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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet reviews five recent research studies that focus on various key aspects of school climate, a popular metaphor that is difficult to define, measure, or manipulate. "The Search for School Climate: A Review of the Research," by Carolyn Anderson, surveys the full scope of school climate literature, concluding with a summary of the common…

Ellis, Thomas I.

1988-01-01

2

ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE IN THE MORE EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS. RESEARCH REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE FINDINGS OF A STUDY WHICH ASSESSED THE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE OF THE 21 MORE EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS (MES) IN NEW YORK CITY. THE FINDINGS WERE GATHERED FOR THE INFORMATION OF MES BUILDING PRINCIPALS. AN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE INDEX (OCI) WAS DISTRIBUTED TO MES TEACHERS, AND RESPONSES FROM 14 OF THE SCHOOLS WERE ANALYZED. WHEN…

OWENS, ROBERT G.; STEINHOFF, CARL R.

3

The Critical Role of School Climate in Effective Bullying Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown a negative association between positive school climate and bullying behavior. This article reviews research on school climate and bullying behavior and proposes that an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate (e.g., negative relationship between teachers and students, positive attitudes towards bullying) provides a social…

Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Swearer, Susan M.

2013-01-01

4

The Effects of School Culture and Climate on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Exemplary, Recognized and Acceptable schools differ in their school climates, as measured by the 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory. Significant differences were found on all 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory, with Exemplary schools out-performing Acceptable…

MacNeil, Angus J.; Prater, Doris L.; Busch, Steve

2009-01-01

5

The Relationship between School Climate, Trust, Enabling Structures, and Perceived School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of Deborah R. Mayerson was to assess the relative impact of climate, trust, and bureaucratic structure upon teachers' perceptions of organizational effectiveness. An existing data set compiled by Nancy Casella (2006) for her dissertation was analyzed. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of a random sample of 220 public school

Mayerson, Deborah R.

2010-01-01

6

Academic Optimism and Organizational Climate: An Elementary School Effectiveness Test of Two Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of two climate constructs in academic optimism and organizational climate as each relates to school effectiveness. Academic optimism is an academic environment comprised of three dimensions: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust (Hoy, Tarter, & Hoy, 2006). The Organizational Climate Index…

Reeves, Jonathan Bart

2010-01-01

7

School Climate in AISD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes and presents analyses of school climate information collected in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) since 1988-89. Three survey instruments were used to collect most school climate data--an anonymous survey of teachers, a confidential survey of teachers and administrators, and a survey of high school students.…

Paredes, Vicente; Frazer, Linda

8

School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of…

Wang, Ming-Te

2009-01-01

9

Improvement of School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: As a part of its School Improvement Program, James Monroe Junior High School planned to improve its school climate. Since the physical school environment was devoid of landscaping and did not provide places for student socialization, all interested groups (PTSA, student council, students, staff, and…

Sierra Sands Unified School District, Ridgecrest, CA.

10

Student Leadership Distribution: Effects of a Student-Led Leadership Program on School Climate and Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the understandings educators developed from two schools concerning how distributed leadership involving a select group of students affected the climate and community of their schools. Findings suggest that student-led leadership roles within the school community have an impact on creating a positive school-wide climate; a…

Pedersen, Jeff; Yager, Stuart; Yager, Robert

2012-01-01

11

Creating School Climates That Prevent School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses intervention options that help prevent violence in schools by affecting the school climate. Describes five approaches to improve the school climate: (1) parent and community involvement; (2) character education; (3) violence-prevention and conflict-resolution curricula; (4) peer mediation; and (5) bullying prevention. (CMK)

Peterson, Reece L.; Skiba, Russell

2001-01-01

12

Creating School Climates that Prevent School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on several approaches for schools to use of improve school climate, in part to prevent violence or at least to improve student behavioral conflicts, including: parent and community involvement, character education, violence-prevention and conflict-resolution curricula, peer mediation, and bullying prevention. (Contains…

Peterson, Reece L.; Skiba, Russell

2000-01-01

13

Creating School Climates That Prevent School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses several prominent intervention approaches intended to prevent violence and inappropriate behavior in school by directly or indirectly affecting the social climate of the school. Looks at programs focusing on: parent and community involvement; character education; violence prevention and conflict resolution curricula; peer mediation; and…

Peterson, Reece L.; Skiba, Russell

2001-01-01

14

Functions of Parental Involvement and Effects of School Climate on Bullying Behaviors among South Korean Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses an ecological systems theory to understand bullying behavior. Emphasis is given to overcome limitations found in the literature, such as very little empirical research on functions of parental involvement and the impacts of school climate on bullying as an outcome variable. Two functions of parental involvement investigated are (a)…

Lee, Chang-Hun; Song, Juyoung

2012-01-01

15

Altering School Climate through School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a Group-Randomized Effectiveness Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a universal, school-wide prevention strategy that is currently implemented\\u000a in over 7,500 schools to reduce disruptive behavior problems. The present study examines the impact of PBIS on staff reports\\u000a of school organizational health using data from a group-randomized controlled effectiveness trial of PBIS conducted in 37\\u000a elementary schools. Longitudinal multilevel analyses on data

Catherine P. Bradshaw; Christine W. Koth; Leslie A. Thornton; Philip J. Leaf

2009-01-01

16

Preparing Middle School Teachers to Use Science Models Effectively when Teaching about Weather and Climate Topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the National Science Education Standards (NSES), teachers are encouraged to use science models in the classroom as a way to aid in the understanding of the nature of the scientific process. This is of particular importance to the atmospheric science community because climate and weather models are very important when it comes to understanding current and future behaviors of our atmosphere. Although familiar with weather forecasts on television and the Internet, most people do not understand the process of using computer models to generate weather and climate forecasts. As a result, the public often misunderstands claims scientists make about their daily weather as well as the state of climate change. Therefore, it makes sense that recent research in science education indicates that scientific models and modeling should be a topic covered in K-12 classrooms as part of a comprehensive science curriculum. The purpose of this research study is to describe how three middle school teachers use science models to teach about topics in climate and weather, as well as the challenges they face incorporating models effectively into the classroom. Participants in this study took part in a week long professional development designed to orient them towards appropriate use of science models for a unit on weather, climate, and energy concepts. The course design was based on empirically tested features of effective professional development for science teachers and was aimed at teaching content to the teachers while simultaneously orienting them towards effective use of science models in the classroom in a way that both aids in learning about the content knowledge as well as how models are used in scientific inquiry. Results indicate that teachers perceive models to be physical representations that can be used as evidence to convince students that the teacher's conception of the concept is correct. Additionally, teachers tended to use them as ways to explain an idea to their students; they rarely discussed the idea that models are a representation of reality (as opposed to a replication of reality) and never discussed the predictive power of models and how they are used to further scientific knowledge. The results indicate that these teachers do not have a complete understanding of science models and the role they play in the scientific process. Therefore, the teachers struggled to incorporate modeling into the classroom in a way that aligns with what the NSES suggests. They tended to lean on models as "proof" of a particular concept rather than a representation of a concept. In actuality, scientists do not just use models to explain a concept, they also use them to make projections and as a way to improve our understanding the atmosphere. A possible consequence of teachers using models as "proof" of a concept is that students expect climate and forecast models to be concrete and exact, rather than tentative and representative. Increasing student understanding of climate and weather models is important to meet the needs of future STEM professionals, decision-makers, and the general populace to support rational decision-making about weather and the future of climate by an educated society.

Yarker, M. B.; Stanier, C. O.; Forbes, C.; Park, S.

2012-12-01

17

School Community Climate Survey Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way that a school system can systematically assess its needs and assure that plans for improvement reflect the participation of all concerned groups is through use of the School Community Climate Survey (SCCS). The SCCS is a process for gathering information on people's attitudes, analyzing these attitudes in terms of perceived needs,…

Mills, Ottolee R.; Hamilton, David L.

18

Altering school climate through school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: findings from a group-randomized effectiveness trial.  

PubMed

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a universal, school-wide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 7,500 schools to reduce disruptive behavior problems. The present study examines the impact of PBIS on staff reports of school organizational health using data from a group-randomized controlled effectiveness trial of PBIS conducted in 37 elementary schools. Longitudinal multilevel analyses on data from 2,596 staff revealed a significant effect of PBIS on the schools' overall organizational health, resource influence, staff affiliation, and academic emphasis over the 5-year trial; the effects on collegial leadership and institutional integrity were significant when implementation fidelity was included in the model. Trained schools that adopted PBIS the fastest tended to have higher levels of organizational health at baseline, but the later-implementing schools tended to experience the greatest improvements in organizational health after implementing PBIS. This study indicated that changes in school organizational health are important consequences of the PBIS whole-school prevention model, and may in turn be a potential contextual mediator of the effect of PBIS on student performance. PMID:19011963

Bradshaw, Catherine P; Koth, Christine W; Thornton, Leslie A; Leaf, Philip J

2009-06-01

19

School Climate: Historical Review, Instrument Development, and School Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's purpose is to examine the existing school climate literature in an attempt to constitute its definition from a historical context and to create a valid and reliable student-reported school climate instrument. Five historically common school climate domains and five measurement tools were identified, combined, and previewed by the…

Zullig, Keith J.; Koopman, Tommy M.; Patton, Jon M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

2010-01-01

20

Measuring and Improving School Climate. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school climate project was initiated in three vocational training schools in Connecticut. Within each of the schools, a school climate team was established with eight-twelve representative administrator, teacher, student, and parent members. This team, with the support of on-going training, conducted a survey of approximately 400 students and…

Madoff, Marjorie; Genova, William

21

Youth Victimization: School Climate or Deviant Lifestyles?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite much focus on school violence, there has been little research that explores the relationship between offending and victimization in various school climates. School climate theory suggests that the school's social system, culture, milieu, and ecological structure affect student outcomes including academic performance, delinquency, and more…

Zaykowski, Heather; Gunter, Whitney

2012-01-01

22

School Climate Renewal: A Longitudinal Study of Planned Change Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examining the effectiveness of an organizational development plan, this study notes the changes in school climate in two Pennsylvania schools--a junior high and a middle school. Having selected the schools for their troubled educational environments, the authors gathered data for 2 years from interviews with students and staff, from a formal…

Dumaresq, Richard R.; Blust, Ross S.

23

School Social Climate and Individual Differences in Vulnerability to Psychopathology among Middle School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A person-environment fit framework was used to examine the interaction of psychological vulnerabilities and perceptions of school climate to explain the emergence of behavioral and emotional problems in middle school students. Positive perception of school climate moderated negative effects of self-criticism. Results point to the importance of the…

Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Blatt, Sidney J.

2001-01-01

24

A Multilevel Analysis of Student Perceptions of School Climate: The Effect of Social and Academic Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This multilevel study examines the extent to which individual- and school-level variables are predictive of three aspects of students' perceived school climate (order, safety, and discipline; fairness and clarity of school rules; and teacher-student relationship) by using a nationally representative sample. A wide range of social and academic risk…

Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.; Corkin, Danya Marie

2011-01-01

25

The Relationship between School Climate, PATS Program Participation, and Organizational Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1987, a school-university collaborative project, Positive Attitudes in Tennessee Schools (PATS), was established to improve school-learning environments. This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the effect of school participation in PATS on school climate. A secondary focus was to determine which school-climate variables could…

Kenney, Gordon E.; Butler, E. Dean

26

A Psychometric Evaluation of a Revised School Climate Teacher Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of school climate has been an important topic for education and it has been studied extensively over the past several decades. One of the challenges in such a research effort is to develop instruments that effectively and efficiently measure the construct. Literature has documented a number of school climate instruments, most of which…

Liu, Ying; Ding, Cody; Berkowitz, Marvin W.; Bier, Melinda C.

2014-01-01

27

Students' Perceptions of the School Climate: Implications for School Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed school climate for both interpersonal and intrapersonal character traits and examined the links between school climate and students' perceptions of safety at school. Sixty-four elementary and 159 secondary students completed questionnaires in the spring. Findings revealed that character traits were reliably assessed for both…

DeRosier, Melissa E.; Newcity, Janet

2005-01-01

28

Developing a Positive School Climate. Newsletter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School leaders are often placed on the "hot seat" when negative images of the school, its staff, or its students appear in the local media. Such reports can strongly affect a school's public and image and, in turn, impact the climate both in the community and within the school itself. Sometimes these perceptions are not based on fact; however,…

Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

2009-01-01

29

Middle School Organization, Teacher Job Satisfaction, and School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes of middle and junior high school teachers toward their job and school climate are compared in this study. Twenty-nine teachers from a school having a modern middle school orientation (multi-age grouping, exploratory curriculum, and an interdisciplinary team organization) were compared with twenty teachers from a departmentally…

Ashton, Patricia; And Others

30

A Large Scale Study of the Assessment of the Social Environment of Middle and Secondary Schools: The Validity and Utility of Teachers' Ratings of School Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and Safety Problems for Understanding School Effects and School Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young…

Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D.; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie

2008-01-01

31

Principals' Leadership Behaviors in Gang-Impacted High Schools and Their Effects on Pupil Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although viable leadership models for schools with differing social contexts are in great demand, empirical studies of high school principals have not produced consistent results. This paper summarizes part of a larger project designed to identify leadership behaviors of principals in "gang-impacted" and other secondary schools. The research was…

Schwartz, Audrey J.

32

The Effects of School Climate, Socioeconomics, and Cultural Factors on Student Victimization in Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this article is based on a nationally representative sample of 10,400 students in grades 7 through 11 in 162 schools across Israel. The authors used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the differences between Jewish and Arab schools in the relationships between school-level variables--socioeconomic status (SES) of the…

Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi

2005-01-01

33

School Climate and Student Achievement. Executive Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from a study to examine the relationship between school climate factors and student achievement in the Austin Independent School District are presented in this executive summary. Factor and regression analyses were used to analyze data from a survey of all public school professionals in the district. Findings suggested that differences in…

Paredes, Vicente

34

Quality Circles Go to School: Improving School Climate through Pupil, Staff, and Community Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators concerned with effectiveness outcomes have become increasingly involved with participative organizational and teaching practices designed to improve school climate. Since schools have traditionally emphasized "top down" management and decision-making procedures, few school districts have the experience or expertise to develop and…

Dignan, Patricia J.; Schelkun, Ruth

35

STEM412: Global Climate Change Education for Middle School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, facilitated course is designed for middle-school educators wishing to teach global climate change using an inquiry/problem-based approach. Teachers access the course by registering with PBS TeacherLine and enrolling in the course. The course supports teaching global climate change using a problem-solving approach and STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) methodology to engage middle-school students and help them understand the causes and effects of climate change and learn about the differences between climate and weather and how actions and nature affect the environment. The course includes pedagogic support for educators who are interested in using Web 2.0 tools when teaching about climate change in the classroom. Enhance content knowledge of climate change and learn how to effectively implement STEM instructional strategies using resources from NASA and WGBHâs Teachersâ Domain.

36

LGB and Questioning Students in Schools: The Moderating Effects of Homophobic Bullying and School Climate on Negative Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam,…

Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian

2009-01-01

37

Heteronormativity, school climates, and perceived safety for gender nonconforming peers.  

PubMed

Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined student- and school-level effects on students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers. We found that older students, bisexual youth, Latino youth, and youth who experienced school violence perceived their gender nonconforming male peers to be less safe. Similarly, we found that older students and students who experienced school violence and harassment due to gender nonconformity perceived their gender nonconforming female peers to be less safe. At the school-level, we found that when schools included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues in the curriculum and had a Gay-Straight Alliance, students perceived their schools as safer for gender nonconforming male peers. PMID:21481925

Toomey, Russell B; McGuire, Jenifer K; Russell, Stephen T

2012-02-01

38

Reducing School Violence: School-Based Curricular Programs and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.

Greene, Michael B.

2008-01-01

39

School Climate that Promotes Student Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All over the world, educators are recognizing that creating a school culture and climate that genuinely engages and supports all students is essential to increasing students' achievement and preventing students from dropping out. Research supports the view that schools must encourage students to express themselves--clearly and often--and be places…

Elias, Maurice J.

2010-01-01

40

The Principal's Role in Setting School Climate (for School Improvement).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given that principals play a role in setting school climate, this paper focuses on how this actually happens. First, the paper explores different criteria and variables as possible frameworks for defining the term "climate." This task is complicated by problems in identifying consensus findings due to weak variable definitions and lack of…

Hall, Gene E.

41

Interplay among School Climate, Gender, Attitude toward Mathematics, and Mathematics Performance of Middle School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined the important factors influencing the mathematics achievement of students in middle schools by hierarchically specifying the personal and contextual variables. The study focused on the effect of school climate at the class level and the effects of student gender, attitude toward mathematics, educational aspiration, parent…

Choi, Namok; Chang, Mido

2011-01-01

42

Improving School Climate and Strengthening Relationships among the School Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program to establish a positive school climate. The targeted population consisted of elementary students in a low socioeconomic area. The problems of poor interpersonal skills and inappropriate social behaviors were documented through structured observations, surveys, and school records. Analysis of probable cause data…

Erwin, Debbie; And Others

43

Assessing School Climate Among Sexual Minority High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, questioning, and intersex (i.e., sexual minority) youth are often targets of aggression because of their sexual identity, both in and out of schools. Literature on school-related aggression toward sexual minority youth often relies on quantitative surveys or retrospective studies. Little non-retrospective research has been done with this population investigating the nature of bullying, school climate, and

Kris Varjas; Will C. Mahan; Joel Meyers; Lamar Birckbichler; Gene Lopp; Brian J. Dew

2007-01-01

44

Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects.  

PubMed

Social trust (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1535 adolescents collected over two years, we find that middle and late adolescents had significantly lower levels of trust than early adolescents and that these beliefs became more stable and less related to interpersonal trust between early and late adolescence. Results of multiple group SEMs revealed that, regardless of age, adolescents' reports that a strong sense of student solidarity characterized their school significantly increased ST at T2, controlling for levels at T1, and opportunities to exchange perspectives with fellow students increased ST at T2 indirectly, through feelings of student solidarity. The study points to the role of schools in nurturing the democratic dispositions of younger generations. PMID:20936077

Flanagan, Constance A; Stout, Michael

2010-09-01

45

Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lifelines project aims to establish a network of practicing high school teachers actively using climate change curricula by creating professional learning communities (PLCs) of teachers who, through remote meetings and workshops, maintain ongoing communication and sharing of best practices among colleagues to strengthen knowledge and promote effective teaching strategies. The project explores techniques to achieve the most effective teleconferencing meetings and workshops. This promotes not only teaching about minimizing environmental impacts of human activity, but minimizes environmental impacts of professional development — practicing what we preach. To date, Lifelines PLCs have set up websites and e-mail lists for sharing information. Teleconferences and webinars have been held using services such as Skype, ReadyTalk, and Wiggio. Many of the meetings have been recorded and archived for the benefit of members who could not attend in real-time.

Gould, A. D.

2012-12-01

46

Effects of "Safe School" Programs and Policies on the Social Climate for Sexual-Minority Youth: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are a vulnerable population--a status that can be attributed to a hostile social climate at school. Intervention strategies, such as educational policies, programs, and a supportive environment, improve the social climate for LGBT students in secondary schools and…

Black, Whitney W.; Fedewa, Alicia L.; Gonzalez, Kirsten A.

2012-01-01

47

The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems during the Middle School Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…

Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

48

School Climate and Restructuring for Low-Achieving Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although analogous and vague definitions of school climate may help in determining whether low-achieving students are experiencing a more positive or negative school climate, more clarity is needed to render the climate construct more observable, measurable, and malleable. Tagiuri conceptualizes climate as the total environmental quality within an…

Smey-Richman, Barbara

49

Assessing Climate Misconceptions of Middle School Learners and Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1) environmental literacy and inquiry and (2) foster the development of geospatial thinking and reasoning using geospatial technologies as an essential component of the middle school science curriculum. The curriculum is designed to align instructional materials and assessments with learning goals. The following frameworks were used to provide guidelines for the climate change science content in addition to the science inquiry upon which schools must focus: Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences (U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009) and the AAAS Project 2061 Communicating and Learning About Global Climate Change (AAAS, 2007). The curriculum is a coherent sequence of learning activities that include climate change investigations with Google Earth, Web-based interactivities that include an online carbon emissions calculator and a Web-based geologic time-line, and inquiry-based ("hands-on") laboratories. The climate change science topics include the atmosphere, Earth system energy balance, weather, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and "humans and climate". It is hoped that with a solid foundation of climate science in the classroom, middle school learners will be in a position to evaluate new scientific discoveries, emerging data sets, and reasonably assess information and misinformation by which they are surrounded on a daily basis.

Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.

2012-12-01

50

Advocating for Safe Schools, Positive School Climate, and Comprehensive Mental Health Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tragedy at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, CT (USA) has brought the conversation about how to reduce violence, make schools safer, improve school climate, and increase access to mental health services to the forefront of the national conversation. Advocating for comprehensive initiatives to address school safety, school climate, and…

Cowan, Katherine C.; Vaillancourt, Kelly

2013-01-01

51

SOCIAL STRUCTURES AND SOCIAL CLIMATES IN HIGH SCHOOLS, FINAL REPORT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WERE TO--(1) INQUIRE INTO THE NATURE OF ADOLESCENT SOCIAL CLIMATES, (2) LEARN WHAT FACTORS IN THE SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY TEND TO GENERATE ONE OR ANOTHER ADOLESCENT CLIMATE, AND (3) DETERMINE THE CONSEQUENCES OF SUCH SOCIAL CLIMATES UPON THE ADOLESCENTS LIVING WITHIN THEM. THE STUDY WAS CARRIED ON IN 10 HIGH SCHOOLS

COLEMAN, JAMES; AND OTHERS

52

SOURCES OF EDUCATIONAL CLIMATES IN HIGH SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

VARIATIONS IN THE INFORMAL SOCIAL SYSTEMS OF 20 HIGH SCHOOLS, THE SOURCES OF THESE VARIATIONS, AND THE EFFECTS OF SUCH VARIATIONS ON THE ACADEMIC ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR OF STUDENTS WERE STUDIED. TWO RELATED ASPECTS OF THE SCHOOL SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS RECEIVED MAJOR RESEARCH EMPHASIS--(1) THE CHARACTERISTIC GLOBAL DEMANDS, FEATURES, AND EMPHASES OF…

MCDILL, EDWARD L.; AND OTHERS

53

School-Based Mental Health Services in Baltimore: Association with School Climate and Special Education Referrals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the association between school-based mental health services and two proposed but untested outcomes of these services: (a) school climate and (b) patterns of referrals to special education. Results from a climate survey found that teachers and staff in eight elementary schools with expanded school mental health (ESMH)…

Bruns, Eric J.; Walrath, Christine; Glass-Siegel, Marcia; Weist, Mark D.

2004-01-01

54

Volcanic effects on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

Robock, Alan

1991-01-01

55

The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems During the Middle School Years  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents’ perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents’ perceptions of school climate.

Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

56

The Enduring Influence of School Size and School Climate on Parents' Engagement in the School Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to examine the direct and indirect associations between school size and parents' perceptions of the invitations for involvement provided by their children's school in a school system that has actively attempted to reduce the negative effects of school size. Using data from the New York Public Schools' annual Learning Environment…

Goldkind, Lauri; Farmer, G. Lawrence

2013-01-01

57

School Climate and the Safe School: Seven Contributing Factors. Safety in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accepting that few lists are comprehensive, but acknowledging that they still have value, here then are seven important factors that contribute to a healthy school climate: (1) Models: Adults are teachers in more ways than one, and the way that has the greater impact is less what they say than what they do; (2) Consistency: The school staff must…

Noonan, James

2005-01-01

58

Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

Cook, J.

2011-12-01

59

The Talent Development Middle School. Creating a Motivational Climate Conducive to Talent Development in Middle Schools: Implementation and Effects of Student Team Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central East Middle School in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), an urban school with about 45% Hispanic enrollment, and the Center for Research on the Education of Children Placed at Risk are working together to implement a Talent Development Middle School model of schooling. Part of this effort includes use of the Student Team Reading (STR) Program,…

Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Plank, Stephen B.

60

Correlational Analysis of Servant Leadership and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this mixed-method research study was to determine the extent that servant leadership was correlated with perceptions of school climate to identify whether there was a relationship between principals' and teachers' perceived practice of servant leadership and of school climate. The study employed a mixed-method approach by first…

Black, Glenda Lee

2010-01-01

61

Elementary School Climate: A Revision of the OCDQ.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of "organizational climate" is described briefly in this article; the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (the most well-known conceptualization and measure of elementary school climate) is evaluated; and the successful refinement and empirical testing of a revised, more parsimonious questionnaire, are discussed. (PGD)

Hoy, Wayne K.; Clover, Sharon I. R.

1986-01-01

62

Developing a Regionally-Based "Next Generation" High School Climate Science Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorado Plateau Carbon Connections is a regionally relevant, culturally responsive, technology-rich high school climate science curriculum for the Colorado Plateau/Four Corners region. Funded by an NSF Climate Change Education Partnership grant, the 10-lesson curriculum supplement is the result of collaboration between Northern Arizona University climate scientists, social scientists and educators and the NASA-funded Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Carbon Connections project. The curriculum includes disciplinary core ideas in Earth Science from A Framework for K-12 Science Education. It integrates cross-cutting relationships and science and engineering practices. Students are introduced to regional and global effects of climate change, and build their understanding of climate science using simulations and climate models. The models are based on authentic data and allow students to explore the roles of carbon dioxide, volcanic forcing, El Niño effects, solar variability, and anthropogenic inputs to the climate system. Students also negate climate misconceptions using climate science, and analyze personal connections to the climate system. They examine their own carbon footprints and propose regionally based solutions for mitigating the effects of climate change. The curriculum was field tested in Spring 2012 with 384 students and ten teachers in seven schools. The evaluation shows strong student engagement and increased knowledge of climate science and solutions. This curriculum also serves as a model for integrating regional issues into climate science education.

Bell, M.; Clark, J.; Getty, S. R.; Marks, J.; Hungate, B. A.; Kaufman, D. S.; Coles, R.; Haden, C.; Cooley, N.

2012-12-01

63

Heteronormativity, School Climates, and Perceived Safety for Gender Nonconforming Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined…

Toomey, Russell B.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Russell, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

64

Local Communities and Schools Tackling Sustainability and Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local communities and their schools remain key sites for actions tackling issues of sustainability and climate change. A government-funded environmental education initiative, the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI), working together with state based Sustainable Schools Programs (SSP), has the ability to support the development of…

Flowers, Rick; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

2009-01-01

65

Nevada's Climate Change High School Science Fair Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this 3 year project funded by NSF (GEO 1035049) is to increase the climate change science content knowledge and teaching effectiveness of in-service high school science teachers and increase the numbers of quality of high school geoscience projects competing in Nevada's three regional Intel ISEF (International Science & Engineering Fair) affiliated science fairs. In year 1 of the project participants consisted of six female and three male high school teachers from across Nevada. Eight of the participants were white and one was Asian. Five participants taught in Clark County, two taught in Owyhee, one taught in Elko and one taught in Spring Creek. Over 20% of the projects were noted (by the teachers) as being submitted by underrepresented students; however, this information is not reliable as most students did not provide this data themselves. Pre-and post- content tests were given. Teachers improved from an average of eight missed on the pre-test to an average of only four items missed on the post-test. Participants were also asked to evaluate their own teaching efficacy. In general, participants had a strong science efficacy. The item on which there was the most discrepancy among participants was on #10, the one stating that "The low achievement of some students cannot generally be blamed on their teachers." Most teachers completed an end of year program evaluation. All but one of the participants felt that the pace of the workshop was comfortable. All participants who used faculty mentors in helping their students rated their faculty mentors very highly. All participants rated the program content very highly in terms of clarity, organization, relevance, helpfulness and usefulness. All participants gave the program a very high rating overall and stated they would likely use the information to mentor future students and in instruction in future classes. The science fairs are the culmination of the program. Teachers were required to have at least one student submit a project related to climate change science in their regional fair. There were 28 projects submitted in 2011; of these there were 10 first place winners, 5 second place winners, and 1 third place winner. Over half of the projects entered in the regional science fairs received an award. The reported student science fair projects relating to climate change include, among others: comparing CO2 emissions in old and new cars, comparing travel by mass transit with travel by private car, studying how CO2 effects global warming, studying seedlings in a climate controlled environment, studying the effect of climate change on hurricanes, determining ammonia emission from bovine manure, and studying the effect of Dendroctonus brevicomis on the depopulation of Pinus edulis and Pinus ponderosa due to climate change.

Buck, P.

2012-12-01

66

A Reflection of My School: One Student Looks at School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A late 1960s graduate of racially segregated school in Mississippi evaluates her high school's performance against Ron Edmonds's five school effectiveness correlates (strong instructional leadership; clear instructional mission; orderly, safe climate; high expectations; close monitoring with standardized tests). School passed only one; all…

Duren, O'ka R.

1992-01-01

67

Effective Schools Require Effective Principals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.

2006-01-01

68

Two Perspectives on School Climate: Do Staff and Students See a School the Same Way?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies of school climate were conducted at Detroit's Boulevard High School in 1984, three years after the institution of a school improvement program. One study measured students' perceptions, the other assessed staff perceptions. Based upon the findings of this research, it became clear that in order to get a good picture of the school

Stavros, Denny; Moore, JoAnne E.

69

Alpbach Summer School 2010 - proposed missions to understand climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theme of the Alpbach Summer School 2010 was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change". At present, climate change studies face many uncertainties that need to be solved and quantified. The unprecedented effects and consequences of climate change on our planet are causing serious concerns amongst the scientific community, that witnesses the transformations our environment is suffering. In order to reduce them, Earth Observation from space is a really interesting and affordable alternative. A group of sixty young science and engineering students both undergraduate and graduate, dealt with the task of designing space missions aiming to better understand climate change. The participants were split into four teams which were encouraged to design innovative new missions, that could potentially help to increase our understanding on climate change by introducing new observation parameters, methods and technology. They were also encouraged to focus on different approaches so no scientific case was duplicated. The resulting proposals comprised a wide range of climate change topics: AVALON (Atmospheric water Vapour from an Active Limb-sounding Observing Network) a mission using a novel active limb-sounding instrument to measure water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere; ERICC (Evolution and Radiative Impact of Contrail Cirrus) the first space mission dedicated to the study of contrails and their impact on climate change; VESTA a mission designed to derive data on CO2 emissions from biomass burning in the tropics and DROP (Dual Retrieval of Precipitation) a mission to improve the understanding of regional and global water cycles. This presentation will provide an introduction towards the four missions designed with the goal of contributing towards better understanding climate change and its causes. The scientific cases will be presented, as well as the engineering designs needed to meet these scientific requirements on a preliminary level. Special emphasis will be made on the innovative characteristics of each one of these missions, all spanning different topics. The Alpbach Summer School 2010 was organised by FFG and co-sponsored by ESA, ISSI and the national space authorities of ESA member and cooperating states.

Krejci, D.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Kern, K.; Romano, P.; Topham, R.; Weitnauer, C.

2011-12-01

70

The Estimation of School Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The specification and estimation of school effects, the variability of effects across schools, and the proportion of variation in student outcomes attributable to differences in school context and practice are considered. A statistical model is presented that defines school effects for parents choosing a school and for agencies evaluating school

Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Willms, J. Douglas

1995-01-01

71

Teacher Qualifications and School Climate: Examining Their Interrelationship for School Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Chicago data, we examine whether teacher qualifications and school climate are related and if so, how they interact to improve student learning. We find that schools that are advantaged in one tend to be advantaged in the other. Moreover, while collective teacher qualifications and dimensions of climate independently influence…

DeAngelis, Karen J.; Presley, Jennifer B.

2011-01-01

72

The Relationship Between Elementary School Climate and Teachers' Attitudes Toward Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between teachers' attitudes toward evaluation and elementary school climate. The instrument used in the study was the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ) which described eight dimensions of school climate. (Author/DWH)

Johnston, Gladys S.; And Others

1985-01-01

73

Teachers as Builders of Respectful School Climates: Implications for Adolescent Drug Use Norms and Depressive Symptoms in High School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive school climates have been found to have favorable effects on adolescent health risk behaviors and mental health outcomes.\\u000a However, the mechanisms by which teacher behavior may promote such effects in high schools have not been extensively studied.\\u000a Based on social control theory and a social developmental-contextual model, it was predicted that by respecting students’\\u000a points of view and decision

Maria D. LaRusso; Daniel Romer; Robert L. Selman

2008-01-01

74

Measuring Inviting School Climate: A Case Study of a Public Primary School in an Urban Low Socioeconomic Setting in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study utilized the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R) (Smith, 2005b, 2013) based on Invitational Theory and Practice (Purkey & Novak, 2008) to examine the school climate of a public primary school in a low urban socio-economic setting in Kenya. School climate was defined as the perceptions of primary school teachers and pupils…

Okaya, Tom Mboya; Horne, Marj; Lamig, Madeleine; Smith, Kenneth H.

2013-01-01

75

Climatic Effects of Atmospheric Aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown quantitatively how radiative climatic forcing by aerosols depends on the physical properties of the aerosols. The special case of atmospheric aerosols produced by volcanic explosions is considered, and evidence is presented which indicates that even the simple climate models available today may be able to capture some of the basic effects of aerosols on global climate. Possible

James E. Hansen; Andrew A. Lacis; Pauthon Lee; Wei-Chyung Wang

1980-01-01

76

Effective Principal, Effective School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In summarizing findings on the principal's role in the school, this monograph assumes that the principal is a pivotal figure in the school and is the one who most affects the quality of teacher performance and student achievement. The author concludes that the studies reviewed demonstrate that the principal is a key factor in the success of the…

Lipham, James M.

77

Climate Change: What You Can Do At School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students, educators and school administrators can all play a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This website provides a directory of some education and action planning resources, including tips for recycling and ideas for determining a school's impact on global climate change.

2007-01-01

78

Adolescent Perception of Family Climate and Adaptation to Residential Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in adolescents' perceptions of the family as they adapt to residential schooling were studied for 51 residential and 57 nonresidential tenth graders in a school in Israel. No differences in the perception of family climate were found between the groups, suggesting no change with the individual's act of leaving. (SLD)

Shulman, Shmuel; Prechter, Eti

1989-01-01

79

School Climate and Psychosomatic Health: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the importance of aspects of the school climate for adolescents' psychosomatic health using multilevel modelling. Analyses were based on 18,571 ninth-grade students distributed over 1,026 classes and 284 schools in the greater Stockholm area in 2004 and 2006. Both individual- and contextual-level associations between aspects of…

Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca

2009-01-01

80

The Relationship between Transformational School Leadership and Ethical Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between transformational school leadership and ethical climate. The participants were 764 teachers in 50 elementary schools in Nigde during the 2008/2009 academic year. Two distinct instruments were used in this study. The Principal Leadership Style Inventory developed by Leithwood and Jantzi (1991)…

Sagnak, Mesut

2010-01-01

81

Trace gas effects on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two primary objectives are to describe the new scientific challenges posed by the trace gas-climate problem and to summarize current strategies, and to make an assessment of the trace gas effects on troposphere-stratosphere temperature trends. Numerous reports on CO2-climate problems are examined with respect to climate modeling issues. The role of the oceans in governing the transient climate response to time varying CO2 concentrations is discussed.

Ramanathan, V.; Callis, L. B., Jr.; Cess, R. D.; Hansen, J. E.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Kuhn, W. R.; Lacis, A.; Luther, F. M.; Mahlman, J. D.; Reck, R. A.

1985-01-01

82

DCPS Effective Schools Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DCPS is committed to providing "all" students with the caliber of education they deserve. The goal of the DCPS Effective Schools Framework is to ensure that every child, in every classroom, has access to a high-quality and engaging standards-based instructional program, and that all school supports are aligned to support teaching and learning. The…

District of Columbia Public Schools, 2009

2009-01-01

83

Explaining Charter School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses entrance lotteries to explore heterogeneity in the achievement effects of charter schools across demographic groups and between urban and non-urban areas in Massachusetts. The authors develop a framework for interpreting this heterogeneity using both student- and school-level explanatory variables. (Contains 4 tables.)

Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.; Walters, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

84

School Integration, Classroom Climate, and Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was a search for factors influencing the achievement of black and white elementary pupils in urban schools of varying racial and social class composition. Key variables tested include school racial composition (current and cumulative), school social observers, and the interracial friendliness of classmates as evidenced by…

St. John, Nancy H.

85

The Culture of the Elementary School as a Function of Leadership Style and Disciplinary Climate and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of elementary school leadership upon the disciplinary climate and culture of the school. Participating in the study were 680 faculty and 30 principals from 30 rural, suburban, and urban/inner-city elementary schools, selected at random from northeastern Pennsylvania. The sample included regular education teaching…

Benda, Susan Mowrer; Wright, Robert J.

86

Relationships between Supervisory Behaviors and School Climate as Perceived by Secondary School Teachers in the State of Kuwait  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of secondary school teachers of their principals' supervisory behaviors and of their schools' climate. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between supervisory behaviors and school climate in Kuwaiti secondary schools. Data was collected using two surveys. Bulach, Boothe, and…

Alhajeri, Salem

2011-01-01

87

School Social Work and Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The way to educate poor children effectively lies in the fusion of school social work and knowledge about effective schools. The following factors should be of concern to social workers: (1) parent involvement; (2) student welfare; (3) administrative leadership; (4) academic focus; (5) consistent monitoring of student progress; (6) high…

Hare, Isadora

1988-01-01

88

Best Practices: Creating an LGBT-Inclusive School Climate. A Teaching Tolerance Guide for School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are places of learning and also miniature societies. The climate of a school has a direct impact on both how well students learn and how well they interact with their peers. Teachers and administrators work hard to make their classrooms welcoming places where each student feels included. But despite these efforts, students who are--or who…

Southern Poverty Law Center (NJ1), 2013

2013-01-01

89

Middle School Improvement and Reform: Development and Validation of a School-Level Assessment of Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and School Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the structure of perceived school climate and the relationship of climate dimensions to adaptation of students who attend middle-grade-level schools. The climate scales exhibited a stable dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability. Ratings of multiple climate dimensions were associated…

Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert; Shim, Minsuk; Seitsinger, Anne; Dumas, Thaddeus

2003-01-01

90

Substance Use, Safety and School Climate in Idaho, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report details the results of the 1998 Idaho Substance Use and School Climate Survey, conducted by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory for the Idaho Department of Education. Sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students were asked about the use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs, as well as about their perceptions of the…

Coe, Michael T.

91

School Climate Factors Relating to Teacher Burnout: A Mediator Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated components of school climate (i.e. parent/community relations, administration, student behavioral values) and assessed their influence on the core burnout dimensions of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and feelings of low Personal Accomplishment. The study weighed the relative contributions of demographic…

Grayson, Jessica L.; Alvarez, Heather K.

2008-01-01

92

Measurement of Perceived School Climate for Active Travel in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To describe the development of an original scale that measures perceived school climate for active travel in fourth- and fifth-grade girls and boys. Methods: The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to provide evidence of factorial validity, factorial invariance, and construct validity. Results: The CFA supported…

Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Ward, Dianne S.

2007-01-01

93

Transforming School Climate and Learning: Beyond Bullying and Compliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators agree that children learn better in an honoring and respectful culture. They also know that top-down imposed change rarely sticks. In "Transforming School Climate and Learning", Bill Preble and Rick Gordon show how to accomplish lasting results by engaging both teachers and students in the five-step SafeMeasures[TM] process, a…

Preble, Bill; Gordon, Rick

2011-01-01

94

Parent, Student, and Teacher Perceptions of School Climate at Suburban High  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School climate has a major impact on the school setting. In order to manage climate, it is essential to assess and understand the perceptions of teachers, students, and parents. This study identified the differences between teachers, students, and parents relative to their perceptions concerning school climate at Suburban High. The instrument…

Steiner, Cory J.

2009-01-01

95

Impacts of the Co-nect School Reform Design on Classroom Instruction, School Climate, and Student Achievement in Inner-City Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the Co-nect school reform design in inner city schools relative to matched comparison schools. Schools were categorized as lower- or middle-socioeconomic status (SES). Co-nect schools demonstrated more positive outcomes on school climate, teacher commitment and satisfaction, teacher use of learner-centered strategies, and student…

Ross, Steven M.; Lowther, Deborah L.

2003-01-01

96

ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE IN A PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DESCRIBE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT OF AN URBAN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM USING THE MURRAY NEEDS-PRESS MODEL. A BROAD MEASURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRESS WAS ADAPTED FROM AN EXISTING MODEL AND USED TO--(1) DESCRIBE THE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESS PERCEIVED BY TEACHERS, (2) FACTOR ANALYZE THESE DATA, (3) DESCRIBE THE PERSONALITY (NEEDS)…

STEINHOFF, CARL R.

97

Inclusion and Integration and School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the implementation of a reverse integration and inclusion program at a school which had previously been exclusively for students with cognitive disabilities (trainable mental retardation). An extensive review of the literature provides a history of special education, mainstreaming, reverse integration, and the inclusive…

Phelps, Miriam A.

98

QSL: A Social System's Intervention To Improve Elementary School/Classroom Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The drive for improved school and classroom climate, for increased teacher and student involvement in decision-making, and for more positive teacher and student expectations are becoming prime areas for joint educational and behavioral science efforts. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a year-long classroom social competence training…

Schelkun, Ruth F.; And Others

99

Delaware School Climate Survey--Student: Its Factor Structure, Concurrent Validity, and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (DSCS-S) was developed to provide schools with a brief and psychometrically sound student survey for assessing school climate, particularly the dimensions of social support and structure. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 11,780 students in 85 schools, showed that a bifactor model…

Bear, George G.; Gaskins, Clare; Blank, Jessica; Chen, Fang Fang

2011-01-01

100

Using NASA climate data to improve effectiveness of undergraduate-level climate change education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing society today, and yet the science of global climate change and the potential effects are poorly understood by the general population. Through a NASA Innovations in Climate Education grant, UC Riverside is addressing this disconnect by fully redesigning the undergraduate level Earth Sciences courses, which serve over 3,000 students every year. The majority of these students are not Earth Sciences majors and so these changes in the climate change education curriculum reach a very broad range of students. This new curriculum centers around a new website that hosts online activities that allows students to utilized and manipulate NASA climate data sets in order to directly observe changes in the global climate system. All lower division Earth Sciences courses will include online activities and a unit on global climate change. In addition to this general improvement in climate change education, we have restructured our lower division Climate Change course (GEO 11) to focus on these online activities in order to give students first-hand experience with both global and local climate data. Because these activities are hosted online, they can be seemlessly integrated with other online resources, accessed from school or home and be viewed on a variety of devices, thus vastly increasing student accessibility. In the future, these activities will be available to other institutions. UC Riverside is an ideal institution at which to launch a broad-reaching climate change education program like this. As one of the most socioeconomically and ethnically diverse universities and one of only two federally-designated Hispanic Serving Research Institutions, UC Riverside primarily educates undergraduate students from the portions of society that will be most heavily impacted by the effects of climate change. GEO 11 and the other lower division courses produce climate-literate students of different majors and backgrounds, who can continue on to serve as climate science advocates in society.

Dahl, R. M.; Droser, M. L.

2012-12-01

101

School Social Climate and Individual Differences in Vulnerability to Psychopathology among Middle School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study used a person–environment-fit framework to examine the interaction of psychological vulnerabilities and perceptions of school climate to explain the emergence of behavioral and emotional problems during the middle school years. Cross-sectional and 1-year longitudinal analyses were conducted using data from 230 female and 230 male sixth- and seventh-grade students (50% non-Hispanic white, 27% Hispanic, 22% African American,

Gabriel P Kuperminc; Bonnie J Leadbeater; Sidney J Blatt

2001-01-01

102

Hiring Effective Secondary School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's effective school counselors are integral in education reform, school leadership, and student achievement. It is typically the responsibility of building principals to hire effective school counselors. This article builds on previous literature and provides principals with questions to ask and information to gather that may be helpful in…

McGlothlin, Jason M.; Miller, Lynne Guillot

2008-01-01

103

An Examination of Bullying in Georgia Schools: Demographic and School Climate Factors Associated with Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Situations  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. Methods: We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Results: Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. Conclusion: These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates.

Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H.; Strasser, Sheryl M.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Meyers, Joel

2013-01-01

104

Middle School Student Perceptions of School Climate: Examining Protective Functions on Subsequent Adjustment Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the roles of student perceptions of four aspects of school climate (friction, cohesion, competition among students, and satisfaction with classes) as moderators of the relations between effortful control and subsequent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Participants were 488 10-to-14-year old students involved in…

Loukas, Alexandra; Murphy, Jonna L.

2007-01-01

105

Students' Perceptions of School Climate in the U.S. and China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States.…

Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G.; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C.; Huang, Xishan

2013-01-01

106

Growing Use of the Effective Schools Model for School Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the successful, widespread adoption of the effective schools research model in widely varied districts. Discusses factors common to these school improvement programs, including acceptance of five premises concerning the nature of effective schooling. (PGD)

Lezotte, Lawrence W.; Bancroft, Beverly A.

1985-01-01

107

Individual and Contextual Effects of School Adjustment on Adolescent Alcohol Use  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the effect of a student’s own school adjustment as well as the contextual level of school adjustment (the normative level of school adjustment among students in a school) on student's self-reported use of alcohol. Using a dataset of 43,465 male and female 8th grade students from 349 schools across the contiguous United States who participated in a national study of substance use in rural communities between 1996 and 2000, multilevel latent covariate models were utilized to disentangle the individual-level and contextual effects of three school adjustment variables (i.e., school bonding, behavior at school, and friend’s school bonding) on alcohol use. All three school adjustment factors were significant predictors of alcohol use both within and between schools. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a strong contextual effect; students who attended schools where the overall level of school adjustment was higher reported lower levels of alcohol use even after taking their own school adjustment into account. The results demonstrate the importance of both a student’s own level of school adjustment and the normative level of school adjustment among students in the school on an adolescent’s use of alcohol. Differences in school adjustment across schools were quite strongly related to an adolescent's own alcohol use, indicating that school adjustment is an important aspect of school climate. Initiatives aimed at improving school climate may have beneficial effects on students’ alcohol use.

Stanley, Linda R.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Harkabus, Lindsey C.; Chapin, Laurie A.

2010-01-01

108

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores how Earth's climate has changed in the past and how it may change in the future. Climate change may occur as a result of changes in Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans. Such changes may be abrupt (such as gas and dust from volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts) or may occur over very long times (such as changes in landscape or increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). Even relatively small changes in atmospheric or ocean content and/or temperature can have widespread effects on climate if the change lasts long enough. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate. Though climate change and changes in the composition of the oceans and atmosphere are natural, present modifications far exceed natural rates. Learning Outcomes:� Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.� Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.� Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.� Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

109

Climate Kids: What is the Greenhouse Effect?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The greenhouse effect is explained in this series of related questions and answers. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

110

School Effectiveness and School Improvement: Voices from the Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1986, the Halton Board of Education in Toronto, Canada, initiated an effective schools project. This paper reviews the project, outlines some key results, and describes lessons learned about school effectiveness. Significant change is affected by school growth planning, school culture, administrative leadership, principal and teacher mobility,…

Stoll, Louise; Fink, Dean

1994-01-01

111

Predicting Teacher Commitment: The Impact of School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate whether school climate and social-emotional learning impact teacher commitment. The sample included 664 public schoolteachers from British Columbia and Ontario in Canada. Participants completed an online questionnaire about teacher commitment, school climate, and social-emotional learning. Binary logistic…

Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

2011-01-01

112

School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception in Traditional and Cyberbullying Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in perceptions of school social climate and peers in terms of bullying status, and to investigate the psychometric properties of the School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception Scales. The students participated from six different cities in Turkey were in…

Bayar, Yusuf; Ucanok, Zehra

2012-01-01

113

The Impact of a Principal's Sex on the Climate of Alternative Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of a leader's sex on the climate of alternative schools. Specifically, the problem was "Does a principal's sex have an impact on the climate of alternative schools?" The research attempted to answer the following questions: (1) Do differences with regard to a principal's sex exist within the following subsets of…

Wenton, Jessica

2010-01-01

114

The social construction of communication climate: An analysis of at-risk students in alternative high school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative high schools affect more potential high school dropouts than any other school or program and are designed to meet the needs of students who have had difficulty in conventional schools. This study examines the communication climate and constructions of caring in an alternative school for at-risk students by using a qualitative analysis grounded in the theoretical perspective of social constructionism. Observations and interviews were conducted over a six month time period. The first two chapters provide a review of literature and a detailed account of the methods used to conduct the study. Chapter Three describes the socially constructed nature of the school and the participants and the dialectical tensions of communication climate revealed from the analysis. The six dialectical tensions of communication climate are: (1) freedom/restraint, (2) disengagement/engagement, (3) personal communication/impersonal communication, (4) disconfirmation/confirmation, (5) equality/inequality, and (6) ambiguity/clarity. Although the school climate is comprised of each of these tensions, the data suggest that the interaction within the majority of classes created some common characteristics of the general communication climate at the school and can be characterized as one of freedom, disengagement, personal communication, disconfirmation, equality, and ambiguity. Chapter Four describes how caring was constructed and communicated. Although some students perceived some teachers as caring about students and about student learning, half of the students interviewed thought they were not learning or not learning much. Finally, Chapter Five provides a summary of the findings and a discussion of the results. The results of this study contribute to an understanding of the social construction of communication climate and caring in general, and within an alternative school for at-risk students, in specific. The results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of the jointly produced nature of communication climate and reveal the potential effect of communication climate and constructions of caring on teachers' instructional methods, teacher and student interaction, and student learning. Such information can aid pragmatically in the development or modification of programs designed to serve at-risk students, and theoretically in the understanding of the co-constructed nature of communication climate.

Souza, Tasha Jean

115

Effective Schools, Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluates current research literature on effective schools. While acknowledging that the research provides systematic direction for school improvement, the author also points out some shortcomings of existing studies, including (1) inadequate description of curriculum content and of circumstances believed to result in test success; (2)…

Perrone, Vito

1983-01-01

116

The Contribution of Student Perceptions of School Climate to Understanding the Disproportionate Punishment of African American Students in a Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the contribution of student perceptions of school climate to racial differences in school discipline. Four hundred middle school students completed a school climate survey. Compared to Caucasian students, African-American students were referred to the office for discipline three times as frequently and received five times…

Shirley, Erica L. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.

2012-01-01

117

The Effects of Dress on School Discipline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the results of a study to determine the effects of student dress on behavior while at school. The study took place at 5 high schools, 4 junior high schools, and 10 elementary schools during the 2000-01 school year. The total enrollment of the schools was 8,194. The study involved two or three sets consisting of three days…

Sommers, Norman L.

118

Examining the Impact of Leadership Style and School Climate on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…

Robinson, Tina

2010-01-01

119

Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

2011-01-01

120

Assessing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers knowledge base about global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change (GCC) is a crucial environmental issue that is challenging all Americans. With an effective collaboration between researchers, scientists and teachers, conceptual frameworks and methods can be developed for creating climate change content for classroom implementation. In this paper, we describe how teachers' conceptualize and understand global climate change. The information generated by this study can further be used to develop theme based, structured curricula to enhance teachers' understanding of the phenomenon of global climate change. Recent national documents concerning science education have focused on an Earth System approach and concentrate on the fundamental concepts and big ideas in earth science and climate change (e.g., The Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) (National Science Foundation (NSF), 2009) and Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009)). Unfortunately, research related to teachers' earth science content knowledge has not focused on an earth systems approach rather researchers have examined teachers' misconceptions about isolated earth science concepts, such as moon phases and plate tectonics. While such research implies teachers' lack of knowledge and awareness of earth as a system, it does not provide direct information about teachers' earth system knowledge. Similarly, research on teachers' and students' knowledge of climate change has focused on isolated topics, such as the greenhouse effect and global warming. Our study focused on eliciting secondary school science teachers' understanding of global climate change using a multifaceted and integrated approach. We do so in the context of a 3-year teacher professional development program where the climate science content provided to the teachers was aligned with essential principles of climate science (EPCS-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009). Our study was guided by the following research questions 1) What is the nature of teachers' climate literacy? 2)What is the structure of teachers' knowledge of climate change?3)What is the level of teachers' understanding of principles essential to understand Earth's climate system? This study employed a phenomenographical approach to analyze data for a qualitative measurement of different ways in which the teachers experienced and conceptualized climate change. We collected and analyzed data from the teachers' concept maps, supplemented it with the data from the Photo Elicitation Interviews and then aligned the outcomes with the seven essential principals of climate literacy (EPCS) to estimate the distribution of teacher knowledge. Our findings indicate that where teachers understand a diverse array of topics related to the science of global climate change, they need specific tools like place-based data simulations to correlate various local and global aspects of the phenomenon. Our findings also indicate teachers' perceptions about timescale, data projections using modeling and the level of uncertainty in the data. Our results will provide crucial information about providing conceptual knowledge and addressing misconceptions regarding the science of climate change and the educational approach towards teaching it in the best possible way.

Bhattacharya, D.; Roehrig, G. H.; Karahan, E.; Liu, S.

2012-12-01

121

The National School Climate Survey 2001: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students and Their Experiences in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from the 2001 National School Climate Survey related to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students' experiences and feelings of safety in school. A total of 904 LGBT students from 48 states and the District of Columbia participated. Results indicated that the overwhelming majority of students heard…

Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network, New York, NY.

122

The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.

2012-01-01

123

School Effectiveness Research and its Critics: alternative visions of schooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines (a) the values and assumptions which underpin school effectiveness research, and (b) the problem of applying its findings in schools. It does so in the light of a number of critiques of this research emanating from both the USA and the UK. The author argues that the issues at stake between school effectiveness researchers and their critics

John Elliott

1996-01-01

124

The effect of school-wide positive behavior support interventions in a day treatment setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) on the number and severity of discipline referrals by using a comparison of those referrals from the school year 2002-2003 (before PBS) to the 2003-2004 school year (after PBS). In addition, school climate surveys completed by parents, students, and staff (at the beginning of PBS

Judy K Berger

2005-01-01

125

Odyssey to Excellence: How to Build Effective Schools through Leadership and Management Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource book, for practicing school administrators and professors of school administration, provides 151 adaptable, flexible processes which have been used effectively in school districts to improve academic achievement and learning climate. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1, "Excellence in Leadership," consists of chapters on…

Slezak, James

126

Navigating middle grades: role of social contexts in middle grade school climate.  

PubMed

During early adolescence, most public school students undergo school transitions, and many students experience declines in academic performance and social-emotional well-being. Theories and empirical research have highlighted the importance of supportive school environments in promoting positive youth development during this period of transition. Despite this, little is known about the proximal social and developmental contexts of the range of middle grade public schools US students attend. Using a cross-sectional dataset from the eighth grade wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 1998-1999, the current study examines the middle grade school social context from the perspectives of administrators and teachers in public schools with typical grade configurations (k-8 schools, middle schools, and junior high schools) and how it relates to students' perceptions of school climate. We find that administrators and teachers in k-8 schools perceive a more positive school social context, controlling for school structural and demographic characteristics. This school social context, in turn, is associated with students' perceptions of their schools' social and academic climate. Implications for educational policy and practice are discussed. PMID:24830348

Kim, Ha Yeon; Schwartz, Kate; Cappella, Elise; Seidman, Edward

2014-09-01

127

Effectively engaging with climate skeptics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of my persistent challenges as a climate scientist involves friendly conversations with my extended (climate skeptic) family over the Thanksgiving table, as I try to inform and guide their perceptions about climate change. I modeled this writing assignment after these family gatherings, to give my students a chance to respond respectfully and completely to a skeptical argument in a safe setting, before entering the Thanksgiving arena!

Kleiss, Jessica

128

Measuring the Effects of Students' Perceptions of Classroom Social Climate on Academic Self-Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research measured the effects of students' perceptions of classroom social climate in middle school social studies classes on academic self-concept in social studies. The 185 subjects, consisting of 95 females and 90 males, were eighth graders enrolled in U.S. history courses. Students' perceptions of classroom social climate were measured by…

Byer, John L.

129

Multiple Indicators of High School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of school effectiveness have sometimes been criticized for placing too great an emphasis on a limited range of achievement measures as indicators of school quality. This paper draws on a study of secondary schools in Australia to explore the extent to which achievement growth, attitudes toward school, and school holding power are…

Ainley, John

130

Reducing the Negative Effects of Large Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an overview of recent efforts to promote small schools by first reviewing the rationale for small schools based on recent studies linking school size and various educational outcomes, followed by arguments supporting larger schools. Succeeding sections explore the following four ways to reduce the negative effects of school

Duke, Daniel L.; Trautvetter, Sara

131

The Effects of a Professional Development School Program on Student Achievement as Measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills, Teacher Perceptions of School Climate, and Pre-Service Teacher Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional Development Schools are innovations in which universities are joined with schools. Commonly teacher candidates are immersed in one setting. Early PDS research tended to focus on one aspect of a program. Those aspects of PDS studies were typically student achievement, the professional development of faculty, or teacher candidate…

Creasy, Kim

2005-01-01

132

Alternative Methodologies for Identifying Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If an effective school is defined as a school that causes student improvement on a number of important educational outcomes, the problem of identifying effective schools becomes one of establishing legitimate predictions of student performance and comparing those predictions to actual student or school outcomes. In attempting to identify effective

Webster, William J.; And Others

133

Bringing Global Climate Change Education to Alabama Middle School and High School Classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A NASA-funded Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program has been launched in Alabama to improve high school and middle school education in climate change science. The overarching goal is to generate a better informed public that understands the consequences of climate change and can contribute to sound decision making on related issues. Inquiry based NICE modules have been incorporated into the existing course of study for 9-12 grade biology, chemistry, and physics classes. In addition, new modules in three major content areas (earth and space science, physical science, and biological science) have been introduced to selected 6-8 grade science teachers in the summer of 2013. The NICE modules employ five E's of the learning cycle: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend and Evaluate. Modules learning activities include field data collection, laboratory measurements, and data visualization and interpretation. Teachers are trained in the use of these modules for their classroom through unique partnership with Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) and the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Certified AMSTI teachers attend summer professional development workshops taught by ASIM and AMSTI specialists to learn to use NICE modules. During the school year, the specialists in turn deliver the needed equipment to conduct NICE classroom exercises and serve as an in-classroom resource for teachers and their students. Scientists are partnered with learning and teaching specialists and lead teachers to implement and test efficacy of instructional materials, models, and NASA data used in classroom. The assessment by professional evaluators after the development of the modules and the training of teachers indicates that the modules are complete, clear, and user-friendly. The overall teacher satisfaction from the teacher training was 4.88/5.00. After completing the module teacher training, the teachers reported a strong agreement that the content developed in the NICE modules should be included in the Alabama secondary curriculum. Eventually, the NICE program has the potential to reach over 200,000 students when the modules are fully implemented in every school in the state of Alabama. The project can give these students access to expertise and equipment, thereby strengthening the connections between the universities, state education administrators, and the community.

Lee, M.; Mitra, C.; Percival, E.; Thomas, A.; Lucy, T.; Hickman, E.; Cox, J.; Chaudhury, S. R.; Rodger, C.

2013-12-01

134

A Tobit Regression Analysis of the Covariation between Middle School Students' Perceived School Climate and Behavioral Problems  

PubMed Central

This study uses an ecological framework to examine how adolescents’ perceptions of school climate in 6th grade covary with the probability and frequency of their engagement in problem behaviors in 7th and 8th grades. Tobit analysis was used to address the issue of having a highly skewed outcome variable with many zeros and yet account for censoring. The 677 participating students from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grade. The proportions of students reporting a positive school climate perception decreased over the middle school years for both genders, while the level of problem behavior engagement increased. The findings suggested that students who perceived higher levels of school discipline and order, or more positive student–teacher relationships were associated with lower probability and frequency of subsequent behavioral problems.

Wang, Ming Te; Selman, Robert L.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

135

Effective Schools: Do Elementary Prescriptions Fit Secondary Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the recent research identifying organizational characteristics that seem to make schools unusually effective has been conducted at the elementary level and may not be applicable to secondary schools. Research currently underway suggests that the basic organizational structures of elementary and secondary schools dictate two different…

Firestone, William A.; Herriott, Robert E.

136

Measuring the Effects of Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple statistical model to measure the effects of innovation and schooling is proposed. Synthesis of 134 meta-analyses revealed that educational innovations can be expected to change average achievement by 0.4 standards deviations and affective outcomes by 0.2 standard deviations. Innovation and feedback appear to enhance effects;…

Hattie, John

1992-01-01

137

Mississippi: The First Total Effective School State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In late 1982 Mississippi passed a massive school improvement program shaped around the effective schools concept as defined by Ron Edmonds. The characteristics of effective schools identified by Edmonds and made the cornerstone of the Mississippi legislation were that (1) the principal is a strong instructional leader; (2) the school has an…

Thomas, M. Donald; Wynne, George E.

138

ASK Florida; a climate change education professional development program for middle school teachers in Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of professional development workshops covering the fundamentals of climate change have been developed and facilitated for two groups of middle school science teachers in three Florida counties. The NASA-supported joint venture between Florida State University's Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) and the University of South Florida's (USF's) Coalition for Science Literacy, ASK Florida, focuses on expanding and deepening teachers' content knowledge of a wide range of climate change topics, connecting local and regional changes to the global picture, and supporting classroom implementation and effective teaching practices. Education experts from USF, climate scientists from COAPS, and Hillsborough county teachers and science coaches coordinated and developed the workshop content, which is based on Florida's Next Generation Sunshine State Standards in science, science curriculum guides for 6th grade, and teacher interest. Several scientists have facilitated activities during the workshop, including professors in meteorology and climatology, research scientists in the field, a NOAA program manager, the state climatologists for Florida, and others. Having these climate scientists present during the workshop provides teachers an opportunity to interact directly with the scientists and gain insight into the climatology field. Additionally, we host an open-forum discussion panel during which teachers can ask the experts about any topics of interest. Activities are designed to enhance the scientific skill level of the teachers. Introductory activities reinforce teachers' abilities to distinguish facts from opinions and to evaluate sources. Other activities provide hands-on experience using actual scientific data from NASA and other agencies. For example, teachers analyze precipitation data to create distributions of Florida rainfall, examine sea level trends at various locations, identify Atlantic hurricane frequencies during the phases of ENSO, and create maps of climate data available on the MYNASADATA web portal. The human aspect of climate change is addressed by discussing anthropological influences such as land use changes. In addition, we examine scientific and public use and interpretation of climate models, scenarios, and projections, and explore adaptation and mitigation strategies for Florida-specific climate projections. Pedagogy is incorporated throughout the workshops to demonstrate how the content and activities can be adapted for their students. Furthermore, we support educators in overcoming obstacles associated with teaching global and regional climate change. This program targets teachers from Title-I schools because students from these schools are typically underrepresented in the STEM fields. Additionally, classroom technology is often limited; therefore, it is important to adapt resources so they can be used in the classroom with or without computers. Activities are presented through an inquiry-based format to encourage knowledge acquisition and discovery similar to that occurring in the actual scientific field. Finally, we prepare teachers to address apathetic or antiscientific sentiments their students may have about climate change by identifying the background issues and ideology and developing strategies to make the content more relevant to their students' lives.

Weihs, R. R.

2012-12-01

139

Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change Science into High School and Community College Energy Course Offerings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In reviewing studies evaluating trends in greenhouse gasses, weather, climate and/or ecosystems, it becomes apparent that climate change is a reality. It has also become evident that the energy sector accounts for most of the greenhouse gas emissions with worldwide emissions of carbon dioxide increasing by 31 percent from 1990 to 2005, higher than in the previous thousands of years. While energy courses and topics are presented in high school and community college classes the topic of Climate Change Science is not always a part of the conversation. During the summer of 2011 and 2012, research undergraduates conducted interviews with a total of 39 national community college and 8 high school instructors who participated in a two week Sustainable Energy Education Training (SEET) workshop. Interview questions addressed the barriers and opportunities to the incorporation of climate change as a dimension of an energy/renewable energy curriculum. Barriers found included: there is not enough instruction time to include it; some school administrators including community members do not recognize climate change issues; quality information about climate change geared to students is difficult to find; and, most climate change information is too scientific for most audiences. A Solution to some barriers included dialogue on sustainability as a common ground in recognizing environmental changes/concerns among educators, administrators and community members. Sustainability discussions are already supported in school business courses as well as in technical education. In conclusion, we cannot expect climate change to dissipate without humans making more informed energy and environmental choices. With global population growth producing greater emissions resulting in increased climate change, we must include the topic of climate change to students in high school and community college classrooms, preparing our next generation of leaders and workforce to be equipped to find solutions, (such as renewable energy and sustainability practices), to climate change and environmental sustainability.

Howell, C.

2013-05-01

140

The Effectiveness of a Geospatial Technologies-Integrated Curriculum to Promote Climate Literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial technologies - integrated climate change curriculum (http://www.ei.lehigh.edu/eli/cc/) to promote climate literacy in an urban school district. Five 8th grade Earth and Space Science classes in an urban middle school (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) consisting of three different ability level tracks participated in the study. Data gathering methods included pre/posttest assessments, daily classroom observations, daily teacher meetings, and examination of student produced artifacts. Data was gathered using a climate change literacy assessment instrument designed to measure students' climate change content knowledge. The items included distractors that address misunderstandings and knowledge deficits about climate change from the existing literature. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to compare the pre- and post-test assessment results. The results of these analyses were used to compare overall gains as well as ability level track groups. Overall results regarding the use of the climate change curriculum showed significant improvement in urban middle school students' understanding of climate change concepts. Effect sizes were large (ES>0.8) and significant (p<0.001) for the entire assessment and for each ability level subgroup. Findings from classroom observations, assessments embedded in the curriculum, and the examination of all student artifacts revealed that the use of geospatial technologies enable middle school students to improve their knowledge of climate change and improve their spatial thinking and reasoning skills.

Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A. M.; Peffer, T.; Sahagian, D. L.; Cirucci, L.

2011-12-01

141

Combining Knowledge and Beliefs in High School Climate Science Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teachers face a seemingly insurmountable task when asked to address the science of climate change with the general public. This topic is unique because of its complexity, political implications and urgency for action. Developing tools that teachers need to address the National Science Standards begin with comprehensive professional development. After one year's implementation of our program (after participation in UCAR's NASA-funded Research Experiences for Teachers Institute), we are beginning to see evidence that with intentional delivery and preparation of climate science curriculum it is possible to combine knowledge and beliefs in order to nurture a desire for action. Teachers need to acquire an appreciation and understanding for the level of connectedness between disciplines used to study climate and repeatedly present the scientific process as a way of gathering evidence to arrive at factual conclusions. This emphasis on scientific process is important in dealing with the difference between personal beliefs and knowledge. In students' everyday lives their beliefs often matter much more to them than scientific facts. Today's media frequently gives opinions as much clout as verifiable data. Therefore, science teachers need to become anthropologists in order to navigate between cultures, traditions, economic realities and foundational beliefs to effect a change in attitude. Climate change affects us all whether we like it or not, and the challenge is finding a personal connection for each student that supports their journey instead of polarizing each other into the "believers" and "non-believers". It is important to listen to those whose worldview is not best explained by science in order to address the problem with the least resistance. At the end of a program that implemented techniques described above the student's overwhelming response was not: "climate change is a hoax" but instead "ok, I get it, NOW WHAT?" This is the million-dollar question that we strive to be asked and struggle to answer. We can get the student's attention but keeping them active in the pursuit of change is our next hurdle. Initial results are available in the form of case studies including pre and post attitudes about this global issue.

Davis, J.

2012-12-01

142

The Perceived School Climate in Invitational Schools in Hong Kong: Using the Chinese Version of the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of the Chinese translation of the revised Inviting School Survey (ISS-R; Smith, 2005; Smith & Bernard, 2004) to measure the invitational climate of seven invitational secondary schools in Hong Kong. The five subscales of Chinese version of ISS-R were found to be valid and reliable in a sample of 706 Grade 11…

Ng, Carmen K. M.; Yuen, Mantak

2011-01-01

143

The Relationship of Bureaucratic Structure to School Climate: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Construct Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…

Lennon, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

144

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains recommendations for designing high performance, energy efficient schools located in hot and dry climates. A high performance checklist for designers is included along with several case studies of projects that successfully demonstrated high performance design solutions for hot and dry climates. The guide's 10 sections…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

145

The Influences of Leadership Style and School Climate to Faculty Psychological Contracts: A Case of S University in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school

Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

2006-01-01

146

Psychometric Support of the School Climate Measure in a Large, Diverse Sample of Adolescents: A Replication and Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Methods: Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships,…

Zullig, Keith J.; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M.; Huebner, E. Scott; Ajamie, Jean

2014-01-01

147

Reconceptualizing the Debate on School Climate and Students' Academic Motivation and Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory on parenting styles was used as a theoretical framework to examine the relationship of aspects of school climate to the mathematics achievement, academic engagement, and locus of control orientation of eighth graders. Student and school data were drawn from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 for 19,435 students and 997…

Gregoire, Michele; Algina, James

148

The walls speak: the interplay of quality facilities, school climate, and student achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – A growing body of research connecting the quality of school facilities to student performance accompanies recent efforts to improve the state of the educational infrastructure in the USA. Less is known about the mechanisms of these relationships. This paper seeks to examine the proposition that part of the explanation may be the mediating influence of school climate. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Cynthia Uline; Megan Tschannen-Moran

2008-01-01

149

High School Social Climate and Antisocial Behavior: A 10 Year Longitudinal and Multilevel Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…

Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2008-01-01

150

Perceptions of School and Family Climates and Experiences of Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of family and school-level variables on relational aggression and relational victimization was investigated among 158 fourth- and fifth-grade children. Family cohesion, maternal and paternal responsiveness, and school climate were hypothesized to be significant predictors of relational aggression and relational victimization. The results…

Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Taiariol, Jennifer; Yoon, Jina

2010-01-01

151

Climate Profile and OCBs of Teachers in Public and Private Schools of India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research aims to assess the significant differences in the climate profile and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) of teachers working in public and private schools of India. Design/methodology/approach: The sample comprised of 100 teachers, out of which 50 teachers were from public school and 50 teachers were from private…

Garg, Pooja; Rastogi, Renu

2006-01-01

152

Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the…

Im, Piljae

2009-01-01

153

Perceived Motivational Climates and Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Norwegian Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems (EBP: symptoms of depression, lack of on-task-orientation and disruptive behaviour), among 1171 Norwegian 8th grade secondary school students from 65 school classes. Statistical analyses showed significant…

Stornes, Tor; Bru, Edvin

2011-01-01

154

The Relationship of Principal Leadership Behaviors with School Climate, Teacher Job Satisfaction, and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to determine how leadership behaviors of principals relate to school climate, teachers' job satisfaction, and student achievement. The relationship of leadership to student achievement was measured by the school levels based on the administration of the 2006-2007 Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT). Leadership and…

Williams, Maurice Demond

2009-01-01

155

Evaluation of authentic science projects on climate change in secondary schools: a focus on gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines secondary-school students’ opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from scientists about the global carbon cycle. This study focuses in particular on differences between male

Elma Dijkstra; Martin Goedhart

2011-01-01

156

Playgrounds and Prejudice: Elementary School Climate in the United States. A Survey of Students and Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' school education consists of not only what they are explicitly taught in the classroom, but also what they implicitly learn through the language, attitudes and actions of other students and teachers. When these attitudes, remarks and actions are unsupportive or hostile, they create a school climate that can negatively impact students'…

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012

2012-01-01

157

Serious Doubts about School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers the model of school effectiveness (SE) currently dominant in research, policy and practice in England (although the concerns it raises are international). It shows, principally through consideration of initial and propagated error, that SE results cannot be relied upon. By considering the residual difference between the…

Gorard, Stephen

2010-01-01

158

Effective School Management. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this book is to help teachers with senior management responsibilities, and the schools and colleges that they work in, to become more effective. It is a book by practitioners for practitioners. They authors believe their book is unique, because there are so few people who have had enough management responsibility and training…

Everard, K.B.; Morris, Geoffrey; Wilson, Ian

2004-01-01

159

STEM417: NASA Resources for Teaching Global Climate Change in High School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, facilitated course is designed for high-school educators wishing to teach global climate change using an inquiry/problem-based approach. The course focusses on evidence that supports global climate change and how to use NASA data and resources to help high-school students discover mitigations or adaptations to climate change. The course is part of PBS Education's outreach and offerings to educators across the country; it is a 45-hour experience over six weeks and eligible for three graduate credits.

160

Establishing and Monitoring a School and Classroom Climate That Promotes Desired Behavior and Academic Achievement. CASE/CCBD Mini-Library Series on Safe, Drug-Free, and Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph explores the social context of the school and how this context influences, for better or worse, the academic and social behavior of students. It reviews how most student behavior serves a meaningful purpose for the student and how similar behaviors may serve distinctly different functions for various students. It also explores how…

Van Acker, Richard

161

e-Leadership of School Principals: Increasing School Effectiveness by a School Data Management System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, school management systems have become an important tool for effective e-leadership and data-based decision making. School management systems emphasize information flow and e-communication between teachers, students and parents. This study examines e-leadership by secondary-school principals through the Mashov school management…

Blau, Ina; Presser, Ofer

2013-01-01

162

School Climate in Urban Elementary Schools: Its Role in Predicting Low-Income Children's Transition from Early Educational RCT to Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research on school-level factors that predict children's development has focused largely on associations between a limited number of characteristics, such as school size and school resources, and children's academic achievement. Few studies take a more comprehensive look at the measurement of school climate or examine its relationship to…

Lowenstein, Amy E.; Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.; Zhai, Fuhua; Pess, Rachel A.

2011-01-01

163

The Effects of Atmospheric Particles on Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment produced by ThinkTV explains that particles suspended in the atmosphere, or aerosols, can have a surprising effect on regional warming and cooling, adding to the complexity of global climate change.

Thinktv

2010-11-30

164

OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE INFORMATION NEEDS FOR ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric scientists engaged in climate change research require a basic understanding of how ecological effects models incorporate climate. This report provides an overview of existing ecological models that might be used to model climate change effects on vegetation. ome agric...

165

Effective Hand Washing in an Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school is the perfect place to teach and reinforce the lifelong skill of effective handwashing for students and adults. One collaboration between an elementary school and a nursing education program to augment school health services without taxing the school budget is described. Nursing students spent 260 professional nursing service…

Hezel, Linda; Bartlett, Connie; Hileman, Judy Willis; Dillon, Lisa; Cessna, Tamara

2000-01-01

166

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Climate Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni�o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. Learning Outcomes:� Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.� Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.� Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.� List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

167

Effects of School Lighting on Physical Development and School Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study collected data on the physical development, attendance, and school performance effects of four types of school lighting on elementary students over a two-year period. Results indicated that regular exposure to the lights had important nonvisual effects on students. Full-spectrum fluorescent lamps with ultraviolet supplements were found…

Hathaway, Warren E.

1995-01-01

168

Stress characteristics in schoolchildren related to different educational strategies and school climates.  

PubMed

The goal of our paper is to verify the hypothesis that schools with different educational strategies and school climates, in the context of current diversification of educational system in the Czech Republic, have different impacts on the wellbeing and mental health of children. A sample of 868 schoolchildren from five Prague primary schools was studied. The schools selected for our study represent the spectrum of prevalent educational orientations in transforming compulsory education system. The following indicators of school stress were examined: general anxiety, school anxiety, emotional and psychosomatic balance, learning disabilities and behavioural disorders, type A behaviour, mental capacity, attitudes toward school, and social climate of a class as perceived by pupils. Consequently, selected sample of children underwent a thorough neuropaediatric examination. The findings confirmed our original assumption. The least negative characteristics were found at schools with the climate of confidence and respect among principals, staff, pupils and parents. An authoritarian principal who backs the demanding requirements of the traditional education system may cause a climate of mistrust and fear, anxiety and psychosomatic troubles in the pupils and in teachers as well and learning and behaviour disorders in the pupils. The negative experience endangers healthy development of school population. Thinking about application of our results on health promotion programmes at school, we have concluded that it is of greatest importance to promote changes leading to: confidence between the principal and the staff as well as among teachers themselves, participation and cooperation in school management, conditions for independent and creative work of teachers, teacher's effort to replace directive guidance of pupils by responsibility promoting education, diminishing restrictive role of grading in traditional teaching system and introducing more individual and qualitative evaluation of pupils. PMID:8903523

Havlinova, M; Schneidrova, D

1995-11-01

169

Prejudice in Schools: Promotion of an Inclusive Culture and Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public schools represent the pluralism of American society. Unfortunately, many children experience their public school environment as unwelcoming or even violent. Prejudicial attitudes contribute to problematic intergroup relations in public school settings. Furthermore, teachers are often unprepared to work with the diversity of class,…

Dessel, Adrienne

2010-01-01

170

Magnets Adjust to New Climate of School Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Once considered a way to help integrate racially divided districts, magnet schools today have been forced to evolve, given increasing pressure to provide more public school choices and legal barriers against using race to determine school enrollment. In a post-desegregation era, many large districts like Chicago, Los Angeles, and Baltimore County…

Fleming, Nora

2012-01-01

171

A Tobit Regression Analysis of the Covariation between Middle School Students' Perceived School Climate and Behavioral Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses an ecological framework to examine how adolescents' perceptions of school climate in 6th grade covary with the probability and frequency of their engagement in problem behaviors in 7th and 8th grades. Tobit analysis was used to address the issue of having a highly skewed outcome variable with many zeros and yet account for…

Wang, Ming-Te; Selman, Robert L.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

172

Assessing Students' Views of School Climate: Developing and Validating the What's Happening in This School? (WHITS) Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and validation of a six-scale survey to assess school climate in terms of students' perceptions of the degree to which they feel welcome and connected, together with a scale to assess students' perceptions of bullying. The development of each survey involved a multi-stage approach, including: 1) an extensive…

Aldridge, Jill; Ala'I, Kate

2013-01-01

173

Good and/or Effective Schools: What Do We Want?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Takes issue with research findings on effective schools and discusses the differences between "effective" schools and "good" schools. The findings on effective schools are too often equated with desirable outcomes but fail to distinguish between "effectiveness" and "goodness." (MD)

Glickman, Carl D.

1987-01-01

174

Measuring School Climate for Gauging Principal Performance: A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Publicly Accessible Measures. A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief provides principal evaluation system designers information about the technical soundness and cost (i.e., time requirements) of publicly available school climate surveys. The authors focus on the technical soundness of school climate surveys because they believe that using validated and reliable surveys as an outcomes measure can…

Clifford, Matthew; Menon, Roshni; Gangi, Tracy; Condon, Christopher; Hornung, Katie

2012-01-01

175

Classroom Climate Student Characteristics, and Achievement in Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three approaches, focusing on (1) individual differences, (2) an aggregate composite, and (3) an aptitude-treatment interaction model to assess classroom climate, are discussed. A description of how a classroom climate approach to secondary-level psychological services can be implemented is presented. (Author/PN)

Barclay, James R.; DeMers, Stephen T.

1982-01-01

176

Stimulating School Effectiveness and School Improvement Research in Switzerland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a project undertaken for the Swiss National Science Foundation to investigate the efficiency of the Swiss education systems. The project entailed a literature review of current international trends in school-effectiveness and school-improvement research; a survey of 57 researchers in 10 countries; a survey of researchers in…

Szaday, Christopher; Bueler, Xaver

177

Linking School Effectiveness Knowledge and School Improvement Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the reasons for the overall lack of synchronization between school-effectiveness knowledge and school-improvement practice at the international level. It surveys the two communities, attempts to understand the origins and distinctiveness of the two paradigms, and outlines what each community could gain from an appreciation of…

Reynolds, David

178

A Hierarchical Model for Studying School Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a general statistical methodology for analyzing hierarchically structured data. The use of the methodology is illustrated by reexamining the "High School and Beyond" data and the controversy over the effectiveness of public and Catholic schools. (Author/RM)

Raudenbush, Stephen; Bryk, Anthony S.

1986-01-01

179

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack explores concepts related to Earth's weather and climate. The focus is on Standards and Benchmarks related to weather and climate, the water cycle, climate change, and the role of solar energy and its affect on the atmosphere and oceans. The unique role oceans play in defining Earth's weather and climate patterns is also specifically addressed. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:� Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. � Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".� Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Climate Patterns� Explain why the temperature of the ocean does not generally fluctuate as dramatically as the temperature of the land.� Describe the relationship between density of liquids and gases and their temperature.� Explain how a difference in density of different layers/portions of a fluid will cause internal currents (rising and falling of the fluid).� Explain the cause of predictable wind patterns along the coastal regions of large land masses.� Describe how the Coriolis Effect helps determine the direction of movement of air and water currents.� List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the atmosphere.� Provide an example showing how the transfer of energy affects weather and climate.� Explain how convection relates to weather, including its role in the development of circulation patterns. Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Precipitation and Energy� Outline the basic steps in the water cycle in terms of density, energy of the water, and the relative molecular arrangement and motion in each phase.� Describe how energy is transferred to the atmosphere by heating from the ocean and by the evaporation of water and its subsequent condensation. � Identify the Sun as the energy source that drives atmospheric circulation and the movement of masses of air and water from one place on Earth to another (via convection).� Llist sources for the water cycle and identify the largest source.� Explain the relationship between water, temperature, the amount of water evaporated into the atmosphere (and subsequently condensed), and the energy of the atmosphere at or near the location of evaporation.Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Circulation Patterns� Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.� Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.� Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.� List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate� Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.� Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.� Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.� Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

180

Corporate Discourses in School: Adapting to the Prevailing Economic Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines adaptations made by one high school when the surrounding city shifted from a textile mill-driven manufacturing economy to a post-industrial service economy. Using data from an extended field study, the paper examines how school discourses emerged from three related sources (a corporate sponsor, competition for good students, and preparing…

Bettis, Pamela J.

2000-01-01

181

The Desegregated School: Problems in Status Power and Interracial Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social processes in desegregated schools are much more complicated than is generally thought. Data from three desegregated schools are used to highlight the operation of two social processes which have an impact on the interracial behavior of students. One process stems from an academic status ordering, the other comes from power relations in the…

Cohen, Elizabeth G.

182

Perspectives & perceptions: spiritual care and organizational climate in Christian schools.  

PubMed

Caring and spirituality are concepts Christian nursing programs transmit through explicit official, operational, and implicit hidden curricula. A measurable facet of the hidden curriculum is organizational climate. This study explored interrelationships between perspectives of spiritual care held by students and educators in Christian baccalaureate nursing programs, and their perception of organizational climate. Findings revealed that students who felt better cared for tended to have more positive perspectives of spiritual care. PMID:20364521

Ramal, Edelweiss

2010-01-01

183

The Role of School Climate in School Violence: A Validity Study of a Web-Based School Violence Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "School Violence Survey" (SVS) was developed as an instrument to investigate students' perceptions of school environment, their experiences and interactions within diverse social groups, and their views on school violence issues including bullying. A total of 806 students across four Midwest high schools and middle schools completed the paper…

Hurford, David P.; Lindskog, Rick; Cole, AmyKay; Jackson, Robyn; Thomasson, Sara; Wade, Amanda

2010-01-01

184

Making Schools Safe and Inclusive: Gay-Straight Alliances and School Climate in Ontario  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) have become widespread in Ontario schools and, starting in 2012, all schools are required to permit students to form GSAs. While American research suggests that GSAs have a positive impact on school safety and inclusion, there is little research on the impact of GSAs in Canadian schools. This study, based on a survey…

Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

2013-01-01

185

Perceptions of MBA Students towards Learning Climate for Managerial Knowledge: A Study of Business School in Lahore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore different cultural dimensions of the learning climate at a business school located at Lahore, Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports the result of an empirical study of the learning climate for managerial knowledge at a business school, located in Lahore, Pakistan. A sample of 150…

Raza, Ahmad; Murad, Hasan; Kayani, Ashraf

2010-01-01

186

The Effectiveness of Catholic Primary Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First- and second-grade cohorts in public and Catholic school Chapter 1 programs were compared. Catholic schooling did not have a significant effect on mathematics and reading test scores. Findings did not change when first-grade school-level scores were used to account for selection bias in the fourth-grade cohort. (Contains 22 references.) (JOW)

Jepsen, Christopher

2003-01-01

187

Appraising School Effectiveness Using a Bayesian Method.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appraisal of a school's relative effectiveness is complicated by: (1) the need to control for input differences; (2) measurement error in input measures; and (3) small sample size within schools. This study compares the performance of two successive cohorts in 19 schools in a small midwestern city on the five Iowa Tests of Basic Skills using both…

Coffman, William E.; Shigemasu, Kazuo

188

Designing Effective School Improvement Strategies. Newsletter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the country, educators in schools that have not met their targets for improved student learning are considering next steps. As a first step, a school improvement plan that is grounded in data and based on a comprehensive needs assessment can provide a framework for effecting change for a school's programming, student support systems, and…

Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

2009-01-01

189

Auditing Failure: Moral Competence and School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses how school effectiveness and school improvement, as they have been interpreted in United Kingdom central and local government policy, have affected schools and other educational bodies connected with them. It draws on Michael Power's book, "The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification," to understand the appeal of this form of…

Weiner, Gaby

190

A Revision of School Effectiveness Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical modeling of school effectiveness data was originally motivated by the dissatisfaction with the analysis of (school-leaving) examination results that took no account of the background of the students or regarded each school as an isolated unit of analysis. The application of multilevel analysis was generally regarded as a breakthrough,…

Longford, Nicholas T.

2012-01-01

191

Effects of urbanization on climate of ?stanbul and Ankara  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to study regional climate change and investigate the effects of urbanization on climates of two largest cities in Turkey: ?stanbul and Ankara. Air temperature (mean, maximum and minimum) data of ?stanbul and Ankara are analyzed to study regional climate change and to understand the possible effects of urbanization on the climate of these regions

Mehmet Karaca; Mete Tayanç

1995-01-01

192

Greenhouse Effect, Radiative Forcing and Climate Sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature conditions and climate on Earth are controlled by the balance between absorbed solar radiation and outgoing terrestrial radiation. The greenhouse effect is a synonym for the trapping of infrared radiation by radiatively active atmospheric constituents. It generally causes a warming of the planet's surface, compared to the case without atmosphere. Perturbing the radiation balance of the planet, e.g., by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, induces climate change. Individual contributions to a total climate impact are usually quantified and ranked in terms of their respective radiative forcing. This method involves some limitations, because the effect of the external forcing is modified by radiative feedbacks. Here the current concept of radiative forcing and potential improvements are explained.

Ponater, Michael; Dietmüller, Simone; Sausen, Robert

193

Effects of Comprehensive School Reform on Student Achievement and School Change: A Longitudinal Multi-Site Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The longitudinal impacts on school change and student achievement of implementing varied Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models was investigated in 12 elementary schools in diverse geographic locations. Each school was individually matched and compared to a demographically similar control school on measures of school climate, teacher…

Sterbinsky, Allan; Ross, Steven M.; Redfield, Doris

2006-01-01

194

Measuring School Improvement Implementation: Validation of the School Effectiveness Structural Components Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School Effectiveness Structural Components Inventory (SESCI) was designed to assess structural elements in a school environment that contribute to effectiveness. The preliminary validation took place in 12 elementary schools in or near a large metropolitan school district. The schools were classified by overall school socioeconomic status, as…

Koppel, Sheree P.; And Others

195

Multiculturalism as a dimension of school climate: the impact on the academic achievement of Asian American and Hispanic youth.  

PubMed

Multiculturalism constitutes an important element of school climate, but the relation between perceived multiculturalism and academic achievement has not been widely studied. This study examined the influence of students' perceptions of school support for multiculturalism on academic achievement among 280 Asian American and Hispanic youth, including ethnic identity and ethnocultural empathy as potential mediators. Results of structural equation modeling revealed that perceived multiculturalism was significantly positively related to ethnocultural empathy for Asian Americans and Hispanics, and that ethnocultural empathy, in turn, was predictive of academic achievement for Hispanics only. Results of bootstrapping to test for mediation effects revealed ethnocultural empathy to be a salient mediator for Hispanic youth. Although ethnic identity did not mediate the link between multiculturalism and academic achievement, ethnic identity was significantly predictive of achievement for Hispanics. On the whole, these findings suggest that fostering a school climate supportive of multiculturalism may improve empathy toward ethnic out-groups. Furthermore, schools that promote compassion and tolerance for diverse ethnic groups may achieve better academic outcomes among Hispanic youth. PMID:21058811

Chang, Janet; Le, Thao N

2010-10-01

196

Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter  

SciTech Connect

A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs. (ACR)

Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

1985-01-01

197

Effects of climate change on croplands  

EPA Science Inventory

This talk will describe likely changes in temperature and precipitation expected in the northwestern US with global climate change, and their potential impacts on Oregon croplands. The focus will be on the effects of temperature and carbon dioxide on crop productivity, weed cont...

198

Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early

D. J. Hofmann

2007-01-01

199

Conceptual Change regarding middle school students' experience with Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdote to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. A third finding underscores prior research in conceptual change, indicating that learning, especially conceptual change, is not a strictly rational process. Students, and others, are highly influenced by extra rational factors, such as the given political, scientific, and/or religious leanings of their families, their own willingness to explore anomalies, and other factors. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.; Lutz, B.

2011-12-01

200

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different urban high schools

Katherine L. McNeill; Meredith Houle Vaughn

2010-01-01

201

Interface between Educational Facilities and Learning Climate in Three Northern Alabama K-2 Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to observe, record, and describe the interface between educational facilities and learning climate in three elementary schools, comparing the results with results from a 1990 study. Data came from taped informal interviews, videotape recordings, observations, and conversations with parents, teachers, and administrators.…

Yielding, A. C.

202

Middle School Students’ Conceptual Change In Global Climate Change: Using Argumentation to Foster Knowledge Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the framework theory of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct incorrect ideas with correct ones, but instead weigh incoming ideas against

Barry Wade Golden

2011-01-01

203

Examining the Moderating Role of Perceived School Climate in Early Adolescent Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the unique and interactive relations of 4 aspects of student-perceived school climate (cohesion, friction, and competition among students, and overall satisfaction with classes) and adolescent effortful control in the conduct problems and depressive symptoms of 868 ten- to fourteen-year-old adolescents. Hierarchical…

Loukas, Alexandra; Robinson, Sheri

2004-01-01

204

School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning: Predicting Teacher Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Teaching Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables--teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction--and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables. Along with sense of job…

Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

2012-01-01

205

Climatic Effects of Regional Nuclear War  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use a modern climate model and new estimates of smoke generated by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the response of the climate system to a regional nuclear war between emerging third world nuclear powers using 100 Hiroshima-size bombs (less than 0.03% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal) on cities in the subtropics. We find significant cooling and reductions of precipitation lasting years, which would impact the global food supply. The climate changes are large and longlasting because the fuel loadings in modern cities are quite high and the subtropical solar insolation heats the resulting smoke cloud and lofts it into the high stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow. While the climate changes are less dramatic than found in previous "nuclear winter" simulations of a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers, because less smoke is emitted, the changes seem to be more persistent because of improvements in representing aerosol processes and microphysical/dynamical interactions, including radiative heating effects, in newer global climate system models. The assumptions and calculations that go into these conclusions will be described.

Oman, Luke D.

2011-01-01

206

Considering Students' Out-of-School Lives and Values in Designing Learning Environments for Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What are the implications of social controversy for the teaching and learning of climate change science? How do the political dimensions of this controversy affect learners' attitudes towards and reasoning about climate change and climate science? Case studies from a pilot enactment of an ecological impacts of climate change curriculum explore these questions by describing how five high school students' understandings of climate change science developed at the intersection of political and scientific values, attitudes, and ways of knowing. Case studies combine qualitative, ethnographic methods including interviews and classroom video observations with quantitative pre/post-assessments of student conceptual understandings and weekly surveys of student engagement. Data indicate that students had initial perceptions of climate change informed by the media and their families—both supporting and rejecting the scientific consensus—that influenced how they engaged with the scientific evidence. While students who were initially antagonistic to anthropogenic climate change did develop conceptual understandings of the scientific evidence for human-influences on climate change, this work was challenging and at times frustrating for them. These case studies demonstrate the wide range of initial attitudes and understandings that students bring to the study of climate change. They also demonstrate that it is possible to make significant shifts in students' understandings of climate change science, even in students who were initially resistant to the idea of anthropogenic climate change. Finally, multiple case studies discuss ways that the learning that occurred in the classroom crossed out of the classroom into the students' homes and family talk. This work highlights how learners' pathways are shaped not only by their developing understanding of the scientific evidence but also by the political and social influences that learners navigate across the contexts of their lives. It underscores the need to understand and support students as they interact with climate change across the contexts of their lives.

Walsh, E.; Tsurusaki, B.

2012-12-01

207

Unemployment effects of climate policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper models the unemployment effects of restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions, embodying two of the most significant types of short-term economic imperfections that generate unemployment: sectoral rigidities in labor mobility and sectoral rigidities in wage adjustments. A labor policy is also analyzed that would reduce the direct negative economic effects of the emissions restrictions.The politics of limiting greenhouse gas

Mustafa H. Babiker; Richard S. Eckaus

2007-01-01

208

School Effectiveness in the Dominican Republic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Characteristics distinguishing more effective from less effective public primary (grades 1 to 8) schools in Santo Domingo were studied, using a comparative case study design. The effectiveness of the school was determined by expert nomination and achievement tests in reading, mathematics, and writing. Socioeconomic status was controlled and three…

British Columbia Univ., Vancouver. Faculty of Education.

209

Facilitators to Promoting Health in Schools: Is School Health Climate the Key?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools can promote healthy eating in adolescents. This study used a qualitative approach to examine barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in schools. Methods: Case studies were conducted with 8 low-income Michigan middle schools. Interviews were conducted with 1 administrator, the food service director, and 1 member of the…

Lucarelli, Jennifer F.; Alaimo, Katherine; Mang, Ellen; Martin, Caroline; Miles, Richard; Bailey, Deborah; Kelleher, Deanne K.; Drzal, Nicholas B.; Liu, Hui

2014-01-01

210

Development of a Climate Concept Inventory and Assessment of High-school Students Engaged in the EarthLabs Climate Modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of climate change education materials and curriculum is necessary to support educators in implementing easily accessible, reliable and accurate information for the classroom. Developers must design materials that are effective at reaching their learning goals. They also must use appropriate assessments that align with these goals and the content being taught in order to provide evidence of efficacy. EarthLabs consists of three on-line climate modules: Climate and the Cryosphere, Climate and the Biosphere, and Climate and the Carbon Cycle, where students engage in hands-on, visualization, and inquiry activities in each ~3 week module in their classroom. The project includes curriculum development, teacher professional development, research on student learning, and project evaluation components. In this presentation, we emphasize the research on student learning conducted in the classroom. We have worked with curriculum developers and scientists to develop a climate concept inventory which meets curriculum goals and is scientifically valid. We have completed the first phase of the climate concept inventory and assessed over 230 students in nine high school classrooms in Mississippi and Texas pre- and post-implementation of EarthLabs. The developed concept inventory included 10 content-driven multiple choice questions, six affective-based multiple choice questions, one confidence question, six open-ended questions, and eight demographic questions. Results indicate that students had gains on 9 out of the 10 of the content based multiple choice questions with positive gains in answer choice selection ranging from 1.72% to 42%. In regard to the confidence question, students significantly reported increased confidence with 15% more student reporting that they were either very or fairly confident with their answers. Of the six affective questions posed, 5 of 6 showed significant shifts towards gains in knowledge, awareness, and information about Earth's climate system. Open-ended responses provided information on common student misconceptions for the development of new multiple choice question stems and distractors. Our analysis considers reliability and validity of the assessment, including item response characteristic curve analysis, as well as expert and teacher responses to the climate concept inventory, as a validity comparison.

McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, E.

2013-12-01

211

School Climate for Gay and Lesbian Students and Staff Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In high schools, a conspiracy of silence shrouds the sexual orientation issue. Although the social atmosphere is vaguely supportive, fear and the realities of life cause most gays and lesbians to keep their sexual identities hidden. Homophobia can be addressed through staff development, support staff and services, inclusion of homosexual issues in…

Anderson, John D.

1994-01-01

212

Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: Advancing the Science of Climate Change in the Public Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of K-12 educational programs and resources that seek to share the science of climate change has recently come into focus. During the fall 2006 AGU meeting, we presented the conceptual framework used to guide both the curriculum and year-one programs of Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: The Global Warming Road Show. Currently this dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program selects and empowers a diverse population of 11th and 12th grade students from a large urban high school in the Midwest to teach a curriculum on climate change to 7th graders from a local feeder school. In December 2007 we will complete year-one of the program and will present an overview of 1) students' conceptual representations of climate change, 2) the most recent curriculum and programs, and 3) the ongoing program evaluation. We will synthesize these three areas and reflect on how to improve upon year-two of both the curriculum and the program. During various stages of the program, students have constructed concept maps, written in journals, created lesson plans, and participated in focus group interviews. These materials are being analyzed to provide a brief overview of high school students' initial conceptualizations of climate change. During the intensive 2007 summer workshop, these 11th and 12th grade students were supported by university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators as they attempted to better understand climate change and as they reflected on how to effectively teach this topic to 7th graders. During the fall semester of 2007, the workshop graduates are scheduled to teach 25 to 30 7th graders a five week climate unit. The program will culminate with the 11th and 12th grade student-mentors working with the 7th graders to create a "Road Show," which will be presented to other 7th and 8th graders within the same school district. To ensure that this program is current, a team of scientists and science educators supplemented and further developed a well known and tested 15-year-old curriculum (Great Explorations in Math and Science, 1990) with recent data and analysis focusing on key concepts of climate change. The updated curriculum was structured using two driving questions: - How do we know the earth has experienced climate change in the past, including the ice ages and the age of the dinosaurs? - How do we know that humans have an impact on climate? Science educators and scientists also worked together to create templates that prompted the 11th and 12th grade students to first reflect on their understandings of climate change and then on how they would teach their younger peers. As students work with experiments, data sets, and news-media articles, they are also prompted to reflect on discrepancies between primary science sources and secondary media sources (Drake and Nelson, 2005). An evaluation team observed the summer workshops, administered surveys, reviewed the adapted curriculum, and participated in planning sessions. The evaluators are in the process of analyzing these multiple indicators to examine the extent to which the program aligns with its stated goals. The initial formative evaluation findings suggest that students were active participants in the workshop and that they enjoyed their experience. Areas of year-two development include improved communication and collaboration between university and secondary school units.

Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Smith, J. S.; Wood, E. J.; Filippelli, G. M.

2007-12-01

213

Game Based Learning as a Means to Teach Climate Literacy in a High School Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of RPI's GK-12 graduate fellowship program (which involves graduate STEM fellows in K-12 education) a climate change board game activity was developed and implemented at inner city Troy High School in Troy, New York. The goal was to engage and teach two classes of the Earth Science General Repeat (GR) tenth grade students about climate change through a game-based leaning module. Students placed in the GR course had previously failed Earth Science, and had never passed a general science class in high school. In the past, these students have responded positively to hands-on activities. Therefore, an interactive board game activity was created to teach students about climate, explore how humans impact our environment, and address the future of climate change. The students are presented with a draft version of the game, created by the graduate fellow, and are asked to redesign the game for their peers in the other GR class. The students' version of the game is required to include certain aspects of the original game, for example, the climate change Trivia and Roadblock cards, but the design, addition of rules and overall layout are left to the students. The game-based learning technique allows the students to learn through a storyline, compete against each other, and challenge themselves to perfect their learning and understanding of climate change. The climate change board game activity also incorporates our cascade learning model, in which the graduate fellow designs the activity, works with a high school teacher, and implements the game with high school students. In addition, the activity emphasizes peer-to-peer learning, allowing each classroom to design the game for a different group of students. This allows the students to take leadership and gives them a sense of accomplishment with the completed board game. The nature of a board game also creates a dynamic competitive atmosphere, in which the students want to learn and understand the material to succeed in the overall game. Although this board game activity was designed for high school students, it could easily be adapted for all K-12 levels as an interactive, informative and successful way of teaching students about climate literacy.

Fung, M. K.; Tedesco, L.; Katz, M. E.

2013-12-01

214

Evaluating Changes in Climate Literacy among Middle and High School Students who Participate in Climate Change Education Modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle school (MS) and high school (HS) teachers have developed and taught instructional modules that were created through their participation in Clarkson University's NASA-funded Project-Based Global Climate Change Education project. A quantitative survey was developed to help evaluate the project's impact on students' climate literacy, which includes content knowledge as well as affective and behavioral attributes. Content objectives were guided primarily by the 2009 document, Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The survey was developed according to established psychometric principles and methodologies in the sociological and educational sciences which involved developing and evaluating a pool of survey items, adapted primarily from existing climate surveys and questionnaires; preparing, administering, and evaluating two rounds of pilot tests; and preparing a final instrument with revisions informed by both pilot assessments. The resulting survey contains three separate subscales: cognitive, affective, and behavioral, with five self-efficacy items embedded within the affective subscale. Cognitive items use a multiple choice format with one correct response; non-cognitive items use a 5-point Likert-type scale with options generally ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" (affective), or "almost always" to "hardly ever" (behavioral). Three versions of the survey were developed and administered using an on-line Zoomerang™ platform to college students/adults; HS students; and MS students, respectively. Instrument validity was supported by using items drawn from existing surveys, by reviewing/applying prior research in climate literacy, and through comparative age-group analysis. The internal consistency reliability of each subscale, as measured by Cronbach's alpha, ranges from 0.78-0.86 (cognitive), 0.87-0.89 (affective) and 0.84-0.85 (behavioral), all satisfying generally accepted criteria for internal reliability of educational surveys. MS and HS students completed the on-line survey prior to and at least 3 weeks following participation in one of the newly developed project-based climate change modules. Surveys were completed anonymously. In all, 9 HS and 3 MS teachers successfully completed the educational programming and assessment protocol in AY2012, yielding 200 HS and 227 MS matched pre/post climate literacy surveys. Both groups of students demonstrated significant gains in climate-related content knowledge (p<<0.001) and affect (p<0.01). MS students also experienced significant gains in their climate-related self-efficacy (p=0.03), with no significant change in self-efficacy for HS students and no change in either group on the behavioral subscale. Post-scores were remarkably similar for the two groups of students; reported as percent of maximum attainable score for HS/MS students: 59%/58%, knowledge; 65%/64%, affect; 71%/72%, self-efficacy, and 63%/62%, behavior. The presentation will include a description of the development and content of the climate literacy survey used in this research, as well the interpretation of specific pre/post changes in participating MS and HS students relative to the content of and approach used in the project-based modules.

DeWaters, J.; Powers, S.; Dhaniyala, S.; Small, M.

2012-12-01

215

Discipline: Why Does It Continue to Be a Problem? Solution Is in Changing School Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The organizational climate of a school can determine the effectiveness of school discipline policies. The establishment of a positive climate requires a commitment to shared disciplinary values by school personnel. Six such value areas are discussed in this article. (PGD)

Burns, James A.

1985-01-01

216

Excellence in Schooling: Effective Styles for Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School principals are an important factor in the improvement of American schools. Key findings of two studies show that principals are the most significant people in the educational change process. Outlined are seven important steps involved in the process of instructional improvement that will take place only if committed and knowledgeable…

Georgiades, William D. H.

217

Effective Schools Questionnaires, 1981-82.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five questionnaires based on Ronald Edmonds' work on "effective schools" were developed for elementary and secondary students, teachers, principals, and parents. They were designed to assess the perceptions of each group on the five areas identified by Edmonds as distinguishing effective and ineffective schools for students from low-income…

Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

218

Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Effective School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been limited research on how teachers, parents and students perceive effective school leadership in practice. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study of key stakeholders' perceptions of effective school leadership. Key stakeholders were identified as teachers, students and parents. Data were…

Odhiambo, George; Hii, Amy

2012-01-01

219

School Effective Research: A Tribute to Ron Edmonds. "One Perspective on an Effective Schools Research Agenda."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared as a tribute to the late Professor Ronald R. Edmonds, this paper reviews the history and progress of school improvement based upon the effective schools research. Topics related to the scope and precision of effective schools research are discussed. A need for further research is claimed in the following areas: (1) noncognitive and higher…

Lezotte, Lawrence W.

220

Formation, properties and climatic effects of contrails  

Microsoft Academic Search

Condensation trails (contrails) are aircraft induced cirrus clouds, which may persist and grow to large cirrus cover in ice-supersaturated air, and may cause a warming of the atmosphere. This paper describes the formation, occurrence, properties and climatic effects of contrails. The global cover by lined-shaped contrails and the radiative impact of line-shaped contrails is smaller than that assessed in an

Ulrich Schumann

2005-01-01

221

Strengthening Assessments of School Climate: Lessons from the NYC School Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New York City Department of Education's (DOE) annual survey of parents, students, and teachers is the largest of its kind in the United States. The DOE relies on the survey to identify schools' strengths and to target areas for improvement. School Survey scores, along with attendance, are also the only non-academic indicators used in the DOE's…

Nathanson, Lori; McCormick, Meghan; Kemple, James J.

2013-01-01

222

Wellbeing at School: Building a Safe and Caring School Climate That Deters Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is a summary of an extensive review of research and other literature undertaken to guide the development of the Wellbeing@School website self-review process, survey tools and content. This website is being developed by the New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER). The "Wellbeing@School" website is one component of the…

Boyd, Sally; Barwick, Helena

2011-01-01

223

The School Counsellor: An Essential Partner in Today's Coordinated School Health Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth today face many health, educational, and social challenges not experienced at such epidemic levels by previous generations of young people. By providing collaborative, comprehensive services that address student needs and promote learning and healthy development, a coordinated school health team can help students succeed in school, as well…

Henry, Jean; McNab, Warren; Coker, J. Kelly

2005-01-01

224

School Climate for Transgender Youth: A Mixed Method Investigation of Student Experiences and School Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transgender youth experience negative school environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender students encounter in school environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260,…

McGuire, Jenifer K.; Anderson, Charles R.; Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.

2010-01-01

225

New Orleans Effective Schools Project. An Interim Report to the Orleans Parish School Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of the Southern Coalition for Educational Equity's New Orleans Effective Schools Project is to improve academic achievement at one middle school, Martin Behrman, in ways that can be replicated by schools facing similar problems. The Project is based on research findings about school improvement from the school effectiveness

David, Jane L.

226

Closing the Gap: Modeling Within-School Variance Heterogeneity in School Effect Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective schools should be superior in both enhancing students' achievement levels and reducing the gap between high- and low-achieving students in the school. However, the focus has been placed mainly on schools' achievement levels in most school effect studies. In this article, we focused our attention upon the school-specific achievement…

Kim, Junyeop; Choi, Kilchan

2008-01-01

227

Closing the Gap: Modeling Within-School Variance Heterogeneity in School Effect Studies. CSE Report 689  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective schools should be superior in both enhancing students' achievement levels and reducing the gap between high- and low-achieving students in the school. However, the focus has been placed mainly on schools' achievement levels in most school effect studies. In this article, we attend to the school-specific achievement dispersion as well as…

Choi, Kilchan; Kim, Junyeop

2006-01-01

228

Are "Failing" Schools Really Failing? Using Seasonal Comparison to Evaluate School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To many, it seems obvious which schools are failing--schools whose students perform poorly on achievement tests. But since evaluating schools on achievement mixes the effects of school and nonschool influences, achievement-based evaluation likely underestimates the effectiveness of schools that serve disadvantaged populations. In this article, the…

Downey, Douglas B.; von Hippel, Paul T.; Hughes, Melanie

2008-01-01

229

Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early period is followed by gas to particle conversion, on a time scale of 1-2 months, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid-water droplets. Coagulation and droplet growth result in the "volcanic stratospheric aerosol layer" which is related to the predominant direct climatic effect of large eruptions, the cooling of the troposphere by backscattering of solar visible radiation to space with a recovery time scale of 1-2 years. In this paper we will discuss some of the less-known "indirect" effects of the volcanic stratospheric aerosol on climate. We label them indirect as they act on climate through intermediary atmospheric constituents. The intermediaries in the volcanic indirect climatic effect are generally atmospheric greenhouse gases or other atmospheric gases and conditions which affect greenhouse gases. For example, cooling of the troposphere following major eruptions reduces the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide related to respiration by the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, redirection of part of the direct solar beam into diffuse radiation by the volcanic stratospheric aerosol stimulates plant photosynthesis, further reducing the carbon dioxide growth rate. The growth rate of the second-most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane, is also affected by volcanic emissions. Volcanic stratospheric aerosol particles provide surface area which catalyzes heterogeneous chemical reactions thus stimulating removal of stratospheric ozone, also a greenhouse gas. Although major droughts usually related to ENSO events have opposite effects on carbon dioxide, as have increased emissions by the industrial world, it will be argued that the dearth of major volcanic eruptions since that of Pinatubo in 1991 needs to be considered in explaining the enhanced carbon dioxide growth rates experienced over the past 10 or so years.

Hofmann, D. J.

2007-05-01

230

The 2011 National School Climate Survey: Key Findings on the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012

2012-01-01

231

Trust-Effectiveness Patterns in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the consequences of relational trust, especially parent measured trust, for desirable school outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Using a US Midwestern state sample of 79 schools, parent and teacher trust data are used to derive a trust-effectiveness typology. Trust was conceptualized as one party's willingness to be…

Forsyth, Patrick B.; Barnes, Laura L. B.; Adams, Curt M.

2006-01-01

232

Improving School Effectiveness. Fundamentals of Educational Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph reviews various strands of research on school effectiveness in developed and developing countries. It addresses a central theme of educational planning: how deliberate actions by policymakers, school administrators, teachers, and parents can help in the attainment of educational goals. Chapter 1, "Conceptualization: Perspectives on…

Scheerens, Jaap

233

A Comprehensive Plan for School Effectiveness. Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document outlines a comprehensive plan developed by the Minnesota State Department of Education for improving school effectiveness throughout the state. The first four sections of the paper present prefatory material, including a general introduction, current comparative statistics on Minnesota schools, need statements (state legislation…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

234

Effective Inclusive Schools: Designing Successful Schoolwide Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…

Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.

2012-01-01

235

Measuring and Reporting School and District Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to illustrate how a valid and reliable state accountability system could be developed that identifies effective schools and school districts in a comprehensive, understandable, and practical way. The author presents an overview of the strategy used in the analysis, discusses the use of education production functions…

Phelps, James L.

2009-01-01

236

Factors Influencing School Counselors' Perceived Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School counselor credentialing requirements have been a continuous topic of discussion for counselor educators and credentialing bodies. Recent discussions include whether or not prior teaching experience is needed to be an effective counselor. The authors surveyed over 300 school counselors from states with varied credentialing standards and…

Moyer, Michael Shufelt; Yu, Kumlan

2012-01-01

237

Climate effects of aerosol nitrate from lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric aerosol, especially secondary semi-volatile aerosol species, are still a major uncertainty in the assessment of aerosol - climate interactions. In this study, we try to reduce some of the uncertainty by systematically analysing the effects of aerosol nitrate originating from lightning NOx production under present day and preindustrial conditions. As the formation of aerosol nitrate, mostly in the form of NH4NO3, is more efficient at colder temperatures such as in the middle and upper troposphere and lightning represents an upper tropospheric source after chemical conversion of the NOx to HNO3, the vertical distribution of aerosol nitrate can have a substantially different impact on the climate system compared to surface emitted hydrophilic aerosol compounds. To analyse theses effects, we will present decadal global model simulation results, investigating whether the nitrate from lightning in addition to the cooling by additional scattering (direct effect) causes positive or negative indirect aerosol effects. A potential cooling could result from the increase in CCN activity for low clouds, but as the nitrate will also substantially affect the upper troposphere it also plays a role in the IN activity of aerosol particles. Due to coating effects the IN number could be potentially decreased, reducing short wave cloud effects of high clouds.

Tost, Holger; Chang, Dong Yeong; Pringle, Kirsty

2014-05-01

238

Paleo Slide Set: Coral Paleoclimatology - Natural Record of Climate Change for High School Student  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show was designed specifically for secondary schools. It contains comprehensive text and colorful images that help illustrate many aspects of tropical marine ecosystems, including the anatomy and physiology of corals, ecology of coral reefs, and habitat destruction. In addition to discussing the ecological aspects of coral reefs, this slide set also addresses topics in climatology giving a comprehensive introduction to the Earth's climate system, climate variability, and how these scientific concepts relate to current phenomena such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This set would be appropriate for upper level high school students and could be used in conjunction with other educational materials to promote global awareness in the areas of habitat destruction, global warming, paleoclimatology, and ENSO. It includes a glossary and further reading lists for both educators and students.

239

Urban High School Students’ Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students’ development of critical science\\u000a agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual\\u000a and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different\\u000a urban high schools

Katherine L. McNeill; Meredith Houle Vaughn

240

Motivational climate and attitudes towards exercise in Greek senior high school: A year-long intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was the application of a year-long intervention program, in typical Greek physical education school classes, which aimed to change motivational climate, goal orientations, motivation, and students' attitudes toward exercise and nutrition. Participants in the intervention program included 105 Grade-10 students, and 529 students of the same age took part as a control grou|pImmediately after the

Triantafylos Christodoulidis; Athanasios Papaioannou; Nikolaos Digelidis

2001-01-01

241

UWHS Climate Science: Uniting University Scientists and High School Teachers in the Development and Implementation of a Dual-Credit STEM-Focused Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Washington is adapting a popular UW Atmospheric Sciences course on Climate and Climate Change for the high school environment. In the process, a STEM-focused teaching and learning community has formed. With the support of NASA Global Climate Change Education 20 teachers have participated in an evolving professional development program that brings those actively engaged in research together with high school teachers passionate about bringing a formal climate science course into the high school. Over a period of several months participating teachers work through the UW course homework and delve deeply into specific subject areas. Then, during a week-long summer institute, scientists bring their particular expertise (e.g. radiation, modeling) to the high school teachers through lectures or labs. Together they identify existing lectures, textbook material and peer-reviewed resources and labs available through the internet that can be used to effectively teach the UW material to the high school students. Through this process the scientists learn how to develop teaching materials around their area of expertise, teachers engage deeply in the subject matter, and both the university and high school teachers are armed with the tools to effectively teach a STEM-focused introductory course in climate science. To date 12 new hands-on modules have been completed or are under development, exploring ice-cores, isotopes, historical temperature trends, energy balance, climate models, and more. Two modules have been tested in the classroom and are ready for peer-review through well-respected national resources such as CLEAN or the National Earth Science Teachers Association; three others are complete and will be implemented in a high school classroom this year, and the remainder under various stages of development. The UWHS ATMS 211 course was piloted in two APES (Advanced Placement Environmental Science classrooms) in Washington State in 2011/2012. The high school course used the UW Atmospheric Sciences curriculum, exams, and textbook (The Earth System, 3rd edition, Kump, Kasting and Crane, 2010), and one of the hands-on modules. Communication with these instructors during the year helped us define assessment strategies and to identify challenges of bringing the material into the high school classroom. This knowledge will be shared with teachers during our summer 2012 workshop and will inform approaches to teaching the course in 2012/2013. Proposed formats for implementation include year-long courses, using the APES/Climate format of 2011/2012, a union of Oceanography and Climate content, or in the context of an engineering course. Our initial vision was for a stand-alone semester or year-long course in climate science, incorporating excel and data handling as a learning tool and a suite of hands-on learning opportunities. Yet, the creative approaches to implementation of a new course in the schools, together with the breadth and depth of the UW curriculum and the Kump et al. 2010 textbook, have resulted in diverse educational approaches for bringing climate science into the high school.

Bertram, M. A.; Thompson, L.; Ackerman, T. P.

2012-12-01

242

The evolution of climate. [climatic effects of polar wandering and continental drift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative evaluation is made of the climatic effects of polar wandering plus continental drift in order to determine wether this mechanism alone could explain the deterioration of climate that occurred from the warmth of Mesozoic time to the ice age conditions of the late Cenozoic. By way of procedure, to investigate the effect of the changing geography of the past on climate Adem's thermodynamic model was selected. The application of the model is discussed and preliminary results are given.

Donn, W. L.; Shaw, D.

1975-01-01

243

Making the Most of School Reform: Suggestions for More Effective Local School Councils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chicago's Local School Councils (LSCs) are the key to successful school reform efforts. Among the numerous decisions that LSCs make that have major effects on schools are the selection of a principal, the adoption of a school improvement plan, and the approving of a school's budget. Based on attendance of over 250 LSC meetings by staff of the…

Ford, Darryl J.; Ryan, Susan P.

244

The Effect of Charter Schools on Charter Students and Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates the effect of charter schools on both students attending them and students at neighboring public schools. Using school-level data from Michigan's standardized testing program, I compare changes in test scores between charter and public school students. I find that test scores of charter school students do not improve, and may…

Bettinger, E.P.

2005-01-01

245

The Effect of Grade Span Configuration and School-to-School Transition on Student Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effect of grade span configuration (grouping of grades in schools) and school-to-school transition on student achievement was investigated. The Michigan Education Assessment Program test was used to collect data on the passing rate of students in 232 schools in a large urban inner city school district in the midwest. The results indicate that…

Wren, Stephanie D.

246

The effect of charter schools on charter students and public schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the effect of charter schools on both students attending them and students at neighboring public schools. Using school-level data from Michigan's standardized testing program, I compare changes in test scores between charter and public school students. I find that test scores of charter school students do not improve, and may actually decline, relative to those of public

Eric P. Bettinger

2005-01-01

247

Climate effects of global land cover change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When changing from grass and croplands to forest, there are two competing effects of land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to warming and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate. We have performed simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We find that global replacement of current vegetation by trees would lead to a global mean warming of 1.3°C, nearly 60% of the warming produced under a doubled CO2 concentration, while replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4°C. It has been previously shown that boreal forestation can lead to warming; our simulations indicate that mid-latitude forestation also could lead to warming. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming.

Gibbard, S.; Caldeira, K.; Bala, G.; Phillips, T. J.; Wickett, M.

2005-12-01

248

Developing the climate schools: ecstasy module--a universal Internet-based drug prevention program.  

PubMed

The Climate Schools: Ecstasy module is a universal harm-minimisation school-based prevention program for adolescents aged 14 to 16 years. The program was developed to address the need for Ecstasy prevention given the increasing use of Ecstasy use among young Australians. The core content of the program is delivered over the Internet using cartoon storylines to engage students, and the teacher-driven activities reinforce the core information. The three-lesson program is embedded within the school health curriculum and is easy to implement with minimal teacher training required. The program was developed in 2010 through extensive collaboration with students (n = 8), teachers (n = 10) and health professionals (n = 10) in Sydney, Australia. This article describes the formative research and process of planning that formed the development of the program and the evidence base underpinning the approach. PMID:23457888

Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Kathyrn L

2012-01-01

249

A Multilevel Perspective on the Climate of Bullying: Discrepancies Among Students, School Staff, and Parents  

PubMed Central

Although many bullying prevention programs aim to involve multiple partners, few studies have examined perceptual differences regarding peer victimization and the broader bullying climate among students, staff, and parents. The present study utilized multilevel data from 11,674 students, 960 parents, and 1,027 staff at 44 schools to examine the association between school-level indicators of disorder, norms regarding bullying and bullies, and students, parents, and staff perceptions of safety, belonging, and witnessing bullying. Results revealed several important discrepancies between adults and youth with regard to their perceptions. Moreover, results highlight the significance of normative beliefs about bullies, retaliation, and the influence of school contextual factors on students’ risk for exposure to bullying.

WAASDORP, TRACY EVIAN; PAS, ELISE T.; O'BRENNAN, LINDSEY M.; BRADSHAW, CATHERINE P.

2011-01-01

250

Achievement and Climate Outcomes for the Knowledge Is Power Program in an Inner-City Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effects of a whole school reform, the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP), specifically designed to raise academic achievement of at-risk urban middle school students by establishing an extended school day and year, a rigorous curriculum, after-school access to teachers, and increased family-school connections.…

Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron J.; Alberg, Marty; McSparrin-Gallagher, Brenda

2007-01-01

251

Solar Effects on Climate: What is the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is physically obvious that variations in solar irradiance must tend to affect the climate of our planet, but hard evidence of an effect is elusive. The main reasons for this are ignorance about the solar forcing itself, the substantial internal variability of climate, uncertainties in climate monitoring until recent times when other forcings dominate, and an unfortunate amount of

William Ingram

2010-01-01

252

The Contextual Effect of School Satisfaction on Health-Risk Behaviors in Japanese High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The importance of school contextual effects on health and well-being among young people is currently recognized. This study examines the contextual effects of school satisfaction as well as the effects of individual-level school satisfaction on health-risk behaviors in Japanese high school students. Methods: Self-administered…

Takakura, Minoru; Wake, Norie; Kobayashi, Minoru

2010-01-01

253

The Effect of School Building Renovation/Construction on School Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School construction or renovation projects can have a profound affect on students, faculty and administration. The literature revealed that continuous communication is essential for a smooth process. This research identified bureaucratic issues and school climate to be leading factors of concern during construction projects. Analysis of this study…

Lesisko, Lee J.; Wright, Robert J.; O'Hern, Brenda

2010-01-01

254

The climatic effects of nuclear war  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of various US-USSR nuclear-exchange scenarios on global climate are investigated by means of computer simulations, summarizing the results of Turco et al. (1983) and follow-up studies using 3D global-circulation models. A nuclear-scenario model is used to determine the amounts of dust, smoke, radioactivity, and pyrotoxins generated by a particular type of nuclear exchange (such as a general 5,000-Mt exchange, a 1,000-Mt limited exchange, a 5,000-Mt hard-target counterforce attack, and a 100-Mt attack on cities only): a particle-microphysics model predicts the evolution of the dust and smoke particles; and a radiative-convective climate model estimates the effects of the dust and smoke clouds on the global radiation budget. The findings are presented in graphs, diagrams, and a table. Thick clouds blocking most sunlight over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes for weeks or months and producing ground-temperature reductions of 20-40 C, disruption of global circulation patterns, and rapid spread of clouds to the Southern Hemisphere are among the 'nuclear-winter' effects predicted for the 5,000-Mt baseline case. The catastrophic consequences for plant, animal, and human populations are considered, and the revision of superpower nuclear strategies is urged.

Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, C.

1984-01-01

255

Great Lakes Climate and Water Movement. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes climate and water movement. Students learn about land-sea…

Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

256

The effect of women's schooling on fertility.  

PubMed

A researcher examined the effect of women's schooling on fertility, paying particular attention to whether women's schooling is an exogenous determinant of fertility. The analyzed data were from the US National Opinion Research Center's General Social Survey for the years 1985-91. This survey is a random sample of 1500 English-speaking people, at least 18 years old, who live in noninstitutional settings. Estimates were made of children ever born to women aged 35-44 and 45=54 using ordinary least squares and two-stage least squares (with the latter including the schooling of the respondent's parents as variables). Other variables used besides schooling were age, being Black, region at age 16 (relative to the south), type of residence at age 16 (relative to cities of 250,000). being Catholic, being Mormon, and survey year. Using the Hausman test to regress the variable of schooling on the exogenous variables results in a residual, and a t-test on the coefficient for the residual will test for endogeneity. In each group of women, the t-statistic on the residual was 1.1, suggesting that schooling is not highly endogenous with fertility. Schooling does, however, have a highly negative effect on fertility in both estimates. A 10% increase in schooling is associated with a 10-12% decline in fertility for women aged 35-44 and with a 7-10% decline for women aged 45-54. Therefore, schooling can be used as an independent variable without leading to false acceptance of socioeconomic theories of fertility. Schooling may reduce fertility by increasing a woman's income, thus making child rearing more expensive, or by enhancing a woman's ability to control fertility. PMID:12286970

Sander, W

1992-10-01

257

Comparing New School Effects in Charter and Traditional Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether student achievement varies during the institutional life span of charter schools by comparing them to new public schools. The results show that there is little evidence that new public schools struggle with initial start-up issues to the same extent as new charter schools. Even after controlling for school

Kelly, Andrew P.; Loveless, Tom

2012-01-01

258

Effective Schools: Teacher Hiring, Assignment, Development, and Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on effective schools emphasizes the importance of a quality teaching force in improving educational outcomes for students. In this paper, we use value-added methods to examine the relationship between a school’s effectiveness and the recruitment, assignment, development and retention of its teachers. We ask whether effective schools systematically recruit more effective teachers; whether they assign teachers to students

Susanna Loeb; Demetra Kalogrides; Tara Beteille

2011-01-01

259

School effects on students' progress – a dynamic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

School effects on students' achievement are relatively small. Another approach, in which students' growth trajectories are the focal point of interest, is able to demonstrate more sizeable school effects. This approach is applied in a study into school compositional effects. The rationale of this study is that in Dutch primary education such compositional effects may not show up, because schools

Henk Guldemond; Roel J. Bosker

2009-01-01

260

Challenges of Communicating Climate Change in North Dakota: Undergraduate Internship and Collaboration with Middle School Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In summer 2010, the University of North Dakota (UND) hosted an internship for undergraduates to learn about climate change in both the classroom and group research projects. As a final project, the undergraduates were tasked to present their findings about different aspects of climate change in webcasts that would be later used in middle school classrooms in the region. Interns indicated that participation significantly improved their own confidence in future scholarly pursuits. Also, communicating about climate change, both during the project and afterwards, helped the interns feel more confident in their own learning. Use of webcasts widened the impact of student projects (e.g. YouTube dissemination), and multiple methods of student communication should continue to be an important piece of climate change education initiatives. Other key aspects of the internship were student journaling and group building. Challenges faced included media accessibility and diverse recruiting. Best practices from the UND internship will be discussed as a model for implementation at other universities. Lesson plans that complement the student-produced webcasts and adhere to regional and national standards were created during 2011. Communication between scientists and K-12 education researchers was found to be a challenge, but improved over the course of the project. These lesson plans have been reviewed both during a teacher workshop in January 2012 and by several Master teachers. Although select middle school educators have expressed enthusiasm for testing of these modules, very little hands-on testing with students has occurred. Wide-ranging roadblocks to implementation exist, including the need for adherence to state standards and texts, inadequate access to technology, and generally negative attitudes toward climate change in the region. Feedback from regional educators will be presented, and possible solutions will be discussed. Although some challenges are specific to the Northern Great Plains region, understanding these challenges are important for agencies and universities with goals of national dissemination.

Mullendore, G. L.; Munski, L.; Kirilenko, A.; Remer, F.; Baker, M.

2012-12-01

261

Climate variation and its effects on our land and water : Part C, Geological Survey climate plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To better coordinate information being generated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a workshop was convened near Denver, Colo., on December 7-9, 1976, to exchange ideas about research that is oriented toward climate, climate variation, and the effects of climate on the Nation 's land and water resources. This is the first circular of a three-part report resulting from that workshop. Hydrologic records provide information to the earth scientist about the responses of ground water, surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface responses to climatic change; biological records yield information about the effects of climatic change on the Earth 's biota; archeological records tell us where and how man was able to live under changing climatic conditions; and historical records allow the specific effects of short-term changes in climate to be accurately documented. The interrelation between present and past geologic environments, various methods of study , and the span of time over which the results can be applied are shown in a table. (Woodard-USGS)

edited by Howard, Keith A.; Smith, George I.

1978-01-01

262

Building the Capacity of Principals and Teacher-Leaders to Implement Effective School and Classroom Practices. High Schools That Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Great leaders make great schools. The most successful school leaders create a school climate of high achievement and continuous improvement, give teachers a voice in decision-making, use data to drive curriculum and instruction, and assure students and parents that everyone at the school is focusing on student success. They know what is going on…

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012

2012-01-01

263

High School Improvement: Indicators of Effectiveness and School-Level Benchmarks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National High School Center's "Eight Elements of High School Improvement: A Mapping Framework" provides a cohesive high school improvement framework comprised of eight elements and related indicators of effectiveness. These indicators of effectiveness allow states, districts, and schools to identify strengths and weaknesses of their current…

National High School Center, 2012

2012-01-01

264

Beyond "Effective Schools Research": Cultivating a Caring Community in an Urban School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective schools research, as elaborated by R. R. Edmonds and others, gives a picture of what successful urban schools look like and helps identify the characteristics that led to success. This paper offers the proposition that looking at a school as a caring community provides a way to show effective schools by providing a framework to make…

Kratzer, Cindy C.

265

Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive School Reform in Low Achieving Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform implemented in 100 low achieving schools serving disadvantaged students in a Canadian province. The results show that while Struggling Schools had a statistically significant positive effect on Grade 3 Reading achievement, d = 0.48…

Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Tim M.

2012-01-01

266

Estimating Contrail Climate Effects from Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated contrail detection algorithm (CDA) is developed to exploit six of the infrared channels on the 1-km MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites. The CDA is refined and balanced using visual error analysis. It is applied to MODIS data taken by Terra and Aqua over the United States during 2006 and 2008. The results are consistent with flight track data, but differ markedly from earlier analyses. Contrail coverage is a factor of 4 less than other retrievals and the retrieved contrail optical depths and radiative forcing are smaller by approx.30%. The discrepancies appear to be due to the inability to detect wider, older contrails that comprise a significant amount of the contrail coverage. An example of applying the algorithm to MODIS data over the entire Northern Hemisphere is also presented. Overestimates of contrail coverage are apparent in some tropical regions. Methods for improving the algorithm are discussed and are to be implemented before analyzing large amounts of Northern Hemisphere data. The results should be valuable for guiding and validating climate models seeking to account for aviation effects on climate.

Minnis, Patrick; Duda, David P.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Bedka, Sarah T.; Boeke, Robyn; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Chee, Thad; Bedka, Kristopher T.

2011-01-01

267

Effects of Oceans on Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface and play a major role in regulating the weather and climate of the planet. Earth's oceans absorb heat from sunlight, hold on to that heat, and transport it around the globe through the movement of ocean currents. The motion of the atmosphere, or winds, above it, also affects the oceans currents. The energy in the wind gets transferred to the ocean at the ocean surface affecting the motion of the water there. With the use of sensitive instruments we are able to get a better view of the functioning of our oceans and atmosphere. This science guide will point teachers and students to resources to help develop a better understanding of some of the factors that impact Earth's weather and climate. Sites with recent research and satellite data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other organizations help students understand how changes in temperature or air circulation are part of complex, longer-term cycles. They'll also learn about the interconnections between air, sea, and land and that any change could have multiple causes--and multiple effects.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-05-01

268

ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND EFFECTIVE WORKING RELATIONSHIPS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE CONTROL STRUCTURE IN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS WAS RELATED TO THE DIMENSIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE BY INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIPS OF ELEMENTARY PRINCIPALS' AND TEACHERS' SCORES ON TWO MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS. THE HALPIN-CROFT ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE AND THE MCLEOD CONTROL STRUCTURE DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE WERE…

OTTO, HENRY J.; VELDMAN, DONALD J.

269

How Effective Are Schools' Tutoring Services? Issue Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effectiveness of secondary school tutoring services in the Chicago Public Schools, Illinois. During school year 2001-2002, researchers surveyed 4,211 students from four Latino plurality high schools. Survey questions addressed tutoring services. Five student focus groups were held at one school. Results indicated that many…

Valdez, Virginia

270

School Composition and Peer Effects in Distinctive Organizational Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter reviews the research on school composition and peer effects from three comparative perspectives--Catholic and public schools, single-sex and coeducational schools, and small and large schools. Most of the research is sociological, focuses on high schools, and draws on national samples. The chapter seeks to discern cumulative trends in…

Marks, Helen M.

2002-01-01

271

Effective Schooling for English Language Learners: What Elementary Principals Should Know and Do  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organized around a series of "Critical Questions" and "Leadership Challenges", this book offers knowledge and expertise about the elementary principal's leadership role in effective instructional strategies, student assessment, school climate, parent involvement, and other ways to improve the academic achievement of English Language learners.…

Smiley, Patricia; Salsberry, Trudy

2007-01-01

272

America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study examines information needs and recommends ways the federal government can better inform responses by enhancing climate change and greenhouse gas information and reporting systems and by improving climate communication and education. Demand for better information to support climate-related decisions has grown rapidly as people, organizations, and governments have moved ahead with plans and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. To meet this demand, good information systems and services are needed. Without such systems, decision makers cannot evaluate whether particular policies and actions are achieving their goals or should be modified. Although the many non-federal efforts to reduce emissions and/or adapt to future climate changes carry considerable potential to reduce risks related to climate change, there is currently no comprehensive way to assess the effectiveness of those efforts. In addition, the diverse climate change responses to date have resulted in a patchwork of regional, state, and local policies that has prompted many state and business leaders to call for the development of a more predictable and coherent policy environment at the federal level. This report demonstrates that the nation lacks comprehensive, robust, and credible information and reporting systems to inform climate choices and evaluate their effectiveness. This report also argues that decision makers can benefit from a systematic and iterative framework for responding to climate change, in which decisions and policies can be revised in light of new information and experience and that improved information and reporting systems allow for ongoing evaluation of responses to climate risks. The climate-related decisions that society will confront over the coming decades will require an informed and engaged public and an education system that provides students with the knowledge to make informed choices. Although nearly all Americans have now heard of climate change, many have yet to understand the full implications of the issue and the opportunities and risks that lie in the solutions. Nonetheless, national surveys demonstrate a clear public desire for more information about climate change and how it might affect local communities. A majority of Americans want the government to take action in response to climate change and are willing to take action themselves. Although communicating about climate change and choices is vitally important, it can be difficult. This report summarizes some simple guidelines for more effective communications.

Liverman, D. M.; McConnell, M. C.; Raven, P.

2010-12-01

273

Why should we care? Awakening Middle and High School students to the reality of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our students, like too much of the American public, are largely unaware or apathetic to the changes in world climate and the impact that these changes have for life on Earth. This last year we, as two Middle and High School science teachers, were given the opportunity to use a new trial curriculum currently in development for TERC's EarthLabs collection to awaken those brains and assist our students in making personal lifestyle choices based on what they had learned. In addition, with support from TERC and The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics we began training other teachers on how to implement this curriculum in their classrooms to expose their students to our changing climate. Traditionally, the cryosphere and the carbon cycle are taught as discrete units without meaningful connections to areas of study that have personal relevance and impact. While pictures of polar bears and penguins evoke emotional responses, the changes coming to their worlds usually result only in another tug at the heartstrings. What if teachers better understood two vital components of Earth's climate system and were able to impart his understanding to their students? What if students based their responses to the information taught not on emotion, but on a deeper understanding of the forces driving climate change, their analysis of the scientific evidence and in the context of earth system science? In our presentation, we will give you (1) a glimpse into the challenges faced by today's science teachers in communicating the complicated, but ever-deepening understanding of the linkages between natural and human-driven factors on climate; (2) introduce you to two new modules in the EarthLabs curriculum designed to expose teachers and students to global scientific climate data and instrumentation; and (3) illustrate how student worldviews are changed though exposure to the latest in scientific discovery and understanding.

Manley, J. M.; Barr, A. N.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Dunlap, C.; Bardar, E.

2012-12-01

274

Enabling the use of climate model data in the Dutch climate effect community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the climate effect community the usage of climate model data is emerging. Where mostly climate time series and weather generators were used, there is a shift to incorporate climate model data into climate effect models. The use of climate model data within the climate effect models is difficult, due to missing metadata, resolution and projection issues, data formats and availability of the parameters of interest. Often the climate effect modelers are not aware of available climate model data or are not aware of how they can use it. Together with seven other partners (CERFACS, CNR-IPSL, SMHI, INHGA, CMCC, WUR, MF-CNRM), KNMI is involved in the FP7 IS ENES (http://www.enes.org) project work package 10/JRA5 ‘Bridging Climate Research Data and the Needs of the Impact Community. The aims of this work package are to enhance the use of Climate Research Data and to enhance the interaction with climate effect/impact communities. Phase one is to define use cases together with the Dutch climate effect community, which describe the intended use of climate model data in climate effect models. We defined four use cases: 1) FEWS hydrological Framework (Deltares) 2) METAPHOR, a plants and species dispersion model (Wageningen University) 3) Natuurplanner, an Ecological model suite (Wageningen University) 4) Land use models (Free University/JRC). Also the other partners in JRA5 have defined use cases, which are representative for the climate effect and impact communities in their country. Goal is to find commonalities between all defined use cases. The common functionality will be implemented as e-tools and incorporated in the IS-ENES data portal. Common issues relate to e.g., need for high resolution: downscaling from GCM to local scale (also involves interpolation); parameter selection; finding extremes; averaging methods. At the conference we will describe the FEWS case in more detail: Delft FEWS is an open shell system (in development since 1995) for performing hydrological predictions and the handling of time series data. The most important capabilities of FEWS are importing of meteorological and hydrological data and organizing the workflows of the different models which can be used within FEWS, like the Netherlands Hydrological Instrumentarium (NHI). Besides predictions, the system is currently being used for hydrological climate effects studies. Currently regionally downscaled data are used, but using model data will be the next step. This coupling of climate model data to FEWS will open a wider rage of climate impact and effect research, but it is a difficult task to accomplish. Issues to be dealt with are: regridding, downscaling, format conversion, extraction of required data and addition of descriptive metadata, including quality and uncertainty parameters. Finding an appropriate solution involves several iterations: first, the use case was defined, then we just provided a single data file containing some data of interest provided via FTP, next this data was offered through OGC services. Currently we are working on providing larger datasets and improving on the parameters and metadata. We will present the results (e-tools/data) and experiences gained on implementing the described use cases. Note that we are currently using experimental data, as the official climate model runs are not available yet.

Som de Cerff, Wim; Plieger, Maarten

2010-05-01

275

Guarding against climate change: the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

Many trace gases in the atmosphere can absorb and retain solar energy and may eventually cause inadvertent climate change with catastrophic consequences. If the release of these gases to the atmosphere from man's activities causes significant global warming, results might be flooding due to melting polar ice, loss of productive farmland to desert, and ultimately, famine. The most publicized of these solar energy traps is carbon dioxide, but the combined effect of increases in nitrous oxide, methane, and other gases could equal that of carbon dioxide. Global pollutants are vexing because they require action on a global scale, and the citizens of different countries view their priorities differently. As global threats like carbon dioxide buildup (exacerbated by coal burning) become more clearly defined, we may be forced to reevaluate the costs and benefits of nuclear power.

Not Available

1986-06-01

276

Engaging High School Students in Climate Change Research:A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 2007-2008 academic year, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Geographic Information Systems and Technology (GIST) Group had the opportunity to mentor three high school students from the newly formed Tennessee Governor's Academy. Each of the three students was interested in a different aspect of climate change research: Aly wanted to gain a better understanding of how scientists can be confident that the current global warming is anthropogenically-induced. Bob wished to explore possible links between deforestation and changes in temperature. Elizabeth was interested in the ways in which climate change might impact mortality rates. Using simple software (Excel, Access and ArcView 3.2) and freely available data, including Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) temperature data, National Land Cover Data (NLCD), US Census data, and social vulnerability indices (SOVI) produced by Susan Cutter et al., we were able to help each student conduct a short-term research project in his/her area of interest.

Parish, E. S.; Ganguly, A. R.; Brunson, A.; Shi, B.; Roadinger, E.

2008-05-01

277

The climatic effects of modifying cirrus clouds in a climate engineering framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractThe <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> engineering—or geoengineering—via cirrus cloud thinning are examined. Thinner cirrus clouds can allow more outgoing longwave radiation to escape to space, potentially cooling the <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The cloud properties and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> due to perturbing the ice crystal fall speed are investigated in a set of hemispheric scale sensitivity experiments with the Community Earth System Model. It is found that increasing the ice crystal fall speed, as an analog to cirrus cloud seeding, depletes high-level clouds and reduces the longwave cloud forcing. Deliberate depletion of cirrus clouds increases outgoing longwave radiation, reduces the upper tropospheric water vapor, and cools the <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Global cirrus cloud thinning gave a net cloud forcing change of -1.55 W m-2 and a global annual mean temperature change of -0.94 K. Though there is negligible change in the global annual mean precipitation (-0.001 mm/d), the spatially nonhomogeneous forcing induces circulation changes and hence remote <span class="hlt">climate</span> changes. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> engineering the Southern Hemisphere only results in a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and possible Sahelian drought alleviation, while targeting the Northern Hemisphere alone causes a greater cooling. It was found that targeting cirrus clouds everywhere outside of the tropics results in changes to the circulation and precipitation even in the nonclimate engineered regions, underscoring the risks of remote side <span class="hlt">effects</span> and indeed the complexity of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muri, H.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Storelvmo, T.; Pfeffer, M. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMED21B0578R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Strategies for <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Education: The Coastal Areas <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many past educational initiatives focused on global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle <span class="hlt">school</span> marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of <span class="hlt">climate</span>-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an <span class="hlt">effective</span> set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, and strategies for <span class="hlt">effective</span> adaptation and mitigation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate&pg=6&id=EJ933433"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Influences Principals' Perceptions of Academic <span class="hlt">Climate</span>? A Nationally Representative Study of the Direct <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Perception on <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a nationally representative sample of public high <span class="hlt">schools</span> (N = 439), we examined the extent to which the principal's perception of their influence over instruction, the evaluation of nonacademic related tasks as well as academic related tasks, and their relationship with the <span class="hlt">school</span> district relates to their perception of academic <span class="hlt">climate</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Greek+language%22&id=EJ970426"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> Policy on Teaching and <span class="hlt">School</span> Learning Environment: Direct and Indirect <span class="hlt">Effects</span> upon Student Outcome Measures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">School</span> policy on teaching and the <span class="hlt">school</span> learning environment (SLE) are the main <span class="hlt">school</span> factors of the dynamic model of educational <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> (Creemers & Kyriakides, 2008). A longitudinal study in which 50 primary <span class="hlt">schools</span>, 108 classes, and 2369 students participated generated evidence supporting the validity of the dynamic model. This article…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transformational+AND+leadership+AND+style&pg=4&id=EJ922475"> <span id="translatedtitle">Female Leadership and <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> in Junior High <span class="hlt">Schools</span> in Ghana</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine female principal leadership practices that are considered crucial in the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and improvement of <span class="hlt">schools</span> and <span class="hlt">school</span> administration in Ghanaian junior high <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Design/methodology/approach: The study was qualitative and interpretive. Five principals of junior high <span class="hlt">schools</span> were…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Agezo, Clement Kwadzo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=econometrics&pg=5&id=EJ724520"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Shocks to <span class="hlt">School</span> Enrollment to Estimate the <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Size on Student Achievement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies of the connection between <span class="hlt">school</span> enrollment size and student achievement use cross-sectional econometric models and thus do not account for unobserved heterogeneity across <span class="hlt">schools</span>. To address this concern, I utilize <span class="hlt">school</span>-level panel data, and generate first-differences estimates of the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> size on achievement.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuziemko, Ilyana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bettinger&pg=3&id=ED478801"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Charter <span class="hlt">Schools</span> on Charter Students and Public <span class="hlt">Schools</span>. Occasional Paper.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper is a report on a study of the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of charter <span class="hlt">schools</span> on both students attending them and students in neighboring public <span class="hlt">schools</span> in Michigan. Using <span class="hlt">school</span>-level data from Michigan's standardized testing program, the study compared changes in tests scores between charter and public <span class="hlt">school</span> students. The data included annual math and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bettinger, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cosmos+AND+program&pg=3&id=ED247358"> <span id="translatedtitle">Community Participation in Urban Public <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Analyzing <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Magnet <span class="hlt">School</span> Programs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forty-five magnet <span class="hlt">schools</span> in fifteen urban <span class="hlt">school</span> districts were studied to find if magnet <span class="hlt">schools</span> increase community participation in public education, what factors lead to increased community participation, and if there is a relationship between community participation and magnet <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. Major findings were the following: (1)…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blank, Rolf K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ttv10.sci.ess.land/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Land Masses on <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This video describes the complex connections between land (the lithosphere) and other parts of Earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span> system. Animations from NOAA show how distance from the equator affects average temperature in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The video emphasizes five land factors that influence <span class="hlt">climate</span>: latitude, elevation, topography, surface reflectivity, and land use.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thinktv; Domain, Teachers'</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=clear+AND+goal+AND+firm&id=ED252970"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Research: A Guide to <span class="hlt">School</span> Improvement. ERS Concerns in Education.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cluster of studies that has come to be called the "<span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> research" is providing a reliable database on the basic differences between <span class="hlt">effective</span> and noneffective <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Researchers have identified three fundamental factors common to <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span>: (1) a belief in, and commitment to, student learning; (2) a sense of control…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robinson, Glen E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24855030"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survey of college <span class="hlt">climates</span> at all 28 US colleges and <span class="hlt">schools</span> of veterinary medicine: preliminary findings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In April 2011, a nationwide survey of all 28 US veterinary <span class="hlt">schools</span> was conducted to determine the comfort level (college <span class="hlt">climate</span>) of veterinary medical students with people from whom they are different. The original hypothesis was that some historically underrepresented students, especially those who may exhibit differences from the predominant race, ethnicity, religion, gender, or sexual orientation, experience a less welcoming college <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Nearly half of all US students responded to the survey, allowing investigators to make conclusions from the resulting data at a 99% CI with an error rate of less than 2% using Fowler's sample-size formula. Valuable information was captured despite a few study limitations, such as occasional spurious data reporting and little ability to respond in an open-ended manner (most questions had a finite number of allowed responses). The data suggest that while overall the majority of the student population is comfortable in American colleges, some individuals who are underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM) may not feel the same level of acceptance or inclusivity on veterinary <span class="hlt">school</span> campuses. Further examination of these data sets may explain some of the unacceptably lower retention rates of some of these URVM students on campuses. PMID:24855030</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greenhill, Lisa M; Carmichael, K Paige</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005CRPhy...6..549S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Formation, properties and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of contrails</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Condensation trails (contrails) are aircraft induced cirrus clouds, which may persist and grow to large cirrus cover in ice-supersaturated air, and may cause a warming of the atmosphere. This paper describes the formation, occurrence, properties and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of contrails. The global cover by lined-shaped contrails and the radiative impact of line-shaped contrails is smaller than that assessed in an international assessment in 1999. Contrails trigger contrail cirrus with far larger coverage than observed for line-shaped contrails, but still unknown radiative properties. Some model simulations indicate an impact of particles and particle precursors emitted from aircraft engines on cirrus clouds properties. However, the magnitude of this <span class="hlt">effect</span> cannot yet be assessed. Contrail formation can be avoided only by flying in sufficiently warm and dry air. The formation of contrail cirrus can be reduced by avoiding flights in ice-supersaturated regions of the atmosphere, e.g., by raising the flight level into the lower-most stratosphere. To cite this article: U. Schumann, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schumann, Ulrich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMED33A0539P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring Ice Sheets and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change through Supercomputer Visualizations in Middle and Secondary <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Public awareness of changing atmospheric conditions, melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and sea level rise have become powerful instruments for intriguing and teaching middle and secondary science students the complex concepts of atmosphere-cryosphere interactions. Visualization of the changing atmosphere and cryosphere through simple mass balance and finite element ice sheet models developed at the University of Maine, coupled with supercomputing and the Maine Laptop Initiative (ITEST/IDEAS), allows students to explore <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and mechanical influences on ice sheets. The simple mass balance model provides high-resolution global solutions of snow accumulation/ablation based on modern <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions. Within the model, students are also able to change basic <span class="hlt">climate</span> parameters such as global temperature and annual precipitation to produce departures from modern conditions to address questions such as “How cold would it have to be for there to be snow year-round on a specific mountain?” The finite element ice sheet model takes these solutions further by modeling the associated glaciers and ice sheets thus allowing students to see how ice sheets and glacial parameters are altered with a changing <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Students are therefore provided with useful tools necessary to address questions facing modern society including, “Under what <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions would the Greenland Ice Sheet collapse?” High-resolution visualizations of the Greenland Ice Sheet also allow students to investigate the concept of mechanical processes within the ice sheets including ice streams and calving that give rise to non-linear instabilities. With their understanding of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> and mechanical <span class="hlt">effects</span> on ice sheets, students will then be able to hypothesize and discuss how different parameters can stabilize or destabilize any ice sheet. With increased knowledge and understanding of atmosphere-cryosphere interactions and ice-sheet response to altered <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions, students will be prepared to respond and address the growing concern of continued <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change. This work was partially funded by NSF grant DRL 0737583.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pingree, K. A.; Koons, P. O.; Birkel, S. D.; Segee, B.; Zhu, Y.; Schauffler, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMED33A0768B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Photo Elicitation Interview to Conceptualize In-Service Secondary <span class="hlt">School</span> Science Teachers' Knowledge Base For Teaching <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Photo Elicitation Interviews (PEI) were used for assessing in-service secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> teachers' conceptual understanding about global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change (GCC). We selected PEI over attitude surveys, multiple-choice content assessments and interviews because we believe that evaluating knowledge about GCC requires an understanding of the system as a whole (Papadimitriou, 2004). Hence we conducted interviews with ten teachers using visual representations of GCC. The 8 images used in this approach were obtained from NASA image collection and local climatology websites. Questions associated with these images were developed, aligned with Essential Principles for <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Literacy (NOAA, 2009) and interviews were conducted following a weeklong, summer professional development workshop based on propagating <span class="hlt">climate</span> literacy. Image1 elicited teachers' understanding about global warming. Almost all said that they were intrigued but they needed for more evidence to fully understand the issue. Image 2 was designed to elicit teachers' understandings of weather vs. <span class="hlt">climate</span>. All ten teachers were able to distinguish between weather and <span class="hlt">climate</span> but were aware of how many years of weather data was needed to make <span class="hlt">climate</span> predictions. Their answers varied from 10 years to 100 years. Image 3 showed the Greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>, which most of the teachers were able to describe but they were not able, describe 'enhanced green house <span class="hlt">effect</span>'. Gaps in knowledge about 'earth as a radiating body' and 'long wave and short wave radiations' also became evident during the process. Similar to Grima et al., 2010, Gautier, 2006 and Kempton, 1991, three participants attributed the increase in global temperatures to the size of the ozone hole, which is a commonly held misconception. Image 4 showed an image of the Keeling curve, which was well explained by most, but only five teachers were able to identify the cause of seasonal fluctuations in the amount of carbon dioxide gas released in the atmosphere. Image 5 and 6 were a pictorial representation of the carbon dioxide levels and increasing temperatures in our atmosphere that all ten participants were able to describe confidently. Images7, 8 represented a flooding event in the Mississippi River in the Midwest USA. When asked about the direct and indirect impacts of changing <span class="hlt">climate</span> especially in regards to flooding and droughts, all the participants mentioned that increasing temperatures are correlated with the increased chances of drought or precipitation. They attributed this to the global circulation pattern of winds. Most participants were not sure about the interplay of several factors at a very local scale. Using this process of PEI, we were able to analyze teachers' overall understanding of GCC along with their misconceptions. We also observed that all ten participants of this study displayed their strongest knowledge towards <span class="hlt">climate</span> literacy principles 6 and 7 related to the causes and implications in a GCC scenario. There was a general lack of appreciation for feedbacks that occur within the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system, with almost no mentions of the connection between the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and the hydrological cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhattacharya, D.; Roehrig, G.; Karahan, E.; Liu, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......181S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Examining <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> at the fourth grade: A hierarchical analysis of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study explored <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> in mathematics and science at the fourth grade using data from IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Fourteen of the 26 countries participating in TIMSS at the fourth grade possessed sufficient between-<span class="hlt">school</span> variability in mathematics achievement to justify the creation of explanatory models of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> while 13 countries possessed sufficient between-<span class="hlt">school</span> variability in science achievement. Exploratory models were developed using variables drawn from student, teacher, and <span class="hlt">school</span> questionnaires. The variables were chosen to represent the domains of student involvement, instructional methods, classroom organization, <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>, and <span class="hlt">school</span> structure. Six explanatory models for each subject were analyzed using two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and were compared to models using only <span class="hlt">school</span> mean SES as an explanatory variable. The amount of variability in student achievement in mathematics attributable to differences between <span class="hlt">schools</span> ranged from 16% in Cyprus to 56% in Latvia, while the amount of between-<span class="hlt">school</span> variance in science achievement ranged from 12% in Korea to 59% in Latvia. In general, about one-quarter of the variability in mathematics and science achievement was found to lie between <span class="hlt">schools</span>. The research findings revealed that after adjusting for differences in student backgrounds across <span class="hlt">schools</span>, the most <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> in mathematics and science had students who reported seeing a positive relationship between hard work, belief in their own abilities, and achievement. In addition, more <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> had students who reported less frequent use of computers and calculators in the classroom. These relationships were found to be stable across explanatory models, cultural contexts, and subject areas. This study has contributed a unique element to the literature by examining <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> at the fourth grade across two subject areas and across 14 different countries. The results indicate that further exploration of the relationship between <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and student locus of control warrants serious consideration. Future research on <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> is recommended, perhaps using trend data and looking at different grade levels.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stemler, Steven Edward</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fusion&pg=6&id=EJ737765"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secondary <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Online: Are High <span class="hlt">School</span> Web Sites <span class="hlt">Effective</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High <span class="hlt">schools</span> have traditionally focused on the in-depth instruction of specific subject matter and have served as both a preparatory phase for higher education for some students and an institution that prepares others to enter the workforce. One method to help high <span class="hlt">schools</span> accomplish these goals is through the creation and maintenance of a <span class="hlt">school</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hartshorne, Richard; Friedman, Adam; Algozzine, Bob; Isibor, Theresa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED379316.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying and Rewarding <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: The Dallas <span class="hlt">School</span> Accountability Program.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Dallas <span class="hlt">School</span> Accountability Program is described, and a step-by-step method for determining how well a <span class="hlt">school</span> performs relative to other <span class="hlt">schools</span> is presented. The Dallas program is a two-part program. Beginning with criterion-based improvement plans, goal levels are set by determining the discrepancy between the actual and desired levels of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Webster, William J.; Mendro, Robert L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED289639.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forty Rural <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: A Study of <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comparison of Middle Tennessee Rural (MTR) <span class="hlt">schools</span> with the national sample of <span class="hlt">schools</span> included in Kappa Delta Pi's Good <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Project (GSP) focused on the areas of curriculum perspectives, goal attainment, classroom practices, interpersonal relations, commitment, discipline and safety, support services and facilities, and decision making. The…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Talbert, Elmer Gene; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://erj.ersjournals.com/cgi/reprint/21/6/964.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span>, traffic-related air pollutants and allergic rhinitis prevalence in middle-<span class="hlt">school</span> children in Taiwan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span>, traffic-related air pollutants and allergic rhinitis prevalence in middle-<span class="hlt">school</span> children in Taiwan. Y-L. Lee, C-K. Shaw, H-J. Su, J-S. Lai, Y-C. Ko, S-L. Huang, F-C. Sung, Y.L. Guo. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: The prevalence of allergic rhinitis, a common respiratory disorder, may be rapidly increasing. Epidemiological studies, however, indicate little about its association with <span class="hlt">climatic</span> factors and air</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. L. Lee; H. J. Su; J. S. Lai; S. L. Huang; Y. L. Guo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=adaptive+AND+response&pg=7&id=EJ909670"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Different Teaching Styles on the Teacher Behaviours that Influence Motivational <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Pupils' Motivation in Physical Education</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of different teaching styles on the teaching behaviours that influence motivational <span class="hlt">climate</span> and pupils' cognitive and affective responses in physical education. Four (two male, two female) initial teacher education (ITE) students and 92 pupils (47 boys, 45 girls), from two <span class="hlt">schools</span> in the UK, participated in the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morgan, Kevin; Kingston, Kieran; Sproule, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112967A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> on evapotranspiration change procedure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the most important of parameters in water cycle. This parameter changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> different conditions. In this manner the probability of ET is important for design of irrigation systems. This study investigated <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> on evapotranspiration changes procedure. Thus ET was estimated by Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) method in the some of regions: Gorgan(semi wet,), Gonbad (semi dry) , Maraveh-Tappeh (semi dry to dry). Then diagrams of ET were drawn for different probabilities. Investigation shown that if <span class="hlt">climate</span> was drier, irrigation periods increased and difference of ET averages decreased. Keyword : Evapotranspiration, Probability, Hargreave-Samani method, <span class="hlt">Climate</span>, water use.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Asady, A.; Sharifan, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMED33A0545J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Service-Learning in the Undergraduate Geoscience Classroom: Establishing Community Partnerships to Enhance Education in <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Science in Local <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The complexity of the science surrounding global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change makes <span class="hlt">effective</span> communication about this issue to the public difficult, especially at a time when many would argue that public understanding of science in general has decreased. As a service-learning project, a partnership was created between an upper-level environmental studies <span class="hlt">climate</span> change class at Ursinus College (UC) and the UC Science In Motion (SIM) program to construct an appropriate lab activity that would foster scientific knowledge and abilities in high <span class="hlt">school</span> students particularly in relation to basic <span class="hlt">climate</span> change science. The Pennsylvania SIM program is a state-funded initiative to make a selection of lab activities, equipment, and expertise available to teachers at secondary <span class="hlt">schools</span> at no cost to the <span class="hlt">schools</span> with the goal to “strengthen the quality of science education for all.” The twelve SIM sites are dispersed throughout PA and serve over 200 <span class="hlt">school</span> districts overall. The UC SIM program has served over 30 local <span class="hlt">schools</span> with labs and activities from which the teachers may select. Prior to the partnership discussed here, there were no labs in the UC SIM program that incorporated the concepts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and though a “drop-off” <span class="hlt">climate</span> change lab was desired, the staff would have no time to design one. The adaptation of a previously written lab set on <span class="hlt">climate</span> change was assigned as a project for the 9 environmental studies majors at UC enrolled in a Fall 2008 course exploring the science of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. While an advanced course within the environmental studies curriculum, the science backgrounds of the college students themselves were mixed, ranging from science majors to students for whom this was the first or second science course taken at college. In addition to the typical load of coursework, the students worked in small groups on this project throughout the semester, collecting the supplies, testing and adapting the labs, creating a video to guide users through the lab, visiting a local high <span class="hlt">school</span> for a trial run, and editing and writing the worksheets and teacher guides. It was necessary for the students to clearly understand the concepts behind the labs so the activities could be adapted and presented appropriately. <span class="hlt">Effective</span> communication of the concepts through visuals and written work was also important. Continued coordination with UC SIM staff was required and helpful and the final product was turned over to the UC SIM for further adaptation and use. The college students appreciated the positive impact the lab could have on <span class="hlt">climate</span> change science education even after the end of the semester and found it both motivating and rewarding. Partnering with an organization already established and utilized as a source of science education activities for the local <span class="hlt">school</span> districts ensured quick dissemination of the lab activity. Between 1/09-6/09, ~12 teachers have used this global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change lab with ~500 students of mixed academic levels. The lab has received positive feedback from teachers and supplies have been duplicated to meet demand, likely indicative of a desire for accessible lab activities within the field of environmental science.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph, L. H.; Faust, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate&pg=5&id=EJ915901"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) Professional Development on Teacher Perceptions of <span class="hlt">School</span> Culture and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> in the United States</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines relationships between Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) implementation and <span class="hlt">school</span> culture and <span class="hlt">climate</span> and between AVID professional development and teachers' perceptions of whether AVIDhas had an impact on their <span class="hlt">schools</span>' culture and <span class="hlt">climate</span>. More than 3,100 teachers attending professional development workshops…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watt, Karen M.; Huerta, Jeffery; Mills, Shirley J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52319527"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on coastal fresh groundwater resources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in key <span class="hlt">climatic</span> variables could significantly alter groundwater recharge for aquifers and thus affect the availability of fresh groundwater in the region. This study assesses the implications of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change for groundwater recharge and then the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of change in groundwater recharge and sea level rise on the loss of coastal fresh groundwater resources in the selected water resources</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Sarukkalige; S. Kazama; M. Sawamoto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hpl.umces.edu/vkennedy/publications/18.%201990%20Fisheries%20Climate%20change%20&%20estuaries.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anticipated <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change on Estuarine and Coastal Fisheries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the timing and magnitude of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change is in dispute, the possible <span class="hlt">effects</span> of such change merit consideration to allow for discussion of policy ramifications and mitigative actions. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change may result in sea level rise; water temperature increase; and deviations from present patterns of precipitation, wind, and water circulation. Estuaries may experience loss of marsh habitat, intrusion</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Victor S. Kennedy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.abdn.ac.uk/marfish/pdfs/Learmonth2006.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">POTENTIAL <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF <span class="hlt">CLIMATE</span> CHANGE ON MARINE MAMMALS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predicted impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on the marine environment include an increase in temperature, a rise in sea levels and a decrease in sea-ice cover. These impacts will occur at local, regional and larger scales. The potential impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on marine mammals can be direct, such as the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of reduced sea ice and rising sea levels on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. LEARMONTH; C. D. MACLEOD; M. B. SANTOS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=microsystem&pg=6&id=ED321349"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Elementary <span class="hlt">School</span> Principal.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aimed at both practicing administrators and university education professors, this book discriminates among certain "E-words" ("<span class="hlt">effective</span>,""efficient,""excellent," and "empowerment") in the educational reform lexicon. According to the introductory chapter, levels of <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>, efficiency, and excellence operate as interrelated factors within…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pankake, Anita M.; Burnett, I. Emett, Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=raudenbush&pg=5&id=EJ404638"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Evidence in the Search for <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Primary <span class="hlt">Schools</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reviews "<span class="hlt">School</span> Matters" by Peter Mortimore, a rigorous longitudinal study of the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of elementary <span class="hlt">schools</span> in London. Concludes that <span class="hlt">school</span> differences influence student development, and explores the connections between <span class="hlt">school</span> leadership, classroom life, and student cognitive and noncognitive development. (FMW)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Raudenbush, Stephen W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Iceland&pg=2&id=EJ902452"> <span id="translatedtitle">Professional Learning Community in Relation to <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a study of <span class="hlt">schools</span> as professional learning communities, defined by nine characteristics and their relationship with the <span class="hlt">schools</span>' level of <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. The study was conducted within three <span class="hlt">schools</span> in Iceland. It was designed as a mixed methods study, conducted in two phases: a correlational study of survey data on <span class="hlt">schools</span> as professional…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sigurdardottir, Anna Kristin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=resource+AND+management+AND+approaches&pg=7&id=EJ804467"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Schools</span> and Poverty: Questioning the <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> and Improvement Paradigms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article uses the concept of paradigm, with examples from various fields, to examine some defining features of <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> and <span class="hlt">School</span> Improvement. The situation of <span class="hlt">schools</span> serving areas of poverty and associated deprivation is seen as a challenge to these paradigms. The struggle to understand and intervene in these <span class="hlt">schools</span> is…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wrigley, Terry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35965372"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> and ability on achievement test scores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper develops two methods for estimating the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> by postulating that both <span class="hlt">schooling</span> and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on <span class="hlt">schooling</span> and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; K. J. Kathleen J. Mullen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nber.org/papers/w9881.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Schooling</span> and Ability on Achievement Test Scores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper develops two methods for estimating the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> by postulating that both <span class="hlt">schooling</span> and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on <span class="hlt">schooling</span> and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED274056.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The New England <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Project: A Facilitator's Sourcebook.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">School</span> Team Facilitator assists participating New England secondary <span class="hlt">schools</span> in planning and implementing improvement efforts based on <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> research. This publication, distributed at a team training conference, begins with the conference schedule, a list of facilitators, instructions on choosing a <span class="hlt">school</span> team, and letters to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Northeast Regional Exchange, Inc., Chelmsford, MA.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED507467.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring <span class="hlt">School</span> and Teacher <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> in EPIC Charter <span class="hlt">School</span> Consortium--Year 2. Final Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New Leaders for New <span class="hlt">Schools</span>, a nonprofit organization committed to training <span class="hlt">school</span> principals, heads the <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to <span class="hlt">effective</span> educators. Through this initiative, New Leaders offers financial awards to educators in two urban <span class="hlt">school</span> districts and a consortium of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Potamites, Liz; Booker, Kevin; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bonding&id=EJ990317"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Bonding on High <span class="hlt">School</span> Seniors' Academic Achievement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors examine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of <span class="hlt">school</span> bonding have proximal and distal <span class="hlt">effects</span> on academic achievement. Attachment to <span class="hlt">school</span> and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ESR&pg=3&id=ED274046"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> Improvement Based on <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Research: A Promising Approach for Economically Disadvantaged and Minority Students.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This essay addresses the <span class="hlt">school</span> improvement process based on <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Research (ESR) and its commitment to equitable and quality education for minority and poor children. After briefly discussing general attributes of ESR-based programs, the essay explains major premises of the <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">school</span>. The first premise sets teaching and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lezotte, Lawrence W.; Bancroft, Beverly A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39997064"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change due to greenhouse <span class="hlt">effects</span> in China as simulated by a regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Impacts of greenhouse <span class="hlt">effects</span> (2 ? CO2) upon <span class="hlt">climate</span> change over China as simulated by a regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> model over China (RegCM \\/ China) have been investigated.\\u000a The model was based on RegCM2 and was nested to a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model (CSIRO R21L9 AOGCM model). Results of the control run (1 ? CO2) indicated that simulations of surface air</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xuejie Gao; Zongci Zhao; Yihui Ding; Ronghui Huang; Giorgi Filippo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22cyber%22&pg=2&id=EJ851073"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of Cyber Charter <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: A Review of Research on Learnings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cyber charter <span class="hlt">schools</span> in the United States have attracted considerable interest for students and families as alternatives to other public <span class="hlt">schools</span>, as well as from policymakers. As charter <span class="hlt">school</span> laws are enacted state-by-state, the <span class="hlt">climate</span> for charter <span class="hlt">schools</span>, including cyber charters grows more favorable. As of 2008, over 4500 charter <span class="hlt">schools</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cavanaugh, Cathy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22effective+AND+leadership%22&pg=5&id=EJ911182"> <span id="translatedtitle">How Graduate-Level Preparation Influences the <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Leaders: A Comparison of the Outcomes of Exemplary and Conventional Leadership Preparation Programs for Principals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: This study attempted to determine the influence of exemplary leadership preparation on what principals learn about leadership, their use of <span class="hlt">effective</span> leadership practices, and how their practices influence <span class="hlt">school</span> improvement and the <span class="hlt">school</span>'s learning <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The authors also investigated how the frequency of <span class="hlt">effective</span> leadership…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Orr, Margaret Terry; Orphanos, Stelios</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......111G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Middle <span class="hlt">school</span> students' conceptual change in global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change: Using argumentation to foster knowledge construction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This research examined middle <span class="hlt">school</span> student conceptions about global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the framework theory of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct incorrect ideas with correct ones, but instead weigh incoming ideas against already existing explanatory frameworks, which have likely served the learner well to this point. The research questions were as follows: (1) What are the patterns of students' conceptual change in GCC? (a) What conceptions are invoked in student learning in this arena? (b) What conceptions are most influential? (c) What are the extra-rational factors influencing conceptual change in GCC? This research took place in an urban public <span class="hlt">school</span> in a medium sized city in the southeastern United States. A sixth grade science teacher at Central Middle <span class="hlt">school</span>, Ms. Octane, taught a course titled "Research Methods I., which was an elective science course that students took as part of a science magnet program. A unit was designed for 6th grade instruction that incorporated an Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) approach, centered on the subject matter of Global <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change and Global Warming. Students were immersed in three separate lessons within the unit, each of which featured an emphasis upon creating scientific explanations based upon evidence. Additionally, each of the lessons placed a premium on students working towards the development of such explanations as a part of a group, with an emphasis on peer review of the robustness of the explanations proposed. The students were involved in approximately a two week unit emphasizing global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. This unit was based on an argumentation model that provided data to students and asked them to develop explanations that accounted for the data. The students then underwent a peer-review process to determine if their explanations could be modified to better account for the data as pointed out by peers. As the students experienced the three lessons comprising the unit, data were taken of various modes, including pre-unit, mid-unit, post-unit, and delayed-post unit interviews, observer notes from the classroom, and artifacts created by the students as individuals and as members of a group. At the end of the unit, a written post-assessment was administered, and post-interviews were conducted with the selected students. These varied data sources were analyzed in order to develop themes corresponding to their frameworks of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Negative cases were sought in order to test developing themes. Themes that emerged from the data were triangulated across the various data sources in order to ensure quality and rigor. These themes were then used to construct understandings of various students' frameworks of the content. Several findings emerged from this research. The first finding is that each student underwent some conceptual change regarding GCC, although of varying natures. The students' synthetic frameworks of GCC were more complex than their initial, or naive frameworks. Some characteristics of the naive frameworks included that the students tended to conflate <span class="hlt">climate</span> change with a broader, generic category of environmental things. Examples of this conflation include the idea that <span class="hlt">climate</span> change entails general pollution, litter, and needless killing of dolphins while fishing for tuna. This research suggests that students might benefit from explicit attention to this concept in terms of an ontological category, with the ideal synthetic view realizing that GCC is itself an example of an emergent process. Another characteristic of their naive frameworks includes some surprisingly accurate notions of GCC, including a general sense that temperatures and sea levels are rising. At the same time, none of the students were able to adequately invoke data to support their understandings of GCC. Instead, when data were invoked, students tended to include anecdotal informat</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Golden, Barry W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l14728q984120156.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> in the context of global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary  Great interest in the problem of the atmospheric greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> (not only in scientific publications, but also in mass\\u000a media), on the one hand, and the undoubtfully overemphasised contribution of the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> to the global <span class="hlt">climate</span> change,\\u000a on the other hand, motivate a necessity to analyse the role which the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> plays as a factor of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Ya. Kondratyev; C. Varotsos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.9105D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Water, Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Studies in International <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Network of the Park Škocjan Caves, Slovenia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As UNESCO World Heritage Site, Ramsar Site and Biosphere Reserve the Park Škocjan Caves strongly believes in development of quality educational programme in order to fulfill the guidelines of international conventions and also provide for awareness and development in the future. Ten years ago we started with water analysis projects and performed several projects related to natural, cultural and social aspect of water protection. We developed a special model of training the teachers and educating the children. Together we have accomplished two international projects, two national project and several research projects dealing with The Reka river and karst phenomena. In 2003 we officially established the <span class="hlt">schools</span> network, where we join in research education programmes five elementary <span class="hlt">schools</span> form Slovenia and two from Italy. They are all located beside the surface and underground flow of the Reka River. Fifteen teachers and more than hundred children are involved in educational programme every year. Our work in the <span class="hlt">schools</span> network enables us to bring science to society in a comprehensive way including the scientists and their work in preparation and implementation of projects. With teachers help we promote science studies but also encourage children to do social projects in order to keep intergeneration connections and gain knowledge of past experience and life from our grandparents. The paper will present the role of protected area in public awareness and education with special emphasis on natural phenomena of water in the Karst region as a toll for joint work in the field for scientists and <span class="hlt">school</span> children. Chemical and biological analysis of the Reka River and other water bodies will be presented and accompanied with the biodiversity survey and <span class="hlt">climate</span> change research projects. New approach of performing the research studies and presentation of results for schoolchildren will be explained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3607380"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Physical Education <span class="hlt">Climates</span> on Elementary Students' Physical Activity Behaviors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BACKGROUND With the growing need for children from underserved populations to be physically active it is imperative to create developmentally appropriate and enjoyable physical education programs that promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of mastery and performance <span class="hlt">climates</span> on physical activity during physical education. METHODS Children (N = 108) in grades K-2 from a rural southeastern elementary <span class="hlt">school</span> in the US were randomly assigned to a mastery or performance oriented <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The <span class="hlt">climates</span> were implemented over 10 <span class="hlt">school</span> days during regular scheduled physical education classes, and physical activity was measured with pedometers and SOFIT. Two experts in mastery motivational <span class="hlt">climates</span> served as teachers for the study and were counterbalanced between conditions. RESULTS Results showed that steps/minute were significantly higher for the mastery condition and participants in the mastery condition spent significantly less time sitting (p < .001) and in management (p < .001) and more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; p = .002) and fitness activities (p = .001). CONCLUSION Results indicate that a mastery approach, which allows children the opportunity to drive their own physical activity, elicits higher step counts and more time spent in MVPA compared to a performance-oriented approach.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gell, Nancy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dynamic+AND+growth&pg=7&id=EJ856812"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Students' Progress--A Dynamic Perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on students' achievement are relatively small. Another approach, in which students' growth trajectories are the focal point of interest, is able to demonstrate more sizeable <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>. This approach is applied in a study into <span class="hlt">school</span> compositional <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The rationale of this study is that in Dutch primary education such…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guldemond, Henk; Bosker, Roel J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/206412"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on forests: A critical review</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While current projections of future <span class="hlt">climate</span> change associated with increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases have a high degree of uncertainty, the potential <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on forests are of increasing concern. A number of studies based on forest simulation models predict substantial temperatures associated with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. However, the structure of these computer models may cause them to overemphasize the role of <span class="hlt">climate</span> in controlling tree growth and mortality. We propose that forest simulation models be reformulated with more realistic representations of growth responses to temperature, moisture, mortality, and dispersal. We believe that only when these models more accurately reflect the physiological bases of the responses of tree species to <span class="hlt">climate</span> variables can they be used to simulate responses of forests to rapid changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span>. We argue that direct forest responses to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change projected by such a reformulated model may be less traumatic and more gradual than those projected by current models. However, the indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on forests, mediated by alterations of disturbance regimes or the actions of pests and pathogens, may accelerate <span class="hlt">climate</span>-induced change in forests, and they deserve further study and inclusion within forest simulation models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); LeBlanc, D. [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23248356"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> and pupil <span class="hlt">effects</span> on secondary pupils' feelings of safety in <span class="hlt">school</span>, around <span class="hlt">school</span>, and at home.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In line with fear of crime research, <span class="hlt">schools</span> should be secure places where pupils feel safe in order to function well. Various types of risk and promotive variables at <span class="hlt">school</span> and pupil level may differently influence a pupil's feelings of safety in <span class="hlt">school</span>, the <span class="hlt">school</span> surroundings, and at home. The aim is to elaborate and test a theoretical two-level model on risk and promotive variables by using national data from an Internet-based survey in all types of Dutch secondary education. The cross-sectional research involves 71,560 pupils from 185 <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Confirmatory factor analysis and multilevel logistic regression analysis including latent variables are used to analyze the data. The results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">school</span> size, pupil attainment level in education, and intactness of a pupil's family have positive <span class="hlt">effects</span> on a pupil's feelings of safety in and around <span class="hlt">school</span> and at home; overall negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> concern the <span class="hlt">school</span>'s curricular differentiation and a pupil's playing truant and not feeling most at home in the Netherlands. A <span class="hlt">school</span>'s social, teaching, and instructional qualities and a pupil's being older, being a boy, and being baptized positively affect the feelings of safety in and around <span class="hlt">school</span>. A <span class="hlt">school</span>'s safety policy and rules of conduct have no <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Attending a church or mosque has negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> on a pupil's feelings of safety around <span class="hlt">school</span> and at home. The findings confirm part of the two-level model. The Internet-based data collection and feedback procedure enable each <span class="hlt">school</span> to longitudinally assess and evaluate own results at <span class="hlt">school</span> level; in addition, cross-sectional comparison of <span class="hlt">school</span> results with national benchmarks is possible. PMID:23248356</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=practical+AND+psychology&pg=6&id=EJ885456"> <span id="translatedtitle">Goals and Values in <span class="hlt">School</span>: A Model Developed for Describing, Evaluating and Changing the Social <span class="hlt">Climate</span> of Learning Environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial <span class="hlt">climate</span> in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their <span class="hlt">schools</span>. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allodi, Mara Westling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57751699"> <span id="translatedtitle">“Carbon literacy practices”: textual footprints between <span class="hlt">school</span> and home in children's construction of knowledge about <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines the notion of “carbon literacy practices” through reporting on a small research project aimed at understanding how children make sense of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, and their subsequent related practices at <span class="hlt">school</span>, at home, and in the community. Drawing on a background in New Literacy Studies [e.g. Barton, D., Hamilton, M., and Ivanic, R., 2000. Situated literacies. London: Routledge;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Candice Satchwell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED33B0757H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Communicating <span class="hlt">climate</span> science to high <span class="hlt">school</span> students in the Arctic: Adventure Learning @ Greenland</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Adventure Learning @ Greenland (AL@GL) engaged high <span class="hlt">school</span> students in atmospheric research in the Arctic and in local environments to enhance <span class="hlt">climate</span> literacy. The overarching objective for this project was to support <span class="hlt">climate</span> literacy in high <span class="hlt">school</span> students, specifically the concept of energy exchange between the Earth, atmosphere, and space. The goal then is to produce a model of education and outreach for remote STEM research that can be used to meaningfully engage K-12 and public communities. Over the course of the program experience, students conducted scientific inquiry associated with their place that supported a more focused science content at a field location. Approximately 45 students participated in the hybrid learning environments as part of this project at multiple locations in Idaho, USA, and Greenland. In Greenland, the Summit Camp research station located on the Greenland Ice Sheet was the primary location. The AL@GL project provided a compelling opportunity to engage students in an inquiry-based curriculum alongside a cutting-edge geophysical experiment at Summit: the Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) experiment. ICECAPS measures parameters that are closely tied to those identified in student misconceptions. Thus, ICECAPS science and the AL@ approach combined to create a learning environment that was practical, rich, and engaging. Students participating in this project were diverse, rural, and traditionally underrepresented. Groups included: students participating in a field <span class="hlt">school</span> at Kangerlussuaq, Greenland and Summit Station as members of the JSEP; students at MOSS will were part of the Upward Bound Math Science (UBMS) and HOIST (Helping Orient Indian Students and Teachers) project. These project serve high <span class="hlt">school</span> students who are first college generation and from low-income families. JSEP is an international group of students from the United States, Greenland, and Denmark. As a result of this project a model for education and outreach for remote science research was developed. The AL@ GL project was interested in the impact on student science and <span class="hlt">climate</span> literacy. Survey data was collected from student participants two times and the surveys included questions pertaining to student knowledge of atmospheric science and <span class="hlt">climate</span> and their impressions on scientific inquiry, and student interest and skills in technology. A subset of students were interviewed using a semi-structured, open-ended protocol at the end of the AL@ GL expedition. Beyond reaching 45 students directly through AL@GL instruction and field experiences, the web-based platform for communicating within this project reached over 10,000 site visits. This platform can be viewed at adventurelearningat.org and includes photos, videos and authentic narratives of the students and scientists involved with the project. The Adventure Learning @ (AL@) approach presents a powerful tool for teaching and learning exploring novel places through technology-rich curricula. By defining problems of local interest, and working with experts with local knowledge who have connections to the community, students can come to think of themselves as experts, scientists, and problem solvers within their own places.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hougham, R. J.; Miller, B.; Cox, C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2012/3060/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> changes and <span class="hlt">effect</span> on wild sheep habitat</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wild sheep are sensitive to environmental change and may be an <span class="hlt">effective</span> indicator species of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change in arctic and high mountain ecosystems. To understand the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> changes on Dall sheep habitat, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have been studying selected areas in Alaska since 2007. The research focus is on forage quality, nutrient levels, and changes resulting from warming or cooling <span class="hlt">climate</span> trends. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in Dall sheep diet accompanying vegetation changes and upslope retreat of glaciers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Heimer, Wayne; Roffler, Gretchen; Valdez, Raul; Gahl, Megan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED263652.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beyond <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span> to Good <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Some First Steps.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research indicates that the characteristics of <span class="hlt">schools</span> can affect student performance. <span class="hlt">School</span> improvement reforms depend on the involvement of individual teachers and administrators, but research also suggests that individuals are more likely to commit themselves to change when a positive, supportive change environment pervades the entire…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Purkey, Stewart C.; Degen, Susan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3017/@noteDOCUMENT#texthttp://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2010/3017/pdf/fs2010-3017_rev2012.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change and wildlife health: direct and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change will have significant <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans, according to scientists. The Intergovernmental Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change projects that unprecedented rates of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change will result in increasing average global temperatures; rising sea levels; changing global precipitation patterns, including increasing amounts and variability; and increasing midcontinental summer drought (Intergovernmental Panel on <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change, 2007). Increasing temperatures, combined with changes in rainfall and humidity, may have significant impacts on wildlife, domestic animal, and human health and diseases. When combined with expanding human populations, these changes could increase demand on limited water resources, lead to more habitat destruction, and provide yet more opportunities for infectious diseases to cross from one species to another. Awareness has been growing in recent years about zoonotic diseases— that is, diseases that are transmissible between animals and humans, such as Lyme disease and West Nile virus. The rise of such diseases results from closer relationships among wildlife, domestic animals, and people, allowing more contact with diseased animals, organisms that carry and transmit a disease from one animal to another (vectors), and people. Disease vectors include insects, such as mosquitoes, and arachnids, such as ticks. Thus, it is impossible to separate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of global warming on wildlife from its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the health of domestic animals or people. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change, habitat destruction and urbanization, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and pollution—all affect ecosystem and human health. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change can also be viewed within the context of other physical and <span class="hlt">climate</span> cycles, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (El Niño), the North Atlantic Oscillation, and cycles in solar radiation that have profound <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the Earth’s <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on wildlife disease are summarized in several areas of scientific study discussed briefly below: geographic range and distribution of wildlife diseases, plant and animal phenology (Walther and others, 2002), and patterns of wildlife disease, community and ecosystem composition, and habitat degradation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hofmeister, Erik; Rogall, Gail Moede; Wesenberg, Kathy; Abbott, Rachel; Work, Thierry; Schuler, Krysten; Sleeman, Jonathan; Winton, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED514151.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Longitudinal Impact of a Universal <span class="hlt">School</span>-Based Social-Emotional and Literacy Intervention on Classroom <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Teacher Processes and Practices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This presentation capitalizes on a three-year, longitudinal, <span class="hlt">school</span>-randomized trial of the 4Rs Program, a comprehensive, <span class="hlt">school</span>-based social-emotional and literacy program for elementary <span class="hlt">schools</span>, to test intervention induced changes in features of classroom <span class="hlt">climate</span> and key dimensions of teacher affective and pedagogical processes and practices…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, Joshua L.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Aber, J. Lawrence</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED142610.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Search for <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span>; The Identification and Analysis of City <span class="hlt">Schools</span> That Are Instructionally <span class="hlt">Effective</span> for Poor Children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A discussion of ongoing efforts to identify and analyze city <span class="hlt">schools</span> which were instructionally <span class="hlt">effective</span> for poor and/or minority children is presented. The "Search For <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span>" project attempted to answer the question: Are there <span class="hlt">schools</span> that are instructionally <span class="hlt">effective</span> for poor children? Two thousand five hundred pupils in twenty…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edmonds, Ronald R.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Security+AND+public&pg=5&id=ED517079"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> Violence Prevention: <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Moral Perspectives of Sixth through Eighth Grade Students Attending a Southern California Catholic <span class="hlt">School</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The need for U.S. teachers to better understand <span class="hlt">School</span> Violence Prevention is growing. Evidence suggests however, that 10 years and 10 billion dollars after the Columbine High <span class="hlt">School</span> massacre, our public <span class="hlt">schools</span> are not safer (www.community-matters.org). There has been an "after the fact" approach to the problem of <span class="hlt">school</span> violence. After an…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomez, Diane Diaz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15012482"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A numerical model developed by Hansen, et. al. for predicting global warming due to increasing COâ concentrations is criticized for failure to account for a number of global <span class="hlt">climatic</span> variations since the 1930's. In addition, the size of the COâ-induced temperature change is questioned.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael C. MacCracken; S. B. Idso; J. Hansen; D. Johnson; A. Lacis; S. Lebedeff; P. Lee; D. Rind; G. Russell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED298649.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">"Onward to Excellence": Teaching <span class="hlt">Schools</span> To Use <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schooling</span> and Implementation Research To Improve Student Performance.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Onward to Excellence (OTE) process has the goal of improving student performance through training and technical assistance at the <span class="hlt">school</span> level. A 10-step improvement process incorporates six key concepts derived from an extensive review and synthesis of research studies on <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span>. OTE training for local <span class="hlt">school</span> personnel is intended…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blum, Robert E.; Butler, Jocelyn A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22kowalski%22&pg=2&id=ED527070"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Relationship between Principal Leadership <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> and <span class="hlt">School</span> Performance in South Carolina High <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A critical component for successful <span class="hlt">schools</span> is <span class="hlt">effective</span> leadership. In the 1980's the concept of leadership emerged and the rules changed for <span class="hlt">school</span> principals (Lashway, 2002). Previously, administrators were primarily evaluated based upon their abilities in managing <span class="hlt">school</span> facilities and operations efficiently. Academics became the new focus.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lempesis, Costa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=clustering&pg=3&id=EJ843122"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical Tests Conducted with <span class="hlt">School</span> Environment Data: The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Teachers Being Clustered in <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article discusses the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of clustering on statistical tests conducted with <span class="hlt">school</span> environment data. Because most <span class="hlt">school</span> environment studies involve the collection of data from teachers nested within <span class="hlt">schools</span>, the hierarchical nature to these data cannot be ignored. In particular, this article considers the influence of intraschool…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dorman, Jeffrey P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED153313.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Structure and <span class="hlt">School</span> Culture on the Implementation of Planned Change.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper investigates the impact of <span class="hlt">school</span> structure and culture on the implementation of planned change. In addition to simply locating <span class="hlt">effective</span> predictors of implementation, an attempt is made to examine the relative impact of variables associated with two theoretical perspectives--social psychology (<span class="hlt">school</span> culture) and sociological (<span class="hlt">school</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Louis, Karen Seashore</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ERL.....4d5013T"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span>, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing <span class="hlt">climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound <span class="hlt">effects</span> on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian Bio<span class="hlt">Climatic</span> Model with several Hadley Centre <span class="hlt">climate</span> change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier <span class="hlt">climate</span> projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer <span class="hlt">climate</span> by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming <span class="hlt">climate</span>, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier <span class="hlt">climate</span> would no longer be suitable for forests.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E.; Soja, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011EOSTr..92..274S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Greenland elders and high <span class="hlt">school</span> students offer perspectives on <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">KANGERLUSSUAQ, GREENLAND—This small town in central western Greenland, which has a population of about 650 and a major airstrip dating from World War II, is a center for scientific research and a starting point for scientists working in the region and on Greenland's ice sheet to study <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and other issues. The town, just north of the Arctic Circle, sits at the edge of the 190-kilometer-long Kangerlussuaq Fjord and straddles the Qinnguata Kuussua River estuary, whose source water is the Russell Glacier, about 20 kilometers to the east. Between Kanger—as some refer to the town—and the glacier, some Eskimo-Kalaallit elders held a traditional gathering last month and also offered their perspectives on <span class="hlt">climate</span> change during an impromptu 14 July meeting with high <span class="hlt">school</span> students and other visitors. The evening before that meeting, Ole Olsvig, Kurt Olsen, Avaruna Mathaeussen, and other high schoolers from Greenland were in a makeshift classroom at the back of a renovated former U.S. Army barracks in Kanger, which had served as a U.S. military base. The students, who said they care deeply about their traditional culture and also are very aware of recent changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span>, were helping to make presentations about their summer science projects. A total of 16 high schoolers from Greenland, 3 from Denmark, and 5 from the United States were there, participating in Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) activities; JSEP is an international collaborative polar science education effort between Greenland, Denmark, and the United States that receives support from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Showstack, Randy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.politicalscience.uncc.edu/godwink/PPOL8687/WK13%20April%2019%20Other%20Govt%20Policies/Kuziemko%20Reforms%20small%20schools%20worth%20the%20costs.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using shocks to <span class="hlt">school</span> enrollment to estimate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> size on student achievement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous studies of the connection between <span class="hlt">school</span> enrollment size and student achievement use cross-sectional econometric models and thus do not account for unobserved heterogeneity across <span class="hlt">schools</span>. To address this concern, I utilize <span class="hlt">school</span>-level panel data, and generate first-differences estimates of the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> size on achievement. Moreover, to account for the possibility that trends in both achievement and enrollment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ilyana Kuziemko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=case+AND+study+AND+mono&id=EJ874339"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Criteria in <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> Studies: Further Research on the Choice for a Multivariate Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to ascertain which <span class="hlt">school</span> characteristics can explain the differences in <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> between <span class="hlt">schools</span>, important methodological choices have to be made in <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> research. One of these choices relates to the criterion or criteria the researcher wishes to use to compare <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Should, for example, a <span class="hlt">school</span> be deemed…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">De Maeyer, Sven; van den Bergh, Huub; Rymenans, Rita; Van Petegem, Peter; Rijlaarsdam, Gert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sanders%2c+M+S&pg=5&id=EJ662702"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inside Systemic Elementary <span class="hlt">School</span> Reform: Teacher <span class="hlt">Effects</span> and Teacher Mobility.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Examines the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and mobility of two academic year cohorts (1995-96 and 1996-97) of teachers in 37 restructured elementary <span class="hlt">schools</span> in Memphis, Tennessee, compared with those in 63 nonrestructured <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Finds significantly greater gains in teacher <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> for only one restructured <span class="hlt">schools</span> cohort (1995-96) compared with the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ross, Steven M.; Stringfield, Sam; Sanders, William L.; Wright, S. Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686182"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-factor <span class="hlt">climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on insect herbivore performance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on herbivorous insects can have far-reaching consequences for ecosystem processes. However, experiments investigating the combined <span class="hlt">effects</span> of multiple <span class="hlt">climate</span> change drivers on herbivorous insects are scarce. We independently manipulated three <span class="hlt">climate</span> change drivers (CO2, warming, drought) in a Danish heathland ecosystem. The experiment was established in 2005 as a full factorial split-plot with 6 blocks × 2 levels of CO2 × 2 levels of warming × 2 levels of drought = 48 plots. In 2008, we exposed 432 larvae (n = 9 per plot) of the heather beetle (Lochmaea suturalis Thomson), an important herbivore on heather, to ambient versus elevated drought, temperature, and CO2 (plus all combinations) for 5 weeks. Larval weight and survival were highest under ambient conditions and decreased significantly with the number of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change drivers. Weight was lowest under the drought treatment, and there was a three-way interaction between time, CO2, and drought. Survival was lowest when drought, warming, and elevated CO2 were combined. <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change drivers depended on other co-acting factors and were mediated by changes in plant secondary compounds, nitrogen, and water content. Overall, drought was the most important factor for this insect herbivore. Our study shows that weight and survival of insect herbivores may decline under future <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The complexity of insect herbivore responses increases with the number of combined <span class="hlt">climate</span> change drivers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J; Stevnbak, Karen; Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Michelsen, Anders; Albert, Kristian Rost; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Mikkelsen, Teis N?rgaard; Beier, Claus; Christensen, S?ren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23789058"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-factor <span class="hlt">climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on insect herbivore performance.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on herbivorous insects can have far-reaching consequences for ecosystem processes. However, experiments investigating the combined <span class="hlt">effects</span> of multiple <span class="hlt">climate</span> change drivers on herbivorous insects are scarce. We independently manipulated three <span class="hlt">climate</span> change drivers (CO2, warming, drought) in a Danish heathland ecosystem. The experiment was established in 2005 as a full factorial split-plot with 6 blocks × 2 levels of CO2 × 2 levels of warming × 2 levels of drought = 48 plots. In 2008, we exposed 432 larvae (n = 9 per plot) of the heather beetle (Lochmaea suturalis Thomson), an important herbivore on heather, to ambient versus elevated drought, temperature, and CO2 (plus all combinations) for 5 weeks. Larval weight and survival were highest under ambient conditions and decreased significantly with the number of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change drivers. Weight was lowest under the drought treatment, and there was a three-way interaction between time, CO2, and drought. Survival was lowest when drought, warming, and elevated CO2 were combined. <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change drivers depended on other co-acting factors and were mediated by changes in plant secondary compounds, nitrogen, and water content. Overall, drought was the most important factor for this insect herbivore. Our study shows that weight and survival of insect herbivores may decline under future <span class="hlt">climate</span>. The complexity of insect herbivore responses increases with the number of combined <span class="hlt">climate</span> change drivers. PMID:23789058</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J; Stevnbak, Karen; Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Michelsen, Anders; Albert, Kristian Rost; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Beier, Claus; Christensen, Søren</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/climatechange/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Collection (CCC)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Collection (CCC) provides access to high quality, digital materials relating to natural and human induced <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and variability, including scientific, economic and policy issues of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. The collection focuses on background resources and learning activities that communicate the principles that underlie <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and variability, including the differences and links between weather and <span class="hlt">climate</span>; the basics of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system including the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and energy balance; <span class="hlt">climatic</span> processes that occur at varying time scales, including orbital cycles and forcing; how scientific research is conducted relative to measuring change and variability; and how human activities, including the combustion of fossil fuels and changes of land cover, impact the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system. The resources have been reviewed for scientific accuracy and currency, and annotated with comments and suggestions relating to their potential value to Earth system science teachers and their students, particularly at the middle <span class="hlt">school</span> level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16176724"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of twin separation in primary <span class="hlt">school</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the short- and long-term <span class="hlt">effects</span> of classroom separation in twins on behavior problems and academic performance. Short-term <span class="hlt">effects</span> were studied at age 7 in twins separated at age 5 and long-term <span class="hlt">effects</span> at age 12 in twins who had been separated or together most of the time at <span class="hlt">school</span>. Behavior problems were rated by mothers (Child Behavior Checklist at ages 3, 7 and 12) and teachers (Teacher Report Form at ages 7 and 12). Academic achievement was measured at age 12 using a national academic achievement test (CITO). At age 7, twins from separated pairs had more internalizing and externalizing problems than nonseparated twins, as rated by both mothers and teachers. Only for the maternal ratings of internalizing problems, however, could these <span class="hlt">effects</span> be attributed to the separation itself and not to preexisting problems (at age 3) between separated and nonseparated twins. Long-term <span class="hlt">effects</span> of separation were significant for maternal and teacher ratings of internalizing and externalizing problems, but these <span class="hlt">effects</span> could be explained by preexisting differences between separated and nonseparated groups. There were no differences in academic achievement between the separated and nonseparated group. These results suggest that the decision to separate twins when they go to <span class="hlt">school</span> is based in part on the existing behavioral problems of the twins and that, in the long run, separation does not affect problem behavior or academic achievement. The findings were the same for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. PMID:16176724</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Leeuwen, Marieke; van den Berg, Stéphanie M; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Boomsma, Dorret I</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/fs09397"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on southeastern forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Forests of the coastal plain region of the southeastern United States are among the most productive in North America. Because they form the basis of a large timber and wood products industry, these forests are of considerable economic importance. Also, the forests are rich in plant and animal species. Because they are diverse as well as productive, they have considerable conservation importance. Therefore, understanding potential impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on southern forests is critical.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harcombe, Paul A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED490759.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between Teachers' Teaching <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> and <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> in Comprehensive High <span class="hlt">Schools</span> in Taiwan, Republic of China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' teaching <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> in comprehensive high <span class="hlt">schools</span> in Taiwan, Republic of China. The establishment of comprehensive high <span class="hlt">schools</span> signals a new type of secondary education. In order to improve the quality of education in comprehensive high…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Robert T. Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ787919.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Middle <span class="hlt">School</span> Teachers' Beliefs on Classroom Practices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The students in 21st-century public middle <span class="hlt">schools</span> are increasingly diverse in terms of language proficiency, cultural and ethnic representation, and varied levels of poverty; and, yet, they are being educated in a political <span class="hlt">climate</span> that encourages mainstreaming special education and gifted services in the regular classroom. Given this context,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brighton, Catherine M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25005416"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and resource scarcity on health care.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change and resource scarcity pose significant threats to healthcare delivery. Nurses should develop the skills to cope with these challenges in the future. Skills sessions using sustainability scenarios can help nursing students to understand the <span class="hlt">effect</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and resource scarcity will have on health care. Involving design students in clinical skills sessions can encourage multidisciplinary working and help to find solutions to promote healthcare sustainability. PMID:25005416</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richardson, Janet; Grose, Jane; Jackson, Bethany; Gill, Jamie-Lee; Sadeghian, Hannah Becky; Hertel, Johannes; Kelsey, Janet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/305438"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulating <span class="hlt">climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> in a Minnesota agricultural watershed</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on quality and quantity of runoff from a northern, agricultural watershed was simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, 1996 Version (SWAT96). SWAT`s snow evaporation submodel was modified. SWAT was calibrated using water quality and quantity data measured in the Cottonwood River near New ULM, MN. The standard errors after calibration were 3.31 mm, 157 kg/d, 752 kg/d, 3744 kg/d, and 85 t/d for mean monthly streamflow, P yield, ammonia (NH{sub 3})/organic N yield, nitrate (NO{sub 3}) yield, and sediment yield, respectively. The standard error for monthly streamflow was 9.62 mm. SWAT96 was then used to simulate the <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the Cottonwood River watershed of a 2xCO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenario, obtained from the Canadian <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Center`s global circulation model. Assuming land cover and land management remained constant, SWAT96 projected a decrease in mean annual streamflow, P yield, NH{sub 3}/organic N yield, NO{sub 3}/nitrate (NO{sub 2}) yield, and sediment yield. Mean monthly values changed significantly for many months of the year under the 2xCO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenario. The standard errors in SWATs baseline simulations, however, were too high for the simulated <span class="hlt">climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> to be measurable for NO{sub 3}/NO{sub 2} and sediment yields. The model assumptions and calibration methods used to obtain the accuracy required for simulating the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change lead to the conclusions that land use/land cover and land management practices are likely to have a greater impact on water quality than <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and that SWAT must be calibrated to be used for <span class="hlt">climate</span> change analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hanratty, M.P.; Stefan, H.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). St. Anthony Falls Lab.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40169012"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> variability and its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on major fisheries in Korea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding in <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on marine ecosystem is essential to utilize, predict, and conserve marine living resources\\u000a in the 21s t century. In this review paper, we summariz ed t h e past history and current status of Korean fisheries as well\\u000a as the changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> and oceanographic phenomena since the 1960s. Ocean ecosystems in Korean waters can be</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suam Kim; Chang-Ik Zhang; Jin-Yeong Kim; Jae-Ho Oh; Sukyung Kang; Jae Bong Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013cctp.book..417S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Impacts on the <span class="hlt">Climates</span> of Terrestrial Planets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impacts of large asteroids and comets have contributed to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> histories of terrestrial planets. Large impact events deliver volatiles and kinetic energy to a planet, and launch debris and volatiles into its atmosphere through formation of craters. Impacts are responsible for global <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> such as warm temperatures, release of subsurface ice, precipitation, mass extinctions, and possible runaway greenhouse atmospheres, which may last for at least centuries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Segura, T. L.; Zahnle, K.; Toon, O. B.; McKay, C. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611741Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of model development in <span class="hlt">climate</span> predictions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is widely used in various scientific studies. CMIP has evolved through several phases (CMIP5 being the latest), both in order to better serve the data users and to remain representative of the state of scientific understanding being embedded to existing global <span class="hlt">climate</span> models. Improving the scientific process understanding in these <span class="hlt">climate</span> models has, however, ambiguous <span class="hlt">effects</span> to the projections of future <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Are the improved <span class="hlt">climate</span> model projections always superior compared to the older ones? We analyze temperature, precipitation and mean sea level pressure from those idealized <span class="hlt">climate</span> simulations where global CO2 concentration is increased 1 % annually, from 13 <span class="hlt">climate</span> models that have each participated to CMIP2, CMIP3 and CMIP5. Using this multi-ensemble sample with identical <span class="hlt">climate</span> forcing in all of the simulations, we are able to quantify the <span class="hlt">effect</span> which model development has to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> model projections in a multi-model framework. We apply analysis of variance (ANOVA) method to our data and divide the total uncertainty in future <span class="hlt">climate</span> predictions into three components of: characteristic model-specific differences, systematic part of <span class="hlt">climate</span> model development shared by all models in the ensemble and unsystematic part of it. The unsystematic model development component is the largest over most of the world, while the systematic part is the smallest. This indicates that (i) the selection of the version of a particular model has a larger impact on <span class="hlt">climate</span> projections than the choice of the basic model, while (ii) the systematic changes from one model generation to another have the smallest impact. The latter indicates that deterministic multi-model-mean estimates have improved very little due to model development. Only regionally, near the sea ice borderline for temperature and additionally over the mid-latitudes for mean sea level pressure, the part of model development shared by all of the models is significantly larger that would had been achieved using random data. Model-specific differences are the most important uncertainty source over several land regions for temperature, while these regions are located over sea for mean sea level pressure. For precipitation, each of the patterns is very noisy and any obvious improvement in <span class="hlt">climate</span> model projections is hard to assess. Multi-model-mean estimates of future <span class="hlt">climate</span> change have little room for improvement, as the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of model development on <span class="hlt">climate</span> projections are mostly unsystematic. Process-based assessment of the disagreement between different <span class="hlt">climate</span> models could have more potential in improving temperature predictions as compared to individual development of each <span class="hlt">climate</span> model. We argue that most of the practically achievable information on large-scale <span class="hlt">climate</span> change is already available. However, on a smaller scale potential for improvement can be larger.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ylhäisi, Jussi S.; Räisänen, Jouni; Masson, David; Räty, Olle; Järvinen, Heikki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED025109.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> Conditioning for the Learning Environment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discusses heating, cooling, and ventilation for the classroom in relationship to students' learning abilities. It is designed to assist <span class="hlt">school</span> boards, administrators, architects and engineers in understanding the beneficial <span class="hlt">effects</span> of total <span class="hlt">climate</span> control, and in evaluating the <span class="hlt">climate</span> conditioning systems available for <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Discussion…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perkins and Will, Architects, Chicago, IL.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985AdSpR...5Q..37K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The atmospheric greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and <span class="hlt">climates</span> on various planets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the planetary atmospheres is considered and its evolution as a result of variations in the chemical composition and in gas abundances of the atmospheres as well as in the chemical composition, size distribution and concentration of aerosol components. A computer modelling gave the values of the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the atmospheres of Earth, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, and Titan. It is shown that the atmospheric greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> plays a decisive role in the formation of the planetary <span class="hlt">climates</span> and that it has substantially changed in the process of the planetary evolution. The greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> mechanism has always been and still is a major factor of the mean global planetary <span class="hlt">climate</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kondratev, K. Ia.; Moskalenko, N. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10259367"> <span id="translatedtitle">External Geophysics, <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Environment (<span class="hlt">Climate</span>) Greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and ice ages: historical perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article provides a brief historical perspective on the first scientific research on the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and glaciations. While these two aspects of our <span class="hlt">climate</span> can be investigated separately, naturalists, physicists and chemists during the 19th century were interested jointly in both issues, as well as the possible relationship between them. The contributions of famous pioneers are mentioned, ranging from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edouard Bard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23927534"> <span id="translatedtitle">Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary <span class="hlt">schools</span> in a subtropical <span class="hlt">climate</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in <span class="hlt">school</span> environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in <span class="hlt">school</span> settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical <span class="hlt">school</span> settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the <span class="hlt">school</span> environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations. PMID:23927534</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED506776.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Library on Students' Learning Attitude</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this study is to unfold the perceptions of <span class="hlt">school</span> teachers about the importance of <span class="hlt">school</span> libraries in developing academic attitude among students. It is an attempt to know the opinion of teachers, what they perceive about the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of the sue of libraries. For this purpose, 560 <span class="hlt">school</span> teachers (male= 280 and female=280) were…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shah, Syed Zia Ullah; Farooq, Muhammad Shahid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795883.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Challenges of Staffing Urban <span class="hlt">Schools</span> with <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Teachers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Brian Jacob examines challenges faced by urban districts in staffing their <span class="hlt">schools</span> with <span class="hlt">effective</span> teachers. He emphasizes that the problem is far from uniform. Teacher shortages are more severe in certain subjects and grades than others, and differ dramatically from one <span class="hlt">school</span> to another. The Chicago public <span class="hlt">schools</span>, for example, regularly receive…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacob, Brian A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22west+river%22+AND+AND%22new+haven%22&id=EJ564743"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> Development Program <span class="hlt">Effects</span>: Linking Implementation to Outcomes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the <span class="hlt">School</span> Development Program (SDP) of James Comer on a variety of student outcomes are reviewed in this summary of previous evaluations in SDP <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Assessments of the quality of SDP implementation in <span class="hlt">schools</span> in New York (New York), Washington (District of Columbia), and New Haven (Connecticut) are considered. (SLD)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haynes, Norris M.; Emmons, Christine L.; Woodruff, Darren W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED256066.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effective</span> High <span class="hlt">School</span> Principal: Sketches for a Portrait.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although there has been a paucity of research on what <span class="hlt">effective</span> secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> principals do, two recent studies offer some clues. A 1983 report by William Firestone and Bruce Wilson asserts that a high <span class="hlt">school</span> principal may best be able to influence the <span class="hlt">school</span> through bureaucratic and cultural linkages. Bureaucratic linkages are formal enduring…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mazzarella, Jo Ann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED245352.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Toward Strategic Independence: Policy Considerations for Enhancing <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The central problem in educational improvement at the state and local level is the tension between <span class="hlt">school</span>-level autonomy and systemwide uniformity; educational change is limited by three special conditions: (1) inertial autonomy, (2) essential uniformity of public <span class="hlt">schools</span>, and (3) the fact that <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> have characteristics that cannot be…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finn, Chester E., Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=methodology+AND+evaluation&pg=2&id=EJ1005546"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rethinking <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> and Improvement: A Question of Paradigms</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this article is to contribute to progressive <span class="hlt">school</span> change by developing a more systematic critique of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> (SE) and <span class="hlt">school</span> improvement (SI) as paradigms. Diverse examples of paradigms and paradigm change in non-educational fields are used to create a model of paradigms for application to SE and SI, and to explore…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wrigley, Terry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED308255.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Some <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Voluntary Transfer on Predominantly Minority Sending <span class="hlt">Schools</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The voluntary transfer policy that is part of the desegregation plan of the Chicago (Illinois) public <span class="hlt">schools</span> appears to have negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> on the "sending" <span class="hlt">schools</span> that students elect to leave. Fourteen sending <span class="hlt">schools</span> were selected for study from a population of 105 low-achieving, low-income, predominantly minority neighborhood elementary…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Easton, John Q.; Bennett, Albert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22School+accountability%22&pg=6&id=EJ895880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Status versus Growth: The Distributional <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Accountability Policies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although the federal No Child Left Behind program judges the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">schools</span> based on their students' achievement status, many policy analysts argue that <span class="hlt">schools</span> should be measured, instead, by their students' achievement growth. Using a 10-year student-level panel data set from North Carolina, we examine how <span class="hlt">school</span>-specific pressure…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ladd, Helen F.; Lauen, Douglas L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+management+AND+system+AND+procedure&pg=2&id=EJ793555"> <span id="translatedtitle">Secondary <span class="hlt">School</span> Leadership Practice in Botswana: Implications for <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Training</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article analyses the views of selected headteachers on the impact of the 10-year basic education policy on the leadership skills of secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> headteachers in Botswana. Research literature on <span class="hlt">school</span> leadership and management in Botswana is sparse. Despite this, demands for <span class="hlt">effective</span> leadership in <span class="hlt">schools</span> have continued as the education…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pheko, Bolelang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED533217.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Portability of Teacher <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> across <span class="hlt">School</span> Settings. Working Paper 77</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Redistributing highly <span class="hlt">effective</span> teachers from low- to high-need <span class="hlt">schools</span> is an education policy tool that is at the center of several major current policy initiatives. The underlying assumption is that teacher productivity is portable across different <span class="hlt">schools</span> settings. Using elementary and secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> data from North Carolina and Florida, this…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Zeyu; Ozek, Umut; Corritore, Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED348605.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> Psychologists' Use of Time: Interventions and <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">School</span> psychologists are currently being called upon to spend more time in direct and indirect interventions to assist students with academic and behavioral problems. This study examined if time used for interventions is related to <span class="hlt">school</span> psychologists' <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. A group of Iowa <span class="hlt">school</span> psychologists (N=91), who in turn identified up to three…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keith, Patricia B.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3198120"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change and health <span class="hlt">effects</span> in Northwest Alaska</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article provides examples of adverse health <span class="hlt">effects</span>, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these <span class="hlt">effects</span> that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities. Background In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the <span class="hlt">climate</span> impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address <span class="hlt">climate</span> impacts and related health <span class="hlt">effects</span>. Implementation process The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific <span class="hlt">climate</span> change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses. Objective The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between <span class="hlt">climate</span> impacts and health <span class="hlt">effects</span> and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska. Findings <span class="hlt">Climate</span> change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate. Conclusion The health impact assessment process is <span class="hlt">effective</span> in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brubaker, Michael; Berner, James; Chavan, Raj; Warren, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5419691"> <span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse <span class="hlt">effects</span>: earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span> in transition</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many experts are predicting significant change in the earth's <span class="hlt">climate</span> during the next 50 years as theories of global warming gain broad acceptance in the scientific community. The consequences of accumulating greenhouse gases in the atmosphere may turn out to be the greatest environmental problem of modern times. One of the key uncertainties in projecting temperature change centers on the question of how much of the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) released to the atmosphere will remain there. Scientists do not yet agree on how the CO/sub 2/ is apportioned among the plants and oceans, how much CO/sub 2/ these reservoirs can hold, or how long they can hold it. Climatologists link hundreds of mathematical equations and temperature measurements to develop their <span class="hlt">climate</span> models, which are limited by their ability to predict regional changes accurately. There is no consensus on whether there is a need to focus on research or on developing an appropriate response. 12 references, 6 figures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shepard, M.; Hakkarinen, C.; Hansen, A.; Spencer, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4035734"> <span id="translatedtitle">Jump In! An Investigation of <span class="hlt">School</span> Physical Activity <span class="hlt">Climate</span>, and a Pilot Study Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Novel Tool to Increase Activity during Learning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Physical activity (PA) benefits children’s physical and mental health and enhances academic performance. However, in many nations, PA time in <span class="hlt">school</span> is decreasing under competing pressures for time during the <span class="hlt">school</span> day. The present paper argues that PA should not be reduced or seen as incompatible with academic learning. Instead, the authors contend that it is critical to develop tools that incorporate PA into content learning during the <span class="hlt">school</span> day. To facilitate the development of such tools, the authors conducted 6 focus group discussions with 12 primary <span class="hlt">school</span> teachers and administrators to better understand the <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> around PA as well as <span class="hlt">school</span> readiness to embrace PA tools that can be used during academic content learning. In addition, a pilot test of a new health promotion tool, the Jump In! educational response mat, was conducted with 21 second-grade students from one classroom in Northern Colorado in 2013. The results of both studies demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of incorporating PA into classroom learning, and suggested that tools like Jump In! may be <span class="hlt">effective</span> at overcoming many of the PA barriers at <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Teachers and administrators valued PA, believed that students were not getting enough PA, and were receptive to the idea of incorporating PA into classroom learning. Students who used Jump In! mats during a math lesson reported more interest in the class material and rated themselves as more alert during the lesson, compared to students who did not use the response mats. In addition, incorporating PA into the lesson did not impair performance on a quiz that assessed learning of the math content. Jump In! mats were successfully integrated into the lesson plan and were well-received by teachers and students. Together, the results of these studies suggest that, given the right tools, incorporating more PA into classroom learning may be beneficial and well-received by students, teachers, and administrators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graham, Dan J.; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; O'Donnell, Maeve B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24904919"> <span id="translatedtitle">Jump In! An Investigation of <span class="hlt">School</span> Physical Activity <span class="hlt">Climate</span>, and a Pilot Study Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Novel Tool to Increase Activity during Learning.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Physical activity (PA) benefits children's physical and mental health and enhances academic performance. However, in many nations, PA time in <span class="hlt">school</span> is decreasing under competing pressures for time during the <span class="hlt">school</span> day. The present paper argues that PA should not be reduced or seen as incompatible with academic learning. Instead, the authors contend that it is critical to develop tools that incorporate PA into content learning during the <span class="hlt">school</span> day. To facilitate the development of such tools, the authors conducted 6 focus group discussions with 12 primary <span class="hlt">school</span> teachers and administrators to better understand the <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> around PA as well as <span class="hlt">school</span> readiness to embrace PA tools that can be used during academic content learning. In addition, a pilot test of a new health promotion tool, the Jump In! educational response mat, was conducted with 21 second-grade students from one classroom in Northern Colorado in 2013. The results of both studies demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of incorporating PA into classroom learning, and suggested that tools like Jump In! may be <span class="hlt">effective</span> at overcoming many of the PA barriers at <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Teachers and administrators valued PA, believed that students were not getting enough PA, and were receptive to the idea of incorporating PA into classroom learning. Students who used Jump In! mats during a math lesson reported more interest in the class material and rated themselves as more alert during the lesson, compared to students who did not use the response mats. In addition, incorporating PA into the lesson did not impair performance on a quiz that assessed learning of the math content. Jump In! mats were successfully integrated into the lesson plan and were well-received by teachers and students. Together, the results of these studies suggest that, given the right tools, incorporating more PA into classroom learning may be beneficial and well-received by students, teachers, and administrators. PMID:24904919</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graham, Dan J; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; O'Donnell, Maeve B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=questionnaire+AND+logistic+AND+regression&pg=7&id=EJ857039"> <span id="translatedtitle">Choice at 16: <span class="hlt">School</span>, Parental and Peer Group <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">School</span>, parental and peer group <span class="hlt">effects</span> have been identified as being influential in shaping the decision of students to participate in post-compulsory education, but the analysis of each <span class="hlt">effect</span> separately is rare. Using a random <span class="hlt">effects</span> logistic regression approach, estimates of the importance of <span class="hlt">school</span>, parental and peer group <span class="hlt">effects</span> on student…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, Wayne; Webber, Don J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teaching+AND+library&pg=7&id=EJ826446"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> Library Media Specialists as <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">School</span> Leaders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2006), "Accomplished library media specialists are instructional leaders who forge greater opportunities for learners" (55). As one of the few <span class="hlt">school</span> personnel responsible for all students, the media specialist can serve as a coordinator and an advocate. They can ensure equitable…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Everhart, Nancy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H23G..04B"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on groundwater dependent temperate forest ecosystems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Models developed to predict the influence of changing <span class="hlt">climate</span> on ecosystems often concentrate on vegetation in connection with soil moisture, but usually omit groundwater. However in temperate <span class="hlt">climate</span> zones, groundwater can have a profound <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the reaction of vegetation to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, because it strongly influences the spatio-temporal distribution of soil moisture and therefore water and oxygen stress of vegetation. Here we focus on the qualitative and quantitative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on the zonation of vegetation and groundwater dynamics along a hill slope. To study this we developed a fully coupled hydrological-vegetation model, for a groundwater influenced temperate forest ecosystem. The vegetation model is based on the carbon assimilation model of Farquhar et al. (1980) and the extension of Daly et al. (2004), which includes transpiration of vegetation and accounts for the response to low soil moisture content. We modified this model to account for vegetation response to high soil moisture contents due to high groundwater levels, and we extended the model to include light competition, phenology and vegetation growth. To simulate the hydrological system the saturated-unsaturated flow model by van Beek (2002) is used. The coupled model was first compared to measured semi-hourly flux tower data of H2O and CO2, showing good results. Than simulation runs of 1000 years were performed to study the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on soil water, groundwater and vegetation. We performed simulation runs with competition between wet and dry adapted species under current conditions and after <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Meteorological time series for the 2100 <span class="hlt">climate</span> (SRESA2) were obtained from downscaling 6 different regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> model runs from the ENSEMBLES project with a stochastic weather generator (Kilby et al., 2007). Results show that in the zones were the groundwater system is close to the surface, <span class="hlt">climate</span> change causes large shifts in vegetation zonation of the dry and wet adapted species along the slope. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">effect</span> on growth rate of vegetation in areas where groundwater is deeper is very small. This is caused by the buffering capacity of both the vegetation and the hydrological system, resulting in relatively small changes in vegetation dynamics. This study shows the importance of using a coupled groundwater vegetation model when studying temperate lowland areas. The coupled hydrological-vegetation model allows for detailed studies of qualitative and quantitative changes in spatial temporal patterns of vegetation under changing <span class="hlt">climate</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bierkens, M. F.; Brolsma, R. J.; van Beek, R. L.; van Vliet, M. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22mesh%22&pg=3&id=EJ781064"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> Parental Influence: Academic Home <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Linked to Children's Achievement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">What constitutes <span class="hlt">effective</span> parenting? An international consensus has evolved that <span class="hlt">effective</span> parenting makes important contributions to children's achievement. But the fundamental question is what constitutes <span class="hlt">effective</span> parenting. Most of the research that has been done in answering this question has been done within existing <span class="hlt">school</span> frameworks…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Campbell, James Reed; Verna, Marilyn Ann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.4348O"> <span id="translatedtitle">What is the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of unresolved internal <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability on <span class="hlt">climate</span> sensitivity estimates?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many studies have attempted to estimate the equilibrium <span class="hlt">climate</span> sensitivity (CS) to the doubling of CO2concentrations. One common methodology is to compare versions of Earth models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) to spatially and/or temporally averaged historical observations. Despite the persistent efforts, CS remains uncertain. It is, thus far, unclear what is driving this uncertainty. Moreover, the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the internal <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability on the CS estimates obtained using this method have not received thorough attention in the literature. Using a statistical approximator ("emulator") of an EMIC, we show in an observation system simulation study that unresolved internal <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability appears to be a key driver of CS uncertainty (as measured by the 68% credible interval). We first simulate many realizations of pseudo?observations from an emulator at a "true" prescribed CS, and then reestimate the CS using the pseudo?observations and an inverse parameter estimation method. We demonstrate that a single realization of the internal variability can result in a sizable discrepancy between the best CS estimate and the truth. Specifically, the average discrepancy is 0.84°C, with the feasible range up to several °C. The results open the possibility that recent <span class="hlt">climate</span> sensitivity estimates from global observations and EMICs are systematically considerably lower or higher than the truth, since they are typically based on the same realization of <span class="hlt">climate</span> variability. This possibility should be investigated in future work. We also find that estimation uncertainties increase at higher <span class="hlt">climate</span> sensitivities, suggesting that a high CS might be difficult to detect.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olson, R.; Sriver, R.; Chang, W.; Haran, M.; Urban, N. M.; Keller, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Network+AND+asked+AND+administration&id=ED453047"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schooling</span> in Rural Africa Report 4: Frequently Asked Questions about <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schooling</span> in Rural Communities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The challenges of making rural <span class="hlt">schools</span> more <span class="hlt">effective</span> vary with different types of rural conditions. But typically these challenges might include any of the following: teacher shortages, lack of facilities, isolation, HIV/AIDS and related social stigma, war crises and displaced populations, multigrade and shift teaching, administration of small…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate&pg=4&id=EJ958668"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Principal's Leadership Style on Support for Innovation: Evidence from Korean Vocational High <span class="hlt">School</span> Change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">climate</span> of innovation and principal leadership in <span class="hlt">schools</span> are regarded as significant factors in successfully implementing <span class="hlt">school</span> change or innovation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> supportive of innovation and the principal's leadership has rarely been addressed to determine whether <span class="hlt">schools</span> successfully perform their…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Joo-Ho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.education.wisc.edu/elpa/people/faculty/Borman/OddenBormanFermanich2004.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing Teacher, Classroom, and <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span>, Including Fiscal <span class="hlt">Effects</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, we argue that too much previous research has tended to assess the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of student, classroom, and <span class="hlt">school</span> variables in isolation from other variables and has often used statistical techniques that ignored the nested na- ture of the 3 classes of factors. We then argue that a more educationally ori- ented framework should be used to assess</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allan Odden; Geoffrey Borman; Mark Fermanich</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15264602"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on river flow to the Baltic Sea.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">River flow to the Baltic Sea originates under a range of different <span class="hlt">climate</span> regimes in a drainage basin covering some 1,600,000 km2. Changes to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> in the Baltic Basin will not only affect the total amount of freshwater flowing into the sea, but also the distribution of the origin of these flows. Using hydrological modeling, the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of future <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on river runoff to the Baltic Sea have been analyzed. Four different <span class="hlt">climate</span> change scenarios from the Swedish Regional <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Modelling Programme (SWECLIM) were used. The resulting change to total mean annual river flow to the Baltic Sea ranges from -2% to +15% of present-day flow according to the different <span class="hlt">climate</span> scenarios. The magnitude of changes within different subregions of the basin varies considerably, with the most severe mean annual changes ranging from -30% to +40%. However, common to all of the scenarios evaluated is a general trend of reduced river flow from the south of the Baltic Basin together with increased river flow from the north. PMID:15264602</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Graham, L Phil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC53C..02T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> Of <span class="hlt">Climate</span>, Permafrost And Fire On Potential Vegetation Change In Siberia In A Warming <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century, which are expected to have profound <span class="hlt">effects</span> on Siberian vegetation. Increased permafrost melt and forest fire directly affected by <span class="hlt">climate</span> warming are predicted to additionally influence vegetation change. Our goal is to model potential vegetation change across Siberia (within the territory between the Urals and Yakutia and between the southern border of Russia and the Arctic ocean) using several Hadley Center <span class="hlt">climate</span> change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. To predict vegetation change, we use SiBCliM, our Siberian Bio<span class="hlt">Climatic</span> Model, an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three <span class="hlt">climatic</span> indices: growing degree days, base 5oC; negative degree days below 0oC; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). All vegetation predictions are corrected for the influence of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on permafrost active layer depth. Potential fire danger is evaluated using a regression model that relates the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10000) to annual moisture index. Shifts in the <span class="hlt">climate</span> necessary to support current Siberian vegetation are notable by 2020. Biomes and major tree species are predicted to shift northwards as far as 600-1000 km by 2080. Forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems rather than forests are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of their ability to withstand continuous permafrost. Our model also predicts new temperate broadleaf and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Fire danger is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia, where wildland fires would promote habitats for steppe and forest-steppe. Melting permafrost and fire are the principal mechanisms that facilitate vegetation change, which leads to a new equilibrium between vegetation and <span class="hlt">climate</span> across Siberia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cleanet.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle">CLEAN: <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Literacy and Energy Awareness Network</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CLEAN: <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Literacy and Energy Awareness Pathway builds on <span class="hlt">climate</span> literacy guidelines outlined in the U.S. <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Science Program guiding document, "Essential Principles of <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Science", to provide a collection of educational resources that facilitate students, teachers, and citizens becoming <span class="hlt">climate</span> literate and informed about <span class="hlt">climate</span> issues. The collection supports and provides outreach to these developing communities of users and focuses on integrating <span class="hlt">effective</span> use of the resources across all educational levels, especially middle-<span class="hlt">school</span> through undergraduate levels (grades 6-16). <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and energy topics include <span class="hlt">climate</span> system, causes of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, measuring and modeling <span class="hlt">climate</span>, impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, human responses to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, and energy use. Resources are reviewed for scientific accuracy and pedagogic relevancy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15573573"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> on landscape and regional processes, and feedbacks to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biological and physical processes in the Arctic system operate at various temporal and spatial scales to impact large-scale feedbacks and interactions with the earth system. There are four main potential feedback mechanisms between the impacts of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on the Arctic and the global <span class="hlt">climate</span> system: albedo, greenhouse gas emissions or uptake by ecosystems, greenhouse gas emissions from methane hydrates, and increased freshwater fluxes that could affect the thermohaline circulation. All these feedbacks are controlled to some extent by changes in ecosystem distribution and character and particularly by large-scale movement of vegetation zones. Indications from a few, full annual measurements of CO2 fluxes are that currently the source areas exceed sink areas in geographical distribution. The little available information on CH4 sources indicates that emissions at the landscape level are of great importance for the total greenhouse balance of the circumpolar North. Energy and water balances of Arctic landscapes are also important feedback mechanisms in a changing <span class="hlt">climate</span>. Increasing density and spatial expansion of vegetation will cause a lowering of the albedo and more energy to be absorbed on the ground. This <span class="hlt">effect</span> is likely to exceed the negative feedback of increased C sequestration in greater primary productivity resulting from the displacements of areas of polar desert by tundra, and areas of tundra by forest. The degradation of permafrost has complex consequences for trace gas dynamics. In areas of discontinuous permafrost, warming, will lead to a complete loss of the permafrost. Depending on local hydrological conditions this may in turn lead to a wetting or drying of the environment with subsequent implications for greenhouse gas fluxes. Overall, the complex interactions between processes contributing to feedbacks, variability over time and space in these processes, and insufficient data have generated considerable uncertainties in estimating the net <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on terrestrial feedbacks to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> system. This uncertainty applies to magnitude, and even direction of some of the feedbacks. PMID:15573573</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Callaghan, Terry V; Björn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Sitch, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2354R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Demonstration of the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> for elementary <span class="hlt">school</span> students</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">school</span> where I work is part of the "Step by step towards the sustainable development <span class="hlt">school</span>" project. Project activities are partly directed towards the popularization of science. As a physics teacher, I have had the opportunity to engage in designing interactive workshops, aiming to introduce younger students to simple experiments which illustrate different natural phenomena, and also in organization, preparation and implementation of <span class="hlt">school</span> and city science festival (in 2012 and 2013). Numerous displays, workshops and experiments served to introduce a large number of visitors to different topics in the area of science and technology. One of the subjects of forthcoming science festival, planned for May of 2014, is the <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. To that <span class="hlt">effect</span>, eight grade students will hold a demonstration and explanation of the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>. Although the terms greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and global warming are widely used in media, most of the elementary <span class="hlt">school</span> students in Serbia have poor understanding of the underlying scientific concepts. The experiment with analysis and discussion will first be implemented in one eight-grade class (14 years of age). After that, a group of students from this class will present their newly-acquired knowledge to their peers and younger students at the science fair. Activity objectives: • Explain how atmosphere affects the surface temperature of Earth • Conduct an experiment to demonstrate the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> • Analyze the consequences of <span class="hlt">climate</span> changes Experiment description: Take two empty, transparent containers and add a layer of garden soil. Use cardboard or similar material to make housings for the thermometers. Hang them in the containers, so that they don't touch the soil. Cover one container with a glass panel, and leave the other one open. Place identical incandescent light bulbs at the same distance above each container. Turn the light bulbs on. The students should mark the thermometer readings every 2 minutes, for 20 minutes in total. Turn the light bulbs off and continue the measurements in the same way. Use the acquired data to plot a graph of temperature against time for both containers. Analyze and discuss the results. Although the experiment itself is simple, conducting it and subsequently analyzing the results contributes to numerous goals listed in the official physics curriculum, such as: development of functional literacy; understanding of phenomena, processes and natural relationships based on physical laws; development of active learning through research; understanding of methods behind experiments and importance of measurements; development of ability to apply knowledge of physics; understanding of interconnections between physics and ecology and increasing awareness of the need to protect, restore and improve the environment. Physics classes are an appropriate place to conduct this experiment, because it builds on knowledge of heat transfer methods, with the potential to gain new insights into the properties of electromagnetic spectrum, and is highly correlated to other disciplines, most notably with chemistry, mathematics and ecology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Radovanovic, Jelena</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930055536&hterms=recent+research&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Drecent%2Bresearch"> <span id="translatedtitle">Review of recent research on the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effect</span> of aerosols</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A review of recent research on the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> of aerosols is presented. A representative aerosol and <span class="hlt">climate</span> models were used to study the generation, growth transport, and removal of aerosols. The structure of the radiative-convective models and general circulation models used is described. Large-scale temperature <span class="hlt">effects</span>, <span class="hlt">effects</span> on clouds, and local urban <span class="hlt">effects</span> of trophospheric aerosols are examined. The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of volcanic eruptions and stratospheric aerosols are also considered. Results indicate that solar radiation backscatter by aerosols increases the planetary albedo. Solar radiation absorption may offset cooling caused by aerosol backscatter but the absorption and emission of terrestrial radiation by aerosols produces a warming <span class="hlt">effect</span>. It appears that the role of aerosols as cloud condensation nuclei is probably the most significant cause of the radiative <span class="hlt">effects</span> observed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charlock, Thomas P.; Kondrat'ev, Kirill; Prokof'ev, Mikhail</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.carmarthenshire.org/70508Durance%20and%20Ormerod%20Global%20Change%20Biology.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on upland stream macroinvertebrates over a 25-year period</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on some ecosystems are still poorly known, particularly where they interact with other <span class="hlt">climatic</span> phenomena or stressors. We used data spanning 25 years (1981-2005) from temperate headwaters at Llyn Brianne (UK) to test three hypotheses: (1) stream macroinvertebrates vary with winter <span class="hlt">climate</span>; (2) ecological <span class="hlt">effects</span> attributable to directional <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">ISABELLE D URANCE; S. J. O RMEROD</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23073751"> <span id="translatedtitle">Causal <span class="hlt">effects</span> of single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span> on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high <span class="hlt">schools</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span>, there is no consensus on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span> because of student selection of <span class="hlt">school</span> types. We exploit a unique feature of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high <span class="hlt">schools</span>-to assess causal <span class="hlt">effects</span> of single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span> on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span> and coeducational <span class="hlt">schools</span>, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys <span class="hlt">schools</span> or all-girls <span class="hlt">schools</span>, rather than coeducational <span class="hlt">schools</span>, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the <span class="hlt">school</span> district fixed-<span class="hlt">effects</span> models, we find that single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span> produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational <span class="hlt">schools</span>. The positive <span class="hlt">effects</span> of single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span> remain substantial, even after we take into account various <span class="hlt">school</span>-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the <span class="hlt">schools</span> are public or private. PMID:23073751</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Causal <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Single-Sex <span class="hlt">Schools</span> on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span>, there is no consensus on the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span> because of student selection of <span class="hlt">school</span> types. We exploit a unique feature of <span class="hlt">schooling</span> in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high <span class="hlt">schools</span>—to assess causal <span class="hlt">effects</span> of single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span> on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span> and coeducational <span class="hlt">schools</span>, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys <span class="hlt">schools</span> or all-girls <span class="hlt">schools</span>, rather than coeducational <span class="hlt">schools</span>, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the <span class="hlt">school</span> district fixed-<span class="hlt">effects</span> models, we find that single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span> produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational <span class="hlt">schools</span>. The positive <span class="hlt">effects</span> of single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span> remain substantial, even after we take into account various <span class="hlt">school</span>-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the <span class="hlt">schools</span> are public or private.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23C0951N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Stream Temperatures in Regulated Rivers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We provide a method for examining mesoscale stream temperature objectives downstream of dams with anticipated <span class="hlt">climate</span> change using an integrated multi-model approach. Changing hydroclimatic conditions will likely impact stream temperatures within reservoirs and below dams, and affect downstream ecology. We model hydrology and water temperature using a series of linked models that includes a hydrology model to predict natural unimpaired flows in upstream reaches, a reservoir temperature simulation model , an operations model to simulate reservoir releases, and a stream temperature simulation model to simulate downstream conditions . All models are 1-dimensional and operate on either a weekly or daily timestep. First, we model reservoir thermal dynamics and release operations of hypothetical reservoirs of different sizes, elevations, and latitudes with <span class="hlt">climate</span>-forced inflow hydrologies to examine the potential to manage stream temperatures for coldwater habitat. Results are presented as stream temperature change from the historical time period and indicate that reservoir releases are cooler than upstream conditions, although the absolute temperatures of reaches below dams warm with <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. We also apply our method to a case study in California's Yuba River watershed to evaluate water regulation and hydropower operation <span class="hlt">effects</span> on stream temperatures with <span class="hlt">climate</span> change. Catchments of the upper Yuba River are highly-engineered, with multiple, interconnected infrastructure to provide hydropower, water supply, flood control, environmental flows, and recreation. Results illustrate <span class="hlt">climate</span>-driven versus operations-driven changes to stream temperatures. This work highlights the need for methods to consider reservoir regulation <span class="hlt">effects</span> on stream temperatures with <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, particularly for hydropower relicensing (which currently ignores <span class="hlt">climate</span> change) such that impacts to other beneficial uses like coldwater habitat and instream ecosystems can be quantitatively assessed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Null, S. E.; Akhbari, M.; Ligare, S. T.; Rheinheimer, D. E.; Peek, R.; Yarnell, S. M.; Viers, J. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED010067.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF GEOGRAPHIC MOBILITY ON PERFORMANCE IN HIGH <span class="hlt">SCHOOL</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION HAD A THREEFOLD OBJECTIVE--(1) TO DISCOVER THE <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF FREQUENCY AND PATTERN OF FAMILY MOVES ON PUPILS' HIGH <span class="hlt">SCHOOL</span> ACHIEVEMENT TEST SCORES, (2) TO DISCOVER THE <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF FREQUENCY AND PATTERN OF FAMILY MOVES ON THE GRADES PUPILS EARNED IN HIGH <span class="hlt">SCHOOL</span>, AND (3) TO DISCOVER THE <span class="hlt">EFFECTS</span> OF FREQUENCY AND PATTERN OF FAMILY…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MOORE, HARRY R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED245339.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">School</span>: A Case Study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An elementary <span class="hlt">school</span> principal's successful attempts to improve her inner-city <span class="hlt">school</span> are described in this case study, which includes a diagram representing her formula for better education. The principal, a charismatic, elderly woman, takes an aggressive role in improving the <span class="hlt">school</span> environment and student nutrition, encouraging and monitoring…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poindexter, Candace</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nurture+AND+groups&pg=2&id=ED399086"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> Intervention in Primary <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Nurture Groups.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book summarizes the experiences of nurture groups (small special education classes started in 1970 in London <span class="hlt">schools</span>), where young children from disadvantaged environments are prepared to access the full primary <span class="hlt">school</span> curriculum. Chapter 1, "Children at Risk of Failure in Primary <span class="hlt">Schools</span>" (Marion Bennathan), discusses the incidence and early…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bennathan, Marion; Boxall, Marjorie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41822358"> <span id="translatedtitle">Statistical tests conducted with <span class="hlt">school</span> environment data: The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of teachers being clustered in <span class="hlt">schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article discusses the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of clustering on statistical tests conducted with <span class="hlt">school</span> environment data. Because most\\u000a <span class="hlt">school</span> environment studies involve the collection of data from teachers nested within <span class="hlt">schools</span>, the hierarchical nature to\\u000a these data cannot be ignored. In particular, this article considers the influence of intraschool correlations on tests of\\u000a statistical significance conducted with the individual teacher as</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeffrey P. Dorman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22halo+effect%22&pg=6&id=ED281896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Project SHAL: An Analysis of Implementation in the St. Louis Public <span class="hlt">Schools</span>--Findings from the Replication Implementation Field Test, June 1984.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Program in St. Louis, Missouri, public <span class="hlt">schools</span> expanded the concept of <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> developed in Project SHAL (1980-1984). The following five characteristics are considered <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">school</span> factors: (1) strong administrative leadership (2) high teacher expectations; (3) positive <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span>; (4) total <span class="hlt">school</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Young, Rufus, Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=advantages+AND+Single+AND+Sex+AND+Schools&pg=3&id=ED219883"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental Press and Value <span class="hlt">Climates</span> of Coeducational and Single-Sex High <span class="hlt">Schools</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To determine if there are critical differences between the social and psychological environments of coeducational and single-sex <span class="hlt">schools</span>, researchers investigated five coeducational, four all-female, and four all-male high <span class="hlt">schools</span> in Ontario (Canada). All of the <span class="hlt">schools</span> are "Separate" <span class="hlt">schools</span>; that is, they are Roman Catholic and, therefore, are…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schneider, Frank W.; Coutts, Larry M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1539500"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">School</span> activities and work: <span class="hlt">effects</span> on adolescent self-esteem.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the relationship between participation and involvement in <span class="hlt">school</span> activities, degree of part-time work, and self-esteem in a sample of middle-class urban high <span class="hlt">school</span> sophomores and juniors. The results indicated that self-esteem was affected by the nature of the <span class="hlt">school</span> activity and by gender. Within a multivariate context, results indicated no significant correlates of self-esteem among the boys. Among the girls, the significant correlates of self-esteem were hours worked, age, and curricular track. The differential nature of <span class="hlt">school</span> activities, gender, and the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of working outside of <span class="hlt">school</span> are discussed. PMID:1539500</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steitz, J A; Owen, T P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED512338.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The 2009 National <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For 20 years, GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network) has worked to ensure safe <span class="hlt">schools</span> for all students, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. For 10 of those years, GLSEN has been documenting the <span class="hlt">school</span> experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth: the prevalence of anti-LGBT…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED486412.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The 2003 National <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Survey. The <span class="hlt">School</span>-Related Experiences of Our Nation's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students in <span class="hlt">schools</span> have been under-documented. For this reason, a third national survey was conducted by the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN). As in previous surveys, LGBT youth were asked about biased language in their <span class="hlt">schools</span>, feelings of comfort and safety in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kosciw, Joseph G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.112..169S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change on annual streamflow using <span class="hlt">climate</span> elasticity in Poyang Lake Basin, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hydrological processes depend directly on <span class="hlt">climate</span> conditions [e.g., precipitation, potential evapotranspiration ( PE)] based on the water balance. This paper examines streamflow datasets at four hydrological stations and meteorological observations at 79 weather stations to reveal the streamflow changes and underlying drivers in four typical watersheds (Meigang, Saitang, Gaosha, and Xiashan) within Poyang Lake Basin from 1961 to 2000. Most of the less than 90th percentile of daily streamflow in each watershed increases significantly at different rates. As an important indicator of the seasonal changes in the streamflow, CT (the timing of the mass center of the streamflow) in each watershed shows a negligible change. The annual streamflow in each watershed increases at different rates, with a statistically significant trend (at the 5 % level) of 9.87 and 7.72 mm year-1, respectively, in Meigang and Gaosha watersheds. Given the existence of interactions between precipitation and PE, the original <span class="hlt">climate</span> elasticity of streamflow can not reflect the relationship of streamflow with precipitation and PE <span class="hlt">effectively</span>. We modify this method and find the modified <span class="hlt">climate</span> elasticity to be more accurate and reasonable using the correlation analysis. The analyses from the modified <span class="hlt">climate</span> elasticity in the four watersheds show that a 10 % increase (decrease) in precipitation will increase (decrease) the annual streamflow by 14.1-16.3 %, while a 10 % increase (decrease) in PE will decrease (increase) the annual streamflow by -10.2 to -2.1 %. In addition, the modified <span class="hlt">climate</span> elasticity is applied to estimate the contribution of annual precipitation and PE to the increasing annual streamflow in each watershed over the past 40 years. Our result suggests that the percentage attribution of the increasing precipitation is more than 59 % and the decreasing in PE is less than 41 %, indicating that the increasing precipitation is the major driving factor for the annual streamflow increase for each watershed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sun, Shanlei; Chen, Haishan; Ju, Weimin; Song, Jie; Zhang, Hao; Sun, Jie; Fang, Yujie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41220967"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alternative models of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> put to the test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The term “educational <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>” designates causal models of educational outcomes that may or may not contain <span class="hlt">school</span>-level variables. The term “<span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> models” is used in the more restricted sense of outcome-oriented models that explicitly contain <span class="hlt">school</span>-level variables. These models are categorized to a context-input-process-output structure, are multi-level, recognize causal chains, and sometimes include feedback loops. In this chapter the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roel J. Bosker; Jaap Scheerens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53307469"> <span id="translatedtitle">PREFACE: Ocean and <span class="hlt">climate</span> changes in polar and sub-polar environments: proceedings from the 2010 IODP-Canada\\/ECORD summer <span class="hlt">school</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">IODP logoECORD logo The European Consortium for Ocean Drilling Program (ECORD), the Canadian Consortium for Ocean Drilling (CCOD), the Network of the Universités du Québec (UQ), the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM) and GEOTOP sponsored, in 2010, a summer <span class="hlt">school</span> entitled 'Ocean and <span class="hlt">climate</span> changes in polar and sub-polar environments'. This summer <span class="hlt">school</span> took place from 27 June to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guillaume St-Onge; Cristina Veiga-Pires; Sandrine Solignac</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Parents+AND+education+AND+level&pg=5&id=EJ868365"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parental Aspirations for Their Children's Educational Attainment: Relations to Ethnicity, Parental Education, Children's Academic Performance, and Parental Perceptions of <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children's academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality and <span class="hlt">climate</span> of their children's <span class="hlt">school</span> with a sample of 13,577 middle and high <span class="hlt">school</span> parents. All…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Matto, Holly C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22pgd%22&pg=2&id=EJ345259"> <span id="translatedtitle">Creating a Positive <span class="hlt">School</span> Atmosphere--The Principal's Responsibility.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Educational improvement can only be achieved when a <span class="hlt">school</span>'s <span class="hlt">climate</span> is positive and conducive to learning. The principal must take the lead in establishing an <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">climate</span> by being fair, consistent, capable, and--most importantly--highly visible. (PGD)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Swymer, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54883675"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ionospheric <span class="hlt">Effect</span> on a GNSS Radio Occultation <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Data Record</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radio occultation (RO) is widely considered to be an observation technique that is particularly well suited for establishing a long-term stable global <span class="hlt">climate</span> record of density, temperature and bending angle profiles in the 8-30 km height range of the atmosphere. To measure profiles in this height range the ionospheric <span class="hlt">effect</span> on the RO signals must be eliminated. This ionospheric correction</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Rocken; W. Schreiner; S. Sokolovskiy; D. Hunt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40926448"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on chemical_ weathering in watersheds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on chemical weathering are evaluated by correlating variations On solute concentrations and fluxes with temperature, precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET) for a worldwide distribution of sixty-eight watersheds underlain by granitoid rock types. Stream solute concentrations are strongly correlated with proportional ET loss, and evaporative concentration makes stream solute concentrations an inappropriate surrogate for chemical weathering. Chemical fluxes are</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Art F. White; Alex E. Blum</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002Sci...297.2250M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Black Carbon Aerosols in China and India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In recent decades, there has been a tendency toward increased summer floods in south China, increased drought in north China, and moderate cooling in China and India while most of the world has been warming. We used a global <span class="hlt">climate</span> model to investigate possible aerosol contributions to these trends. We found precipitation and temperature changes in the model that were comparable to those observed if the aerosols included a large proportion of absorbing black carbon (``soot''), similar to observed amounts. Absorbing aerosols heat the air, alter regional atmospheric stability and vertical motions, and affect the large-scale circulation and hydrologic cycle with significant regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Menon, Surabi; Hansen, James; Nazarenko, Larissa; Luo, Yunfeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED508943.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Choosing <span class="hlt">Schools</span>, Building Communities? The <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of <span class="hlt">Schools</span> of Choice on Parental Involvement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Proponents of <span class="hlt">school</span> choice argue that <span class="hlt">schools</span> of choice build stronger parent communities. Using data from the National Household Education Surveys Program, a nationally-representitive cross-section of U.S. households, I examine the empirical evidence for this claim. To account for the difficulties in identifying causal <span class="hlt">effects</span> in cross-sectional…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buckley, Jack</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Southern+Africa%22&pg=6&id=EJ816552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> across Southern and Eastern African <span class="hlt">School</span> Systems and in Tanzania</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) II data are analysed, using multilevel modelling techniques, to explore the key issues underlying the development of <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> models. Differences between <span class="hlt">schools</span> in Grade 6 pupils' reading and mathematics achievements are examined and the percentage…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yu, Guoxing; Thomas, Sally M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conect&id=ED488966"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achievement <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Five Comprehensive <span class="hlt">School</span> Reform Designs Implemented in Los Angeles Unified <span class="hlt">School</span> District. Dissertation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Achievement <span class="hlt">effects</span> as measured by the Stanford Achievement Test 9 were estimated for students in grades 1-11 that participated in America's Choice, Co-nect, Different Ways of Knowing, Success for All (SFA), and Urban Learning Centers comprehensive <span class="hlt">school</span> reform (CSR) designs implemented in Los Angeles Unified <span class="hlt">School</span> District between 1999 and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mason, Bryce</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ce&pg=3&id=ED519866"> <span id="translatedtitle">Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> in Alabama Public High <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For several decades, researchers have searched for <span class="hlt">school</span>-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, J. Darrell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22edmond%22&pg=3&id=ED360441"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seeking <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span> for African American Children: Strategies for Teachers and <span class="hlt">School</span> Managers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This handbook focuses on five long-standing correlates for <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> postulated by the late Ron Edmonds. Edmonds searched long and hard for those variables that were present in successful inner-city <span class="hlt">schools</span> populated primarily by African American children. His work demonstrated that it is possible to educate so-called hard-to-reach…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bryant, Bunyan; Jones, Alan H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED528760.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of SW-PBIS on <span class="hlt">School</span>'s Accountability at Both Elementary and Middle <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to the lack of <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of the punitive <span class="hlt">school</span> approach toward challenging behaviors (Luiselli, Putnam, Handler, & Feinberg, 2005; Reynolds, Skiba, Graham, Sheras, Conoley, & Garcia-Vazquez, 2006), public <span class="hlt">schools</span> have searched for an innovative approach to better serve students who are at risk for academic failure and dropout/expulsion. A…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Hong, Saahoon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22School+accountability%22&id=EJ938967"> <span id="translatedtitle">Do <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Make a Difference? A Study of High <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effects</span> and First Year College Success</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Schools</span> across America are being ranked for their <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> on a number of student criteria, among them preparation of students for a successful college experience. This study investigates the relationship between graduating seniors, their successful first year retention in college and several personal and <span class="hlt">school</span> related factors. The study…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Wade; Droddy, Jason; Guarino, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED479291.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Issues in <span class="hlt">School</span> Leadership and <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>: A Focus on Trinidad and Tobago.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report describes a study that utilized the qualitative methodological approach of the focus group, followed by interviews, to gauge the perception of senior educational leaders in Trinidad and Tobago on issues pertaining to <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. Specifically, the study sought to ascertain from primary and secondary principals, <span class="hlt">school</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, Launcelot I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1028864.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of a <span class="hlt">School</span>-Based Mentoring Program on <span class="hlt">School</span> Behavior and Measures of Adolescent Connectedness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an effort to increase students' success, <span class="hlt">schools</span> and communities have begun to develop <span class="hlt">school</span>-based mentoring programs (SBMP) to foster positive outcomes for children and adolescents. However, experts have called for more research into the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of these efforts for students across grade levels. Therefore, this study was designed…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gordon, Janet; Downey, Jayne; Bangert, Art</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=growth+AND+direct&pg=2&id=EJ1014193"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Highly <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Urban <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Comparing Two Measures of <span class="hlt">School</span> Success</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical comparison of two measures of <span class="hlt">school</span> success -- a value-added assessment system and the federally-mandated system of adequate yearly progress (AYP) -- to identify highly <span class="hlt">effective</span> urban <span class="hlt">schools</span> in the USA and to explore the predictive relationship between evidence-based decision-making…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Aubrey H.; Walters, Alyssa M.; Thum, Y. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22T4%22&pg=4&id=EJ864446"> <span id="translatedtitle">First-Year <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> on <span class="hlt">School</span> Functioning of a Self-Contained ED Middle <span class="hlt">School</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Students new to a self-contained middle <span class="hlt">school</span> for students with emotional disturbance (ED) were followed during their first year to assess the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of the program on <span class="hlt">school</span> functioning and psychopathology. Measures for academic functioning (grade point average and subject failures), attendance (absenteeism and lateness), and disciplinary…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mattison, Richard E.; Schneider, Jayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED290586.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Lunch Participation, Socioeconomic and Psychological Variables on Food Consumption of <span class="hlt">School</span> Children.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimates were made of the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> lunch participation and various socioeconomic, anthropometric, and psychological variables on the consumption of 20 food items by 8- to 12-year-old children. The study sample consisted of 845 <span class="hlt">school</span> children in the State of Washington, stratified by ethnic group and by poverty level so that it contained…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Price, David W.; Price, Dorothy Z.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22076375"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aerosol indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> on biogeochemical cycles and <span class="hlt">climate</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The net <span class="hlt">effect</span> of anthropogenic aerosols on <span class="hlt">climate</span> is usually considered the sum of the direct radiative <span class="hlt">effect</span> of anthropogenic aerosols, plus the indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> of these aerosols through aerosol-cloud interactions. However, an additional impact of aerosols on a longer time scale is their indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> on <span class="hlt">climate</span> through biogeochemical feedbacks, largely due to changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO(2). Aerosols can affect land and ocean biogeochemical cycles by physical forcing or by adding nutrients and pollutants to ecosystems. The net biogeochemical <span class="hlt">effect</span> of aerosols is estimated to be equivalent to a radiative forcing of -0.5 ± 0.4 watts per square meter, which suggests that reaching lower carbon targets will be even costlier than previously estimated. PMID:22076375</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mahowald, Natalie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019112"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on chemical weathering in watersheds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Climatic</span> <span class="hlt">effects</span> on chemical weathering are evaluated by correlating variations in solute concentrations and fluxes with temperature, precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET) for a worldwide distribution of sixty-eight watersheds underlain by granitoid rock types. Stream solute concentrations are strongly correlated with proportional ET loss, and evaporative concentration makes stream solute concentrations an inapprorpiate surrogate for chemical weathering. Chemical fluxes are unaffected by ET, and SiO2 and Na weathering fluxes exhibit systematic increases with precipitation, runoff, and temperature. However, warm and wet watersheds produce anomalously rapid weathering rates. A proposed model that provides an improved prediction of weathering rates over <span class="hlt">climatic</span> extremes is the product of linear precipitation and Arrhenius temperature functions. The resulting apparent activation energies based on SiO2 and Na fluxes are 59.4 and 62.5 kJ.mol-1, respectively. The coupling between temperature and precipitation emphasizes the importance of tropical regions in global silicate weathering fluxes, and suggests it is not representative to use continental averages for temperature and precipitation in the weathering rate functions of global carbon cycling and <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change models. Fluxes of K, Ca, and Mg exhibit no <span class="hlt">climatic</span> correlation, implying that other processes, such as ion exchange, nutrient cycling, and variations in lithology, obscure any <span class="hlt">climatic</span> signal. -from Authors</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">White, A. F.; Blum, A. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6617289"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of landscape disturbances and the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this research is to understand how changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> may affect the structure of landscapes that are subject to periodic disturbances. A general model useful for examining the linkage between <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change and landscape change has been developed. The model makes use of synoptic <span class="hlt">climatic</span> data, a geographical information system (GRASS), field data on the location of disturbance patches, simulation code written in the SIMSCRIPT language, and a set of landscape structure analysis programs written specifically for this research project. A simplified version of the model, lacking the <span class="hlt">climatic</span> driver, has been used to analyze how changes in disturbance regimes (in this case settlement and fire suppression) affect landscape change. Landscape change lagged in its response to changes in the disturbance regime, but the lags differed depending upon the character of the change and the particular measure considered. The model will now be modified for use in a specific setting to analyze the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> on the structure of flood-disturbed patches along the Animas River, Colorado.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baker, W.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/569379"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effect</span> of smoke particles on clouds and <span class="hlt">climate</span> forcing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Smoke particles from biomass burning can generate forcing of <span class="hlt">climate</span> by modifying cloud microphysics and reflectance of sunlight. Cloud modification, critical to an understanding of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change, is uncertain and variable. Satellite data over the Amazon Basin and Cerrado were analyzed for cloud reflectance and droplet size and for smoke concentration. Smoke increased cloud reflectance from 0.35 to 0.45, while reducing droplet size from 14 to 9 micrometers. The regional variability of the smoke <span class="hlt">effect</span> was correlated to the availability of water vapor. During the 3 months of biomass burning in the dry season, the smoke-cloud forcing of <span class="hlt">climate</span> was only -2 watts per square meter in this region, much smaller than what can be inferred from model predictions. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaufman, Y.J.; Fraser, R.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)] [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-09-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1978/0776a/report.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> variation and its <span class="hlt">effects</span> on our land and water : Part A, Earth science in <span class="hlt">climate</span> research</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To better coordinate information being generated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a workshop was convened near Denver, Colo., on December 7-9, 1976, to exchange ideas about research that is oriented toward <span class="hlt">climate</span>, <span class="hlt">climate</span> variation, and the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climate</span> on the Nation 's land and water resources. This is the first circular of a three-part report resulting from that workshop. Hydrologic records provide information to the earth scientist about the responses of ground water, surface water, and glaciers to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface water, and glaciers to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface responses to <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change; biological records yield information about the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change on the Earth 's biota; archeological records tell us where and how man was able to live under changing <span class="hlt">climatic</span> conditions; and historical records allow the specific <span class="hlt">effects</span> of short-term changes in <span class="hlt">climate</span> to be accurately documented. The interrelation between present and past geologic environments, various methods of study , and the span of time over which the results can be applied are shown in a table. (Woodard-USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">edited by Smith, George I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1001303"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> change <span class="hlt">effects</span> on soil microarthropod abundance and community structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term ecosystem responses to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change strongly depend on how the soil subsystem and its inhabitants respond to these perturbations. Using open-top chambers, we studied the response of soil microarthropods to single and combined <span class="hlt">effects</span> of ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}], ambient and elevated temperatures and changes in precipitation in constructed old-fields in Tennessee, USA. Microarthropods were assessed five years after treatments were initiated and samples were collected in both November and June. Across treatments, mites and collembola were the most dominant microarthropod groups collected. We did not detect any treatment <span class="hlt">effects</span> on microarthropod abundance. In November, but not in June, microarthropod richness, however, was affected by the <span class="hlt">climate</span> change treatments. In November, total microarthropod richness was lower in dry than in wet treatments, and in ambient temperature treatments, richness was higher under elevated [CO{sub 2}] than under ambient [CO{sub 2}]. Differential responses of individual taxa to the <span class="hlt">climate</span> change treatments resulted in shifts in community composition. In general, the precipitation and warming treatments explained most of the variation in community composition. Across treatments, we found that collembola abundance and richness were positively related to soil moisture content, and that negative relationships between collembola abundance and richness and soil temperature could be explained by temperature-related shifts in soil moisture content. Our data demonstrate how simultaneously acting <span class="hlt">climate</span> change factors can affect the structure of soil microarthropod communities in old-field ecosystems. Overall, changes in soil moisture content, either as direct <span class="hlt">effect</span> of changes in precipitation or as indirect <span class="hlt">effect</span> of warming or elevated [CO{sub 2}], had a larger impact on microarthropod communities than did the direct <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the warming and elevated [CO{sub 2}] treatments. Moisture-induced shifts in soil microarthropod abundance and community composition may have important impacts on ecosystem functions, such as decomposition, under future <span class="hlt">climatic</span> change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Reynolds, W. Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED529914.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">School</span> Rugby Players' Perception of Coaching <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and secondly, determine the difference between big and small <span class="hlt">schools</span> of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 <span class="hlt">schools</span> were asked to fill…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vertical+AND+dimension&pg=7&id=ED426637"> <span id="translatedtitle">Culture and Strategy in Business <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Links to Organizational <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the independent and conditional <span class="hlt">effects</span> of organizational culture type and managerial strategy on the organizational <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of higher education <span class="hlt">schools</span> of business. A total of 333 deans and chairs of business <span class="hlt">schools</span> in the United States and Canada completed a survey instrument that addressed variables related to…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clott, Christopher; Fjortoft, Nancy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coleman+AND+model&pg=3&id=ED308230"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Research: Twenty-Years of Debate.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The origin of <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> research (ESR) is discussed in the context of a review of the pertinent literature. Debates over this topic have involved impacts on student achievement, methodology, the allegations of the Coleman report, and various <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">school</span> models. The Coleman Report (1966) concluded that family background was the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmitt, Dorren Rafael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22fashion%22&pg=7&id=EJ981019"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Teacher Hiring, Assignment, Development, and Retention</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The literature on <span class="hlt">effective</span> <span class="hlt">schools</span> emphasizes the importance of a quality teaching force in improving educational outcomes for students. In this article we use value-added methods to examine the relationship between a <span class="hlt">school</span>'s <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> and the recruitment, assignment, development, and retention of its teachers. Our results reveal four key…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Loeb, Susanna; Kalogrides, Demetra; Beteille, Tara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED507472.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> in Memphis--Year 2. Final Report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New Leaders for New <span class="hlt">Schools</span>, a nonprofit organization committed to training <span class="hlt">school</span> principals, heads the <span class="hlt">Effective</span> Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to <span class="hlt">effective</span> educators. New Leaders and its partner organizations have received from the U.S. Department of Education tens of millions of dollars in…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Potamites, Liz; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric; Booker, Kevin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.wiwi.uni-hannover.de/Forschung/Diskussionspapiere/dp-353.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Educational <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Alternative Secondary <span class="hlt">School</span> Tracking Regimes in Germany</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines educational outcomes of pupils selected to secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> types by different tracking regimes in a German state: Pupils are alternatively streamed after fourth grade or after sixth grade. Regression results indicate that, estimated on the mean, there are no negative <span class="hlt">effects</span> of later tracking on educational outcomes in the middle of secondary <span class="hlt">school</span>. Positive <span class="hlt">effects</span> are observed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrea M. Mühlenweg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMED12A..07N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of US, Indian and Chinese Middle <span class="hlt">School</span> Students' Outlook on the Greenhouse <span class="hlt">Effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When you think of the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and <span class="hlt">climate</span> change what images and concepts come to mind? Answers to these questions are important to educators and policy makers as they wrestle with the issue of educating and conveying these concepts in class rooms and to the general public. The greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> (GHE) sustains life on the earth through regulating the temperatures on the planet. Well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide absorb outgoing (long wave) radiation from the Earth's surface while allowing passage without absorption of the incoming solar (shortwave) radiation. Increasing the GHG concentration in the atmosphere increases the absorption of long wavelength radiation thereby increasing global temperatures that result in changes in the atmospheric states consistently over multiple decades.The concept of the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> is critical to the discussions underway pertaining to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and the controls on greenhouse emissions being proposed in different forums. This study sought to (1) investigate students' conceptions about the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>, global warming and <span class="hlt">climate</span> change; (2) determine if there are differences between perceptions for students in US, India and China (Asia)- where there are known differences in the political and scientific approaches; and (3) determine if there any differences, contextual or otherwise, in the way the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> is taught in these countries. This study was conducted in select <span class="hlt">schools</span> in the Midwest US, India and China that volunteered to work with this project. -For US, data from 51 secondary students from three different <span class="hlt">schools</span> were analyzed, for India the number was 71 from 3 <span class="hlt">schools</span>, while for China the number is over 100 (and being analyzed) from different classes within a <span class="hlt">school</span>. Study Hypotheses: 1.Middle <span class="hlt">school</span> students have a good scientific understanding of greenhouse gases. 2.The U.S and Asian students have the same outlook. Teachers were asked to administer a survey in which the students were asked to draw what the term "greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>" means to them. The drawings made by the US students were studied and analyzed by Shepardson et al. (2011). Illustrations by the sample of students from India and China were studied and analyzed in this study. Conclusions were drawn based on comparing and contrasting these two sets of drawings (from US, India, and China). Results from this analysis will be presented and discussed with examples of the different drawings that the students drew and the resulting conclusions. Overall, our study suggests there may be some common misconceptions for middle <span class="hlt">school</span> students when dealing with this topic, and there may also be regional issues that need to be considered in developing <span class="hlt">effective</span> curricula.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Niyogi, D.; Ganesh, N.; Singh, D.; Liu, X.; Shepardson, D. P.; Roychoudhury, A.; Hirsch, A.; Halversen, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40451621"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual variability of regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> and its change due to the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interannual variability of regional <span class="hlt">climate</span> was investigated on a seasonal basis. Observations and two global <span class="hlt">climate</span> model (GCM) simulations were intercompared to identify model biases and <span class="hlt">climate</span> change signals due to the enhanced greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>. Observed record length varies from 40 to 100 years, while the model output comes from two 100-year equilibrium <span class="hlt">climate</span> simulations corresponding to atmospheric greenhouse gas</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xin-Zhong Liang; Wei-Chyung Wang; Michael P. Dudek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=navy&pg=5&id=EJ759407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uniform <span class="hlt">Effects</span>?: <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Cite Benefits of Student Uniforms, but Researchers See Little Evidence of <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article reports on the <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> uniform policies. At Stephen Decatur Middle <span class="hlt">School</span>, it is the <span class="hlt">school</span>'s policy that all students wear the standard <span class="hlt">school</span> attire consisting of khaki pants with polo shirts in white, burgundy, or navy blue. Some of the shirts also sport an embroidered Decatur eagle, an optional embellishment.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Viadero, Debra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........72Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teacher challenges, perceptions, and use of science models in middle <span class="hlt">school</span> classrooms about <span class="hlt">climate</span>, weather, and energy concepts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research suggests that scientific models and modeling should be topics covered in K-12 classrooms as part of a comprehensive science curriculum. It is especially important when talking about topics in weather and <span class="hlt">climate</span>, where computer and forecast models are the center of attention. There are several approaches to model based inquiry, but it can be argued, theoretically, that science models can be <span class="hlt">effectively</span> implemented into any approach to inquiry if they are utilized appropriately. Yet, it remains to be explored how science models are actually implemented in classrooms. This study qualitatively looks at three middle <span class="hlt">school</span> science teachers' use of science models with various approaches to inquiry during their weather and <span class="hlt">climate</span> units. Results indicate that the teacher who used the most elements of inquiry used models in a way that aligned best with the theoretical framework than the teachers who used fewer elements of inquiry. The theoretical framework compares an approach to argument-based inquiry to model-based inquiry, which argues that the approaches are essentially identical, so teachers who use inquiry should be able to apply model-based inquiry using the same approach. However, none of the teachers in this study had a complete understanding of the role models play in authentic science inquiry, therefore students were not explicitly exposed to the ideas that models can be used to make predictions about, and are representations of, a natural phenomenon. Rather, models were explicitly used to explain concepts to students or have students explain concepts to the teacher or to each other. Additionally, models were used as a focal point for conversation between students, usually as they were creating, modifying, or using models. Teachers were not observed asking students to evaluate models. Since science models are an important aspect of understanding science, it is important that teachers not only know how to implement models into an inquiry environment, but also understand the characteristics of science models so that they can explicitly teach the concept of modeling to students. This study suggests that better pre-service and in-service teacher education is needed to prepare students to teach about science models <span class="hlt">effectively</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yarker, Morgan Brown</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMED21C0596Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Two Contrasting Approaches to Building High <span class="hlt">School</span> Teacher Capacity to Teach About Local <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Using Powerful Geospatial Data and Visualization Technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The presentation will compare and contrast two different place-based approaches to helping high <span class="hlt">school</span> science teachers use geospatial data visualization technology to teach about <span class="hlt">climate</span> change in their local regions. The approaches are being used in the development, piloting, and dissemination of two projects for high <span class="hlt">school</span> science led by the author: the NASA-funded Data-enhanced Investigations for <span class="hlt">Climate</span> Change Education (DICCE) and the NSF funded Studying Topography, Orographic Rainfall, and Ecosystems with Geospatial Information Technology (STORE). DICCE is bringing an extensive portal of Earth observation data, the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure, to high <span class="hlt">school</span> classrooms. STORE is making available data for viewing results of a particular IPCC-sanctioned <span class="hlt">climate</span> change model in relation to recent data about average temperatures, precipitation, and land cover for study areas in central California and western New York State. Across the two projects, partner teachers of academically and ethnically diverse students from five states are participating in professional development and pilot testing. Powerful geospatial data representation technologies are difficult to implement in high <span class="hlt">school</span> science because of challenges that teachers and students encounter navigating data access and making sense of data characteristics and nomenclature. Hence, on DICCE, the researchers are testing the theory that by providing a scaffolded technology-supported process for instructional design, starting from fundamental questions about the content domain, teachers will make better instructional decisions. Conversely, the STORE approach is rooted in the perspective that co-design of curricular materials among researchers and teacher partners that work off of "starter" lessons covering focal skills and understandings will lead to the most <span class="hlt">effective</span> utilizations of the technology in the classroom. The projects' goals and strategies for student learning proceed from research suggesting that students will be more engaged and able to utilize prior knowledge better when seeing the local and hence personal relevance of <span class="hlt">climate</span> change and other pressing contemporary science-related issues. In these projects, the students look for <span class="hlt">climate</span> change trends in geospatial Earth System data layers from weather stations, satellites, and models in relation to global trends. They examine these data to (1) reify what they are learning in science class about meteorology, <span class="hlt">climate</span>, and ecology, (2) build inquiry skills by posing and seeking answers to research questions, and (3) build data literacy skills through experience generating appropriate data queries and examining data output on different forms of geospatial representations such as maps, elevation profiles, and time series plots. Teachers also are given the opportunity to have their students look at geospatially represented census data from the tool Social Explorer (http://www.socialexplorer.com/pub/maps/home.aspx) in order to better understand demographic trends in relation to <span class="hlt">climate</span> change-related trends in the Earth system. Early results will be reported about teacher professional development and student learning, gleaned from interviews and observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zalles, D. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=security+AND+cameras&id=EJ927642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Perceptions of Fear at <span class="hlt">School</span> and Going to and from <span class="hlt">School</span> for African American and White Students: The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Security Measures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article uses the <span class="hlt">School</span> Crime Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to investigate the factors related to White and African American students' perceived levels of fear of harm, while at <span class="hlt">school</span> and while commuting to and from <span class="hlt">school</span>. Of particular interest were the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> security measures, including metal detectors,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bachman, Ronet; Randolph, Antonia; Brown, Bethany L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://spark.ucar.edu/climate-science"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Climate</span> Science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This unit was created for a specific population of middle <span class="hlt">school</span> students in a small <span class="hlt">school</span> for students with emotional disorders. The intention was to teach science standards and to re-teach related science concepts that were not mastered in elementary <span class="hlt">school</span>, while preparing students to have a conversation about <span class="hlt">climate</span> change using scientific information. With the seven principles of <span class="hlt">climate</span> literacy in mind, seven lessons taking multiple class periods were designed to allow students to explore what <span class="hlt">climate</span> is, how it is studied, how it changes through natural and man-made processes, how it affects humans, and what they can do to influence future <span class="hlt">climate</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N7624846"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mulching <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Plant <span class="hlt">Climate</span> and Yield.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of mulching - the covering of the soil surface with crop residue or other material such as paper or plastic - on temperature, soil moisture, erosion and soil physics, pests and diseases, growth and yield of plants, and weed suppression are rev...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. W. Davies</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52666823"> <span id="translatedtitle">The greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and <span class="hlt">climate</span> change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">On any planet with an atmosphere, the surface is warmed not only by the Sun directly but also by downward-propagating infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere. On the Earth, this phenomenon, known as the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>, keeps the mean surface temperature some 33 K warmer than it would otherwise be and is therefore essential to life. The radiative processes which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. W. Taylor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53703566"> <span id="translatedtitle">The greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> and <span class="hlt">climate</span> change revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">On any planet with an atmosphere, the surface is warmed not only by the Sun directly but also by downward-propagating infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere. On the Earth, this phenomenon, known as the greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>, keeps the mean surface temperature some 33 K warmer than it would otherwise be and is therefore essential to life. The radiative processes which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. W. Taylor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750058626&hterms=Ramanathan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DRamanathan"> <span id="translatedtitle">Greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span> due to chlorofluorocarbons - <span class="hlt">Climatic</span> implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse <span class="hlt">effect</span>. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramanathan, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=behavior+AND+analysis+AND+public+AND+health&pg=2&id=EJ1011568"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Multilevel Assessment of <span class="hlt">School</span> <span class="hlt">Climate</span>, Bullying Victimization, and Physical Activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background: This study integrated criminological and public health perspectives to examine the influence of bullying victimization and the <span class="hlt">school</span> environment on physical activity (PA). Methods: We used a weighted sample of 7786 US middle <span class="hlt">school</span> students surveyed as part of the Health Behavior in <span class="hlt">School</span>-Aged Children study to conduct a multilevel…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roman, Caterina G.; Taylor, Caitlin J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maslows+AND+hierarchy+AND+needs&pg=6&id=EJ258953"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Social <span class="hlt">Climates</span>: Differences between Conventional and Alternative <span class="hlt">Schools</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Statements about <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Inventory was used to assess the attitudes of teachers and students about the degree to which alternative and conventional high <span class="hlt">schools</span> meet the needs in Maslow's hierarchy. Results showed that alternative <span class="hlt">school</span> environments are more conducive to the satisfaction of basic human needs. (SK)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gregory, Thomas B.; Smith, Gerald R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Water+conservation%22&pg=4&id=ED467390"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Hot and Humid <span class="hlt">Climates</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart <span class="hlt">Schools</span> provides <span class="hlt">school</span> boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to <span class="hlt">school</span> systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">National Renewable Energy Lab. (DOE), Golden, CO.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Water+conservation%22&pg=4&id=ED467393"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Temperate and Mixed <span class="hlt">Climates</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart <span class="hlt">Schools</span> provides <span class="hlt">school</span> boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to <span class="hlt">school</span> systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">National Renewable Energy Lab. (DOE), Golden, CO.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED467392.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Cold and Humid <span class="hlt">Climates</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart <span class="hlt">Schools</span> provides <span class="hlt">school</span> boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to <span class="hlt">school</span> systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED467391.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Cool and Humid <span class="hlt">Climates</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart <span class="hlt">Schools</span> provides <span class="hlt">school</span> boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to <span class="hlt">school</span> systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">National Renewable Energy Lab. (DOE), Golden, CO.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Water+conservation%22&pg=4&id=ED467389"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Cool and Dry <span class="hlt">Climates</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart <span class="hlt">Schools</span> provides <span class="hlt">school</span> boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to <span class="hlt">school</span> systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">National Renewable Energy Lab. (DOE), Golden, CO.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED467388.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance <span class="hlt">Schools</span>: Temperate and Humid <span class="hlt">Climates</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart <span class="hlt">Schools</span> provides <span class="hlt">school</span> boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to <span class="hlt">school</span> systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=school&id=EJ1022787"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gang Membership, <span class="hlt">School</span> Violence, and the Mediating <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High <span class="hlt">Schools</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and <span class="hlt">school</span> violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high <span class="hlt">school</span> students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how <span class="hlt">school</span> risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate <span class="hlt">effects</span> of gang members' involvement with <span class="hlt">school</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Social+Work%22&pg=4&id=EJ1004031"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results of the 2010 Statewide New Mexico <span class="hlt">School</span> Social Work Survey: Implications for Evaluating the <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span> of <span class="hlt">School</span> Social Work</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Today's <span class="hlt">school</span> social workers are facing unique challenges in the workplace. The results of the 2009 New Mexico <span class="hlt">School</span> Social Work Survey reinforced the idea that <span class="hlt">school</span> social workers must be able to prove their <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span>. Building on the <span class="hlt">school</span> social work literature on practice outcomes evaluation, a more extensive statewide survey of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whittlesey-Jerome, Wanda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22charter+school%22&pg=7&id=EJ957642"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the <span class="hlt">Effect</span> of Charter <span class="hlt">Schools</span> on Public <span class="hlt">School</span> Student Achievement in an Urban Environment: Evidence from New York City</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper uses student level data from New York City to study the relationship between a public <span class="hlt">school</span> losing enrollment to charter <span class="hlt">school</span> competitors and the academic achievement of students who remain enrolled in it. Geographic measures most often used to study the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of <span class="hlt">school</span> choice policies on public <span class="hlt">school</span> student achievement are not…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Winters, Marcus A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED510790.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">WWC Quick Review of the Report "When <span class="hlt">Schools</span> Close: <span class="hlt">Effects</span> on Displaced Students in Chicago Public <span class="hlt">Schools</span>"</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examined the <span class="hlt">effect</span> of closing public <span class="hlt">schools</span> in Chicago on the academic achievement of students who had attended those <span class="hlt">schools</span>. The study analyzed data on nearly 3,800 students in 18 elementary <span class="hlt">schools</span> that were closed between 2001 and 2006 and nearly 4,700 students from 18 comparison <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Academic achievement in reading and math…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">What Works Clearinghouse, 2010</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22nursing+research%22&pg=4&id=EJ546901"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organizational <span class="hlt">Effectiveness</span>: Toward an Integrated Model for <span class="hlt">Schools</span> of Nursing.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Literature review on organizational <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> focuses on major assessment models: goal attainment, human relations, open systems, internal processes, culture, and life cycle. A review of studies of nursing <span class="hlt">school</span> <span class="hlt">effectiveness</span> is used to present an agenda for nursing research. (SK)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baker, Constance M.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900032276&hterms=perpetual&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dperpetual"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">effects</span> of atmospheric cloud radiative forcing on <span class="hlt">climate</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to isolate the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of atmospheric cloud radiative forcing (ACRF) on <span class="hlt">climate</span>, the general circulation of an ocean-covered earth called 'Seaworld' was simulated using the Colorado State University GCM. Most current <span class="hlt">climate</span> models, however, do not include an interactive ocean. The key simplifications in 'Seaworld' are the fixed boundary temperature with no land points, the lack of mountains and the zonal uniformity of the boundary conditions. Two 90-day 'perpetual July' simulations were performed and analyzed the last sixty days of each. The first run included all the model's physical parameterizations, while the second omitted the <span class="hlt">effects</span> of clouds in both the solar and terrestrial radiation parameterizations. Fixed and identical boundary temperatures were set for the two runs, and resulted in differences revealing the direct and indirect <span class="hlt">effects</span> of the ACRF on the large-scale circulation and the parameterized hydrologic processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Randall, David A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TEACHING+AND+LIBRARIANSHIP&pg=6&id=ED428776"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foundations for <span class="hlt">Effective</span> <span class="hlt">School</span> Library Media Programs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This collection of 38 articles, reprinted from "Emergency Librarian," addresses critical elements of <span class="hlt">school</span> library media program development and implementation, organized by seven areas: foundations; the <span class="hlt">school</span> context; role clarification; information literacy; collaborative program planning and teaching; program development; and accountability.…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haycock, Ken, Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED444257.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developing <span class="hlt">Effective</span> In-<span class="hlt">School</span>-Suspension Programs.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Discipline--the most serious problem faced by teachers today--has consistently appeared at or near the top of the public's attitudes toward the public <span class="hlt">schools</span>. This paper discusses the difficulty of discipline and one of the most perplexing problems facing administrators today--the use of suspension as a discipline alternative. Out-of-<span class="hlt">school</span>…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vanderslice, Ronna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=centralized+AND+decentralized&id=EJ794631"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effects</span> of Decentralization on <span class="hlt">School</span> Resources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sweden has undertaken major national reforms of its <span class="hlt">school</span> sector, which, consequently, has been classified as one of the most decentralized ones in the OECD. This paper investigates whether local tax base, grants, and preferences affected local <span class="hlt">school</span> resources differently as decentralization took place. We find that municipal tax base affects…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahlin, Asa; Mork, Eva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED245023.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Effective</span> Strategies for Avoiding Within <span class="hlt">School</span> Resegregation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This report provides the base of information necessary for the development of specific policy options to prevent or reduce <span class="hlt">school</span> resegregation, i.e., the separation of racial and ethnic groups within desegregated <span class="hlt">schools</span>. Following a chapter on the definition and background of resegregation, Chapter 2 discusses resegregation in academic…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cook, Valerie; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">461</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kam+Y%2c+rubenstein+a&id=EJ679236"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Effects</span> of <span class="hlt">Schooling</span> on Gender Differences.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Examined gender differences in educational achievements based on a longitudinal sample of 45,000+ Hong Kong secondary <span class="hlt">school</span> students who took a public examination in 1997. Repor