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1

Expectancy Climate and School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questionnaire surveys of 89 Kansas public elementary and secondary schools examined, first, the relationship between school expectancy climate--teachers' expectations that their efforts would lead to positive student results--and school effectiveness, and, second, the change in that relationship through the school year. School effectiveness

Miskel, Cecil; Bloom, Susan

2

Examining School Connectedness as a Mediator of School Climate Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have suggested that good-quality school climates foster a sense of connection to the school and in this way contribute to fewer emotional and behavioral problems. However, few studies have directly assessed the role of school connectedness as a mediator of school climate effects. Using path analysis, this brief report examined whether…

Loukas, Alexandra; Suzuki, Rie; Horton, Karissa D.

2006-01-01

3

Assessing School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compelling empirical research shows that a positive and sustained school climate promotes students' academic achievement and healthy development. Not surprisingly, a positive school climate also promotes teacher retention, which itself enhances student success. Yet the knowledge of the effects of school climate on learning has not been translated…

Cohen, Jonathan; Pickeral, Terry; McCloskey, Molly

2009-01-01

4

The Relationship between Effective Communication of High School Principal and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective communication is one critical characteristics of effective and successful school principal. Research on effective schools and instructional leadership emphasizes the impact of principal leadership on creating safe and secure learning environment and positive nurturing school climate. This paper was designed to study the relationship…

Halawah, Ibtesam

2005-01-01

5

The Critical Role of School Climate in Effective Bullying Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown a negative association between positive school climate and bullying behavior. This article reviews research on school climate and bullying behavior and proposes that an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate (e.g., negative relationship between teachers and students, positive attitudes towards bullying) provides a social…

Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Swearer, Susan M.

2013-01-01

6

The Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support on Middle School Climate and Student Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) on middle school climate and student outcomes. Data consisted of more than 300 teacher responses and 10,000 student responses in two middle schools in the western United States. This study used a quasi-experimental (non-equivalent two-group, pretest-posttest)…

Caldarella, Paul; Shatzer, Ryan H.; Gray, Kristy M.; Young, K. Richard; Young, Ellie L.

2011-01-01

7

The Effects of School Climate Change on Student Success in a Fifth and Sixth Grade School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significance of the study was to examine intentional strategies to improve school climate relative to student school success as measured by academic achievement, attendance, and student behavior. It was important to understand how student school success was affected by factors related to school climate improvement such as leadership and change…

Harris, Kim M.

2011-01-01

8

Climate Change Schools Project...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

McKinzey, Krista

2010-01-01

9

Academic Optimism and Organizational Climate: An Elementary School Effectiveness Test of Two Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of two climate constructs in academic optimism and organizational climate as each relates to school effectiveness. Academic optimism is an academic environment comprised of three dimensions: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust (Hoy, Tarter, & Hoy, 2006). The Organizational Climate Index…

Reeves, Jonathan Bart

2010-01-01

10

School Climate and the Effectiveness of Teacher Appraisal in Hong Kong Self-Managing Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Hong Kong there has been a move toward greater self-management in schools. The government has supported the School Management Initiatives scheme and has stated that the management system calls for teacher appraisal as one of its internal quality assurance mechanisms. This study examined the relationship between dimensions of school climate and…

Mo, Kim Wan

11

Improvement of School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: As a part of its School Improvement Program, James Monroe Junior High School planned to improve its school climate. Since the physical school environment was devoid of landscaping and did not provide places for student socialization, all interested groups (PTSA, student council, students, staff, and…

Sierra Sands Unified School District, Ridgecrest, CA.

12

School Climate, School Improvement and Site-based Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relationship between school organisational climate and the school's preparedness to undertake restructuring\\u000a and improvement. Over the last two decades, much research into school improvement and effectiveness has indicated the importance\\u000a of school climate for a school's efforts to change. For school-level personnel, an understanding of the nature of the prevailing\\u000a climate would seem valuable in determining

Graham B. Dellar

1998-01-01

13

The Effect of a Strike on Organizational Climate and Leadership: A Study of a Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 1976-77 academic year, a study conducted at an Ohio middle school revealed the negative effects a strike had on teacher perceptions of climate and leadership. The original focus of the research study was to evaluate the impact of experimental curriculum, but after the unanticipated strike, it was realized that unbiased, prestrike data would…

Zigarmi, Drea; Sinclair, Ron

14

Educating At-Risk Urban African American Children: The Effects of School Climate on Motivation and Academic Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the processes relating school climate factors to student motivation and academic performance is sparse, especially for urban African American students placed at risk. The present study examines the mediating effects of student intrinsic motivation and teacher ratings of student academic engagement on the relation between school climate perceptions and student academic performance among 282 urban African American middle

L. Mickey Fenzel

15

Public School UniformsEffect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempts to clarify the relationships between public school uniforms and some of their intended results: student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. The instruments used in the study included a questionnaire on gang presence and identity, the National Association of School Principals Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments, and the Harter Self-Perception Profile

Kathleen Kiley Wade; Mary E. Stafford

2003-01-01

16

School Climate and Teacher Beliefs in a School Effectively Serving Poor South Carolina (USA) African-American Students: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the roles of school climate, teacher expectations, and instructional practices in one elementary school in South Carolina (USA) that produced effective achievement outcomes with poor and minority students. Survey data, teacher interviews, and classroom videotaping was used to identify school characteristics and instructional…

Brown, Kimberly E.; Medway, Frederic J.

2007-01-01

17

School Climate and Teacher Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between school climate and teacher commitment. The study focused on elementary schools in Northeast Alabama. Thirty-four elementary schools consisting of 522 teachers took part in the study. The teachers completed two survey instruments: the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment…

Smith, Larry Don

2009-01-01

18

Perceptions of School Climate as a Function of Bullying Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a social-ecological perspective, bullying exists within the larger context of school climate. In this study, 2,240 middle and high school students participated in a districtwide effort to assess the prevalence and effects of bullying and cyberbullying, as well as perceptions of school climate. Students reported positive school climate

Nickerson, Amanda B.; Singleton, Demian; Schnurr, Britton; Collen, Mary Helen

2014-01-01

19

LGB and questioning students in schools: the moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam, J School Health 62(7):352-357, 1992). This study examined how school contextual factors such as homophobic victimization and school climate influence negative outcomes in LGB and questioning middle school students. Participants were 7,376 7th and 8th grade students from a large Midwestern county (50.7% Female, 72.7% White, 7.7% Biracial, 6.9% Black, 5.2% Asian, 3.7% Hispanic, and 2.2% reported "other"). LGB and sexually questioning youth were more likely to report high levels of bullying, homophobic victimization, and various negative outcomes than heterosexual youth. Students who were questioning their sexual orientation reported the most bullying, the most homophobic victimization, the most drug use, the most feelings of depression and suicidality, and more truancy than either heterosexual or LGB students. A positive school climate and a lack of homophobic victimization moderated the differences among sexual orientation status and outcomes. Results indicate that schools have the ability to lessen negative outcomes for LGB and sexually questioning students through creating positive climates and reducing homophobic teasing. PMID:19636741

Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L; Koenig, Brian

2009-08-01

20

Preparing Middle School Teachers to Use Science Models Effectively when Teaching about Weather and Climate Topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the National Science Education Standards (NSES), teachers are encouraged to use science models in the classroom as a way to aid in the understanding of the nature of the scientific process. This is of particular importance to the atmospheric science community because climate and weather models are very important when it comes to understanding current and future behaviors of our atmosphere. Although familiar with weather forecasts on television and the Internet, most people do not understand the process of using computer models to generate weather and climate forecasts. As a result, the public often misunderstands claims scientists make about their daily weather as well as the state of climate change. Therefore, it makes sense that recent research in science education indicates that scientific models and modeling should be a topic covered in K-12 classrooms as part of a comprehensive science curriculum. The purpose of this research study is to describe how three middle school teachers use science models to teach about topics in climate and weather, as well as the challenges they face incorporating models effectively into the classroom. Participants in this study took part in a week long professional development designed to orient them towards appropriate use of science models for a unit on weather, climate, and energy concepts. The course design was based on empirically tested features of effective professional development for science teachers and was aimed at teaching content to the teachers while simultaneously orienting them towards effective use of science models in the classroom in a way that both aids in learning about the content knowledge as well as how models are used in scientific inquiry. Results indicate that teachers perceive models to be physical representations that can be used as evidence to convince students that the teacher's conception of the concept is correct. Additionally, teachers tended to use them as ways to explain an idea to their students; they rarely discussed the idea that models are a representation of reality (as opposed to a replication of reality) and never discussed the predictive power of models and how they are used to further scientific knowledge. The results indicate that these teachers do not have a complete understanding of science models and the role they play in the scientific process. Therefore, the teachers struggled to incorporate modeling into the classroom in a way that aligns with what the NSES suggests. They tended to lean on models as "proof" of a particular concept rather than a representation of a concept. In actuality, scientists do not just use models to explain a concept, they also use them to make projections and as a way to improve our understanding the atmosphere. A possible consequence of teachers using models as "proof" of a concept is that students expect climate and forecast models to be concrete and exact, rather than tentative and representative. Increasing student understanding of climate and weather models is important to meet the needs of future STEM professionals, decision-makers, and the general populace to support rational decision-making about weather and the future of climate by an educated society.

Yarker, M. B.; Stanier, C. O.; Forbes, C.; Park, S.

2012-12-01

21

A Safe School Climate: A Systemic Approach and the School Counselor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The climate of the school is central to the educational mission of a school (Anderson, 1998; Sherman et al., 1997; Jenkins, 1997; Lockwood, 1997). Anderson surveyed recent school safety research and found that altering a school's internal climate can have a significant positive effect on the feeling of safety in the school community. Gottfredson…

Hernandez, Thomas J.; Seem, Susan R.

2004-01-01

22

The Effect of a Zoo-Based Experiential Academic Science Program on High School Students' Math and Science Achievement and Perceptions of School Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 11th-grade and 12th-grade zoo-based academic high school experiential science program compared to a same school-district school-based academic high school experiential science program on students' pretest and posttest science, math, and reading achievement, and student perceptions of program relevance, rigor, and relationships. Science coursework delivery site served as the study's independent variable for the two naturally formed groups representing students (n = 18) who completed a zoo-based experiential academic high school science program and students (n = 18) who completed a school-based experiential academic high school science program. Students in the first group, a zoo-based experiential academic high school science program, completed real world, hands-on projects at the zoo while students in the second group, those students who completed a school-based experiential academic high school science program, completed real world, simulated projects in the classroom. These groups comprised the two research arms of the study. Both groups of students were selected from the same school district. The study's two dependent variables were achievement and school climate. Achievement was analyzed using norm-referenced 11th-grade pretest PLAN and 12th-grade posttest ACT test composite scores. Null hypotheses were rejected in the direction of improved test scores for both science program groups---students who completed the zoo-based experiential academic high school science program (p < .001) and students who completed the school-based experiential academic high school science program (p < .001). The posttest-posttest ACT test composite score comparison was not statistically different ( p = .93) indicating program equipoise for students enrolled in both science programs. No overall weighted grade point average score improvement was observed for students in either science group, however, null hypotheses were rejected in the direction of improved science grade point average scores for 11th-grade (p < .01) and 12th-grade (p = .01) students who completed the zoo-based experiential academic high school science program. Null hypotheses were not rejected for between group posttest science grade point average scores and school district criterion reference math and reading test scores. Finally, students who completed the zoo-based experiential academic high school science program had statistically improved pretest-posttest perceptions of program relationship scores (p < .05) and compared to students who completed the school-based experiential academic high school science program had statistically greater posttest perceptions of program relevance (p < .001), perceptions of program rigor (p < .001), and perceptions of program relationships (p < .001).

Mulkerrin, Elizabeth A.

23

Effects of Single Gender Classrooms and Coeducational Classrooms on Student Achievement and School Climate for Middle School Students in a Public School System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared student achievement and student attitudes for students in single-gender classrooms and students in coeducational classrooms in the seventh grade. The study utilized the TCAP reading and math tests and the Renaissance reading and math formative assessments for the measures on student achievement. The school district's climate

Manning, Nickalous A.

2010-01-01

24

The "Basics" Relative to School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School climate is defined as the norms, beliefs, and attitudes reflected in institutional patterns and practices that enhance or impede student achievement. Research findings support the notion that school learning climate is an important factor in determining academic outcomes. School climate is largely dependent on the leadership of the…

Wallich, Lynn R.

25

Five Climate Control Techniques for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many reasons for air-conditioning schools and among them are--(1) the improvement of learning and teaching efficiency, (2) effective use of the educational plant for a greater part of the year, and (3) more efficient use of space through compact building design. Five climate control techniques are cited as providing optimum…

Wilson, Maurice J.

1963-01-01

26

Teacher Safety and Authoritative School Climate in High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research on school climate focuses on student well-being, with less attention on the safety of school faculty. The current study examined the relationship between an authoritative school climate (characterized by high levels of student support and disciplinary structure) and both teacher reports of victimization and school records of threats…

Gregory, Anne; Cornell, Dewey; Fan, Xitao

2012-01-01

27

School Climate Improvement: Leadership and Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subtitled "Five Case Studies and Three Snapshots," this book illustrates what occurs in measurable terms when participants in the schooling process work cooperatively to improve school climate. In addition, the activities that are described reflect how to achieve the climate objectives of the schooling process--satisfaction and productivity. The…

Howard, Eugene R.

28

Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education is a project to establish a network of practicing high school teachers actively teaching climate change in their courses. The key aim of the project is creation of professional learning communities (PLCs) of teachers who meet mainly through teleconferences or webinar meetings to share best practices, strengthen knowledge, share resources, and promote effective teaching strategies. This is a NASA-funded project that incorporates analysis of NASA Earth observation data by students in classrooms. The project is exploring techniques to achieve the most effective teleconference meetings and workshops. This promotes not only teaching about minimizing environmental impacts of human activity, but minimizes environmental impacts of professional development - practicing what we preach. This poster summarizes project progress to date in this first year of a 3-year grant project. A number of PLCs are established and have ongoing meetings. There are openings for addition PLC Leaders to join and form PLCs in their regions.

Gould, A.

2012-08-01

29

A Large Scale Study of the Assessment of the Social Environment of Middle and Secondary Schools: The Validity and Utility of Teachers' Ratings of School Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and Safety Problems for Understanding School Effects and School Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young…

Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D.; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie

2008-01-01

30

Middle School Organization, Teacher Job Satisfaction, and School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes of middle and junior high school teachers toward their job and school climate are compared in this study. Twenty-nine teachers from a school having a modern middle school orientation (multi-age grouping, exploratory curriculum, and an interdisciplinary team organization) were compared with twenty teachers from a departmentally…

Ashton, Patricia; And Others

31

STEM412: Global Climate Change Education for Middle School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, facilitated course is designed for middle-school educators wishing to teach global climate change using an inquiry/problem-based approach. Teachers access the course by registering with PBS TeacherLine and enrolling in the course. The course supports teaching global climate change using a problem-solving approach and STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) methodology to engage middle-school students and help them understand the causes and effects of climate change and learn about the differences between climate and weather and how actions and nature affect the environment. The course includes pedagogic support for educators who are interested in using Web 2.0 tools when teaching about climate change in the classroom. Enhance content knowledge of climate change and learn how to effectively implement STEM instructional strategies using resources from NASA and WGBHâs Teachersâ Domain.

32

Identification Without Intervention: Transforming the Anti-LGBTQ School Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do students who recognize the negative effects of name-calling and harassment based on sexual orientation explain their lack of intervention? In this paper we document the anti-LGBTQ school climate as reported by gay and straight high school students involved in an intensive diversity awareness program. Then, drawing on qualitative survey data obtained from the same group of students, we

Madelaine Adelman; Kathryn Woods

2006-01-01

33

Schools of the Pacific rainfall climate experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SPaRCE program is a cooperative rainfall climate field project involving high school and college level students and teachers from various Pacific island and atoll nations. The goals of the SPaRCE program are: (1) to foster interest and increase understanding among Pacific-area students and teachers of climate and climate change; (2) to educate the students and teachers as to the importance of rainfall in the Pacific area to climate studies; (3) to provide the students and teachers an opportunity of making a major contribution to the global climate research effort by collecting and analyzing Pacific rainfall data; and (4) to incorporate collected rainfall observations into a comprehensive Pacific daily rainfall data base to be used for climate research purposes. Schools participating in SPaRCE have received standard raingauges with which to measure rainfall at their sites. Students learned to site and use their raingauges by viewing a video produced at the University of Oklahoma. Four more videos will be produced which will include information on Earth's atmosphere, global climate and climate change, regional climate and implications of climate change, and how to analyze and use the rainfall data they are collecting. The videos are accompanied by workbooks which summarize the main points of each video, and contain concrete learning activities to help the student better understand climate and climate change. Following each video, interactive sessions are held with the students using the PEACESAT (Pan-Pacific Education And Communication Experiments by Satellite) satellite radio communication system.

Postawko, S. E.; Morrissey, M. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Mouginis-Mark, P.

1993-01-01

34

Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects  

PubMed Central

Social trust (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1535 adolescents collected over two years, we find that middle and late adolescents had significantly lower levels of trust than early adolescents and that these beliefs became more stable and less related to interpersonal trust between early and late adolescence. Results of multiple group SEMs revealed that, regardless of age, adolescents’ reports that a strong sense of student solidarity characterized their school significantly increased ST at T2, controlling for levels at T1, and opportunities to exchange perspectives with fellow students increased ST at T2 indirectly, through feelings of student solidarity. The study points to the role of schools in nurturing the democratic dispositions of younger generations. PMID:20936077

Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael

2010-01-01

35

School Climate: Research, Policy, Practice, and Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Educators have written about and studied school climate for 100 years. School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School climate is based on patterns of people's experiences of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational…

Cohen, Jonathan; McCabe, Libby; Michelli, Nicholas M.; Pickeral, Terry

2009-01-01

36

Heteronormativity, school climates, and perceived safety for gender nonconforming peers.  

PubMed

Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined student- and school-level effects on students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers. We found that older students, bisexual youth, Latino youth, and youth who experienced school violence perceived their gender nonconforming male peers to be less safe. Similarly, we found that older students and students who experienced school violence and harassment due to gender nonconformity perceived their gender nonconforming female peers to be less safe. At the school-level, we found that when schools included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues in the curriculum and had a Gay-Straight Alliance, students perceived their schools as safer for gender nonconforming male peers. PMID:21481925

Toomey, Russell B; McGuire, Jenifer K; Russell, Stephen T

2012-02-01

37

The Principal's Role in Setting School Climate (for School Improvement).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given that principals play a role in setting school climate, this paper focuses on how this actually happens. First, the paper explores different criteria and variables as possible frameworks for defining the term "climate." This task is complicated by problems in identifying consensus findings due to weak variable definitions and lack of…

Hall, Gene E.

38

Creating a Positive School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, Huntington Beach High School scarcely had a day without a fight, a theft, or vandalism. Disrespect of staff and defiance were rampant with referrals and unserved detentions backlogged. Students felt anonymous, and authority appeared arbitrary. By 1994, the very same high school was a California Distinguished School. The single most…

Shore, Rebecca

39

Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lifelines project aims to establish a network of practicing high school teachers actively using climate change curricula by creating professional learning communities (PLCs) of teachers who, through remote meetings and workshops, maintain ongoing communication and sharing of best practices among colleagues to strengthen knowledge and promote effective teaching strategies. The project explores techniques to achieve the most effective teleconferencing meetings and workshops. This promotes not only teaching about minimizing environmental impacts of human activity, but minimizes environmental impacts of professional development — practicing what we preach. To date, Lifelines PLCs have set up websites and e-mail lists for sharing information. Teleconferences and webinars have been held using services such as Skype, ReadyTalk, and Wiggio. Many of the meetings have been recorded and archived for the benefit of members who could not attend in real-time.

Gould, A. D.

2012-12-01

40

A Mixed methods exploration of principal communication and school climate.  

E-print Network

??Mixed methods triangulation research design was used in order to explore the relationship between principal communication and school climate. The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire for… (more)

Oswalt, Reece

2011-01-01

41

Effects of "Safe School" Programs and Policies on the Social Climate for Sexual-Minority Youth: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are a vulnerable population--a status that can be attributed to a hostile social climate at school. Intervention strategies, such as educational policies, programs, and a supportive environment, improve the social climate for LGBT students in secondary schools and…

Black, Whitney W.; Fedewa, Alicia L.; Gonzalez, Kirsten A.

2012-01-01

42

School Climate and Racial Awareness: An Exploratory Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School climate, or a student's feelings of connection to his or her school community, has been positively associated with student's academic achievement, school success, self-esteem and the educator-student relationship. An important aspect of students' of color perceptions of school climate is the ability to talk with school staff about personal…

Bouknight, Tamisha Marie

2009-01-01

43

School climate and implementation of a preventive intervention.  

PubMed

Although there has been wide dissemination of research-based psychosocial prevention programs, a similarly strong research base to guide program implementation has been lacking. Program implementation has been particularly difficult for schools, due partly to insufficient understanding of how school ecologies interact with these programs. This study examined the effects of multiple dimensions of school climate on level and rate of change in implementation of a violence prevention intervention across three school years. Using multi-level modeling, the study found that teacher-reported support between staff and among teachers and students predicted higher average levels of implementation. Teacher-reported administrative leadership predicted greater growth in implementation across 3 years. Findings offer implications for an ecological model of program implementation that considers school-level contextual effects on adoption and sustainability of new programs in schools. PMID:17917806

Gregory, Anne; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael E

2007-12-01

44

Community Culture and School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By creating and fostering a community climate, everyone becomes invested in education. Culture is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that creates the social skills and behaviors of people within the organization and conveys a unique organizational identity. Community support enhances motivation, desire to learn, and willingness to succeed. (MLH)

Villani, Christine J.

1999-01-01

45

The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems during the Middle School Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…

Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

46

Assessing Climate Misconceptions of Middle School Learners and Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1) environmental literacy and inquiry and (2) foster the development of geospatial thinking and reasoning using geospatial technologies as an essential component of the middle school science curriculum. The curriculum is designed to align instructional materials and assessments with learning goals. The following frameworks were used to provide guidelines for the climate change science content in addition to the science inquiry upon which schools must focus: Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences (U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009) and the AAAS Project 2061 Communicating and Learning About Global Climate Change (AAAS, 2007). The curriculum is a coherent sequence of learning activities that include climate change investigations with Google Earth, Web-based interactivities that include an online carbon emissions calculator and a Web-based geologic time-line, and inquiry-based ("hands-on") laboratories. The climate change science topics include the atmosphere, Earth system energy balance, weather, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and "humans and climate". It is hoped that with a solid foundation of climate science in the classroom, middle school learners will be in a position to evaluate new scientific discoveries, emerging data sets, and reasonably assess information and misinformation by which they are surrounded on a daily basis.

Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.

2012-12-01

47

School Climate and Restructuring for Low-Achieving Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although analogous and vague definitions of school climate may help in determining whether low-achieving students are experiencing a more positive or negative school climate, more clarity is needed to render the climate construct more observable, measurable, and malleable. Tagiuri conceptualizes climate as the total environmental quality within an…

Smey-Richman, Barbara

48

What Greek Secondary School Students Believe about Climate Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate what Greek secondary school students (grades 8 and 11) believe about the greenhouse effect and climate change. A total of 626 students completed a closed-form questionnaire consisting of statements regarding the causes, impacts and solutions for this global environmental issue. The possible influence of…

Liarakou, Georgia; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Gavrilakis, Costas

2011-01-01

49

School Climate and Teachers' Perceptions on Climate Factors: Research into Nine Urban High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the difference in the levels of the variables related to the school climate factors among the teachers teaching social science courses, the teachers teaching natural science courses, and the teachers teaching art, music and physical education. As a result of the analyzes, all the teachers reported open climate in relation to…

Gunbayi, Ilhan

2007-01-01

50

Volcanic effects on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

Robock, Alan

1991-01-01

51

Creating Positive School Climates. This We Believe and Now We Must Act.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the creation of positive school climates in middle schools. Considers effects that signal a positive school environment, ways to maintain this environment, and pitfalls to avoid. Lists keys to maintaining and promoting high staff morale and new themes for middle school progress. (JPB)

Payne, Marion Johnson; Conroy, Scott; Racine, Lisa

1998-01-01

52

Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance\\u000a use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This\\u000a study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools with different climates.\\u000a The analysis was based on

Sharon R. SznitmanSally; Sally M. Dunlop; Priya Nalkur; Atika Khurana; Daniel Romer

53

Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

Cook, J.

2011-12-01

54

The Impact of School Climate: Variation by Ethnicity and Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a district-wide survey of 7th grade students in a semi-rural school district where 23% of the students are Latino. Participating students completed the California School Climate and Safety Survey which assesses student perceptions regarding general school climate and personal safety-related experiences.…

Buckley, Maureen A.; Storino, Meri; Sebastiani, Ann Marie

55

The Relationships Among School Types, Teacher Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Climate: Perspective from Asian Middle Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explored how prior student achievement, through school types, predicted teacher self- and collective efficacy and perceived academic climate of 222 middle school teachers in Singapore. Teachers assigned to high-track and regular middle schools differed in their perception of self- and collective efficacy to promote organizational changes and student achievement, and of the academic climate of the school. Prior

Wan Har Chong; Robert M. Klassen; Vivien S. Huan; Isabella Wong; Allison Diane Kates

2010-01-01

56

The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems During the Middle School Years  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents’ perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents’ perceptions of school climate. PMID:22822296

Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

57

The Talent Development Middle School. Creating a Motivational Climate Conducive to Talent Development in Middle Schools: Implementation and Effects of Student Team Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central East Middle School in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), an urban school with about 45% Hispanic enrollment, and the Center for Research on the Education of Children Placed at Risk are working together to implement a Talent Development Middle School model of schooling. Part of this effort includes use of the Student Team Reading (STR) Program,…

Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Plank, Stephen B.

58

A study of parental involvement and school climate: Perspective from the middle school  

E-print Network

teachers from existing data and 178 teachers at the middle school level provided information on their perceptions of parent involvement and school climate. Elementary school teachers were recruited from districts located in Texas and California. Middle...

Dixon, Shantina Rayford

2009-05-15

59

School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2010-11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2010-2011, the survey was distributed to approximately 92,000 parents, 48,000 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…

Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2011

2011-01-01

60

School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2009-10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2009-2010, the survey was distributed to approximately 85,000 parents, 45,000 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…

Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2010

2010-01-01

61

School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2008-09  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2008-2009, the survey was distributed to approximately 90,200 parents, 54,200 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…

Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2009

2009-01-01

62

School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2011-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools. In 2011-2012, the survey was distributed to approximately 93,000 parents, 52,000 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 24,000 staff. This report summarizes…

Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2012

2012-01-01

63

Measuring School Climate: An Overview of Measurement Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School climate is a heterogeneous concept with a multitude of standardised and validated instruments available to measure it. Purpose: This overview of measurement scales aims to provide researchers with short summaries of some of the self-report instruments in existence, especially in relation to the link between school climate and…

Kohl, Diane; Recchia, Sophie; Steffgen, Georges

2013-01-01

64

The relationship between perceived school climate and motivating factors of approach and avoidance among middle school principals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational leadership in today's middle schools encompasses a myriad of expectations from many perspectives. Parents, community members, students, staff, central office personnel, professional organizations, researchers, state departments of education, and federal mandates serve as taskmasters and evaluators of a principal's effectiveness in student achievement as measured by standards-based assessment. This research examines the relationship between perceived school climate and motivating

Adella Baseemah Alim

2008-01-01

65

Developing a Regionally-Based "Next Generation" High School Climate Science Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorado Plateau Carbon Connections is a regionally relevant, culturally responsive, technology-rich high school climate science curriculum for the Colorado Plateau/Four Corners region. Funded by an NSF Climate Change Education Partnership grant, the 10-lesson curriculum supplement is the result of collaboration between Northern Arizona University climate scientists, social scientists and educators and the NASA-funded Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Carbon Connections project. The curriculum includes disciplinary core ideas in Earth Science from A Framework for K-12 Science Education. It integrates cross-cutting relationships and science and engineering practices. Students are introduced to regional and global effects of climate change, and build their understanding of climate science using simulations and climate models. The models are based on authentic data and allow students to explore the roles of carbon dioxide, volcanic forcing, El Niño effects, solar variability, and anthropogenic inputs to the climate system. Students also negate climate misconceptions using climate science, and analyze personal connections to the climate system. They examine their own carbon footprints and propose regionally based solutions for mitigating the effects of climate change. The curriculum was field tested in Spring 2012 with 384 students and ten teachers in seven schools. The evaluation shows strong student engagement and increased knowledge of climate science and solutions. This curriculum also serves as a model for integrating regional issues into climate science education.

Bell, M.; Clark, J.; Getty, S. R.; Marks, J.; Hungate, B. A.; Kaufman, D. S.; Coles, R.; Haden, C.; Cooley, N.

2012-12-01

66

Critical Climate: Relations among Sexual Harassment, Climate, and Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n = 310) and boys (n = 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer…

Ormerod, Alayne J.; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Perry, Leigh Ann

2008-01-01

67

Climatic Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown quantitatively how radiative climatic forcing by aerosols depends on the physical properties of the aerosols. The special case of atmospheric aerosols produced by volcanic explosions is considered, and evidence is presented which indicates that even the simple climate models available today may be able to capture some of the basic effects of aerosols on global climate. Possible

James E. Hansen; Andrew A. Lacis; Pauthon Lee; Wei-Chyung Wang

1980-01-01

68

Students' perceptions of school climate during the middle school years: associations with trajectories of psychological and behavioral adjustment.  

PubMed

A cross-domain latent growth curve model was used to examine the trajectories of change in student perceptions of four critical dimensions of school climate (i.e., teacher support, peer support, student autonomy in the classroom, and clarity and consistency in school rules and regulations) among 1,451 early adolescents from the beginning of sixth through the end of eighth grade; and the effects of such trajectories on the rate of change in psychological and behavioral adjustment. Findings indicated that all of the dimensions of perceived school climate declined over the 3 years of middle school. Furthermore, declines in each of the dimensions of perceived school climate were associated with declines over time in psychological and behavioral adjustment. Moreover, the direction of effects between each dimension of perceived school climate and psychological or behavioral adjustment were often unidirectional rather than bi-directional, underscoring the role of perceived school climate in the psychological and behavioral health of early adolescents. Gender and socioeconomic class differences in these patterns are noted. PMID:17968655

Way, Niobe; Reddy, Ranjini; Rhodes, Jean

2007-12-01

69

Trace gas effects on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two primary objectives are to describe the new scientific challenges posed by the trace gas-climate problem and to summarize current strategies, and to make an assessment of the trace gas effects on troposphere-stratosphere temperature trends. Numerous reports on CO2-climate problems are examined with respect to climate modeling issues. The role of the oceans in governing the transient climate response to time varying CO2 concentrations is discussed.

Ramanathan, V.; Callis, L. B., Jr.; Cess, R. D.; Hansen, J. E.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Kuhn, W. R.; Lacis, A.; Luther, F. M.; Mahlman, J. D.; Reck, R. A.

1985-01-01

70

Taking a Strengths-Based Focus Improves School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to learn whether focusing on strengths through appreciative inquiry would be related to measurable changes in school climate and trust within a small urban school district. The district studied was a beleaguered, underperforming school district in the Midwest Rust Belt. Through an appreciative inquiry initiative, the…

Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Tschannen-Moran, Bob

2011-01-01

71

Local Communities and Schools Tackling Sustainability and Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local communities and their schools remain key sites for actions tackling issues of sustainability and climate change. A government-funded environmental education initiative, the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI), working together with state based Sustainable Schools Programs (SSP), has the ability to support the development of…

Flowers, Rick; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

2009-01-01

72

Opinions and knowledge about climate change science in high school students.  

PubMed

This study investigates the influence of knowledge on opinions about climate change in the emerging adults' age group (16-17 years). Furthermore, the effects of a lecture in climate change science on knowledge and opinions were assessed. A survey was conducted in Austria and Denmark on 188 students in national and international schools before and after a lecture in climate change science. The results show that knowledge about climate change science significantly affects opinions about climate change. Students with a higher number of correct answers are more likely to have the opinion that humans are causing climate change and that both individuals and governments are responsible for addressing climate change. The lecture in climate change science significantly improved knowledge development but did not affect opinions. Knowledge was improved by 11 % after the lecture. However, the percentage of correct answers was still below 60 % indicating an urgent need for improving climate change science education. PMID:23471678

Harker-Schuch, Inez; Bugge-Henriksen, Christian

2013-10-01

73

Elementary School Self-Improvement through Social Climate Enhancement. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on process measures to identify the major components of elementary school climate and to test the effectiveness of an intervention emphasizing the work of the principal. Nine schools of diverse size and in several locations in British Columbia formed the sample. Data included surveys of parents and teachers, interviews of…

Coleman, Peter

74

The Relationship Between Elementary School Climate and Teachers' Attitudes Toward Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between teachers' attitudes toward evaluation and elementary school climate. The instrument used in the study was the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ) which described eight dimensions of school climate. (Author/DWH)

Johnston, Gladys S.; And Others

1985-01-01

75

MOTIVATIONAL CLIMATE ENHANCING SELF DETERMINATION IN SCHOOL PE  

Microsoft Academic Search

School PE plays an important role in the socialization pro- cess into a physically active lifestyle. Positive emotional experiences are an important antecedent of physical activ- ity. The PE teacher plays an important role in the creation of the social-emotional climate during PE lessons. There is insufficient knowledge about the components of psycho- logical climate affecting pupils' enjoyment and effort

Liukkonen Jarmo

76

Explaining Charter School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses entrance lotteries to explore heterogeneity in the achievement effects of charter schools across demographic groups and between urban and non-urban areas in Massachusetts. The authors develop a framework for interpreting this heterogeneity using both student- and school-level explanatory variables. (Contains 4 tables.)

Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.; Walters, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

77

Effects of Manipulating the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of manipulating the motivational climate in athletics lessons to be mastery oriented on pupils’ perceptions of the motivational climate, achievement goal orientations and cognitive and affective responses. A total of 153 male and female secondary school pupils were involved in the study over a period of seven weeks. Eighty pupils participated in the mastery intervention

Kevin Morgan; Paul Carpenter

2002-01-01

78

The Ethical Climate of Public Schooling under New Public Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's competitive climate is pressuring public school educators to improve schools in an environment dominated by parent and consumer choice. This article draws on two studies involving Australian principals that illustrate difficult ethical situations. Most participants found the values of marketing and economic rationalism to be inconsistent…

Dempster, Neil; Freakley, Mark; Parry, Lindsay

2001-01-01

79

School Climate and Psychosomatic Health: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the importance of aspects of the school climate for adolescents' psychosomatic health using multilevel modelling. Analyses were based on 18,571 ninth-grade students distributed over 1,026 classes and 284 schools in the greater Stockholm area in 2004 and 2006. Both individual- and contextual-level associations between aspects of…

Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca

2009-01-01

80

Climate Change: What You Can Do At School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students, educators and school administrators can all play a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This website provides a directory of some education and action planning resources, including tips for recycling and ideas for determining a school's impact on global climate change.

2007-01-01

81

Adolescent Perception of Family Climate and Adaptation to Residential Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in adolescents' perceptions of the family as they adapt to residential schooling were studied for 51 residential and 57 nonresidential tenth graders in a school in Israel. No differences in the perception of family climate were found between the groups, suggesting no change with the individual's act of leaving. (SLD)

Shulman, Shmuel; Prechter, Eti

1989-01-01

82

Safe Schools and Sexual Harassment: the Relationship between School Climate and Coping with Unwanted Sexual Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the impact of the school climate on adolescents' reporting of sexual harassment.Design A quantitative survey among students in their 4th year of secondary education.Setting Questionnaires were completed in a class setting.Method An a-select sampling strategy was used to select 2808 students in 22 schools.Results Findings indicate that a safe school climate is not enough for students to

M. C. Timmerman

2004-01-01

83

The Relationships among School Types, Teacher Efficacy Beliefs, and Academic Climate: Perspective from Asian Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored how prior student achievement, through school types, predicted teacher self- and collective efficacy and perceived academic climate of 222 middle school teachers in Singapore. Teachers assigned to high-track and regular middle schools differed in their perception of self- and collective efficacy to promote organizational…

Chong, Wan Har; Klassen, Robert M.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella; Kates, Allison Diane

2010-01-01

84

Middle School Students' Understandings About Anthropogenic Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009; Golden & Francis, 2013), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdotes to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. Additionally, we found that students' understandings of climate change were tied to their ontological constructions of the subject matter, i.e., many perceived climate change as just another environmentally sensitive issue such as littering and pollution, and were therefore limited in their ability to understand anthropogenic climate change in the vast and robust sense meant by current scientific consensus. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.

2013-12-01

85

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER SYSTEM Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012020 Prepared for: California consideration of climate change effects on highelevation hydropower supply and demand in California. Artificial

86

Peace Education: Cooling the Climate of Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses peace education curriculum in the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public School district. The peace education promotion has been in existence for 10 years and was created in response to rising levels of violence. Specifically examined are the uses of peace education at Fritsche Middle School, a school that has proven the positive…

Jeffries, Rhonda B.; Harris, Ian M.

87

Evaluation of the Alliance for Climate Education's national high school edutainment program (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alliance for Climate Education educates high school students on the science of climate change and inspires them to create effective solutions. Since 2009, ACE has reached over 1.6 million students nationwide with its multi media assembly presentation. In this paper, we evaluate the climate science knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, behavior and communication impact of the ACE Assembly program in a random sample of 49 schools (from population of 779) and a panel of 1,241 high school students. Pre and post assembly surveys composed of questions from the Global Warming Six Americas segmentation and intervention specific questions were administered in classrooms. We demonstrate that exposure to climate science in an engaging edutainment format changes youths' beliefs, involvement, and behavior positively and moves them to more climate science literate audience segments. The net impact of scaled and engaging programs for youth could be a population shift in climate science literacy and positive engagement in the issue of climate change. In addition, such programs can empower youth for deeper engagement in school programs, personal action, political and consumer advocacy.

Lappe, M.; Flora, J.; Saphir, M.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.

2013-12-01

88

Student Background, School Climate, School Disorder, and Student Achievement: An Empirical Study of New York City's Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study develops and tests a school disorder and student achievement model based upon the school climate framework. The model was fitted to 212 New York City middle schools using the Structural Equations Modeling Analysis method. The analysis shows that the model fits the data well based upon test statistics and goodness of fit indices. The…

Chen, Greg; Weikart, Lynne A.

2008-01-01

89

Student Background, School Climate, School Disorder, and Student Achievement: An Empirical Study of New York City's Middle Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops and tests a school disorder and student achievement model based upon the school climate framework. The model was fitted to 212 New York City middle schools using the Structural Equations Modeling Analysis method. The analysis shows that the model fits the data well based upon test statistics and goodness of fit indices. The model accounts for 82%

Greg Chen; Lynne A. Weikart

2008-01-01

90

Effective Strategies for School Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook offers administrators specific advice on developing the skills, knowledge, and techniques needed for coping with problems of school crime and violence. The guide begins by advising administrators that having security information available at all times helps determine the climate of the school. Instructions are given for preparing…

Blauvelt, Peter D.

91

Relationships between Supervisory Behaviors and School Climate as Perceived by Secondary School Teachers in the State of Kuwait  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of secondary school teachers of their principals' supervisory behaviors and of their schools' climate. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between supervisory behaviors and school climate in Kuwaiti secondary schools. Data was collected using two surveys. Bulach, Boothe, and…

Alhajeri, Salem

2011-01-01

92

Climate Control. Secondary School Course Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course guide is oriented toward developing skills in air conditioning and refrigeration installation and service. Although primarily designed as a 2-year program for high school students at the junior and senior levels, it is equally acceptable for the post high school student as an occupational training program, or as a refresher course for…

DuPlantis, Ernest P.

93

School Effectiveness and the Disadvantaged Schools Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) has been an important and integral part of education for many Australian students for over a decade. After reviewing eight school effectiveness variables, this paper argues that adding a new emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills will enhance the DSP program. Includes 3 tables and 20 references.…

Walker, Allan; Murphy, Joseph

1986-01-01

94

Five Steps to a Better School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Iroquois Middle School (Michigan) has a five-fold and ongoing positive reinforcement program of birthday cards, student of the month, personalized report cards, positive notes and phone calls, and student awards. (MLF)

Cook, Ronald E.

1983-01-01

95

What Effective Schools Do  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has been showing that the most important development in K-12 education over the past decade has been the emergence of a growing number of urban schools that have been convincingly shown to have dramatic positive effects on the achievement of disadvantaged students. Those with the strongest evidence of success are oversubscribed charter…

West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Finn, Amy S.; Kraft, Matthew A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

2014-01-01

96

Best Practices: Creating an LGBT-Inclusive School Climate. A Teaching Tolerance Guide for School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are places of learning and also miniature societies. The climate of a school has a direct impact on both how well students learn and how well they interact with their peers. Teachers and administrators work hard to make their classrooms welcoming places where each student feels included. But despite these efforts, students who are--or who…

Southern Poverty Law Center (NJ1), 2013

2013-01-01

97

Measurement of Perceived School Climate for Active Travel in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To describe the development of an original scale that measures perceived school climate for active travel in fourth- and fifth-grade girls and boys. Methods: The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to provide evidence of factorial validity, factorial invariance, and construct validity. Results: The CFA supported…

Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Ward, Dianne S.

2007-01-01

98

School Climate Factors Relating to Teacher Burnout: A Mediator Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated components of school climate (i.e. parent/community relations, administration, student behavioral values) and assessed their influence on the core burnout dimensions of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and feelings of low Personal Accomplishment. The study weighed the relative contributions of demographic…

Grayson, Jessica L.; Alvarez, Heather K.

2008-01-01

99

Climate change diffusion: While the world tips, business schools lag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of business schools on business practitioners is considerable. An important proportion of corporate leaders hold a degree in business administration or an MBA, if not both. In the context of climate change, this influence matters: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a selection of global 500 companies approximate that of the USA and the EU15 combined. Not only do

Genevieve Patenaude

2011-01-01

100

Substance Use, Safety and School Climate in Idaho, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details the results of the 1998 Idaho Substance Use and School Climate Survey, conducted by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory for the Idaho Department of Education. Sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students were asked about the use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs, as well as about their perceptions of the…

Coe, Michael T.

101

Transforming School Climate and Learning: Beyond Bullying and Compliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators agree that children learn better in an honoring and respectful culture. They also know that top-down imposed change rarely sticks. In "Transforming School Climate and Learning", Bill Preble and Rick Gordon show how to accomplish lasting results by engaging both teachers and students in the five-step SafeMeasures[TM] process, a…

Preble, Bill; Gordon, Rick

2011-01-01

102

Middle School Improvement and Reform: Development and Validation of a School-Level Assessment of Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and School Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the structure of perceived school climate and the relationship of climate dimensions to adaptation of students who attend middle-grade-level schools. The climate scales exhibited a stable dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability. Ratings of multiple climate dimensions were associated…

Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert; Shim, Minsuk; Seitsinger, Anne; Dumas, Thaddeus

2003-01-01

103

Parent, Student, and Teacher Perceptions of School Climate at Suburban High  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School climate has a major impact on the school setting. In order to manage climate, it is essential to assess and understand the perceptions of teachers, students, and parents. This study identified the differences between teachers, students, and parents relative to their perceptions concerning school climate at Suburban High. The instrument…

Steiner, Cory J.

2009-01-01

104

High school identity climate and student identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated whether schools characterized by high school students as being rich in identity promoting features contribute to student identity development. A theoretical model posited that student perceptions of teachers as caring role models and their school as cultivating the whole student will foster student exploration and confidence about future identity development. Hypothesized mediators of these effects were student

Yisrael Rich; Elli P. Schachter

105

Seeking the Sense of Community: A Comparison of Two Elementary Schools' Ethical Climates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School climate is created through the combined culture of the adults and students within a school--both the culture they share as an organization and the diverse cultures they bring from home. This study compared the school climate of two elementary schools, one urban and one suburban, by measuring 179 fourth and fifth grade students' and 65…

Keiser, Kay A.; Schulte, Laura E.

2009-01-01

106

Delaware School Climate Survey--Student: Its Factor Structure, Concurrent Validity, and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (DSCS-S) was developed to provide schools with a brief and psychometrically sound student survey for assessing school climate, particularly the dimensions of social support and structure. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 11,780 students in 85 schools, showed that a bifactor model…

Bear, George G.; Gaskins, Clare; Blank, Jessica; Chen, Fang Fang

2011-01-01

107

Identifying Effective School Principals  

E-print Network

focus on three dimensions: student performance, teacher retention, and financial management. Data is derived from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to develop a total of seven specific indicators to measure success in these three areas for Texas... tests and school accountability ratings. TEA data is used from 1996-2005 to develop indicators for these two measures. Since our goal was to capture the improvements in student performance attributable to principal effectiveness, we used a value...

Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber

2007-01-01

108

POTENTIAL CLIMATE EFFECT ON JAPANESE RICE PRODUCTIVITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation to climate change has become an important policy question in recent years. Agriculture is an economic activity that is most sensitive to climate change. We evaluate the dynamic effects of productivity change and individual efforts to adapt to climate change. Adaptation actions in agriculture are evaluated to determine how the climate affects production efficiency. In this paper, we use

KENTA TANAKA; SHUNSUKE MANAGI; KATSUNOBU KONDO; KIYOTAKA MASUDA; YASUTAKA YAMAMOTO

2011-01-01

109

Potential climate effects on Japanese rice productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation to climate change has become an important policy question in recent years. Agriculture is the economic activity most sensitive to climate change. We evaluate the dynamic effects of productivity change and individual efforts to adapt to climate change. Adaptation actions in agriculture are evaluated to determine how the climate affects production efficiency. In this paper, we use the bi-directional

Kenta Tanaka; Shunsuke Managi; Katsunobu Kondo; Kiyotaka Masuda; Yasutaka Yamamoto

2012-01-01

110

Organizational Climate of Elementary Schools and Reading Achievement of Sixth Grade Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes that there is a strong positive relationship between an elementary school's organizational climate (whether the school is "open" or "closed") and student reading performance, with achievement being greater in the more open schools. (FL)

Mikkelsen, Vincent P.; Joyner, Wilton

1982-01-01

111

A Perspective on Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This address provides a historical perspective on the concept of school effectivenss and argues for an enlightened synthesis of normative and empirical values. The first part, "Early Images of Effective Schooling," reviews the evolution of discourse on school effectiveness since the turn of the century. Although the early discussions were…

Shulman, Lee S.

112

A cluster randomised controlled trial of the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module in Australian secondary schools: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The use of ecstasy is a public health problem and is associated with a range of social costs and harms. In recent years, there has been growing concern about the availability and misuse of new and emerging drugs designed to mimic the effects of illicit drugs, including ecstasy. This, coupled with the fact that the age of use and the risk factors for using ecstasy and emerging drugs are similar, provides a compelling argument to implement prevention for these substances simultaneously. The proposed study will evaluate whether a universal Internet-based prevention program, known as the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module, can address and prevent the use of ecstasy and emerging drugs among adolescents. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted among Year 10 students (aged 15–16 years) from 12 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. Schools will be randomly assigned to either the Climate Schools intervention group or the control group. All students will complete a self-report questionnaire at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-, 12- and 24-months post-baseline. The primary outcome measures will include ecstasy and emerging drug-related knowledge, intentions to use these substances in the future, and the patterns of use of ecstasy and emerging drugs. A range of secondary outcomes will also be assessed, including beliefs and attitudes about ecstasy and emerging drugs, peer pressure resistance, other substance use and mental health outcomes. Discussion To our knowledge, this will be the first evaluation of an Internet-based program designed to specifically target ecstasy and NED use among adolescents. If deemed effective, the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module will provide schools with an interactive and novel prevention program for ecstasy and emerging drugs that can be readily implemented by teachers. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12613000708752. PMID:24330505

2013-01-01

113

How School can Teach Civic Engagement Besides Civic Education: The Role of Democratic School Climate.  

PubMed

Civic engagement, defined as involvement in community life, is influenced by reciprocal relationships between individuals and contexts and is a key factor that contributes to positive youth development. The present study evaluates a theoretical model linking perceived democratic school climate with adolescent civic engagement (operationalized as civic responsibility and intentions for future participation), taking into account the mediating role of civic discussions and perceived fairness at school. Participants were 403 adolescents (47.9 % male) ranging in age from 11 to 15 years old (mean age = 13.6). Path analysis results partially validated the proposed theoretical model. Higher levels of democratic school climate were associated with higher levels of adolescent civic responsibility; the association was fully mediated by civic discussions and perceived fairness at school. Adolescents' civic responsibility, then, was positively associated with a stronger intention to participate in the civic domain in the future. PMID:25172202

Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Sharkey, Jill; Mayworm, Ashley; Scacchi, Luca; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

2014-12-01

114

School and Teacher Effectiveness. Discussion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four papers presented at the National Council on Measurement in Education meeting are critiqued. G. R. Mandeville and H. Heidari (1988), in a study of unusually effective schools, asked if correlations among cohorts of schools differ depending on the method of analysis used. It is suggested that it would be better to ask whether schools identified…

Coffman, William E.

115

New Directions for School Effectiveness Research: Towards School Effectiveness Without Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

School effectiveness research has made a number of valuable contributions to educational research over the past three decades. However, its validity is threatened by a number of evolutions that question the continuing centrality of its basic research object, the public school. Moves towards more flexible school organization such as networks of schools, a broader role for schools reconceptualized as community

Daniel Muijs

2006-01-01

116

Middle School Student Perceptions of School Climate: Examining Protective Functions on Subsequent Adjustment Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the roles of student perceptions of four aspects of school climate (friction, cohesion, competition among students, and satisfaction with classes) as moderators of the relations between effortful control and subsequent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Participants were 488 10-to-14-year old students involved in…

Loukas, Alexandra; Murphy, Jonna L.

2007-01-01

117

Students' Perceptions of School Climate in the U.S. and China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States.…

Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G.; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C.; Huang, Xishan

2013-01-01

118

Classroom Climate and Students' Goal Structures in High-School Biology Classrooms in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined classroom climate and student goal structures in high-school biology classrooms in Kenya. Participants included 891 students and their teachers in Grades 10 and 11 from two same-sex boarding schools--one for boys and the other for girls. School differences were found on all classroom climate aspects except teacher support and…

Mucherah, Winnie

2008-01-01

119

The Relationship between the Organization Climate of Elementary Schools and Reading Achievement of Third Grade Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in three city school districts in eastern North Carolina to examine the relationship between the organizational climate of elementary schools and the reading achievement of third grade students. The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire was given to the staff of ten elementary schools to determine whether the…

Mikkelsen, Vincent P.; Joyner, Wilton

120

An Examination of Bullying in Georgia Schools: Demographic and School Climate Factors Associated with Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Situations  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. Methods: We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Results: Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. Conclusion: These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates. PMID:23930145

Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H.; Strasser, Sheryl M.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Meyers, Joel

2013-01-01

121

Explaining Charter School Effectiveness  

E-print Network

Estimates using admissions lotteries suggest that urban charter schools boost student achievement, while charter schools in other settings do not. Using the largest available sample of lotteried applicants to charter ...

Angrist, Joshua

2012-04-12

122

SEMINAR: CRAWFORD SCHOOL AND THE CENTRE FOR CLIMATE ECONOMICS & POLICY (CCEP) Monday 25 October  

E-print Network

the economics of climate change and energy policy, and quantitative economic modeling. wwwSEMINAR: CRAWFORD SCHOOL AND THE CENTRE FOR CLIMATE ECONOMICS & POLICY (CCEP) Monday 25 October 12 on Climate Change (IPCC) and was a member of the delegation of the European Commission at the climate

Botea, Adi

123

Individual and Contextual Effects of School Adjustment on Adolescent Alcohol Use  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the effect of a student’s own school adjustment as well as the contextual level of school adjustment (the normative level of school adjustment among students in a school) on student's self-reported use of alcohol. Using a dataset of 43,465 male and female 8th grade students from 349 schools across the contiguous United States who participated in a national study of substance use in rural communities between 1996 and 2000, multilevel latent covariate models were utilized to disentangle the individual-level and contextual effects of three school adjustment variables (i.e., school bonding, behavior at school, and friend’s school bonding) on alcohol use. All three school adjustment factors were significant predictors of alcohol use both within and between schools. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a strong contextual effect; students who attended schools where the overall level of school adjustment was higher reported lower levels of alcohol use even after taking their own school adjustment into account. The results demonstrate the importance of both a student’s own level of school adjustment and the normative level of school adjustment among students in the school on an adolescent’s use of alcohol. Differences in school adjustment across schools were quite strongly related to an adolescent's own alcohol use, indicating that school adjustment is an important aspect of school climate. Initiatives aimed at improving school climate may have beneficial effects on students’ alcohol use. PMID:19242802

Stanley, Linda R.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Harkabus, Lindsey C.; Chapin, Laurie A.

2010-01-01

124

Taking Action on Climate Change--Inside and Outside Our Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Without experience, students struggle to understand climate change. Uses the school environment as a starting point to explain the causes of climate change and involves students in activities concerning indoor and outdoor environments. (YDS)

Philippe, Denise; Kool, Richard

2000-01-01

125

Biological Effects of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How important is climate change--something that has occurred throughout Earth's history? Can ecosystems tolerate the magnitude and rate of future change? How will other conservation threats interact with climate change? How likely are widespread extinction

Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee Jr., Richard E.

2008-10-01

126

Health Effects of Climate Change  

MedlinePLUS

... over generations. TODAY It is now established that climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. These ... are becoming alert to the dynamic relationship between climate change and human health. Some of these impacts are ...

127

Effect of climate change on air quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. Recent studies have provided estimates of this climate effect through correlations of air quality with meteorological variables, perturbation analyses in chemical transport models (CTMs), and CTM simulations driven by general circulation model (GCM) simulations of 21st-century climate change. We review these different approaches and their results. The future climate is expected to be more stagnant, due to a weaker global circulation and a decreasing frequency of mid-latitude cyclones. The observed correlation between surface ozone and temperature in polluted regions points to a detrimental effect of warming. Coupled GCM-CTM studies find that climate change alone will increase summertime surface ozone in polluted regions by 1-10 ppb over the coming decades, with the largest effects in urban areas and during pollution episodes. This climate penalty means that stronger emission controls will be needed to meet a given air quality standard. Higher water vapor in the future climate is expected to decrease the ozone background, so that pollution and background ozone have opposite sensitivities to climate change. The effect of climate change on particulate matter (PM) is more complicated and uncertain than for ozone. Precipitation frequency and mixing depth are important driving factors but projections for these variables are often unreliable. GCM-CTM studies find that climate change will affect PM concentrations in polluted environments by ±0.1-1 ?g m -3 over the coming decades. Wildfires fueled by climate change could become an increasingly important PM source. Major issues that should be addressed in future research include the ability of GCMs to simulate regional air pollution meteorology and its sensitivity to climate change, the response of natural emissions to climate change, and the atmospheric chemistry of isoprene. Research needs to be undertaken on the effect of climate change on mercury, particularly in view of the potential for a large increase in mercury soil emissions driven by increased respiration in boreal ecosystems.

Jacob, Daniel J.; Winner, Darrell A.

128

Instructional Leadership and Schools Effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.

Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy

129

Changing the School Climate Is the First Step to Reform in Many Schools with Federal Improvement Grants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School Improvement Grants (SIGs) financed through the economic stimulus package are intended to spur dramatic change in persistently low-performing schools. Many state and local officials charged with implementing SIGs view the creation of a safe, orderly, collegial, and productive school climate as an essential step in raising student…

McMurrer, Jennifer

2012-01-01

130

The Perception of School Climate in Two Secondary Schools during the Implementation of a Peer Support Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The problem of school violence has been studied in the last decades from different perspectives, especially focused on bullying conflicts. Whole school approaches have been recommended by many experts in the field. The aim of the present study is to assess climate changes in two secondary schools that implement a peer support…

Gomez, Soledad Andres; Gaymard, Sandrine

2014-01-01

131

School-Based Management as a Factor in School Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advocates of a policy of greater autonomy for schools in the public education system argue that such a policy makes for more effective schools. This article, based on a study carried out in Israel, examines how important the autonomy factor is in influencing school effectiveness as measured by such criteria as teachers' sense of motivation and commitment to the school.

Haim Gaziel

1998-01-01

132

High School Students' Metaphors towards "Climate" Concept According to Gender Variable  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was carried out to determine the metaphors of high school students towards "climate" concept according to gender variable. A total of 108 students in two high schools in Karabuk City participated in the research in 2009-2010 academic years. The data of the research were gathered from the students' completing the expressions: "climate

Coskun, Mucahit

2010-01-01

133

The Impact of a Principal's Sex on the Climate of Alternative Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of a leader's sex on the climate of alternative schools. Specifically, the problem was "Does a principal's sex have an impact on the climate of alternative schools?" The research attempted to answer the following questions: (1) Do differences with regard to a principal's sex exist within the following subsets of…

Wenton, Jessica

2010-01-01

134

School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception in Traditional and Cyberbullying Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in perceptions of school social climate and peers in terms of bullying status, and to investigate the psychometric properties of the School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception Scales. The students participated from six different cities in Turkey were in…

Bayar, Yusuf; Ucanok, Zehra

2012-01-01

135

Spanish Secondary School Students' Notions on the Causes and Consequences of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse…

Punter, Pilar; Ochando-Pardo, Montserrat; Garcia, Javier

2011-01-01

136

Former Head Start Parents' Characteristics, Perceptions of School Climate, and Involvement in Their Children's Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relations between former Head Start parents' self-efficacy beliefs, beliefs about their children's academic abilities, affective state of depression, perceptions of school climate, and reported level of involvement in their children's education at end of kindergarten year. Parents' views of school climate and beliefs in their ability to…

Seefeldt, Carol; Denton, Kristen; Galper, Alice; Younoszai, Tina

1998-01-01

137

The social construction of communication climate: An analysis of at-risk students in alternative high school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative high schools affect more potential high school dropouts than any other school or program and are designed to meet the needs of students who have had difficulty in conventional schools. This study examines the communication climate and constructions of caring in an alternative school for at-risk students by using a qualitative analysis grounded in the theoretical perspective of social constructionism. Observations and interviews were conducted over a six month time period. The first two chapters provide a review of literature and a detailed account of the methods used to conduct the study. Chapter Three describes the socially constructed nature of the school and the participants and the dialectical tensions of communication climate revealed from the analysis. The six dialectical tensions of communication climate are: (1) freedom/restraint, (2) disengagement/engagement, (3) personal communication/impersonal communication, (4) disconfirmation/confirmation, (5) equality/inequality, and (6) ambiguity/clarity. Although the school climate is comprised of each of these tensions, the data suggest that the interaction within the majority of classes created some common characteristics of the general communication climate at the school and can be characterized as one of freedom, disengagement, personal communication, disconfirmation, equality, and ambiguity. Chapter Four describes how caring was constructed and communicated. Although some students perceived some teachers as caring about students and about student learning, half of the students interviewed thought they were not learning or not learning much. Finally, Chapter Five provides a summary of the findings and a discussion of the results. The results of this study contribute to an understanding of the social construction of communication climate and caring in general, and within an alternative school for at-risk students, in specific. The results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of the jointly produced nature of communication climate and reveal the potential effect of communication climate and constructions of caring on teachers' instructional methods, teacher and student interaction, and student learning. Such information can aid pragmatically in the development or modification of programs designed to serve at-risk students, and theoretically in the understanding of the co-constructed nature of communication climate.

Souza, Tasha Jean

138

The Contribution of Student Perceptions of School Climate to Understanding the Disproportionate Punishment of African American Students in a Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the contribution of student perceptions of school climate to racial differences in school discipline. Four hundred middle school students completed a school climate survey. Compared to Caucasian students, African-American students were referred to the office for discipline three times as frequently and received five times…

Shirley, Erica L. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.

2012-01-01

139

Analysis of the Energy Savings Potential in K-5 Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-print Network

This paper presents the analysis of the energy savings potential in K-5 schools in hot and humid climates. For the analysis, an existing K-5 school in Central Texas was selected as a case study school, and the building energy related data...

Im, P.; Haberl, J.

140

Influence of School Climate on Students' Achievement and Teachers' Productivity for Sustainable Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study covers ten secondary schools in Lagos State of Nigeria. The purpose is to ascertain the relationship between school climate and student achievements and teachers' productivity for sustainable development. A total sample of 150 respondents was taken. Ten principals, seven teachers and seven students were randomly picked per school. This…

Adeogun, A. A.; Olisaemeka, Blessing U.

2011-01-01

141

Examining the Impact of Leadership Style and School Climate on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…

Robinson, Tina

2010-01-01

142

School Effectiveness Research and its Critics: alternative visions of schooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines (a) the values and assumptions which underpin school effectiveness research, and (b) the problem of applying its findings in schools. It does so in the light of a number of critiques of this research emanating from both the USA and the UK. The author argues that the issues at stake between school effectiveness researchers and their critics

John Elliott

1996-01-01

143

Odyssey to Excellence: How to Build Effective Schools through Leadership and Management Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book, for practicing school administrators and professors of school administration, provides 151 adaptable, flexible processes which have been used effectively in school districts to improve academic achievement and learning climate. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1, "Excellence in Leadership," consists of chapters on…

Slezak, James

144

Schools of the Pacific Rainfall Climate Experiment: The Benefits and Challenges of Student Participation in Scientific Research Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Schools of the Pacific Rainfall Climate Experiment (SPaRCE) is a cooperative field project involving elementary, middle school, high school, college and trade school students, along with personnel from Pacific Island meteorological services, in expanding and enhancing the climate observation network across the Pacific Basin. The goals of the program are to: 1. foster interest and increase awareness among students,

M. L. Morrissey; S. Postawko

2005-01-01

145

A Participant-Driven Effort to Assess and Address an Emerging Climate of Harassment in a Rural High School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a participant-driven effort to assess and address an emerging climate of harassment in a rural high school. In response to concerns about the school climate voiced by faculty, a collaborative team of school administrators, mental health professionals, faculty, and staff was convened by the school psychologist. The team: (a) surveyed 221 (94 male and 127 female) students

Christopher W. LeGrow; Tracy L. LeGrow

146

The Appropriateness of a California Student and Staff Survey for Measuring Middle School Climate. REL 2014-039  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of states and school districts use school climate assessments in progress reporting systems and are interested in incorporating these assessments into accountability systems. This analysis of response data from middle school students and teachers on the California School Climate, Health, and Learning Survey examines the…

Hanson, Thomas; Voight, Adam

2014-01-01

147

The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.

2012-01-01

148

Principals' Perceptions of Superintendents' Leadership Practices and Its Impact on School Climate in Selected South Florida Public School District Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research study sought to determine the leadership practices of area superintendents in selected South Florida public school district areas based on principals' perceptions and assess school climate impact using descriptive and inferential approaches. Methodology: The "Leadership Practices Inventory" ("LPI") 360 Online was used…

McFarlane, Donovan A.

2010-01-01

149

Eighth-Grade Students' Perceptions of School Climate Based on School Diversity, Ethnicity, Educational Category, Socioeconomic Status, and Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…

Edwards, Patricia Thomas

2010-01-01

150

OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE INFORMATION NEEDS FOR ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric scientists engaged in climate change research require a basic understanding of how ecological effects models incorporate climate. This report provides an overview of existing ecological models that might be used to model climate change effects on vegetation. ome agric...

151

The principal and school effectiveness: Principals' perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on school effectiveness commonly records principals as critical contributors to school success. While it seems comforting to think such a causal relationship exists, remarkably little is known about the importance and contribution of effective principalship to the overall success of a school. The claim seems to rest more on apparent logic than research. If school effectiveness is to

Neil A. Johnson

1993-01-01

152

Models for Determining School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major purpose of the Search for Effective Schools Project has been to explore the truth of the following two propositions: that both pupil response to instruction and the delivery of instruction are functions of pupil background, prior knowledge and level of achievement. That is, the project sought to demonstrate the existence of effective

Frederiksen, John R.

153

Climate effects of global land cover change  

Microsoft Academic Search

When changing from grass and croplands to forest, there are two competing effects of land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to warming and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate. We have performed simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model

S. Gibbard; K. Caldeira; G. Bala; T. J. Phillips; M. Wickett

2005-01-01

154

Capitalizing on Freshman Enthusiasm Can Help Improve a School's Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests freshman performance and school climate may dramatically improve if high school principals capitalize on freshmen enthusiasm by establishing a theme for the school year, developing a friendly orientation day, reevaluating the homeroom, and communicating with parents. (DCS)

Riley, Michael N.

1984-01-01

155

Navigating middle grades: role of social contexts in middle grade school climate.  

PubMed

During early adolescence, most public school students undergo school transitions, and many students experience declines in academic performance and social-emotional well-being. Theories and empirical research have highlighted the importance of supportive school environments in promoting positive youth development during this period of transition. Despite this, little is known about the proximal social and developmental contexts of the range of middle grade public schools US students attend. Using a cross-sectional dataset from the eighth grade wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 1998-1999, the current study examines the middle grade school social context from the perspectives of administrators and teachers in public schools with typical grade configurations (k-8 schools, middle schools, and junior high schools) and how it relates to students' perceptions of school climate. We find that administrators and teachers in k-8 schools perceive a more positive school social context, controlling for school structural and demographic characteristics. This school social context, in turn, is associated with students' perceptions of their schools' social and academic climate. Implications for educational policy and practice are discussed. PMID:24830348

Kim, Ha Yeon; Schwartz, Kate; Cappella, Elise; Seidman, Edward

2014-09-01

156

Graduate School of Education Assessing Our Effectiveness  

E-print Network

Graduate School of Education Assessing Our Effectiveness . #12;Graduate School of Education effectiveness To identify areas for program improvement #12;Graduate School of Education Assessment Task Force Thieman Cheryl Livneh Steve Isaacson #12;Graduate School of Education What did we accomplish in 2007

157

Serious Doubts about School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the model of school effectiveness (SE) currently dominant in research, policy and practice in England (although the concerns it raises are international). It shows, principally through consideration of initial and propagated error, that SE results cannot be relied upon. By considering the residual difference between the…

Gorard, Stephen

2010-01-01

158

Effective School Management. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this book is to help teachers with senior management responsibilities, and the schools and colleges that they work in, to become more effective. It is a book by practitioners for practitioners. They authors believe their book is unique, because there are so few people who have had enough management responsibility and training…

Everard, K.B.; Morris, Geoffrey; Wilson, Ian

2004-01-01

159

The Effectiveness of Cohesive Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research findings concerning leadership and management of (Dutch) secondary schools, using configuration theory. Distinguishes among three different management styles (two nonparticipative and one participative) that make use of six coordinating mechanisms. The participatory style was more effective and conducive to higher student math…

Hofman, Roelande; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Guldemond, Henk

2001-01-01

160

The CLIMATE schools combined study: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a universal Internet-based prevention program for youth substance misuse, depression and anxiety  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders account for three quarters of the disability attributed to mental disorders and frequently co-occur. While programs for the prevention and reduction of symptoms associated with (i) substance use and (ii) mental health disorders exist, research is yet to determine if a combined approach is more effective. This paper describes the study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention, a universal approach to preventing substance use and mental health problems among adolescents. Methods/design Participants will consist of approximately 8400 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 84 secondary schools in New South Wales, Western Australia and Queensland, Australia. The schools will be cluster randomised to one of four groups; (i) CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention; (ii) CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use; (iii) CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health, or (iv) Control (Health and Physical Education as usual). The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and other drugs, mental health symptomatology and anxiety, depression and substance use knowledge. Secondary outcomes include substance use related harms, self-efficacy to resist peer pressure, general disability, and truancy. The link between personality and substance use will also be examined. Discussion Compared to students who receive the universal CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use, or CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health or the Control condition (who received usual Health and Physical Education), we expect students who receive the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention to show greater delays to the initiation of substance use, reductions in substance use and mental health symptoms, and increased substance use and mental health knowledge. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials registry, ACTRN12613000723785. PMID:24499060

2014-01-01

161

Form 20 Heriot-Watt University -Module Descriptor Template (RAY) Version 3.0 (2007/2008) Module Title Climate Change: Mitigation and Adaptation Measures School School of Life Sciences On or Off-  

E-print Network

Title Climate Change: Mitigation and Adaptation Measures School School of Life Sciences On or Off 3.0 (2007/2008) Module Title Climate Change: Mitigation and Adaptation Measures School School this is a core module Climate Change: Managing the Marine Environment Climate Change: Impacts and Mitigation 7

Painter, Kevin

162

ASK Florida; a climate change education professional development program for middle school teachers in Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of professional development workshops covering the fundamentals of climate change have been developed and facilitated for two groups of middle school science teachers in three Florida counties. The NASA-supported joint venture between Florida State University's Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) and the University of South Florida's (USF's) Coalition for Science Literacy, ASK Florida, focuses on expanding and deepening teachers' content knowledge of a wide range of climate change topics, connecting local and regional changes to the global picture, and supporting classroom implementation and effective teaching practices. Education experts from USF, climate scientists from COAPS, and Hillsborough county teachers and science coaches coordinated and developed the workshop content, which is based on Florida's Next Generation Sunshine State Standards in science, science curriculum guides for 6th grade, and teacher interest. Several scientists have facilitated activities during the workshop, including professors in meteorology and climatology, research scientists in the field, a NOAA program manager, the state climatologists for Florida, and others. Having these climate scientists present during the workshop provides teachers an opportunity to interact directly with the scientists and gain insight into the climatology field. Additionally, we host an open-forum discussion panel during which teachers can ask the experts about any topics of interest. Activities are designed to enhance the scientific skill level of the teachers. Introductory activities reinforce teachers' abilities to distinguish facts from opinions and to evaluate sources. Other activities provide hands-on experience using actual scientific data from NASA and other agencies. For example, teachers analyze precipitation data to create distributions of Florida rainfall, examine sea level trends at various locations, identify Atlantic hurricane frequencies during the phases of ENSO, and create maps of climate data available on the MYNASADATA web portal. The human aspect of climate change is addressed by discussing anthropological influences such as land use changes. In addition, we examine scientific and public use and interpretation of climate models, scenarios, and projections, and explore adaptation and mitigation strategies for Florida-specific climate projections. Pedagogy is incorporated throughout the workshops to demonstrate how the content and activities can be adapted for their students. Furthermore, we support educators in overcoming obstacles associated with teaching global and regional climate change. This program targets teachers from Title-I schools because students from these schools are typically underrepresented in the STEM fields. Additionally, classroom technology is often limited; therefore, it is important to adapt resources so they can be used in the classroom with or without computers. Activities are presented through an inquiry-based format to encourage knowledge acquisition and discovery similar to that occurring in the actual scientific field. Finally, we prepare teachers to address apathetic or antiscientific sentiments their students may have about climate change by identifying the background issues and ideology and developing strategies to make the content more relevant to their students' lives.

Weihs, R. R.

2012-12-01

163

Effect of global climate on termites population. Effect of termites population on global climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global climate is under control of factors having both earth and space origin. Global warming took place from XVII century till 1997. Then global cold snap began. This dynamics had effect on global distribution of some animals including termites. Direct human effect on climate is not significant. At the same time man plays role of trigger switching on significant

Valentin Sapunov

2010-01-01

164

Minding Your P's and Q's: Assessing Climate in Rural and Urban High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys of 374 urban and 130 rural students at two western U.S. high schools examined student perceptions of classroom climate. Male students reported fewer positive connections with their teachers than did females, non-White students reported more positive reactions to classroom climate than did Whites, and urban students reported more positive…

Perreault, George; Hill, George C.

2000-01-01

165

Classroom Climates in Chinese and American Elementary Schools: A Cross-Cultural Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a cross-cultural comparison of elementary classroom climates on a multi-method, multi-score inventory (The Barclay Classroom Climate Inventory). Subjects of the study were 438 children in grades 3-6 from two elementary schools in Taiwan and 512 children from the same grades in two Indiana classrooms. Utilizing multivariate…

Barclay, James R.; Wu, Wu-Tien

166

The effect of climatic factors on the toxicity of certain organic insecticides  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN ORGANIC INSECTICIDES A Dissertation By MILTER JOSEPH MISTRIC, JR, Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ?7*(Head Df Department) May THEF L IB R A R Y A & M... COLLEGE OF TEXAS. THE EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN ORGANIC INSECTICIDES By HALTER JOSEPH MISTRIC, JR A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment...

Mistric, Walter Joseph

2013-10-04

167

The Perceived School Climate in Invitational Schools in Hong Kong: Using the Chinese Version of the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of the Chinese translation of the revised Inviting School Survey (ISS-R; Smith, 2005; Smith & Bernard, 2004) to measure the invitational climate of seven invitational secondary schools in Hong Kong. The five subscales of Chinese version of ISS-R were found to be valid and reliable in a sample of 706 Grade 11…

Ng, Carmen K. M.; Yuen, Mantak

2011-01-01

168

Collaborative Leadership for Promoting Effective School Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When initiating major structural change in schools, collaboration among educators, community members, and business persons is vital. This publication describes the efforts of the Ysleta (Texas) Independent School District, which successfully used collaboration to promote effective school change. Within the district, the Del Valle High School has…

Mullen, Bennat; And Others

1994-01-01

169

Assessing the effects of ocean diffusivity and climate sensitivity on the rate of global climate change  

E-print Network

, ocean diffusivity, global climate change, probability analysis, rate of warming 1. IntroductionAssessing the effects of ocean diffusivity and climate sensitivity on the rate of global climate in the projections of future climate warming can be attributed to the inherent uncertainty in the representation

Schmittner, Andreas

170

Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the…

Im, Piljae

2009-01-01

171

Methodology for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the accelerated dissemination of energy efficient design. For the development of

Piljae Im

2009-01-01

172

Evaluation of Authentic Science Projects on Climate Change in Secondary Schools: A Focus on Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and purpose: This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from…

Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin

2011-01-01

173

Perceptions of School and Family Climates and Experiences of Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of family and school-level variables on relational aggression and relational victimization was investigated among 158 fourth- and fifth-grade children. Family cohesion, maternal and paternal responsiveness, and school climate were hypothesized to be significant predictors of relational aggression and relational victimization. The results…

Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Taiariol, Jennifer; Yoon, Jina

2010-01-01

174

Climate Profile and OCBs of Teachers in Public and Private Schools of India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research aims to assess the significant differences in the climate profile and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) of teachers working in public and private schools of India. Design/methodology/approach: The sample comprised of 100 teachers, out of which 50 teachers were from public school and 50 teachers were from private…

Garg, Pooja; Rastogi, Renu

2006-01-01

175

Playgrounds and Prejudice: Elementary School Climate in the United States. A Survey of Students and Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' school education consists of not only what they are explicitly taught in the classroom, but also what they implicitly learn through the language, attitudes and actions of other students and teachers. When these attitudes, remarks and actions are unsupportive or hostile, they create a school climate that can negatively impact students'…

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012

2012-01-01

176

Academic Climate and Advisor Support Affect the Quality of Womens' Experiences in Graduate School  

E-print Network

by the Department. There were statistically significant differences in student responses based on gender (pAcademic Climate and Advisor Support Affect the Quality of Womens' Experiences in Graduate School of their graduate school experience in the Department of Mechanical Engineering were sought. We conducted

Agogino, Alice M.

177

The Influences of Leadership Style and School Climate to Faculty Psychological Contracts: A Case of S University in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school

Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

2006-01-01

178

Psychometric Support of the School Climate Measure in a Large, Diverse Sample of Adolescents: A Replication and Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Methods: Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships,…

Zullig, Keith J.; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M.; Huebner, E. Scott; Ajamie, Jean

2014-01-01

179

STEM417: NASA Resources for Teaching Global Climate Change in High School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, facilitated course is designed for high-school educators wishing to teach global climate change using an inquiry/problem-based approach. The course focusses on evidence that supports global climate change and how to use NASA data and resources to help high-school students discover mitigations or adaptations to climate change. The course is part of PBS Education's outreach and offerings to educators across the country; it is a 45-hour experience over six weeks and eligible for three graduate credits.

180

Leadership Effects: School Principals and Student Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We identify the effect of individual high school principals on graduation rates and English exam scores using an administrative data set of grade 12 students in BC Canada. Many principals were rotated across schools by districts, permitting isolation of the effect of principals from the effect of schools. We estimate the variance of the…

Coelli, Michael; Green, David A.

2012-01-01

181

e-Leadership of School Principals: Increasing School Effectiveness by a School Data Management System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, school management systems have become an important tool for effective e-leadership and data-based decision making. School management systems emphasize information flow and e-communication between teachers, students and parents. This study examines e-leadership by secondary-school principals through the Mashov school management…

Blau, Ina; Presser, Ofer

2013-01-01

182

School Climate in Urban Elementary Schools: Its Role in Predicting Low-Income Children's Transition from Early Educational RCT to Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research on school-level factors that predict children's development has focused largely on associations between a limited number of characteristics, such as school size and school resources, and children's academic achievement. Few studies take a more comprehensive look at the measurement of school climate or examine its relationship to…

Lowenstein, Amy E.; Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.; Zhai, Fuhua; Pess, Rachel A.

2011-01-01

183

The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Middle School Students: Findings from the 2007 National School Climate Survey. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) conducted the fifth National School Climate Survey (NSCS), a biennial survey of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) secondary school students. The NSCS examines the experiences of LGBT youth in U.S. middle and high schools, documenting bias and behaviors that make schools

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2009

2009-01-01

184

Effects of climate change on croplands  

EPA Science Inventory

This talk will describe likely changes in temperature and precipitation expected in the northwestern US with global climate change, and their potential impacts on Oregon croplands. The focus will be on the effects of temperature and carbon dioxide on crop productivity, weed cont...

185

Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter  

SciTech Connect

A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs. (ACR)

Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

1985-01-01

186

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes  

E-print Network

made. At the genomic level, advances in technologies for the high-throughput analysis of gene@ksu.edu Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 2006. 44:489­509 First published online as a Review in Advance on May 23, 2006 the effects of climate change on disease risk across systems (63). More stud- ies of the "fingerprint

Garrett, Karen A.

187

Stress characteristics in schoolchildren related to different educational strategies and school climates.  

PubMed

The goal of our paper is to verify the hypothesis that schools with different educational strategies and school climates, in the context of current diversification of educational system in the Czech Republic, have different impacts on the wellbeing and mental health of children. A sample of 868 schoolchildren from five Prague primary schools was studied. The schools selected for our study represent the spectrum of prevalent educational orientations in transforming compulsory education system. The following indicators of school stress were examined: general anxiety, school anxiety, emotional and psychosomatic balance, learning disabilities and behavioural disorders, type A behaviour, mental capacity, attitudes toward school, and social climate of a class as perceived by pupils. Consequently, selected sample of children underwent a thorough neuropaediatric examination. The findings confirmed our original assumption. The least negative characteristics were found at schools with the climate of confidence and respect among principals, staff, pupils and parents. An authoritarian principal who backs the demanding requirements of the traditional education system may cause a climate of mistrust and fear, anxiety and psychosomatic troubles in the pupils and in teachers as well and learning and behaviour disorders in the pupils. The negative experience endangers healthy development of school population. Thinking about application of our results on health promotion programmes at school, we have concluded that it is of greatest importance to promote changes leading to: confidence between the principal and the staff as well as among teachers themselves, participation and cooperation in school management, conditions for independent and creative work of teachers, teacher's effort to replace directive guidance of pupils by responsibility promoting education, diminishing restrictive role of grading in traditional teaching system and introducing more individual and qualitative evaluation of pupils. PMID:8903523

Havlinova, M; Schneidrova, D

1995-11-01

188

The Violence Continuum: Creating a Safe School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We expect schools to be a safe haven, but after more than a decade of targeted school violence prevention laws and safety plans, students are still marginalized and bullied to the point of despondence, retaliation, and even suicide. This thoughtful exploration of what makes a school a safe place is based on the understanding that violence is a…

Manvell, Elizabeth C.

2012-01-01

189

High School Identity Climate and Student Identity Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated whether schools characterized by high school students as being rich in identity promoting features contribute to student identity development. A theoretical model posited that student perceptions of teachers as caring role models and their school as cultivating the whole student will foster student exploration and…

Rich, Yisrael; Schachter, Elli P.

2012-01-01

190

Magnets Adjust to New Climate of School Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Once considered a way to help integrate racially divided districts, magnet schools today have been forced to evolve, given increasing pressure to provide more public school choices and legal barriers against using race to determine school enrollment. In a post-desegregation era, many large districts like Chicago, Los Angeles, and Baltimore County…

Fleming, Nora

2012-01-01

191

NASA/JPL CLIMATE DAY: Middle and High School Students Get the Facts about Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, NASA Headquarters requested that Earth Science outreach teams brainstorm new education and public outreach activities that would focus on the topic of global climate change. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Annie Richardson, outreach lead for the Ocean Surface Topography missions came up with the idea of a "Climate Day", capitalizing on the popular Earth Day name and events held annually throughout the world. JPL Climate Day would be an education and public outreach event whose objectives are to provide the latest scientific facts about global climate change - including the role the ocean plays in it, the contributions that NASA/JPL satellites and scientists make to the body of knowledge on the topic, and what we as individuals can do to promote global sustainability. The primary goal is that participants get this information in a fun and exciting environment, and walk away feeling empowered and capable of confidently engaging in the global climate debate. In March 2008, JPL and its partners held the first Climate Day event. 950 students from seven school districts heard from five scientists; visited exhibits, and participated in hands-on-activities. Pleased with the outcome, we organized JPL Climate Day 2010 at the Pasadena Convention Center in Pasadena, California, reaching more than 1700 students, teachers, and members of the general public over two days. Taking note of this successful model, NASA funded a multi-center, NASA Climate Day proposal in 2010 to expand Climate Day nation-wide. The NASA Climate Day proposal is a three-pronged project consisting of a cadre of Earth Ambassadors selected from among NASA-affiliated informal educators; a "Climate Day Kit" consisting of climate-related electronic resources available to the Earth Ambassadors; and NASA Climate Day events to be held in Earth Ambassador communities across the United States. NASA/JPL continues to host the original Climate Day event and in 2012 held its 4th event, at the Pasadena Convention Center in Pasadena, California. Although our goals and objectives remain the same, we continue to improve the event, which now includes student staff and student exhibitors. Our poster will give an overview and highlights of the November 16, 2012 event.

Richardson, Annie; Callery, Susan; Srinivasan, Margaret

2013-04-01

192

Effects of nontropical forest cover on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The albedo of a forest with snow on the ground is much less than that of snow-covered low vegetation such as tundra. As a result, simulation of the Northern Hemisphere climate, when fully forested south of a suitably chosen taiga/tundra boundary (ecocline), produces a hemispheric surface air temperature 1.9 K higher than that of an earth devoid of trees. Using variations of the solar constant to force climate changes in the GLAS Multi-Layer Energy Balance Model, the role of snow-albedo feedback in increasing the climate sensitivity to external perturbations is reexamined. The effect of snow-albedo feedback is found to be significantly reduced when a low albedo is used for snow over taiga, south of the fixed latitude of the ecocline. If the ecocline shifts to maintain equilibrium with the new climate - which is presumed to occur in a prolonged perturbation when time is sufficient for trees to grow or die and fall - the feedback is stronger than for a fixed ecocline, especially at high latitudes. However, this snow/vegetation-albedo feedback is still essentially weaker than the snow-albedo feedback in the forest-free case. The loss of forest to agriculture and other land-use would put the present climate further away from that associated with the fully forested earth south of the ecocline and closer to the forest-free case. Thus, the decrease in nontropical forest cover since prehistoric times has probably affected the climate by reducing the temperatures and by increasing the sensitivity to perturbations, with both effects more pronounced at high latitudes.

Otterman, J.; Chou, M.-D.; Arking, A.

1984-01-01

193

Assessing Students' Views of School Climate: Developing and Validating the What's Happening in This School? (WHITS) Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and validation of a six-scale survey to assess school climate in terms of students' perceptions of the degree to which they feel welcome and connected, together with a scale to assess students' perceptions of bullying. The development of each survey involved a multi-stage approach, including: 1) an extensive…

Aldridge, Jill; Ala'I, Kate

2013-01-01

194

Teaching about Climate Change: Cool Schools Tackle Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the last couple of decades, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased significantly due to human activities. Today climate change is an important issue for humankind. This book provides a starting point for educators to teach about climate change, although there are obstacles caused by the industrialized…

Grant, Tim, Ed.; Littlejohn, Gail, Ed.

195

Potential effects of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

The difficulties of detecting climatic changes do not diminish the need to examine the consequences of a changing global radiative energy balance. In part, detecting global changes is difficult (even though many, though by no means all, theoretical climatic processes are well understood) because the potential effects of changes on the unmanaged ecosystems of the globe, especially forests, which may have great human significance, involve tightly woven ecosystems, inextricably linked to global habitat. Coniferous forests are of particular interest because they dominate high-latitude forest systems, and potential effects of global climate change are likely to be greatest at high latitudes. The degree of projected climate change is a function of many likely scenarios of fossil fuel consumption, and the ratios of manmade effects to natural sources and sinks of CO{sub 2}. Because CO{sub 2}, like water vapor, CH{sub 4}, CFCs, and other gases, absorbs infrared energy, it will alter the radiation balance of the global atmosphere. The consequences of this alteration to the radiation balance cannot simply be translated into changing climate because (1) the existence of large energy reservoirs (the oceans) can introduce a lag in responses, (2) feedback loops between atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere can change the net rate of buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, (3) complex interactions in the atmospheric water balance can change the rate of cloud formation with their persistence, in turn, changing the global albedo and the energy balance, and (4) there is intrusion of other global effects, such as periodic volcanic gas injections to the stratosphere.

Gucinski, H.; Vance, E.; Reiners, W.A.

1995-07-01

196

Climate change effects on poikilotherm tritrophic interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of plants and animals have characteristic climatic requirements for growth, survival and reproduction that limit their\\u000a geographic distribution, abundance and interactions with other species. To analyze this complexity requires the development\\u000a of models that include not only the effects of biotic factors on species dynamics and interactions, but also the effects of\\u000a abiotic factors including weather. The need for

Andrew Paul Gutierrez; Luigi Ponti; Thibaud d’Oultremont; C. K. Ellis

2008-01-01

197

Measuring School Climate for Gauging Principal Performance: A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Publicly Accessible Measures. A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief provides principal evaluation system designers information about the technical soundness and cost (i.e., time requirements) of publicly available school climate surveys. The authors focus on the technical soundness of school climate surveys because they believe that using validated and reliable surveys as an outcomes measure can…

Clifford, Matthew; Menon, Roshni; Gangi, Tracy; Condon, Christopher; Hornung, Katie

2012-01-01

198

The Effectiveness of the Geospatial Curriculum Approach on Urban Middle-Level Students' Climate Change Understandings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change science is a challenging topic for student learning. This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial curriculum approach to promote climate change science understandings in an urban school district with eighth-grade students and investigated whether teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students'…

Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong

2014-01-01

199

Effective human resource management of school districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses many essential ongoing school district human resource issues; however the central focus is on the extraordinary actions that make human resource management in school districts truly effective. This is achieved through research of human resource management books, articles and case studies and by drawing on nine years of personal experience in auditing school districts. This article focuses

John Thompson; Brian H. Kleiner

2005-01-01

200

An Introduction to Managing School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of increased public and political concerns about education system failings in Great Britain and elsewhere, the pressures upon schools and educators have intensified. Research and development in the fields of school effectiveness and improvement can help schools meet these new pressures, as three articles in a special section of this…

Reynolds, David

1990-01-01

201

School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

2009-01-01

202

Formation, properties and climatic effects of contrails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensation trails (contrails) are aircraft induced cirrus clouds, which may persist and grow to large cirrus cover in ice-supersaturated air, and may cause a warming of the atmosphere. This paper describes the formation, occurrence, properties and climatic effects of contrails. The global cover by lined-shaped contrails and the radiative impact of line-shaped contrails is smaller than that assessed in an

Ulrich Schumann

2005-01-01

203

Effects of Climate Change on Rice Production in the Tropical Humid Climate of Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CERES-Rice v3. crop simulation model, calibrated and validated for its suitability to simulate rice production in the tropical humid climate Kerala State of India, is used for analysing the effect of climate change on rice productivity in the state. The plausible climate change scenario for the Indian subcontinent as expected by the middle of the next century, taking into

S. A. Saseendran; K. K. Singh; L. S. Rathore; S. V. Singh; S. K. Sinha

2000-01-01

204

Classroom climate and science-related attitudes of junior high school students in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differences in classroom climate and science related attitudes were investigated among junior high school science classes and students in Taiwan. The sample consisted of 1,269 students enrolled in 40 science classes distributed equally among ten junior high schools, five metropolitan and five rural. Classes were further classified according to sex (21 boys and 19 girls classes) and ability (19 high and 21 low ability classes). Using the Learning Environment Inventory (Anderson, Walberg, & Fraser, 1982) to measure climate, science classes in metropolitan schools, more than rural, were found to be characterized by Speed, Friction, Favoritism, Difficulty, Cliqueness, and Competitiveness. No differences were found in the classroom climates of classes in which students were grouped according to sex or ability. Using the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1981), students in science classes in metropolitan schools, in contrast to rural, expressed more positive attitudes toward the Social Implications of Science, Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, and Attitude to Scientific Inquiry. Boys more than girls recorded high scores on Leisure Interest in Science and Career Interest in Science. High ability students were found to have higher scores on Attitude to Scientific Inquiry than did low ability students. When examining the relationship between the 15 subscale scores of the LEI and the seven subscale scores of the TOSRA for the 40 classes, only 9 out of 105 correlations proved to be significant. Most differences in climate, attitude, and their interactions were attributed to school location rather than to student characteristics.

Lin, Bao-Shan; Crawley, Frank E., III

205

Catholic Schools or School Quality? The Effects of Catholic Schools on Labor Market Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies the effects of attending a Catholic high school on students' labor market outcomes. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I find that Catholic schooling is significantly associated with higher wages over the careers even after taking into account possible selection into Catholic schools with instruments. Using…

Kim, Young-Joo

2011-01-01

206

The Effects of Collective Bargaining on the Climate of Administration and Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collective bargaining between teachers and educational administrators has frequently had negative effects on the climate of school supervision and administration, but this need not always be the case. Before collective bargaining, teachers as a group were powerless over their pay and working conditions. Now many teachers feel that collective…

Kraig, Glen M.

207

Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback…

Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

2014-01-01

208

Tapping into the Power of School Climate to Prevent Bullying: One Application of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…

Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann

2014-01-01

209

The Cultural Climate of the Arts in Schools: Beyond the Color Wheel and the Bust of Beethoven Using Ethnographic Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document discusses a study to describe, analyze, and interpret the cultural climate of an elementary school in Texas which has a special fine arts program. Cultural climate is defined as the atmosphere that surrounds an arts program as defined by comments and actions of school administrators, art teachers, classroom teachers, students,…

Alexander, Robin Ruth

210

To What Extent Is Behaviour a Problem in English Schools? Exploring the Scale and Prevalence of Deficits in Classroom Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The working atmosphere in the classroom is an important variable in the process of education in schools, with several studies suggesting that classroom climate is an important influence on pupil attainment. There are wide differences in the extent to which classroom climate is considered to be a problem in English schools. Some…

Haydn, Terry

2014-01-01

211

A Multilevel Perspective on the Climate of Bullying: Discrepancies Among Students, School Staff, and Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many bullying prevention programs aim to involve multiple partners, few studies have examined perceptual differences regarding peer victimization and the broader bullying climate among students, staff, and parents. The present study utilized multilevel data from 11,674 students, 960 parents, and 1,027 staff at 44 schools to examine the association between school-level indicators of disorder, norms regarding bullying and bullies,

Tracy Evian Waasdorp; Elise T. Pas; Lindsey M. OBrennan; Catherine P. Bradshaw

2011-01-01

212

Alternative Estimates of the Effect of Schooling on Earnings  

E-print Network

This paper examines how assumptions imposed on the data influence estimates of schooling’s effect on earnings. The paper models schooling decisions as treatment effects and imposes assumptions about schooling selection to ...

Ginther, Donna K.

2000-02-01

213

School Effectiveness in the Dominican Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characteristics distinguishing more effective from less effective public primary (grades 1 to 8) schools in Santo Domingo were studied, using a comparative case study design. The effectiveness of the school was determined by expert nomination and achievement tests in reading, mathematics, and writing. Socioeconomic status was controlled and three…

British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Faculty of Education.

214

Conceptual Change regarding middle school students' experience with Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdote to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. A third finding underscores prior research in conceptual change, indicating that learning, especially conceptual change, is not a strictly rational process. Students, and others, are highly influenced by extra rational factors, such as the given political, scientific, and/or religious leanings of their families, their own willingness to explore anomalies, and other factors. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.; Lutz, B.

2011-12-01

215

Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change  

SciTech Connect

There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

2005-08-24

216

Effects of comprehensive school reform on student achievement and school change: A longitudinal multi-site study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longitudinal impacts on school change and student achievement of implementing varied Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models was investigated in 12 elementary schools in diverse geographic locations. Each school was individually matched and compared to a demographically similar control school on measures of school climate, teacher satisfaction, observed classroom teaching methods, and student achievement on a battery of 4 individually

Allan Sterbinsky; Steven M. Ross; Doris Redfield

2006-01-01

217

Effects of Comprehensive School Reform on Student Achievement and School Change: A Longitudinal Multi-Site Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The longitudinal impacts on school change and student achievement of implementing varied Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models was investigated in 12 elementary schools in diverse geographic locations. Each school was individually matched and compared to a demographically similar control school on measures of school climate, teacher…

Sterbinsky, Allan; Ross, Steven M.; Redfield, Doris

2006-01-01

218

SCHOOL OF HISTORY & PHILOSOPHY Peak Carbon. Climate change and energy  

E-print Network

........................ 6 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY ................... 6 STUDENT EQUITY AND DIVERSITY capita greenhouse gas polluters? What has Australia done to reduce its contribution to global climate and environmental problems this strategy creates · Detail what options there are for future directions domestically

Green, Donna

219

School—Police Partnership Effectiveness in Urban Schools: An Analysis of New York City's Impact Schools Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite nationwide decreases in school crime and violence, a relatively high and increasing number of students report feeling unsafe at school. In response, some school officials are implementing school—police partnerships, especially in urban areas, as an effort to deter criminal activity and violence in schools. This article examines the initial effect of New York City's Impact Schools Initiative, a punitive-based

Kevin P. Brady; Sharon Balmer; Deinya Phenix

2007-01-01

220

Middle School Students' Conceptual Change in Global Climate Change: Using Argumentation to Foster Knowledge Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the "framework theory" of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct…

Golden, Barry W.

2011-01-01

221

Examining the Moderating Role of Perceived School Climate in Early Adolescent Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the unique and interactive relations of 4 aspects of student-perceived school climate (cohesion, friction, and competition among students, and overall satisfaction with classes) and adolescent effortful control in the conduct problems and depressive symptoms of 868 ten- to fourteen-year-old adolescents. Hierarchical…

Loukas, Alexandra; Robinson, Sheri

2004-01-01

222

Climate,Traffic-Related Air Pollutants, and Asthma Prevalence in Middle-School Children in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the prevalence of asthma with climate and air pollutant data to determine the relationship between asthma prevalence and these factors. We conducted a nationwide survey of respiratory illness and symptoms in middle-school students in Taiwan. Lifetime prevalences of physician-diagnosed asthma and of typical symptoms of asthma were compared to air monitoring station data for temperature, relative humidity,

Yueliang Leon Guo; Ying-Chu Lin; Fung-Chang Sung; Song-Lih Huang; Ying-Chin Ko; Jim-Shoung Lai; Huey-Jen Su; Cheng-Kuang Shaw; Ruey-Shiung Lin; Douglas W. Dockery

1999-01-01

223

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different urban high schools

Katherine L. McNeill; Meredith Houle Vaughn

2010-01-01

224

Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Effective School Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been limited research on how teachers, parents and students perceive effective school leadership in practice. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study of key stakeholders’ perceptions of effective school leadership. Key stakeholders were identified as teachers, students and parents. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders from

George Odhiambo; Amy Hii

2012-01-01

225

Ten Principles of Effective School Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief document offers ten principles of effective school design. They are: (1) Clear Focus and High Expectations for staff and students are defining features of an effective school; (2) A Rigorous Instructional Program provides equitable opportunities to learn and enables every student to master challenging content, skills, and learning…

New Visions for Public Schools, 2006

2006-01-01

226

America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A video that discusses the perspectives and insights necessary to report out about climate change. The video can be used to demonstrate how different perspectives impact different stakeholders and different levels, and that there is a need to have a clear, coordinated national response.

Academies, The N.

227

Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: Advancing the Science of Climate Change in the Public Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of K-12 educational programs and resources that seek to share the science of climate change has recently come into focus. During the fall 2006 AGU meeting, we presented the conceptual framework used to guide both the curriculum and year-one programs of Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: The Global Warming Road Show. Currently this dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program selects and empowers a diverse population of 11th and 12th grade students from a large urban high school in the Midwest to teach a curriculum on climate change to 7th graders from a local feeder school. In December 2007 we will complete year-one of the program and will present an overview of 1) students' conceptual representations of climate change, 2) the most recent curriculum and programs, and 3) the ongoing program evaluation. We will synthesize these three areas and reflect on how to improve upon year-two of both the curriculum and the program. During various stages of the program, students have constructed concept maps, written in journals, created lesson plans, and participated in focus group interviews. These materials are being analyzed to provide a brief overview of high school students' initial conceptualizations of climate change. During the intensive 2007 summer workshop, these 11th and 12th grade students were supported by university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators as they attempted to better understand climate change and as they reflected on how to effectively teach this topic to 7th graders. During the fall semester of 2007, the workshop graduates are scheduled to teach 25 to 30 7th graders a five week climate unit. The program will culminate with the 11th and 12th grade student-mentors working with the 7th graders to create a "Road Show," which will be presented to other 7th and 8th graders within the same school district. To ensure that this program is current, a team of scientists and science educators supplemented and further developed a well known and tested 15-year-old curriculum (Great Explorations in Math and Science, 1990) with recent data and analysis focusing on key concepts of climate change. The updated curriculum was structured using two driving questions: - How do we know the earth has experienced climate change in the past, including the ice ages and the age of the dinosaurs? - How do we know that humans have an impact on climate? Science educators and scientists also worked together to create templates that prompted the 11th and 12th grade students to first reflect on their understandings of climate change and then on how they would teach their younger peers. As students work with experiments, data sets, and news-media articles, they are also prompted to reflect on discrepancies between primary science sources and secondary media sources (Drake and Nelson, 2005). An evaluation team observed the summer workshops, administered surveys, reviewed the adapted curriculum, and participated in planning sessions. The evaluators are in the process of analyzing these multiple indicators to examine the extent to which the program aligns with its stated goals. The initial formative evaluation findings suggest that students were active participants in the workshop and that they enjoyed their experience. Areas of year-two development include improved communication and collaboration between university and secondary school units.

Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Smith, J. S.; Wood, E. J.; Filippelli, G. M.

2007-12-01

228

Cyberbullying Expert Says School Climate Makes All the Difference  

E-print Network

collaborator, Dr. Justin Patchin. Some victims have also been perpetrators. Hinduja and Patchin reject the idea for cyberbullying at school is too inflexible, they say. Parents can help by going online with their children Cooper: 360," NPR, the BBC and in The New York Times. Parents can take steps to take down postings

Fernandez, Eduardo

229

Using the Climate Survey to Drive School Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article identifies morale deflaters and inflaters existing in the public school environment, describing the processes used to improve student and staff morale. Several instruments are available to help pinpoint the causes of low morale. The article explains how to use such instruments to change student and staff perceptions. (SM)

Brown, Glen J.; Henry, Diane

1992-01-01

230

A Resource Aid Packet on School Engagement, Disengagement, Learning Supports, & School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most policy makers and administrators know that by itself good instruction delivered by highly qualified teachers is not enough to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed at school. Schools continue to suffer from high dropout rates of students and staff, an achievement gap that resists closure, a high incidence of schools

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

2011-01-01

231

Evaluating Changes in Climate Literacy among Middle and High School Students who Participate in Climate Change Education Modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle school (MS) and high school (HS) teachers have developed and taught instructional modules that were created through their participation in Clarkson University's NASA-funded Project-Based Global Climate Change Education project. A quantitative survey was developed to help evaluate the project's impact on students' climate literacy, which includes content knowledge as well as affective and behavioral attributes. Content objectives were guided primarily by the 2009 document, Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The survey was developed according to established psychometric principles and methodologies in the sociological and educational sciences which involved developing and evaluating a pool of survey items, adapted primarily from existing climate surveys and questionnaires; preparing, administering, and evaluating two rounds of pilot tests; and preparing a final instrument with revisions informed by both pilot assessments. The resulting survey contains three separate subscales: cognitive, affective, and behavioral, with five self-efficacy items embedded within the affective subscale. Cognitive items use a multiple choice format with one correct response; non-cognitive items use a 5-point Likert-type scale with options generally ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" (affective), or "almost always" to "hardly ever" (behavioral). Three versions of the survey were developed and administered using an on-line Zoomerang™ platform to college students/adults; HS students; and MS students, respectively. Instrument validity was supported by using items drawn from existing surveys, by reviewing/applying prior research in climate literacy, and through comparative age-group analysis. The internal consistency reliability of each subscale, as measured by Cronbach's alpha, ranges from 0.78-0.86 (cognitive), 0.87-0.89 (affective) and 0.84-0.85 (behavioral), all satisfying generally accepted criteria for internal reliability of educational surveys. MS and HS students completed the on-line survey prior to and at least 3 weeks following participation in one of the newly developed project-based climate change modules. Surveys were completed anonymously. In all, 9 HS and 3 MS teachers successfully completed the educational programming and assessment protocol in AY2012, yielding 200 HS and 227 MS matched pre/post climate literacy surveys. Both groups of students demonstrated significant gains in climate-related content knowledge (p<<0.001) and affect (p<0.01). MS students also experienced significant gains in their climate-related self-efficacy (p=0.03), with no significant change in self-efficacy for HS students and no change in either group on the behavioral subscale. Post-scores were remarkably similar for the two groups of students; reported as percent of maximum attainable score for HS/MS students: 59%/58%, knowledge; 65%/64%, affect; 71%/72%, self-efficacy, and 63%/62%, behavior. The presentation will include a description of the development and content of the climate literacy survey used in this research, as well the interpretation of specific pre/post changes in participating MS and HS students relative to the content of and approach used in the project-based modules.

DeWaters, J.; Powers, S.; Dhaniyala, S.; Small, M.

2012-12-01

232

Understanding the Effect of Climate Change on Human Migration  

E-print Network

Understanding the Effect of Climate Change on Human Migration The Contribution of Mathematical consequences for both migrants and receiving societies. These images have fuelled recent research on climate and migration; (ii) developing four conceptual models of the most important mechanisms linking climate change

Fischlin, Andreas

233

Smathers Ocean Circulation and its Effect on Climate Change  

E-print Network

1 Ocean Circulation and its Effect on Climate Change Zachary Smathers At the turn of the 20th of warfare. Scientists began asking questions about the climate and how determining the World's oceans were when it came to climate change. Did the chemical makeup of the oceans matter? Why were there trends

Marzuola, Jeremy

234

Effects of Projected Transient Changes in Climate on Tennessee Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines transient effects of projected climate change on the structure and species composition of forests in Tennessee. The climate change scenarios for 2030 and 2080 were provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) that simulate the range of potential climate conditions for the state. The precipitation and temperature projections from

Virginia H Dale; M Lynn Tharp; Karen O. Lannom; Donald G. Hodges

2010-01-01

235

The effect of climate change on Antarctic terrestrial flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is expected to affect the high latitudes first and most severely, rendering Antarctica one of the most significant baseline environments for the study of global climate change. The indirect effects of climate warming, including changes to the availability of key environmental resources, such as water and nutrients, are likely to have a greater impact upon Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems

Jane Wasley

2004-01-01

236

Global Climate Effects on Avian Reproduction Good News About HSA  

E-print Network

scientists agree that global warming is real and that the global climate is changing rapidly. Our question isGlobal Climate Effects on Avian Reproduction Good News About HSA ENSO and NAO: What Are They't need to do it again until 2007. Bird Reproduction in Northwest U.S. Linked to Global Climate Phenomena

DeSante, David F.

237

Effects of climate change on animal and zoonotic helminthiases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Current knowledge of animal and zoonotic helminthiases in which effects of climate change have been detected is reviewed. Climate variables are able to affect the prevalence, intensity and geographical distribution of helminths, directly influencing free-living larval stages and indirectly influencing mainly invertebrate, but also vertebrate, hosts. The impact of climate change appears to be more pronounced in trematodes, and

S. Mas-Coma; M. A. Valero; M. D. Bargues

2008-01-01

238

Climate change effects on native fauna of northeastern forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the observed and potential effects of climate change on native fauna of forests in northeastern North America by focusing on mammals, birds, amphibians, and insects. Our assessment is placed in the context of recent regional-scale climate projections. Climate change, particularly in recent decades, has affected the distribution and abun- dance of numerous wildlife species. Warming temperatures, alterations to

Nicholas L. Rodenhouse; Lynn M. Christenson; Dylan Parry; Linda E. Green

2009-01-01

239

Effective Schooling in Rural Africa Report 2: Key Issues Concerning School Effectiveness and Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an overview of the literature on school/teacher effectiveness and improvement, with a focus on implications for developing countries. Sections 1-2 discuss the trend toward site-based management, which has increased pressures on individual schools and their staff; eight key domains of school effectiveness; and the need to…

Saunders, Lesley

240

Role of School Development Plans in Managing School Effectiveness. Management of Educational Resources: 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper develops further the ideas contained in two earlier reports, Effective Secondary Schools (1988) and Effective Primary Schools (1989), and recommends a systematic approach to the management of school effectiveness through using a school development plan. The purpose of the paper is twofold: to present and explain the role of the school

Scottish Office Education Dept., Edinburgh. HM Inspectors of Schools.

241

Game Based Learning as a Means to Teach Climate Literacy in a High School Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of RPI's GK-12 graduate fellowship program (which involves graduate STEM fellows in K-12 education) a climate change board game activity was developed and implemented at inner city Troy High School in Troy, New York. The goal was to engage and teach two classes of the Earth Science General Repeat (GR) tenth grade students about climate change through a game-based leaning module. Students placed in the GR course had previously failed Earth Science, and had never passed a general science class in high school. In the past, these students have responded positively to hands-on activities. Therefore, an interactive board game activity was created to teach students about climate, explore how humans impact our environment, and address the future of climate change. The students are presented with a draft version of the game, created by the graduate fellow, and are asked to redesign the game for their peers in the other GR class. The students' version of the game is required to include certain aspects of the original game, for example, the climate change Trivia and Roadblock cards, but the design, addition of rules and overall layout are left to the students. The game-based learning technique allows the students to learn through a storyline, compete against each other, and challenge themselves to perfect their learning and understanding of climate change. The climate change board game activity also incorporates our cascade learning model, in which the graduate fellow designs the activity, works with a high school teacher, and implements the game with high school students. In addition, the activity emphasizes peer-to-peer learning, allowing each classroom to design the game for a different group of students. This allows the students to take leadership and gives them a sense of accomplishment with the completed board game. The nature of a board game also creates a dynamic competitive atmosphere, in which the students want to learn and understand the material to succeed in the overall game. Although this board game activity was designed for high school students, it could easily be adapted for all K-12 levels as an interactive, informative and successful way of teaching students about climate literacy.

Fung, M. K.; Tedesco, L.; Katz, M. E.

2013-12-01

242

School Climate and Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes Associated with Implementation of the Positive Action Program: A Diffusion of Innovations Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character\\u000a and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes\\u000a towards a prevention\\/SACD program and the influence of a school’s administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness,\\u000a characteristics of a school’s climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation

Michael W. Beets; Brian R. Flay; Samuel Vuchinich; Alan C. Acock; Kin-Kit Li; Carol Allred

2008-01-01

243

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different urban high schools in the USA. Data collection included pre and posttest written assessments from all students ( n = 75) and pre and post interviews from focal students ( n = 22) to examine how students' conceptual understandings, beliefs and environmental actions changed. Our analyses showed that at the beginning of the curriculum, the majority of students believed that climate change was occurring; yet, they had limited conceptual understandings about climate change and were engaged in limited environmental actions. By the end of the curriculum, students had a significant increase in their understanding of climate change and the majority of students reported they were now engaged in actions to limit their personal impact on climate change. These findings suggest that believing a scientific theory (e.g. climate change) is not sufficient for critical science agency; rather, conceptual understandings and understandings of personal actions impact students' choices. We recommend that future climate change curriculum focus on supporting students' development of critical science agency by addressing common student misconceptions and by focusing on how students' actions can have significant impacts on the environment.

McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

2012-04-01

244

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects ANN DENISE FISSEKIS  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects By ANN DENISE FISSEKIS B.......................................................................6 Chapter III. Climate Change................................................................11 models...........................................................20 Climate change data

Lund, Jay R.

245

Goal orientation, motivational climate, and dispositional flow of high school students engaged in extracurricular physical activity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of goal orientation, motivational climate, and dispositional flow in physical education lessons on extracurricular involvement in physical activity. Questionnaires were administered to 1,103 (792 athletes; 311 nonathletes) secondary school students (M age = 14.3 yr., SD = 0.7). Analysis showed significant mean differences between groups on goal orientation and dispositional flow in physical education lessons, but none for perception of motivational climate. These findings suggest that dispositional variables are related to extracurricular involvement in physical activity. PMID:16671603

Cervelló, Eduardo M; Moreno, Juan A; Villodre, Nestor Alonso; Iglesias, Damián

2006-02-01

246

Climate variation and its effects on our land and water : Part C, Geological Survey climate plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To better coordinate information being generated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a workshop was convened near Denver, Colo., on December 7-9, 1976, to exchange ideas about research that is oriented toward climate, climate variation, and the effects of climate on the Nation 's land and water resources. This is the first circular of a three-part report resulting from that workshop. Hydrologic records provide information to the earth scientist about the responses of ground water, surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface responses to climatic change; biological records yield information about the effects of climatic change on the Earth 's biota; archeological records tell us where and how man was able to live under changing climatic conditions; and historical records allow the specific effects of short-term changes in climate to be accurately documented. The interrelation between present and past geologic environments, various methods of study , and the span of time over which the results can be applied are shown in a table. (Woodard-USGS)

edited by Howard, Keith A.; Smith, George I.

1978-01-01

247

Strengthening Assessments of School Climate: Lessons from the NYC School Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New York City Department of Education's (DOE) annual survey of parents, students, and teachers is the largest of its kind in the United States. The DOE relies on the survey to identify schools' strengths and to target areas for improvement. School Survey scores, along with attendance, are also the only non-academic indicators used in the DOE's…

Nathanson, Lori; McCormick, Meghan; Kemple, James J.

2013-01-01

248

Blocking the Bullies: Has South Carolina's Safe School Climate Act Made Public Schools Safer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent news in the national media about two students’ deaths as a result of harassment in school has highlighted a renewed desire for educators to address the culture of bullying and harassment in public schools, especially when the victims are targeted for their real or perceived differences. South Carolina's legislature responded to this need in June 2006 with the passage

Troy M. Terry

2010-01-01

249

School Climate for Transgender Youth: A Mixed Method Investigation of Student Experiences and School Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transgender youth experience negative school environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender students encounter in school environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260,…

McGuire, Jenifer K.; Anderson, Charles R.; Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.

2010-01-01

250

Relational Aggression at School: Associations with School Safety and Social Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines how exposure to relational aggression at school is associated with adolescents' perceptions of, and participation in, a hostile school environment. Participants were 1,335 African American and European American adolescents in grades 7 through 12 (52% female, 49% African American). Results indicate that exposure to…

Goldstein, Sara E.; Young, Amy; Boyd, Carol

2008-01-01

251

ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON WEATHER-RELATED MORBIDITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential effects of climate change and climate variability on weather-related morbidity are assessed. Heat-related and cold-related morbidity in children are analyzed. The impact of inclement weather on accidental injuries is evaluated. The relationship of violent crime to w...

252

Climatic effects of surface albedo geoengineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various surface albedo modification geoengineering schemes such as those involving desert, urban, or agricultural areas have been proposed as potential strategies for helping counteract the warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions. However, such schemes tend to be inherently limited in their potential and would create a much more heterogeneous radiative forcing than propositions for space-based "reflectors" and enhanced stratospheric aerosol concentrations. Here we present results of a series of atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (GCM) simulations to compare three surface albedo geoengineering proposals: urban, cropland, and desert albedo enhancement. We find that the cooling effect of surface albedo modification is strongly seasonal and mostly confined to the areas of application. For urban and cropland geoengineering, the global effects are minor but, because of being colocated with areas of human activity, they may provide some regional benefits. Global desert geoengineering, which is associated with significant global-scale changes in circulation and the hydrological cycle, causes a smaller reduction in global precipitation per degree of cooling than sunshade geoengineering, 1.1% K-1 and 2.0% K-1 respectively, but a far greater reduction in the precipitation over land, 3.9% K-1 compared with 1.0% K-1. Desert geoengineering also causes large regional-scale changes in precipitation with a large reduction in the intensity of the Indian and African monsoons in particular. None of the schemes studied reverse the climate changes associated with a doubling of CO2, with desert geoengineering profoundly altering the climate and with urban and cropland geoengineering providing only some regional amelioration at most.

Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.

2011-12-01

253

The Effect of School Inspections on School Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses a school-level longitudinal control-group design to examine how teachers and principals of inspected versus uninspected schools perceive school improvement at their schools. During the phasing in of school inspections in the states of Berlin and Brandenburg (Germany), both inspected and uninspected schools were surveyed with…

Gaertner, Holger; Wurster, Sebastian; Pant, Hans Anand

2014-01-01

254

America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study examines information needs and recommends ways the federal government can better inform responses by enhancing climate change and greenhouse gas information and reporting systems and by improving climate communication and education. Demand for better information to support climate-related decisions has grown rapidly as people, organizations, and governments have moved ahead with plans and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. To meet this demand, good information systems and services are needed. Without such systems, decision makers cannot evaluate whether particular policies and actions are achieving their goals or should be modified. Although the many non-federal efforts to reduce emissions and/or adapt to future climate changes carry considerable potential to reduce risks related to climate change, there is currently no comprehensive way to assess the effectiveness of those efforts. In addition, the diverse climate change responses to date have resulted in a patchwork of regional, state, and local policies that has prompted many state and business leaders to call for the development of a more predictable and coherent policy environment at the federal level. This report demonstrates that the nation lacks comprehensive, robust, and credible information and reporting systems to inform climate choices and evaluate their effectiveness. This report also argues that decision makers can benefit from a systematic and iterative framework for responding to climate change, in which decisions and policies can be revised in light of new information and experience and that improved information and reporting systems allow for ongoing evaluation of responses to climate risks. The climate-related decisions that society will confront over the coming decades will require an informed and engaged public and an education system that provides students with the knowledge to make informed choices. Although nearly all Americans have now heard of climate change, many have yet to understand the full implications of the issue and the opportunities and risks that lie in the solutions. Nonetheless, national surveys demonstrate a clear public desire for more information about climate change and how it might affect local communities. A majority of Americans want the government to take action in response to climate change and are willing to take action themselves. Although communicating about climate change and choices is vitally important, it can be difficult. This report summarizes some simple guidelines for more effective communications.

Liverman, D. M.; McConnell, M. C.; Raven, P.

2010-12-01

255

The Social Environment of Schools and Adolescent Nutrition: Associations between the School Nutrition Climate and Adolescents' Eating Behaviors and Body Mass Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from…

Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon

2014-01-01

256

The 2011 National School Climate Survey: Key Findings on the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012

2012-01-01

257

UWHS Climate Science: Uniting University Scientists and High School Teachers in the Development and Implementation of a Dual-Credit STEM-Focused Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Washington is adapting a popular UW Atmospheric Sciences course on Climate and Climate Change for the high school environment. In the process, a STEM-focused teaching and learning community has formed. With the support of NASA Global Climate Change Education 20 teachers have participated in an evolving professional development program that brings those actively engaged in research together with high school teachers passionate about bringing a formal climate science course into the high school. Over a period of several months participating teachers work through the UW course homework and delve deeply into specific subject areas. Then, during a week-long summer institute, scientists bring their particular expertise (e.g. radiation, modeling) to the high school teachers through lectures or labs. Together they identify existing lectures, textbook material and peer-reviewed resources and labs available through the internet that can be used to effectively teach the UW material to the high school students. Through this process the scientists learn how to develop teaching materials around their area of expertise, teachers engage deeply in the subject matter, and both the university and high school teachers are armed with the tools to effectively teach a STEM-focused introductory course in climate science. To date 12 new hands-on modules have been completed or are under development, exploring ice-cores, isotopes, historical temperature trends, energy balance, climate models, and more. Two modules have been tested in the classroom and are ready for peer-review through well-respected national resources such as CLEAN or the National Earth Science Teachers Association; three others are complete and will be implemented in a high school classroom this year, and the remainder under various stages of development. The UWHS ATMS 211 course was piloted in two APES (Advanced Placement Environmental Science classrooms) in Washington State in 2011/2012. The high school course used the UW Atmospheric Sciences curriculum, exams, and textbook (The Earth System, 3rd edition, Kump, Kasting and Crane, 2010), and one of the hands-on modules. Communication with these instructors during the year helped us define assessment strategies and to identify challenges of bringing the material into the high school classroom. This knowledge will be shared with teachers during our summer 2012 workshop and will inform approaches to teaching the course in 2012/2013. Proposed formats for implementation include year-long courses, using the APES/Climate format of 2011/2012, a union of Oceanography and Climate content, or in the context of an engineering course. Our initial vision was for a stand-alone semester or year-long course in climate science, incorporating excel and data handling as a learning tool and a suite of hands-on learning opportunities. Yet, the creative approaches to implementation of a new course in the schools, together with the breadth and depth of the UW curriculum and the Kump et al. 2010 textbook, have resulted in diverse educational approaches for bringing climate science into the high school.

Bertram, M. A.; Thompson, L.; Ackerman, T. P.

2012-12-01

258

Urban High School Students’ Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students’ development of critical science\\u000a agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual\\u000a and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different\\u000a urban high schools

Katherine L. McNeill; Meredith Houle Vaughn

259

Motivational climate and attitudes towards exercise in Greek senior high school: A year-long intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was the application of a year-long intervention program, in typical Greek physical education school classes, which aimed to change motivational climate, goal orientations, motivation, and students' attitudes toward exercise and nutrition. Participants in the intervention program included 105 Grade-10 students, and 529 students of the same age took part as a control grou|pImmediately after the

Triantafylos Christodoulidis; Athanasios Papaioannou; Nikolaos Digelidis

2001-01-01

260

The climatic effects of modifying cirrus clouds in a climate engineering framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractThe <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering—or geoengineering—via cirrus cloud thinning are examined. Thinner cirrus clouds can allow more outgoing longwave radiation to escape to space, potentially cooling the <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The cloud properties and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> due to perturbing the ice crystal fall speed are investigated in a set of hemispheric scale sensitivity experiments with the Community Earth System Model. It is found that increasing the ice crystal fall speed, as an analog to cirrus cloud seeding, depletes high-level clouds and reduces the longwave cloud forcing. Deliberate depletion of cirrus clouds increases outgoing longwave radiation, reduces the upper tropospheric water vapor, and cools the <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Global cirrus cloud thinning gave a net cloud forcing change of -1.55 W m-2 and a global annual mean temperature change of -0.94 K. Though there is negligible change in the global annual mean precipitation (-0.001 mm/d), the spatially nonhomogeneous forcing induces circulation changes and hence remote <span class="hlt">climate</span> changes. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> engineering the Southern Hemisphere only results in a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and possible Sahelian drought alleviation, while targeting the Northern Hemisphere alone causes a greater cooling. It was found that targeting cirrus clouds everywhere outside of the tropics results in changes to the circulation and precipitation even in the nonclimate engineered regions, underscoring the risks of remote side <span class="hlt">effects</span> and indeed the complexity of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muri, H.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Storelvmo, T.; Pfeffer, M. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47839233"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Marine Ecological Communities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a It is no secret that our <span class="hlt">climate</span> is changing – rapidly – and together with it, oceans change as well. The Intergovernmental\\u000a Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change (IPCC), consisting of hundreds of scientists worldwide, have shown that changes in global <span class="hlt">climate</span>\\u000a have accelerated since the 1750s, causing an overall increase in temperature both on land and in the sea. The IPCC</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gil Rilov; Haim Treves</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMED21C0595H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Confronting the Challenges of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Literacy at the High <span class="hlt">School</span> Level</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Confronting the Challenges of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Literacy (CCCL) is a research and development project designed to help high <span class="hlt">school</span> students grasp the range of temporal and spatial scales at which <span class="hlt">climate</span> can be defined and at which Earth system processes occur. CCCL includes three lab-based <span class="hlt">climate</span> curriculum modules and a strong professional development component that helps partner teachers strengthen their own understanding of <span class="hlt">climate</span> literacy and develop into <span class="hlt">climate</span> literacy professional development providers. The research and evaluation components of this 4-year project provide essential guidance as they probe the efficacy of the evolving curriculum units, the professional development component, and the teamwork that is essential to the success of the project. In this session we will review the three curriculum modules, covering the Cryosphere, Weather and <span class="hlt">Climate</span>, and Carbon, which comprise the CCCL sequence now being pilot-tested. We will identify ways in which we address some of the well-know misconceptions about <span class="hlt">climate</span> and the Earth system that impede student understanding, as well as the approaches we are using to strengthen students grasp of the challenging range of temporal and spatial scales at which Earth system processes and <span class="hlt">climate</span> occur. We will describe the professional development component of the program, which draws teachers from Mississippi and Texas into a partnership with curriculum developers to contribute to the curriculum modules, pilot test the modules in their classrooms, and eventually lead professional development workshops for their peers. We will also identify the key research questions around student learning that we will be exploring when the teachers engaged in the professional development implement the revised modules in their classrooms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, B.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT........16I"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methodology for the preliminary design of high performance <span class="hlt">schools</span> in hot and humid <span class="hlt">climates</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance <span class="hlt">schools</span> in hot and humid <span class="hlt">climates</span> was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 <span class="hlt">schools</span>, which would contribute to the accelerated dissemination of energy efficient design. For the development of the toolkit, first, a survey was performed to identify high performance measures available today being implemented in new K-5 <span class="hlt">school</span> buildings. Then an existing case-study <span class="hlt">school</span> building in a hot and humid <span class="hlt">climate</span> was selected and analyzed to understand the energy use pattern in a <span class="hlt">school</span> building and to be used in developing a calibrated simulation. Based on the information from the previous step, an as-built and calibrated simulation was then developed. To accomplish this, five calibration steps were performed to match the simulation results with the measured energy use. The five steps include: (1) Using an actual 2006 weather file with measured solar radiation, (2) Modifying lighting & equipment schedule using ASHRAE's RP-1093 methods, (3) Using actual equipment performance curves (i.e., scroll chiller), (4) Using the Winkelmann's method for the underground floor heat transfer, and (5) Modifying the HVAC and room setpoint temperature based on the measured field data. Next, the calibrated simulation of the case-study K-5 <span class="hlt">school</span> was compared to an ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 code-compliant <span class="hlt">school</span>. In the next step, the energy savings potentials from the application of several high performance measures to an equivalent ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 code-compliant <span class="hlt">school</span>. The high performance measures applied included the recommendations from the ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDG) for K-12 and other high performance measures from the literature review as well as a daylighting strategy and solar PV and thermal systems. The results show that the net energy consumption of the final high performance <span class="hlt">school</span> with the solar thermal and a solar PV system would be 1,162.1 MMBtu, which corresponds to the 14.9 kBtu/sqft-yr of EUI. The calculated final energy and cost savings over the code compliant <span class="hlt">school</span> are 68.2% and 69.9%, respectively. As a final step of the research, specifications for a simplified easy-to-use toolkit were then developed, and a prototype screenshot of the toolkit was developed. The toolkit is expected to be used by non-technical decision-maker to select and evaluate high performance measures for a new <span class="hlt">school</span> building in terms of energy and cost savings in a quick and easy way.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Im, Piljae</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED246523.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theory Z <span class="hlt">School</span>: Beyond <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">American <span class="hlt">schools</span> might improve their performance by emulating certain successful businesses that, while distinctly American, have much in common with Japanese corporations. William Ouchi attributes Japanese business success to worker involvement; the typical Japanese corporation, he asserts, unifies its employees around a corporate philosophy…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George, Paul S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2830654"> <span id="translatedtitle">Not Just Numbers: Creating a Partnership <span class="hlt">Climate</span> to Improve Math Proficiency in <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although we know that family involvement is associated with stronger math performance, little is known about what educators are doing to <span class="hlt">effectively</span> involve families and community members, and whether this measurably improves math achievement at their <span class="hlt">schools</span>. This study used data from 39 <span class="hlt">schools</span> to assess the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of family and community involvement activities on <span class="hlt">school</span> levels of math achievement. The study found that better implementation of math-related practices of family and community involvement predicted stronger support from parents for <span class="hlt">schools</span>’ partnership programs, which, in turn, helped estimate the percentage of students scoring proficient on math achievement tests. PMID:20200592</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sheldon, Steven B.; Epstein, Joyce L.; Galindo, Claudia L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40322228"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on seagrasses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The increasing rate of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change seen in this century, and predicted to accelerate into the next, will significantly impact the Earth's oceans. In this review, we examine previously published seagrass research through a lens of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change in order to consider the potential <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the world's seagrasses. A primary <span class="hlt">effect</span> of increased global temperature on seagrasses</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frederick T. Short; Hilary A. Neckles</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/3740"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of teacher leadership on <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> in selected exemplary secondary <span class="hlt">schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This qualitative study used naturalistic inquiry methodology to study the impact that teacher leadership has on <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. Two suburban high <span class="hlt">schools</span> were chosen for this study. Both of these <span class="hlt">schools</span> had been rated as exemplary in 2002...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hook, David Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-08-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/n2064n856234x158.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span> for Transgender Youth: A Mixed Method Investigation of Student Experiences and <span class="hlt">School</span> Responses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Transgender youth experience negative <span class="hlt">school</span> environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support\\u000a Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender\\u000a students encounter in <span class="hlt">school</span> environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260, 68 transgender youth) from study 1 and focus groups (n = 35) from study</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jenifer K. McGuireCharles; Charles R. Anderson; Russell B. Toomey; Stephen T. Russell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change&pg=3&id=EJ1039233"> <span id="translatedtitle">Primary <span class="hlt">School</span> Student Teachers' Understanding of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary <span class="hlt">school</span> student teachers (n?=?20). This includes analysis of the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=communication+AND+effectiveness&id=EJ877670"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> Nurse Communication <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> with Physicians and Satisfaction with <span class="hlt">School</span> Health Services</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined <span class="hlt">school</span> nurses' communication with community physicians and its relationship to <span class="hlt">school</span> nurse satisfaction with <span class="hlt">school</span> health services. A stratified random sample of <span class="hlt">school</span> nurses in Pennsylvania (N = 615) were surveyed about communication <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> with community physicians, satisfaction with <span class="hlt">school</span> health services for…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Volkman, Julie E.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED340537.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are Small <span class="hlt">Schools</span> the Answer? Cost <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Strategies for Rural <span class="hlt">School</span> Provision.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book compares small <span class="hlt">schools</span> in various countries with large ones and offers cost <span class="hlt">effective</span> strategies for small <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Part I focuses on social, economic, and educational issues related to small <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Small <span class="hlt">schools</span> are beneficial to their communities as centers of social development. In addition, small <span class="hlt">schools</span> have a more cooperative…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bray, Mark</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMED21B0578R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Strategies for <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Education: The Coastal Areas <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many past educational initiatives focused on global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle <span class="hlt">school</span> marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of <span class="hlt">climate</span>-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an <span class="hlt">effective</span> set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, and strategies for <span class="hlt">effective</span> adaptation and mitigation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49481415"> <span id="translatedtitle">Further mycotoxin <span class="hlt">effects</span> from <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change will affect mycotoxins in food. The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change report is reinterpreted herein to account for what may occur with mycotoxins. Warmer weather, heat waves, greater precipitation and drought will have various impacts, depending on which regions of the world and mycotoxin systems are considered. The humidity issues are more complex as some areas will</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. R. M. Paterson; N. Lima</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55311260"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on rainfall extremes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change due to enhanced emissions of greenhouse gases intensifies the hydrologic cycle and may have substantial impact on the natural environment and socio-economic activities. The rainfall process, being the principal component of the hydrologic cycle, is the most important element for quantifying both the extent of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and its consequential impacts on water resources. The change in extreme</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. S. Demissie; C. Cunnane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Personnel+AND+Management+AND+Effective+AND+Schools.&pg=5&id=EJ755987"> <span id="translatedtitle">Making <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Safe: A System-Wide <span class="hlt">School</span> Intervention to Increase Student Prosocial Behaviors and Enhance <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this investigation was to study how an intervention decreased violence, and created and maintained a positive <span class="hlt">school</span> environment, and safe <span class="hlt">school</span> building. Also, this investigation considered how an intervention impacted student learning and academic progress, and positive and appropriate student relating and problem solving among…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kilian, Janet M.; Fish, Marian C.; Maniago, Erica B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/58548v510n872472.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Students’ conceptions about the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>, global warming, and <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ conceptions of the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>, global warming, and <span class="hlt">climate</span> change.\\u000a The study was descriptive in nature and reflected a cross-age design involving the collection of qualitative data from 51\\u000a secondary students from three different <span class="hlt">schools</span> in the Midwest, USA. These data were analyzed for content in an inductive\\u000a manner to identify</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Soyoung Choi; Umarporn Charusombat</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFMED31D1230M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Schools</span> of the Pacific Rainfall <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Experiment: The Benefits and Challenges of Student Participation in Scientific Research Programs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Schools</span> of the Pacific Rainfall <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Experiment (SPaRCE) is a cooperative field project involving elementary, middle <span class="hlt">school</span>, high <span class="hlt">school</span>, college and trade <span class="hlt">school</span> students, along with personnel from Pacific Island meteorological services, in expanding and enhancing the <span class="hlt">climate</span> observation network across the Pacific Basin. The goals of the program are to: 1. foster interest and increase awareness among students, teachers, and local island meteorologists as to the importance of cooperation between nations in investigating potential <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, 2. to educate students and teachers as to the importance of rainfall (particularly in the Pacific region) to <span class="hlt">climate</span> studies, 3. to increase the observations of <span class="hlt">climate</span> variable across the Pacific, and to incorporate the collected observations into a comprehensive Pacific database to be used for <span class="hlt">climate</span> research purposes 4. to make a major contribution to the global <span class="hlt">climate</span> research effort by collecting and analyzing Pacific <span class="hlt">climate</span> data, 5. and to encourage scientific and cultural exchange. The SPaRCE program has been working with students, teachers, and meteorological service personnel on various Pacific islands and atolls since 1991. Much of the data collected has been incorporated into the Comprehensive Pacific Rainfall Database and has been used as verification data for several satellite rainfall studies. In addition, several students who got involved in the SPaRCE program at their <span class="hlt">school</span> have gone on to work at their local meteorological service upon graduation. Significant advances in the technological capabilities in most of the Pacific island countries have taken place over the years. These advances have been both a help and a hindrance in getting <span class="hlt">schools</span> involved in making accurate, reliable, long-term <span class="hlt">climate</span> observations and getting students excited about analyzing these data. One challenge that has remained fairly constant over the years is that of teacher turn-over in these developing island nations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morrissey, M. L.; Postawko, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://web.sls.hw.ac.uk/ModuleDescriptors/PG/A11CC.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Form 20 Heriot-Watt University -Module Descriptor Template (RAY) Version 3.0 (2007/2008) Module Title <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change: Causes and Impacts <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">School</span> of Life Sciences On or Off-</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">and anthropogenically induced changes to global and regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> · emphasise to students the multidisciplinary Title <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change: Causes and Impacts <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">School</span> of Life Sciences On or Off- Campus On Module Co Change: Impacts and Mitigation <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change: Managing the Marine Environment 7. Aims This Module aims</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Painter, Kevin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/6578"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeled <span class="hlt">climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on distributions of Canadian butterfly species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract: <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on biodiversity are being documented now frequently in the form of changes in phenology and distributional shifts. However, the form that these <span class="hlt">effects</span> will take over a longer timespan is ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peterson, A. Townsend; Martí nez-Meyer, Enrique; Gonzá lez-Salazar, Constantino; Hall, Peter W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-07-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sss&pg=7&id=ED300462"> <span id="translatedtitle">Examiner's Manual. <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Survey: Student Satisfaction Survey, Teacher Satisfaction Survey, Parent Satisfaction Survey: Form A. Sampler Kit.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Guidelines for examiners administering the <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Survey (SCS), the Teacher Satisfaction Survey (TSS), the Student Satisfaction Survey (SSS), and the Parent Satisfaction Survey (PSS) of the National Association of Secondary <span class="hlt">School</span> Principals (NASSP) are provided. These four surveys are the initial result of research/development efforts by…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Halderson, Cynthia; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED419673.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Great Lakes <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Water Movement. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes <span class="hlt">Schools</span> (ES-EAGLS).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing <span class="hlt">school</span> curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high <span class="hlt">school</span>. The theme of this book is Great Lakes <span class="hlt">climate</span> and water movement. Students learn about land-sea…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED476178.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sharing the Data along with the Responsibility: Examining an Analytic Scale-Based Model for Assessing <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was a pilot effort to examine the efficacy of an analytic trait scale <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> assessment instrument and democratic change system in two urban high <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Pilot study results indicate that the instrument shows promising soundness in that it exhibited high levels of validity and reliability. In addition, the analytic trait format…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shindler, John; Taylor, Clint; Cadenas, Herminia; Jones, Albert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change%2c+AND+level&pg=4&id=EJ1034301"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Students' Perceptions of the <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Influence Their Choice to Upstand, Bystand, or Join Perpetrators of Bullying</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors of this article, Silvia Diazgranados Ferráns and Robert Selman, use an emergent framework to explore how the rules of the <span class="hlt">school</span> culture at different perceived <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climates</span> affect early adolescents' decisions to upstand, bystand, or join the perpetrators when they witness peer aggression and bullying. Through a grounded theory…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ferráns, Silvia Diazgranados; Selman, Robert L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57742136"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Soil and <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> Conditions on Grape Ripening and Wine Quality of Cabernet Sauvignon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions and soil type on grape ripening and wine quality were studied for the period 2003–2005, in two Cabernet Sauvignon vineyards under the same <span class="hlt">climate</span> but on very distinct soils. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> was estimated by studying annual variations. <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> conditions and soil had overall a significant <span class="hlt">effect</span> on grape ripening. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of soil and <span class="hlt">climate</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Josep Miquel Ubalde; Xavier Sort; Alicia Zayas; Rosa Maria Poch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC43B..01R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early Agriculture: Land Clearance and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the 2003 AGU Emiliani Lecture, I proposed the 'early anthropogenic hypothesis' --the idea that major anthropogenic <span class="hlt">effects</span> on greenhouse gases and <span class="hlt">climate</span> occurred thousands of years before the industrial era. In the decade since then, several dozen published papers have argued its pros and cons. In the 2013 Tyndall History of Global Change Lecture I will update where matters now stand. I will show figures from the 2003 <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change paper that laid out the initial hypothesis, and then update subsequent evidence from ice-core drilling, archeology, and land-use histories. The primary claims in the 2003 hypothesis were these: (1) the CH4 rise since 5000 years ago is anthropogenic; (2) the CO2 rise since 7000 years ago is also anthropogenic; (3) the amount of carbon emitted from preindustrial deforestation was roughly twice the amount released during the industrial era; (4) global temperature would have been cooler by about 0.8oC by the start of the industrial era if agricultural CO2 and CH4 emissions had not occurred; (5) early anthropogenic warming prevented the inception of new ice sheets at high northern latitudes; and (6) pandemics and other population catastrophes during the last 2000 years caused CO2 decreases lasting decades to centuries. The new evidence shows that these claims have held up well. The late-Holocene CO2 and CH4 rises are anomalous compared to average gas trends during previous interglaciations of the last 800,000 years. Land-use models based on historical data simulate pre-industrial CO2 carbon releases more than twice the industrial amounts. Archeological estimates of CH4 emissions from expanding rice irrigation account for much of the late Holocene CH4 rise, even without including livestock emissions or biomass burning. Model simulations show that the large pre-industrial greenhouse-gas emissions indicated by these historical and archeological estimates would have warmed global <span class="hlt">climate</span> by more than 1oC and prevented northern glacial inception. Well-dated high-resolution CO2 (and CH4) records from ice cores show gas decreases that correlate closely with major pandemics and civil strife, but show little if any link to temperature or precipitation trends. One significant (and intriguing) discrepancy with the original hypothesis remains. Most of the CO2 rise occurred between 6000 and 2500 years ago, well before the major increase in global population that has been hindcast from geometric models that assume a constant fractional rate of population increase. Some of this discrepancy has been reconciled by historical evidence showing much higher per-capita clearance millennia ago than later in pre-industrial time, resulting in disproportionately large early clearance and CO2 emissions. In addition, DNA studies and archeological syntheses now indicate that early farming populations initially grew at very fast rates favored by environments rich in basic resources (especially fertile soils), but then slowed in later millennia because of growing resource limitations and the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of pandemics and civil strife in checking population growth. This emerging view of fast-rising early population trends has the potential to account for the early timing of the CO2 increase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruddiman, W. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED33A0744M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Challenges of Communicating <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change in North Dakota: Undergraduate Internship and Collaboration with Middle <span class="hlt">School</span> Educators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In summer 2010, the University of North Dakota (UND) hosted an internship for undergraduates to learn about <span class="hlt">climate</span> change in both the classroom and group research projects. As a final project, the undergraduates were tasked to present their findings about different aspects of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change in webcasts that would be later used in middle <span class="hlt">school</span> classrooms in the region. Interns indicated that participation significantly improved their own confidence in future scholarly pursuits. Also, communicating about <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, both during the project and afterwards, helped the interns feel more confident in their own learning. Use of webcasts widened the impact of student projects (e.g. YouTube dissemination), and multiple methods of student communication should continue to be an important piece of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change education initiatives. Other key aspects of the internship were student journaling and group building. Challenges faced included media accessibility and diverse recruiting. Best practices from the UND internship will be discussed as a model for implementation at other universities. Lesson plans that complement the student-produced webcasts and adhere to regional and national standards were created during 2011. Communication between scientists and K-12 education researchers was found to be a challenge, but improved over the course of the project. These lesson plans have been reviewed both during a teacher workshop in January 2012 and by several Master teachers. Although select middle <span class="hlt">school</span> educators have expressed enthusiasm for testing of these modules, very little hands-on testing with students has occurred. Wide-ranging roadblocks to implementation exist, including the need for adherence to state standards and texts, inadequate access to technology, and generally negative attitudes toward <span class="hlt">climate</span> change in the region. Feedback from regional educators will be presented, and possible solutions will be discussed. Although some challenges are specific to the Northern Great Plains region, understanding these challenges are important for agencies and universities with goals of national dissemination.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mullendore, G. L.; Munski, L.; Kirilenko, A.; Remer, F.; Baker, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18780182"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> and teachers' beliefs and attitudes associated with implementation of the positive action program: a diffusion of innovations model.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Teacher- and <span class="hlt">school</span>-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of <span class="hlt">school</span>-based prevention and social character and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes towards a prevention/SACD program and the influence of a <span class="hlt">school</span>'s administrative support and perceptions of <span class="hlt">school</span> connectedness, characteristics of a <span class="hlt">school</span>'s <span class="hlt">climate</span>, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation models of program implementation. Implementation was defined as the amount of the programs' curriculum delivered (e.g., lessons taught), and use of program-specific materials in the classroom (e.g., ICU boxes and notes) and in relation to <span class="hlt">school</span>-wide activities (e.g., participation in assemblies). Teachers from 10 elementary <span class="hlt">schools</span> completed year-end process evaluation reports for year 2 (N = 171) and 3 (N = 191) of a multi-year trial. Classroom and <span class="hlt">school</span>-wide material usage were each favorably associated with the amount of the curriculum delivered, which were associated with teachers' attitudes toward the program which, in turn, were related to teachers' beliefs about SACD. These, in turn, were associated with teachers' perceptions of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Perceptions of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> were indirectly related to classroom material usage and both indirectly and directly related to the use of <span class="hlt">school</span>-wide activities. Program developers need to consider the importance of a supportive environment on program implementation and attempt to incorporate models of successful <span class="hlt">school</span> leadership and collaboration among teachers that foster a <span class="hlt">climate</span> promoting cohesiveness, shared visions, and support. PMID:18780182</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beets, Michael W; Flay, Brian R; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan C; Li, Kin-Kit; Allred, Carol</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..APRJ15007S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Online and Blended <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Courses for Secondary <span class="hlt">School</span> Educators from the American Museum of Natural History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) has created both online and blended <span class="hlt">climate</span> change education courses directed toward secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> educators. The online course carries graduate credit and is authored by leading scientists at AMNH and at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. It focuses on weather and <span class="hlt">climate</span>; sources of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change; the response of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system to input; modeling, theory and observation; what we can learn from past <span class="hlt">climates</span>; and potential consequences, risks and uncertainties. The blended course includes an abbreviated version of the online course along with additional activities, many suitable for classroom use. Both the online and blended course experiences will be reviewed, including the use of an educational version of NASA's Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Model. Attendees will be provided with a DVD of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change videos and data visualizations from the American Museum of Natural History.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steiner, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED23A0744S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Online and Blended <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Courses for Secondary <span class="hlt">School</span> Educators from the American Museum of Natural History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) has created both online and blended <span class="hlt">climate</span> change education courses directed toward secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> educators. The online course carries graduate credit and is authored by leading scientists at AMNH and at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. It focuses on weather and <span class="hlt">climate</span>; sources of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change; the response of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system to input; modeling, theory and observation; what we can learn from past <span class="hlt">climates</span>; and potential consequences, risks and uncertainties. The blended course includes an abbreviated version of the online course along with additional activities, many suitable for classroom use. Both the online and blended course experiences will be reviewed, including the use of an educational version of NASA's Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Model. Attendees will be provided with a DVD of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change videos and data visualizations from the American Museum of Natural History.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steiner, R. V.; Contino, J.; Kinzler, R. J.; Mathez, E. A.; Randle, D. E.; Schmidt, G. A.; Shindell, D. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-23/pdf/2010-3532.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “Consideration of the <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span>...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Consideration of the <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions...Consideration of the <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions...Consideration of the <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change and Greenhouse Gas...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532568.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">School</span> Improvement: Indicators of <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> and <span class="hlt">School</span>-Level Benchmarks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The National High <span class="hlt">School</span> Center's "Eight Elements of High <span class="hlt">School</span> Improvement: A Mapping Framework" provides a cohesive high <span class="hlt">school</span> improvement framework comprised of eight elements and related indicators of <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. These indicators of <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> allow states, districts, and <span class="hlt">schools</span> to identify strengths and weaknesses of their current…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">National High School Center, 2012</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mdpi.com/1424-2818/2/2/281/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on amphibian populations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> may affect survival, growth, reproduction and dispersal capabilities. Moreover, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change can alter amphibian habitats including vegetation, soil, and hydrology. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change can influence food availability, predator-prey relationships and competitive interactions which can alter community structure. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change can also alter pathogen-host dynamics and greatly influence how diseases are manifested. Changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> can interact with other stressors such as UV-B radiation and contaminants. The interactions among all these factors are complex and are probably driving some amphibian population declines and extinctions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blaustein, Andrew R.; Walls, Susan C.; Bancroft, Betsy A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Searle, Catherine L.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616324V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toward <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> services: lessons for design and evaluation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite growing interest in <span class="hlt">climate</span> services, there is little agreement on what <span class="hlt">climate</span> services are, where they are most <span class="hlt">effective</span>, and how they should be designed to best deliver results. Questions regarding what kinds of information on which <span class="hlt">climate</span> services should be based, the sorts of problems they can most <span class="hlt">effectively</span> address, and the institutional arrangements needed to support them remain unresolved, with hundreds of <span class="hlt">climate</span> service users and providers proceeding with a simultaneous and loosely coordinated process of learning by doing. This presentation will draw on case studies developed by the Global Framework for <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Services and the <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Services Partnership to provide a snapshot of current practice regarding <span class="hlt">climate</span> service provision. The presentation will also provide thoughts regarding the design of certain services and the overall development of the field. We will conclude with suggestions for research questions that may serve to accelerate our collective understanding of how best to design <span class="hlt">climate</span> services as a means to mitigate <span class="hlt">climate</span>-related risk.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje; Zebiak, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+Change+AND+consequences&pg=3&id=ED521849"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Influence of <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span> on Students' Experiences of Peer Sexual Harassment in High <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in <span class="hlt">schools</span> have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tully, Carol A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crime+OR+violence&pg=5&id=EJ650392"> <span id="translatedtitle">Keeping Florida's Children Safe in <span class="hlt">School</span>: How One State Designed a Model Safe <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Survey.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Describes Florida's statewide effort to provide a means of collecting information on perceptions of safety held by students, teachers, and administrators to enhance the currently available <span class="hlt">school</span> crime and violence data collected through the statewide incident referral system. Documents the design process and development of two statewide model…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barnett, Rosemary V.; Easton, Janice; Israel, Glenn D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=peter+AND+the+AND+great+AND+economics&id=ED533118"> <span id="translatedtitle">Building the Capacity of Principals and Teacher-Leaders to Implement <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">School</span> and Classroom Practices. High <span class="hlt">Schools</span> That Work</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Great leaders make great <span class="hlt">schools</span>. The most successful <span class="hlt">school</span> leaders create a <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> of high achievement and continuous improvement, give teachers a voice in decision-making, use data to drive curriculum and instruction, and assure students and parents that everyone at the <span class="hlt">school</span> is focusing on student success. They know what is going on…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://depts.washington.edu/oldenlab/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/ConservationBiology_2008a.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Special Section Assessing the <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change on Aquatic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">in freshwater ecosystems. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is expected to result in warmer water temperatures, shorter duration the ecological impacts of invasive species by enhancing their competitive and predatory <span class="hlt">effects</span> on native species and by increasing the virulence of some diseases. As a result of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, new prevention and control</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olden, Julian D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.abdn.ac.uk/marfish/pdfs/Learmonth2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">POTENTIAL <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF <span class="hlt">CLIMATE</span> CHANGE ON MARINE MAMMALS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predicted impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on the marine environment include an increase in temperature, a rise in sea levels and a decrease in sea-ice cover. These impacts will occur at local, regional and larger scales. The potential impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on marine mammals can be direct, such as the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of reduced sea ice and rising sea levels on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. LEARMONTH; C. D. MACLEOD; M. B. SANTOS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41878128"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Mediterranean Forests and Preventive Measures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper synthesizes and reviews literature concerning <span class="hlt">climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on Mediterranean forest ecology and management as well as the restorative techniques necessary to maintain forest health, forest yield and biodiversity. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change compounded with trends of rural abandonment are likely to diminish forested areas within the Mediterranean basin that will be replaced by fire prone shrub communities. This could</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Víctor Resco de Dios; Christine Fischer; Carlos Colinas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://fish.washington.edu/research/oldenlab/pdf/2008/ConservationBiology_2008a.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change on Aquatic Invasive Species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Different components of global environmental change are typically studied and managed in- dependently, although there is a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways. We present a conceptual framework and empirical review of the interactive <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is expected to result in warmer water temperatures,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">FRANK J. RAHEL; JULIAN D. OLDEN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bnl.gov/envsci/pubs/pdf/2013/BNL-94620-2011-JA.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SPECTRAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND ITS ENTROPIC <span class="hlt">EFFECT</span> ON EARTH'S <span class="hlt">CLIMATE</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SPECTRAL SOLAR IRRADIANCE AND ITS ENTROPIC <span class="hlt">EFFECT</span> ON EARTH'S <span class="hlt">CLIMATE</span> Wei Wu1 , Yangang Liu1 of the spectral solar irradiance (SSI) at the top of the Earth's atmosphere by the Solar Radiation and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> the total solar irradiance (TSI) at the top of the Earth's atmosphere (TOA) varies little (only about 0</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Average+AND+class&pg=6&id=EJ1030622"> <span id="translatedtitle">Class-Size <span class="hlt">Effects</span> in Secondary <span class="hlt">School</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze class-size <span class="hlt">effects</span> on academic achievement in secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> in Denmark exploiting an institutional setting where pupils cannot predict class size prior to enrollment, and where post-enrollment responses aimed at affecting realized class size are unlikely. We identify class-size <span class="hlt">effects</span> combining a regression discontinuity design with…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krassel, Karl Fritjof; Heinesen, Eskil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/7510"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Air Pollution Control on <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urban air pollution and <span class="hlt">climate</span> are closely connected due to shared generating processes (e.g., combustion) for emissions of the driving gases and aerosols. They are also connected because the atmospheric lifecycles of ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prinn, Ronald G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56075790"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Carbon Dioxide Variations on <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Variations in the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide cause temperature changes sufficiently large to influence the <span class="hlt">climate</span>. If the atmospheric carbon dioxide doubles, the surface temperature rises 3.6°C if it is cut in half, the surface temperature falls 3.8°C. Some of the factors that can be explained by the carbon dioxide theory are: during a single glacial epoch, the <span class="hlt">climate</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gilbert N. Plass</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1956-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED21D..05M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Why should we care? Awakening Middle and High <span class="hlt">School</span> students to the reality of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our students, like too much of the American public, are largely unaware or apathetic to the changes in world <span class="hlt">climate</span> and the impact that these changes have for life on Earth. This last year we, as two Middle and High <span class="hlt">School</span> science teachers, were given the opportunity to use a new trial curriculum currently in development for TERC's EarthLabs collection to awaken those brains and assist our students in making personal lifestyle choices based on what they had learned. In addition, with support from TERC and The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics we began training other teachers on how to implement this curriculum in their classrooms to expose their students to our changing <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Traditionally, the cryosphere and the carbon cycle are taught as discrete units without meaningful connections to areas of study that have personal relevance and impact. While pictures of polar bears and penguins evoke emotional responses, the changes coming to their worlds usually result only in another tug at the heartstrings. What if teachers better understood two vital components of Earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span> system and were able to impart his understanding to their students? What if students based their responses to the information taught not on emotion, but on a deeper understanding of the forces driving <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, their analysis of the scientific evidence and in the context of earth system science? In our presentation, we will give you (1) a glimpse into the challenges faced by today's science teachers in communicating the complicated, but ever-deepening understanding of the linkages between natural and human-driven factors on <span class="hlt">climate</span>; (2) introduce you to two new modules in the EarthLabs curriculum designed to expose teachers and students to global scientific <span class="hlt">climate</span> data and instrumentation; and (3) illustrate how student worldviews are changed though exposure to the latest in scientific discovery and understanding.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manley, J. M.; Barr, A. N.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Dunlap, C.; Bardar, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44625826"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of different teaching styles on the teacher behaviours that influence motivational <span class="hlt">climate</span> and pupilsí motivation in physical education</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of different teaching styles on the teaching behaviours that influence motivational <span class="hlt">climate</span> and pupils’ cognitive and affective responses in physical education. Four (two male, two female) initial teacher education (ITE) students and 92 pupils (47 boys, 45 girls), from two <span class="hlt">schools</span> in the UK, participated in the study. The student teachers were filmed teaching three</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kevin Morgan; Kieran Kingston; John Sproule</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/206412"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on forests: A critical review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While current projections of future <span class="hlt">climate</span> change associated with increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases have a high degree of uncertainty, the potential <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on forests are of increasing concern. A number of studies based on forest simulation models predict substantial temperatures associated with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. However, the structure of these computer models may cause them to overemphasize the role of <span class="hlt">climate</span> in controlling tree growth and mortality. We propose that forest simulation models be reformulated with more realistic representations of growth responses to temperature, moisture, mortality, and dispersal. We believe that only when these models more accurately reflect the physiological bases of the responses of tree species to <span class="hlt">climate</span> variables can they be used to simulate responses of forests to rapid changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span>. We argue that direct forest responses to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change projected by such a reformulated model may be less traumatic and more gradual than those projected by current models. However, the indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on forests, mediated by alterations of disturbance regimes or the actions of pests and pathogens, may accelerate <span class="hlt">climate</span>-induced change in forests, and they deserve further study and inclusion within forest simulation models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); LeBlanc, D. [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess.watcyc.lp_global1/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change: Understanding the Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this lesson, students learn about ways in which scientists study past <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. These studies involve investigations of ice cores taken from the vast ice sheet that covers Greenland and fossil evidence that parts of the Sahara Desert were once lush and filled with animal species more often associated with the African savanna far to the south. With the help of multimedia interactives and video, they will understand what global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change is and that it has fluctuated many times during the history of the planet. They will also understand how changing <span class="hlt">climate</span> affects our lives, learn about greenhouse gases, and consider the events that are causing an increase in the amount of these gases in the atmosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3828158"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Weather and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change on Dengue</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background There is much uncertainty about the future impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on vector-borne diseases. Such uncertainty reflects the difficulties in modelling the complex interactions between disease, <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and socioeconomic determinants. We used a comprehensive panel dataset from Mexico covering 23 years of province-specific dengue reports across nine <span class="hlt">climatic</span> regions to estimate the impact of weather on dengue, accounting for the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of non-<span class="hlt">climatic</span> factors. Methods and Findings Using a Generalized Additive Model, we estimated statistically significant <span class="hlt">effects</span> of weather and access to piped water on dengue. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of weather were highly nonlinear. Minimum temperature (Tmin) had almost no <span class="hlt">effect</span> on dengue incidence below 5°C, but Tmin values above 18°C showed a rapidly increasing <span class="hlt">effect</span>. Maximum temperature above 20°C also showed an increasing <span class="hlt">effect</span> on dengue incidence with a peak around 32°C, after which the <span class="hlt">effect</span> declined. There is also an increasing <span class="hlt">effect</span> of precipitation as it rose to about 550 mm, beyond which such <span class="hlt">effect</span> declines. Rising access to piped water was related to increasing dengue incidence. We used our model estimations to project the potential impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on dengue incidence under three emission scenarios by 2030, 2050, and 2080. An increase of up to 40% in dengue incidence by 2080 was estimated under <span class="hlt">climate</span> change while holding the other driving factors constant. Conclusions Our results indicate that weather significantly influences dengue incidence in Mexico and that such relationships are highly nonlinear. These findings highlight the importance of using flexible model specifications when analysing weather–health interactions. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change may contribute to an increase in dengue incidence. Rising access to piped water may aggravate dengue incidence if it leads to increased domestic water storage. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change may therefore influence the success or failure of future efforts against dengue. PMID:24244765</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colon-Gonzalez, Felipe J.; Fezzi, Carlo; Lake, Iain R.; Hunter, Paul R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3060/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> changes and <span class="hlt">effect</span> on wild sheep habitat</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wild sheep are sensitive to environmental change and may be an <span class="hlt">effective</span> indicator species of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change in arctic and high mountain ecosystems. To understand the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> changes on Dall sheep habitat, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have been studying selected areas in Alaska since 2007. The research focus is on forage quality, nutrient levels, and changes resulting from warming or cooling <span class="hlt">climate</span> trends. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in Dall sheep diet accompanying vegetation changes and upslope retreat of glaciers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Heimer, Wayne; Roffler, Gretchen; Valdez, Raul; Gahl, Megan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://escholarship.org/uc/item/9034k05t?query="climate+change"+AND+state"> <span id="translatedtitle">A 4-stated DICE: quantitatively addressing uncertainty <span class="hlt">effects</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">effects</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> change a state dependent ocean coolingfor <span class="hlt">climate</span> change policy imply future states of the worldstate A 4-stated DICE: Quantitatively addressing uncertainty <span class="hlt">effects</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Traeger, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=homeroom+AND+teacher&pg=2&id=ED514880"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of an After-<span class="hlt">School</span> Tutoring Program on the Pennsylvania System of <span class="hlt">School</span> Assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to the challenges of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, many <span class="hlt">schools</span> and <span class="hlt">school</span> districts are implementing after-<span class="hlt">school</span> tutoring programs to provide students additional instruction to score proficient or better in reading and mathematics. This doctoral study analyzed the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the ABC Middle <span class="hlt">School</span> Educational Assistance Program…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carbone, Peter M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3017/@noteDOCUMENT#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3017/pdf/fs2010-3017_rev2012.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change and wildlife health: direct and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change will have significant <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans, according to scientists. The Intergovernmental Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change projects that unprecedented rates of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change will result in increasing average global temperatures; rising sea levels; changing global precipitation patterns, including increasing amounts and variability; and increasing midcontinental summer drought (Intergovernmental Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change, 2007). Increasing temperatures, combined with changes in rainfall and humidity, may have significant impacts on wildlife, domestic animal, and human health and diseases. When combined with expanding human populations, these changes could increase demand on limited water resources, lead to more habitat destruction, and provide yet more opportunities for infectious diseases to cross from one species to another. Awareness has been growing in recent years about zoonotic diseases— that is, diseases that are transmissible between animals and humans, such as Lyme disease and West Nile virus. The rise of such diseases results from closer relationships among wildlife, domestic animals, and people, allowing more contact with diseased animals, organisms that carry and transmit a disease from one animal to another (vectors), and people. Disease vectors include insects, such as mosquitoes, and arachnids, such as ticks. Thus, it is impossible to separate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of global warming on wildlife from its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the health of domestic animals or people. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change, habitat destruction and urbanization, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and pollution—all affect ecosystem and human health. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change can also be viewed within the context of other physical and <span class="hlt">climate</span> cycles, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (El Niño), the North Atlantic Oscillation, and cycles in solar radiation that have profound <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the Earth’s <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on wildlife disease are summarized in several areas of scientific study discussed briefly below: geographic range and distribution of wildlife diseases, plant and animal phenology (Walther and others, 2002), and patterns of wildlife disease, community and ecosystem composition, and habitat degradation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hofmeister, Erik; Rogall, Gail Moede; Wesenberg, Kathy; Abbott, Rachel; Work, Thierry; Schuler, Krysten; Sleeman, Jonathan; Winton, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24957266"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting potential responses to future <span class="hlt">climate</span> in an alpine ungulate: interspecific interactions exceed <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The altitudinal shifts of many montane populations are lagging behind <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Understanding habitual, daily behavioural rhythms, and their <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and environmental influences, could shed light on the constraints on long-term upslope range-shifts. In addition, behavioural rhythms can be affected by interspecific interactions, which can ameliorate or exacerbate <span class="hlt">climate</span>-driven <span class="hlt">effects</span> on ecology. Here, we investigate the relative influences of ambient temperature and an interaction with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) on the altitude use and activity budgets of a mountain ungulate, the Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). Chamois moved upslope when it was hotter but this <span class="hlt">effect</span> was modest compared to that of the presence of sheep, to which they reacted by moving 89-103 m upslope, into an entirely novel altitudinal range. Across the European Alps, a range-shift of this magnitude corresponds to a 46% decrease in the availability of suitable foraging habitat. This highlights the importance of understanding how factors such as competition and disturbance shape a given species' realised niche when predicting potential future responses to change. Furthermore, it exposes the potential for manipulations of species interactions to ameliorate the impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, in this case by the careful management of livestock. Such manipulations could be particularly appropriate for species where competition or disturbance already strongly restricts their available niche. Our results also reveal the potential role of behavioural flexibility in responses to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Chamois reduced their activity when it was warmer, which could explain their modest altitudinal migrations. Considering this behavioural flexibility, our model predicts a small 15-30 m upslope shift by 2100 in response to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, less than 4% of the altitudinal shift that would be predicted using a traditional species distribution model-type approach (SDM), which assumes that species' behaviour remains unchanged as <span class="hlt">climate</span> changes. Behavioural modifications could strongly affect how species respond to a changing <span class="hlt">climate</span>. PMID:24957266</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mason, Tom H E; Stephens, Philip A; Apollonio, Marco; Willis, Stephen G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.leadership.fau.edu/ICSEI2006/Papers/sun,%20de%20jong%20and%20creemers.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">school</span> improvement in The Netherlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose – The purpose of this study is to find out what kind of contextual factors that positively or negatively influence <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">school</span> improvement (ESI) in The Netherlands. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To achieve the above-mentioned purpose, Sun's contextual level model with ten contextual factors and 48 indicators has been used to carefully identify and evaluate three large Dutch ESI programs. Findings</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hechuan Sun; Rob de Jong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Taylor+AND+Francis+AND+Group&pg=5&id=ED529965"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Guide to <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">School</span> Leadership Theories</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Educational administrators know that leadership requires hundreds of judgments each day that require a sensitivity and understanding of various leadership strategies. Bridging the gap between the academic and practical world, "A Guide to <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">School</span> Leadership Theories" provides an exploration of ten dominant leadership strategies to give…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lynch, Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37452226"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of Programs to Prevent <span class="hlt">School</span> Bullying</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sixteen major evaluations of programs to prevent <span class="hlt">school</span> bullying, conducted in 11 different countries, are reviewed in detail. Of these 16 evaluations, 8 produced desirable results, 2 produced mixed results, 4 produced small or negligible <span class="hlt">effects</span>, and 2 produced undesirable results. These varying findings may reflect variations in programs, in implementation, in assessment methods, or in evaluation designs. It is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anna C. Baldry; David P. Farrington</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3607380"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Physical Education <span class="hlt">Climates</span> on Elementary Students' Physical Activity Behaviors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND With the growing need for children from underserved populations to be physically active it is imperative to create developmentally appropriate and enjoyable physical education programs that promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of mastery and performance <span class="hlt">climates</span> on physical activity during physical education. METHODS Children (N = 108) in grades K-2 from a rural southeastern elementary <span class="hlt">school</span> in the US were randomly assigned to a mastery or performance oriented <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The <span class="hlt">climates</span> were implemented over 10 <span class="hlt">school</span> days during regular scheduled physical education classes, and physical activity was measured with pedometers and SOFIT. Two experts in mastery motivational <span class="hlt">climates</span> served as teachers for the study and were counterbalanced between conditions. RESULTS Results showed that steps/minute were significantly higher for the mastery condition and participants in the mastery condition spent significantly less time sitting (p < .001) and in management (p < .001) and more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; p = .002) and fitness activities (p = .001). CONCLUSION Results indicate that a mastery approach, which allows children the opportunity to drive their own physical activity, elicits higher step counts and more time spent in MVPA compared to a performance-oriented approach. PMID:23516997</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gell, Nancy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41861115"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of deforestation and afforestation on <span class="hlt">climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forests cover 29% of the continents. Their importance for mankind is not only due to wood production but also by their manyfold influences on the biosphere. The properties of forest stands influence <span class="hlt">climate</span>, water balance, air constituents and the dynamic of atmosphere. The welfare functions of forests can be observed in the global as well as in the local or</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Albert Baumgartner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=LGBT&pg=4&id=EJ843883"> <span id="translatedtitle">Who, What, Where, When, and Why: Demographic and Ecological Factors Contributing to Hostile <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span> for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines how locational (region and locale), community-level (<span class="hlt">school</span> district poverty and adult educational attainment), and <span class="hlt">school</span> district-level (district size and ratios of students to key <span class="hlt">school</span> personnel) variables are related to indicators of hostile <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img 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target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED422151.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Rural <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: A Longitudinal Study of Western Australian Rural High <span class="hlt">School</span> Students.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports findings from the first 2 years of a longitudinal study of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> in Western Australia called the Western Australian <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Study (WASES). Creemer's multilevel model of educational <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> was used to guide the selection of variables for analysis. Data on the <span class="hlt">school</span> environment, the classroom…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young, Deidra J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMED33A0768B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Photo Elicitation Interview to Conceptualize In-Service Secondary <span class="hlt">School</span> Science Teachers' Knowledge Base For Teaching <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photo Elicitation Interviews (PEI) were used for assessing in-service secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> teachers' conceptual understanding about global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change (GCC). We selected PEI over attitude surveys, multiple-choice content assessments and interviews because we believe that evaluating knowledge about GCC requires an understanding of the system as a whole (Papadimitriou, 2004). Hence we conducted interviews with ten teachers using visual representations of GCC. The 8 images used in this approach were obtained from NASA image collection and local climatology websites. Questions associated with these images were developed, aligned with Essential Principles for <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Literacy (NOAA, 2009) and interviews were conducted following a weeklong, summer professional development workshop based on propagating <span class="hlt">climate</span> literacy. Image1 elicited teachers' understanding about global warming. Almost all said that they were intrigued but they needed for more evidence to fully understand the issue. Image 2 was designed to elicit teachers' understandings of weather vs. <span class="hlt">climate</span>. All ten teachers were able to distinguish between weather and <span class="hlt">climate</span> but were aware of how many years of weather data was needed to make <span class="hlt">climate</span> predictions. Their answers varied from 10 years to 100 years. Image 3 showed the Greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>, which most of the teachers were able to describe but they were not able, describe 'enhanced green house <span class="hlt">effect</span>'. Gaps in knowledge about 'earth as a radiating body' and 'long wave and short wave radiations' also became evident during the process. Similar to Grima et al., 2010, Gautier, 2006 and Kempton, 1991, three participants attributed the increase in global temperatures to the size of the ozone hole, which is a commonly held misconception. Image 4 showed an image of the Keeling curve, which was well explained by most, but only five teachers were able to identify the cause of seasonal fluctuations in the amount of carbon dioxide gas released in the atmosphere. Image 5 and 6 were a pictorial representation of the carbon dioxide levels and increasing temperatures in our atmosphere that all ten participants were able to describe confidently. Images7, 8 represented a flooding event in the Mississippi River in the Midwest USA. When asked about the direct and indirect impacts of changing <span class="hlt">climate</span> especially in regards to flooding and droughts, all the participants mentioned that increasing temperatures are correlated with the increased chances of drought or precipitation. They attributed this to the global circulation pattern of winds. Most participants were not sure about the interplay of several factors at a very local scale. Using this process of PEI, we were able to analyze teachers' overall understanding of GCC along with their misconceptions. We also observed that all ten participants of this study displayed their strongest knowledge towards <span class="hlt">climate</span> literacy principles 6 and 7 related to the causes and implications in a GCC scenario. There was a general lack of appreciation for feedbacks that occur within the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system, with almost no mentions of the connection between the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and the hydrological cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhattacharya, D.; Roehrig, G.; Karahan, E.; Liu, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fusion&pg=7&id=EJ737765"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secondary <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Online: Are High <span class="hlt">School</span> Web Sites <span class="hlt">Effective</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High <span class="hlt">schools</span> have traditionally focused on the in-depth instruction of specific subject matter and have served as both a preparatory phase for higher education for some students and an institution that prepares others to enter the workforce. One method to help high <span class="hlt">schools</span> accomplish these goals is through the creation and maintenance of a <span class="hlt">school</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hartshorne, Richard; Friedman, Adam; Algozzine, Bob; Isibor, Theresa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT/documents/2007_SprouleWangEtAl_PAID.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of motivational <span class="hlt">climate</span> in Singaporean physical education lessons on intrinsic motivation and physical activity intention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Little is known about the influence of perceived motivational <span class="hlt">climate</span> in physical education lessons from the Asian perspective. This study of 1122 secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> pupils from Singapore examined the psychometric properties of an existing classroom <span class="hlt">climate</span> measure. Additionally, the relationships between perceived motivational <span class="hlt">climate</span>, achievement goals, perceived competence and intrinsic interest and intention to be physically active were examined. It</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John Sproule; C. K. John Wang; Kevin Morgan; Mike McNeill; Terry McMorris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24855030"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survey of college <span class="hlt">climates</span> at all 28 US colleges and <span class="hlt">schools</span> of veterinary medicine: preliminary findings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In April 2011, a nationwide survey of all 28 US veterinary <span class="hlt">schools</span> was conducted to determine the comfort level (college <span class="hlt">climate</span>) of veterinary medical students with people from whom they are different. The original hypothesis was that some historically underrepresented students, especially those who may exhibit differences from the predominant race, ethnicity, religion, gender, or sexual orientation, experience a less welcoming college <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Nearly half of all US students responded to the survey, allowing investigators to make conclusions from the resulting data at a 99% CI with an error rate of less than 2% using Fowler's sample-size formula. Valuable information was captured despite a few study limitations, such as occasional spurious data reporting and little ability to respond in an open-ended manner (most questions had a finite number of allowed responses). The data suggest that while overall the majority of the student population is comfortable in American colleges, some individuals who are underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM) may not feel the same level of acceptance or inclusivity on veterinary <span class="hlt">school</span> campuses. Further examination of these data sets may explain some of the unacceptably lower retention rates of some of these URVM students on campuses. PMID:24855030</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greenhill, Lisa M; Carmichael, K Paige</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4223583"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not <span class="hlt">climate</span> influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. Methods To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003–2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several <span class="hlt">climatic</span> variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Results Within-season abundance patterns were related to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall <span class="hlt">climate</span> change scenarios for the period 2011–2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Conclusions Our results highlight that the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency will depend on the direct and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> and other parameters related to pathogen amplification and spillover on humans and other vertebrates. PMID:25030527</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/8428"> <span id="translatedtitle">Book Review: <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change on Birds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">effects</span>, and biological consequences of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change for birds. Indeed, this breadth is the book’s chief virtue—the diversity of overviews of such diverse dimensions of <span class="hlt">climate</span>-change implications for birds is impressive and highly useful in a single... and not very helpful for those seeking to gain insight into avenues toward deeper understand- ing of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change’s consequences for birds. The section on biological consequences, however, is quite a bit more useful. Chapters treat changes in the timing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peterson, A. Townsend</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3948295"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Plausible estimates of these <span class="hlt">climate</span> change impacts require combined use of <span class="hlt">climate</span>, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized <span class="hlt">climate</span> change scenarios produced by two <span class="hlt">climate</span> and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change’s representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2. The mean biophysical yield <span class="hlt">effect</span> with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to <span class="hlt">climate</span> shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. PMID:24344285</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Muller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMED33A0545J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Service-Learning in the Undergraduate Geoscience Classroom: Establishing Community Partnerships to Enhance Education in <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Science in Local <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complexity of the science surrounding global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change makes <span class="hlt">effective</span> communication about this issue to the public difficult, especially at a time when many would argue that public understanding of science in general has decreased. As a service-learning project, a partnership was created between an upper-level environmental studies <span class="hlt">climate</span> change class at Ursinus College (UC) and the UC Science In Motion (SIM) program to construct an appropriate lab activity that would foster scientific knowledge and abilities in high <span class="hlt">school</span> students particularly in relation to basic <span class="hlt">climate</span> change science. The Pennsylvania SIM program is a state-funded initiative to make a selection of lab activities, equipment, and expertise available to teachers at secondary <span class="hlt">schools</span> at no cost to the <span class="hlt">schools</span> with the goal to “strengthen the quality of science education for all.” The twelve SIM sites are dispersed throughout PA and serve over 200 <span class="hlt">school</span> districts overall. The UC SIM program has served over 30 local <span class="hlt">schools</span> with labs and activities from which the teachers may select. Prior to the partnership discussed here, there were no labs in the UC SIM program that incorporated the concepts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and though a “drop-off” <span class="hlt">climate</span> change lab was desired, the staff would have no time to design one. The adaptation of a previously written lab set on <span class="hlt">climate</span> change was assigned as a project for the 9 environmental studies majors at UC enrolled in a Fall 2008 course exploring the science of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. While an advanced course within the environmental studies curriculum, the science backgrounds of the college students themselves were mixed, ranging from science majors to students for whom this was the first or second science course taken at college. In addition to the typical load of coursework, the students worked in small groups on this project throughout the semester, collecting the supplies, testing and adapting the labs, creating a video to guide users through the lab, visiting a local high <span class="hlt">school</span> for a trial run, and editing and writing the worksheets and teacher guides. It was necessary for the students to clearly understand the concepts behind the labs so the activities could be adapted and presented appropriately. <span class="hlt">Effective</span> communication of the concepts through visuals and written work was also important. Continued coordination with UC SIM staff was required and helpful and the final product was turned over to the UC SIM for further adaptation and use. The college students appreciated the positive impact the lab could have on <span class="hlt">climate</span> change science education even after the end of the semester and found it both motivating and rewarding. Partnering with an organization already established and utilized as a source of science education activities for the local <span class="hlt">school</span> districts ensured quick dissemination of the lab activity. Between 1/09-6/09, ~12 teachers have used this global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change lab with ~500 students of mixed academic levels. The lab has received positive feedback from teachers and supplies have been duplicated to meet demand, likely indicative of a desire for accessible lab activities within the field of environmental science.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph, L. H.; Faust, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35965372"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> and ability on achievement test scores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper develops two methods for estimating the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> by postulating that both <span class="hlt">schooling</span> and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on <span class="hlt">schooling</span> and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; K. J. Kathleen J. Mullen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3887932"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Schooling</span> and Ability on Achievement Test Scores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper develops two methods for estimating the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> by postulating that both <span class="hlt">schooling</span> and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on <span class="hlt">schooling</span> and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mid+AND+parental+AND+height+AND+%2b-6.5&pg=4&id=EJ937634"> <span id="translatedtitle">Free <span class="hlt">School</span> Fruit--Sustained <span class="hlt">Effect</span> 1 Year Later</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study reports the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a <span class="hlt">school</span>-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian <span class="hlt">School</span> Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the <span class="hlt">school</span> year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen <span class="hlt">schools</span> received the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dfe&pg=6&id=EJ743107"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of Specialist <span class="hlt">Schools</span> in England</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In England, the government has encouraged state secondary <span class="hlt">schools</span> to be more diverse by becoming specialist. This paper reports estimates of the relative <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of specialist <span class="hlt">schools</span> for pupils' attainment in General Certificate of Secondary <span class="hlt">School</span> examinations in 2001 compared to nonspecialist comprehensive <span class="hlt">schools</span>, controlling for pupils'…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levacic, Rosalind; Jenkins, Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=staff+AND+attitude+AND+survey&pg=7&id=EJ938776"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> Culture and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> in the Context of Inclusion of Students with Learning Disabilities in Mainstream Secondary <span class="hlt">Schools</span> in Tel-Aviv, Israel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main research question that underpinned this study was whether there is a link between staff perceptions of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> and staff attitudes towards the inclusion of students with recognized learning disabilities. This investigation was conducted with reference to the notion of "changing" or "moving" cultures. The study relied on the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Timor, Tsafi; Burton, Neil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39680744"> <span id="translatedtitle">Synergistic <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Fishing in a Marine Ecosystem</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and overfishing are affecting the productivity and structure of marine ecosystems. This situation is\\u000a unprecedented for the marine biosphere and it is essential to understand the mechanisms and pathways by which ecosystems respond.\\u000a We report that <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and overfishing are likely to be responsible for a rapid restructuring of a highly productive\\u000a marine ecosystem with <span class="hlt">effects</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard R. Kirby; Gregory Beaugrand; John A. Lindley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.creaf.uab.es/ecophysiology/pdfs%20grup/pdfs/riera-et-al-EA2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">VALUATION OF <span class="hlt">CLIMATE</span>-CHANGE <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> ON MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBLANDS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In general, the socioeconomic analysis of natural systems does not enter into the realms of natural science. This paper, however, estimates the human-welfare <span class="hlt">effects</span> of possible physicochemical and biological impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on Mediterranean shrublands over the coming 50 years. The contingent choice method was applied to elicit the trade-offs in perceived values for three <span class="hlt">climate</span>-sensitive attributes of shrubland</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pere Riera; Josep Pen?uelas; Verónica Farreras; Marc Estiarte</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25005416"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and resource scarcity on health care.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change and resource scarcity pose significant threats to healthcare delivery. Nurses should develop the skills to cope with these challenges in the future. Skills sessions using sustainability scenarios can help nursing students to understand the <span class="hlt">effect</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and resource scarcity will have on health care. Involving design students in clinical skills sessions can encourage multidisciplinary working and help to find solutions to promote healthcare sustainability. PMID:25005416</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richardson, Janet; Grose, Jane; Jackson, Bethany; Gill, Jamie-Lee; Sadeghian, Hannah Becky; Hertel, Johannes; Kelsey, Janet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=adhesive+OR+sealant+OR+glue+OR+bonding&pg=3&id=EJ990317"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Bonding on High <span class="hlt">School</span> Seniors' Academic Achievement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors examine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of <span class="hlt">school</span> bonding have proximal and distal <span class="hlt">effects</span> on academic achievement. Attachment to <span class="hlt">school</span> and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3049019"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Mother's <span class="hlt">Schooling</span> on Children's <span class="hlt">Schooling</span> Using a Sample of Adoptees</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the impact of parental <span class="hlt">schooling</span> on the child?s <span class="hlt">schooling</span> and uses adoptees to get rid of persistency <span class="hlt">effects</span> caused by the parents? genes. The results indicate that, especially for mothers, inherited abilities and assortative mating play an important role in the intergenerational transmission of <span class="hlt">schooling</span>. In fact, for adoptees I found no treatment <span class="hlt">effect</span> for the mother?s</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erik Plug</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED507467.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring <span class="hlt">School</span> and Teacher <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> in EPIC Charter <span class="hlt">School</span> Consortium--Year 2. Final Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New Leaders for New <span class="hlt">Schools</span>, a nonprofit organization committed to training <span class="hlt">school</span> principals, heads the <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to <span class="hlt">effective</span> educators. Through this initiative, New Leaders offers financial awards to educators in two urban <span class="hlt">school</span> districts and a consortium of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Potamites, Liz; Booker, Kevin; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change%2c+AND+level&pg=3&id=EJ915901"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) Professional Development on Teacher Perceptions of <span class="hlt">School</span> Culture and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> in the United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines relationships between Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) implementation and <span class="hlt">school</span> culture and <span class="hlt">climate</span> and between AVID professional development and teachers' perceptions of whether AVIDhas had an impact on their <span class="hlt">schools</span>' culture and <span class="hlt">climate</span>. More than 3,100 teachers attending professional development workshops…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watt, Karen M.; Huerta, Jeffery; Mills, Shirley J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/93357"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a Simplified Simulation Tool for High Performance K-5 <span class="hlt">Schools</span> in Hot and Humid <span class="hlt">Climates</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SimBuild 2008 Third National Conference of IBPSA-USA Berkeley, California July 30 ? August 1, 2008 190 DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLIFIED SIMULATION TOOL FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE K-5 <span class="hlt">SCHOOLS</span> IN HOT AND HUMID <span class="hlt">CLIMATES</span> Piljae Im1, and Jeff S. Haberl1... 1Department of Architecture, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX ABSTRACT This paper presents the preliminary results of an effort to develop a simplified simulation-based tool for designing K-5 high performance <span class="hlt">schools</span> in hot...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Im, P.; Haberl, J. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED223008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Considering the Research: What Makes an <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">School</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four general types of literature related to <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> are reviewed in this paper and the more consistent research findings synthesized. The literature types considered are case studies (descriptions of <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span>), comparative studies (comparisons of <span class="hlt">effective</span> and ineffective <span class="hlt">schools</span>), program evaluations (examinations of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Westbrook, John D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58959576"> <span id="translatedtitle">From vision to learning: <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> measures of Christian <span class="hlt">school</span> boards</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This exploratory study investigated the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of Christian <span class="hlt">School</span> boards, as perceived by its members, and examined patterns and characteristics that describe internal board activities. The study employed a quantitative survey research design that revealed areas of strength and areas of growth for Christian <span class="hlt">School</span> board operations. Board <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> was measured in accordance with Smoley's (1999) Model for <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">School</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryan Glenn Zonnefeld</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED309561.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interdependence of Research and Practice: <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Research.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the importance and interdependence of <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> research and practice. The discussion is organized around answering three questions: (1) What problem does research on <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> propose to solve? (2) What has the research on <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> taught us and what further research is needed? (3) What factors will…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnstone, Whitcomb G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cyber&pg=3&id=EJ851073"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of Cyber Charter <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: A Review of Research on Learnings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cyber charter <span class="hlt">schools</span> in the United States have attracted considerable interest for students and families as alternatives to other public <span class="hlt">schools</span>, as well as from policymakers. As charter <span class="hlt">school</span> laws are enacted state-by-state, the <span class="hlt">climate</span> for charter <span class="hlt">schools</span>, including cyber charters grows more favorable. As of 2008, over 4500 charter <span class="hlt">schools</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cavanaugh, Cathy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sports+AND+%22academic+achievement%22&pg=4&id=EJ606016"> <span id="translatedtitle">Black High <span class="hlt">School</span> Students' Participation in <span class="hlt">School</span>-Sponsored Sports Activities: <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on <span class="hlt">School</span> Engagement and Achievement.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Examined the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of sports participation on African American high <span class="hlt">school</span> students' <span class="hlt">school</span> engagement, academic achievement, and self-evaluation. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1998 indicated that sports participation improved African American students' <span class="hlt">school</span> engagement and academic self-confidence. There was a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jordan, Will J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ateec.org/effects-of-climate-change-permafrost-and-glaciers-google-earth-virtual-field-trip-activity"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change- Permafrost and Glaciers - Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this two-part virtual field trip, students will explore permafrost, the <span class="hlt">effects</span> that <span class="hlt">climate</span> change has on current infrastructures built on it and other environmental impacts. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 environmental science community college and high <span class="hlt">school</span> instructors to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. Part two of this activity will take your class to various glaciers in Alaska and around the world. Students will learn about the <span class="hlt">effects</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> change has on these receding glaciers and discover what it means on a broader level. Materials include an excellent teacher's guide to help instructors implement this lesson in their classroom. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10259367"> <span id="translatedtitle">External Geophysics, <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Environment (<span class="hlt">Climate</span>) Greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and ice ages: historical perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article provides a brief historical perspective on the first scientific research on the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and glaciations. While these two aspects of our <span class="hlt">climate</span> can be investigated separately, naturalists, physicists and chemists during the 19th century were interested jointly in both issues, as well as the possible relationship between them. The contributions of famous pioneers are mentioned, ranging from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edouard Bard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......111G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Middle <span class="hlt">school</span> students' conceptual change in global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change: Using argumentation to foster knowledge construction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research examined middle <span class="hlt">school</span> student conceptions about global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the framework theory of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct incorrect ideas with correct ones, but instead weigh incoming ideas against already existing explanatory frameworks, which have likely served the learner well to this point. The research questions were as follows: (1) What are the patterns of students' conceptual change in GCC? (a) What conceptions are invoked in student learning in this arena? (b) What conceptions are most influential? (c) What are the extra-rational factors influencing conceptual change in GCC? This research took place in an urban public <span class="hlt">school</span> in a medium sized city in the southeastern United States. A sixth grade science teacher at Central Middle <span class="hlt">school</span>, Ms. Octane, taught a course titled "Research Methods I., which was an elective science course that students took as part of a science magnet program. A unit was designed for 6th grade instruction that incorporated an Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) approach, centered on the subject matter of Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change and Global Warming. Students were immersed in three separate lessons within the unit, each of which featured an emphasis upon creating scientific explanations based upon evidence. Additionally, each of the lessons placed a premium on students working towards the development of such explanations as a part of a group, with an emphasis on peer review of the robustness of the explanations proposed. The students were involved in approximately a two week unit emphasizing global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. This unit was based on an argumentation model that provided data to students and asked them to develop explanations that accounted for the data. The students then underwent a peer-review process to determine if their explanations could be modified to better account for the data as pointed out by peers. As the students experienced the three lessons comprising the unit, data were taken of various modes, including pre-unit, mid-unit, post-unit, and delayed-post unit interviews, observer notes from the classroom, and artifacts created by the students as individuals and as members of a group. At the end of the unit, a written post-assessment was administered, and post-interviews were conducted with the selected students. These varied data sources were analyzed in order to develop themes corresponding to their frameworks of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Negative cases were sought in order to test developing themes. Themes that emerged from the data were triangulated across the various data sources in order to ensure quality and rigor. These themes were then used to construct understandings of various students' frameworks of the content. Several findings emerged from this research. The first finding is that each student underwent some conceptual change regarding GCC, although of varying natures. The students' synthetic frameworks of GCC were more complex than their initial, or naive frameworks. Some characteristics of the naive frameworks included that the students tended to conflate <span class="hlt">climate</span> change with a broader, generic category of environmental things. Examples of this conflation include the idea that <span class="hlt">climate</span> change entails general pollution, litter, and needless killing of dolphins while fishing for tuna. This research suggests that students might benefit from explicit attention to this concept in terms of an ontological category, with the ideal synthetic view realizing that GCC is itself an example of an emergent process. Another characteristic of their naive frameworks includes some surprisingly accurate notions of GCC, including a general sense that temperatures and sea levels are rising. At the same time, none of the students were able to adequately invoke data to support their understandings of GCC. Instead, when data were invoked, students tended to include anecdotal informat</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Golden, Barry W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900018848&hterms=human+effect+global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dhuman%2Beffect%2Bglobal%2Bwarming"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of corpuscular radiation on weather and <span class="hlt">climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is no doubt that the antropogenic <span class="hlt">effect</span> play an important role in the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of corpuscular radiation on weather and <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The task, however, is to distinguish between antropogenic <span class="hlt">effect</span> in the atmosphere due to human activities and natural <span class="hlt">climatic</span> fluctuations influencing biological systems. The increase in global temperature during the past 100 years is in relatively good coincidence with the increase in geomagnetic (corpuscular) activity. It is concluded that it could have been the increase in temperature on the Northern Hemisphere, due to the processes occurring in the auroral oval under enhanced corpuscular radiation which led to an increased atmospheric concentration of CO2 in the past. Both processes, i.e., antropogenic and solar activity <span class="hlt">effects</span>, should be therefore intensively studied due to their important role for elucidating the past and present global change mainly in temperature, <span class="hlt">climate</span> and biological systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bucha, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E5065H"> <span id="translatedtitle">How shorter black carbon lifetime alters its <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Black carbon (BC), unlike most aerosol types, absorbs solar radiation. However, the quantification of its <span class="hlt">climate</span> impact is uncertain and presently under debate. Recently, attention has been drawn both to a likely underestimation of global BC emissions in <span class="hlt">climate</span> models, and an overestimation of BC at high altitudes. Here we show that doubling present day BC emissions in a model simulation, while reducing BC lifetime based on observational evidence, leaves the direct aerosol <span class="hlt">effect</span> of BC virtually unchanged. Increased emissions, together with increased wet removal that reduces the lifetime, yields modelled BC vertical profiles that are in strongly improved agreement with recent aircraft observations. Furthermore, we explore the consequences of an altered BC profile in a global circulation model, and show that both the vertical profile of BC and rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> adjustments need to be taken into account in order to assess the total <span class="hlt">climate</span> impact of BC.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Samset, Bjørn H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25255429"> <span id="translatedtitle">How shorter black carbon lifetime alters its <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Black carbon (BC), unlike most aerosol types, absorbs solar radiation. However, the quantification of its <span class="hlt">climate</span> impact is uncertain and presently under debate. Recently, attention has been drawn both to a likely underestimation of global BC emissions in <span class="hlt">climate</span> models, and an overestimation of BC at high altitudes. Here we show that doubling present day BC emissions in a model simulation, while reducing BC lifetime based on observational evidence, leaves the direct aerosol <span class="hlt">effect</span> of BC virtually unchanged. Increased emissions, together with increased wet removal that reduces the lifetime, yields modelled BC vertical profiles that are in strongly improved agreement with recent aircraft observations. Furthermore, we explore the consequences of an altered BC profile in a global circulation model, and show that both the vertical profile of BC and rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> adjustments need to be taken into account in order to assess the total <span class="hlt">climate</span> impact of BC. PMID:25255429</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hodnebrog, Oivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Samset, Bjørn H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.biosci.missouri.edu/avianecology/courses/avianecology/readings/Anders_A_2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution-wide <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on population densities of a declining migratory landbird</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1. Increases in global temperatures have created concern about <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> vari- ability on populations, and <span class="hlt">climate</span> has been shown to affect population dynamics in an increasing number of species. Testing for <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on population densities across a species' distribution allows for elucidation of <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> that would not be apparent at smaller spatial scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ANGELA D. ANDERS; ERIC POST</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://network.ku.edu.tr/~cbasdogan/Papers/Haptics_ClimateVis.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Haptics to Convey Cause-and-<span class="hlt">Effect</span> Relations in <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Visualization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using Haptics to Convey Cause-and-<span class="hlt">Effect</span> Relations in <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Visualization Nesra Yannier, Cagatay to enable natural and intuitive learning of cause-and-<span class="hlt">effect</span> relationships between <span class="hlt">climate</span> variables the understanding of <span class="hlt">climate</span> data and the cause-and-<span class="hlt">effect</span> relations between <span class="hlt">climate</span> variables, as well</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Basdogan, Cagatay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9105D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Water, Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Studies in International <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Network of the Park Škocjan Caves, Slovenia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As UNESCO World Heritage Site, Ramsar Site and Biosphere Reserve the Park Škocjan Caves strongly believes in development of quality educational programme in order to fulfill the guidelines of international conventions and also provide for awareness and development in the future. Ten years ago we started with water analysis projects and performed several projects related to natural, cultural and social aspect of water protection. We developed a special model of training the teachers and educating the children. Together we have accomplished two international projects, two national project and several research projects dealing with The Reka river and karst phenomena. In 2003 we officially established the <span class="hlt">schools</span> network, where we join in research education programmes five elementary <span class="hlt">schools</span> form Slovenia and two from Italy. They are all located beside the surface and underground flow of the Reka River. Fifteen teachers and more than hundred children are involved in educational programme every year. Our work in the <span class="hlt">schools</span> network enables us to bring science to society in a comprehensive way including the scientists and their work in preparation and implementation of projects. With teachers help we promote science studies but also encourage children to do social projects in order to keep intergeneration connections and gain knowledge of past experience and life from our grandparents. The paper will present the role of protected area in public awareness and education with special emphasis on natural phenomena of water in the Karst region as a toll for joint work in the field for scientists and <span class="hlt">school</span> children. Chemical and biological analysis of the Reka River and other water bodies will be presented and accompanied with the biodiversity survey and <span class="hlt">climate</span> change research projects. New approach of performing the research studies and presentation of results for schoolchildren will be explained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bias+AND+criterion&pg=4&id=EJ874339"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Criteria in <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Studies: Further Research on the Choice for a Multivariate Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to ascertain which <span class="hlt">school</span> characteristics can explain the differences in <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> between <span class="hlt">schools</span>, important methodological choices have to be made in <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> research. One of these choices relates to the criterion or criteria the researcher wishes to use to compare <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Should, for example, a <span class="hlt">school</span> be deemed…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Maeyer, Sven; van den Bergh, Huub; Rymenans, Rita; Van Petegem, Peter; Rijlaarsdam, Gert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPA21A1957D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> Engagement of Hostile Audiences on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Communicating <span class="hlt">effectively</span> about <span class="hlt">climate</span> change can be very frustrating because hostility to <span class="hlt">climate</span> science is rooted in deeply held beliefs rather than facts. Opposition can be more <span class="hlt">effectively</span> countered by respecting ideological objections than by aggressive insistence on acceptance of consensus evidence. When presented with a stark choice between sacred beliefs and factual evidence, social science research shows that nearly everyone will choose the latter. Rational argument from authority is often the weakest approach in such situations. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. <span class="hlt">Effective</span> communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Denning, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57751699"> <span id="translatedtitle">“Carbon literacy practices”: textual footprints between <span class="hlt">school</span> and home in children's construction of knowledge about <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the notion of “carbon literacy practices” through reporting on a small research project aimed at understanding how children make sense of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, and their subsequent related practices at <span class="hlt">school</span>, at home, and in the community. Drawing on a background in New Literacy Studies [e.g. Barton, D., Hamilton, M., and Ivanic, R., 2000. Situated literacies. London: Routledge;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Candice Satchwell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=creativity+AND+achievement&id=EJ885456"> <span id="translatedtitle">Goals and Values in <span class="hlt">School</span>: A Model Developed for Describing, Evaluating and Changing the Social <span class="hlt">Climate</span> of Learning Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial <span class="hlt">climate</span> in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their <span class="hlt">schools</span>. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allodi, Mara Westling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cause+AND+effect&pg=3&id=EJ980834"> <span id="translatedtitle">Religiosity and Parochial <span class="hlt">School</span> Choice: Cause or <span class="hlt">Effect</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, we examine the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of religiosity as measured by attendance at religious services on religious <span class="hlt">school</span> choice. Particular attention is given to the possibly endogenous relationship between <span class="hlt">school</span> choice and religiosity. We find that religiosity has an important causal <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the demand for parochial <span class="hlt">schools</span>. It is also shown…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sander, William; Cohen-Zada, Danny</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Burnaby&id=ED341162"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Partisanism in Suburban <span class="hlt">School</span> Board Elections.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Findings from a study that examined the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of partisanism on suburban <span class="hlt">school</span> board elections in Canada are presented in this paper. The study focused on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of formal political parties and more loosely organized political slates on political aggregation in <span class="hlt">school</span> board elections. Questionnaires were completed by 11 partisan <span class="hlt">school</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, Norman; Cohen, Sharon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nancy+AND+wake&pg=2&id=EJ527482"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are Year-Round, Multi-track Elementary <span class="hlt">Schools</span> <span class="hlt">Effective</span>? An Analysis of <span class="hlt">Schools</span> in Wake County, North Carolina.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Wake County (North Carolina) Public <span class="hlt">School</span> System currently operates 7 year-round <span class="hlt">schools</span> on a 45-15 day schedule. Six <span class="hlt">schools</span> with voluntary magnet enrollment operate on a multitrack system that has 75% of the students in <span class="hlt">school</span>, while 25% are on break. A program review showed that multitrack <span class="hlt">schools</span> are as <span class="hlt">effective</span> as traditional <span class="hlt">schools</span>.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prohm, Bethany; Baenen, Nancy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14975833"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forest decline: modeling the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> in tree rings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tree rings provide an historical record of forest growth that reflects changes with time in site factors including, competition, tree and stand age, fire and other disturbances, and <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Statistical methods can be used to factor out <span class="hlt">climatic</span> influences on radial growth to yield a <span class="hlt">climate</span> response model that can indicate whether declines in forest productivity are related to the modeled <span class="hlt">climatic</span> variables or to other influences such as atmospheric pollutants. A general method, based on ordinary least squares, is presented for creating <span class="hlt">climatic</span> response models for forest decline studies. The crux of the method is model verification, whereby the time-stability of the model is tested before it is used to forecast tree-ring variations during a period of decline. Three studies are described that employ monthly mean temperatures to predict tree-ring indices in declining red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands in the Appalachian Mountains of North America. The results indicate that, since 1960, red spruce trees at most of the sites sampled have undergone a period of growth decline that is unrelated to changes in mean monthly temperature. However, an association between annual ring width and unusual departures from the mean summer and winter temperatures during both present and past periods of decline suggests that <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> are implicated to some degree in the current decline. PMID:14975833</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cook, E R; Johnson, A H; Blasing, T J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42317729"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> Parental Influence: Academic home <span class="hlt">climate</span> linked to children's achievement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">What constitutes <span class="hlt">effective</span> parenting? An international consensus has evolved that <span class="hlt">effective</span> parenting makes important contributions to children's achievement. But the fundamental question is what constitutes <span class="hlt">effective</span> parenting. Most of the research that has been done in answering this question has been done within existing <span class="hlt">school</span> frameworks inside the educational bureaucracy. We answer this question by taking a different tact. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James Reed Campbell; Marilyn Ann Verna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Tasmania&pg=5&id=EJ853116"> <span id="translatedtitle">Classroom Computer <span class="hlt">Climate</span>, Teacher Reflections and "Reenvisioning" Pedagogy in Australian <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Considerable resources have been committed to providing information and communication technology in Australian <span class="hlt">schools</span>. However, little is known about their <span class="hlt">effects</span> on professional practice and student learning. This paper reports two main aspects of the data emerging from a current, ongoing three-year study (2002-04) Years 3, 5 and 7 of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robertson, Margaret; Fluck, Andrew; Webb, Ivan; Loechel, Barton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59184251"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of poverty on children's experiences of <span class="hlt">school</span> in two public secondary <span class="hlt">schools</span> of Balochistan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This thesis investigates the premise that poverty influences children's lives in different ways in the public <span class="hlt">schools</span> of Balochistan. There is little information about, and understanding of, how poverty-stricken children experience <span class="hlt">school</span> as opposed to children from better off families. The purpose of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of poverty on children's experiences of <span class="hlt">school</span> and to see</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shahid Hussain</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disposable+AND+income&pg=2&id=EJ719479"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Pupils' Health Behaviours: Evidence in Support of the Health Promoting <span class="hlt">School</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Compared with the volume of research on <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on educational outcomes, and in spite of growing interest in the health promoting <span class="hlt">school</span>, there are very few studies that have investigated the way <span class="hlt">schools</span> influence pupils' health behaviours. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study of over 2000 young people in the West of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">West, P.; Sweeting, H.; Leyland, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ANOVA+AND+SPSS+AND+Education&pg=4&id=ED527070"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Relationship between Principal Leadership <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> and <span class="hlt">School</span> Performance in South Carolina High <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A critical component for successful <span class="hlt">schools</span> is <span class="hlt">effective</span> leadership. In the 1980's the concept of leadership emerged and the rules changed for <span class="hlt">school</span> principals (Lashway, 2002). Previously, administrators were primarily evaluated based upon their abilities in managing <span class="hlt">school</span> facilities and operations efficiently. Academics became the new focus.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lempesis, Costa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.northeystreetcityfarm.org.au/LITG%20DOCUMENTS/school%20gardens%20health%20education%20behav.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Gardens on Students and <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Conceptualization and Considerations for Maximizing Healthy Development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are thousands of <span class="hlt">school</span> gardens in the United States, and there is anecdotal evidence that <span class="hlt">school</span> garden programs can enhance students' learning in academic, social, and health-related domains. There has been little rigorous research, however, on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> gardens or on the factors that promote the sustainability of these programs. This review draws on ecological theory to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Emily J. Ozer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19636740"> <span id="translatedtitle">Who, what, where, when, and why: demographic and ecological factors contributing to hostile <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines how locational (region and locale), community-level (<span class="hlt">school</span> district poverty and adult educational attainment), and <span class="hlt">school</span> district-level (district size and ratios of students to key <span class="hlt">school</span> personnel) variables are related to indicators of hostile <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Indicators of hostile <span class="hlt">climate</span> included frequency of homophobic remarks and victimization regarding sexual orientation and gender expression. We used data from a national survey of LGBT secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> students (N = 5,420; 57.6% female; 65.5% White; mean age = 15.9). Results from regression analyses demonstrated that LGBT youth in rural communities and communities with lower adult educational attainment may face particularly hostile <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climates</span>. <span class="hlt">School</span> district characteristics contributed little to the variation in LGBT youth's experiences. Findings highlight the importance of considering the multiple contexts that LGBT youth inhabit, particularly as they pertain to educational experiences. PMID:19636740</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kosciw, Joseph G; Greytak, Emily A; Diaz, Elizabeth M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Climate+AND+Change+AND+consequences&pg=5&id=ED535584"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Outsourcing on the Performance of Public <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Public education in the 21st century is faced with many difficult challenges. The first and probably most common issue is related to finance. As the economy continues to worsen, <span class="hlt">school</span> districts are forced to find new revenue streams while at the same time reducing expenditures. In the current economic <span class="hlt">climate</span>, it is becoming more difficult for…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rivera, Lonny J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3496743"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrasting <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change on Rabbit Populations through Reproduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is affecting many physical and biological processes worldwide. Anticipating its <span class="hlt">effects</span> at the level of populations and species is imperative, especially for organisms of conservation or management concern. Previous studies have focused on estimating future species distributions and extinction probabilities directly from current <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions within their geographical ranges. However, relationships between <span class="hlt">climate</span> and population parameters may be so complex that to make these high-level predictions we need first to understand the underlying biological processes driving population size, as well as their individual response to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence that <span class="hlt">climate</span> change may have on species population dynamics through altering breeding season. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a mechanistic model based on drivers of rabbit reproductive physiology together with demographic simulations to show how future <span class="hlt">climate</span>-driven changes in breeding season result in contrasting rabbit population trends across Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula, where rabbits are a native species of high ecological and economic value, breeding seasons will shorten and become more variable leading to population declines, higher extinction risk, and lower resilience to perturbations. Whereas towards north-eastern countries, rabbit numbers are expected to increase through longer and more stable reproductive periods, which augment the probability of new rabbit invasions in those areas. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals the type of mechanisms through which <span class="hlt">climate</span> will cause alterations at the species level and emphasizes the need to focus on them in order to better foresee large-scale complex population trends. This is especially important in species like the European rabbit whose future responses may aggravate even further its dual keystone/pest problematic. Moreover, this approach allows us to predict not only distribution shifts but also future population status and growth, and to identify the demographic parameters on which to focus to mitigate global change <span class="hlt">effects</span>. PMID:23152836</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23C0951N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Stream Temperatures in Regulated Rivers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We provide a method for examining mesoscale stream temperature objectives downstream of dams with anticipated <span class="hlt">climate</span> change using an integrated multi-model approach. Changing hydroclimatic conditions will likely impact stream temperatures within reservoirs and below dams, and affect downstream ecology. We model hydrology and water temperature using a series of linked models that includes a hydrology model to predict natural unimpaired flows in upstream reaches, a reservoir temperature simulation model , an operations model to simulate reservoir releases, and a stream temperature simulation model to simulate downstream conditions . All models are 1-dimensional and operate on either a weekly or daily timestep. First, we model reservoir thermal dynamics and release operations of hypothetical reservoirs of different sizes, elevations, and latitudes with <span class="hlt">climate</span>-forced inflow hydrologies to examine the potential to manage stream temperatures for coldwater habitat. Results are presented as stream temperature change from the historical time period and indicate that reservoir releases are cooler than upstream conditions, although the absolute temperatures of reaches below dams warm with <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. We also apply our method to a case study in California's Yuba River watershed to evaluate water regulation and hydropower operation <span class="hlt">effects</span> on stream temperatures with <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Catchments of the upper Yuba River are highly-engineered, with multiple, interconnected infrastructure to provide hydropower, water supply, flood control, environmental flows, and recreation. Results illustrate <span class="hlt">climate</span>-driven versus operations-driven changes to stream temperatures. This work highlights the need for methods to consider reservoir regulation <span class="hlt">effects</span> on stream temperatures with <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, particularly for hydropower relicensing (which currently ignores <span class="hlt">climate</span> change) such that impacts to other beneficial uses like coldwater habitat and instream ecosystems can be quantitatively assessed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Null, S. E.; Akhbari, M.; Ligare, S. T.; Rheinheimer, D. E.; Peek, R.; Yarnell, S. M.; Viers, J. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15573573"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> on landscape and regional processes, and feedbacks to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biological and physical processes in the Arctic system operate at various temporal and spatial scales to impact large-scale feedbacks and interactions with the earth system. There are four main potential feedback mechanisms between the impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on the Arctic and the global <span class="hlt">climate</span> system: albedo, greenhouse gas emissions or uptake by ecosystems, greenhouse gas emissions from methane hydrates, and increased freshwater fluxes that could affect the thermohaline circulation. All these feedbacks are controlled to some extent by changes in ecosystem distribution and character and particularly by large-scale movement of vegetation zones. Indications from a few, full annual measurements of CO2 fluxes are that currently the source areas exceed sink areas in geographical distribution. The little available information on CH4 sources indicates that emissions at the landscape level are of great importance for the total greenhouse balance of the circumpolar North. Energy and water balances of Arctic landscapes are also important feedback mechanisms in a changing <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Increasing density and spatial expansion of vegetation will cause a lowering of the albedo and more energy to be absorbed on the ground. This <span class="hlt">effect</span> is likely to exceed the negative feedback of increased C sequestration in greater primary productivity resulting from the displacements of areas of polar desert by tundra, and areas of tundra by forest. The degradation of permafrost has complex consequences for trace gas dynamics. In areas of discontinuous permafrost, warming, will lead to a complete loss of the permafrost. Depending on local hydrological conditions this may in turn lead to a wetting or drying of the environment with subsequent implications for greenhouse gas fluxes. Overall, the complex interactions between processes contributing to feedbacks, variability over time and space in these processes, and insufficient data have generated considerable uncertainties in estimating the net <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on terrestrial feedbacks to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system. This uncertainty applies to magnitude, and even direction of some of the feedbacks. PMID:15573573</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Callaghan, Terry V; Björn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Sitch, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6860163"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change: <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on reef island resources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-06-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.education.wisc.edu/elpa/people/faculty/Borman/OddenBormanFermanich2004.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing Teacher, Classroom, and <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span>, Including Fiscal <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, we argue that too much previous research has tended to assess the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of student, classroom, and <span class="hlt">school</span> variables in isolation from other variables and has often used statistical techniques that ignored the nested na- ture of the 3 classes of factors. We then argue that a more educationally ori- ented framework should be used to assess</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allan Odden; Geoffrey Borman; Mark Fermanich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://people.clemson.edu/~mchildr/papers/Capinha%20et%20al.%202013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contributed Paper <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change, Invasive Species, and</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Contributed Paper <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change, Invasive Species, and Disease on the Distribution-214 Lisbon, Portugal, email capinha@uevora.pt Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University to higher latitudes or elevations, but many dispersal-limited freshwater species may be unable to move due</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Childress, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40926448"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on chemical_ weathering in watersheds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on chemical weathering are evaluated by correlating variations On solute concentrations and fluxes with temperature, precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET) for a worldwide distribution of sixty-eight watersheds underlain by granitoid rock types. Stream solute concentrations are strongly correlated with proportional ET loss, and evaporative concentration makes stream solute concentrations an inappropriate surrogate for chemical weathering. Chemical fluxes are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Art F. White; Alex E. Blum</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=ftp://grads.iges.org/pub/ctr/ctr_226.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Amazon Deforestation on Tropical <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes the results of a study in which <span class="hlt">climate</span> modeling was used to examine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of deforestation in the Amazon basin. The study concluded that changes in land surface properties (loss of forest cover) cause changes in the mean surface wind stress in the tropical Pacific, which in turn results in increased variability of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49231244"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ameliorating the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change: Modifying microclimates through design</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microclimatic planning and design can ameliorate negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Design modifications to outdoor environments can increase thermal comfort, and in extreme cases can be life-saving. This is not work for amateurs, or for professionals using their intuition or personal experiences. This work must be based on scholarly evidence acquired through carefully designed studies, accurate and precise measurements,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert D. Brown</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cybele.bu.edu/download/manuscripts/lmzhou05.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a significant urbanization <span class="hlt">effect</span> on <span class="hlt">climate</span> in China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">and in satellite-measured greenness. Land-use changes from urbanization, creating an urban heat island (UHI), haveEvidence for a significant urbanization <span class="hlt">effect</span> on <span class="hlt">climate</span> in China Liming Zhou* , Robert E 30332; Department of Urban and Environmental Sciences, and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Myneni, Ranga B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22076375"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> on biogeochemical cycles and <span class="hlt">climate</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The net <span class="hlt">effect</span> of anthropogenic aerosols on <span class="hlt">climate</span> is usually considered the sum of the direct radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> of anthropogenic aerosols, plus the indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> of these aerosols through aerosol-cloud interactions. However, an additional impact of aerosols on a longer time scale is their indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> on <span class="hlt">climate</span> through biogeochemical feedbacks, largely due to changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO(2). Aerosols can affect land and ocean biogeochemical cycles by physical forcing or by adding nutrients and pollutants to ecosystems. The net biogeochemical <span class="hlt">effect</span> of aerosols is estimated to be equivalent to a radiative forcing of -0.5 ± 0.4 watts per square meter, which suggests that reaching lower carbon targets will be even costlier than previously estimated. PMID:22076375</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahowald, Natalie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://esa21.kennesaw.edu/activities/atmosphere/atms_climatechange.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Effect/Climate</span> Change/Global Warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The terms greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, and global warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three separate and distinct processes. This activity examines all three and assesses whether Earth's atmosphere is getting warmer. Students will read two articles from the journal of Science that discuss the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change (IPCC) and investigate the bias of both groups of authors. This activity requires the use of two articles from the July 20, 2001 issue of the journal Science.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fox, Chris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Sci...297.2250M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Black Carbon Aerosols in China and India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent decades, there has been a tendency toward increased summer floods in south China, increased drought in north China, and moderate cooling in China and India while most of the world has been warming. We used a global <span class="hlt">climate</span> model to investigate possible aerosol contributions to these trends. We found precipitation and temperature changes in the model that were comparable to those observed if the aerosols included a large proportion of absorbing black carbon (``soot''), similar to observed amounts. Absorbing aerosols heat the air, alter regional atmospheric stability and vertical motions, and affect the large-scale circulation and hydrologic cycle with significant regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menon, Surabi; Hansen, James; Nazarenko, Larissa; Luo, Yunfeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6617289"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of landscape disturbances and the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this research is to understand how changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> may affect the structure of landscapes that are subject to periodic disturbances. A general model useful for examining the linkage between <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change and landscape change has been developed. The model makes use of synoptic <span class="hlt">climatic</span> data, a geographical information system (GRASS), field data on the location of disturbance patches, simulation code written in the SIMSCRIPT language, and a set of landscape structure analysis programs written specifically for this research project. A simplified version of the model, lacking the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> driver, has been used to analyze how changes in disturbance regimes (in this case settlement and fire suppression) affect landscape change. Landscape change lagged in its response to changes in the disturbance regime, but the lags differed depending upon the character of the change and the particular measure considered. The model will now be modified for use in a specific setting to analyze the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> on the structure of flood-disturbed patches along the Animas River, Colorado.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baker, W.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019112"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on chemical weathering in watersheds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on chemical weathering are evaluated by correlating variations in solute concentrations and fluxes with temperature, precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET) for a worldwide distribution of sixty-eight watersheds underlain by granitoid rock types. Stream solute concentrations are strongly correlated with proportional ET loss, and evaporative concentration makes stream solute concentrations an inapprorpiate surrogate for chemical weathering. Chemical fluxes are unaffected by ET, and SiO2 and Na weathering fluxes exhibit systematic increases with precipitation, runoff, and temperature. However, warm and wet watersheds produce anomalously rapid weathering rates. A proposed model that provides an improved prediction of weathering rates over <span class="hlt">climatic</span> extremes is the product of linear precipitation and Arrhenius temperature functions. The resulting apparent activation energies based on SiO2 and Na fluxes are 59.4 and 62.5 kJ.mol-1, respectively. The coupling between temperature and precipitation emphasizes the importance of tropical regions in global silicate weathering fluxes, and suggests it is not representative to use continental averages for temperature and precipitation in the weathering rate functions of global carbon cycling and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change models. Fluxes of K, Ca, and Mg exhibit no <span class="hlt">climatic</span> correlation, implying that other processes, such as ion exchange, nutrient cycling, and variations in lithology, obscure any <span class="hlt">climatic</span> signal. -from Authors</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">White, A. F.; Blum, A. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795883.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Challenges of Staffing Urban <span class="hlt">Schools</span> with <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Teachers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Brian Jacob examines challenges faced by urban districts in staffing their <span class="hlt">schools</span> with <span class="hlt">effective</span> teachers. He emphasizes that the problem is far from uniform. Teacher shortages are more severe in certain subjects and grades than others, and differ dramatically from one <span class="hlt">school</span> to another. The Chicago public <span class="hlt">schools</span>, for example, regularly receive…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacob, Brian A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=questionnaire%24&pg=6&id=EJ1011112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span> in Facing and Reducing Bullying</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article examines whether variation in <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> in terms of reducing bullying can be attributed to differences in their classroom and <span class="hlt">school</span> learning environment. All 6th grade students ("n"?=?1504) of 35 primary <span class="hlt">schools</span> in Cyprus participated in this study. The revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire was used to measure bullying…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert Peter Maria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Michael+AND+Fullan&pg=2&id=ED461940"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Keys to <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Educational Reform as Continuous Improvement.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Educational researchers and policy analysts concur increasingly that the organizational design and culture of <span class="hlt">schools</span> can either enhance or hinder the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> reform efforts. This book offers a series of essays that may help parents, educators, and policymakers understand and solve <span class="hlt">school</span> organizational problems that get in the way…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hawley, Willis D., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=approaches+AND+change&id=EJ1005546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rethinking <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> and Improvement: A Question of Paradigms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this article is to contribute to progressive <span class="hlt">school</span> change by developing a more systematic critique of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> (SE) and <span class="hlt">school</span> improvement (SI) as paradigms. Diverse examples of paradigms and paradigm change in non-educational fields are used to create a model of paradigms for application to SE and SI, and to explore…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wrigley, Terry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59183256"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are <span class="hlt">school</span> nurses <span class="hlt">effective</span> in the fight against childhood obesity?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background. With childhood obesity on the rise in the United States, <span class="hlt">school</span> nurses are faced with the task of preventing, identifying and treating obese children in their <span class="hlt">schools</span>. This study reviews current literature and examines the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of the <span class="hlt">school</span> nurse regarding obesity prevention and treatment services and the barriers they face.^ Methods. Ovid, Ebsco, Google Scholar and other professional</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jill Bunting</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED312361.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Critical Issues in the Education of Black Children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This collection of essays focuses on how Ronald Edmond's work on <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> and <span class="hlt">school</span> improvement can affect the education of black children. The book represents a cooperative effort of the Charles D. Moody Research Institute, established as a vehicle for the program services of the National Alliance of Black <span class="hlt">School</span> Educators (NABSE), and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bates, Percy, Ed.; Wilson, Ted, Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=impact+AND+ethical+AND+responsibility&pg=2&id=EJ880396"> <span id="translatedtitle">Why Evaluation Matters: Determining <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">School</span> Counseling Practices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Why does evaluation matter so much in <span class="hlt">school</span> counseling? Most importantly, when <span class="hlt">school</span> counselors evaluate their interventions and programs, they can be more certain that what they are doing is making a difference for their students. <span class="hlt">School</span> counselors have a professional responsibility to show that what they are doing is <span class="hlt">effective</span>. With evaluation…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dimmitt, Carey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED340106.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bringing Context into <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Research: Urban-Suburban Differences.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Findings from a study that examined the relationship between external environmental factors and <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">school</span> conditions are presented in this paper. A focus is on the ways in which the different "educational worlds" of urban, suburban, and rural high <span class="hlt">schools</span> shape internal <span class="hlt">school</span> processes. Methodology involved an analysis of the relationship…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hannaway, Jane; Talbert, Joan E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=population+AND+size+AND+new+AND+york+AND+city&id=EJ1008901"> <span id="translatedtitle">Special Education & <span class="hlt">School</span> Choice: The Complex <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Small <span class="hlt">Schools</span>, <span class="hlt">School</span> Choice and Public High <span class="hlt">School</span> Policy in New York City</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article begins to unpack the complex <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the policies of both the small <span class="hlt">schools</span> and choice on students with special needs. Drawing on qualitative data collected throughout the 2008-2009 academic year and a range of quantitative data from New York City's public high <span class="hlt">schools</span>, the author shows that while small <span class="hlt">schools</span> and choice are…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jessen, Sarah Butler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24060062"> <span id="translatedtitle">Examining classroom influences on student perceptions of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>: the role of classroom management and exclusionary discipline strategies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is growing emphasis on the use of positive behavior supports rather than exclusionary discipline strategies to promote a positive classroom environment. Yet, there has been limited research examining the association between these two different approaches to classroom management and students' perceptions of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Data from 1902 students within 93 classrooms that were nested within 37 elementary <span class="hlt">schools</span> were examined using multilevel structural equation modeling procedures to investigate the association between two different classroom management strategies (i.e., exclusionary discipline strategies and the use of positive behavior supports) and student ratings of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> (i.e., fairness, order and discipline, student-teacher relationship, and academic motivation). The analyses indicated that greater use of exclusionary discipline strategies was associated with lower order and discipline scores, whereas greater use of classroom-based positive behavior supports was associated with higher scores on order and discipline, fairness, and student-teacher relationship. These findings suggest that pre-service training and professional development activities should promote teachers' use of positive behavior support strategies and encourage reduced reliance on exclusionary discipline strategies in order to enhance the <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> and conditions for learning. PMID:24060062</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mitchell, Mary M; Bradshaw, Catherine P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED453047.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schooling</span> in Rural Africa Report 4: Frequently Asked Questions about <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schooling</span> in Rural Communities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The challenges of making rural <span class="hlt">schools</span> more <span class="hlt">effective</span> vary with different types of rural conditions. But typically these challenges might include any of the following: teacher shortages, lack of facilities, isolation, HIV/AIDS and related social stigma, war crises and displaced populations, multigrade and shift teaching, administration of small…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPA33C..05D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> Engagement of Hostile Audiences on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2010 and 2011, I gave invited presentations of mainstream <span class="hlt">climate</span> science to large conferences dismissive of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change organized by the HEartland Institute. In this presentation I review some of the common objections raised by such audiences and outline <span class="hlt">effective</span> strategies to rebut them in public venues or the media. Respectful engagement on a human level is much more <span class="hlt">effective</span> than appeals from authority, scientific consensus, or numerical models. Starting from a base of agreement on basic facts helps establish a basis of trust, which is then nurtured through personal anecdotes and humor. The basic science of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change is presented in a non-confrontational way with frequent use of examples from everyday life to explain physical principles. Although a hard core of hostile individuals may not be swayed by such an approach, my experience was that this type of engagement can be very <span class="hlt">effective</span> with ordinary people. I strongly encourage more <span class="hlt">climate</span> scientists to work with public audiences and the media.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Denning, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3401F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real' vegetation under the ‘real' moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) <span class="hlt">climate</span> due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze <span class="hlt">climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">(Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Gijsbert) Cirkel, D. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H43J..04B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real’ vegetation under the ‘real’ moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) <span class="hlt">climate</span> due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze <span class="hlt">climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bartholomeus, R.; Voortman, B.; Witte, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39796112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential soil carbon sequestration in a semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystem under <span class="hlt">climate</span> change: Quantifying management and <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is projected to significantly impact vegetation and soils of managed ecosystems. In this study we used the\\u000a ecosystem Century model together with <span class="hlt">climatic</span> outputs from different atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCM)\\u000a to study the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and management on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in semiarid Mediterranean conditions\\u000a and to identify which management practices have the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jorge Álvaro-Fuentes; Keith Paustian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3858509"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Quality on Black-White Health Differences: Evidence From Segregated Southern <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study assesses the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of black-white differences in <span class="hlt">school</span> quality on black-white differences in health in later life resulting from the racial convergence in <span class="hlt">school</span> quality for cohorts born between 1910 and 1950 in southern states with segregated <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Using data from the 1984 through 2007 National Health Interview Surveys linked to race-specific data on <span class="hlt">school</span> quality, we find that reductions in the black-white gap in <span class="hlt">school</span> quality led to modest reductions in the black-white gap in disability. PMID:23839102</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Frisvold, David; Golberstein, Ezra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B42C..02P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interactive <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Nitrogen and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change on Biodiversity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biodiversity has been described as the diversity of life on earth within species, between species and in ecosystems. Biodiversity contributes to regulating ecosystem services like <span class="hlt">climate</span>, flood, disease, and water quality regulation. Biodiversity also supports and sustains ecosystem services that provide material goods like food, fiber, fuel, timber and water, and to non-material benefits like educational, recreational, spiritual, and aesthetic ecosystem services. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment estimated that the rate of biodiversity loss due to human activity in the last 50 years has been more rapid than at any other time in human history, and that many of the drivers of biodiversity loss are increasing. The strongest drivers of biodiversity loss include habitat loss, overexploitation, invasive species, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, and pollution, including pollution from reactive nitrogen. Of these stressors, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and reactive nitrogen from anthropogenic activities are causing some of the most rapid changes. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is causing warming trends that result in consistent patterns of poleward and elevational range shifts of flora and fauna, causing changes in biodiversity. Warming has also resulted in changes in phenology, particularly the earlier onset of spring events, migration, and lengthening of the growing season, disrupting predator-prey and plant-pollinator interactions. In addition to warming, elevated carbon dioxide by itself can affect biodiversity by influencing plant growth, soil water, tissue stoichiometry, and trophic interactions. Nitrogen enrichment also impacts ecosystems and biodiversity in a variety of ways. Nitrogen enhances plant growth, but has been shown to favor invasive, fast-growing species over native species adapted to low nitrogen conditions. Although there have been a limited number of empirical studies on <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and nitrogen interactions, inferences can be drawn from observed responses to each stressor by itself. For example, in certain arid ecosystems of southern California, elevated nitrogen has promoted invasions of annual non-native grasses. At the same time, a period of above-normal precipitation years has exacerbated the grass invasions. Increased grass cover has altered the hydrologic cycle of these areas and increased fire risk, ultimately leading to conversion of the ecosystem from diverse shrublands to less diverse grasslands. In addition to empirical studies, modeling can be used to simulate <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and nitrogen interactions. The ForSAFE-VEG model, for example, has been used to examine <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and nitrogen interactions in Rocky Mountain alpine vegetation communities. Results from both empirical studies and modeling indicate that nitrogen and <span class="hlt">climate</span> change interact to drive losses in biodiversity greater than those caused by either stressor alone. Reducing inputs of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen may be an <span class="hlt">effective</span> mitigation strategy for protecting biodiversity in the face of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Porter, E. M.; Bowman, W. D.; Clark, C. M.; Compton, J. E.; Pardo, L. H.; Soong, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10108564"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of anthropogenic sulfate: Simulations from a coupled chemistry/<span class="hlt">climate</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we use a more comprehensive approach by coupling a <span class="hlt">climate</span> model with a 3-D global chemistry model to investigate the forcing by anthropogenic aerosol sulfate. The chemistry model treats the global-scale transport, transformation, and removal of SO{sub 2}, DMS and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} species in the atmosphere. The mass concentration of anthropogenic sulfate from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is calculated in the chemistry model and provided to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> model where it affects the shortwave radiation. We also investigate the <span class="hlt">effect</span>, with cloud nucleation parameterized in terms of local aerosol number, sulfate mass concentration and updraft velocity. Our simulations indicate that anthropogenic sulfate may result in important increases in reflected solar radiation, which would mask locally the radiative forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Uncertainties in these results will be discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Walton, J.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1978/0776a/report.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> variation and its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on our land and water : Part A, Earth science in <span class="hlt">climate</span> research</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To better coordinate information being generated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a workshop was convened near Denver, Colo., on December 7-9, 1976, to exchange ideas about research that is oriented toward <span class="hlt">climate</span>, <span class="hlt">climate</span> variation, and the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on the Nation 's land and water resources. This is the first circular of a three-part report resulting from that workshop. Hydrologic records provide information to the earth scientist about the responses of ground water, surface water, and glaciers to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface water, and glaciers to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface responses to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change; biological records yield information about the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change on the Earth 's biota; archeological records tell us where and how man was able to live under changing <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions; and historical records allow the specific <span class="hlt">effects</span> of short-term changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> to be accurately documented. The interrelation between present and past geologic environments, various methods of study , and the span of time over which the results can be applied are shown in a table. (Woodard-USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">edited by Smith, George I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/w337j74736n3j002.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a This chapter reviews possible <span class="hlt">effects</span> of expected <span class="hlt">climate</span> change in view of current knowledge on consequences of water temperature\\u000a and flow for Atlantic salmon and brown trout in their endemic range. Population-level <span class="hlt">effects</span> influencing life-history variables,\\u000a recruitment, mortality and production are especially emphasized, but also behaviour changes influencing migration, distribution\\u000a and avoidance of unfavourable conditions are included. How these fishes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bror Jonsson; Nina Jonsson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effective+OR+strategy+OR+style%24+AND+teaching%27+AND+access%24&pg=3&id=EJ826446"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> Library Media Specialists as <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">School</span> Leaders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2006), "Accomplished library media specialists are instructional leaders who forge greater opportunities for learners" (55). As one of the few <span class="hlt">school</span> personnel responsible for all students, the media specialist can serve as a coordinator and an advocate. They can ensure equitable…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Everhart, Nancy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41320081"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on migration: United States, 1995–2000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on migration. We examine whether <span class="hlt">climate</span> is an influential factor in internal migration. We assume that most persons tend to avoid exposure to bitter and cold winters, and excessively hot and humid summers, preferring <span class="hlt">climates</span> between these extremes. When engaging in-migration decision-making, therefore, to the extent possible, considerations involving <span class="hlt">climate</span> are believed to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dudley L. Poston Jr.; Li Zhang; David J. Gotcher; Yuan Gu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..755H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of interannual <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability on tropical tree cover</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> warming is substantially intensifying the global water cycle and is projected to increase rainfall variability. Using satellite data, we show that higher <span class="hlt">climatic</span> variability is associated with reduced tree cover in the wet tropics globally. In contrast, interannual variability in rainfall can have neutral or even positive <span class="hlt">effects</span> on tree cover in the dry tropics. In South America, tree cover in dry lands is higher in areas with high year-to-year variability in rainfall. This is consistent with evidence from case studies suggesting that in these areas rare wet episodes are essential for opening windows of opportunity where massive tree recruitment can overwhelm disturbance <span class="hlt">effects</span>, allowing the establishment of extensive woodlands. In Australia, wet extremes have similar <span class="hlt">effects</span>, but the net <span class="hlt">effect</span> of rainfall variability is overwhelmed by negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of extreme dry years. In Africa, <span class="hlt">effects</span> of rainfall variability are neutral for dry lands. It is most likely that differences in herbivore communities and fire regimes contribute to regulating tree expansion during wet extremes. Our results illustrate that increasing <span class="hlt">climatic</span> variability may affect ecosystem services in contrasting, and sometimes surprising, ways. Expansion of dry tropical tree cover during extreme wet events may decrease grassland productivity but enhance carbon sequestration, soil nutrient retention and biodiversity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holmgren, Milena; Hirota, Marina; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750058626&hterms=greenhouse+effect&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dgreenhouse%2Beffect"> <span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> due to chlorofluorocarbons - <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramanathan, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://faculty.forestry.ubc.ca/hinch/486/PPT2013/Climate%20Change%20and%20Sockeye%20Salmon.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Sockeye Elaina Gyuro</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of sockeye salmon · Research variables examined · Life stage summaries ­ Eggs and alevins ­ Fry ­ Smolts and region/river of stock origin 3. Life stage studied: (9 stages in sockeye: egg, alevin, fry, smolt, post. 2012. #12;Eggs and alevins · <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of temperatures between 1 -16 C have been studied in the lab</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hinch, Scott G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040031721&hterms=global+warming+effects&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Bwarming%2Beffects"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and the Maunder Minimum: Minimum Certainty</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current state of our understanding of solar <span class="hlt">effects</span> on <span class="hlt">climate</span> is reviewed. As an example of the relevant issues, the <span class="hlt">climate</span> during the Maunder Minimum is compared with current conditions in GCM simulations that include a full stratosphere and parameterized ozone response to solar spectral irradiance variability and trace gas changes. The GISS Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span>/Middle Atmosphere Model coupled to a q-flux/mixed layer model is used for the simulations, which begin in 1500 and extend to the present. Experiments were made to investigate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of total versus spectrally-varying solar irradiance changes; spectrally-varying solar irradiance changes on the stratospheric ozone/<span class="hlt">climate</span> response with both pre-industrial and present trace gases; and the impact on <span class="hlt">climate</span> and stratospheric ozone of the preindustrial trace gases and aerosols by themselves. The results showed that: (1) the Maunder Minimum cooling relative to today was primarily associated with reduced anthropogenic radiative forcing, although the solar reduction added 40% to the overall cooling. There is no obvious distinguishing surface <span class="hlt">climate</span> pattern between the two forcings. (2)The global and tropical response was greater than 1 C, in a model with a sensitivity of 1.2 C per W m-2. To reproduce recent low-end estimates would require a sensitivity 1/4 as large. (3) The global surface temperature change was similar when using the total and spectral irradiance prescriptions, although the tropical response was somewhat greater with the former, and the stratospheric response greater with the latter. (4) Most experiments produce a relative negative phase of the NAO/AO during the Maunder Minimum, with both solar and anthropogenic forcing equally capable, associated with the tropical cooling and relative poleward EP flux refraction. (5) A full stratosphere appeared to be necessary for the negative AO/NAO phase, as was the case with this model for global warming experiments, unless the cooling was very large, while the ozone response played a minor role and did not influence surface temperature significantly. (6) Stratospheric ozone was most affected by the difference between present day and preindustrial atmospheric composition and chemistry, with increases in the upper and lower stratosphere during the Maunder Minimum. While the estimated UV reduction led to ozone decreases, this was generally less important than the anthropogenic <span class="hlt">effect</span> except in the upper middle stratosphere, as judged by two different ozone photochemistry schemes. (7) The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the reduced solar irradiance on stratospheric ozone and on <span class="hlt">climate</span> was similar in Maunder Minimum and current atmospheric conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rind, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED515943.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Threat Assessment in <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climates</span>. Revised</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since June 1999, the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Secret Service have been working as a team to try to better understand--and ultimately help prevent--<span class="hlt">school</span> shootings in America. The authors believe the results of this effort have given <span class="hlt">schools</span> and communities real cause for hope. Through the "Safe <span class="hlt">School</span> Initiative," staff from the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fein, Robert A.; Vossekuil, Bryan; Pollack, William S.; Borum, Randy; Modzeleski, William; Reddy, Marisa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=minimum+AND+wage&id=EJ660853"> <span id="translatedtitle">Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at <span class="hlt">Schooling</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Examines the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of minimum wage on <span class="hlt">schooling</span>, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of minimum wages on <span class="hlt">school</span> enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of minimum wages on enrollment…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neumark, David; Wascher, William</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change%2c+AND+level&pg=2&id=EJ958668"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Principal's Leadership Style on Support for Innovation: Evidence from Korean Vocational High <span class="hlt">School</span> Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">climate</span> of innovation and principal leadership in <span class="hlt">schools</span> are regarded as significant factors in successfully implementing <span class="hlt">school</span> change or innovation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> supportive of innovation and the principal's leadership has rarely been addressed to determine whether <span class="hlt">schools</span> successfully perform their…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Joo-Ho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=highscope+AND+curriculum&pg=7&id=ED399086"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> Intervention in Primary <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Nurture Groups.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book summarizes the experiences of nurture groups (small special education classes started in 1970 in London <span class="hlt">schools</span>), where young children from disadvantaged environments are prepared to access the full primary <span class="hlt">school</span> curriculum. Chapter 1, "Children at Risk of Failure in Primary <span class="hlt">Schools</span>" (Marion Bennathan), discusses the incidence and early…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bennathan, Marion; Boxall, Marjorie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4035734"> <span id="translatedtitle">Jump In! An Investigation of <span class="hlt">School</span> Physical Activity <span class="hlt">Climate</span>, and a Pilot Study Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Novel Tool to Increase Activity during Learning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Physical activity (PA) benefits children’s physical and mental health and enhances academic performance. However, in many nations, PA time in <span class="hlt">school</span> is decreasing under competing pressures for time during the <span class="hlt">school</span> day. The present paper argues that PA should not be reduced or seen as incompatible with academic learning. Instead, the authors contend that it is critical to develop tools that incorporate PA into content learning during the <span class="hlt">school</span> day. To facilitate the development of such tools, the authors conducted 6 focus group discussions with 12 primary <span class="hlt">school</span> teachers and administrators to better understand the <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> around PA as well as <span class="hlt">school</span> readiness to embrace PA tools that can be used during academic content learning. In addition, a pilot test of a new health promotion tool, the Jump In! educational response mat, was conducted with 21 second-grade students from one classroom in Northern Colorado in 2013. The results of both studies demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of incorporating PA into classroom learning, and suggested that tools like Jump In! may be <span class="hlt">effective</span> at overcoming many of the PA barriers at <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Teachers and administrators valued PA, believed that students were not getting enough PA, and were receptive to the idea of incorporating PA into classroom learning. Students who used Jump In! mats during a math lesson reported more interest in the class material and rated themselves as more alert during the lesson, compared to students who did not use the response mats. In addition, incorporating PA into the lesson did not impair performance on a quiz that assessed learning of the math content. Jump In! mats were successfully integrated into the lesson plan and were well-received by teachers and students. Together, the results of these studies suggest that, given the right tools, incorporating more PA into classroom learning may be beneficial and well-received by students, teachers, and administrators. PMID:24904919</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graham, Dan J.; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; O'Donnell, Maeve B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22841529"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of drinking supplementary water at <span class="hlt">school</span> on cognitive performance in children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the beneficial <span class="hlt">effects</span> of drinking supplementary water during the <span class="hlt">school</span> day on the cognitive performance and transitory subjective states, such as fatigue or vigor, in 168 children aged between 9 and 11years who were living in a hot <span class="hlt">climate</span> (South Italy, Sardinia). The classes were randomly divided into an intervention group, which received water supplementation, and a control group. Dehydration was determined by urine sampling and was defined as urine osmolality greater than 800mOsm/kg H(2)O (Katz, Massry, Agomn, & Toor, 1965). The change in the scores from the morning to the afternoon of hydration levels, cognitive performance and transitory subjective states were correlated. In line with a previous observational study that evaluated the hydration status of <span class="hlt">school</span> children living in a country with a hot <span class="hlt">climate</span> (Bar-David, Urkin, & Kozminsky, 2005), our results showed that a remarkable proportion of children were in a state of mild, voluntary dehydration at the beginning of the <span class="hlt">school</span> day (84%). We found a significant negative correlation between dehydration and the auditory number span, which indicates a beneficial <span class="hlt">effect</span> of drinking supplementary water at <span class="hlt">school</span> on short-term memory. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between dehydration and performance in the verbal analogy task. The results are discussed in the light of the complexity of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the relationship between hydration status and cognition. PMID:22841529</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fadda, Roberta; Rapinett, Gertrude; Grathwohl, Dominik; Parisi, Marinella; Fanari, Rachele; Calò, Carla Maria; Schmitt, Jeroen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......310K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Studies towards assessing the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aviation on <span class="hlt">climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Emissions from aviation are an important component in the overall concerns about the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of human activities on <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Aviation emissions modify the chemical and physical properties of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) in various ways. Aircraft emit gases and particles that can either directly or indirectly affect <span class="hlt">climate</span> and air quality, including: carbon dioxide (CO2); nitrogen oxides (NOx) that can increase ozone (O3) production and increase the destruction of methane (CH4); water vapor that under certain atmospheric conditions can lead to contrail formation; and soot and other particles that along with contrails can affect the amount and characteristics of cirrus clouds. Soot and sulfate particles can also change the cloudiness by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. Due to the high growth in air traffic that is projected to continue, it is important to understand the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aviation on air quality and <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Based on then existing analyses of the emissions and their <span class="hlt">effects</span>, the aviation contribution in changing the radiative forcing on the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system was about 5% of the total human-related emissions (relative to 1750) in 2005 (Lee et al., 2009). This contribution is a result of various <span class="hlt">effects</span>, especially the direct <span class="hlt">effects</span> of CO2, NOx-induced <span class="hlt">effects</span>, aerosol direct and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span>, and increased cloudiness from contrail formation and aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei. One of the main challenges of the aviation scientific community has been to increase the level of scientific understanding of these <span class="hlt">effects</span>, especially with respect to those most uncertain (i.e. NOx <span class="hlt">effects</span>, contrail-cirrus and aerosol <span class="hlt">effects</span>). Another challenge has been to develop a simple <span class="hlt">climate</span> model (SCM) that has the level of sophistication necessary to accurately assess aviation induced <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> while being easy to use by policy makers for use in policy considerations. The main objectives in this study were: (1) to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of simple <span class="hlt">climate</span> models for evaluating aviation policy options and tradeoffs, and (2) to increase the scientific understanding of aviation NOx-induced <span class="hlt">effects</span> on <span class="hlt">climate</span>. With regard to the first goal, enhancing the evaluation of SCMs, the carbon cycle and energy balance treatments in several widely used simplified <span class="hlt">climate</span> models were evaluated. The findings from this study resulted in modifications to the carbon cycle and energy balance model components of the APMT model that is used extensively by FAA in aviation policy analyses. With regard to the second goal, 3 lines of research were pursued to increase the scientific understanding of aviation NOx-induced <span class="hlt">effects</span> on <span class="hlt">climate</span>. First, aviation NOx-induced <span class="hlt">effects</span> were quantified using three-dimensional (3-D) <span class="hlt">climate</span>-chemistry models and further, an intercomparison of NOx-induced <span class="hlt">effects</span> in 3-D <span class="hlt">climate</span>-chemistry models was performed. The NOx-induced forcings obtained in 3-D simulations were further used to update the parameterization of these <span class="hlt">effects</span> in SCMs. Second, two additional NOx-induced <span class="hlt">effects</span> (i.e., reduction in long-term O3 concentrations and lower stratospheric water vapor (SWV)) that have not been fully accounted for in previous studies were quantified based on parameterizing the results obtained in the 3-D simulations. Results indicate that the inclusion of long-term O3 and SWV RFs decreases the net aviation-induced RFs by about 21 to 31% for different range of scenarios studied. Finally, the representation of aviation NOx-induced <span class="hlt">effects</span> in SCMs were evaluated and improved. The parameterization was improved based on the results of the 3-D simulations and by including the lifetime of the perturbed species and their emissions history into RF calculations. This resulted in 10 to 36% higher aviation NOx-induced net forcing than the net forcings that were reported in the literature, previously. Third, a set of experiments were performed to directly calculate the aviation NOx-induced changes in CH4 that were otherwise calculated through a simple parameterization, and also to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khodayari, Arezoo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23994070"> <span id="translatedtitle">The health <span class="hlt">effects</span> of leaving <span class="hlt">school</span> in a bad economy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigates the lasting health <span class="hlt">effects</span> of leaving <span class="hlt">school</span> in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving <span class="hlt">school</span> in a bad economy has persistent and negative career <span class="hlt">effects</span>, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left <span class="hlt">school</span> between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left <span class="hlt">school</span> when the <span class="hlt">school</span>-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving <span class="hlt">school</span> in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the <span class="hlt">school</span>-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women. PMID:23994070</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maclean, Johanna Catherine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC11B0982J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> implications of including albedo <span class="hlt">effects</span> in terrestrial carbon policy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Proposed strategies for managing terrestrial carbon in order to mitigate anthropogenic <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, such as financial incentives for afforestation, soil carbon sequestration, or biofuel production, largely ignore the direct <span class="hlt">effects</span> of land use change on <span class="hlt">climate</span> via biophysical processes that alter surface energy and water budgets. Subsequent influences on temperature, hydrology, and atmospheric circulation at regional and global scales could potentially help or hinder <span class="hlt">climate</span> stabilization efforts. Because these policies often rely on payments or credits expressed in units of CO2-equivalents, accounting for biophysical <span class="hlt">effects</span> would require a metric for comparing the strength of biophysical <span class="hlt">climate</span> perturbation from land use change to that of emitting CO2. One such candidate metric that has been suggested in the literature on land use impacts is radiative forcing, which underlies the global warming potential metric used to compare the <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of various greenhouse gases with one another. Expressing land use change in units of radiative forcing is possible because albedo change results in a net top-of-atmosphere radiative flux change. However, this approach has also been critiqued on theoretical grounds because not all <span class="hlt">climatic</span> changes associated with land use change are principally radiative in nature, e.g. changes in hydrology or the vertical distribution of heat within the atmosphere, and because the spatial scale of land use change forcing differs from that of well-mixed greenhouse gases. To explore the potential magnitude of this discrepancy in the context of plausible scenarios of future land use change, we conduct three simulations with the Community <span class="hlt">Climate</span> System Model 4 (CCSM4) utilizing a slab ocean model. Each simulation examines the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of a stepwise change in forcing relative to a pre-industrial control simulation: 1) widespread conversion of forest land to crops resulting in approximately 1 W/m2 global-mean radiative forcing from albedo change, 2) an increase in CO2 concentrations that exactly balances the forcing from land use change at the global level, and 3) a simulation combining the first two <span class="hlt">effects</span>, resulting in net zero global-mean forcing as would occur in an idealized carbon cap-and-trade scheme that accounts for the albedo <span class="hlt">effect</span> of land use change. The pattern of land use change that we examine is derived from an integrated assessment model that accounts for population, demographic, technological, and policy changes over the 21st century. We find significant differences in the pattern of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change associated with each of these forcing scenarios, demonstrating the non-additivity of radiative forcing from land-use change and greenhouse gases in the context of a hypothetical scenario of future land use change. These results have implications for the development of land use and <span class="hlt">climate</span> policies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Torn, M. S.; Calvin, K. V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41220967"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alternative models of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> put to the test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The term “educational <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>” designates causal models of educational outcomes that may or may not contain <span class="hlt">school</span>-level variables. The term “<span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> models” is used in the more restricted sense of outcome-oriented models that explicitly contain <span class="hlt">school</span>-level variables. These models are categorized to a context-input-process-output structure, are multi-level, recognize causal chains, and sometimes include feedback loops. In this chapter the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roel J. Bosker; Jaap Scheerens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gcep.stanford.edu/pdfs/QeJ5maLQQrugiSYMF3ATDA/2.1.5.jacobson_06.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on <span class="hlt">Climate</span>, Stratospheric Ozone, and Air Pollution</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract This project examined the <span class="hlt">effects</span> on (1) air pollution of converting all U.S. fossil- fuel onroad vehicles (FFOV) to hybrid vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV), where the hydrogen is produced by wind-electrolysis, steam-reforming of natural gas, and coal gasification, on air pollution and (2) <span class="hlt">climate</span>\\/stratospheric ozone of converting the world’s fossil-fuel onroad vehicles to HFCVs, where the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cristina Archer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3938303"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on outdoor thermal comfort in humid <span class="hlt">climates</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Galicia, in northwest Spain, experiences warm summers and winters. However, the higher relative humidity that prevails the whole year through and the location of the summer hot points are related to real weather heat stroke in the hottest season. However, Planet Global Heating was recently analyzed for the <span class="hlt">climate</span> in Galicia. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change was found to be able to trigger <span class="hlt">effects</span> that involve a new situation with new potential regions of risk. In this paper, 50 weather stations were selected to sample the weather conditions in this humid region, over the last 10 years. From these results, new regions with a potential for heat stroke risk in the next 20 years were identified using the humidex index. Results Results reveal that during the last 10 years, the winter season presents more comfortable conditions, whereas the summer season presents the highest humidex value. Further, the higher relative humidity throughout the whole year reveals that the humidex index clearly depends upon the outdoor temperature. Conclusions Global Planet Heating shows a definite <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the outdoor comfort conditions reaching unbearable degrees in the really hottest zones. Therefore, this <span class="hlt">effect</span> will clearly influence tourism and risk prevention strategies in these areas. PMID:24517127</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=NIR&pg=6&id=EJ651967"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of <span class="hlt">School</span>-Based Management on <span class="hlt">School</span> Health.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three-year study examines the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span>-based management (SBM) on the organizational health of 28 elementary <span class="hlt">schools</span> in Jerusalem using 7 indicators from the Organizational <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Description Questionnaire and the Organizational Health Inventory. Finds no significant impact of SBM on the <span class="hlt">schools</span>' organizational health, but finds…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nir, Adam E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155425"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large scale obscuration and related <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> open literature bibliography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large scale obscuration and related <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric <span class="hlt">effects</span> of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional <span class="hlt">effects</span> and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59237799"> <span id="translatedtitle">A comparison of perceptions of organizational communication <span class="hlt">climate</span> and organizational communication conflict between principals of career\\/technical centers and principals of feeder high <span class="hlt">schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between conflict management styles and organizational communication <span class="hlt">climates</span> established by comprehensive high <span class="hlt">school</span> principals and career\\/technical center principals to determine if their methods of handling intraschool conflicts differ. Additionally, differences between principals' and teachers' perceptions of communication <span class="hlt">climate</span> were examined. Three research questions were posed to determine the relationship between principals'</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Janet Lynn Haas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED529914.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">School</span> Rugby Players' Perception of Coaching <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and secondly, determine the difference between big and small <span class="hlt">schools</span> of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 <span class="hlt">schools</span> were asked to fill…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Personnel+AND+Management+AND+Effective+AND+Schools.&id=ED522418"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> Instructional Management: Perceptions and Recommendations from High <span class="hlt">School</span> Administrators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The two overarching research questions of this study are: What are the perceptions of high <span class="hlt">school</span> administrators regarding the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of their current approach to instructional management? What recommendations do high <span class="hlt">school</span> administrators have for <span class="hlt">effective</span> strategies for instructional management? To answer these questions, a qualitative…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Knechtel, Troy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wiwi.uni-hannover.de/Forschung/Diskussionspapiere/dp-353.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Educational <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Alternative Secondary <span class="hlt">School</span> Tracking Regimes in Germany</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines educational outcomes of pupils selected to secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> types by different tracking regimes in a German state: Pupils are alternatively streamed after fourth grade or after sixth grade. Regression results indicate that, estimated on the mean, there are no negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of later tracking on educational outcomes in the middle of secondary <span class="hlt">school</span>. Positive <span class="hlt">effects</span> are observed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrea M. Mühlenweg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED507472.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> in Memphis--Year 2. Final Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New Leaders for New <span class="hlt">Schools</span>, a nonprofit organization committed to training <span class="hlt">school</span> principals, heads the <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to <span class="hlt">effective</span> educators. New Leaders and its partner organizations have received from the U.S. Department of Education tens of millions of dollars in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Potamites, Liz; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric; Booker, Kevin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED426637.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Culture and Strategy in Business <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Links to Organizational <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the independent and conditional <span class="hlt">effects</span> of organizational culture type and managerial strategy on the organizational <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of higher education <span class="hlt">schools</span> of business. A total of 333 deans and chairs of business <span class="hlt">schools</span> in the United States and Canada completed a survey instrument that addressed variables related to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clott, Christopher; Fjortoft, Nancy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+class&pg=6&id=EJ788489"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> among Low, Middle, and High Social Class Composition <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: A Multiple Group, Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study uses large-scale survey data and a multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve model to examine differential <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> between low, middle, and high social class composition public <span class="hlt">schools</span>. The results show that the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> inputs and <span class="hlt">school</span> practices on learning differ across the 3 subpopulations. Moreover, student…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palardy, Gregory J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Peter+AND+Baker&pg=5&id=ED274062"> <span id="translatedtitle">Profiling Excellence in America's <span class="hlt">Schools</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using as a sample the 154 secondary <span class="hlt">schools</span> selected as the best in America in 1982 by the Department of Education's Secondary <span class="hlt">School</span> Recognition Program, researchers examined the characteristics that made teachers, administrators, and <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climates</span> <span class="hlt">effective</span> in the pursuit of educational excellence. The first chapter of this book interpreting…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roueche, John E.; Baker, George A., III</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=helping+AND+behaviour&pg=7&id=EJ772463"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secondary <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Demonstration Project: Program <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span>-Based Interventions on Antisocial Behaviour</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article describes the methodology and program <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the Secondary <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Demonstration Project (SSDP) conducted in four Ontario <span class="hlt">schools</span>. The objective of the study was to evaluate the extent to which a universal program model of three interventions--cooperative learning; classroom management; and peer-helping approaches that included…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wright, Robin; Offord, David; John, Lindsay; Duku, Eric; DeWit, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Teacher+AND+Leadership&pg=3&id=EJ916809"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teacher Leadership and <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> in the Primary <span class="hlt">Schools</span> of Maldives</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this research is to study the impact of teacher leadership on the <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. A total of 181 teachers from six primary <span class="hlt">schools</span> in Male (the capital island of Maldives) were chosen as respondents for this study. A quantitative survey method using questionnaire to obtain the data is employed. The findings showed there is a…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ngang, Tang Keow; Abdulla, Zaheena; Mey, See Ching</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CES&pg=4&id=ED519866"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> in Alabama Public High <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For several decades, researchers have searched for <span class="hlt">school</span>-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, J. Darrell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Southern+Africa%22&pg=7&id=EJ816552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> across Southern and Eastern African <span class="hlt">School</span> Systems and in Tanzania</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) II data are analysed, using multilevel modelling techniques, to explore the key issues underlying the development of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> models. Differences between <span class="hlt">schools</span> in Grade 6 pupils' reading and mathematics achievements are examined and the percentage…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, Guoxing; Thomas, Sally M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=traffic+AND+health&id=EJ1031586"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of an Active Transport to <span class="hlt">School</span> Intervention at a Suburban Elementary <span class="hlt">School</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: Many children do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. One strategy that may enhance PA is to increase active transport to <span class="hlt">school</span> (ATS) rates. Purpose: To assess the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of an ATS intervention. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare ATS and vehicle traffic rates at a <span class="hlt">school</span> that participated in a statewide…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bungum, Timothy J.; Clark, Sheila; Aguilar, Brenda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..75..321K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intercomparison of the capabilities of simplified <span class="hlt">climate</span> models to project the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aviation CO2 on <span class="hlt">climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study evaluates the capabilities of the carbon cycle and energy balance treatments relative to the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of aviation CO2 emissions on <span class="hlt">climate</span> in several existing simplified <span class="hlt">climate</span> models (SCMs) that are either being used or could be used for evaluating the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aviation on <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Since these models are used in policy-related analyses, it is important that the capabilities of such models represent the state of understanding of the science. We compare the Aviation Environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) Impacts <span class="hlt">climate</span> model, two models used at the Center for International <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Environmental Research-Oslo (CICERO-1 and CICERO-2), the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) model as described in Jain et al. (1994), the simple Linear <span class="hlt">Climate</span> response model (LinClim) and the Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change version 6 (MAGICC6). In this paper we select scenarios to illustrate the behavior of the carbon cycle and energy balance models in these SCMs. This study is not intended to determine the absolute and likely range of the expected <span class="hlt">climate</span> response in these models but to highlight specific features in model representations of the carbon cycle and energy balance models that need to be carefully considered in studies of aviation <span class="hlt">effects</span> on <span class="hlt">climate</span>. These results suggest that carbon cycle models that use linear impulse-response-functions (IRF) in combination with separate equations describing air-sea and air-biosphere exchange of CO2 can account for the dominant nonlinearities in the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system that would otherwise not have been captured with an IRF alone, and hence, produce a close representation of more complex carbon cycle models. Moreover, results suggest that an energy balance model with a 2-box ocean sub-model and IRF tuned to reproduce the response of coupled Earth system models produces a close representation of the globally-averaged temperature response of more complex energy balance models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Khodayari, Arezoo; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Olsen, Seth C.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Berntsen, Terje; Lund, Marianne T.; Waitz, Ian; Wolfe, Philip; Forster, Piers M.; Meinshausen, Malte; Lee, David S.; Lim, Ling L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change+AND+adaptation&pg=5&id=ED281896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Project SHAL: An Analysis of Implementation in the St. Louis Public <span class="hlt">Schools</span>--Findings from the Replication Implementation Field Test, June 1984.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Program in St. Louis, Missouri, public <span class="hlt">schools</span> expanded the concept of <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> developed in Project SHAL (1980-1984). The following five characteristics are considered <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">school</span> factors: (1) strong administrative leadership (2) high teacher expectations; (3) positive <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>; (4) total <span class="hlt">school</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young, Rufus, Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+change&id=EJ1003583"> <span id="translatedtitle">Plausibility Reappraisals and Shifts in Middle <span class="hlt">School</span> Students' <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Conceptions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plausibility is a central but under-examined topic in conceptual change research. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is an important socio-scientific topic; however, many view human-induced <span class="hlt">climate</span> change as implausible. When learning about <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, students need to make plausibility judgments but they may not be sufficiently critical or reflective. The…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24569320"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and side <span class="hlt">effects</span> during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. While many studies have addressed the potential <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and side <span class="hlt">effects</span> of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side <span class="hlt">effects</span> and cannot be stopped without causing rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3948393"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and side <span class="hlt">effects</span> during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. While many studies have addressed the potential <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and side <span class="hlt">effects</span> of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side <span class="hlt">effects</span> and cannot be stopped without causing rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCo...5E3304K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and side <span class="hlt">effects</span> during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. While many studies have addressed the potential <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and side <span class="hlt">effects</span> of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side <span class="hlt">effects</span> and cannot be stopped without causing rapid <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=studies+AND+on+AND+school+AND+uniforms&id=EJ759407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uniform <span class="hlt">Effects</span>?: <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Cite Benefits of Student Uniforms, but Researchers See Little Evidence of <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article reports on the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> uniform policies. At Stephen Decatur Middle <span class="hlt">School</span>, it is the <span class="hlt">school</span>'s policy that all students wear the standard <span class="hlt">school</span> attire consisting of khaki pants with polo shirts in white, burgundy, or navy blue. Some of the shirts also sport an embroidered Decatur eagle, an optional embellishment.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viadero, Debra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155440"> <span id="translatedtitle">Large Scale Obscuration and Related <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> Workshop: Proceedings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Workshop on Large Scale Obsurcation and Related <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> was held 29--31 January, 1992, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The objectives of the workshop were: to determine through the use of expert judgement the current state of understanding of regional and global obscuration and related <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> associated with nuclear weapons detonations; to estimate how large the uncertainties are in the parameters associated with these phenomena (given specific scenarios); to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on obscuration predictions; and to develop an approach for the prioritization of further work on newly-available data sets to reduce the uncertainties. The workshop consisted of formal presentations by the 35 participants, and subsequent topical working sessions on: the source term; aerosol optical properties; atmospheric processes; and electro-optical systems performance and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> impacts. Summaries of the conclusions reached in the working sessions are presented in the body of the report. Copies of the transparencies shown as part of each formal presentation are contained in the appendices (microfiche).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zak, B.D.; Russell, N.A.; Church, H.W.; Einfeld, W.; Yoon, D.; Behl, Y.K. [eds.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScEd.tmp...59R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Primary <span class="hlt">School</span> Student Teachers' Understanding of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary <span class="hlt">school</span> student teachers (n = 20). This includes analysis of the communication styles used and the students' pre- and post-conceptualisation of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change based on results obtained via essay writing and drawings. The essays and drawings concerned the students' unprompted pre- and post-conceptions about <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, collected before and after each of the four inquiry-based science sessions (in physics, chemistry, biology and geography). Concept mapping was used in the analysis of the students' responses. The communication used in the four sessions was analysed with a communicative approach in order to find out the discussion about <span class="hlt">climate</span> change between teacher and students. The analyses indicated that the students did not have the knowledge or the courage to participate in discussion, but post-conceptualisation map showed that students' thinking had become more coherent after the four sessions. Given the results of the present study, proposals for using concepts maps and/or communication analysis in studying students' conceptions are presented.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fish.washington.edu/research/alaska/publications/ASP_Papers/Schindler%20et%20al.%20Ecology%202005%20sockeye%20fry.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF CHANGING <span class="hlt">CLIMATE</span> ON ZOOPLANKTON AND JUVENILE SOCKEYE SALMON GROWTH IN SOUTHWESTERN ALASKA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detecting and forecasting the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of changing <span class="hlt">climate</span> on natural and exploited populations represent a major challenge to ecologists and resource managers. These efforts are complicated by underlying density-dependent processes and the differ- ential responses of predators and their prey to changing <span class="hlt">climate</span>. We explored the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of density-dependence and changing <span class="hlt">climate</span> on growth of juvenile sockeye salmon and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel E. Schindler; Donald E. Rogers; Mark D. Scheuerell; Caryn A. Abrey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geo.umass.edu/faculty/bradley/condron2005.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multidecadal North Atlantic <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability and its <span class="hlt">effect</span> on North American salmon abundance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">in parallel with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO); a basin-wide, low frequency <span class="hlt">climate</span> modeMultidecadal North Atlantic <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability and its <span class="hlt">effect</span> on North American salmon abundance. Bradley, and F. Juanes (2005), Multidecadal North Atlantic <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability and its <span class="hlt">effect</span> on North</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bradley, Raymond S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47804474"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Compounding <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Tropical Deforestation and Greenhouse Warming on <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study reports the first assessment of the compounding <span class="hlt">effects</span> of land-use change and greenhouse gas warming <span class="hlt">effects</span> on our understanding of projections of future <span class="hlt">climate</span>. An AGCM simulation of the potential impacts of tropical deforestation and greenhouse warming on <span class="hlt">climate</span>, employing a version of NCAR Community <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Model (CCM1-Oz), is presented. The joint impacts of tropical deforestation and greenhouse</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Zhang; A. Henderson-Sellers; K. McGuffie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://studentresearch.wcp.muohio.edu/rainforestsclimatechange/deforestgreenhousewarming00.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE COMPOUNDING <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF TROPICAL DEFORESTATION AND GREENHOUSE WARMING ON <span class="hlt">CLIMATE</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study reports the first assessment of the compounding <span class="hlt">effects</span> of land-use change and greenhouse gas warming <span class="hlt">effects</span> on our understanding of projections of future <span class="hlt">climate</span>. An AGCM simulation of the potential impacts of tropical deforestation and greenhouse warming on <span class="hlt">climate</span>, em- ploying a version of NCAR Community <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Model (CCM1-Oz), is presented. The joint impacts of tropical deforestation and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. ZHANG; A. HENDERSON-SELLERS; K. MCGUFFIE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.earth.huji.ac.il/data/file/danny/144_Givati_AR13_Israel_rain_trends%20(1).pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Arctic Oscillation, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and the <span class="hlt">effects</span> on precipitation in Israel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">) investigated the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on water resources of Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East regionThe Arctic Oscillation, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and the <span class="hlt">effects</span> on precipitation in Israel Amir Givati b in the Mediterranean basin. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change Arctic Oscillation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel, Rosenfeld</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92Q.248B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring properties of contrails to estimate their <span class="hlt">effects</span> on <span class="hlt">climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Condensation trails, or so-called contrails, formed by freezing of ice crystals in the exhaust from aircraft jet engines, could affect <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Like natural cirrus clouds, contrails change atmospheric temperatures not only by blocking sunlight from reaching the Earth's surface but also by preventing terrestrial radiation from escaping the Earth's atmosphere. However, contrails' <span class="hlt">effects</span> on <span class="hlt">climate</span> are not well constrained because few studies of contrail properties exist, and hence, their microphysical properties are poorly known. In a new study, Voigt et al. directly measured ice particle sizes and numbers in 14 contrails from nine different aircraft of the present-day commercial fleet, including the largest operating passenger aircraft. They obtained an extensive data set of contrails from which they determined the contrail optical depth, a measure of how much light is attenuated by these man-made clouds. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047189, 2011)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3644074"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observations from old forests underestimate <span class="hlt">climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on tree mortality</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding <span class="hlt">climate</span> change-associated tree mortality is central to linking <span class="hlt">climate</span> change impacts and forest structure and function. However, whether temporal increases in tree mortality are attributed to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change or stand developmental processes remains uncertain. Furthermore, interpreting the <span class="hlt">climate</span> change-associated tree mortality estimated from old forests for regional forests rests on an un-tested assumption that the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change are the same for young and old forests. Here we disentangle the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and stand developmental processes on tree mortality. We show that both <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and forest development processes influence temporal mortality increases, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change-associated increases are significantly higher in young than old forests, and higher increases in younger forests are a result of their higher sensitivity to regional warming and drought. We anticipate our analysis to be a starting point for more comprehensive examinations of how forest ecosystems might respond to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. PMID:23552070</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luo, Yong; Chen, Han Y. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=aspiration&pg=3&id=EJ868365"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parental Aspirations for Their Children's Educational Attainment: Relations to Ethnicity, Parental Education, Children's Academic Performance, and Parental Perceptions of <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children's academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality and <span class="hlt">climate</span> of their children's <span class="hlt">school</span> with a sample of 13,577 middle and high <span class="hlt">school</span> parents. All…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Matto, Holly C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED512338.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The 2009 National <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For 20 years, GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network) has worked to ensure safe <span class="hlt">schools</span> for all students, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. For 10 of those years, GLSEN has been documenting the <span class="hlt">school</span> experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth: the prevalence of anti-LGBT…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6jx2p7fv?query=Economics+AND+climate+AND+change"> <span id="translatedtitle">A 4-stated DICE: quantitatively addressing uncertainty <span class="hlt">effects</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ambiguity in the economics of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change’, NBER Workingclimate change Christian Traeger Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics,Economics and Man- agement 48, 723–741. A 4-stated DICE: Quantitatively addressing uncertainty <span class="hlt">effects</span> in <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Traeger, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0r60n03m?query=Climatic+AND+patterns"> <span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of plant invasions in China: Taxonomic, biogeographic, <span class="hlt">climatic</span> approaches and anthropogenic <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">studied, patterns of plant invasion along <span class="hlt">climatic</span> gradientsPatterns of plant invasions in China: Taxonomic, biogeographic, climaticpatterns as well as the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of biological, anthro- pogenic, and <span class="hlt">climatic</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a style="font-weight: bold;">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">461</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=280782"> <span id="translatedtitle">"The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Alternative Representations of Lake Temperatures and Ice on WRF Regional <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Simulations"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lakes can play a significant role in regional <span class="hlt">climate</span>, modulating inland extremes in temperature and enhancing precipitation. Representing these <span class="hlt">effects</span> becomes more important as regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> modeling (RCM) efforts focus on simulating smaller scales. When using the Weathe...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">462</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2010-05-7882"> <span id="translatedtitle">Essays on the <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change over Agriculture and Forestry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this dissertation, I study the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on agricultural total factor productivity and crop yields and their variability. In addition, an examination was conducted on the value of select <span class="hlt">climate</span> change adaptation strategies...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Villavicencio Cordova, Xavier A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">463</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6287614"> <span id="translatedtitle">Agricultural ecosystem <span class="hlt">effects</span> on trace gases and global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change is an issue that has been thrust to the forefront of scientific, political, and general community interest. In the span of this human generation, the earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span> is expected to change more rapidly than it has over any comparable period of recorded history. Some of the changes will result from natural processes, beyond human control, but much of this change is subject to anthropogenic influence arising from processes that are only beginning to be understood. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric radiatively active trace gases are being inadvertently affected by fossil fuel combustion; but other activities of industry, agriculture, forestry, changing land-use practices, waste disposal, and transportation also affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere. The measured and projected changes of the atmospheric concentrations of radiatively active trace gases have been modeled and estimated to predict changes in the global <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Accuracy and reliability of these predictions are the subject of considerable debate among scientists and other concerned individuals, groups, and governmental agencies throughout the world. The objective of this book is to provide a review of current knowledge on the measurement of radiatively active trace gases in agricultural ecosystems and the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of agriculture on the atmospheric concentrations of these gases. This book is compiled from written papers presented at a symposium entitled, Agroecosystem <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Radiatively Important Trace Gases and Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change, held at the American Society of Agronomy Meetings in Denver, CO, 27 Oct.-1 Nov. 1991. Fourteen chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">464</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.5994K"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on agriculture sustainability in Jordan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Jordan is a vulnerable country in terms of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change impact. In the latest assessment report published by the In