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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Examining School Connectedness as a Mediator of School Climate Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have suggested that good-quality school climates foster a sense of connection to the school and in this way contribute to fewer emotional and behavioral problems. However, few studies have directly assessed the role of school connectedness as a mediator of school climate effects. Using path analysis, this brief report examined whether…

Loukas, Alexandra; Suzuki, Rie; Horton, Karissa D.

2006-01-01

2

The Effects of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support on Middle School Climate and Student Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) on middle school climate and student outcomes. Data consisted of more than 300 teacher responses and 10,000 student responses in two middle schools in the western United States. This study used a quasi-experimental (non-equivalent two-group, pretest-posttest)…

Caldarella, Paul; Shatzer, Ryan H.; Gray, Kristy M.; Young, K. Richard; Young, Ellie L.

2011-01-01

3

The Effects of School Culture and Climate on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Exemplary, Recognized and Acceptable schools differ in their school climates, as measured by the 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory. Significant differences were found on all 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory, with Exemplary schools out-performing Acceptable…

MacNeil, Angus J.; Prater, Doris L.; Busch, Steve

2009-01-01

4

The Effects of School Climate Change on Student Success in a Fifth and Sixth Grade School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The significance of the study was to examine intentional strategies to improve school climate relative to student school success as measured by academic achievement, attendance, and student behavior. It was important to understand how student school success was affected by factors related to school climate improvement such as leadership and…

Harris, Kim M.

2011-01-01

5

Assessing School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of the School Climate and Context Inventory (SCCI) as a measure of school climate was investigated. The SCCI had previously been used as a measure of climate in a study of six rural high schools in Kentucky and Tennessee; in the current study, the SCCI was administered to 20 faculty members from each school. Split-half correlation and…

Bobbett, Gordon C.; French, Russell L.

6

School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of…

Wang, Ming-Te

2009-01-01

7

School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of…

Wang, Ming-Te

2009-01-01

8

School Climate and Adolescent Drug Use: Mediating Effects of Violence Victimization in the Urban High School Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

  This study tested the mediating effects of violence victimization in the relationship between school climate and adolescent\\u000a drug use. The hypothesized path model fit data collected from a probability sample of urban high school students (N=586) participating\\u000a in an evaluation of a violence prevention program funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.\\u000a Findings indicated that the lack

Robert J. Reid; N. Andrew Peterson; Joseph Hughey; Pauline Garcia-Reid

2006-01-01

9

Student Leadership Distribution: Effects of a Student-Led Leadership Program on School Climate and Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the understandings educators developed from two schools concerning how distributed leadership involving a select group of students affected the climate and community of their schools. Findings suggest that student-led leadership roles within the school community have an impact on creating a positive school-wide climate; a…

Pedersen, Jeff; Yager, Stuart; Yager, Robert

2012-01-01

10

Implementing a Universal Stress Management Program for Young School Children: Are there Classroom Climate or Academic Effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible academic and classroom climate effects of the universal school program Zippy's Friends, the primary objective of which is to strengthen children's ability to cope with stress. The sample consisted of 1483 children (aged 7–8 years) from 91 second-grade classes in 35 schools. The schools were matched and randomly assigned to

Solveig Holen; Trine Waaktaar; Arne Lervåg; Mette Ystgaard

2012-01-01

11

Functions of parental involvement and effects of school climate on bullying behaviors among South Korean middle school students.  

PubMed

This study uses an ecological systems theory to understand bullying behavior. Emphasis is given to overcome limitations found in the literature, such as very little empirical research on functions of parental involvement and the impacts of school climate on bullying as an outcome variable. Two functions of parental involvement investigated are (a) bridging the negative experiences within the family with bullying behaviors at schools, and (b) influencing school climate. Bullying behaviors were measured by a modified Korean version of Olweus' bully/victim questionnaire (reliability range: .78-.84) from 1,238 randomly selected Korean middle school students in 2007. Findings from structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses showed that (a) individual traits are one of the most important influence on bullying, (b) negative experiences in the family do not have direct influence on bullying behaviors at school, (c) parental involvement influences school climate, and (d) positive school climate was negatively related to bullying behaviors. PMID:22328649

Lee, Chang-Hun; Song, Juyoung

2012-02-10

12

Creating School Climates That Prevent School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses intervention options that help prevent violence in schools by affecting the school climate. Describes five approaches to improve the school climate: (1) parent and community involvement; (2) character education; (3) violence-prevention and conflict-resolution curricula; (4) peer mediation; and (5) bullying prevention. (CMK)|

Peterson, Reece L.; Skiba, Russell

2001-01-01

13

School Climate and Teacher Commitment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between school climate and teacher commitment. The study focused on elementary schools in Northeast Alabama. Thirty-four elementary schools consisting of 522 teachers took part in the study. The teachers completed two survey instruments: the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment…

Smith, Larry Don

2009-01-01

14

LGB and questioning students in schools: the moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam, J School Health 62(7):352-357, 1992). This study examined how school contextual factors such as homophobic victimization and school climate influence negative outcomes in LGB and questioning middle school students. Participants were 7,376 7th and 8th grade students from a large Midwestern county (50.7% Female, 72.7% White, 7.7% Biracial, 6.9% Black, 5.2% Asian, 3.7% Hispanic, and 2.2% reported "other"). LGB and sexually questioning youth were more likely to report high levels of bullying, homophobic victimization, and various negative outcomes than heterosexual youth. Students who were questioning their sexual orientation reported the most bullying, the most homophobic victimization, the most drug use, the most feelings of depression and suicidality, and more truancy than either heterosexual or LGB students. A positive school climate and a lack of homophobic victimization moderated the differences among sexual orientation status and outcomes. Results indicate that schools have the ability to lessen negative outcomes for LGB and sexually questioning students through creating positive climates and reducing homophobic teasing. PMID:19636741

Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L; Koenig, Brian

2009-01-15

15

Creating School Climates that Prevent School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on several approaches for schools to use of improve school climate, in part to prevent violence or at least to improve student behavioral conflicts, including: parent and community involvement, character education, violence-prevention and conflict-resolution curricula, peer mediation, and bullying prevention. (Contains…

Peterson, Reece L.; Skiba, Russell

2000-01-01

16

Creating School Climates That Prevent School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses several prominent intervention approaches intended to prevent violence and inappropriate behavior in school by directly or indirectly affecting the social climate of the school. Looks at programs focusing on: parent and community involvement; character education; violence prevention and conflict resolution curricula; peer mediation; and…

Peterson, Reece L.; Skiba, Russell

2001-01-01

17

Altering School Climate through School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a Group-Randomized Effectiveness Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a universal, school-wide prevention strategy that is currently implemented\\u000a in over 7,500 schools to reduce disruptive behavior problems. The present study examines the impact of PBIS on staff reports\\u000a of school organizational health using data from a group-randomized controlled effectiveness trial of PBIS conducted in 37\\u000a elementary schools. Longitudinal multilevel analyses on data

Catherine P. Bradshaw; Christine W. Koth; Leslie A. Thornton; Philip J. Leaf

2009-01-01

18

The Effect of a Zoo-Based Experiential Academic Science Program on High School Students' Math and Science Achievement and Perceptions of School Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 11th-grade and 12th-grade zoo-based academic high school experiential science program compared to a same school-district school-based academic high school experiential science program on students' pretest and posttest science, math, and reading achievement, and student perceptions of program relevance, rigor, and relationships. Science coursework delivery site served as the study's independent variable for the two naturally formed groups representing students (n = 18) who completed a zoo-based experiential academic high school science program and students (n = 18) who completed a school-based experiential academic high school science program. Students in the first group, a zoo-based experiential academic high school science program, completed real world, hands-on projects at the zoo while students in the second group, those students who completed a school-based experiential academic high school science program, completed real world, simulated projects in the classroom. These groups comprised the two research arms of the study. Both groups of students were selected from the same school district. The study's two dependent variables were achievement and school climate. Achievement was analyzed using norm-referenced 11th-grade pretest PLAN and 12th-grade posttest ACT test composite scores. Null hypotheses were rejected in the direction of improved test scores for both science program groups---students who completed the zoo-based experiential academic high school science program (p < .001) and students who completed the school-based experiential academic high school science program (p < .001). The posttest-posttest ACT test composite score comparison was not statistically different ( p = .93) indicating program equipoise for students enrolled in both science programs. No overall weighted grade point average score improvement was observed for students in either science group, however, null hypotheses were rejected in the direction of improved science grade point average scores for 11th-grade (p < .01) and 12th-grade (p = .01) students who completed the zoo-based experiential academic high school science program. Null hypotheses were not rejected for between group posttest science grade point average scores and school district criterion reference math and reading test scores. Finally, students who completed the zoo-based experiential academic high school science program had statistically improved pretest-posttest perceptions of program relationship scores (p < .05) and compared to students who completed the school-based experiential academic high school science program had statistically greater posttest perceptions of program relevance (p < .001), perceptions of program rigor (p < .001), and perceptions of program relationships (p < .001).

Mulkerrin, Elizabeth A.

19

Climate Field Schools in Indonesia: Improv ing \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the successful Farmer Field School approach, experimental Climate Field Schools were set up in Indonesia. These aim to increase farmers' knowledge on the climate and improve their response to it. Climate is another reason for building up resilience in farming systems, and this was built into the CFS curriculum. Farmers are now more aware of how to use climate

Yunita T. Winarto; Kees Stigter; Esti Anantasari; Siti Nur Hidayah

20

School Climate: Historical Review, Instrument Development, and School Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's purpose is to examine the existing school climate literature in an attempt to constitute its definition from a historical context and to create a valid and reliable student-reported school climate instrument. Five historically common school climate domains and five measurement tools were identified, combined, and previewed by the…

Zullig, Keith J.; Koopman, Tommy M.; Patton, Jon M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

2010-01-01

21

Teacher Safety and Authoritative School Climate in High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most research on school climate focuses on student well-being, with less attention on the safety of school faculty. The current study examined the relationship between an authoritative school climate (characterized by high levels of student support and disciplinary structure) and both teacher reports of victimization and school records of threats…

Gregory, Anne; Cornell, Dewey; Fan, Xitao

2012-01-01

22

Creating a Positive School Climate at the Junior High Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of the seven correlates of an effective school, as identified by the Effective Schools Research, is a positive school climate: a positive attitude on the part of the entire staff and student body exhibited through overt behavior that creates a warm, orderly learning environment. Development of such an environment depends upon: (1) strong…

Licata, Vincent F.

23

Students' Perceptions of the School Climate: Implications for School Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed school climate for both interpersonal and intrapersonal character traits and examined the links between school climate and students' perceptions of safety at school. Sixty-four elementary and 159 secondary students completed questionnaires in the spring. Findings revealed that character traits were reliably assessed for both…

DeRosier, Melissa E.; Newcity, Janet

2005-01-01

24

Students' Perceptions of the School Climate: Implications for School Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study assessed school climate for both interpersonal and intrapersonal character traits and examined the links between school climate and students' perceptions of safety at school. Sixty-four elementary and 159 secondary students completed questionnaires in the spring. Findings revealed that character traits were reliably assessed for both…

DeRosier, Melissa E.; Newcity, Janet

2005-01-01

25

Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education is a project to establish a network of practicing high school teachers actively teaching climate change in their courses. The key aim of the project is creation of professional learning communities (PLCs) of teachers who meet mainly through teleconferences or webinar meetings to share best practices, strengthen knowledge, share resources, and promote effective teaching strategies. This is a NASA-funded project that incorporates analysis of NASA Earth observation data by students in classrooms. The project is exploring techniques to achieve the most effective teleconference meetings and workshops. This promotes not only teaching about minimizing environmental impacts of human activity, but minimizes environmental impacts of professional development - practicing what we preach. This poster summarizes project progress to date in this first year of a 3-year grant project. A number of PLCs are established and have ongoing meetings. There are openings for addition PLC Leaders to join and form PLCs in their regions.

Gould, A.

2012-08-01

26

Assessing School Climate in Prevention Program Planning, Development, and Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the presentations made at a symposium of behavioral scientists conducting research on school disorder and delinquency prevention. The application of a climate assessment battery in organizational development and the evaluation of disciplinary programs in schools is described. The "Effective Schools Battery" (ESB) produces…

Gottfredson, Gary D.

27

Developing a Positive School Climate. Newsletter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School leaders are often placed on the "hot seat" when negative images of the school, its staff, or its students appear in the local media. Such reports can strongly affect a school's public and image and, in turn, impact the climate both in the community and within the school itself. Sometimes these perceptions are not based on fact; however,…

Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

2009-01-01

28

The School Leadership\\/School Climate Relation: Identification of School Configurations Associated with Change in Principals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relation of school leadership to school climate, school structure, and student population characteristics, together referred to as school configuration. Archival and survey data were obtained from 122 elementary schools. Some schools had changed principals under less than positive circumstances, whereas other schools had not. Schools having principal changes had greater use and more students who were

James Griffith

1999-01-01

29

School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

2010-01-01

30

The Impact of School Climate on School Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to provide insight into an elementary school whose climate issues appear to plague and impact it's performance as measured by it's Annually Yearly Progress (AYP). The Northwest Georgia elementary school is located in a rural school system approximately 50 miles northwest of Atlanta, Georgia. A review of the…

Tubbs, J. Eric; Garner, Mary

2008-01-01

31

The Impact of School Climate on School Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide insight into an elementary school whose climate issues appear to plague and impact it's performance as measured by it's Annually Yearly Progress (AYP). The Northwest Georgia elementary school is located in a rural school system approximately 50 miles northwest of Atlanta, Georgia. A review of the…

Tubbs, J. Eric; Garner, Mary

2008-01-01

32

An Analysis of Bullying Among Students Within Schools: Estimating the Effects of Individual Normative Beliefs, Self-Esteem, and School Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the relations among self-esteem, approving normative beliefs about bullying, school climate, and bullying perpetration using a large, longitudinal sample of children from elementary, middle, and high school. Self-report surveys were collected at two points in time over the course of 1 year from 7,299 ethnically diverse students (47.8% males, 52.2% females) in 5th, 8th, and 11th

Brian P. Gendron; Kirk R. Williams; Nancy G. Guerra

2011-01-01

33

School Climate: Research, Policy, Practice, and Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background/Context: Educators have written about and studied school climate for 100 years. School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School climate is based on patterns of people's experiences of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational…

Cohen, Jonathan; McCabe, Libby; Michelli, Nicholas M.; Pickeral, Terry

2009-01-01

34

Perceptions of Michigan middle school principals regarding leadership styles, communication, and school climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of public school middle school principals in the State of Michigan regarding leadership, communication climate, and school climate. In addition, the study also examined the influence of school climate and culture on the four frameworks of leadership, communication, and school climate. ^ A nonexperimental, descriptive research design was used in this

Goharik K Torres

2009-01-01

35

Heteronormativity, school climates, and perceived safety for gender nonconforming peers.  

PubMed

Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined student- and school-level effects on students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers. We found that older students, bisexual youth, Latino youth, and youth who experienced school violence perceived their gender nonconforming male peers to be less safe. Similarly, we found that older students and students who experienced school violence and harassment due to gender nonconformity perceived their gender nonconforming female peers to be less safe. At the school-level, we found that when schools included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues in the curriculum and had a Gay-Straight Alliance, students perceived their schools as safer for gender nonconforming male peers. PMID:21481925

Toomey, Russell B; McGuire, Jenifer K; Russell, Stephen T

2011-04-08

36

LGB and Questioning Students in Schools: The Moderating Effects of Homophobic Bullying and School Climate on Negative Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam,…

Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian

2009-01-01

37

LGB and Questioning Students in Schools: The Moderating Effects of Homophobic Bullying and School Climate on Negative Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam,…

Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian

2009-01-01

38

School ethical climate and teachers' voluntary absence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were collected by self-report questionnaires and tested against archival data. The GENMOD procedure

Orly Shapira-Lishchinsky; Zehava Rosenblatt

2010-01-01

39

Student Achievement and Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' perceptions of school climate in 59 elementary schools were assessed using a modified version of the School-Level Environment Questionnaire (SLEQ). Using structural equation modelling, a statistically significant, positive relationship was found between school mean teachers' perceptions of school climate and school mean student…

Johnson, Bruce; Stevens, Joseph J.

2006-01-01

40

Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools

Sznitman, Sharon R.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Nalkur, Priya; Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel

2012-01-01

41

Using the Effective School Battery in School Improvement and Effective Schools Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Effective School Battery (ESB) is a diagnostic tool used for assessing school climate and providing a sound basis for planning and evaluating school improvement programs. This paper provides a brief look at the development of the ESB and describes its basic features. The ESB serves for diagnosing problems, opening up communication, evaluating…

Gottfredson, Gary D.

42

Improving School Climate to Reduce Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying harms kids in nearly every way imaginable. It disrupts their learning; it causes them to suffer anxiety and depression; and it undermines their feelings of safety and connection to school. New understandings of bullying are based on relationships and connect directly to the growing appreciation of the role of the social climate within…

Smith, David

2012-01-01

43

Community Culture and School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By creating and fostering a community climate, everyone becomes invested in education. Culture is a pattern of shared basic assumptions that creates the social skills and behaviors of people within the organization and conveys a unique organizational identity. Community support enhances motivation, desire to learn, and willingness to succeed.…

Villani, Christine J.

1999-01-01

44

SCHOOL CLIMATE AND TEACHERS' PERCEPTIONS ON CLIMATE FACTORS: RESEARCH INTO NINE URBAN HIGH SCHOOLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the difference in the levels of the variables related to the school climate factors among the teachers teaching social science courses, the teachers teaching natural science courses, and the teachers teaching art, music and physical education. As a result of the analyzes, all the teachers reported open climate in relation to the factors of team commitment, organizational

Ilhan GUNBAYI

2007-01-01

45

Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance\\u000a use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This\\u000a study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in schools with different climates.\\u000a The analysis was based on

Sharon R. SznitmanSally; Sally M. Dunlop; Priya Nalkur; Atika Khurana; Daniel Romer

46

Climate Information and Agricultural Practice in Adaptation to Climate Variability: The Case of Climate Field Schools in Indramayu, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by the Farmer Field School methodology, a “Climate Field School” was conducted with farmers in the Indramayu region of Indonesia in 2003 to promote adaptive application of climate forecasts to crop selection decisions. However, five years after the Climate Field School, use of the forecasts is still virtually nonexistent. Analysis of farmers' production practices and rationales reveals lack of

T. A. Crane; P. R. Siregar

2011-01-01

47

Student Drug Testing in the Context of Positive and Negative School Climates: Results from a National Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Positive school climates and student drug testing have been separately proposed as strategies to reduce student substance use in high schools. However, the effects of drug testing programs may depend on the favorability of school climates. This study examined the association between school drug testing programs and student substance use in…

Sznitman, Sharon R.; Dunlop, Sally M.; Nalkur, Priya; Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel

2012-01-01

48

An Evaluation of Factors that Impact Positive School Climate for School Psychologists in a Time of Conflicting Educational Mandates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators including school psychologists must negotiate the differing demands of legal mandates and recent educational initiatives that impact their practice and school climate in order to maintain positive effects for students and other school personnel. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act,…

Thompson, Melody J.; Crank, Joe N.

2010-01-01

49

School Climate: The Interplay between Interpersonal Relationships and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study of school climate underscores the importance of the quality of interpersonal relationships in a school to student achievement. This study improves on previous studies in three ways: First, it makes use of a parsimonious school climate framework that is easier to interpret than previous measures; second, it replaces a subscale that…

Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Parish, Jennifer; DiPaola, Michael

2006-01-01

50

Principals' leadership style and school climate: teachers' perspectives from Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between secondary school teachers' perception of principal leadership style (specifically transformational and transactional leadership styles) and school climate. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was used to assess the transformational and transactional leadership styles of principals. Climate data were obtained using the School Level Environment Questionnaire. The theoretical

Adel Tajasom; Zainal Ariffin Ahmad

2011-01-01

51

The Impact of School Climate: Variation by Ethnicity and Gender.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a district-wide survey of 7th grade students in a semi-rural school district where 23% of the students are Latino. Participating students completed the California School Climate and Safety Survey which assesses student perceptions regarding general school climate and personal safety-related experiences.…

Buckley, Maureen A.; Storino, Meri; Sebastiani, Ann Marie

52

School Climate, Academic Performance, Attendance, and Dropout.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Correlates of the teacher scales from the Effective School Battery (ESB) were examined in the Charleston County School District (CCSD) in South Carolina. Focus was on determining the relations between the ESB teacher scales and student academic achievement, progress through the grades, attendance, and dropout. This study was conducted as part of a…

Gottfredson, Gary D.; Gottfredson, Denise C.

53

Perceptions of school climate and bullying in middle schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bullying has been identified as a problem that can affect the physical and psychosocial health of both the aggressors and victims. Given the consequences for those who bully, for victims, and for the school environment, early intervention is important to minimize these risks. School staff need additional data to understand the scope of bullying and to adopt effective strategies. This

Irene Pintado

2006-01-01

54

Students' perceptions of school climate in the U.S. and China.  

PubMed

Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States. Differences in school climate between the two countries were examined in this study. The sample consisted of 10,400 American and 3,435 Chinese students across three grade levels (elementary, middle, and high school) in 85 American and 22 Chinese schools. Factor structure and measurement invariance across countries were first established for the Modified-Delaware School Climate Survey-Student. Differences in latent means were then tested. Across all three grade levels Chinese students scored significantly higher than American students on all four subscales (Teacher-Student Relations, Student-Student Relations, School Liking, and Fairness of School Rules). Effects sizes tended to be smallest in elementary schools and largest in middle schools. Significant differences between American and Chinese students exist in their perceptions of school climate. It is likely that those differences can be attributed to cultural differences in respect of authority, academic and social values, self-regulation and peer-regulation of behaviors, and teachers' classroom management. PMID:23506022

Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C; Huang, Xishan

2013-03-01

55

Teachers as Builders of Respectful School Climates: Implications for Adolescent Drug Use Norms and Depressive Symptoms in High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Positive school climates have been found to have favorable effects on adolescent health risk behaviors and mental health outcomes. However, the mechanisms by which teacher behavior may promote such effects in high schools have not been extensively studied. Based on social control theory and a social developmental-contextual model, it was…

LaRusso, Maria D.; Romer, Daniel; Selman, Robert L.

2008-01-01

56

Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

Cook, J.

2011-12-01

57

The relationship between perceptions of a Chinese high school's ethical climate and students' school performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of school ethical climate and students' school performance within the context of a Chinese high school. Gender and grade?level differences in ethical climate perceptions were also explored. Survey data on perceptions of school ethical climate based upon the dimensions of student?to?teacher, student?to?student and teacher?to?student interactions and relationships were obtained from 754 students. Results of the

Mingchu Luo; Wenmin Huang; Lotfollah Najjar

2007-01-01

58

School Climate and the Safe School: Seven Contributing Factors. Safety in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accepting that few lists are comprehensive, but acknowledging that they still have value, here then are seven important factors that contribute to a healthy school climate: (1) Models: Adults are teachers in more ways than one, and the way that has the greater impact is less what they say than what they do; (2) Consistency: The school staff must…

Noonan, James

2005-01-01

59

School Social Capital and School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in…

Tsang, Kwok-Kuen

2009-01-01

60

School climate and the institutionalization of the CATCH program.  

PubMed

School climate refers to various physical and psychosocial structures that shape schools' social and physical environments. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) study provided an opportunity to study how aspects of school climate are associated with continued implementation of the CATCH program. Nutrient analysis of menus, observations of physical education (PE) classes, and teacher and staff self-reports were used to measure CATCH program components. Results of this study indicate that aspects of school climate were associated with continued implementation of the CATCH classroom component but not the CATCH food service or PE components. These findings have implications for how we plan for the progression of innovative school health promotion programs from the initial trial stage to institutionalization. Measures of school climate may be useful in determining a school's readiness to adopt and implement an innovative health promotion curriculum. PMID:12929899

Parcel, Guy S; Perry, Cheryl L; Kelder, Steven H; Elder, John P; Mitchell, Paul D; Lytle, Leslie A; Johnson, Carolyn C; Stone, Elaine J

2003-08-01

61

Correlational Analysis of Servant Leadership and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this mixed-method research study was to determine the extent that servant leadership was correlated with perceptions of school climate to identify whether there was a relationship between principals' and teachers' perceived practice of servant leadership and of school climate. The study employed a mixed-method approach by first…

Black, Glenda Lee

2010-01-01

62

Critical Climate: Relations among Sexual Harassment, Climate, and Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n = 310) and boys (n = 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer…

Ormerod, Alayne J.; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Perry, Leigh Ann

2008-01-01

63

Heteronormativity, School Climates, and Perceived Safety for Gender Nonconforming Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined…

Toomey, Russell B.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Russell, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

64

Case Studies of Expectation Climate at Two Bilingual Education Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this inquiry was to examine expectation climate at two schools where bilingual education was an approach to educating language minority students. Using purposive sampling based on criteria of similar student demographics but with contrasting settings, two schools were selected for the inquiry. Case studies were prepared of each school based on qualitative data collected, such as interviews,

Robert J. Johnson

2000-01-01

65

Heteronormativity, School Climates, and Perceived Safety for Gender Nonconforming Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined…

Toomey, Russell B.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Russell, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

66

Local Communities and Schools Tackling Sustainability and Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Local communities and their schools remain key sites for actions tackling issues of sustainability and climate change. A government-funded environmental education initiative, the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI), working together with state based Sustainable Schools Programs (SSP), has the ability to support the development of…

Flowers, Rick; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

2009-01-01

67

Opinions and knowledge about climate change science in high school students.  

PubMed

This study investigates the influence of knowledge on opinions about climate change in the emerging adults' age group (16-17 years). Furthermore, the effects of a lecture in climate change science on knowledge and opinions were assessed. A survey was conducted in Austria and Denmark on 188 students in national and international schools before and after a lecture in climate change science. The results show that knowledge about climate change science significantly affects opinions about climate change. Students with a higher number of correct answers are more likely to have the opinion that humans are causing climate change and that both individuals and governments are responsible for addressing climate change. The lecture in climate change science significantly improved knowledge development but did not affect opinions. Knowledge was improved by 11 % after the lecture. However, the percentage of correct answers was still below 60 % indicating an urgent need for improving climate change science education. PMID:23471678

Harker-Schuch, Inez; Bugge-Henriksen, Christian

2013-03-08

68

Alpbach Summer School 2010 - proposed missions to understand climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theme of the Alpbach Summer School 2010 was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change". At present, climate change studies face many uncertainties that need to be solved and quantified. The unprecedented effects and consequences of climate change on our planet are causing serious concerns amongst the scientific community, that witnesses the transformations our environment is suffering. In order to reduce them, Earth Observation from space is a really interesting and affordable alternative. A group of sixty young science and engineering students both undergraduate and graduate, dealt with the task of designing space missions aiming to better understand climate change. The participants were split into four teams which were encouraged to design innovative new missions, that could potentially help to increase our understanding on climate change by introducing new observation parameters, methods and technology. They were also encouraged to focus on different approaches so no scientific case was duplicated. The resulting proposals comprised a wide range of climate change topics: AVALON (Atmospheric water Vapour from an Active Limb-sounding Observing Network) a mission using a novel active limb-sounding instrument to measure water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere; ERICC (Evolution and Radiative Impact of Contrail Cirrus) the first space mission dedicated to the study of contrails and their impact on climate change; VESTA a mission designed to derive data on CO2 emissions from biomass burning in the tropics and DROP (Dual Retrieval of Precipitation) a mission to improve the understanding of regional and global water cycles. This presentation will provide an introduction towards the four missions designed with the goal of contributing towards better understanding climate change and its causes. The scientific cases will be presented, as well as the engineering designs needed to meet these scientific requirements on a preliminary level. Special emphasis will be made on the innovative characteristics of each one of these missions, all spanning different topics. The Alpbach Summer School 2010 was organised by FFG and co-sponsored by ESA, ISSI and the national space authorities of ESA member and cooperating states.

Krejci, D.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Kern, K.; Romano, P.; Topham, R.; Weitnauer, C.

2011-12-01

69

Elementary School Self-Improvement through Social Climate Enhancement. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focused on process measures to identify the major components of elementary school climate and to test the effectiveness of an intervention emphasizing the work of the principal. Nine schools of diverse size and in several locations in British Columbia formed the sample. Data included surveys of parents and teachers, interviews of…

Coleman, Peter

70

School Climate, Sense of Efficacy and Israeli Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion of Students with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the effects of school organizational and educational climate, and a teacher's sense of efficacy, on general education teachers' attitudes toward inclusion of students with special needs. The sample included 139 teachers from 17 elementary schools in the Northern District of Israel. The results of Pearson correlation and…

Weisel, Amatzia; Dror, Orit

2006-01-01

71

The Relationship Between Elementary School Climate and Teachers' Attitudes Toward Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between teachers' attitudes toward evaluation and elementary school climate. The instrument used in the study was the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ) which described eight dimensions of school climate. (Author/DWH)

Johnston, Gladys S.; And Others

1985-01-01

72

The Relationship Between Elementary School Climate and Teachers' Attitudes Toward Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the relationship between teachers' attitudes toward evaluation and elementary school climate. The instrument used in the study was the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ) which described eight dimensions of school climate. (Author/DWH)|

Johnston, Gladys S.; And Others

1985-01-01

73

School Quality and Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most robust and consistent findings in educational research is that a child's educational attainment is greatly affected by its family background. A crucial issue for policy is whether schools have any effect on children's attainment or whether it is all determined by family background and personality traits. If schools are differentially effective then the school attended matters

Arnaud Chevalier; Peter Dolton; Ros Levacic

2004-01-01

74

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AND SCHOOL LOCATION, SCHOOL SIZE, AND THE ECONOMIC LEVEL OF THE SCHOOL COMMUNITY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE IN 221 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS AND (1) CLASSIFICATION OF THE SCHOOL BY ITS URBAN, SUBURBAN, OR RURAL LOCATION, (2) SCHOOL SIZE AS MEASURED BY NUMBER OF PROFESSIONAL STAFF MEMBERS, AND (3) ECONOMIC LEVEL OF THE COMMUNITY SERVED BY THE SCHOOL. AN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE

GENTRY, HAROLD W.; KENNEY, JAMES B.

75

Changes in School Climate in a Long-Term Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a previous report five school climate instruments were explored (1983 and 1985), and four scales were regarded as meaningful climate measures according to suggested criteria. These scales were re-inspected in the present study (1997 and 1998) by analyses of internal consistency, estimates of reliability (unit and aggregated reliability), and…

Kallestad, Jan Helge

2010-01-01

76

Teachers as Builders of Respectful School Climates: Implications for Adolescent Drug Use Norms and Depressive Symptoms in High School  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive school climates have been found to have favorable effects on adolescent health risk behaviors and mental health outcomes.\\u000a However, the mechanisms by which teacher behavior may promote such effects in high schools have not been extensively studied.\\u000a Based on social control theory and a social developmental-contextual model, it was predicted that by respecting students’\\u000a points of view and decision

Maria D. LaRusso; Daniel Romer; Robert L. Selman

2008-01-01

77

Climate Change: What You Can Do At School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students, educators and school administrators can all play a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This website provides a directory of some education and action planning resources, including tips for recycling and ideas for determining a school's impact on global climate change.

2007-01-01

78

School Effectiveness: A View from the School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings of a study that examined the perceptions of educational stakeholders in two regions of the Victorian Ministry of Education toward effective-schools issues. Data were obtained from a survey mailed to a total of 1,060 principals, school councillors, teachers, parents, and students in 100 schools--50 schools each from the…

Townsend, Tony

79

Peace Education: Cooling the Climate of Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses peace education curriculum in the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) Public School district. The peace education promotion has been in existence for 10 years and was created in response to rising levels of violence. Specifically examined are the uses of peace education at Fritsche Middle School, a school that has proven the positive…

Jeffries, Rhonda B.; Harris, Ian M.

80

School Effectiveness: Profile of School Excellence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on Larry Hutchins' analysis of the school effectiveness literature, the Profile of School Excellence (PRO-S/E) is a diagnostic tool keyed to 11 instructional and organizational variables which are positively related to effective/excellent schools and which are alterable. The variables are: needs basis; objectives; expectations; roles and…

Sanders, Jack; And Others

81

Effects of student and school factors on five measures of school disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although concern about school disorder has increased dramatically in recent years, little systematic attention has been given to its measurement or to separating its diverse causal influences. Measures used in research have included self-reported victimization, fear, delinquency, misconduct, and school-recorded incident rates. In this paper I explore the effects of several major dimensions of school climate and individual student characteristics

Wayne N. Welsh

2001-01-01

82

Climate Control. Secondary School Course Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This course guide is oriented toward developing skills in air conditioning and refrigeration installation and service. Although primarily designed as a 2-year program for high school students at the junior and senior levels, it is equally acceptable for the post high school student as an occupational training program, or as a refresher course for…

DuPlantis, Ernest P.

83

Exploring the Relationships among Race, Class, Gender, and Middle School Students' Perceptions of School Racial Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although school climate has been thought to be especially important for racial minority and poor students (Booker, 2006; Haynes, Emmons, & Ben-Avie, 1997), little research has explored the significance of racial climate for these students. Furthermore, research in the area has tended to treat race, socioeconomic class, and gender separately,…

Watkins, Natasha D.; Aber, Mark S.

2009-01-01

84

Climatic effects of nuclear war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global climatic consequences of a nuclear war have, until recently, been assumed to be insignificant compared with the obviously devastating direct effects from blast, heat, and short-term fallout. But a number of investigations carried out over the past few years indicate that climatic impact could actually be severe enough to threaten the global ecosystem significantly, including regions that may not

Curt Covey

1985-01-01

85

Middle School Improvement and Reform: Development and Validation of a School-Level Assessment of Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and School Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of perceived school climate and the relationship of climate dimensions to adaptation were examined in a large-scale multiyear investigation of students who attend middle-grade-level schools. Analyses of the structure, reliability, interrater convergence, and stability of school climate ratings were conducted in a large-scale sample of over 105,000 students in 188 schools. The climate scales exhibited a stable dimensional

Stephen Brand; Robert Felner; Minsuk Shim; Anne Seitsinger; Thaddeus Dumas

2003-01-01

86

School Climate Factors Relating to Teacher Burnout: A Mediator Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study investigated components of school climate (i.e. parent/community relations, administration, student behavioral values) and assessed their influence on the core burnout dimensions of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and feelings of low Personal Accomplishment. The study weighed the relative contributions of demographic…

Grayson, Jessica L.; Alvarez, Heather K.

2008-01-01

87

Measurement of Perceived School Climate for Active Travel in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To describe the development of an original scale that measures perceived school climate for active travel in fourth- and fifth-grade girls and boys. Methods: The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to provide evidence of factorial validity, factorial invariance, and construct validity. Results: The CFA supported…

Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Ward, Dianne S.

2007-01-01

88

Transforming School Climate and Learning: Beyond Bullying and Compliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Most educators agree that children learn better in an honoring and respectful culture. They also know that top-down imposed change rarely sticks. In "Transforming School Climate and Learning", Bill Preble and Rick Gordon show how to accomplish lasting results by engaging both teachers and students in the five-step SafeMeasures[TM] process, a…

Preble, Bill; Gordon, Rick

2011-01-01

89

The Assessment of Organisational Climate in Bedouin Arab Schools in Israel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes results of a study designed to identify organizational climate factors in Israel's 29 Bedouin Arab elementary schools and to explore their relation to certain teacher and school-level variables, including sex, educational level, tenure, teachers' origin, school type, and school size. The most important organizational climate factor was…

Abu-Saad, Ismael

1995-01-01

90

School Climate Factors in Selected Full-Service and Traditional Elementary Schools in a Southeastern City: Contrasts and Comparisons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exploratory comparison of traditional and full-service schools' climates is an initial step in determining their differences. The authors established whether selected full-service and traditional elementary schools differ on five school climate factors indicating the student and teacher body composition, the students' socioeconomic status,…

Cornwill, William L.; Parks, Alicia L.

2007-01-01

91

Effective Strategies for School Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook offers administrators specific advice on developing the skills, knowledge, and techniques needed for coping with problems of school crime and violence. The guide begins by advising administrators that having security information available at all times helps determine the climate of the school. Instructions are given for preparing…

Blauvelt, Peter D.

92

Effective Strategies for School Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook offers administrators specific advice on developing the skills, knowledge, and techniques needed for coping with problems of school crime and violence. The guide begins by advising administrators that having security information available at all times helps determine the climate of the school. Instructions are given for preparing…

Blauvelt, Peter D.

93

Mapping orbital effects on climate  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes some of the recent research described at the Second International Conference on Paleoceanography, 6-13 September 1986, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The article highlights research of the spectral mapping (SPECMAP) group that has been isolating the climate effects of each of the three Milankovitch cycles from the jumble of climate changes recorded in marine sediments. The two new directions reported were (1) greater use of climate indictors, such as strength of monsoon winds over the ocean and amount of monsoon rain over land, and (2) extension of analyses to a global scale, including preliminary results from 22 deep-sea sediment cores scattered somewhat unevenly about the world's oceans.

Kerr, R.A.

1986-10-17

94

Students' Perceptions of School Climate in the U.S. and China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States.…

Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G.; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C.; Huang, Xishan

2013-01-01

95

Strengths-Based Assessment of Middle School Climate: A Case Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Comprehensive school reform requires all schools to conduct systematic, schoolwide evaluations of climate and safety. This article discusses a strengths-based school climate assessment model that identifies positive interactions and reinforcement of existing strengths to build a safety plan. Researchers conducted a qualitative cross-sectional…

Zeman, Laura Dreuth

2008-01-01

96

An examination of bullying in georgia schools: demographic and school climate factors associated with willingness to intervene in bullying situations.  

PubMed

Introduction: Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. Methods: We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Results: Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. Conclusion: These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates. PMID:23930145

Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H; Strasser, Sheryl M; Ashby, Jeffrey S; Meyers, Joel

2013-08-01

97

An Examination of Bullying in Georgia Schools: Demographic and School Climate Factors Associated with Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Situations  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. Methods: We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Results: Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. Conclusion: These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates.

Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H.; Strasser, Sheryl M.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Meyers, Joel

2013-01-01

98

Middle school student perceptions of school climate: Examining protective functions on subsequent adjustment problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the roles of student perceptions of four aspects of school climate (friction, cohesion, competition among students, and satisfaction with classes) as moderators of the relations between effortful control and subsequent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Participants were 488 10-to-14-year old students involved in two waves, with one year between each wave, of a study. Hierarchical regression

Alexandra Loukas; Jonna L. Murphy

2007-01-01

99

Middle School Student Perceptions of School Climate: Examining Protective Functions on Subsequent Adjustment Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the roles of student perceptions of four aspects of school climate (friction, cohesion, competition among students, and satisfaction with classes) as moderators of the relations between effortful control and subsequent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Participants were 488 10-to-14-year old students involved in…

Loukas, Alexandra; Murphy, Jonna L.

2007-01-01

100

Middle School Student Perceptions of School Climate: Examining Protective Functions on Subsequent Adjustment Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the roles of student perceptions of four aspects of school climate (friction, cohesion, competition among students, and satisfaction with classes) as moderators of the relations between effortful control and subsequent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Participants were 488 10-to-14-year old students involved in…

Loukas, Alexandra; Murphy, Jonna L.

2007-01-01

101

Ecological Effects of Climate Fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate influences a variety of ecological processes. These effects operate through local weather parameters such as temperature, wind, rain, snow, and ocean currents, as well as interactions among these. In the temperate zone, local variations in weather are often coupled over large geographic areas through the transient behavior of atmospheric planetary-scale waves. These variations drive temporally and spatially averaged exchanges

Nils Chr; Atle Mysterud; James W. Hurrell; Kung-Sik Chan

2002-01-01

102

Taking Action on Climate Change--Inside and Outside Our Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Without experience, students struggle to understand climate change. Uses the school environment as a starting point to explain the causes of climate change and involves students in activities concerning indoor and outdoor environments. (YDS)|

Philippe, Denise; Kool, Richard

2000-01-01

103

School Climate Predictors of School Disorder: Results from a National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hypotheses about the association of school organizational characteristics with school crime and disorder were tested in a nationally representative sample of 254 secondary schools. Relatively small intra-class correlations suggest that most of the variance in the individual measures of school disorder result from within-school rather than…

Gottfredson, Gary D.; Gottfredson, Denise C.; Payne, Allison Ann; Gottfredson, Nisha C.

2005-01-01

104

The Expect Respect Project. Creating a positive elementary school climate.  

PubMed

The Expect Respect Project, a violence prevention program, was developed to reduce the incidence of bullying and sexual harassment by creating a positive school climate in which inappropriate behaviors are not tolerated and staff members respond consistently to incidents. The project implemented an educational intervention for students, parents, and staff members on expecting respect in student relationships and strategies for responding to inappropriate student behaviors. This article describes the educational intervention and evaluation of the project. Findings from the project showed a significant increase in awareness of bullying following the educational intervention. Bullying was reported to have occurred in areas with less adult supervision such as the playground, cafeteria, hallway, and buses. Students thought staff would respond to inappropriate behaviors by telling students to ignore verbal bullying or sexual harassment. In contrast, staff at the elementary schools thought adults would respond to inappropriate behaviors by telling the bully to stop, calling his or her parents, or giving a specific punishment. PMID:19774770

Meraviglia, Martha G; Becker, Heather; Rosenbluth, Barri; Sanchez, Ellen; Robertson, Trina

2003-11-01

105

Changing the School Climate Is the First Step to Reform in Many Schools with Federal Improvement Grants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School Improvement Grants (SIGs) financed through the economic stimulus package are intended to spur dramatic change in persistently low-performing schools. Many state and local officials charged with implementing SIGs view the creation of a safe, orderly, collegial, and productive school climate as an essential step in raising student…

McMurrer, Jennifer

2012-01-01

106

Growing Use of the Effective Schools Model for School Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the successful, widespread adoption of the effective schools research model in widely varied districts. Discusses factors common to these school improvement programs, including acceptance of five premises concerning the nature of effective schooling. (PGD)

Lezotte, Lawrence W.; Bancroft, Beverly A.

1985-01-01

107

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores how Earth's climate has changed in the past and how it may change in the future. Climate change may occur as a result of changes in Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans. Such changes may be abrupt (such as gas and dust from volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts) or may occur over very long times (such as changes in landscape or increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). Even relatively small changes in atmospheric or ocean content and/or temperature can have widespread effects on climate if the change lasts long enough. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate. Though climate change and changes in the composition of the oceans and atmosphere are natural, present modifications far exceed natural rates. Learning Outcomes:� Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.� Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.� Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.� Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

108

Small Schools' Ripple Effects Debated  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Major initiatives in New York City and Chicago to close unsuccessful schools and create small schools in their wake are stirring criticism from some community activists, local politicians, and others. Critics charge that the growing scale of the efforts is producing negative ripple effects on other schools in these cities. In Chicago, the chief…

Robelen, Erik W.

2006-01-01

109

Former Head Start Parents' Characteristics, Perceptions of School Climate, and Involvement in Their Children's Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relations between former Head Start parents' self-efficacy beliefs, beliefs about their children's academic abilities, affective state of depression, perceptions of school climate, and reported level of involvement in their children's education at end of kindergarten year. Parents' views of school climate and beliefs in their ability to…

Seefeldt, Carol; Denton, Kristen; Galper, Alice; Younoszai, Tina

1998-01-01

110

Spanish Secondary School Students' Notions on the Causes and Consequences of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse…

Punter, Pilar; Ochando-Pardo, Montserrat; Garcia, Javier

2011-01-01

111

Predicting Teacher Commitment: The Impact of School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to investigate whether school climate and social-emotional learning impact teacher commitment. The sample included 664 public schoolteachers from British Columbia and Ontario in Canada. Participants completed an online questionnaire about teacher commitment, school climate, and social-emotional learning. Binary logistic…

Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

2011-01-01

112

The development and validation of the ethical climate index for graduate and professional school programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a perceptual instrument to measure the ethical climate of an institution's graduate and professional school programs, the Ethical Climate Index (ECI). The theoretical framework of the ECI involved the application of five ethical principles to three major environments within graduate and professional school programs. Items were developed by meeting with

Laura E. Schulte; Robert D. Brown; Steven L. Wise

1991-01-01

113

The social construction of communication climate: An analysis of at-risk students in alternative high school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alternative high schools affect more potential high school dropouts than any other school or program and are designed to meet the needs of students who have had difficulty in conventional schools. This study examines the communication climate and constructions of caring in an alternative school for at-risk students by using a qualitative analysis grounded in the theoretical perspective of social constructionism. Observations and interviews were conducted over a six month time period. The first two chapters provide a review of literature and a detailed account of the methods used to conduct the study. Chapter Three describes the socially constructed nature of the school and the participants and the dialectical tensions of communication climate revealed from the analysis. The six dialectical tensions of communication climate are: (1) freedom/restraint, (2) disengagement/engagement, (3) personal communication/impersonal communication, (4) disconfirmation/confirmation, (5) equality/inequality, and (6) ambiguity/clarity. Although the school climate is comprised of each of these tensions, the data suggest that the interaction within the majority of classes created some common characteristics of the general communication climate at the school and can be characterized as one of freedom, disengagement, personal communication, disconfirmation, equality, and ambiguity. Chapter Four describes how caring was constructed and communicated. Although some students perceived some teachers as caring about students and about student learning, half of the students interviewed thought they were not learning or not learning much. Finally, Chapter Five provides a summary of the findings and a discussion of the results. The results of this study contribute to an understanding of the social construction of communication climate and caring in general, and within an alternative school for at-risk students, in specific. The results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of the jointly produced nature of communication climate and reveal the potential effect of communication climate and constructions of caring on teachers' instructional methods, teacher and student interaction, and student learning. Such information can aid pragmatically in the development or modification of programs designed to serve at-risk students, and theoretically in the understanding of the co-constructed nature of communication climate.

Souza, Tasha Jean

114

Classroom climate and students’ goal structures in high-school biology classrooms in Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined classroom climate and student goal structures in high-school biology classrooms in Kenya. Participants\\u000a included 891 students and their teachers in Grades 10 and 11 from two same-sex boarding schools—one for boys and the other\\u000a for girls. School differences were found on all classroom climate aspects except teacher support and competition. Relative\\u000a to tenth graders, eleventh graders perceived

Winnie Mucherah

2008-01-01

115

Biological Effects of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How important is climate change--something that has occurred throughout Earth's history? Can ecosystems tolerate the magnitude and rate of future change? How will other conservation threats interact with climate change? How likely are widespread extinction

Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee Jr., Richard E.

2008-10-01

116

Teachers' Opinions of the Security and Safety Climate in Chicago Public Schools at Cabrini-Green.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chicago public elementary school students and teachers report a growing number of crimes and violent incidents on school property. This paper, which includes a lengthy literature review (14 pages), describes a study conducted to examine the opinions of one group of teachers regarding the safety and security climate in the school where they teach.…

Spearman, David Lee

117

The Adolescent Society Revisited: Cultures, Crowds, Climates, and Status Structures in Seven Secondary Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used data from seven schools in a metropolitan region to explore continuity and change in adolescent cultures and status structures; they identified six major types of status structures and explained variation among them in terms of characteristics of communities and schools. A key feature of the study is comparison of school climates, using both survey data and qualitative

Roberta Garner; Judith Bootcheck; Michael Lorr; Kathryn Rauch

2006-01-01

118

A Descriptive Study of Organizational Culture and Climate in Selected Elementary and Secondary Parochial Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to collect and interpret base-line data concerning the organizational culture and climate of selected elementary and secondary schools. The sample consisted of 20 parochial schools, 10 elementary and 10 secondary, in the mideast section of the United states. The study focused on three specific questions: 1) What are the cultural values of parochial schools,

Maureen C Thiec

1995-01-01

119

Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

2011-01-01

120

Principals' Perceptions of Superintendents' Leadership Practices and Its Impact on School Climate in Selected South Florida Public School District Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research study sought to determine the leadership practices of area superintendents in selected South Florida public school district areas based on principals' perceptions and assess school climate impact using descriptive and inferential approaches. Methodology: The "Leadership Practices Inventory" ("LPI") 360 Online was used…

McFarlane, Donovan A.

2010-01-01

121

The National School Climate Survey 2001: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students and Their Experiences in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from the 2001 National School Climate Survey related to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students' experiences and feelings of safety in school. A total of 904 LGBT students from 48 states and the District of Columbia participated. Results indicated that the overwhelming majority of students heard…

Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network, New York, NY.

122

The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.

2012-01-01

123

Effectively engaging with climate skeptics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of my persistent challenges as a climate scientist involves friendly conversations with my extended (climate skeptic) family over the Thanksgiving table, as I try to inform and guide their perceptions about climate change. I modeled this writing assignment after these family gatherings, to give my students a chance to respond respectfully and completely to a skeptical argument in a safe setting, before entering the Thanksgiving arena!

Kleiss, Jessica

124

Peer effects in Austrian schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with educational production in Austria and is focused on the impact of schoolmates on students’ academic\\u000a outcomes. We use PISA 2000 and 2003 data to estimate peer effects for 15 and 16 year old students. School fixed effects are\\u000a employed to address the potential self-selection of students into schools and peer groups. The estimations show significant\\u000a positive effects

Nicole Schneeweis; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

2007-01-01

125

Evaluation of a school climate instrument for assessing affective objectives in health professional education.  

PubMed

A conceptual framework for the study of school climate and development of professional caring ability is proposed that is compatible with research on learning environment and socialization. Student input characteristics were measured demographically and through use of previously validated scales from the Parental Bonding Instrument; student outcome characteristics were measured on the Caring Ability Inventory for which considerable empirical validity evidence exists. The primary focus of this evaluation addressed reliability and validity of an instrument designed to assess learning environment that had not previously been used in postsecondary education. Four abbreviated School Climate scales were studied: Respect, Trust, Morale, and Caring. Source data were obtained from the initial phase of a longitudinal study of baccalaureate nursing students throughout the United States. Factor analysis, score reliability, and item-total correlation results indicate the School Climate instrument has indicate the School Climate instrument has theoretical and practical utility for program evaluation and improvement in health professional education. PMID:10183334

Cavanaugh, S; Simmons, P

1997-12-01

126

Supervisees' and Supervisors' Experiences of Group Climate in Group Supervision in Psychotherapy: Effects of Admission Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic aptitude test (SAT) versus high school grades/SAT + interview) to a program in professional psychology on students' and supervisors' experiences of the group climate in psychotherapy supervision groups during an…

Sundin, Eva C.; Ogren, Marie-Louise

2006-01-01

127

Supervisees' and Supervisors' Experiences of Group Climate in Group Supervision in Psychotherapy: Effects of Admission Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic aptitude test (SAT) versus high school grades/SAT + interview) to a program in professional psychology on students' and supervisors' experiences of the group climate in psychotherapy supervision groups during an eighteen-month…

Sundin, Eva C.; Ogren, Marie-Louise

2006-01-01

128

Assessing school effects on dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines what school experiences influence dental hygiene and nutrition behaviors of Canadian adolescents from the 1998 Cross?national Survey on Health Behaviors in School?aged Children (HBSC). Multilevel analyses highlight the rare use of dental floss among adolescents. Females are more likely to brush and floss teeth than males. Effective schools in promoting good dental hygiene have positive disciplinary climate,

Xin Ma

2007-01-01

129

The effect of school-wide positive behavior support interventions in a day treatment setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Positive Behavior Support (PBS) on the number and severity of discipline referrals by using a comparison of those referrals from the school year 2002-2003 (before PBS) to the 2003-2004 school year (after PBS). In addition, school climate surveys completed by parents, students, and staff (at the beginning of PBS

Judy K Berger

2005-01-01

130

A Tobit Regression Analysis of the Covariation between Middle School Students' Perceived School Climate and Behavioral Problems  

PubMed Central

This study uses an ecological framework to examine how adolescents’ perceptions of school climate in 6th grade covary with the probability and frequency of their engagement in problem behaviors in 7th and 8th grades. Tobit analysis was used to address the issue of having a highly skewed outcome variable with many zeros and yet account for censoring. The 677 participating students from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grade. The proportions of students reporting a positive school climate perception decreased over the middle school years for both genders, while the level of problem behavior engagement increased. The findings suggested that students who perceived higher levels of school discipline and order, or more positive student–teacher relationships were associated with lower probability and frequency of subsequent behavioral problems.

Wang, Ming Te; Selman, Robert L.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

131

Peer effects in Austrian schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study deals with educational production in Austria and is focused on the impact of schoolmates on students’ academic\\u000a outcomes. We use PISA 2000 and 2003 data to estimate peer effects for 15 and 16 year old students. School fixed effects are\\u000a employed to address the potential self-selection of students into schools and peer groups. The estimations show significant\\u000a positive

Nicole Schneeweis; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer

2005-01-01

132

High Stakes Accountability and High School Student Perceptions of Instructional Climate: A Longitudinal Trend Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This longitudinal trend study investigated student satisfaction perceptions of instructional climate in one high school district. The purpose was to probe what students define as instructional climate and whether their perception changed during a decade of expanding emphasis on accountability in California. Archival data from six biennial surveys conducted over 10 years were analyzed using factor analysis to identify a

Kenneth Stichter

2010-01-01

133

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains recommendations for designing high performance, energy efficient schools located in hot and dry climates. A high performance checklist for designers is included along with several case studies of projects that successfully demonstrated high performance design solutions for hot and dry climates. The guide's 10 sections…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

134

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains recommendations for designing high performance, energy efficient schools located in hot and dry climates. A high performance checklist for designers is included along with several case studies of projects that successfully demonstrated high performance design solutions for hot and dry climates. The guide's 10 sections…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

135

Leaner, More Effective Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts across North America are facing a crushing dilemma: invest millions of dollars to maintain outdated, educationally ineffective buildings or seek funding for expensive renovations, additions, and new construction to meet the evolving needs of today's learners. Compounding the issue is deferred facility maintenance. Educational…

Fielding, Randall

2012-01-01

136

Leaner, More Effective Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School districts across North America are facing a crushing dilemma: invest millions of dollars to maintain outdated, educationally ineffective buildings or seek funding for expensive renovations, additions, and new construction to meet the evolving needs of today's learners. Compounding the issue is deferred facility maintenance. Educational…

Fielding, Randall

2012-01-01

137

Strategies for Coupling Schools: The Effective Schools Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vague goals, unmanaged technology, minimal accountability, and little contact among staff members are characteristics that many schools share with other loosely coupled organizations. Effective schools do not share these characteristics. Some strategies for eliminating these traits are suggested. (PGD)

Murphy, Joseph; And Others

1985-01-01

138

High School Social Climate and Antisocial Behavior: A 10 Year Longitudinal and Multilevel Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…

Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2008-01-01

139

Perceptions of School and Family Climates and Experiences of Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of family and school-level variables on relational aggression and relational victimization was investigated among 158 fourth- and fifth-grade children. Family cohesion, maternal and paternal responsiveness, and school climate were hypothesized to be significant predictors of relational aggression and relational victimization. The results…

Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Taiariol, Jennifer; Yoon, Jina

2010-01-01

140

Perceptions of School and Family Climates and Experiences of Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The role of family and school-level variables on relational aggression and relational victimization was investigated among 158 fourth- and fifth-grade children. Family cohesion, maternal and paternal responsiveness, and school climate were hypothesized to be significant predictors of relational aggression and relational victimization. The results…

Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Taiariol, Jennifer; Yoon, Jina

2010-01-01

141

The Relationship of Principal Leadership Behaviors with School Climate, Teacher Job Satisfaction, and Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research was to determine how leadership behaviors of principals relate to school climate, teachers' job satisfaction, and student achievement. The relationship of leadership to student achievement was measured by the school levels based on the administration of the 2006-2007 Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT). Leadership and…

Williams, Maurice Demond

2009-01-01

142

Evaluation of Authentic Science Projects on Climate Change in Secondary Schools: A Focus on Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background and purpose: This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from…

Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin

2011-01-01

143

Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the…

Im, Piljae

2009-01-01

144

Methodology for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the accelerated dissemination of energy efficient design. For the development of

Piljae Im

2009-01-01

145

Evaluation of authentic science projects on climate change in secondary schools: a focus on gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines secondary-school students’ opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from scientists about the global carbon cycle. This study focuses in particular on differences between male

Elma Dijkstra; Martin Goedhart

2011-01-01

146

In Russia: Warm Schools in a Cold Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since 1993, groups of Connecticut high school students have had the opportunity to explore Russia firsthand, thanks to a program called "Linking Schools Through Language and Technology." Although Russia is an unstable society, schools visited by New Haven youngsters were cozy, child-centered beacons of continuity and tradition. Schools had a…

Hill, Kay

1996-01-01

147

Effects of Climatic Change on Fisheries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most of our accumulated knowledge of the effects of temperature and salinity have come through large-scale natural experiments, when major climatic changes have caused measured changes in the ocean environment, to which changes in abundance or distributio...

J. L. McHugh

1976-01-01

148

Early adolescent health risk behaviors, conflict resolution strategies, and school climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data suggested that early adolescents who reported using more cooperative and fewer aggressive conflict

Maria LaRusso; Robert Selman

149

Measuring School Effectiveness Using Hierarchical Linear Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two major groups of researchers focus on identifying schools that have been unusually effective in terms of their students' achievement: (1) "effective schools" researchers; and (2) those charged with the responsibility of identifying schools for special recognition. However, all legitimate attemps to operationalize school effectiveness that are…

Mandeville, Garrett K.; Heidari, Khosrow

150

Students’ Perceptions of School Climate During the Middle School Years: Associations with Trajectories of Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-domain latent growth curve model was used to examine the trajectories of change in student perceptions of four critical\\u000a dimensions of school climate (i.e., teacher support, peer support, student autonomy in the classroom, and clarity and consistency\\u000a in school rules and regulations) among 1,451 early adolescents from the beginning of sixth through the end of eighth grade;\\u000a and the

Ranjini Reddy; Jean Rhodes

2007-01-01

151

Effective Schools: Mirror or Mirage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies and analyzes characteristics which are frequently mentioned as contributing to effective schools. Among the characteristics are that they improve the effectiveness and efficiency of students' work by organizing material and/or instruction, increase the amount of work students perform per unit of time, reduce distractions, and encourage…

Tomlinson, Tommy M.

1981-01-01

152

Magnets Adjust to New Climate of School Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Once considered a way to help integrate racially divided districts, magnet schools today have been forced to evolve, given increasing pressure to provide more public school choices and legal barriers against using race to determine school enrollment. In a post-desegregation era, many large districts like Chicago, Los Angeles, and Baltimore County…

Fleming, Nora

2012-01-01

153

Prejudice in Schools: Promotion of an Inclusive Culture and Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public schools represent the pluralism of American society. Unfortunately, many children experience their public school environment as unwelcoming or even violent. Prejudicial attitudes contribute to problematic intergroup relations in public school settings. Furthermore, teachers are often unprepared to work with the diversity of class,…

Dessel, Adrienne

2010-01-01

154

The Violence Continuum: Creating a Safe School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We expect schools to be a safe haven, but after more than a decade of targeted school violence prevention laws and safety plans, students are still marginalized and bullied to the point of despondence, retaliation, and even suicide. This thoughtful exploration of what makes a school a safe place is based on the understanding that violence is a…

Manvell, Elizabeth C.

2012-01-01

155

High School Identity Climate and Student Identity Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research investigated whether schools characterized by high school students as being rich in identity promoting features contribute to student identity development. A theoretical model posited that student perceptions of teachers as caring role models and their school as cultivating the whole student will foster student exploration and…

Rich, Yisrael; Schachter, Elli P.

2012-01-01

156

Student Discipline and Instructionally Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on an inquiry into discipline and effective schools, as perceived by administrators and teachers in a large, midwestern school district. A discussion of the historical foundations in school law, the societal milieu for the study, and educational research into discipline and school effectiveness is followed by a summary of the…

Harris, J. John, III; And Others

157

The Variable Effects of High School Tracking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines effects of tracking in high schools under different structural settings (selectivity, electivity, inclusiveness, and scope), using data for 20,762 students in 805 public and 78 Catholic high schools. Schools vary significantly in the magnitude of track effects on mathematics and verbal achievement. Catholic schools' tracking structures…

Gamoran, Adam

1992-01-01

158

Profiles of Organizational Culture and Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates how school organizational culture is related to important organizational characteristics and how the profiles of strong culture-effective schools differ from those of weak culture-inefficient schools, in terms of organizational variables, teachers' job attitudes, and school effectiveness criteria. The survey of 54 randomly sampled…

Cheng, Yin Cheong

1993-01-01

159

Assessing Students' Views of School Climate: Developing and Validating the What's Happening in This School? (WHITS) Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the development and validation of a six-scale survey to assess school climate in terms of students' perceptions of the degree to which they feel welcome and connected, together with a scale to assess students' perceptions of bullying. The development of each survey involved a multi-stage approach, including: 1) an extensive…

Aldridge, Jill; Ala'I, Kate

2013-01-01

160

A study of leadership styles of elementary school principals and their perceptions of school climate and conflict resolution programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine and explore the role of leadership styles of elementary building principals and the climate of the school on the presence, support, and implementation of a conflict resolution programs in Oakland County, Michigan. ^ This study examined leadership styles of elementary principals and the relationship it had on attitudes and support of a

George Edward Culbert

1999-01-01

161

Measuring School Climate for Gauging Principal Performance: A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Publicly Accessible Measures. A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief provides principal evaluation system designers information about the technical soundness and cost (i.e., time requirements) of publicly available school climate surveys. The authors focus on the technical soundness of school climate surveys because they believe that using validated and reliable surveys as an outcomes measure can…

Clifford, Matthew; Menon, Roshni; Gangi, Tracy; Condon, Christopher; Hornung, Katie

2012-01-01

162

The relationship between student voice and perceptions of motivation, attachment, achievement and school climate in Davidson and Rutherford counties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the extent to which there were statistically significant relationships between school administrators' systemic implementation of student voice work and student perceptions (i.e. achievement, motivation, attachment and school climate) and PLAN performance. Student voice was defined as students being equal partners in school decision making (Mitra, 2006). Seminal theories supported students having a verbal place in the school

Sharon Elizabeth Matthews

2010-01-01

163

Classroom Climate, Teacher Control Behavior, and Student Self-Control: Urban Public and Military High Schools Compared.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, teachers' control behavior, classroom climate, and student self-control were investigated. Differences between urban public and military high schools concerning these variables were also examined. Participants were 102 high school students from an urban public school and 94 students from an urban 4-year military high school. The…

Lunenburg, Fred C.; Sartori, Mary Ann; Bauske, Terri

164

Teaching about Climate Change: Cool Schools Tackle Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the last couple of decades, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased significantly due to human activities. Today climate change is an important issue for humankind. This book provides a starting point for educators to teach about climate change, although there are obstacles caused by the industrialized…

Grant, Tim, Ed.; Littlejohn, Gail, Ed.

165

Teaching about Climate Change: Cool Schools Tackle Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Within the last couple of decades, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased significantly due to human activities. Today climate change is an important issue for humankind. This book provides a starting point for educators to teach about climate change, although there are obstacles caused by the industrialized…

Grant, Tim, Ed.; Littlejohn, Gail, Ed.

166

Effect of global climate on termites population. Effect of termites population on global climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global climate is under control of factors having both earth and space origin. Global warming took place from XVII century till 1997. Then global cold snap began. This dynamics had effect on global distribution of some animals including termites. Direct human effect on climate is not significant. At the same time man plays role of trigger switching on significant

Valentin Sapunov

2010-01-01

167

Individual Differences and Effective Schooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the knowledge base with relevance for researchers and practitioners in their efforts to create school environments that effectively adapt to individual learning needs. Recent theoretical and substantive developments are traced in terms of their impact on how individual differences in learning are viewed, types of information that are examined and described, and use of this information for

Margaret C. Wang

1987-01-01

168

Effective Hand Washing in an Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Elementary school is the perfect place to teach and reinforce the lifelong skill of effective handwashing for students and adults. One collaboration between an elementary school and a nursing education program to augment school health services without taxing the school budget is described. Nursing students spent 260 professional nursing service…

Hezel, Linda; Bartlett, Connie; Hileman, Judy Willis; Dillon, Lisa; Cessna, Tamara

2000-01-01

169

Educational Effects of Magnet High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper contributes to the knowledge about the effects that magnet schools have on improving educational quality. The history of magnet schools in American education is examined, linking it with several recent movements to reform and reorganize schooling. A synthesis of research findings from 12 district studies of magnet schools and various…

Blank, Rolf K.

170

Thresholds in conservation effectiveness under climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new approach to conservation that derives from the effect of energy on ecosystem properties and then evaluate potential threshold responses of conservation effectiveness under climate change. Many tests of species energy theory provide evidence that species richness varies with measures of energy such as net primary productivity (NPP). Across continents, this relationship is most often unimodal, with

A. Hansen; L. Phillips

2007-01-01

171

Effects of School Lighting on Physical Development and School Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study collected data on the physical development, attendance, and school performance effects of four types of school lighting on elementary students over a two-year period. Results indicated that regular exposure to the lights had important nonvisual effects on students. Full-spectrum fluorescent lamps with ultraviolet supplements were found…

Hathaway, Warren E.

1995-01-01

172

Effects of urbanization on climate of ?stanbul and Ankara  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to study regional climate change and investigate the effects of urbanization on climates of two largest cities in Turkey: ?stanbul and Ankara. Air temperature (mean, maximum and minimum) data of ?stanbul and Ankara are analyzed to study regional climate change and to understand the possible effects of urbanization on the climate of these regions

Mehmet Karaca; Mete Tayanç

1995-01-01

173

School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

2009-01-01

174

Bully Proofing: What One District Learned about Improving School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborating with school officials, a group of concerned parents implemented a bully-proofing program throughout their school district. After two years, the results are encouraging; it was received with enthusiasm at the elementary level. Further study will be needed to determine how these principles might be applied at the secondary level. (MKA)

Berkey, Leonard G.; Keyes, Barbara J.; Longhurst, James E.

2001-01-01

175

School Vouchers in a Climate of Political Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Legal scrutiny of school voucher policies initially focused on the establishment clause concerning with allocating public dollars to schools sponsored by religious organizations. In recent years, advocates asserted that the exclusion of faith-based organizations from voucher plans that permit expenditures in secular private organizations violates…

Sutton, Lenford C.; King, Richard A.

2011-01-01

176

School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

2009-01-01

177

Perceptions of MBA Students towards Learning Climate for Managerial Knowledge: A Study of Business School in Lahore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore different cultural dimensions of the learning climate at a business school located at Lahore, Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports the result of an empirical study of the learning climate for managerial knowledge at a business school, located in Lahore, Pakistan. A sample of…

Raza, Ahmad; Murad, Hasan; Kayani, Ashraf

2010-01-01

178

Leadership Effects: School Principals and Student Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We identify the effect of individual high school principals on graduation rates and English exam scores using an administrative data set of grade 12 students in BC Canada. Many principals were rotated across schools by districts, permitting isolation of the effect of principals from the effect of schools. We estimate the variance of the…

Coelli, Michael; Green, David A.

2012-01-01

179

Creating the Total Quality Effective School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book shows how Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory for organizational management can be integrated with the effective-schools literature. Part 1 compares the 14 principles of TQM with the tenets of effective-schools research. The second part develops a blueprint for creating the total quality effective school. The conceptual…

Lezotte, Lawrence W.

180

Solar Variability and Its Effects on Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new AGU book, Solar Variability and Its Effects on Climate, edited by Judit M. Pap and Peter Fox, presents a description of the most recent results on solar variability and its possible influence on the Earth's climate and atmosphere. The book explores the challenges facing researchers studying solar-terrestrial physics in their interdisciplinary work to understand and predict the global effects from the Sun's influence. Sections in the monograph focus on the energy transport from the Sun's interior to Earth's atmosphere, the influences that can lead to varying solar signals and how they affect long-term global climate change, and a summary of strategies and requirements for future research. In this issue, Eos talks with lead editor Judit M. Pap. Pap is senior research scientist at the Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center at University of Maryland-Baltimore County and the NASA Goddard Space Science Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Lifland, Jonathan

2004-07-01

181

Professional Learning Communities: Do Leadership Practices Impact Implementation and Sustainability and What Is the Relationship between a School's PLC and a School's Climate?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that a theoretical framework known as a professional learning community can make a positive difference in schools. This mixed-method study examines teacher perceptions of school leadership and climate in two rural elementary schools in South Carolina. Using interviews, focus group sessions and a survey, the researcher answers…

Moore, Theresa

2010-01-01

182

Improving School Climate and Student Behavior: A New Paradigm for Indiana Schools. Education Policy Brief. Volume 5, Number 9, Fall 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful discipline, improved school climates, and behavioral competence are integrally related to improving academic outcomes. This policy brief presents common discipline practices in schools and discuss current discipline data from Indiana. In addition, the report examines school-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS), an alternative approach…

Washburn, Sandy; Stowe, Kimberlee J.; Cole, Cassandra M.; Robinson, James

2007-01-01

183

Effective Schools/Teaching Project: Its Impact on a Senior High Principal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the positive changes in the organizational climate and the role of the principal in one high school during four years of implementing the Spencerport (New York) Effective Schools/Teaching Project. A gradual increase in the building level commitment of the project has led to a redefinition of leadership to include the Building…

Selander, Wilbur R.

184

School Climate Factors Contributing to Student and Faculty Perceptions of Safety in Select Arizona Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Methods: Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected…

Bosworth, Kris; Ford, Lysbeth; Hernandaz, Diley

2011-01-01

185

Conceptual Change regarding middle school students' experience with Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdote to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. A third finding underscores prior research in conceptual change, indicating that learning, especially conceptual change, is not a strictly rational process. Students, and others, are highly influenced by extra rational factors, such as the given political, scientific, and/or religious leanings of their families, their own willingness to explore anomalies, and other factors. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.; Lutz, B.

2011-12-01

186

Overview of Climatic Effects of Nuclear Winter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs. (ER...

E. M. Jones R. C. Malone

1985-01-01

187

Effects of climate change on croplands  

EPA Science Inventory

This talk will describe likely changes in temperature and precipitation expected in the northwestern US with global climate change, and their potential impacts on Oregon croplands. The focus will be on the effects of temperature and carbon dioxide on crop productivity, weed cont...

188

The Climatic Effects of Nuclear War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings by this group confirmed by workers in Europe, the US and the USSR, suggest that the long-term climatic effects of a major nuclear war are likely to be much severer and farther-reaching than had been supposed. In the aftermath of such a war vast areas of the earth could be subjected to prolonged darkness, abnormally low temperatures, violent

Richard P. Turco; Owen B. Toon; Thomas P. Ackerman; James B. Pollack; Carl Sagan

1984-01-01

189

"Effective Schools" Policy Training for Rural School Boards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This presentation describes a curriculum revitalization project begun in Spring, 1983 in Baxter Springs, Kansas. The cooperative "effective schools" effort used a broad base of support to establish a director of curriculum, create new school-university ties, focus a reading K-12 curriculum improvement effort, and hold instructional leadership…

Lipka, Richard P.; Gailey, Herbert A.

190

Highlights from "Research on Effective School Leadership."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Effective schools have effective leaders. Much of what the school does to promote achievement is within the principal's power to influence and control. Specifically, there are six leadership behaviors that have been consistently associated with schools that are well managed and whose students…

Sweeney, James

1982-01-01

191

Self-Handicapping in School Physical Education: The Influence of the Motivational Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Self-handicapping is an attribution-related process whereby individuals create performance impediments/excuses to protect self-worth in socially evaluative environments. Thus, the prevailing motivational climate would appear to be an important factor when attempting to understand the situational self-handicapping process within school

Standage, Martyn; Treasure, Darren C.; Hooper, Katherine; Kuczka, Kendy

2007-01-01

192

School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning: Predicting Teacher Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Teaching Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables--teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction--and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables. Along with sense of job…

Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

2012-01-01

193

Middle School Students' Conceptual Change in Global Climate Change: Using Argumentation to Foster Knowledge Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the "framework theory" of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct…

Golden, Barry W.

2011-01-01

194

Examining the Moderating Role of Perceived School Climate in Early Adolescent Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study examined the unique and interactive relations of 4 aspects of student-perceived school climate (cohesion, friction, and competition among students, and overall satisfaction with classes) and adolescent effortful control in the conduct problems and depressive symptoms of 868 ten- to fourteen-year-old adolescents. Hierarchical…

Loukas, Alexandra; Robinson, Sheri

2004-01-01

195

Evaluation of a School Climate Instrument for Assessing Affective Objectives in Health Professional Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework for the study of school climate and development of professional caring ability is proposed that is compatible with research on learning environment and socialization. Student input characteristics were measured demographically and through use of previously validated scales from the Parental Bonding Instrument; student outcome characteristics were measured on the CaringAbility Inventoryforwhich considerable empirical validity evidence exists. The

Sally Cavanaugh; Priscilla Simmons

1997-01-01

196

Examining the Moderating Role of Perceived School Climate in Early Adolescent Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the unique and interactive relations of 4 aspects of student-perceived school climate (cohesion, friction, and competition among students, and overall satisfaction with classes) and adolescent effortful control in the conduct problems and depressive symptoms of 868 ten- to fourteen-year-old adolescents. Hierarchical…

Loukas, Alexandra; Robinson, Sheri

2004-01-01

197

A Multilevel Perspective on the Climate of Bullying: Discrepancies among Students, School Staff, and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although many bullying prevention programs aim to involve multiple partners, few studies have examined perceptual differences regarding peer victimization and the broader bullying climate among students, staff, and parents. The present study utilized multilevel data from 11,674 students, 960 parents, and 1,027 staff at 44 schools to examine the…

Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Pas, Elise T.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

2011-01-01

198

Bullying among primary school children in New Zealand: relationships with prosocial behaviour and classroom climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Bullying is a problem for schools in many countries, especially, according to various surveys, in New Zealand. Students' involvement in bullying as bullies, victims or bystanders has serious implication for emotional, social and academic development.Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between bullying, victimisation, prosocial behaviour, and classroom climate. A secondary purpose was to examine

Juliana L. Raskauskas; Janet Gregory; Shane T. Harvey; Fathimath Rifshana; Ian M. Evans

2010-01-01

199

Effective Urban Schools--Building Student Pride.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals in urban high schools can play an important role in improving school effectiveness by adopting an educational philosophy that focuses on development of the students' sense of self-worth. (PGD)

Beachum, Lock P.

1985-01-01

200

Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: Advancing the Science of Climate Change in the Public Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of K-12 educational programs and resources that seek to share the science of climate change has recently come into focus. During the fall 2006 AGU meeting, we presented the conceptual framework used to guide both the curriculum and year-one programs of Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: The Global Warming Road Show. Currently this dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program selects and empowers a diverse population of 11th and 12th grade students from a large urban high school in the Midwest to teach a curriculum on climate change to 7th graders from a local feeder school. In December 2007 we will complete year-one of the program and will present an overview of 1) students' conceptual representations of climate change, 2) the most recent curriculum and programs, and 3) the ongoing program evaluation. We will synthesize these three areas and reflect on how to improve upon year-two of both the curriculum and the program. During various stages of the program, students have constructed concept maps, written in journals, created lesson plans, and participated in focus group interviews. These materials are being analyzed to provide a brief overview of high school students' initial conceptualizations of climate change. During the intensive 2007 summer workshop, these 11th and 12th grade students were supported by university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators as they attempted to better understand climate change and as they reflected on how to effectively teach this topic to 7th graders. During the fall semester of 2007, the workshop graduates are scheduled to teach 25 to 30 7th graders a five week climate unit. The program will culminate with the 11th and 12th grade student-mentors working with the 7th graders to create a "Road Show," which will be presented to other 7th and 8th graders within the same school district. To ensure that this program is current, a team of scientists and science educators supplemented and further developed a well known and tested 15-year-old curriculum (Great Explorations in Math and Science, 1990) with recent data and analysis focusing on key concepts of climate change. The updated curriculum was structured using two driving questions: - How do we know the earth has experienced climate change in the past, including the ice ages and the age of the dinosaurs? - How do we know that humans have an impact on climate? Science educators and scientists also worked together to create templates that prompted the 11th and 12th grade students to first reflect on their understandings of climate change and then on how they would teach their younger peers. As students work with experiments, data sets, and news-media articles, they are also prompted to reflect on discrepancies between primary science sources and secondary media sources (Drake and Nelson, 2005). An evaluation team observed the summer workshops, administered surveys, reviewed the adapted curriculum, and participated in planning sessions. The evaluators are in the process of analyzing these multiple indicators to examine the extent to which the program aligns with its stated goals. The initial formative evaluation findings suggest that students were active participants in the workshop and that they enjoyed their experience. Areas of year-two development include improved communication and collaboration between university and secondary school units.

Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Smith, J. S.; Wood, E. J.; Filippelli, G. M.

2007-12-01

201

The Relationship of Teacher Perceptions of a School's Audiovisual Climate to the Organizational Structure of its Media Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary purpose of this study was to ascertain, through teacher perceptions of the audiovisual climate within a school, some of the factors which might affect the utilization of media in the teaching-learning process. The subjects of the study were 432 teachers in 50 secondary schools, and the audiovisual coordinators for the schools. The…

Miller, Paul David

202

A Resource Aid Packet on School Engagement, Disengagement, Learning Supports, & School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most policy makers and administrators know that by itself good instruction delivered by highly qualified teachers is not enough to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed at school. Schools continue to suffer from high dropout rates of students and staff, an achievement gap that resists closure, a high incidence of schools

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

2011-01-01

203

Make Lemonade: How to Sweeten Your School's Climate for Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests ways school librarians can implement a free-choice reading program to motivate students to read. Discusses developing a trusting relationship with teachers and administrators; suggesting only small changes initially; involving coaches and activity advisers; asking principals to encourage staff members to designate time for pleasure…

Leonhardt, Mary

1998-01-01

204

Classroom climate and motivated behaviour in secondary schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

For some children, school failure is attributed to a lack in motivation. This article reports a study of motivation from an ecological perspective, considering the individual in interaction with the meaningful environment. Unlike much of the motivational literature that measures motivation in terms of constructs that are assessed largely via self-report, the dependent variables used in this study were three

Angelika Anderson; Richard J. Hamilton; John Hattie

2004-01-01

205

School Climate for Gay and Lesbian Students and Staff Members.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In high schools, a conspiracy of silence shrouds the sexual orientation issue. Although the social atmosphere is vaguely supportive, fear and the realities of life cause most gays and lesbians to keep their sexual identities hidden. Homophobia can be addressed through staff development, support staff and services, inclusion of homosexual issues in…

Anderson, John D.

1994-01-01

206

Catholic Schools or School Quality? The Effects of Catholic Schools on Labor Market Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies the effects of attending a Catholic high school on students' labor market outcomes. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I find that Catholic schooling is significantly associated with higher wages over the careers even after taking into account possible selection into Catholic schools with instruments. Using…

Kim, Young-Joo

2011-01-01

207

Effects of comprehensive school reform on student achievement and school change: A longitudinal multi-site study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longitudinal impacts on school change and student achievement of implementing varied Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models was investigated in 12 elementary schools in diverse geographic locations. Each school was individually matched and compared to a demographically similar control school on measures of school climate, teacher satisfaction, observed classroom teaching methods, and student achievement on a battery of 4 individually

Allan Sterbinsky; Steven M. Ross; Doris Redfield

2006-01-01

208

Effects of Comprehensive School Reform on Student Achievement and School Change: A Longitudinal Multi-Site Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The longitudinal impacts on school change and student achievement of implementing varied Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models was investigated in 12 elementary schools in diverse geographic locations. Each school was individually matched and compared to a demographically similar control school on measures of school climate, teacher…

Sterbinsky, Allan; Ross, Steven M.; Redfield, Doris

2006-01-01

209

Discipline: Why Does It Continue to Be a Problem? Solution Is in Changing School Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The organizational climate of a school can determine the effectiveness of school discipline policies. The establishment of a positive climate requires a commitment to shared disciplinary values by school personnel. Six such value areas are discussed in this article. (PGD)

Burns, James A.

1985-01-01

210

School size and effectiveness: Policy implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first 75 years of this century, the only “good” schools were considered to be large. Today the buzz word is small. Educators who still promote the idea of biggest, largest, or strongest are living in the post-sputnik era, when for national pride we had to be number one. Today small is related to school effectiveness, community and school

Allan C. Ornstein

1990-01-01

211

Effective human resource management of school districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses many essential ongoing school district human resource issues; however the central focus is on the extraordinary actions that make human resource management in school districts truly effective. This is achieved through research of human resource management books, articles and case studies and by drawing on nine years of personal experience in auditing school districts. This article focuses

John Thompson; Brian H. Kleiner

2005-01-01

212

Auditing Failure: Moral Competence and School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses how school effectiveness and school improvement, as they have been interpreted in United Kingdom central and local government policy, have affected schools and other educational bodies connected with them. It draws on Michael Power's book, "The Audit Society: Rituals of Verification," to understand the appeal of this form of…

Weiner, Gaby

213

Teacher-student relationship climate and school outcomes: implications for educational policy initiatives.  

PubMed

In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications. PMID:21404108

Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C

2011-03-15

214

School—Police Partnership Effectiveness in Urban Schools: An Analysis of New York City's Impact Schools Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite nationwide decreases in school crime and violence, a relatively high and increasing number of students report feeling unsafe at school. In response, some school officials are implementing school—police partnerships, especially in urban areas, as an effort to deter criminal activity and violence in schools. This article examines the initial effect of New York City's Impact Schools Initiative, a punitive-based

Kevin P. Brady; Sharon Balmer; Deinya Phenix

2007-01-01

215

SCOPE OF WORK: EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGROECOSYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development (ORD), is initiating a Global Climate Change Program to evaluate the potential environmental effects of climate change. This document describes one project, Effects of Global Climate Change on Agroecosys...

216

A Multilevel, Multivariate Model for Studying School Climate With Estimation Via the EM Algorithm and Application to U.S. High-School Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many studies of school climate, researchers ask teachers a series of questions, and the responses to related questions are averaged or summed to create a scale score for each teacher on each dimension of climate under investigation. Researchers have disagreed, however, about the analysis of such data: Some have utilized the teacher as the analytic unit, and some have

Stephen W. Raudenbush; Brian Rowan; Sang Jin Kang

1991-01-01

217

Effects of School Lighting on Physical Development and School Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, physical development and school performance effects of different types of school lighting on elementary students were examined. Students' dental health, growth and development, attendance, and academic achievement were examined under four different types of artificial light sources: (a) full-spectrum fluorescent lamps, (b) full-spectrum fluorescent lamps with ultraviolet light supplements, (c) coolwhite fluorescent lamps, and (d) high-pressure sodium

Warren E. Hathaway

1995-01-01

218

Is School Vision Screening Effective?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study followed children retrospectively from kindergarten through 12th grade to examine incidence of abnormal school vision screening tests and rates of follow-up by specialists. School vision screening provided first indication of abnormal visual acuity in 76% of the children. Results support the notion that school vision screening is…

Yawn, Barbara P.; And Others

1996-01-01

219

Paleo Slide Set: Coral Paleoclimatology - Natural Record of Climate Change for High School Student  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show was designed specifically for secondary schools. It contains comprehensive text and colorful images that help illustrate many aspects of tropical marine ecosystems, including the anatomy and physiology of corals, ecology of coral reefs, and habitat destruction. In addition to discussing the ecological aspects of coral reefs, this slide set also addresses topics in climatology giving a comprehensive introduction to the Earth's climate system, climate variability, and how these scientific concepts relate to current phenomena such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This set would be appropriate for upper level high school students and could be used in conjunction with other educational materials to promote global awareness in the areas of habitat destruction, global warming, paleoclimatology, and ENSO. It includes a glossary and further reading lists for both educators and students.

220

The 2011 National School Climate Survey: Key Findings on the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012

2012-01-01

221

Wellbeing at School: Building a Safe and Caring School Climate That Deters Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is a summary of an extensive review of research and other literature undertaken to guide the development of the Wellbeing@School website self-review process, survey tools and content. This website is being developed by the New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER). The "Wellbeing@School" website is one component of the…

Boyd, Sally; Barwick, Helena

2011-01-01

222

Strengthening Assessments of School Climate: Lessons from the NYC School Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New York City Department of Education's (DOE) annual survey of parents, students, and teachers is the largest of its kind in the United States. The DOE relies on the survey to identify schools' strengths and to target areas for improvement. School Survey scores, along with attendance, are also the only non-academic indicators used in the DOE's…

Nathanson, Lori; McCormick, Meghan; Kemple, James J.

2013-01-01

223

Blocking the Bullies: Has South Carolina's Safe School Climate Act Made Public Schools Safer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent news in the national media about two students' deaths as a result of harassment in school has highlighted a renewed desire for educators to address the culture of bullying and harassment in public schools, especially when the victims are targeted for their real or perceived differences. South Carolina's legislature responded to this need…

Terry, Troy M.

2010-01-01

224

Blocking the Bullies: Has South Carolina's Safe School Climate Act Made Public Schools Safer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent news in the national media about two students’ deaths as a result of harassment in school has highlighted a renewed desire for educators to address the culture of bullying and harassment in public schools, especially when the victims are targeted for their real or perceived differences. South Carolina's legislature responded to this need in June 2006 with the passage

Troy M. Terry

2010-01-01

225

America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A video that discusses the perspectives and insights necessary to report out about climate change. The video can be used to demonstrate how different perspectives impact different stakeholders and different levels, and that there is a need to have a clear, coordinated national response.

Academies, The N.

226

Motivational climate and attitudes towards exercise in Greek senior high school: A year-long intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was the application of a year-long intervention program, in typical Greek physical education school classes, which aimed to change motivational climate, goal orientations, motivation, and students' attitudes toward exercise and nutrition. Participants in the intervention program included 105 Grade-10 students, and 529 students of the same age took part as a control grou|pImmediately after the

Triantafylos Christodoulidis; Athanasios Papaioannou; Nikolaos Digelidis

2001-01-01

227

Is there a "school effect" on pupil outcomes? A review of multilevel studies  

PubMed Central

Study objective The school environment is of importance for child outcomes. Multilevel analyses can separate determinants operating at an individual level from those operating at a contextual level. This paper aims to systematically review multilevel studies of school contextual effects on pupil outcomes. Design Key word searching of five databases yielded 17 cross sectional or longitudinal studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Results are summarised with reference to type of school contextual determinant. Main results Four main school effects on pupil outcomes were identified. Having a health policy or antismoking policy, a good school climate, high average socioeconomic status, and urban location had a positive effect on pupil outcomes. Outcomes under study were smoking habits, wellbeing, problem behaviour, and school achievement. Conclusions Despite the different pupil outcomes and the variety of determinants used in the included papers, a school effect was evident. However, to improve our understanding of school effects, presentations of results from multilevel studies need to be standardised. Intraclass correlation and explained between school variance give relevant information on factors in the school environment influencing pupil outcomes, and should be included in all multilevel studies. Inclusion of pupil level predictors in the multilevel models should be based on theoretical considerations of how schools and communities are interconnected and how pupils and their families are influenced by school contextual factors.

Sellstrom, E; Bremberg, S

2006-01-01

228

Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change  

SciTech Connect

There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

2005-08-24

229

Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy at the High School Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy (CCCL) is a research and development project designed to help high school students grasp the range of temporal and spatial scales at which climate can be defined and at which Earth system processes occur. CCCL includes three lab-based climate curriculum modules and a strong professional development component that helps partner teachers strengthen their own understanding of climate literacy and develop into climate literacy professional development providers. The research and evaluation components of this 4-year project provide essential guidance as they probe the efficacy of the evolving curriculum units, the professional development component, and the teamwork that is essential to the success of the project. In this session we will review the three curriculum modules, covering the Cryosphere, Weather and Climate, and Carbon, which comprise the CCCL sequence now being pilot-tested. We will identify ways in which we address some of the well-know misconceptions about climate and the Earth system that impede student understanding, as well as the approaches we are using to strengthen students grasp of the challenging range of temporal and spatial scales at which Earth system processes and climate occur. We will describe the professional development component of the program, which draws teachers from Mississippi and Texas into a partnership with curriculum developers to contribute to the curriculum modules, pilot test the modules in their classrooms, and eventually lead professional development workshops for their peers. We will also identify the key research questions around student learning that we will be exploring when the teachers engaged in the professional development implement the revised modules in their classrooms.

Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, B.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

2011-12-01

230

Dimensions of school climate: teachers' or principals' power styles and subjects' propensities to be climate vigilant as related to students' perceptions of satisfaction and of peers' abusive behavior.  

PubMed

Two studies investigated teachers' and principals' power styles as related to college students' retrospective ratings of satisfaction and peers' abusive behavior. One study also investigated retrospective self-perception as related to students' sensitivity to the occurrence of physical and psychological abuse in the school environment. Among the findings were positive correlations between subjects' perceptions that their typical elementary school teacher used referent, legitimate, or expert power styles and subjects' reported satisfaction with their elementary school experience. Small but statistically significant correlations were found suggesting that principals' power style was weakly associated with ratings of psychological abuse in elementary school and physical abuse in middle school. Also, students who rated themselves as intelligent, sensitive, attractive, and depressive had higher ratings of perceived psychological and physical abuse at school. It was concluded that parameters of leaders' power styles and subjects' vigilance might be useful for understanding school climates. Experimentally designed studies are required. PMID:12353790

Verhoek-Miller, Nancy; Miller, Duane I; Shirachi, Miyoko; Hoda, Nicholas

2002-08-01

231

Climate change effects on native fauna of northeastern forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the observed and potential effects of climate change on native fauna of forests in northeastern North America by focusing on mammals, birds, amphibians, and insects. Our assessment is placed in the context of recent regional-scale climate projections. Climate change, particularly in recent decades, has affected the distribution and abun- dance of numerous wildlife species. Warming temperatures, alterations to

Nicholas L. Rodenhouse; Lynn M. Christenson; Dylan Parry; Linda E. Green

2009-01-01

232

Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Effective School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There has been limited research on how teachers, parents and students perceive effective school leadership in practice. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study of key stakeholders' perceptions of effective school leadership. Key stakeholders were identified as teachers, students and parents. Data were…

Odhiambo, George; Hii, Amy

2012-01-01

233

Not Just Numbers: Creating a Partnership Climate to Improve Math Proficiency in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although we know that family involvement is associated with stronger math performance, little is known about what educators are doing to effectively involve families and community members, and whether this measurably improves math achievement at their schools. This study used data from 39 schools to assess the effects of family and community…

Sheldon, Steven B.; Epstein, Joyce L.; Galindo, Claudia L.

2010-01-01

234

Relational Aggression at School: Associations with School Safety and Social Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines how exposure to relational aggression at school is associated with adolescents’ perceptions of,\\u000a and participation in, a hostile school environment. Participants were 1,335 African American and European American adolescents\\u000a in grades 7 through 12 (52% female, 49% African American). Results indicate that exposure to relational aggression is associated\\u000a with several components of adolescents’ perceptions of the

Sara E. Goldstein; Amy Young; Carol Boyd

2008-01-01

235

Climate effects of global land cover change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When changing from grass and croplands to forest, there are two competing effects of land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to warming and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate. We have performed simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a slab ocean model. We find that global replacement of current vegetation by trees would lead to a global mean warming of 1.3°C, nearly 60% of the warming produced under a doubled CO2 concentration, while replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4°C. It has been previously shown that boreal forestation can lead to warming; our simulations indicate that mid-latitude forestation also could lead to warming. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming.

Gibbard, S.; Caldeira, K.; Bala, G.; Phillips, T. J.; Wickett, M.

2005-12-01

236

A Study on Group Differences in the Relationship between Organisational Climate Perception and Teaching Competence of Primary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study is an attempt to estimate the role of Organisational climate perception in determining the teaching competence of primary school teachers. The sample of the study consisted of 242 primary school teachers. Two newly constructed tools were administered on the sample for the collection of data. The results of the study indicated…

Kumar, Amruth G.

2010-01-01

237

Science or Reform: Some Questions about the Effective Schools Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effective school's perspective for evaluating educational programs is not a scientific but rhetorical reform model. Definition of effective schooling must include school-wide and continuing achievement gains. Effective schooling research is geared toward educational policy. Effective schooling research should instruct administrators and…

Ralph, John H.; Fennessey, James

1983-01-01

238

Closing the Gap: Modeling Within-School Variance Heterogeneity in School Effect Studies. CSE Report 689  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effective schools should be superior in both enhancing students' achievement levels and reducing the gap between high- and low-achieving students in the school. However, the focus has been placed mainly on schools' achievement levels in most school effect studies. In this article, we attend to the school-specific achievement dispersion as well as…

Choi, Kilchan; Kim, Junyeop

2006-01-01

239

Closing the Gap: Modeling Within-School Variance Heterogeneity in School Effect Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effective schools should be superior in both enhancing students' achievement levels and reducing the gap between high- and low-achieving students in the school. However, the focus has been placed mainly on schools' achievement levels in most school effect studies. In this article, we focused our attention upon the school-specific achievement…

Kim, Junyeop; Choi, Kilchan

2008-01-01

240

Effect of global climate on termites population. Effect of termites population on global climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global climate is under control of factors having both earth and space origin. Global warming took place from XVII century till 1997. Then global cold snap began. This dynamics had effect on global distribution of some animals including termites. Direct human effect on climate is not significant. At the same time man plays role of trigger switching on significant biosphere processes controlling climate. The transformation of marginal lands, development of industry and building, stimulated increase of termite niche and population. Termite role in green house gases production increases too. It may have regular effect on world climate. The dry wood is substrate for metabolism of termites living under symbiosis with bacteria Hypermastigina (Flagellata). The use of dry wood by humanity increased from 18 *108 ton in XVIII to 9*109 to the middle of XX century. Then use of wood decreased because of a new technology development. Hence termite population is controlled by microevolution depending on dry wood and climate dynamics. Producing by them green house gases had reciprocal effect on world climate. It is possible to describe and predict dynamic of termite population using methods of mathematical ecology and analogs with other well studied insects (Colorado potatoes beetle, Chrisomelid beetle Zygogramma and so on). Reclamation of new ecological niche for such insects as termites needs 70 - 75 years. That is delay of population dynamics in relation to dynamics of dry wood production. General principles of population growth were described by G.Gause (1934) and some authors of the end of XX century. This works and analogs with other insects suggest model of termite distribution during XXI century. The extremum of population and its green house gases production would be gotten during 8 - 10 years. Then the number of specimens and sum biological mass would be stabilized and decreased. Termite gas production is not priority for climate regulation, but it has importance as fine regulator of global temperature and climate stability. Key words: termites, green house gases, mathematical modeling. Union symposia Biogeoscience BG2.1

Sapunov, Valentin

2010-05-01

241

Effective Schools. What Makes a Public School Work Well?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most effective schools share a number of key characteristics, including clear-cut goals and objectives, adequate funding and financial management, quality academic programs, valid assessment programs, parent and family involvement, teacher and staff development, high expectations for students, community involvement, comprehensive support services,…

Our Children, 1998

1998-01-01

242

Achievement and Climate Outcomes for the Knowledge Is Power Program in an Inner-City Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to examine the effects of a whole school reform, the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP), specifically designed to raise academic achievement of at-risk urban middle school students by establishing an extended school day and year, a rigorous curriculum, after-school access to teachers, and increased family-school

Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron J.; Alberg, Marty; McSparrin-Gallagher, Brenda

2007-01-01

243

The effects of climate change on tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is one of the major environmental issues facing the world today. The ongoing global warming has had and will continue to have serious impact on natural environment. The impact of climate change on the natural environment is manifested in changes in geography, landscape and ecosystems. Tourism is one of the sectors causing global climate change. This is an

S. K. Yazdi; B. Shakouri

2010-01-01

244

School Effects on Performance of Minority Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents results of a study examining the comparative effects of school (system) determinants on the educational careers of minority students in the Netherlands, drawing on rational choice and empowerment theories. Results indicate the importance of a school policy aimed at improving minority student achievement. Pull-out programs are…

Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

1994-01-01

245

Improving School Effectiveness. Fundamentals of Educational Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph reviews various strands of research on school effectiveness in developed and developing countries. It addresses a central theme of educational planning: how deliberate actions by policymakers, school administrators, teachers, and parents can help in the attainment of educational goals. Chapter 1, "Conceptualization: Perspectives on…

Scheerens, Jaap

246

Principal effectiveness and the Indiana school superintendent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study determined which of fifteen traits found in the literature, based on the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards and found in both research and opinion articles, were identified as traits that Indiana superintendents rated as prevalent in the most effective and ineffective principals in their school corporations. ^ The entire population of Indiana superintendents was surveyed. The

Derek Arrowood

2005-01-01

247

Effective Data Collection Aids in School Safety Action Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends six steps school districts should follow to effectively use data collection instruments to improve school safety: Survey each school respondent group, organize a safe schools action team, obtain additional information, conduct a safe schools analysis and develop recommendations, take action. Describes advantages collecting school safety…

Barnett, Rosemary V.

2003-01-01

248

Reducing the Negative Effects of Large Schools. Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reviews recent efforts to promote small schools. The rationale for small schools is discussed, drawing on recent studies linking school size and various outcomes. Arguments for large schools are considered, followed by an examination of four ways to reduce the negative effects of school size--build smaller schools, utilize satellite…

Duke, Daniel L.; DeRoberto, Thomas; Trautvetter, Sarah

2009-01-01

249

ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON WEATHER-RELATED MORBIDITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential effects of climate change and climate variability on weather-related morbidity are assessed. Heat-related and cold-related morbidity in children are analyzed. The impact of inclement weather on accidental injuries is evaluated. The relationship of violent crime to w...

250

America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study examines information needs and recommends ways the federal government can better inform responses by enhancing climate change and greenhouse gas information and reporting systems and by improving climate communication and education. Demand for better information to support climate-related decisions has grown rapidly as people, organizations, and governments have moved ahead with plans and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. To meet this demand, good information systems and services are needed. Without such systems, decision makers cannot evaluate whether particular policies and actions are achieving their goals or should be modified. Although the many non-federal efforts to reduce emissions and/or adapt to future climate changes carry considerable potential to reduce risks related to climate change, there is currently no comprehensive way to assess the effectiveness of those efforts. In addition, the diverse climate change responses to date have resulted in a patchwork of regional, state, and local policies that has prompted many state and business leaders to call for the development of a more predictable and coherent policy environment at the federal level. This report demonstrates that the nation lacks comprehensive, robust, and credible information and reporting systems to inform climate choices and evaluate their effectiveness. This report also argues that decision makers can benefit from a systematic and iterative framework for responding to climate change, in which decisions and policies can be revised in light of new information and experience and that improved information and reporting systems allow for ongoing evaluation of responses to climate risks. The climate-related decisions that society will confront over the coming decades will require an informed and engaged public and an education system that provides students with the knowledge to make informed choices. Although nearly all Americans have now heard of climate change, many have yet to understand the full implications of the issue and the opportunities and risks that lie in the solutions. Nonetheless, national surveys demonstrate a clear public desire for more information about climate change and how it might affect local communities. A majority of Americans want the government to take action in response to climate change and are willing to take action themselves. Although communicating about climate change and choices is vitally important, it can be difficult. This report summarizes some simple guidelines for more effective communications.

Liverman, D. M.; McConnell, M. C.; Raven, P.

2010-12-01

251

Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe School Climates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document sets forth a process for identifying, assessing, and managing students who may pose a threat of targeted violence in schools. This process-known as threat assessment-was first pioneered by the U.S. Secret Service as a mechanism for investiga...

2002-01-01

252

The Influence of School Climate on Students' Experiences of Peer Sexual Harassment in High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in schools have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…

Tully, Carol A.

2010-01-01

253

The Effect of School Building Renovation/Construction on School Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School construction or renovation projects can have a profound affect on students, faculty and administration. The literature revealed that continuous communication is essential for a smooth process. This research identified bureaucratic issues and school climate to be leading factors of concern during construction projects. Analysis of this…

Lesisko, Lee J.; Wright, Robert J.; O'Hern, Brenda

2010-01-01

254

Enabling the use of climate model data in the Dutch climate effect community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the climate effect community the usage of climate model data is emerging. Where mostly climate time series and weather generators were used, there is a shift to incorporate climate model data into climate effect models. The use of climate model data within the climate effect models is difficult, due to missing metadata, resolution and projection issues, data formats and availability of the parameters of interest. Often the climate effect modelers are not aware of available climate model data or are not aware of how they can use it. Together with seven other partners (CERFACS, CNR-IPSL, SMHI, INHGA, CMCC, WUR, MF-CNRM), KNMI is involved in the FP7 IS ENES (http://www.enes.org) project work package 10/JRA5 ‘Bridging Climate Research Data and the Needs of the Impact Community. The aims of this work package are to enhance the use of Climate Research Data and to enhance the interaction with climate effect/impact communities. Phase one is to define use cases together with the Dutch climate effect community, which describe the intended use of climate model data in climate effect models. We defined four use cases: 1) FEWS hydrological Framework (Deltares) 2) METAPHOR, a plants and species dispersion model (Wageningen University) 3) Natuurplanner, an Ecological model suite (Wageningen University) 4) Land use models (Free University/JRC). Also the other partners in JRA5 have defined use cases, which are representative for the climate effect and impact communities in their country. Goal is to find commonalities between all defined use cases. The common functionality will be implemented as e-tools and incorporated in the IS-ENES data portal. Common issues relate to e.g., need for high resolution: downscaling from GCM to local scale (also involves interpolation); parameter selection; finding extremes; averaging methods. At the conference we will describe the FEWS case in more detail: Delft FEWS is an open shell system (in development since 1995) for performing hydrological predictions and the handling of time series data. The most important capabilities of FEWS are importing of meteorological and hydrological data and organizing the workflows of the different models which can be used within FEWS, like the Netherlands Hydrological Instrumentarium (NHI). Besides predictions, the system is currently being used for hydrological climate effects studies. Currently regionally downscaled data are used, but using model data will be the next step. This coupling of climate model data to FEWS will open a wider rage of climate impact and effect research, but it is a difficult task to accomplish. Issues to be dealt with are: regridding, downscaling, format conversion, extraction of required data and addition of descriptive metadata, including quality and uncertainty parameters. Finding an appropriate solution involves several iterations: first, the use case was defined, then we just provided a single data file containing some data of interest provided via FTP, next this data was offered through OGC services. Currently we are working on providing larger datasets and improving on the parameters and metadata. We will present the results (e-tools/data) and experiences gained on implementing the described use cases. Note that we are currently using experimental data, as the official climate model runs are not available yet.

Som de Cerff, Wim; Plieger, Maarten

2010-05-01

255

School Culture and School Effectiveness in Emergencies: Lessons from Israeli Experience During the Gulf War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the variability of Israeli schools' emergency preparedness and response to the Gulf War and the association of school culture with school effectiveness during this emergency. Policy guidelines should include recommendations for diagnosing and identifying dimensions of school culture (including religious beliefs and school ideology) that…

Harrison, Jo-Ann; Kuint, Sarah

1998-01-01

256

Making the Most of School Reform: Suggestions for More Effective Local School Councils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chicago's Local School Councils (LSCs) are the key to successful school reform efforts. Among the numerous decisions that LSCs make that have major effects on schools are the selection of a principal, the adoption of a school improvement plan, and the approving of a school's budget. Based on attendance of over 250 LSC meetings by staff of the…

Ford, Darryl J.; Ryan, Susan P.

257

School Nurse Communication Effectiveness with Physicians and Satisfaction with School Health Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined school nurses' communication with community physicians and its relationship to school nurse satisfaction with school health services. A stratified random sample of school nurses in Pennsylvania (N = 615) were surveyed about communication effectiveness with community physicians, satisfaction with school health services for…

Volkman, Julie E.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

2008-01-01

258

Engaging High School Students in Climate Change Research:A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 2007-2008 academic year, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Geographic Information Systems and Technology (GIST) Group had the opportunity to mentor three high school students from the newly formed Tennessee Governor's Academy. Each of the three students was interested in a different aspect of climate change research: Aly wanted to gain a better understanding of how scientists can be confident that the current global warming is anthropogenically-induced. Bob wished to explore possible links between deforestation and changes in temperature. Elizabeth was interested in the ways in which climate change might impact mortality rates. Using simple software (Excel, Access and ArcView 3.2) and freely available data, including Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) temperature data, National Land Cover Data (NLCD), US Census data, and social vulnerability indices (SOVI) produced by Susan Cutter et al., we were able to help each student conduct a short-term research project in his/her area of interest.

Parish, E. S.; Ganguly, A. R.; Brunson, A.; Shi, B.; Roadinger, E.

2008-05-01

259

The Contextual Effect of School Satisfaction on Health-Risk Behaviors in Japanese High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: The importance of school contextual effects on health and well-being among young people is currently recognized. This study examines the contextual effects of school satisfaction as well as the effects of individual-level school satisfaction on health-risk behaviors in Japanese high school students. Methods: Self-administered…

Takakura, Minoru; Wake, Norie; Kobayashi, Minoru

2010-01-01

260

Climatic effects of surface albedo geoengineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various surface albedo modification geoengineering schemes such as those involving desert, urban, or agricultural areas have been proposed as potential strategies for helping counteract the warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions. However, such schemes tend to be inherently limited in their potential and would create a much more heterogeneous radiative forcing than propositions for space-based "reflectors" and enhanced stratospheric aerosol concentrations. Here we present results of a series of atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (GCM) simulations to compare three surface albedo geoengineering proposals: urban, cropland, and desert albedo enhancement. We find that the cooling effect of surface albedo modification is strongly seasonal and mostly confined to the areas of application. For urban and cropland geoengineering, the global effects are minor but, because of being colocated with areas of human activity, they may provide some regional benefits. Global desert geoengineering, which is associated with significant global-scale changes in circulation and the hydrological cycle, causes a smaller reduction in global precipitation per degree of cooling than sunshade geoengineering, 1.1% K-1 and 2.0% K-1 respectively, but a far greater reduction in the precipitation over land, 3.9% K-1 compared with 1.0% K-1. Desert geoengineering also causes large regional-scale changes in precipitation with a large reduction in the intensity of the Indian and African monsoons in particular. None of the schemes studied reverse the climate changes associated with a doubling of CO2, with desert geoengineering profoundly altering the climate and with urban and cropland geoengineering providing only some regional amelioration at most.

Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.

2011-12-01

261

Who, What, Where, When, and Why: Demographic and Ecological Factors Contributing to Hostile School Climate for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how locational (region and locale), community-level (school district poverty and adult educational attainment),\\u000a and school district-level (district size and ratios of students to key school personnel) variables are related to indicators\\u000a of hostile school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Indicators of hostile climate included\\u000a frequency of homophobic remarks and victimization regarding sexual orientation

Joseph G. Kosciw; Emily A. Greytak; Elizabeth M. Diaz

2009-01-01

262

Building the Capacity of Principals and Teacher-Leaders to Implement Effective School and Classroom Practices. High Schools That Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Great leaders make great schools. The most successful school leaders create a school climate of high achievement and continuous improvement, give teachers a voice in decision-making, use data to drive curriculum and instruction, and assure students and parents that everyone at the school is focusing on student success. They know what is going on…

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012

2012-01-01

263

Building the Capacity of Principals and Teacher-Leaders to Implement Effective School and Classroom Practices. High Schools That Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Great leaders make great schools. The most successful school leaders create a school climate of high achievement and continuous improvement, give teachers a voice in decision-making, use data to drive curriculum and instruction, and assure students and parents that everyone at the school is focusing on student success. They know what is going on…

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012

2012-01-01

264

Climate Change Effects on Marine Ecological Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is no secret that our climate is changing – rapidly – and together with it, oceans change as well. The Intergovernmental\\u000a Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), consisting of hundreds of scientists worldwide, have shown that changes in global climate\\u000a have accelerated since the 1750s, causing an overall increase in temperature both on land and in the sea. The IPCC

Gil Rilov; Haim Treves

265

The effects of global climate change on seagrasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing rate of global climate change seen in this century, and predicted to accelerate into the next, will significantly impact the Earth's oceans. In this review, we examine previously published seagrass research through a lens of global climate change in order to consider the potential effects on the world's seagrasses. A primary effect of increased global temperature on seagrasses

Frederick T. Short; Hilary A. Neckles

1999-01-01

266

Climatic Effects of Marine Organic Aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies suggest that the emissions of primary organic matter (POM) of marine biogenic origin and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from phytoplankton-produced volatile organic compounds can lead to changes of chemical composition and size distribution of marine aerosol, thus modifying the cloud droplet activation potential and affecting climate. In this study, the effects of marine organic aerosol emissions and the dissolved marine organic aerosol components as surfactant are explored using the National Center of Atmospheric Research’s Community Atmosphere Model, coupled with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Modal Aerosol Model (CAM-MAM). Primary marine organic aerosol emissions are separated into sub- and super-micron modes, and calculated based on wind speed-dependent sea-spray mass flux and remotely-sensed surface chlorophyll-a concentration. Two distinct sea spray emission functions used in this study yield different amounts and spatial distributions of sub-micron marine POM mass flux. The super-micron sea-spray flux is determined based on simulated sea-spray number flux. Both sub and super-micron marine POM are assumed to be mostly water-insoluble and added in the accumulation mode and coarse sea-salt mode, respectively. A prescribed soluble mass fraction of 50% is assumed for marine SOA, formed from phytoplankton-emitted isoprene and allowed to be condensed on existing aerosols in different modes. Surfactant effects from the soluble part of sub-micron marine POM are included in the cloud droplet activation parameterization by some modifications based on the mass fraction of dissolved marine POM. 10 year model simulations are conducted to examine the effects of marine organic aerosols on cloud microphysical and optical properties. Analyses of model results show that different marine aerosol emissions and cloud droplet activation mechanisms can yield 9% to 16% increase in global maritime mean cloud droplet number concentration. Changes associated with cloud properties increase short wave cloud forcing by -0.4W/m2 to -0.7W/m2. By using different emission scenarios and droplet activation parameterizations as well as considering surfactant effects of marine organic aerosols, this study quantifies a possible range for climatic effects of ocean ecosystem.

Xu, J.; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Y.; Gantt, B.; Ghan, S. J.; Nenes, A.; Liu, X.; Easter, R. C.; Zaveri, R. A.

2009-12-01

267

School Effectiveness in Ecological Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report focuses on the learning and development of primary and secondary school children, employing an "ecology of human development" model. This model is defined as involving the scientific study of the accommodation between growing human beings and the changing immediate settings in which they live and learn. The conceptual framework for the…

Bronfenbrenner, Urie; Hamilton, Stephen F.

268

Exploring Ice Sheets and Climate Change through Supercomputer Visualizations in Middle and Secondary Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public awareness of changing atmospheric conditions, melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and sea level rise have become powerful instruments for intriguing and teaching middle and secondary science students the complex concepts of atmosphere-cryosphere interactions. Visualization of the changing atmosphere and cryosphere through simple mass balance and finite element ice sheet models developed at the University of Maine, coupled with supercomputing and the Maine Laptop Initiative (ITEST/IDEAS), allows students to explore climatic and mechanical influences on ice sheets. The simple mass balance model provides high-resolution global solutions of snow accumulation/ablation based on modern climatic conditions. Within the model, students are also able to change basic climate parameters such as global temperature and annual precipitation to produce departures from modern conditions to address questions such as “How cold would it have to be for there to be snow year-round on a specific mountain?” The finite element ice sheet model takes these solutions further by modeling the associated glaciers and ice sheets thus allowing students to see how ice sheets and glacial parameters are altered with a changing climate. Students are therefore provided with useful tools necessary to address questions facing modern society including, “Under what climatic conditions would the Greenland Ice Sheet collapse?” High-resolution visualizations of the Greenland Ice Sheet also allow students to investigate the concept of mechanical processes within the ice sheets including ice streams and calving that give rise to non-linear instabilities. With their understanding of climatic and mechanical effects on ice sheets, students will then be able to hypothesize and discuss how different parameters can stabilize or destabilize any ice sheet. With increased knowledge and understanding of atmosphere-cryosphere interactions and ice-sheet response to altered climatic conditions, students will be prepared to respond and address the growing concern of continued climatic change. This work was partially funded by NSF grant DRL 0737583.

Pingree, K. A.; Koons, P. O.; Birkel, S. D.; Segee, B.; Zhu, Y.; Schauffler, M.

2009-12-01

269

School Effectiveness: Retrospect and Prospect (The 1997 SERA Lecture).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews recent trends in school effectiveness research from a British perspective. Discusses the achievements of school effectiveness research in destroying assumptions of school impotence in the face of family background. Examines criticisms of effectiveness research, recent research themes, factors associated with school effectiveness, positive…

Reynolds, David

1997-01-01

270

Population effects of increased climate variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global circulation models predict and numerous observations confirm that anthropogenic climate change has altered high-frequency climate variability. However, it is not yet well understood how changing patterns of environmental variation will affect wildlife population dynamics and other ecological processes. Theory predicts that a population's long-run growth rate is diminished and the chance of population extinction is increased as environmental variation

John M Drake

2005-01-01

271

The Economic Effects of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review the literature on the economic impacts of climate change, an externality that is unprecedentedly large, complex, and uncertain. Only 14 estimates of the total damage cost of climate change have been published, a research effort that is in sharp contrast to the urgency of the public debate and the proposed expenditure on greenhouse gas emission reduction. These estimates

Richard S. J. Tol

2009-01-01

272

Effects of climate on reproduction in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal environment is affected by climatic factors that include temperature, humidity, radiation, and wind. Extremes in climate alter energy transfer between the animal and its environment and can affect deleteriously reproduction. Seasonal variation of environment, nutrition, and management alters estrous activity and duration of estrus. Conception rates are reduced under stress of heat and cold. Endocrine functions are altered by

F. C. Gwazdauskas

1985-01-01

273

Leadership pedagogique et ecoles performantes (Educational Leadership and Effective Schools).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the link between educational leadership in schools and students' performance. Educational leadership is a determining factor in student success. A leader must define and communicate the school's mission; plan, organize, supervise, and evaluate curriculum and teaching; foster a positive climate for learning, with clear student…

Girard, Luc; Daouda, Gba

1999-01-01

274

Climate, traffic-related air pollutants and allergic rhinitis prevalence in middle-school children in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate, traffic-related air pollutants and allergic rhinitis prevalence in middle-school children in Taiwan. Y-L. Lee, C-K. Shaw, H-J. Su, J-S. Lai, Y-C. Ko, S-L. Huang, F-C. Sung, Y.L. Guo. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: The prevalence of allergic rhinitis, a common respiratory disorder, may be rapidly increasing. Epidemiological studies, however, indicate little about its association with climatic factors and air

Y. L. Lee; H. J. Su; J. S. Lai; S. L. Huang; Y. L. Guo

2003-01-01

275

Effects of climate change on climatic water deficit and wildfire in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of climate change on climatic water deficit and wildfire in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem forests Climate change is likely to alter wildfire regimes, but the magnitude and timing of potential climate-driven changes in regional fire regimes are not well understood. Westerling et al (2011) considered how the occurrence, size, and spatial location of large fires might respond to climate projections in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE), a large wildland ecosystem dominated by conifer forests and characterized by infrequent, high-severity fire. They developed statistical models that related climate data (1972-1999) to the occurrence and size of fires >200 ha in the northern Rocky Mountains. Cumulative deficit was particularly important for modeling extreme value distributions for fire size, and was also a statistically significant predictor of the occurrence and number of large fires. Most of the area burned in large fires in the GYE from 1972-99 occurred in 1988 in extremely large fires. Climate projections imply that conditions associated with extreme fires in the region will become more common in coming decades. Thus, in order to estimate climate change impacts on GYE fire regimes, it was imperative that models capture extremes in fire occurrence and particularly fire size distributions. We will discuss the role of cumulative deficit versus other climate variables and land-surface characteristics in modeling extremes in fire activity in the GYE and the Northern Rockies more generally. Westerling et al (2011) used their suite of models with downscaled climate projections from three global climate models to predict fire occurrence and area burned in the GYE through 2099. All models predicted substantial increases in fire by midcentury, with fire rotation reduced to <20 y from the historical 100-300 y for much of the GYE. Years without large fires were common historically but are expected to become rare as annual area burned and the frequency of regionally synchronous fires increase. These findings suggest a shift to novel fire-climate-vegetation relationships in Greater Yellowstone by midcentury because fire frequency and extent would be inconsistent with persistence of the current suite of conifer species. Deficit and actual evapotranspiration have been shown to be good predictors of the occurrence of coarse vegetation types (Stephenson 1998). We will present maps showing the shifts implied by three climate projections in the spatial patterns of climatic conditions historically associated with current GYE forest types. References Stephenson, N. L. 1998. "Actual evapotranspiration and deficit: Biologically meaningful correlates of vegetation distribution across spatial scales." J. Biogeog. 25:855-870. Westerling, Turner, Smithwick, Romme, Ryan 2011: "Continued warming could transform Greater Yellowstone fire regimes by mid-21st Century" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in press.

Westerling, A. L.; Turner, M. G.; Lubetkin, K.

2011-12-01

276

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates  

SciTech Connect

School districts around the country are finding that smart energy choices can help them save money and provide healthier, more effective learning environments. By incorporating energy improvements into their construction or renovation plans, schools can significantly reduce energy consumption and costs. These savings can be redirected to educational needs such as additional teachers, instructional materials, or new computers. These design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of your K-12 school. By incorporating these principles, you can create an exemplary building that is both energy and resource efficient.

Not Available

2002-01-01

277

Formation, properties and climatic effects of contrails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Condensation trails (contrails) are aircraft induced cirrus clouds, which may persist and grow to large cirrus cover in ice-supersaturated air, and may cause a warming of the atmosphere. This paper describes the formation, occurrence, properties and climatic effects of contrails. The global cover by lined-shaped contrails and the radiative impact of line-shaped contrails is smaller than that assessed in an international assessment in 1999. Contrails trigger contrail cirrus with far larger coverage than observed for line-shaped contrails, but still unknown radiative properties. Some model simulations indicate an impact of particles and particle precursors emitted from aircraft engines on cirrus clouds properties. However, the magnitude of this effect cannot yet be assessed. Contrail formation can be avoided only by flying in sufficiently warm and dry air. The formation of contrail cirrus can be reduced by avoiding flights in ice-supersaturated regions of the atmosphere, e.g., by raising the flight level into the lower-most stratosphere. To cite this article: U. Schumann, C. R. Physique 6 (2005).

Schumann, Ulrich

2005-05-01

278

Turning Around at-Risk Schools through Consistency Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a program in a large urban district in Texas that translated research in classroom management, instructional and school effectiveness, school climate, and staff development into practical classroom and school applications. (MW)|

Freiberg, H. Jerome; And Others

1989-01-01

279

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES IN AN UNDERGROUND SCHOOL, A WINDOWLESS SCHOOL AND CONVENTIONAL SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|AN INVESTIGATION WAS MADE INTO THE EFFECTS OF AN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL-FALLOUT SHELTER UPON THE EDUCATIONAL CLIMATE WITHIN THAT SCHOOL AS COMPARED TO THE CLIMATES OF WINDOWLESS OR CONVENTIONAL SCHOOLS. THE ABO SCHOOL IN ARTESIA, NEW MEXICO, WAS BUILT WITHOUT WINDOWS AND ENTIRELY BELOW GROUND EXCEPT FOR THE ENTRY. INITIAL CONSTRUCTION COSTS WERE ABOUT…

COOPER, JAMES G.; IVEY, CARL H.

280

The Effective High School Principal: Lessons from an Experienced Practitioner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The success of high schools depends on the principals. High school principals should concentrate on their schools, use their assistants efficiently, and inspire school pride. According to previous research, the major elements of effective schools include high expectations for practitioners and students, parent involvement, administrative…

DiCicco, James M.

281

Service-Learning in the Undergraduate Geoscience Classroom: Establishing Community Partnerships to Enhance Education in Climate Change Science in Local Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of the science surrounding global climate change makes effective communication about this issue to the public difficult, especially at a time when many would argue that public understanding of science in general has decreased. As a service-learning project, a partnership was created between an upper-level environmental studies climate change class at Ursinus College (UC) and the UC Science In Motion (SIM) program to construct an appropriate lab activity that would foster scientific knowledge and abilities in high school students particularly in relation to basic climate change science. The Pennsylvania SIM program is a state-funded initiative to make a selection of lab activities, equipment, and expertise available to teachers at secondary schools at no cost to the schools with the goal to “strengthen the quality of science education for all.” The twelve SIM sites are dispersed throughout PA and serve over 200 school districts overall. The UC SIM program has served over 30 local schools with labs and activities from which the teachers may select. Prior to the partnership discussed here, there were no labs in the UC SIM program that incorporated the concepts of climate change and though a “drop-off” climate change lab was desired, the staff would have no time to design one. The adaptation of a previously written lab set on climate change was assigned as a project for the 9 environmental studies majors at UC enrolled in a Fall 2008 course exploring the science of global climate change. While an advanced course within the environmental studies curriculum, the science backgrounds of the college students themselves were mixed, ranging from science majors to students for whom this was the first or second science course taken at college. In addition to the typical load of coursework, the students worked in small groups on this project throughout the semester, collecting the supplies, testing and adapting the labs, creating a video to guide users through the lab, visiting a local high school for a trial run, and editing and writing the worksheets and teacher guides. It was necessary for the students to clearly understand the concepts behind the labs so the activities could be adapted and presented appropriately. Effective communication of the concepts through visuals and written work was also important. Continued coordination with UC SIM staff was required and helpful and the final product was turned over to the UC SIM for further adaptation and use. The college students appreciated the positive impact the lab could have on climate change science education even after the end of the semester and found it both motivating and rewarding. Partnering with an organization already established and utilized as a source of science education activities for the local school districts ensured quick dissemination of the lab activity. Between 1/09-6/09, ~12 teachers have used this global climate change lab with ~500 students of mixed academic levels. The lab has received positive feedback from teachers and supplies have been duplicated to meet demand, likely indicative of a desire for accessible lab activities within the field of environmental science.

Joseph, L. H.; Faust, R.

2009-12-01

282

School Culture and Climate in the Context of Inclusion of Students with Learning Disabilities in Mainstream Secondary Schools in Tel-Aviv, Israel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main research question that underpinned this study was whether there is a link between staff perceptions of school climate and staff attitudes towards the inclusion of students with recognized learning disabilities. This investigation was conducted with reference to the notion of "changing" or "moving" cultures. The study relied on the…

Timor, Tsafi; Burton, Neil

2006-01-01

283

Research on the climatic effects of nuclear winter: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) has undertaken a series of research efforts to develop and implement improvements to the Community Climate Model (CCM) needed to make the model more applicable to studies of the climatic effects of nuclear war. The development of the model improvements has reached a stage where implementation may proceed, and several of the developed

1986-01-01

284

Carbon Cycling in Grasslands: Effects of Climate Change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large amounts of carbon are stored in grassland soils, which can potentially buffer or exacerbate climate change depending on interacting climate factors. Here we discuss results from several grassland field studies examining the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment and/or temperature rise on carbo...

285

Anticipated Effects of Climate Change on Estuarine and Coastal Fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the timing and magnitude of global climate change is in dispute, the possible effects of such change merit consideration to allow for discussion of policy ramifications and mitigative actions. Climate change may result in sea level rise; water temperature increase; and deviations from present patterns of precipitation, wind, and water circulation. Estuaries may experience loss of marsh habitat, intrusion

Victor S. Kennedy

1990-01-01

286

POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON MARINE MAMMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicted impacts of climate change on the marine environment include an increase in temperature, a rise in sea levels and a decrease in sea-ice cover. These impacts will occur at local, regional and larger scales. The potential impacts of climate change on marine mammals can be direct, such as the effects of reduced sea ice and rising sea levels on

J. A. LEARMONTH; C. D. MACLEOD; M. B. SANTOS

2006-01-01

287

Assessing the Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Invasive Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different components of global environmental change are typically studied and managed in- dependently, although there is a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways. We present a conceptual framework and empirical review of the interactive effects of climate change and invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. Climate change is expected to result in warmer water temperatures,

FRANK J. RAHEL; JULIAN D. OLDEN

2008-01-01

288

Potential effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the ...  

Treesearch

Consequently, the effects of humans and climatic change are likely to affect ... According to a water balance model, the projected increase in temperature will ... and acidification of aquatic habitats during the spring snowmelt period may be ... climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region.

289

Anticipated effects of climate change on estuarine and coastal fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the timing and magnitude of global climate change is in dispute, the possible effects of such charge merit consideration to allow for discussion of policy ramification and mitigative actions. Climate change may result in sea level rise; water temperature increase; and deviations from present patterns of precipitation, wind, and water circulation. Estuaries may experience loss of marsh habitat, intrusion

2009-01-01

290

Climate effects of biofuels: measuring some key parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the recent changes in the global food system have been associated, directly or indirectly, with a rapid expansion of biofuel production. One of the main scientific challenges associated with these changes is to understand the effects on the climate system, and in particular whether there are hotspots where biofuel production is especially good or bad for climate protection.

D. Lobell; E. Campbell; L. Fernandez; S. Loarie; M. Georgescu; G. Asner; C. Field

2008-01-01

291

Effect of climate change on coastal fresh groundwater resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in key climatic variables could significantly alter groundwater recharge for aquifers and thus affect the availability of fresh groundwater in the region. This study assesses the implications of climate change for groundwater recharge and then the effect of change in groundwater recharge and sea level rise on the loss of coastal fresh groundwater resources in the selected water resources

P. Sarukkalige; S. Kazama; M. Sawamoto

2006-01-01

292

Linking Aerosol Source Activities to Present and Future Climate Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol source sectors (transport, power, industry, residential, biomass burning) generate distinct mixtures of aerosol species. These mixtures in turn have different effects on climate. As sectoral emissions change in coming decades, whether by regulation or not, it is helpful to link pollution from source types to climate consequences. We do so, using our global (GISS GCM) aerosol model for present

D. Koch; T. C. Bond; D. Streets; S. Menon; N. Unger

2007-01-01

293

Effects of an Elementary School Intervention on Students' “Connectedness” to School and Social Adjustment During Middle School  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the effects at follow-up during middle school of a comprehensive elementary-school intervention program, the Child Development Project, designed to reduce risk and promote resilience among youth. Parental consent to participate in the middle school study was obtained for 1,246 students from six program and six matched comparison elementary schools. Three of the program elementary schools were in

Victor Battistich; Eric Schaps; Nance Wilson

2004-01-01

294

Climate, traffic-related air pollutants, and asthma prevalence in middle-school children in taiwan.  

PubMed Central

This study compared the prevalence of asthma with climate and air pollutant data to determine the relationship between asthma prevalence and these factors. We conducted a nationwide survey of respiratory illness and symptoms in middle-school students in Taiwan. Lifetime prevalences of physician-diagnosed asthma and of typical symptoms of asthma were compared to air monitoring station data for temperature, relative humidity, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [less than/equal to] 10 microm (PM(10)). A total of 331,686 nonsmoking children attended schools located within 2 km of 55 stations. Asthma prevalence rates adjusted for age, history of atopic eczema, and parental education were associated with nonsummer (June-August) temperature, winter (January-March) humidity, and traffic-related air pollution, especially carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, for both girls and boys. Nonsummer temperature, winter humidity, and traffic-related air pollution, especially carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, were positively associated with the prevalence of asthma in middle-school students in Taiwan. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Guo, Y L; Lin, Y C; Sung, F C; Huang, S L; Ko, Y C; Lai, J S; Su, H J; Shaw, C K; Lin, R S; Dockery, D W

1999-01-01

295

A new model of school culture: a response to a call for conceptual clarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Van Houtte (2005) called for clarification of the terms school culture and school climate and the role of each in school effectiveness research. This article presents a theoretical framework for school culture that asserts that it is a context-specific branch of organizational culture comprised of 4 dimensions and 3 levels. This conceptualization presents school climate as the second level of

La Tefy Schoen; Charles Teddlie

2008-01-01

296

Improving Australia's Schools. Executive Summary of "Making Schools More Effective: Report of the Australian Effective Schools Project".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet summarizes findings of a study, the Effective Schools Project, which sought to promote public discussion about improving educational quality in Australia. Questionnaires that were distributed with 300,000 booklets elicited a total of 7,203 responses from principals, parents, staff, and schools. Respondents were asked to identify the…

McGaw, Barry; And Others

297

Community Participation in Urban Public Schools: Analyzing Effects of Magnet School Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty-five magnet schools in fifteen urban school districts were studied to find if magnet schools increase community participation in public education, what factors lead to increased community participation, and if there is a relationship between community participation and magnet school effectiveness. Major findings were the following: (1)…

Blank, Rolf K.

298

Evaluating the Effects of School Health Interventions on School Performance. Design Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation design report presents a general framework for assessing the effects of school health interventions on students' school performance in order to guide efforts to develop strong empirical evidence. The report begins with an overview of eight general types of school health interventions: school health education, health services,…

Devaney, Barbara; And Others

299

Using Shocks to School Enrollment to Estimate the Effect of School Size on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Previous studies of the connection between school enrollment size and student achievement use cross-sectional econometric models and thus do not account for unobserved heterogeneity across schools. To address this concern, I utilize school-level panel data, and generate first-differences estimates of the effect of school size on achievement.…

Kuziemko, Ilyana

2006-01-01

300

Evaluating the Effects of School Health Interventions on School Performance. Design Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This evaluation design report presents a general framework for assessing the effects of school health interventions on students' school performance in order to guide efforts to develop strong empirical evidence. The report begins with an overview of eight general types of school health interventions: school health education, health services,…

Devaney, Barbara; And Others

301

Climatic effect on water quality evaluation.  

PubMed

An advisory discouraging swimming and other primary contact recreation in Lake Pontchartrain was issued in 1985 by the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals (LDHH). The advisory is still in effect today for the south shore area of the lake and names fecal coliform bacteria as the causative pollutant. The suspected source of the contamination in this area is urban stormwater runoff that is collected and pumped to the lake and may be contaminated by sanitary sewer cross-flows. A water quality shoreline study was initiated in the south shore area of the lake in New Orleans by the Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering at the University of New Orleans (UNO). The objective was to determine if the reduced bacteria levels are a result of decreased pollution or if this is a temporary phenomenon caused by a short-term climatic effect. Five monitoring stations were selected for study on the basis of proximity to drainage canals that discharge the stormwater runoff and current or previous use for primary contact recreation. Fecal coliform concentrations was found to be "wet" weather-dependent at all stations except one. There appears to be an active continuous bacteria source near this site since fecal coliform levels there cannot be directly linked to urban runoff. For the remaining areas a general rule of thumb for recreational use of these south shore water is that the user should assume that the water is unsuitable for primary contact recreation, especially in the near vicinity of urban drainage canals, for at least two to three days following a storm event. Precipitation analysis showed a reduction in mean total annual rainfall during the study period amounting to nearly one-third of the typical mean total annual rainfall for the area. Therefore, lower fecal coliform concentrations observed may be due to uncharacteristic drought conditions rather than decreased pollution. PMID:11759905

Barbé, D E; Carnelos, S; McCorquodale, J A

2001-01-01

302

Effects of motivational climate in Singaporean physical education lessons on intrinsic motivation and physical activity intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the influence of perceived motivational climate in physical education lessons from the Asian perspective. This study of 1122 secondary school pupils from Singapore examined the psychometric properties of an existing classroom climate measure. Additionally, the relationships between perceived motivational climate, achievement goals, perceived competence and intrinsic interest and intention to be physically active were examined. It

John Sproule; C. K. John Wang; Kevin Morgan; Mike McNeill; Terry McMorris

2007-01-01

303

Climate change effects on forests: A critical review  

SciTech Connect

While current projections of future climate change associated with increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases have a high degree of uncertainty, the potential effects of climate change on forests are of increasing concern. A number of studies based on forest simulation models predict substantial temperatures associated with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. However, the structure of these computer models may cause them to overemphasize the role of climate in controlling tree growth and mortality. We propose that forest simulation models be reformulated with more realistic representations of growth responses to temperature, moisture, mortality, and dispersal. We believe that only when these models more accurately reflect the physiological bases of the responses of tree species to climate variables can they be used to simulate responses of forests to rapid changes in climate. We argue that direct forest responses to climate change projected by such a reformulated model may be less traumatic and more gradual than those projected by current models. However, the indirect effects of climate change on forests, mediated by alterations of disturbance regimes or the actions of pests and pathogens, may accelerate climate-induced change in forests, and they deserve further study and inclusion within forest simulation models.

Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); LeBlanc, D. [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology

1996-02-01

304

Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change Studies in International Schools Network of the Park Škocjan Caves, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As UNESCO World Heritage Site, Ramsar Site and Biosphere Reserve the Park Škocjan Caves strongly believes in development of quality educational programme in order to fulfill the guidelines of international conventions and also provide for awareness and development in the future. Ten years ago we started with water analysis projects and performed several projects related to natural, cultural and social aspect of water protection. We developed a special model of training the teachers and educating the children. Together we have accomplished two international projects, two national project and several research projects dealing with The Reka river and karst phenomena. In 2003 we officially established the schools network, where we join in research education programmes five elementary schools form Slovenia and two from Italy. They are all located beside the surface and underground flow of the Reka River. Fifteen teachers and more than hundred children are involved in educational programme every year. Our work in the schools network enables us to bring science to society in a comprehensive way including the scientists and their work in preparation and implementation of projects. With teachers help we promote science studies but also encourage children to do social projects in order to keep intergeneration connections and gain knowledge of past experience and life from our grandparents. The paper will present the role of protected area in public awareness and education with special emphasis on natural phenomena of water in the Karst region as a toll for joint work in the field for scientists and school children. Chemical and biological analysis of the Reka River and other water bodies will be presented and accompanied with the biodiversity survey and climate change research projects. New approach of performing the research studies and presentation of results for schoolchildren will be explained.

Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja

2010-05-01

305

The Common Ingredients of Successful School Effectiveness Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Points out eight factors consistently associated with effective schools (academic focus, student participation in decision-making, etc.) and eight common problems with effective schools projects (short-term focus, unrealistic expectations, etc.). Summarizes successful projects at a K-12 village school and an urban junior high school. (JHZ)|

Renihan, Patrick J.; And Others

1986-01-01

306

Effectiveness, inequality and ethos in three English schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to explore the nature of effective schools serving socially disadvantaged communities, and to point to an overlooked feature in the literature on school effectiveness in relation to social inclusion. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – As part of a trans-European project, three English schools are investigated. A qualitative case study approach is utilised. The schools selected have high proportions

Laura C. Engel; John Holford; Helena Pimlott-Wilson

2010-01-01

307

On the Identification of Effective and Ineffective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An alternative method of identifying effective schools, based on the concept of effective schools as statistically atypical, was tested. This paper investigates the issue of consistency of the identification of what is termed "exceptional" schools. The following tests were administered to all first through fourth graders in 431 schools in South…

Mandeville, Garrett K.

308

Climate Change Collection (CCC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Climate Change Collection (CCC) provides access to high quality, digital materials relating to natural and human induced climate change and variability, including scientific, economic and policy issues of climate change. The collection focuses on background resources and learning activities that communicate the principles that underlie climate change and variability, including the differences and links between weather and climate; the basics of the climate system including the greenhouse effect and energy balance; climatic processes that occur at varying time scales, including orbital cycles and forcing; how scientific research is conducted relative to measuring change and variability; and how human activities, including the combustion of fossil fuels and changes of land cover, impact the climate system. The resources have been reviewed for scientific accuracy and currency, and annotated with comments and suggestions relating to their potential value to Earth system science teachers and their students, particularly at the middle school level.

309

Goals and Values in School: A Model Developed for Describing, Evaluating and Changing the Social Climate of Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy,…

Allodi, Mara Westling

2010-01-01

310

The Influence of Student Perceptions of School Climate on Socioemotional and Academic Adjustment: A Comparison of Chinese and American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored students' perceptions of 3 dimensions of school climate (teacher support, student-student support, and opportunities for autonomy in the classroom) and the associations between these dimensions and adolescent psychological and academic adjustment in China and the United States. Data were drawn from 2 studies involving 706…

Jia, Yueming; Way, Niobe; Ling, Guangming; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Chen, Xinyin; Hughes, Diane; Ke, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zuhong

2009-01-01

311

Effectiveness of school programs in tobacco control.  

PubMed

The authors reviewed published data dealing with the effectiveness of school programs in tobacco control. Most of the evaluated school programs showed at least partial effect including namely improved knowledge level, decreased prevalence of smoking initiation and continuation. Less successful was achieving of behavioural changes and social resistance. Effect of the school programs can be significantly amplified by combination with other interventions such as mass media campaigns, parent involvement and extracurricular activities. The main problem of the studies in this field is a relatively short follow-up time not allowing considering findings as relevant evidences for long-term effects of school programs. However, even assuming only time limited decrease of prevalence of smoking among intervened students, such temporary effect leads to the decrease of a lifetime cigarette exposure having beneficial health effects. Considering social, demographic and cultural aspects of the epidemiology of smoking habit, evidence based data in this field, relevant for Central and Eastern Countries, are required. Such situation calls for authentic trials and studies respecting specific conditions in these countries. PMID:15666454

Baska, T; Straka, S; Basková, M; Mad'ar, R

2004-12-01

312

Effects of climatic variability and change on forest ecosystems: a ...  

Treesearch

Jan 24, 2013 ... Forest Products Lab ... Title: Effects of climatic variability and change on forest ecosystems: a comprehensive science synthesis for the U.S ... on education, assessment of vulnerability of natural resources, and development of ...

313

Effects of climate change on natural resources and communities: a ...  

Treesearch

Forest Products Lab ... Title: Effects of climate change on natural resources and communities: a compendium of briefing papers ... Salient findings from the literature are summarized in the synthesis of the literature, along with identified ...

314

Conceptual modelling of evapotranspiration for simulations of climate change effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evapotranspiration routines in existing conceptual hydrological models have been identified as one of the weaknesses which appear when these models are used for the simulation of hydrological effects of a changing climate. The objective of this paper ...

G. Lindstroem M. Gardelin M. Persson

1994-01-01

315

Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ''Nuclear Winter Controversy'' in the early 1980's. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remai...

N. A. Russell J. Geitgey Y. K. Behl B. D. Zak

1994-01-01

316

Global Climate Change: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about ways in which scientists study past climate change. These studies involve investigations of ice cores taken from the vast ice sheet that covers Greenland and fossil evidence that parts of the Sahara Desert were once lush and filled with animal species more often associated with the African savanna far to the south. With the help of multimedia interactives and video, they will understand what global climate change is and that it has fluctuated many times during the history of the planet. They will also understand how changing climate affects our lives, learn about greenhouse gases, and consider the events that are causing an increase in the amount of these gases in the atmosphere.

2005-01-01

317

The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E.; Soja, A. J.

2009-10-01

318

The thermoinsulation effect of snow cover within a climate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a state of the art climate model (CAM3–CLM3) to investigate the sensitivity of surface climate and land surface processes\\u000a to treatments of snow thermal conductivity. In the first set of experiments, the thermal conductivity of snow at each grid\\u000a cell is set to that of the underlying soil (SC-SOIL), effectively eliminating any insulation effect. This scenario is compared

Benjamin I. Cook; Gordon B. Bonan; Samuel Levis; Howard E. Epstein

2008-01-01

319

Greenland elders and high school students offer perspectives on climate change and science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KANGERLUSSUAQ, GREENLAND—This small town in central western Greenland, which has a population of about 650 and a major airstrip dating from World War II, is a center for scientific research and a starting point for scientists working in the region and on Greenland's ice sheet to study climate change and other issues. The town, just north of the Arctic Circle, sits at the edge of the 190-kilometer-long Kangerlussuaq Fjord and straddles the Qinnguata Kuussua River estuary, whose source water is the Russell Glacier, about 20 kilometers to the east. Between Kanger—as some refer to the town—and the glacier, some Eskimo-Kalaallit elders held a traditional gathering last month and also offered their perspectives on climate change during an impromptu 14 July meeting with high school students and other visitors. The evening before that meeting, Ole Olsvig, Kurt Olsen, Avaruna Mathaeussen, and other high schoolers from Greenland were in a makeshift classroom at the back of a renovated former U.S. Army barracks in Kanger, which had served as a U.S. military base. The students, who said they care deeply about their traditional culture and also are very aware of recent changes in climate, were helping to make presentations about their summer science projects. A total of 16 high schoolers from Greenland, 3 from Denmark, and 5 from the United States were there, participating in Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) activities; JSEP is an international collaborative polar science education effort between Greenland, Denmark, and the United States that receives support from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF).

Showstack, Randy

2011-08-01

320

Achieving Effective and Inclusive School Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skills underlying effective inclusion practices, especially for mildly handicapped students, should center on quality of instruction and the development of collaborative structures to support teachers' core competencies which also facilitate successful schools in general. However, ensuring professional growth in these competencies requires implementation of the best practices in staff development and adult learning. An example of how staff development is

Todd A. Gravois; Sylvia Rosenfield; Lindsay Vail

2000-01-01

321

A Guide to Effective School Leadership Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Educational administrators know that leadership requires hundreds of judgments each day that require a sensitivity and understanding of various leadership strategies. Bridging the gap between the academic and practical world, "A Guide to Effective School Leadership Theories" provides an exploration of ten dominant leadership strategies to give…

Lynch, Matthew

2012-01-01

322

Effectiveness of Groups in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the current literature, specifically meta-analytic research, on the effectiveness of psychoeducational and counseling groups in the schools. Topics for such groups include: eating disorders, anger management/bullying, child sexual abuse prevention, pregnancy prevention, and social competency. There is support for groups in the…

Gerrity, Deborah A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

2007-01-01

323

Transformational School Leadership Effects on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on a synthesis of unpublished transformational school leadership (TSL) research completed during the last 14 years, this study inquired into the nature of TSL and its effects on student achievement using review methods including standard meta-analysis and vote-counting techniques. Results identify a wider range of TSL practices than…

Sun, Jingping; Leithwood, Kenneth

2012-01-01

324

Multi-factor climate change effects on insect herbivore performance.  

PubMed

The impact of climate change on herbivorous insects can have far-reaching consequences for ecosystem processes. However, experiments investigating the combined effects of multiple climate change drivers on herbivorous insects are scarce. We independently manipulated three climate change drivers (CO2, warming, drought) in a Danish heathland ecosystem. The experiment was established in 2005 as a full factorial split-plot with 6 blocks × 2 levels of CO2 × 2 levels of warming × 2 levels of drought = 48 plots. In 2008, we exposed 432 larvae (n = 9 per plot) of the heather beetle (Lochmaea suturalis Thomson), an important herbivore on heather, to ambient versus elevated drought, temperature, and CO2 (plus all combinations) for 5 weeks. Larval weight and survival were highest under ambient conditions and decreased significantly with the number of climate change drivers. Weight was lowest under the drought treatment, and there was a three-way interaction between time, CO2, and drought. Survival was lowest when drought, warming, and elevated CO2 were combined. Effects of climate change drivers depended on other co-acting factors and were mediated by changes in plant secondary compounds, nitrogen, and water content. Overall, drought was the most important factor for this insect herbivore. Our study shows that weight and survival of insect herbivores may decline under future climate. The complexity of insect herbivore responses increases with the number of combined climate change drivers. PMID:23789058

Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J; Stevnbak, Karen; Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Michelsen, Anders; Albert, Kristian Rost; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Beier, Claus; Christensen, Søren

2013-04-15

325

Multi-factor climate change effects on insect herbivore performance  

PubMed Central

The impact of climate change on herbivorous insects can have far-reaching consequences for ecosystem processes. However, experiments investigating the combined effects of multiple climate change drivers on herbivorous insects are scarce. We independently manipulated three climate change drivers (CO2, warming, drought) in a Danish heathland ecosystem. The experiment was established in 2005 as a full factorial split-plot with 6 blocks × 2 levels of CO2 × 2 levels of warming × 2 levels of drought = 48 plots. In 2008, we exposed 432 larvae (n = 9 per plot) of the heather beetle (Lochmaea suturalis Thomson), an important herbivore on heather, to ambient versus elevated drought, temperature, and CO2 (plus all combinations) for 5 weeks. Larval weight and survival were highest under ambient conditions and decreased significantly with the number of climate change drivers. Weight was lowest under the drought treatment, and there was a three-way interaction between time, CO2, and drought. Survival was lowest when drought, warming, and elevated CO2 were combined. Effects of climate change drivers depended on other co-acting factors and were mediated by changes in plant secondary compounds, nitrogen, and water content. Overall, drought was the most important factor for this insect herbivore. Our study shows that weight and survival of insect herbivores may decline under future climate. The complexity of insect herbivore responses increases with the number of combined climate change drivers.

Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J; Stevnbak, Karen; Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Michelsen, Anders; Albert, Kristian Rost; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Mikkelsen, Teis N?rgaard; Beier, Claus; Christensen, S?ren

2013-01-01

326

CLIMATE  

EPA Science Inventory

In this chapter, the general patterns and causes of climate over the western United States are described. ore detailed climatic descriptions are then presented for the five regions of the western nited States discussed later in this volume: Northwestern Washington (Chapter 8); th...

327

Classroom Computer Climate, Teacher Reflections and "Reenvisioning" Pedagogy in Australian Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable resources have been committed to providing information and communication technology in Australian schools. However, little is known about their effects on professional practice and student learning. This paper reports two main aspects of the data emerging from a current, ongoing three-year study (2002-04) Years 3, 5 and 7 of…

Robertson, Margaret; Fluck, Andrew; Webb, Ivan; Loechel, Barton

2004-01-01

328

Black High School Students' Participation in School-Sponsored Sports Activities: Effects on School Engagement and Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined the effects of sports participation on African American high school students' school engagement, academic achievement, and self-evaluation. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1998 indicated that sports participation improved African American students' school engagement and academic self-confidence. There was a…

Jordan, Will J.

1999-01-01

329

Climate Conditioning for the Learning Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses heating, cooling, and ventilation for the classroom in relationship to students' learning abilities. It is designed to assist school boards, administrators, architects and engineers in understanding the beneficial effects of total climate control, and in evaluating the climate conditioning systems available for schools. Discussion…

Perkins and Will, Architects, Chicago, IL.

330

School Violence Prevention: Climate and Moral Perspectives of Sixth through Eighth Grade Students Attending a Southern California Catholic School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The need for U.S. teachers to better understand School Violence Prevention is growing. Evidence suggests however, that 10 years and 10 billion dollars after the Columbine High School massacre, our public schools are not safer (www.community-matters.org). There has been an "after the fact" approach to the problem of school violence. After an…

Gomez, Diane Diaz

2010-01-01

331

The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

2012-01-01

332

School Improvement Based on Effective Schools Research: A Promising Approach for Economically Disadvantaged and Minority Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay addresses the school improvement process based on Effective Schools Research (ESR) and its commitment to equitable and quality education for minority and poor children. After briefly discussing general attributes of ESR-based programs, the essay explains major premises of the effective school. The first premise sets teaching and…

Lezotte, Lawrence W.; Bancroft, Beverly A.

333

The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

2012-01-01

334

Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

2006-01-01

335

Education Achievement in Segregated School Systems: The Effects of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educational achievement in segregated school systems was considerably lower in the black schools than in the white schools. Economic historians have argued that the racial achievement gap reflected the discriminatory funding of the black schools. This paper assesses counterfactually the historical effects of a \\

Robert A. Margo

1985-01-01

336

How Effective Are Voluntary Plans With Magnet Schools?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the desegregation effectiveness of voluntary plans with magnet schools to mandatory reassignment plans with magnet schools in a sample of 20 school districts. The analysis suggests that a magnet school plan based primarily on voluntary transfers will produce greater long-term interracial exposure than a mandatory reassignment plan with magnet components. This is probably due to the greater

Christine H. Rossell

1988-01-01

337

The Effect of Year Round School on Teacher Attendance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants in this study of the effect of year round schools on teacher attendance included 45 elementary school teachers from a Chicago (Illinois) public school located in a predominately low socioeconomic neighborhood comprised of 98 percent Hispanic students. These teachers were part of the staff when the school was on a traditional calendar…

Kocek, Jan

338

Perceived motivational climate and intrinsic motivation in school physical education classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that dispositional achievement goal orientations have important effects on motivation, affect and behaviour\\u000a in sport and physical activity. However, rather less is known about the relationship between perceived ethos, or climate,\\u000a of physical education (P.E.) classes and subsequent motivation. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the\\u000a psychometric properties of an inventory assessing P.E. class

Marios Goudas; Stuart Biddle

1994-01-01

339

Testing the Effects of Increased Horizontal Resolution in a Regional Climate Model for a Climatically Vulnerable Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for high-resolution simulations of modern and future climates has driven the use of regional climate models in recent years. Regional climate models use a much higher horizontal resolution than global climate models, allowing more detailed investigations of climate at scales of importance to a wider range of parties. Here we explore the effects of increased horizontal resolution on the simulation of climate over the Western U. S. We performed three experiments of modern day climate, using the same boundary conditions, at three different horizontal resolutions, 20 km, 30 km, and 40 km. We compared the experiments with observations of climate and with each other in order to evaluate any improvement or lack of improvement in using the higher resolution. Initial comparisons suggest that a 20 km resolution produces more accurate snow and precipitation results, with temperature results being more similar and accurate between the 20 and 30 km cases.

Snyder, M. A.; Sloan, L. C.; Bell, J. L.

2002-12-01

340

Climate variability and its effects on major fisheries in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding in climate effects on marine ecosystem is essential to utilize, predict, and conserve marine living resources\\u000a in the 21s t century. In this review paper, we summariz ed t h e past history and current status of Korean fisheries as well\\u000a as the changes in climate and oceanographic phenomena since the 1960s. Ocean ecosystems in Korean waters can be

Suam Kim; Chang-Ik Zhang; Jin-Yeong Kim; Jae-Ho Oh; Sukyung Kang; Jae Bong Lee

2007-01-01

341

Simulating climate change effects in a Minnesota agricultural watershed  

SciTech Connect

The effect of climate change on quality and quantity of runoff from a northern, agricultural watershed was simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, 1996 Version (SWAT96). SWAT`s snow evaporation submodel was modified. SWAT was calibrated using water quality and quantity data measured in the Cottonwood River near New ULM, MN. The standard errors after calibration were 3.31 mm, 157 kg/d, 752 kg/d, 3744 kg/d, and 85 t/d for mean monthly streamflow, P yield, ammonia (NH{sub 3})/organic N yield, nitrate (NO{sub 3}) yield, and sediment yield, respectively. The standard error for monthly streamflow was 9.62 mm. SWAT96 was then used to simulate the effect on the Cottonwood River watershed of a 2xCO{sub 2} climate scenario, obtained from the Canadian Climate Center`s global circulation model. Assuming land cover and land management remained constant, SWAT96 projected a decrease in mean annual streamflow, P yield, NH{sub 3}/organic N yield, NO{sub 3}/nitrate (NO{sub 2}) yield, and sediment yield. Mean monthly values changed significantly for many months of the year under the 2xCO{sub 2} climate scenario. The standard errors in SWATs baseline simulations, however, were too high for the simulated climate change effects to be measurable for NO{sub 3}/NO{sub 2} and sediment yields. The model assumptions and calibration methods used to obtain the accuracy required for simulating the effects of climate change lead to the conclusions that land use/land cover and land management practices are likely to have a greater impact on water quality than climate change and that SWAT must be calibrated to be used for climate change analysis.

Hanratty, M.P.; Stefan, H.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). St. Anthony Falls Lab.

1998-11-01

342

Effects of Land Cover Conversion on Surface Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effects of large-scale human modification of land cover on regional and global climate. A general circulation model (Colorado State University GCM) coupled to a biophysically-based land surface model (SiB2) was used to run two 15-yr climate simulations. The control run used current vegetation distribution as observed by satellite for the year 1987 to derive the vegetation's

L. Bounoua; R. DeFries; G. J. Collatz; P. Sellers; H. Khan

2002-01-01

343

EFFECTS OF DIET AND CLIMATE ON GROWING HORSES 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of diet and climate were assessed in 42 light horse weanlings over 30 wk. Horses were fed diets varying in energy and phosphorus content. Diets were predominantly forage (73 to 77.5%) or concentrate (62 to 62.25%) and had 2.65 or 3.09 Mcal DE\\/kg DM, respectively. Horses were weighed every 14 d. Group feed intakes and climatic variables were

N. F. Cymbaluk; G. I. Christison

2010-01-01

344

America's Climate Choices: Cross-Cutting Research Themes to Support Effective Responses to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science Panel of the America’s Climate Choices project concluded that the climate science research enterprise has to make substantial shifts to better meet the needs of the emerging policy and decision landscape in the US. While much scientific attention in the past necessarily and to great success focused on the physical and biogeochemical aspects of understanding the climate-Earth system, much greater focus is now needed in also developing a science of responses to climate change. To that end, the ACC Science report recommended seven cross-cutting themes, three of which will be highlighted in this talk as they touch on topics the physical science community tends to be less familiar with: (1) vulnerability and adaptation analyses of coupled human-environment systems; (2) research on strategies for limiting climate change; and (3) effective information and decision support systems. The presentation will define and sketch out the potential scope of each of these areas and provide examples from various sectors highlighted in the Science panel report.

Moser, S. C.; America'S Climate Choices Science Panel

2010-12-01

345

CLEAN: Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CLEAN: Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Pathway builds on climate literacy guidelines outlined in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program guiding document, "Essential Principles of Climate Science", to provide a collection of educational resources that facilitate students, teachers, and citizens becoming climate literate and informed about climate issues. The collection supports and provides outreach to these developing communities of users and focuses on integrating effective use of the resources across all educational levels, especially middle-school through undergraduate levels (grades 6-16). Climate and energy topics include climate system, causes of climate change, measuring and modeling climate, impacts of climate change, human responses to climate change, and energy use. Resources are reviewed for scientific accuracy and pedagogic relevancy.

2011-01-22

346

Examining classroom influences on student perceptions of school climate: The role of classroom management and exclusionary discipline strategies.  

PubMed

There is growing emphasis on the use of positive behavior supports rather than exclusionary discipline strategies to promote a positive classroom environment. Yet, there has been limited research examining the association between these two different approaches to classroom management and students' perceptions of school climate. Data from 1902 students within 93 classrooms that were nested within 37 elementary schools were examined using multilevel structural equation modeling procedures to investigate the association between two different classroom management strategies (i.e., exclusionary discipline strategies and the use of positive behavior supports) and student ratings of school climate (i.e., fairness, order and discipline, student-teacher relationship, and academic motivation). The analyses indicated that greater use of exclusionary discipline strategies was associated with lower order and discipline scores, whereas greater use of classroom-based positive behavior supports was associated with higher scores on order and discipline, fairness, and student-teacher relationship. These findings suggest that pre-service training and professional development activities should promote teachers' use of positive behavior support strategies and encourage reduced reliance on exclusionary discipline strategies in order to enhance the school climate and conditions for learning. PMID:24060062

Mitchell, Mary M; Bradshaw, Catherine P

2013-06-04

347

Assessing the effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species.  

PubMed

Different components of global environmental change are typically studied and managed independently, although there is a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways. We present a conceptual framework and empirical review of the interactive effects of climate change and invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. Climate change is expected to result in warmer water temperatures, shorter duration of ice cover, altered streamflow patterns, increased salinization, and increased demand for water storage and conveyance structures. These changes will alter the pathways by which non-native species enter aquatic systems by expanding fish-culture facilities and water gardens to new areas and by facilitating the spread of species during floods. Climate change will influence the likelihood of new species becoming established by eliminating cold temperatures or winter hypoxia that currently prevent survival and by increasing the construction of reservoirs that serve as hotspots for invasive species. Climate change will modify the ecological impacts of invasive species by enhancing their competitive and predatory effects on native species and by increasing the virulence of some diseases. As a result of climate change, new prevention and control strategies such as barrier construction or removal efforts may be needed to control invasive species that currently have only moderate effects or that are limited by seasonally unfavorable conditions. Although most researchers focus on how climate change will increase the number and severity of invasions, some invasive coldwater species may be unable to persist under the new climate conditions. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between climate change and invasive species that will influence how aquatic ecosystems and their biota will respond to novel environmental conditions. PMID:18577081

Rahel, Frank J; Olden, Julian D

2008-06-01

348

School Effects on Students' Progress--A Dynamic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School effects on students' achievement are relatively small. Another approach, in which students' growth trajectories are the focal point of interest, is able to demonstrate more sizeable school effects. This approach is applied in a study into school compositional effects. The rationale of this study is that in Dutch primary education such…

Guldemond, Henk; Bosker, Roel J.

2009-01-01

349

School and pupil effects on secondary pupils' feelings of safety in school, around school, and at home.  

PubMed

In line with fear of crime research, schools should be secure places where pupils feel safe in order to function well. Various types of risk and promotive variables at school and pupil level may differently influence a pupil's feelings of safety in school, the school surroundings, and at home. The aim is to elaborate and test a theoretical two-level model on risk and promotive variables by using national data from an Internet-based survey in all types of Dutch secondary education. The cross-sectional research involves 71,560 pupils from 185 schools. Confirmatory factor analysis and multilevel logistic regression analysis including latent variables are used to analyze the data. The results demonstrate that school size, pupil attainment level in education, and intactness of a pupil's family have positive effects on a pupil's feelings of safety in and around school and at home; overall negative effects concern the school's curricular differentiation and a pupil's playing truant and not feeling most at home in the Netherlands. A school's social, teaching, and instructional qualities and a pupil's being older, being a boy, and being baptized positively affect the feelings of safety in and around school. A school's safety policy and rules of conduct have no effects. Attending a church or mosque has negative effects on a pupil's feelings of safety around school and at home. The findings confirm part of the two-level model. The Internet-based data collection and feedback procedure enable each school to longitudinally assess and evaluate own results at school level; in addition, cross-sectional comparison of school results with national benchmarks is possible. PMID:23248356

Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan

2012-12-16

350

Climate change and health effects in Northwest Alaska  

PubMed Central

This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities. Background In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects. Implementation process The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses. Objective The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska. Findings Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate. Conclusion The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures.

Brubaker, Michael; Berner, James; Chavan, Raj; Warren, John

2011-01-01

351

Effects of climate change on Arctic marine mammal health.  

PubMed

The lack of integrated long-term data on health, diseases, and toxicant effects in Arctic marine mammals severely limits our ability to predict the effects of climate change on marine mammal health. The overall health of an individual animal is the result of complex interactions among immune status, body condition, pathogens and their pathogenicity, toxicant exposure, and the various environmental conditions that interact with these factors. Climate change could affect these interactions in several ways. There may be direct effects of loss of the sea ice habitat, elevations of water and air temperature, and increased occurrence of severe weather. Some of the indirect effects of climate change on animal health will likely include alterations in pathogen transmission due to a variety of factors, effects on body condition due to shifts in the prey base/food web, changes in toxicant exposures, and factors associated with increased human habitation in the Arctic (e.g., chemical and pathogen pollution in the runoff due to human and domestic-animal wastes and chemicals and increased ship traffic with the attendant increased risks of ship strike, oil spills, ballast pollution, and possibly acoustic injury). The extent to which climate change will impact marine mammal health will also vary among species, with some species more sensitive to these factors than others. Baseline data on marine mammal health parameters along with matched data on the population and climate change trends are needed to document these changes. PMID:18494366

Burek, Kathy A; Gulland, Frances M D; O'Hara, Todd M

2008-03-01

352

What is the effect of unresolved internal climate variability on climate sensitivity estimates?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have attempted to estimate the equilibrium climate sensitivity (CS) to the doubling of CO2concentrations. One common methodology is to compare versions of Earth models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) to spatially and/or temporally averaged historical observations. Despite the persistent efforts, CS remains uncertain. It is, thus far, unclear what is driving this uncertainty. Moreover, the effects of the internal climate variability on the CS estimates obtained using this method have not received thorough attention in the literature. Using a statistical approximator ("emulator") of an EMIC, we show in an observation system simulation study that unresolved internal climate variability appears to be a key driver of CS uncertainty (as measured by the 68% credible interval). We first simulate many realizations of pseudo?observations from an emulator at a "true" prescribed CS, and then reestimate the CS using the pseudo?observations and an inverse parameter estimation method. We demonstrate that a single realization of the internal variability can result in a sizable discrepancy between the best CS estimate and the truth. Specifically, the average discrepancy is 0.84°C, with the feasible range up to several °C. The results open the possibility that recent climate sensitivity estimates from global observations and EMICs are systematically considerably lower or higher than the truth, since they are typically based on the same realization of climate variability. This possibility should be investigated in future work. We also find that estimation uncertainties increase at higher climate sensitivities, suggesting that a high CS might be difficult to detect.

Olson, R.; Sriver, R.; Chang, W.; Haran, M.; Urban, N. M.; Keller, K.

2013-05-01

353

Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.  

PubMed

Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations. PMID:23927534

Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

2013-08-22

354

The Effectiveness Level of School Administrator's Coaching Characteristic on School's Being Learning Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness level of the coaching skills of school administrators on the school becoming a learning organization. The population of the study consists of teachers who are working at public and private secondary schools affiliated to Ministry of National Education, Kutahya Province National Education…

Egmir, Eray; Yoruk, Sinan

2013-01-01

355

The Relationship between Principal Leadership Effectiveness and School Performance in South Carolina High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A critical component for successful schools is effective leadership. In the 1980's the concept of leadership emerged and the rules changed for school principals (Lashway, 2002). Previously, administrators were primarily evaluated based upon their abilities in managing school facilities and operations efficiently. Academics became the new focus.…

Lempesis, Costa

2009-01-01

356

Effects of Participation in After-School Programs for Middle School Students: A Randomized Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of attending an after-school program (ASP) on a range of outcomes for middle school youths. The program operated for 9 hr per week for 30 weeks and included attendance monitoring and reinforcement, academic assistance, a prevention curriculum, and recreational programming. Participants were 447 students randomly assigned either to the ASP or to after-school activities as

Denise Gottfredson; Amanda Brown Cross; Denise Wilson; Melissa Rorie; Nadine Connell

2010-01-01

357

The Effects of School Gardens on Students and Schools: Conceptualization and Considerations for Maximizing Healthy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are thousands of school gardens in the United States, and there is anecdotal evidence that school garden programs can enhance students' learning in academic, social, and health-related domains. There has been little rigorous research, however, on the effects of school gardens or on the factors that promote the sustainability of these…

Ozer, Emily J.

2007-01-01

358

Differences in School and Instruction Characteristics between High?, Average?, and Low?Effective Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary multilevel analyses on the data set of the national evaluation of the Dutch Educational Priority Program (EPP) were applied to select schools that are high, average and low effective across grades and school years. Analyses were carried out on arithmetic achievement data of some 50,000 pupils in 560 primary schools. These children were tested both in 1988 and 1990.

Greetje van der Werf

1997-01-01

359

Teacher Effectiveness in Urban High Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines whether teacher licensure test scores and other teacher qualifications affect high school student achievement. The results are based on longitudinal student-level data from Los Angeles. The achievement analysis uses a value-added approach that adjusts for both student and teacher fixed effects. The results show little relationship between traditional measures of teacher quality (e.g., experience and education level)

Richard Buddin; Gema Zamarro

2009-01-01

360

MORE EFFECTIVE USE OF SCHOOL LIBRARIES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A WELL-EQUIPPED AND ADEQUATELY STAFFED SCHOOL LIBRARY CAN HELP IMPROVE INSTRUCTION AND CAN BE THE CENTER OF LEARNING BY PROVIDING EXTENSIVE ENRICHMENT MATERIALS. THE SCHOOL LIBRARY IS A NECESSARY PART OF EVERY SCHOOL. THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION (ALA) RECOMMENDS STANDARDS BASED ON SCHOOL SIZE, AND THE KNAPP FOUNDATION SPONSORS SCHOOL LIBRARY…

HOFFMAN, ELIZABETH P.

361

School effects on psychological outcomes during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine school-level differences in the relations between school belonging and various outcomes. In Study 1, predictors of belonging were examined. Results indicated that belonging was lower in urban schools than in suburban schools, and lower in schools that used busing practices than those that did not. In Study

Eric M. Anderman

2002-01-01

362

Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe School Climates. Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since June 1999, the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Secret Service have been working as a team to try to better understand--and ultimately help prevent--school shootings in America. The authors believe the results of this effort have given schools and communities real cause for hope. Through the "Safe School Initiative," staff from the…

Fein, Robert A.; Vossekuil, Bryan; Pollack, William S.; Borum, Randy; Modzeleski, William; Reddy, Marisa

2004-01-01

363

Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on

N. A. Russell; J. Geitgey; Y. K. Behl; B. D. Zak

1994-01-01

364

Effect of ice sheet interactions in anthropogenic climate change simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of ice sheets on climate change under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations with an atmosphere ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) coupled to a thermomechanical ice sheet model and a vegetation model. The effect of increased meltwater fluxes from ice sheets turned out to be negligible in the phase of initial weakening of the North Atlantic meridional overturning

Uwe Mikolajewicz; Miren Vizcaíno; Johann Jungclaus; Guy Schurgers

2007-01-01

365

Climate change effects on upland stream macroinvertebrates over a 25-year period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change effects on some ecosystems are still poorly known, particularly where they interact with other climatic phenomena or stressors. We used data spanning 25 years (1981-2005) from temperate headwaters at Llyn Brianne (UK) to test three hypotheses: (1) stream macroinvertebrates vary with winter climate; (2) ecological effects attributable to directional climate change and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are

ISABELLE D URANCE; S. J. O RMEROD

2007-01-01

366

Religiosity and Parochial School Choice: Cause or Effect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examine the effect of religiosity as measured by attendance at religious services on religious school choice. Particular attention is given to the possibly endogenous relationship between school choice and religiosity. We find that religiosity has an important causal effect on the demand for parochial schools. It is also shown…

Sander, William; Cohen-Zada, Danny

2012-01-01

367

Principal Succession and Changes in School Coupling and Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To assess the effects of principal turnover on school organizational structures and effectiveness at elementary and secondary levels, the operations of schools that changed principals were compared to those that retained principals. Studies of organizational dynamics have identified important structural variables that can be applied to school

Miskel, Cecil; Owens, Melva

368

Overview of climate information needs for ecological effects models  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric scientists engaged in climate change research require a basic understanding of how ecological effects models incorporate climate. The report provides an overview of existing ecological models that might be used to model climate change effects on vegetation. Some agricultural models and statistical methods are also discussed. The weather input data requirements, weather simulation methods, and other model characteristics relevant to climate change research are described for a selected number of models. The ecological models are classified as biome, ecosystem, or tree models; the ecosystem models are further subdivided into species dynamics or process models. In general, ecological modelers have had to rely on readily available meteorological data such as temperature and rainfall. Although models are becoming more sophisticated in their treatment of weather and require more kinds of data (such as wind, solar radiation, or potential evapotranspiration), modelers are still hampered by a lack of data for many applications. Future directions of ecological effects models and the climate variables that will be required by the models are discussed.

Peer, R.L.

1990-01-01

369

Effects of changes in climate on landscape and regional processes, and feedbacks to the climate system.  

PubMed

Biological and physical processes in the Arctic system operate at various temporal and spatial scales to impact large-scale feedbacks and interactions with the earth system. There are four main potential feedback mechanisms between the impacts of climate change on the Arctic and the global climate system: albedo, greenhouse gas emissions or uptake by ecosystems, greenhouse gas emissions from methane hydrates, and increased freshwater fluxes that could affect the thermohaline circulation. All these feedbacks are controlled to some extent by changes in ecosystem distribution and character and particularly by large-scale movement of vegetation zones. Indications from a few, full annual measurements of CO2 fluxes are that currently the source areas exceed sink areas in geographical distribution. The little available information on CH4 sources indicates that emissions at the landscape level are of great importance for the total greenhouse balance of the circumpolar North. Energy and water balances of Arctic landscapes are also important feedback mechanisms in a changing climate. Increasing density and spatial expansion of vegetation will cause a lowering of the albedo and more energy to be absorbed on the ground. This effect is likely to exceed the negative feedback of increased C sequestration in greater primary productivity resulting from the displacements of areas of polar desert by tundra, and areas of tundra by forest. The degradation of permafrost has complex consequences for trace gas dynamics. In areas of discontinuous permafrost, warming, will lead to a complete loss of the permafrost. Depending on local hydrological conditions this may in turn lead to a wetting or drying of the environment with subsequent implications for greenhouse gas fluxes. Overall, the complex interactions between processes contributing to feedbacks, variability over time and space in these processes, and insufficient data have generated considerable uncertainties in estimating the net effects of climate change on terrestrial feedbacks to the climate system. This uncertainty applies to magnitude, and even direction of some of the feedbacks. PMID:15573573

Callaghan, Terry V; Björn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Sitch, Stephen

2004-11-01

370

Urban and nonurban elementary school principals' perceptions of attributes of effective schools associated with meeting adequate yearly progress (AYP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated perceptions of urban and nonurban elementary school principals' regarding attributes of effective schools associated with meeting adequate yearly progress (AYP). The federal law, No Child Left Behind (NCLB), 2001 has resulted in schools' examining the student performance as opposed to school results. The focus of the study was perceptions of attributes of effective schools (strong leadership, dedicated

Oscar Eban Abbott

2006-01-01

371

Contrasting Effects of Climate Change on Rabbit Populations through Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is affecting many physical and biological processes worldwide. Anticipating its effects at the level of populations and species is imperative, especially for organisms of conservation or management concern. Previous studies have focused on estimating future species distributions and extinction probabilities directly from current climatic conditions within their geographical ranges. However, relationships between climate and population parameters may be so complex that to make these high-level predictions we need first to understand the underlying biological processes driving population size, as well as their individual response to climatic alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence that climate change may have on species population dynamics through altering breeding season. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a mechanistic model based on drivers of rabbit reproductive physiology together with demographic simulations to show how future climate-driven changes in breeding season result in contrasting rabbit population trends across Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula, where rabbits are a native species of high ecological and economic value, breeding seasons will shorten and become more variable leading to population declines, higher extinction risk, and lower resilience to perturbations. Whereas towards north-eastern countries, rabbit numbers are expected to increase through longer and more stable reproductive periods, which augment the probability of new rabbit invasions in those areas. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals the type of mechanisms through which climate will cause alterations at the species level and emphasizes the need to focus on them in order to better foresee large-scale complex population trends. This is especially important in species like the European rabbit whose future responses may aggravate even further its dual keystone/pest problematic. Moreover, this approach allows us to predict not only distribution shifts but also future population status and growth, and to identify the demographic parameters on which to focus to mitigate global change effects.

Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy

2012-01-01

372

Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions.  

PubMed

It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO(2), drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate change. Here, we review the results of 135 studies investigating the effects of climate change factors on beneficial microorganisms and their interaction with host plants. The majority of studies showed that elevated CO(2) had a positive influence on the abundance of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth-promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi were more variable. In most cases, plant-associated microorganisms had a beneficial effect on plants under elevated CO(2). The effects of increased temperature on beneficial plant-associated microorganisms were more variable, positive and neutral, and negative effects were equally common and varied considerably with the study system and the temperature range investigated. Moreover, numerous studies indicated that plant growth-promoting microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) positively affected plants subjected to drought stress. Overall, this review shows that plant-associated microorganisms are an important factor influencing the response of plants to climate change. PMID:20528987

Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Sessitsch, Angela

2010-05-04

373

THE EFFECTS OF PLACEMENT IN FOSTER FAMILY HOMES ON SELECTED ASPECTS OF SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effects of foster families' levels of democratic permissiveness and intellectual climate, the age at which the child was separated from his biological parents, and the length of time in care with the current foster family on latency age, male, foster children's school adjustment and mathematics and reading achievement. Subjects were 66 male foster children, age

JANET DAVID

1982-01-01

374

Solar Effects on Chemistry and Climate Including Ocean Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Project on Solar Effects on Chemistry and Climate Including Ocean Interactions (ProSECCO) fundamental questions of the impact of solar variability on Earth's Climate have been investigated with improved climate system models and observations. On the decadal time scale, the atmospheric signatures of the 11-year Schwabe cycle and the underlying mechanisms have been studied using a comprehensive troposphere-stratosphere-chemistry model. This study included the impact of variations in UV radiation (with 27d rotational cycle) and particle precipitation on stratospheric chemistry and ozone, as well as on the solar signal in the troposphere and on climate. A clear solar signal can be detected not only in the stratosphere, but also in the troposphere. On the centennial to millenium time scale, effects of solar variability on climate of different pre-industrial periods, focusing on the Maunder Minimum and the mid-Holocene, have been addressed using a coupled troposphere-stratosphere-ocean model. A link between the stratospheric polar vortex strength and the solar variability can be detected on the decadal and centennial timescales. A tropospheric signal as response to the solar forcing, for example in the North Atlantic Oscillation, becomes visible once the stratosphere is treated in a realistic way.

Cubasch, U.; Langematz, U.; Kubin, A.; Brühl, C.; Spangehl, T.; Baumgärtner, A.

2012-04-01

375

Effects of freshwater inflow to the ocean on climate simulation using the coupled climate model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater flux has a direct effect on salinity in the ocean, which affects climate and water cycles. It modifies the density of water, mixed layer depth, and mixing and entrainment, all of which can affect sea surface temperature. Moreover, freshwater flux is an important component forcing source driving thermohaline circulation. Recently, the climate modeling community has found the importance of freshwater forcing from precipitation of river to track the flow of water to the ocean on a global scale. However, there are only a few modeling studies considering freshwater forcing and its salinity-related effects on climate variability. In this study the effects of river discharge are investigated on simulated climatology using the coupled model. Two experiments are designed with and without the TRIP, that is, a river routing algorithm. In the run with the TRIP, the salinity is largely decreased, in particular, over the eastern and western Pacific coastal regions. The increase in SST is distinct over the eastern equatorial Pacific region. As a result, the surface fluxes are increased over the eastern Pacific, which enhances precipitation activity. The increase of precipitation over the eastern Pacific and a reduction of it over the north of the equator in the central Pacific, and the southern displacement of tropical rain over the Atlantic oceans improve the precipitation climatology. An overall increase of precipitation activity over the tropics reduces the biases in the large-scale features by warming and moistening the troposphere when the river flow routing is executed. Our results suggest that the inclusion of freshwater routing from the continents to oceans should not be ignored in climate simulation since it alters the SST, which is the external boundary condition for the atmospheric model. This study will be extended to investigate the effects of snow-melting into the coupled model with TRIP.

Ham, S.; Hong, S.-Y.

2012-04-01

376

Effects of climate change on annual streamflow using climate elasticity in Poyang Lake Basin, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological processes depend directly on climate conditions [e.g., precipitation, potential evapotranspiration ( PE)] based on the water balance. This paper examines streamflow datasets at four hydrological stations and meteorological observations at 79 weather stations to reveal the streamflow changes and underlying drivers in four typical watersheds (Meigang, Saitang, Gaosha, and Xiashan) within Poyang Lake Basin from 1961 to 2000. Most of the less than 90th percentile of daily streamflow in each watershed increases significantly at different rates. As an important indicator of the seasonal changes in the streamflow, CT (the timing of the mass center of the streamflow) in each watershed shows a negligible change. The annual streamflow in each watershed increases at different rates, with a statistically significant trend (at the 5 % level) of 9.87 and 7.72 mm year-1, respectively, in Meigang and Gaosha watersheds. Given the existence of interactions between precipitation and PE, the original climate elasticity of streamflow can not reflect the relationship of streamflow with precipitation and PE effectively. We modify this method and find the modified climate elasticity to be more accurate and reasonable using the correlation analysis. The analyses from the modified climate elasticity in the four watersheds show that a 10 % increase (decrease) in precipitation will increase (decrease) the annual streamflow by 14.1-16.3 %, while a 10 % increase (decrease) in PE will decrease (increase) the annual streamflow by -10.2 to -2.1 %. In addition, the modified climate elasticity is applied to estimate the contribution of annual precipitation and PE to the increasing annual streamflow in each watershed over the past 40 years. Our result suggests that the percentage attribution of the increasing precipitation is more than 59 % and the decreasing in PE is less than 41 %, indicating that the increasing precipitation is the major driving factor for the annual streamflow increase for each watershed.

Sun, Shanlei; Chen, Haishan; Ju, Weimin; Song, Jie; Zhang, Hao; Sun, Jie; Fang, Yujie

2013-04-01

377

Estimating How Inflated or Obscured Effects of Climate Affect Forecasted Species Distribution  

PubMed Central

Climate is one of the main drivers of species distribution. However, as different environmental factors tend to co-vary, the effect of climate cannot be taken at face value, as it may be either inflated or obscured by other correlated factors. We used the favourability models of four species (Alytes dickhilleni, Vipera latasti, Aquila fasciata and Capra pyrenaica) inhabiting Spanish mountains as case studies to evaluate the relative contribution of climate in their forecasted favourability by using variation partitioning and weighting the effect of climate in relation to non-climatic factors. By calculating the pure effect of the climatic factor, the pure effects of non-climatic factors, the shared climatic effect and the proportion of the pure effect of the climatic factor in relation to its apparent effect (?), we assessed the apparent effect and the pure independent effect of climate. We then projected both types of effects when modelling the future favourability for each species and combination of AOGCM-SRES (two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models: CGCM2 and ECHAM4, and two Special Reports on Emission Scenarios (SRES): A2 and B2). The results show that the apparent effect of climate can be either inflated (overrated) or obscured (underrated) by other correlated factors. These differences were species-specific; the sum of favourable areas forecasted according to the pure climatic effect differed from that forecasted according to the apparent climatic effect by about 61% on average for one of the species analyzed, and by about 20% on average for each of the other species. The pure effect of future climate on species distributions can only be estimated by combining climate with other factors. Transferring the pure climatic effect and the apparent climatic effect to the future delimits the maximum and minimum favourable areas forecasted for each species in each climate change scenario.

Real, Raimundo; Romero, David; Olivero, Jesus; Estrada, Alba; Marquez, Ana L.

2013-01-01

378

The effect of task structure, perceived motivational climate and goal orientations on students' task involvement and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of task structure, perceived motivational climate, and goal orientations on students' task involvement and anxiety in the physical education lesson. Two hundred thirty-nine junior high school students participated in a physical education lesson comprised of four task-involving tasks and in a physical education lesson consisting of three ego-involving tasks. After the completion of each task

Athanasios Papaioannou; Olga Kouli

1999-01-01

379

Creating a Positive School Atmosphere--The Principal's Responsibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational improvement can only be achieved when a school's climate is positive and conducive to learning. The principal must take the lead in establishing an effective climate by being fair, consistent, capable, and--most importantly--highly visible. (PGD)

Swymer, Stephen

1986-01-01

380

Climate change: Effects on reef island resources  

SciTech Connect

The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1988-06-27

381

The Effects of School Quality on Income.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a unique data set crated by merging the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with school data from the Common Core of Data to examine the relationship between school expenditures and earnings. Finds that school expenditures are related to earnings, and also positively affect the returns to schooling. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/PKP)

Wilson, Kathryn

2002-01-01

382

Employee and Workplace Well-being: A Multilevel Analysis of Teacher Personality and Organizational Climate in Norwegian Teachers from Rural, Urban and City Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although teaching is frequently cited as a stressful profession, limited recent Norwegian data is available. This study addressed the extent to which organizational climate and individual and organizational well-being outcomes vary between schools in rural, urban, and city locations. Participants were predominantly female (68%), aged 45+ years (63.2%) and reported 20+ years of teaching experience (51%). Teachers from rural schools

Richard Andrew Burns; Michael Anthony Machin

2012-01-01

383

Climate Change and its Effects on Polar Bears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polar bears are key indicators of the effects of climate change on the arctic ecosystem, because their existence is directly related to the sea ice habitat, where they hunt. As the Arctic continues to warm, their habitat will be reduced further and local extinction is likely to occur, especially in southern populations.

Alex C. Jospe; Bethany C. Peck; Emily Sinnott

2006-01-01

384

Effects of climate on pollination networks in the West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of climate on the plant-pollinator communities in the West Indies. We constructed plots of 200 m × 5 m in two distinct habitats on the islands of Dominica, Grenada and Puerto Rico (total of six plots) and recorded visitors to all plant species in flower. In total we recorded 447 interactions among 144 plants and 226

Ana M. Martín González; Bo Dalsgaard; Jeff Ollerton; Allan Timmermann; Jens M. Olesen; Laila Andersen; Adrianne G. Tossas

2009-01-01

385

Effects of climate on chemical_ weathering in watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic effects on chemical weathering are evaluated by correlating variations On solute concentrations and fluxes with temperature, precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET) for a worldwide distribution of sixty-eight watersheds underlain by granitoid rock types. Stream solute concentrations are strongly correlated with proportional ET loss, and evaporative concentration makes stream solute concentrations an inappropriate surrogate for chemical weathering. Chemical fluxes are

Art F. White; Alex E. Blum

1995-01-01

386

THE EFFECT OF CLIMATE ON DRAINAGE DENSITY AND STREAMFLOW  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir Charles Cotton (1964) has pointed out that in an earlier paper (Carlston, 1963) which related drainage density to hydrology, there was insufficient emphasis on the role of climate in its effect on drainage density. Re-examination of the relation of drainage density to base flow in the 15 basins originally described has revealed additional evidence that base flow is affected

Charles W. CARLSTON

1966-01-01

387

An annotated bibliography on the greenhouse effect and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on climate change from an enhanced greenhouse effect is large and growing rapidly. The problems considered are increasingly inter-disciplinary. For these reasons many workers will find useful pointers to the literature in the fields interacting with, but outside of, their own. We present here an annotated bibliography on issues relating to changes in the concentrations of Earth's greenhouse

Mark David Handel; James S. Risbey

1992-01-01

388

Effects of pre-industrial human activities on climate.  

PubMed

Pre-industrial human activities which changed the atmospheric greenhouse gas or aerosol loading, or which modified the properties of the earth's surface, such as albedo, roughness, or vegetation cover, had the potential to modify the regional or even global climate. The primary activities which could have produced these effects were deforestation, burning, and agriculture. These activities were not independent, and often occurred together. Deforestation could have produced warming or cooling at the surface, and different effects on different scales, depending on the fate of the biomass removed and the new use of the land. Burning is much less now than it was in the past in some regions, which would have produced warming as the burning decreased. This may be a partial explanation for the Little Ice Age. While a thorough survey of such pre-industrial human activities is called for, current information indicates that regional climatic effects were large in some regions, such as western North America, and hemispheric or global effects were possible. Once these pre-industrial human climatic forcing factors are better quantified, existing numerical models of the climate can be used to examine the impacts on regional and global scales. PMID:7953464

Robock, A; Graf, H F

1994-09-01

389

Global climate change and potential effects on pacific salmonids in ...  

Treesearch

Title: Global climate change and potential effects on pacific salmonids in freshwater ecosystems of southeast Alaska ... and incubation may result in earlier entry into the ocean when food resources are low. ... Survival of sustainable populations will depend on the existing genetic diversity within ... Last Modified: July 21, 2013.

390

Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India.  

PubMed

In recent decades, there has been a tendency toward increased summer floods in south China, increased drought in north China, and moderate cooling in China and India while most of the world has been warming. We used a global climate model to investigate possible aerosol contributions to these trends. We found precipitation and temperature changes in the model that were comparable to those observed if the aerosols included a large proportion of absorbing black carbon ("soot"), similar to observed amounts. Absorbing aerosols heat the air, alter regional atmospheric stability and vertical motions, and affect the large-scale circulation and hydrologic cycle with significant regional climate effects. PMID:12351786

Menon, Surabi; Hansen, James; Nazarenko, Larissa; Luo, Yunfeng

2002-09-27

391

Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The terms greenhouse effect, climate change, and global warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three separate and distinct processes. This activity examines all three and assesses whether Earth's atmosphere is getting warmer. Students will read two articles from the journal of Science that discuss the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and investigate the bias of both groups of authors. This activity requires the use of two articles from the July 20, 2001 issue of the journal Science.

Fox, Chris

392

Simulation of landscape disturbances and the effect of climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to understand how changes in climate may affect the structure of landscapes that are subject to periodic disturbances. A general model useful for examining the linkage between climatic change and landscape change has been developed. The model makes use of synoptic climatic data, a geographical information system (GRASS), field data on the location of disturbance patches, simulation code written in the SIMSCRIPT language, and a set of landscape structure analysis programs written specifically for this research project. A simplified version of the model, lacking the climatic driver, has been used to analyze how changes in disturbance regimes (in this case settlement and fire suppression) affect landscape change. Landscape change lagged in its response to changes in the disturbance regime, but the lags differed depending upon the character of the change and the particular measure considered. The model will now be modified for use in a specific setting to analyze the effects of changes in climate on the structure of flood-disturbed patches along the Animas River, Colorado.

Baker, W.L.

1993-01-29

393

Effects of climate on chemical weathering in watersheds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climatic effects on chemical weathering are evaluated by correlating variations in solute concentrations and fluxes with temperature, precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET) for a worldwide distribution of sixty-eight watersheds underlain by granitoid rock types. Stream solute concentrations are strongly correlated with proportional ET loss, and evaporative concentration makes stream solute concentrations an inapprorpiate surrogate for chemical weathering. Chemical fluxes are unaffected by ET, and SiO2 and Na weathering fluxes exhibit systematic increases with precipitation, runoff, and temperature. However, warm and wet watersheds produce anomalously rapid weathering rates. A proposed model that provides an improved prediction of weathering rates over climatic extremes is the product of linear precipitation and Arrhenius temperature functions. The resulting apparent activation energies based on SiO2 and Na fluxes are 59.4 and 62.5 kJ.mol-1, respectively. The coupling between temperature and precipitation emphasizes the importance of tropical regions in global silicate weathering fluxes, and suggests it is not representative to use continental averages for temperature and precipitation in the weathering rate functions of global carbon cycling and climatic change models. Fluxes of K, Ca, and Mg exhibit no climatic correlation, implying that other processes, such as ion exchange, nutrient cycling, and variations in lithology, obscure any climatic signal. -from Authors

White, A. F.; Blum, A. E.

1995-01-01

394

Climate effects of anthropogenic sulfate: Simulations from a coupled chemistry/climate model  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we use a more comprehensive approach by coupling a climate model with a 3-D global chemistry model to investigate the forcing by anthropogenic aerosol sulfate. The chemistry model treats the global-scale transport, transformation, and removal of SO{sub 2}, DMS and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} species in the atmosphere. The mass concentration of anthropogenic sulfate from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning is calculated in the chemistry model and provided to the climate model where it affects the shortwave radiation. We also investigate the effect, with cloud nucleation parameterized in terms of local aerosol number, sulfate mass concentration and updraft velocity. Our simulations indicate that anthropogenic sulfate may result in important increases in reflected solar radiation, which would mask locally the radiative forcing from increased greenhouse gases. Uncertainties in these results will be discussed.

Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.; Taylor, K.E.; Walton, J.J.

1993-09-01

395

Modelling the effects of climate change on an acidic upland stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most modelling studies of soil and surface water recovery from acidification assume a constant influence of climate over the simulation period. Given the likelihood of future climate change, and recent identification of links between climatic fluctuations and surface water trends on decadal time scales, an attempt is made to simulate a number of climate-related effects on the recovery of an

Christopher D. Evans

2005-01-01

396

The effect of smoke particles on clouds and climate forcing  

SciTech Connect

Smoke particles from biomass burning can generate forcing of climate by modifying cloud microphysics and reflectance of sunlight. Cloud modification, critical to an understanding of climate change, is uncertain and variable. Satellite data over the Amazon Basin and Cerrado were analyzed for cloud reflectance and droplet size and for smoke concentration. Smoke increased cloud reflectance from 0.35 to 0.45, while reducing droplet size from 14 to 9 micrometers. The regional variability of the smoke effect was correlated to the availability of water vapor. During the 3 months of biomass burning in the dry season, the smoke-cloud forcing of climate was only -2 watts per square meter in this region, much smaller than what can be inferred from model predictions. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Kaufman, Y.J.; Fraser, R.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

1997-09-12

397

Status versus Growth: The Distributional Effects of School Accountability Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the federal No Child Left Behind program judges the effectiveness of schools based on their students' achievement status, many policy analysts argue that schools should be measured, instead, by their students' achievement growth. Using a 10-year student-level panel data set from North Carolina, we examine how school-specific pressure…

Ladd, Helen F.; Lauen, Douglas L.

2010-01-01

398

Career Development Effects of Career Magnets versus Comprehensive Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of attending an urban career magnet high school were examined by comparing the career development of 51 graduates of 4 career magnet high schools and 59 graduates of 4 comprehensive high schools in a large city. Subjects were drawn from a database through a random assignment and matching process. All 110 graduates were surveyed using…

Flaxman, Erwin; Guerrero, Anabelle; Gretchen, Denise

399

Status versus Growth: The Distributional Effects of School Accountability Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the federal No Child Left Behind program judges the effectiveness of schools based on their students' achievement status, many policy analysts argue that schools should be measured, instead, by their students' achievement growth. Using a 10-year student-level panel data set from North Carolina, we examine how school-specific pressure…

Ladd, Helen F.; Lauen, Douglas L.

2010-01-01

400

Effectiveness of Curriculum Change in School : An Organizational Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims to develop an organizational model for understanding and managing effective curriculum change in school. Assumes that curriculum change and teacher competence development occur in a three-level context of school organization: the individual level, the group\\/ programme level, and the whole school level. There exists mutual development and reinforcement between curriculum and teacher competence and also a hierarchy of influence

Yin Cheong Cheng

1994-01-01

401

The Effective High School Principal: Sketches for a Portrait.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there has been a paucity of research on what effective secondary school principals do, two recent studies offer some clues. A 1983 report by William Firestone and Bruce Wilson asserts that a high school principal may best be able to influence the school through bureaucratic and cultural linkages. Bureaucratic linkages are formal enduring…

Mazzarella, Jo Ann

1985-01-01

402

Leadership Effects on Student Achievement and Sustained School Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of leadership on student achievement and sustained school success, especially in challenging, high-poverty schools. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines a review of the leadership literature with findings drawn from longitudinal studies of the International Successful School

Jacobson, Stephen

2011-01-01

403

The leadership behaviors of effective elementary school principals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mandates of the federal law No Child Left Behind , enacted in 2002, have placed tremendous pressure on school principals in this current era of unprecedented accountability. Because of the increasing number of targeted schools, the rigid standards of federal legislation, and the punitive consequences imposed by accountability systems, effective principals are more critical to a school's success than

Mary Jane Golding Hawthorne

2009-01-01

404

Leadership effects on student achievement and sustained school success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of leadership on student achievement and sustained school success, especially in challenging, high-poverty schools. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper combines a review of the leadership literature with findings drawn from longitudinal studies of the International Successful School Principalship Project (ISSPP). Findings – Direction setting, developing people and redesigning the

Stephen Jacobson

2011-01-01

405

The Effects of Schooling and Environment on Memory Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports two experiments investigating the effect of schooling and urbanization on short term recall and recognition memory. Subjects were 384 male children and young adults living in Morocco representing urban and rural and schooled and nonschooled backgrounds. Additional subject groups--including Koranic school students, Moroccan rug…

Wagner, Daniel A.

406

Rethinking School Effectiveness and Improvement: A Question of Paradigms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to contribute to progressive school change by developing a more systematic critique of school effectiveness (SE) and school improvement (SI) as paradigms. Diverse examples of paradigms and paradigm change in non-educational fields are used to create a model of paradigms for application to SE and SI, and to explore…

Wrigley, Terry

2013-01-01

407

How Effective Are Voluntary Plans with Magnet Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The desegregation effectiveness of voluntary plans with magnet schools was compared to that of mandatory reassignment plans with magnet schools using a sample of 20 school districts. Results show that a voluntary magnet plan will provide more long-term interracial exposure than a mandatory plan with magnet components. (SLD)|

Rossell, Christine H.

1988-01-01

408

Are school nurses effective in the fight against childhood obesity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. With childhood obesity on the rise in the United States, school nurses are faced with the task of preventing, identifying and treating obese children in their schools. This study reviews current literature and examines the effectiveness of the school nurse regarding obesity prevention and treatment services and the barriers they face.^ Methods. Ovid, Ebsco, Google Scholar and other professional

Jill Bunting

2011-01-01

409

Aerosol indirect effect on biogeochemical cycles and climate.  

PubMed

The net effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate is usually considered the sum of the direct radiative effect of anthropogenic aerosols, plus the indirect effect of these aerosols through aerosol-cloud interactions. However, an additional impact of aerosols on a longer time scale is their indirect effect on climate through biogeochemical feedbacks, largely due to changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO(2). Aerosols can affect land and ocean biogeochemical cycles by physical forcing or by adding nutrients and pollutants to ecosystems. The net biogeochemical effect of aerosols is estimated to be equivalent to a radiative forcing of -0.5 ± 0.4 watts per square meter, which suggests that reaching lower carbon targets will be even costlier than previously estimated. PMID:22076375

Mahowald, Natalie

2011-11-11

410

Aerosol Indirect Effect on Biogeochemical Cycles and Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The net effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate is usually considered the sum of the direct radiative effect of anthropogenic aerosols, plus the indirect effect of these aerosols through aerosol-cloud interactions. However, an additional impact of aerosols on a longer time scale is their indirect effect on climate through biogeochemical feedbacks, largely due to changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO2. Aerosols can affect land and ocean biogeochemical cycles by physical forcing or by adding nutrients and pollutants to ecosystems. The net biogeochemical effect of aerosols is estimated to be equivalent to a radiative forcing of -0.5 ± 0.4 watts per square meter, which suggests that reaching lower carbon targets will be even costlier than previously estimated.

Mahowald, Natalie

2011-11-01

411

Analyses of School Level Learning Environments: Organizational Coupling, Robustness and Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving 55 elementary schools and 18 secondary schools was undertaken to examine the relationships among teachers' perceptions of school organizational coupling structures, school environmental robustness, and three school effectiveness measures (school organizational effectiveness, school achievement, and average daily attendance). The…

Ellet, Chad D.; Logan, Connie S.

412

"We are not aliens, we're people, and we have rights." Canadian human rights discourse and high school climate for LGBTQ students.  

PubMed

Canadian law protects people from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, but our public schools do not fulfill their ethical and legal obligations where sexual and gender minority youth are concerned. This article reports on a national survey study on homophobia and transphobia in Canadian high schools. Participants (n = 3,607) were questioned about school climate, harassment, school attachment, and institutional interventions. We found that schools were neither safe nor respectful for sexual and gender minority students, and we argue that ongoing exposure to this situation undermines students' respect for the Charter of Rights and their faith in adults. PMID:22214043

Taylor, Catherine; Peter, Tracey

2011-08-01

413

Status versus growth: The distributional effects of school accountability policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the federal No Child Left Behind program judges the effectiveness of schools based on their students' achievement status, many policy analysts argue that schools should be measured, instead, by their students' achievement growth. Using a 10-year student-level panel data set from North Carolina, we examine how school-specific pressure associated with status and growth approaches to school accountability affect student

Helen F. Ladd; Douglas L. Lauen

2010-01-01

414

The Effectiveness of School Desegregation Plans, 1968-1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major debate in school desegregation policy is whether voluntary, market-based mechanisms (such as magnet schools) result in more school desegregation than command-and-control approaches (such as mandatory reassignment). Using data obtained from a national probability sample of 600 school districts, we explore the effects of different types of desegregation plans on White flight, racial imbalance, and interracial exposure from 1968

Christine H. Rossell; David J. Armor

1996-01-01

415

Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real' vegetation under the ‘real' moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) climate due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of climate change effects on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, climate change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze climate change effects on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.

(Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Gijsbert) Cirkel, D. G.

2010-05-01

416

Direct and disequilibrium effects on precipitation in transient climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate models are in broad agreement that global precipitation increases with surface temperature as atmospheric CO2 concentrations rise, but recent studies have shown that climates that are not yet in equilibrium exhibit additional "transient precipitation effects". In conditions of rising CO2, for example, precipitation at a given temperature is suppressed relative to its equilibrium value. Some authors argue that the primary driver of these effects is ocean heat uptake, but most recent studies assume that they result from some direct radiative effect. We show here that global precipitation and temperature anomalies are insufficient to resolve mechanisms, since the conventional "fast/slow" representation of transient precipitation effects is degenerate with a "disequilibrium" representation that posits control only by ocean heat uptake. We use regional anomalies instead to show in multiple ways that ocean heat uptake is the dominant driver of transient precipitation effects in CO2-forced climates. Precipitation suppression appears predominantly over the ocean, with response over land of the opposite sign. The coefficients of a disequilibrium representation are uncorrelated, suggesting that they capture physically meaningful processes, while those of a fast/slow representation are highly correlated. Further, the regional patterns of transient precipitation response are highly similar for both CO2 and solar forcing, with a relatively small and homogeneous offset between them. Examination of the surface energy budget allows us to conclude that energy balance in solar-forced climates is achieved by the superposition of both disequilibrium and direct processes. Our results highlight the importance of using regional information rather than global aggregates for understanding the physics of transient climate change and its impacts on societies.

McInerney, D.; Moyer, E.

2012-08-01

417

Climate change effects on soil microarthropod abundance and community structure  

SciTech Connect

Long-term ecosystem responses to climate change strongly depend on how the soil subsystem and its inhabitants respond to these perturbations. Using open-top chambers, we studied the response of soil microarthropods to single and combined effects of ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}], ambient and elevated temperatures and changes in precipitation in constructed old-fields in Tennessee, USA. Microarthropods were assessed five years after treatments were initiated and samples were collected in both November and June. Across treatments, mites and collembola were the most dominant microarthropod groups collected. We did not detect any treatment effects on microarthropod abundance. In November, but not in June, microarthropod richness, however, was affected by the climate change treatments. In November, total microarthropod richness was lower in dry than in wet treatments, and in ambient temperature treatments, richness was higher under elevated [CO{sub 2}] than under ambient [CO{sub 2}]. Differential responses of individual taxa to the climate change treatments resulted in shifts in community composition. In general, the precipitation and warming treatments explained most of the variation in community composition. Across treatments, we found that collembola abundance and richness were positively related to soil moisture content, and that negative relationships between collembola abundance and richness and soil temperature could be explained by temperature-related shifts in soil moisture content. Our data demonstrate how simultaneously acting climate change factors can affect the structure of soil microarthropod communities in old-field ecosystems. Overall, changes in soil moisture content, either as direct effect of changes in precipitation or as indirect effect of warming or elevated [CO{sub 2}], had a larger impact on microarthropod communities than did the direct effects of the warming and elevated [CO{sub 2}] treatments. Moisture-induced shifts in soil microarthropod abundance and community composition may have important impacts on ecosystem functions, such as decomposition, under future climatic change.

Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Reynolds, W. Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01

418

The 2009 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 20 years, GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network) has worked to ensure safe schools for all students, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. For 10 of those years, GLSEN has been documenting the school experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth: the prevalence of anti-LGBT…

Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.

2010-01-01

419

Perceptions of elementary school principals and superintendents regarding the relationship between decision-making responsibility and school climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed perceptions of elementary principals and superintendents and provided conclusions and recommendations that may be valuable to educators and educational administration professors who are developing and implementing school reform initiatives and school-based management in their work. Educators strive to provide an equitable education for students and improve the level of excellence. Educational excellence includes equity, excellence, mastery, and

Betty Jo Yee

2001-01-01

420

Climatic effects of atmospheric water vapor distribution through volcanic eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions play an important role in changing the water vapor distribution of the atmosphere. In comparison with the emission of carbon dioxide released during the consumption of fossil fuel, water vapor's role in climate change has been grossly underestimated. Studies made of modern volcanic eruptions, including satellite images and meteorological records, have revealed climatic effects in different parts of the globe through the migration of volcanic clouds, depending mainly on their timing, location, Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) and composition. The climatic effects of volcanic eruptions include: (1) Reduction in solar heating because of the particulates discharged. (2) Interference with the 'normal' atmospheric circulation and/or oceanic circulation. (3) The ash particles and aerosols provide condensation nuclei for water. (4) The transfer from the troposphere into the stratosphere of water vapor which act as a greenhouse gas more important than carbon dioxide. (5) Variability in regional rainfall including the occurrence of droughts, floods, landslides salinization and crop failures. (6) Anomalous regional wind and rain storms. (7) Acid rain. Selected volcanic eruptions will be used as examples to illustrate the different climatic effects.

Yim, W. W.

2011-12-01

421

Back to School: An Effective Approach To Managing School Renovations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that U.S. schools are in no physical condition to educate students in ways that will increase the quality of life by developing a more enlightened and skilled populace. It outlines a simple approach to efficiently define these problems, raising construction quality, increasing client satisfaction, and reducing construction costs. (GR)

Lankenau, Matthew; Zack, James G., Jr.

1997-01-01

422

School Library Media Specialists as Effective School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2006), "Accomplished library media specialists are instructional leaders who forge greater opportunities for learners" (55). As one of the few school personnel responsible for all students, the media specialist can serve as a coordinator and an advocate. They can ensure…

Everhart, Nancy

2007-01-01

423

Effects of drinking supplementary water at school on cognitive performance in children.  

PubMed

We investigated the beneficial effects of drinking supplementary water during the school day on the cognitive performance and transitory subjective states, such as fatigue or vigor, in 168 children aged between 9 and 11years who were living in a hot climate (South Italy, Sardinia). The classes were randomly divided into an intervention group, which received water supplementation, and a control group. Dehydration was determined by urine sampling and was defined as urine osmolality greater than 800mOsm/kg H(2)O (Katz, Massry, Agomn, & Toor, 1965). The change in the scores from the morning to the afternoon of hydration levels, cognitive performance and transitory subjective states were correlated. In line with a previous observational study that evaluated the hydration status of school children living in a country with a hot climate (Bar-David, Urkin, & Kozminsky, 2005), our results showed that a remarkable proportion of children were in a state of mild, voluntary dehydration at the beginning of the school day (84%). We found a significant negative correlation between dehydration and the auditory number span, which indicates a beneficial effect of drinking supplementary water at school on short-term memory. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between dehydration and performance in the verbal analogy task. The results are discussed in the light of the complexity of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the relationship between hydration status and cognition. PMID:22841529

Fadda, Roberta; Rapinett, Gertrude; Grathwohl, Dominik; Parisi, Marinella; Fanari, Rachele; Calò, Carla Maria; Schmitt, Jeroen

2012-07-24

424

Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States. Appendix C: Agriculture, Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The appendix contains back-up research studies for The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States report for Congress (1989). Volume 2 of the studies includes effects of Climatic changes in the United States.

J. B. Smith D. A. Tirpak

1989-01-01

425

Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States. Appendix C: Agriculture, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The appendix contains back-up research studies for The Potential Effects of Global Climate Change on the United States report for Congress (1989). Volume 1 of the studies includes the effect of climatic changeson Agricultural production.

J. B. Smith D. A. Tirpak

1989-01-01

426

Effective Schooling in Rural Africa Report 4: Frequently Asked Questions about Effective Schooling in Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The challenges of making rural schools more effective vary with different types of rural conditions. But typically these challenges might include any of the following: teacher shortages, lack of facilities, isolation, HIV/AIDS and related social stigma, war crises and displaced populations, multigrade and shift teaching, administration of small…

World Bank, Washington, DC. Human Development Network.

427

Interpreting School Choice Effects: Do Voucher Experiments Estimate the Impact of Attending Private School?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article I review the use of randomized field trials to evaluate school voucher interventions. I argue that although estimates of the effect of the voucher offer on achievement are unbiased in these trials, more specific interpretations such as the effect of attending private school may be difficult to obtain. I discuss several evaluation…

Cowen, Joshua M.

2012-01-01

428

Atmospheric greenhouse effect and climates on various planets  

SciTech Connect

The greenhouse effect of the planetary atmospheres is considered and its evolution as a result of variations in the chemical composition and in gas abundances of the atmospheres as well as in the chemical composition, size distribution and concentration of aerosol components. A computer modelling gave the values of the greenhouse effect of the atmospheres of the Earth, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, and Titan. It is shown that the atmospheric greenhouse effect plays a decisive role in the formation of the planetary climates and that it has substantially changed in the process of the planetary evolution. The greenhouse effect mechanism has always been and still is a major factor of the mean global planetary climate.

Kondratev, K.Y.; Moskalenko, N.I.

1985-01-01

429

Two Contrasting Approaches to Building High School Teacher Capacity to Teach About Local Climate Change Using Powerful Geospatial Data and Visualization Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation will compare and contrast two different place-based approaches to helping high school science teachers use geospatial data visualization technology to teach about climate change in their local regions. The approaches are being used in the development, piloting, and dissemination of two projects for high school science led by the author: the NASA-funded Data-enhanced Investigations for Climate Change Education (DICCE) and the NSF funded Studying Topography, Orographic Rainfall, and Ecosystems with Geospatial Information Technology (STORE). DICCE is bringing an extensive portal of Earth observation data, the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure, to high school classrooms. STORE is making available data for viewing results of a particular IPCC-sanctioned climate change model in relation to recent data about average temperatures, precipitation, and land cover for study areas in central California and western New York State. Across the two projects, partner teachers of academically and ethnically diverse students from five states are participating in professional development and pilot testing. Powerful geospatial data representation technologies are difficult to implement in high school science because of challenges that teachers and students encounter navigating data access and making sense of data characteristics and nomenclature. Hence, on DICCE, the researchers are testing the theory that by providing a scaffolded technology-supported process for instructional design, starting from fundamental questions about the content domain, teachers will make better instructional decisions. Conversely, the STORE approach is rooted in the perspective that co-design of curricular materials among researchers and teacher partners that work off of "starter" lessons covering focal skills and understandings will lead to the most effective utilizations of the technology in the classroom. The projects' goals and strategies for student learning proceed from research suggesting that students will be more engaged and able to utilize prior knowledge better when seeing the local and hence personal relevance of climate change and other pressing contemporary science-related issues. In these projects, the students look for climate change trends in geospatial Earth System data layers from weather stations, satellites, and models in relation to global trends. They examine these data to (1) reify what they are learning in science class about meteorology, climate, and ecology, (2) build inquiry skills by posing and seeking answers to research questions, and (3) build data literacy skills through experience generating appropriate data queries and examining data output on different forms of geospatial representations such as maps, elevation profiles, and time series plots. Teachers also are given the opportunity to have their students look at geospatially represented census data from the tool Social Explorer (http://www.socialexplorer.com/pub/maps/home.aspx) in order to better understand demographic trends in relation to climate change-related trends in the Earth system. Early results will be reported about teacher professional development and student learning, gleaned from interviews and observations.

Zalles, D. R.

2011-12-01

430

Cretaceous climate, volcanism, impacts, and biotic effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cretaceous volcanic activities (LIPs and CFBPs) appear to have had relatively minor biotic effects, at least at the generic level. Major biotic stress during the Cretaceous was associated with OAEs and related to nutrient availability largely from weathering, greenhouse warming, drowning of platform areas, and volcanism. The biotic effects of OAEs were often dramatic at the species level, causing the

Gerta Keller

2008-01-01

431

School Effects and Teacher Effects in Dutch Elementary Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article it is investigated to what extent teacher effects can account for differences between schools. A data set is analyzed which contains information about students who were followed during their last two years in elementary education. One group of students had been taught by one and the same teacher during these two years, whereas the other group

Hans Luyten; Tom A. B. Snijders

1996-01-01

432

Experimental climate change weakens the insurance effect of biodiversity.  

PubMed

Ecosystems are simultaneously affected by biodiversity loss and climate change, but we know little about how these factors interact. We predicted that climate warming and CO (2) -enrichment should strengthen trophic cascades by reducing the relative efficiency of predation-resistant herbivores, if herbivore consumption rate trades off with predation resistance. This weakens the insurance effect of herbivore diversity. We tested this prediction using experimental ocean warming and acidification in seagrass mesocosms. Meta-analyses of published experiments first indicated that consumption rate trades off with predation resistance. The experiment then showed that three common herbivores together controlled macroalgae and facilitated seagrass dominance, regardless of climate change. When the predation-vulnerable herbivore was excluded in normal conditions, the two resistant herbivores maintained top-down control. Under warming, however, increased algal growth outstripped control by herbivores and the system became algal-dominated. Consequently, climate change can reduce the relative efficiency of resistant herbivores and weaken the insurance effect of biodiversity. PMID:22676312

Eklöf, Johan S; Alsterberg, Christian; Havenhand, Jonathan N; Sundbäck, Kristina; Wood, Hannah L; Gamfeldt, Lars

2012-06-08

433

Current and Future Effects of Climate Change on Montane Amphibians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breeding phenology of amphibians in inextricably linked to weather, and change in the timing of breeding resulting from climate change may have consequences for the fitness of individuals and may affect persistence of amphibian populations. Amphibians in some north temperate locations have been observed to breed earlier in recent years in response to warmer spring temperatures, but this is not a universal phenomenon. In mountain populations, phenology is influenced by snow deposition as much as temperature. A trend towards earlier breeding, associated with increasing El Niño frequency, may be occurring in the Cascade Mountains in Oregon, but only at lower elevations. There is no evidence for changes in the dates of breeding activity by amphibians in the Rocky Mountains. Too few amphibian species have been studied, and those for which data exist have been studied for too brief a span of years to allow general conclusions about the effects of climate change. However, regardless of whether climate change has contributed to current amphibian declines, changes in temperature and the extent and duration of snow cover predicted for the next century will have increasingly severe consequences for the persistence of some species. Additional observations from amphibian populations, and spatial and temporal modeling of climate variables are needed to generate predictions of past and future breeding phenology, and the effects on amphibian population dynamics.

Corn, S.

2002-05-01

434

Principal's Time Use and School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School principals have complex jobs. To better understand the work lives of principals, this study uses observational time use data for all high school principals in one district. This article examines the relationship between the time principals spent on different types of activities and school outcomes, including student achievement, teacher…

Horng, Eileen Lai; Klasik, Daniel; Loeb, Susanna

2010-01-01

435

Principal's Time Use and School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School principals have complex jobs. To better understand the work lives of principals, this study uses observational time use data for all high school principals in one district. This article examines the relationship between the time principals spent on different types of activities and school outcomes, including student achievement, teacher and…

Horng, Eileen Lai; Klasik, Daniel; Loeb, Susanna

2010-01-01

436

Coevolution and the Effects of Climate Change on Interacting Species  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest that environmental changes may tip the balance between interacting species, leading to the extinction of one or more species. While it is recognized that evolution will play a role in determining how environmental changes directly affect species, the interactions among species force us to consider the coevolutionary responses of species to environmental changes. Methodology/Principle Findings We use simple models of competition, predation, and mutualism to organize and synthesize the ways coevolution modifies species interactions when climatic changes favor one species over another. In cases where species have conflicting interests (i.e., selection for increased interspecific interaction strength on one species is detrimental to the other), we show that coevolution reduces the effects of climate change, leading to smaller changes in abundances and reduced chances of extinction. Conversely, when species have nonconflicting interests (i.e., selection for increased interspecific interaction strength on one species benefits the other), coevolution increases the effects of climate change. Conclusions/Significance Coevolution sets up feedback loops that either dampen or amplify the effect of environmental change on species abundances depending on whether coevolution has conflicting or nonconflicting effects on species interactions. Thus, gaining a better understanding of the coevolutionary processes between interacting species is critical for understanding how communities respond to a changing climate. We suggest experimental methods to determine which types of coevolution (conflicting or nonconflicting) drive species interactions, which should lead to better understanding of the effects of coevolution on species adaptation. Conducting these experiments across environmental gradients will test our predictions of the effects of environmental change and coevolution on ecological communities.

Northfield, Tobin D.; Ives, Anthony R.

2013-01-01

437

The health effects of leaving school in a bad economy.  

PubMed

This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women. PMID:23994070

Maclean, Johanna Catherine

2013-07-31

438

Social Impacts of Climate Change in Brazil: A municipal level analysis of the effects of recent and future climate change on income, health and inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper uses data from 5,507 municipalities in Brazil to estimate the relationships between climate and income as well as climate and health, and then uses the estimated relationships to gauge the effects of past and future climate change on income levels and life expectancy in each of these municipalities. The simulations indicate that climate change over the past 50

Lykke E. Andersen; Soraya Román; Dorte Verner

2010-01-01

439

CLIMATIC EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY EVALUATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advisory discouraging swimming and other primary contact recreation in Lake Pontchartrain was issued in 1985 by the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals (LDHH). The advisory is still in effect today for the south shore area of the lake and names fecal coliform bacteria as the causative pollutant. The suspected source of the contamination in this area is urban

Donald E. Barbé; Susanne Carnelos; J. Alex McCorquodale

2001-01-01

440

Controlling the Climate of Your Schools: Tips On Choosing an HVAC System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides tips on choosing a school heating/ventilation and air-conditioning system that meets a school's needs and budget. Discusses how to assess a school's needs and offers suggestions for making the final decision. Data tables are provided that compare various systems, including costs, maintenance, and life expectancy. (GR)|

Phelan, John G.

1998-01-01

441

The effect on employees of violence climate in the workplace.  

PubMed

Violent incidents in the workplace which negatively affect employees' health and safety present an important problem of health and safety at work. This study aimed to determine the effects of the violence prevention climate on employees' job satisfaction and stress by determining how they perceive the dimensions of the violence climate. The participants in this study were 240 employees in various sectors (health, service, etc.) in Turkey. The study used the 18 item Violence Prevention Climate scale developed by Kessler et al (2008) translated into Turkish. The mean age of the participants was 32.3 ± 9.53, mean working years 9.1 ± 8.02. According to the correlation analysis results, the violence prevention climate dimensions of policies, practices and pressure for unsafe practices were found to have a positive significant relationship with job satisfaction. A significant negative correlation was determined between policies and practices and depression. A significant negative correlation was determined between practices and stress. The stepwise regression analysis results determined a significant relationship between pressure and job satisfaction. The stepwise regression analysis results also determined a significant relationship between the dimension of practices and depression. However, the established regression model was found not to be statistically significant in terms of stress and anxiety dependent variables. PMID:22317180

Aytaç, Serpil; Dursun, Salih

2012-01-01

442

Optimal spectral topography and its effect on model climate  

SciTech Connect

Gibbs oscillations in the truncated spectral representation of the earth`s topography are strongly reduced by determining its spectral coefficients as a minimum of a nonuniformly weighted, nonquadratic cost function. The cost function penalizes the difference between spectral and true topography with weights that are explicit functions of the topographic height and its gradient. The sensitivity of the Canadian Climate Centre general circulation model`s climate to the presence of Gibbs oscillations is determined for T32 and T48 resolutions by comparing the climates with optimal spectral topography to those with standard spectral topography. The main effect of Gibbs oscillations in the standard spectral topography is to induce spurious grid-scale ripples in the surface fluxes, which, for the surface energy balance, can be on the order of several tens of watts per square meter. Ripples in the surface energy balance, can be on the order of several tens of watts per square meter. Ripples in the surface fluxes are nearly absent in the model climate with the optimal spectral topography. 13 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Holzer, M. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

1996-10-01

443

Effects of climatic change on the Thornthwaite moisture index  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Thornthwaite moisture index is a useful indicator of the supply of water (precipitation) in an area relative to the demand for water under prevailing climatic conditions (potential evapotranspiration). This study examines the effects of changes in climate (temperature and precipitation) on the Thornthwaite moisture index in the conterminous United States. Estimates of changes in mean annual temperature and precipitation for doubled-atmospheric CO2 conditions derived from three general circulation models (GCMs) are used to study the response of the moisture index under steady-state doubled-CO2 conditions. Results indicate that temperature and precipitation changes under doubled-CO2 conditions generally will cause the Thornthwaite moisture index to decrease, implying a drier climate for most of the United States. The pattern of expected decrease is consistent among the three GCMs, although the amount of decrease depends on which GCM climatic-change scenario is used. Results also suggest that changes in the moisture index are related mainly to changes in the mean annual potential evapotranspiration as a result of changes in the mean annual temperature, rather than to changes in the mean annual precipitation.

McCabe, Jr. , Gregory, J.; Wolock, David, M.; Hay, Lauren, E.; Ayers, Mark, A.

1990-01-01

444

Effects of climate change on aerosol concentrations in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 ?m in size (PM2.5), ozone and other major constituents of air pollution, have adverse effects on human health, visibility and ecosystems (Seinfeld and Pandis, 2006), and are strongly influenced by meteorology. Emissions control policy is currently made assuming that climate will remain constant in the future. However, climate change over the next decades is expected to be significant (IPCC, 2007) and may impact local and regional air quality. Determining the sensitivity of the concentrations of air pollutants to climate change is an important step toward estimating future air quality. In this study we applied PMCAMx (Fountoukis et al., 2011), a three dimensional chemical transport model, over Europe, in order to quantify the individual effects of various meteorological parameters on fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. A suite of perturbations in various meteorological factors, such as temperature, wind speed, absolute humidity and precipitation were imposed separately on base case conditions to determine the sensitivities of PM2.5 concentrations and composition to these parameters. Different simulation periods (summer, autumn 2008 and winter 2009) are used to examine also the seasonal dependence of the air quality - climate interactions. The results of these sensitivity simulations suggest that there is an important link between changes in meteorology and PM2.5 levels. We quantify through separate sensitivity simulations the processes which are mainly responsible for the final predicted changes in PM2.5 concentration and composition. The predicted PM2.5 response to those meteorology perturbations was found to be quite variable in space and time. These results suggest that, the changes in concentrations caused by changes in climate should be taken into account in long-term air quality planning. References Fountoukis C., Racherla P. N., Denier van der Gon H. A. C., Polymeneas P., Charalampidis P. E., Pilinis C., Wiedensohler A., Dall'Osto M., O'Dowd C., and S. N. Pandis: Evaluation of a three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) in the European domain during the EUCAARI May 2008 campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 10331-10347, 2011. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Fourth Assessment Report: Summary for Policymakers, 2007. Seinfeld, J. H., and Pandis, S. N.: Atmospheric chemistry and physics: From air pollution to climate change, 2nd ed.; John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, 2006.

Megaritis, Athanasios G.; Fountoukis, Christos; Pandis, Spyros N.

2013-04-01

445

School Strategies and the "College-Linking" Process: Reconsidering the Effects of High Schools on College Enrollment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reconsidered school effects on college enrollment by focusing on strategies that schools use to facilitate college transitions. It also examined whether school strategies influence different outcomes for students from different racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Using data from the High School Effectiveness Study, the analysis…

Hill, Lori Diane

2008-01-01

446

School Strategies and the "College-Linking" Process: Reconsidering the Effects of High Schools on College Enrollment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study reconsidered school effects on college enrollment by focusing on strategies that schools use to facilitate college transitions. It also examined whether school strategies influence different outcomes for students from different racial/ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Using data from the High School Effectiveness Study, the…

Hill, Lori Diane

2008-01-01

447

Differential School Effects among Low, Middle, and High Social Class Composition Schools: A Multiple Group, Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study uses large-scale survey data and a multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve model to examine differential school effects between low, middle, and high social class composition public schools. The results show that the effects of school inputs and school practices on learning differ across the 3 subpopulations. Moreover, student…

Palardy, Gregory J.

2008-01-01

448

Climate effects of biofuels: measuring some key parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the recent changes in the global food system have been associated, directly or indirectly, with a rapid expansion of biofuel production. One of the main scientific challenges associated with these changes is to understand the effects on the climate system, and in particular whether there are hotspots where biofuel production is especially good or bad for climate protection. The climate effects of biofuels depend on both net changes in greenhouse gas balance and direct biophysical effects of land cover changes. Recent work has shown that the first of these depends critically on assumptions about indirect land use changes that result from biofuel-induced price increases, and in particular on assumptions about how productive biomass agriculture in marginal areas will be. The biophysical effects depend largely on albedo and evapotranspiration changes that can be location and crop specific. Here we will present recent research results on each of these topics, with a focus on marginal land productivity in the United States and land use changes in Brazil.

Lobell, D.; Campbell, E.; Fernandez, L.; Loarie, S.; Georgescu, M.; Asner, G.; Field, C.

2008-12-01

449

Effects of dynamical heat fluxes on model climate sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the meridional and vertical dynamic heat fluxes on climate sensitivity is investigated using an annual mean coupled high and low latitude radiative-dynamical model of the northern hemisphere. The model was constructed by incorporating a meridonal (atmosphere and ocean) dynamical heat flux parameterization into a two-zone (flow latitude 0°-30°N and high latitude 30°-90°N) version of the vertical radiative-convective

Wei-Chyung Wang; Gyula Molnar; Todd P. Mitchell; Peter H. Stone

1984-01-01

450

Effects of Dynamical Heat Fluxes on Model Climate Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the meridional and vertical dynamical heat fluxes on climate sensitivity is investigated using an annual mean coupled high and low latitude radiative-dynamical model of the northern hemisphere. The model was constructed by incorporating a meridional (atmosphere and ocean) dynamical heat flux parameterization into a two-zone (low latitude 0ø-30øN and high latitude 30ø-90øN) version of the vertical radiative-convective

Wei-Chyung Wang; Gyula Molnar; Todd P. Mitchell; Peter H. Stone

1984-01-01

451

Hydrogen Effects on Climate, Stratospheric Ozone, and Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This project examined the effects on (1) air pollution of converting all U.S. fossil- fuel onroad vehicles (FFOV) to hybrid vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV), where the hydrogen is produced by wind-electrolysis, steam-reforming of natural gas, and coal gasification, on air pollution and (2) climate\\/stratospheric ozone of converting the world’s fossil-fuel onroad vehicles to HFCVs, where the

Cristina Archer

2006-01-01

452

Global Climate Change: The Effects of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students conduct an experiment to learn about CO2 levels found in four different gases. Through this experiment and a set of multimedia resources, they will learn how atmospheric levels of CO2 relate to climate change and global warming, explore the effects of global warming on the environment (as indicated by the changes in Earth's glacial ice), and consider human contributions to global warming, particularly from the use of automobiles.

2005-01-01

453

Simulating climate change effects in a Minnesota agricultural watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of climate change on quality and quantity of runoff from a northern, agricultural watershed was simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, 1996 Version (SWAT96). SWAT`s snow evaporation submodel was modified. SWAT was calibrated using water quality and quantity data measured in the Cottonwood River near New ULM, MN. The standard errors after calibration were 3.31 mm,

Michael P. Hanratty; Heinz G. Stefan

1998-01-01

454

REPORT OF JOINT PLANNING COMMITTEE FOR MORE EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS TO THE SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE MORE EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS PROGRAM WILL BE INSTIGATED PRINCIPALLY IN INTEGRATED URBAN SCHOOLS. THE PROGRAM WILL INCLUDE A PREKINDERGARTEN AND NONGRADED PRIMARIES USING THE BEST MATERIALS ADAPTED FOR URBAN USE, INCLUDING CLOSED CIRCUIT TV AS AN AUDIOVISUAL AID. THIS EARLY CHILDHOOD PROGRAM PROVIDES FOR ACCELERATION AS WELL AS REMEDIAL INSTRUCTION.…

O'DALY, ELIZABETH C.

455

Do Schools Make a Difference? A Study of High School Effects and First Year College Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools across America are being ranked for their effectiveness on a number of student criteria, among them preparation of students for a successful college experience. This study investigates the relationship between graduating seniors, their successful first year retention in college and several personal and school related factors. The study…

Smith, Wade; Droddy, Jason; Guarino, A. J.

2011-01-01

456

Building Level Administrators' Attitudes toward Teacher Effectiveness at the High School and Middle School Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the attitudes of administrators about differences and similarities between middle and high school teachers. The research question that guided the study was, "Do attitudes about what makes an effective educator differ between building administrators at the middle and high school levels?" A formal, sequential, mixed-methods…

Hanson, Nathan K.

2010-01-01

457

Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Effectiveness in Alabama Public High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For several decades, researchers have searched for school-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on school effectiveness. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…

Cooper, J. Darrell

2010-01-01

458

The Black Charter School Effect: Black Students in American Charter Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature analysis examines the experiences of Black students in public charter schools in the United States by analyzing the current literature and enrollment data in this domain. Through the investigation of multiple empirical studies that examine the effects of charter schools on the academic achievement and enrollment trends of Black…

Almond, Monica R.

2012-01-01

459

Achievement Effects of Five Comprehensive School Reform Designs Implemented in Los Angeles Unified School District. Dissertation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Achievement effects as measured by the Stanford Achievement Test 9 were estimated for students in grades 1-11 that participated in America's Choice, Co-nect, Different Ways of Knowing, Success for All (SFA), and Urban Learning Centers comprehensive school reform (CSR) designs implemented in Los Angeles Unified School District between 1999 and…

Mason, Bryce

2005-01-01

460

Observations from old forests underestimate climate change effects on tree mortality  

PubMed Central

Understanding climate change-associated tree mortality is central to linking climate change impacts and forest structure and function. However, whether temporal increases in tree mortality are attributed to climate change or stand developmental processes remains uncertain. Furthermore, interpreting the climate change-associated tree mortality estimated from old forests for regional forests rests on an un-tested assumption that the effects of climate change are the same for young and old forests. Here we disentangle the effects of climate change and stand developmental processes on tree mortality. We show that both climate change and forest development processes influence temporal mortality increases, climate change-associated increases are significantly higher in young than old forests, and higher increases in younger forests are a result of their higher sensitivity to regional warming and drought. We anticipate our analysis to be a starting point for more comprehensive examinations of how forest ecosystems might respond to climate change.

Luo, Yong; Chen, Han Y. H.

2013-01-01

461

Ecosystem effects of CO2 concentration: evidence from past climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric CO2 concentration has varied from minima of 170-200 ppm in glacials to maxima of 280-300 ppm in the recent interglacials. Photosynthesis by C3 plants is highly sensitive to CO2 concentration variations in this range. Physiological consequences of the CO2 changes should therefore be discernible in palaeodata. Several lines of evidence support this expectation. Reduced terrestrial carbon storage during glacials, indicated by the shift in stable isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean, cannot be explained by climate or sea-level changes. It is however consistent with predictions of current process-based models that propagate known physiological CO2 effects into net primary production at the ecosystem scale. Restricted forest cover during glacial periods, indicated by pollen assemblages dominated by non-arboreal taxa, cannot be reproduced accurately by palaeoclimate models unless CO2 effects on C3-C4 plant competition are also modelled. It follows that methods to reconstruct climate from palaeodata should account for CO2 concentration changes. When they do so, they yield results more consistent with palaeoclimate models. In conclusion, the palaeorecord of the Late Quaternary, interpreted with the help of climate and ecosystem models, provides evidence that CO2 effects at the ecosystem scale are neither trivial nor transient.

Prentice, I. C.; Harrison, S. P.

2009-07-01

462

Ecosystem effects of CO2 concentration: evidence from past climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric CO2 concentration has varied from minima of 170-200 ppm in glacials to maxima of 280-300 ppm in the recent interglacials. Photosynthesis by C3 plants is highly sensitive to CO2 concentration variations in this range. Physiological consequences of the CO2 changes should therefore be discernible in palaeodata. Several lines of evidence support this expectation. Reduced terrestrial carbon storage during glacials, indicated by the shift in stable isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean, cannot be explained by climate or sea-level changes. It is however consistent with predictions of current process-based models that propagate known physiological CO2 effects into net primary production at the ecosystem scale. Restricted forest cover during glacial periods, indicated by pollen assemblages dominated by non-arboreal taxa, cannot be reproduced accurately by palaeoclimate models unless CO2 effects on C3-C4 plant competition are also modelled. It follows that methods to reconstruct climate from palaeodata should account for CO2 concentration changes. When they do so, they yield results more consistent with palaeoclimate models. In conclusion, the palaeorecord of the Late Quaternary, interpreted with the help of climate and ecosystem models, provides evidence that CO2 effects at the ecosystem scale are neither trivial nor transient.

Prentice, I. C.; Harrison, S. P.

2009-03-01

463

Effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling: Interactions and feedbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar UV radiation, climate and other drivers of global change are undergoing significant changes and models forecast that these changes will continue for the remainder of this century. Here we assess the effects of solar UV radiation on biogeochemical cycles and the interactions of these effects with climate change, including feedbacks on climate. Such interactions occur in both terrestrial and

David J

2011-01-01

464

Assessing potential effects of global climate change on tropical freshwater fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will affect both the quality and the quantity of water in freshwater environments. Changes in air temperature and precipitation will alter the annual water temperature cycle and the annual water level cycle. Initial assessments of the effects of climate change on freshwater fishes of North America have focused on the potential thermal effects of climate change because of

J. D. Meisner; B. J. Shuter

1992-01-01

465

An Estimation of the Climatic Effects of Stratospheric Ozone Losses during the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the potential climatic effects of the ozone hole more directly and to assess the validity of previous lower resolution model results, the latest high spatial resolution version of the Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., seasonal radiative dynamical climate model is used to simulate the climatic effects of ozone changes relative to the other greenhouse gases. The

Robert M. Mackay; Malcolm K. W. Ko; Run-Lie Shia; Yajaing Yang; Shuntai Zhou; Gyula Molnar

1997-01-01

466

Monitoring Concepts Useful in the Assessment of Climate Change Effects on US Fish and Wildlife Resources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this paper are to: (1) discuss the sensitivity of fish and wildlife resources and their habitats to climate changes as a basis for selecting indicators of climate change effects; (2) outline an anticipatory monitoring approach for trend ...

R. P. Breckenridge M. D. Otis

1988-01-01

467

Effective Schools: Teacher Hiring, Assignment, Development, and Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The literature on effective schools emphasizes the importance of a quality teaching force in improving educational outcomes for students. In this article we use value-added methods to examine the relationship between a school's effectiveness and the recruitment, assignment, development, and retention of its teachers. Our results reveal four key…

Loeb, Susanna; Kalogrides, Demetra; Beteille, Tara

2012-01-01

468

Assessing the Effects of High School Exit Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|High school exit exams are affecting a growing majority of high school students. Although exit testing polices were enacted with the goal of improving student achievement as well as postsecondary outcomes, they also have the potential for negative effects. To better understand the effects of exit testing policies, in this article the authors…

Holme, Jennifer Jellison; Richards, Meredith P.; Jimerson, Jo Beth; Cohen, Rebecca W.

2010-01-01

469

Recent School Effectiveness Counter-critiques: Problems and Possibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines recent responses of several school effectiveness researchers to concerns of their critics. Examines complexity of debate over school effectiveness research (SER), value of pragmatism, impact of social class, significance of methodological problems, value of current attempts to theorize SER, relationship of SER to educational politics and…

Thrupp, Martin

2001-01-01

470

How Large an Effect Can We Expect from School Reforms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Judging the success of school reform requires an interpretative context in which to judge whether effects obtained are large enough to be important or so small as to be a disappointment. The logic of school reform suggests two frameworks with which to judge the importance of effects. One is the size of the existing achievement gaps between important groups in

Spyros Konstantopoulos; Larry Hedges

2006-01-01

471

Conducting Effective Process Groups in the Secondary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Group counseling has been shown to be an efficient use of a school counselor's time and an effective tool for working with students. In process groups, the emphasis is on the process of growth and interaction. Counselors face obstacles they must overcome in order to organize effective group counseling programs in secondary schools. Gaining staff…

Bauman, Sheri

472

Effective Schools Research: Twenty-Years of Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The origin of effective schools research (ESR) is discussed in the context of a review of the pertinent literature. Debates over this topic have involved impacts on student achievement, methodology, the allegations of the Coleman report, and various effective school models. The Coleman Report (1966) concluded that family background was the…

Schmitt, Dorren Rafael

473

Effective Instructional Management: Perceptions and Recommendations from High School Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The two overarching research questions of this study are: What are the perceptions of high school administrators regarding the effectiveness of their current approach to instructional management? What recommendations do high school administrators have for effective strategies for instructional management? To answer these questions, a qualitative…

Knechtel, Troy

2010-01-01

474

Job Satisfaction of Teachers and Organizational Effectiveness of Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between job satisfaction of teachers and perceived school effectiveness. Questionnaires were distributed to teachers in 75 elementary schools in Ontario, Canada. A job description index and the concept of organizational effectiveness were used to measure job satisfaction variables of work,…

Knopp, Robert; O'Reilly, Robert R.

475

The Effect of School Integration on Community Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The evidence presented in this study of 113 school districts in the United States from 1964 or earlier to 1975-76 suggests that school desegregation has a disintegrative effect during implementation and an integrative effect in post-implementation years. (Author/AM)|

Rossell, Christine H.

1978-01-01

476

Assessment of climate change effects on Canada's National Park system.  

PubMed

To estimate the magnitude of climate change anticipated for Canada's 38 National Parks (NPs) and Park Reserves, seasonal temperature and precipitation scenarios were constructed for 2050 and 2090 using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) coupled model (CGCM1). For each park, we assessed impacts on physical systems, species, ecosystems and people. Important, widespread changes relate to marine and freshwater hydrology, glacial balance, waning permafrost, increased natural disturbance, shorter ice season, northern and upward altitudinal species and biome shifts, and changed visitation patterns. Other changes are regional (e.g., combined East coast subsidence and sea level rise increase coastal erosion and deposition, whereas, on the Pacific coast, tectonic uplift negates sea level rise). Further predictions concern individual parks (e.g., Unique fens of Bruce Peninsular NP will migrate lakewards with lowered water levels, but structural regulation of Lake Huron for navigation and power generation would destroy the fens). Knowledge gaps are the most important findings. For example: we could not form conclusions about glacial mass balance, or its effects on rivers and fjords. Likewise, for the East Coast Labrador Current we could neither estimate temperature and salinity effects of extra iceberg formation, nor the further effects on marine food chains, and breeding park seabirds. We recommend 1) Research on specific large knowledge gaps; 2) Climate change information exchange with protected area agencies in other northern countries; and 3) incorporating climate uncertainty into park plans and management. We discuss options for a new park management philosophy in the face of massive change and uncertainty. PMID:11878639

Suffling, Roger; Scott, Daniel

2002-03-01

477

Energy-efficient building design in cold climates: Schools as a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Buildings account for great amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. In terms of energy, buildings account for one third of the total amount of energy used in the country every year! Schools account for 14 percent of the energy used annually in commercial and institutional buildings. Further, schools are one of the most commonly constructed building types in Canada and spaces such as classrooms are often duplicated. This makes them preferred candidates for the research that was undertaken where energy-efficient solutions that can be transferred to different school designs were derived. Throughout the study, the Commercial Building Incentive Program (CBIP) was used as a benchmark. The objectives of the study were to demonstrate energy-efficient concepts, provide a case study to evaluate solutions, develop typological models and provide an understanding of the innovation process. The technological and societal aspects of the energy-efficient design were addressed. With respect to the technological aspects, the first step was the analysis of conventional design using a school in Calgary as a case study. The optimization of conventional design was undertaken using computer modeling to identify best practice solutions. Aspects that were included in the studies were lighting design, envelope characteristics, HVAC systems and building plant systems. The inclusion of passive design included the analysis of daylighting and natural ventilation. Computer modeling was used to assess daylighting in classrooms with unilateral and bilateral daylighting. Illuminance levels, glare and light distribution were evaluated. The study of natural ventilation was undertaken using literature review. Airflow and outdoor temperatures were the focus to identify solutions that could be incorporated into the design of classrooms. It was concluded that achieving excellence in energy efficiency in schools could be achieved using readily available technologies. Energy savings of up to 63 percent better than Canada's Model National Energy Code for Buildings (MNECB) reference case and utility cost savings of 30,000 (on a 50,000 annual cost) were achieved through conventional design optimization. Additional energy savings of three percent and utility cost savings of $7,000 were seen when passive strategies were included in the design. With respect to the societal aspects, an exploratory research study was undertaken to examine innovation. Architects and energy consultants were interviewed. All design professionals included in the study had participated in projects approved for a grant under CBIP. The purpose of the study was to identify drivers and barriers to energy efficiency. The study demonstrated that external and internal innovation pressures have a significant effect on whether or not the technology is adopted. Suggestions for reducing barriers and further promoting energy efficiency are discussed in this thesis. It is expected that the research will not only aid designers in assessing projects with regard to local priorities, but will also provide building guidelines that serve as tools for the development of the Canadian energy compliance for CO2 emissions.

Rangel Ruiz, Rocio

478

The Effectiveness of Whole-School Antibullying Programs: A Synthesis of Evaluation Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bullying is a serious problem in schools, and school authorities need effective solutions to resolve this problem. There is growing interest in the whole- school approach to bullying. Whole-school programs have multiple components that operate simultaneously at different levels in the school community. This ar- ticle synthesizes the existing evaluation research on whole-school programs to determine the overall effectiveness of

J. David Smith; Barry H. Schneider; Peter K. Smith; Katerina Ananiadou

2004-01-01

479

Effects of climate change on wave height at the coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To make progress towards the ultimate objective of predicting coastal vulnerability to climate change, we need to predict the probability of extreme values of sea level and wave height, and their likely variation with changing climate. There is evidence of changes in sea level and wave height on various time-scales. For example, the North Atlantic Oscillation appears to be responsible for increasing wave height in the North Atlantic over recent decades. The impact of changes in wave height in the North Atlantic at the coastline in the North Sea, the Hebrides/Malin Shelf and the English Channel will be quite different. Three different, and contrasting areas are examined The effect of changing sea levels, due to global warming and changes in tides and surge height and frequency, is combined with increases in offshore wave height. Coastal wave modelling, using the WAM and SWAN wave models, provides a useful tool for examining the possible impacts of climate change at the coast. This study is part of a Tyndall Centre project which is examining the vulnerability of the UK coast to changing wave climate and sea level. These changes are likely to be especially important in low-lying areas with coastal wetlands such as the north Norfolk coast, which has been selected as a detailed case study area. In this area there are offshore shallow banks and extensive inter-tidal areas. There are transitions from upper marsh to freshwater grazing marshes, sand dunes, shingle beaches, mudflats and sandflats. Many internationally important and varied habitats are threatened by rising sea levels and changes in storminess due to potential climate change effects. Likely changes in overtopping of coastal embankments, inundation of intertidal areas, sediment transport and coastal erosion are examined. Changes in low water level may be important as well as high water. The second area of study is Christchurch Bay in the English Channel. The English Channel is exposed to swell from the North Atlantic and a moderate tidal range. The coastline is quite developed with popular beaches. There are defended and undefended stretches of coastline. The waves reaching the coastline are modulated by the strong tidal streams in the Solent and shoal areas like Shingles Bank. The Sea of the Hebrides is an area important for fishing and tourism, but is the part of the UK exposed to the most severe waves, being most directly connected with the North Atlantic. The UK’s first wave power plant is in operation on Islay. Sea level changes are likely to be relatively unimportant but changes in wave climate could have a direct impact on local economic activity.

Wolf, J.

2003-04-01

480

Teacher perceptions of factors impacting on student achievement in effective and less effective urban elementary schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated teacher perceptions of factors impacting on student achievement in 18 effective and less effective elementary schools by surveying staff in randomly selected schools located in a large, urban district. Nine schools each were assigned to the effective or less effective groups based on a comparison of their average state assessment scores for a three-year period. A total

Cynthia Mitchell-Lee

2001-01-01

481

Large Scale Obscuration and Related Climate Effects Workshop: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

A Workshop on Large Scale Obsurcation and Related Climate Effects was held 29--31 January, 1992, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The objectives of the workshop were: to determine through the use of expert judgement the current state of understanding of regional and global obscuration and related climate effects associated with nuclear weapons detonations; to estimate how large the uncertainties are in the parameters associated with these phenomena (given specific scenarios); to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on obscuration predictions; and to develop an approach for the prioritization of further work on newly-available data sets to reduce the uncertainties. The workshop consisted of formal presentations by the 35 participants, and subsequent topical working sessions on: the source term; aerosol optical properties; atmospheric processes; and electro-optical systems performance and climatic impacts. Summaries of the conclusions reached in the working sessions are presented in the body of the report. Copies of the transparencies shown as part of each formal presentation are contained in the appendices (microfiche).

Zak, B.D.; Russell, N.A.; Church, H.W.; Einfeld, W.; Yoon, D.; Behl, Y.K. [eds.

1994-05-01

482

Measuring properties of contrails to estimate their effects on climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Condensation trails, or so-called contrails, formed by freezing of ice crystals in the exhaust from aircraft jet engines, could affect climate. Like natural cirrus clouds, contrails change atmospheric temperatures not only by blocking sunlight from reaching the Earth's surface but also by preventing terrestrial radiation from escaping the Earth's atmosphere. However, contrails' effects on climate are not well constrained because few studies of contrail properties exist, and hence, their microphysical properties are poorly known. In a new study, Voigt et al.