parentally-placed private school children... ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES State Eligibility Children with Disabilities Enrolled by Their Parents in Private Schools § 300.131 Child find for parentally-placed...
Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Thompson, Ronald W.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Gross, Thomas J.
This study examined how child and parent reports of parenting were related to early adolescent substance use and school suspensions. Data were from two time points 6 months apart on 321 families with an eighth-grade student attending one of five schools in the Pacific Northwest. Child- and parent-report measures of family management practices were…
... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims against schools or child-care institutions. 215.12 Section 215.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.12 Claims against schools or...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. 404.745 Section 404.745 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence for Child's and Parent's Benefits § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for...
Rasberry, Catherine N.; Slade, Sean; Lohrmann, David K.; Valois, Robert F.
Background: The new Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) model, designed to depict links between health and learning, is founded on concepts of coordinated school health (CSH) and a whole child approach to education. Methods: The existing literature, including scientific articles and key publications from national agencies and…
Gibbs, Elizabeth; And Others
In an effort to align high school and community college child development courses, child care education curriculums of Norwalk Community College and Brien McMahon High School in Norwalk, Connecticut were analyzed. Goals, behavioral objectives, learning activities, acquired skills, methods and materials of instruction, and weekly lesson plans were…
... Bureau of Indian Affairs 25 CFR Chapter I Tribal Consultation on No Child Left Behind School Facilities... School Road, NW., Suite 312, Albuquerque, NM 87104; telephone (505) 563-3805; fax (505) 563-3811. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Pursuant to the Congressional mandate set out in the No Child...
Seligson, Michelle; Fink, Dale Borman
This book for persons interested in setting up high quality school-age child care (SACC) programs: (1) provides background information and a rationale; (2) describes a collaborative model of program development; (3) discusses program funding and resources; (4) considers approaches to recognizing high quality school-age child care; and (5) offers…
Buckley, Helen; McGarry, Kathryn
This paper deals with the topic of child protection in Irish primary schools, and reports on a recently completed survey of newly qualified teachers' knowledge of and familiarity with their school's child protection policies and procedures. The study was undertaken by means of a questionnaire survey, and conducted with 103 teachers from different…
Reeder, Deborah L.; Arnold, Sandra H.; Jeffries, Lynn M.; McEwen, Irene R.
The Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act and No Child Left Behind Act broadened the roles of occupational therapists (OTs) and physical therapists (PTs) to include therapist participation in early intervening services including response to intervention (RTI). This case report describes one school district's inclusion of OT and PT in the…
Wright, Robin; Offord, David; John, Lindsay; Duku, Eric; DeWit, David
This article describes the methodology and program effects of the Secondary Schools Demonstration Project (SSDP) conducted in four Ontario schools. The objective of the study was to evaluate the extent to which a universal program model of three interventions--cooperative learning; classroom management; and peer-helping approaches that included…
Bungum, Timothy J.; Clark, Sheila; Aguilar, Brenda
Background: Many children do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. One strategy that may enhance PA is to increase active transport to school (ATS) rates. Purpose: To assess the effects of an ATS intervention. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare ATS and vehicle traffic rates at a school that participated in a statewide…
Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L. Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric…
McAdams, Charles; Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon
This article reports the findings of a national survey of practicing school counselors regarding their knowledge of current research in school violence prevention and intervention. The authors describe four active areas of youth violence research over the past two decades and present findings that suggest that a potentially dangerous gap may exist…
Flinck, Aune; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi; Paavilainen, Eija
Child maltreatment is a global problem and a multidimensional phenomenon occurring in all social classes. This study depicts interprofessional collaboration associated with the detection of and early intervention in child maltreatment taking place in the family. The data were collected in a large Finnish city, Tampere (207 866 citizens). A survey was administered to employees in day care, basic education, social and health services, and police (n = 865). The results indicate that interprofessional collaboration associated with the detection of and intervention in child maltreatment was best accomplished by social service employees and police personnel. Employees in day care, basic education, health services, and police had little knowledge of the methods used in other units. The most support for collaboration was reported by employees in social services and day care. The results provide basic knowledge of interprofessional collaboration associated with child maltreatment between the agencies involved in the study. The research evidence can also be utilized in an international context when developing collaboration between different fields. PMID:23691298
Wareham, Penny; Salmon, Karen
The preschool years are a critical period for all aspects of child development, and any disruption to cognitive or socio-emotional functioning at this stage has potential repercussions for current and future functioning. There is, therefore, a need for clinical interventions that optimize the functioning of children at risk of psychological disorders. In the current paper, we review research showing that the way in which parents discuss everyday experiences with their young children has significant implications for the children's cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. Specifically, mothers who engage their child in a rich elaborative style of talking about past experiences have children who also develop an elaborative style of remembering and reporting personal experiences. Evidence suggests that elaborative reminiscing can benefit children's social and self understanding, the quality of the parent-child relationship, and language and emergent literacy. Moreover, findings show that elements of the elaborative style can be identified and taught to parents. We propose that elaborative parent-child discussion about the past could form the basis of developmentally sensitive intervention during the preschool period. PMID:16815615
Bruneau, Laura; Protivnak, Jake J.
This article provides a comprehensive overview of creative interventions used with adolescents in the secondary school setting. School counselors who incorporate creative interventions along with traditional counseling methods will increase their effectiveness with high school students. Creative interventions that can be delivered through…
Smith, Patricia K.
In Michigan, a school-based bicycle helmet intervention program has been developed to increase the prevalence of helmet use among middle/junior high school students. The intervention involved approximately 3,100 students and their parents. The school-based intervention component of the project is the focus of this report. A two-tier intervention…
School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a...
Walsh, Catherine B.
"School Readiness Indicators: Making Progress for Young Children" was a multi-state initiative that used child well-being indicators to build a change agenda in states and local communities in order to improve school readiness and ensure early school success. The central premise behind this initiative was that top-notch school readiness indicator…
Sikes, April; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; Hays, Danica G.
The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of school counselors during and after making suspected child abuse and neglect reports. A total of 847 school counselors who were members of the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) participated in this study. Results showed that professional school counselors encountered some…
Gwinn, Diane G.
Research on poor school performance--with emphasis on the nonwhite child--is discussed in terms of differences children bring to school, the school process, and consequences of poor school performance. Individual factors related to poor achievement are noted to include membership in a disadvantaged minority group, broken homes and absent fathers,…
Cheung, Peggy PY.; Chow, Bik C.; Parfitt, Gaynor
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a six-week intervention that aimed to promote teachers' physical activity level during working hours. Thirty-eight teachers from three intervention schools (schools randomly assigned as intervention group) received intervention prompts: SMS messages, leaflets and posters…
Dumas, J E; Prinz, R J; Smith, E P; Laughlin, J
Describes the EARLY ALLIANCE interventions, an integrated set of four programs designed to promote competence and reduce risk for early-onset conduct disorder, substance abuse, and school failure. These interventions are evaluated as part of a prevention trial that begins at school entry and targets child functioning and socializing practices across multiple contexts (school, peer group, family) and multiple domains (affective, social, and achievement coping-competence). The paper presents the conceptual foundation of the four interventions, including a synopsis of the risk and protective factors associated with conduct disorder and related outcomes, and of the coping-competence model driving EARLY ALLIANCE. The developmental rationale, intended impact, and procedures are described for each intervention: a universally administered classroom program and indicated, peer, reading-mentoring, and family programs. Interventions are currently being tested in a prevention trial, which is briefly summarized. PMID:11324096
Nolting, H P; Knopf, H
Can physically aggressive behavior among pupils be reduced by some easily applicable interventions? The teaching staffs of four elementary schools were advised (1) to hold regular classroom meetings (on rules of behavior, helping attacked peers etc), (2) to stop acute aggressive behavior and encourage positive behavior, and (3) to change some situational factors (especially during break-time). Preliminary results suggest that a highly committed staff can reduce aggressive behavior by these interventions. Further study is needed, however, as to the contribution of individual measures and the extent and stability of the effects to be obtained. PMID:9190580
Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L
Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila; Stoolmiller, Mike
Background School readiness, conceptualized as three components including emotional self-regulation, social competence, and family/school involvement, as well as absence of conduct problems play a key role in young children’s future interpersonal adjustment and academic success. Unfortunately, exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children will demonstrate increased emotional dysregulation, fewer social skills, less teacher/parent involvement and more conduct problems. Consequently intervention offered to socio-economically disadvantaged populations that includes a social and emotional school curriculum and trains teachers in effective classroom management skills and in promotion of parent—school involvement would seem to be a strategic strategy for improving young children’s school readiness, leading to later academic success and prevention of the development of conduct disorders. Methods This randomized trial evaluated the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management and Child Social and Emotion curriculum (Dinosaur School) as a universal prevention program for children enrolled in Head Start, kindergarten, or first grade classrooms in schools selected because of high rates of poverty. Trained teachers offered the Dinosaur School curriculum to all their students in bi-weekly lessons throughout the year. They sent home weekly dinosaur homewrok to encourage parents’ involvement. Part of the curriculum involved promotion of lesson objectives through the teachers’ continual use of positive classroom management skills focused on building social competence and emotional self-regulation skills as well as decreasing conduct problems. Matched pairs of schools were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Results Results from multi-level models on a total of 153 teachers and 1,768 students are presented. Children and teachers were observed in the classrooms by blinded observers at the begining and the end of the
Background Since sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to the development of overweight in children, effective interventions to reduce their consumption are needed. Here we evaluated the effect of a combined school- and community-based intervention aimed at reducing children’s SSB consumption by promoting the intake of water. Favourable intervention effects on children’s SSB consumption were hypothesized. Methods In 2011-2012, a controlled trial was conducted among four primary schools, comprising 1288 children aged 6-12 years who lived in multi-ethnic, socially deprived neighbourhoods in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Intervention schools adopted the ‘water campaign’, an intervention developed using social marketing. Control schools continued with their regular health promotion programme. Primary outcome was children’s SSB consumption, measured using parent and child questionnaires and through observations at school, both at baseline and after one year of intervention. Results Significant positive intervention effects were found for average SSB consumption (B -0.19 litres, 95% CI -0.28;-0.10; parent report), average SSB servings (B -0.54 servings, 95% CI -0.82;-0.26; parent report) and bringing SSB to school (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.36;0.72; observation report). Conclusions This study supports the effectiveness of the water campaign intervention in reducing children’s SSB consumption. Further studies are needed to replicate our findings. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials: NTR3400 PMID:25060113
Dillman Carpentier, Francesca R; Mauricio, Anne M; Gonzales, Nancy A; Millsap, Roger E; Meza, Connie M; Dumka, Larry E; Germán, Miguelina; Genalo, M Toni
This study describes a culturally sensitive approach to engage Mexican origin families in a school-based, family-focused preventive intervention trial. The approach was evaluated via assessing study enrollment and intervention program participation, as well as examining predictors of engagement at each stage. Incorporating traditional cultural values into all aspects of engagement resulted in participation rates higher than reported rates of minority-focused trials not emphasizing cultural sensitivity. Family preferred language (English or Spanish) or acculturation status predicted engagement at all levels, with less acculturated families participating at higher rates. Spanish-language families with less acculturated adolescents participated at higher rates than Spanish-language families with more acculturated adolescents. Other findings included two-way interactions between family language and the target child's familism values, family single- vs. dual-parent status, and number of hours the primary parent worked in predicting intervention participation. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors present a promising approach-which requires replication-to engaging and retaining Mexican American families in a school-based prevention program. The research also highlights the importance of considering acculturation status when implementing and studying culturally tailored aspects of prevention models. PMID:18004659
Girgis, A; Sanson-Fisher, R W; Tripodi, D A; Golding, T
Childhood and adolescence are critical periods in the etiology of subsequent melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancers. The aims of the study were (a) to develop a valid measure of solar protection in 9 to 11-year-old school students, (b) to evaluate the differential effectiveness of two interventions aimed at changing solar protection in this age group, and (c) to identify the predictors of use of a high level of solar protection. A Solar Protection Behavior Diary was developed and validated during a pilot, after which 11 schools were randomly allocated to one of three groups: intensive intervention (247 students), standard intervention (180 students), or control (185 students), with students in years 5 and 6 participating in the study. Students completed the validated diary (for 5 days) and a knowledge and attitudes questionnaire at pretest and at two posttest periods (4 weeks and 8 months after pretest). Results indicated that students in the intensive intervention group were significantly more likely to have used a high level of protection at both posttest periods compared to the control and standard intervention groups. There was no difference in the protection level of the control and standard intervention groups at either posttest, indicating that this minimal intervention was not effective in changing the solar protection behavior of the students. Students with a high level of solar protection at pretest were also significantly more likely to have a high level of protection at both posttest periods, and those with a greater number of opportunities to protect were less likely to protect at the second posttest. PMID:8491638
Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S
Several decades of research have informed our knowledge of children's reactions to disasters and the factors that influence their reactions. This article describes the system of care for child disaster mental health services using population risk to determine needed services and a stepped care approach built on assessment and monitoring to advance children to appropriate services. To assess the evidence base for disaster interventions, recent reviews of numerous child disaster mental health interventions are summarized. PMID:26719308
Green, Amy E; Trott, Elise; Willging, Cathleen E; Finn, Natalie K; Ehrhart, Mark G; Aarons, Gregory A
Child neglect is the most prevalent form of child maltreatment and represents 79.5% of open child-welfare cases. A recent study found the evidence-based intervention (EBI) SafeCare(®) (SC) to significantly reduce child neglect recidivism rates. To fully capitalize on the effectiveness of such EBIs, service systems must engage in successful implementation and sustainment; however, little is known regarding what factors influence EBI sustainment. Collaborations among stakeholders are suggested as a means for facilitating EBI implementation and sustainment. This study combines descriptive quantitative survey data with qualitative interview and focus group findings to examine the role of collaboration within the context of public-private partnerships in 11 child welfare systems implementing SC. Participants included administrators of government child welfare systems and community-based organizations, as well as supervisors, coaches, and home visitors of the SC program. Sites were classified as fully-, partially-, and non-sustaining based on implementation fidelity. One-way analysis of variance was used to examine differences in stakeholder reported Effective Collaboration scores across fully-sustaining, partially-sustaining, and non-sustaining sites. Qualitative transcripts were analyzed via open and focused coding to identify the commonality, diversity, and complexity of collaborations involved in implementing and sustaining SC. Fully-sustaining sites reported significantly greater levels of effective collaboration than non-sustaining sites. Key themes described by SC stakeholders included shared vision, building on existing relationships, academic support, problem solving and resource sharing, and maintaining collaborations over time. Both quantitative and qualitative results converge in highlighting the importance of effective collaboration in EBI sustainment in child welfare service systems. PMID:26712422