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1

Examining School Connectedness as a Mediator of School Climate Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have suggested that good-quality school climates foster a sense of connection to the school and in this way contribute to fewer emotional and behavioral problems. However, few studies have directly assessed the role of school connectedness as a mediator of school climate effects. Using path analysis, this brief report examined whether…

Loukas, Alexandra; Suzuki, Rie; Horton, Karissa D.

2006-01-01

2

The Critical Role of School Climate in Effective Bullying Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown a negative association between positive school climate and bullying behavior. This article reviews research on school climate and bullying behavior and proposes that an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate (e.g., negative relationship between teachers and students, positive attitudes towards bullying) provides a social…

Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Swearer, Susan M.

2013-01-01

3

The Effects of School Culture and Climate on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Exemplary, Recognized and Acceptable schools differ in their school climates, as measured by the 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory. Significant differences were found on all 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory, with Exemplary schools out-performing Acceptable…

MacNeil, Angus J.; Prater, Doris L.; Busch, Steve

2009-01-01

4

The Relationship between School Climate, Trust, Enabling Structures, and Perceived School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of Deborah R. Mayerson was to assess the relative impact of climate, trust, and bureaucratic structure upon teachers' perceptions of organizational effectiveness. An existing data set compiled by Nancy Casella (2006) for her dissertation was analyzed. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of a random sample of 220 public school

Mayerson, Deborah R.

2010-01-01

5

The Effects of School Climate Change on Student Success in a Fifth and Sixth Grade School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significance of the study was to examine intentional strategies to improve school climate relative to student school success as measured by academic achievement, attendance, and student behavior. It was important to understand how student school success was affected by factors related to school climate improvement such as leadership and change…

Harris, Kim M.

2011-01-01

6

Climate Change Schools Project...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

McKinzey, Krista

2010-01-01

7

Academic Optimism and Organizational Climate: An Elementary School Effectiveness Test of Two Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of two climate constructs in academic optimism and organizational climate as each relates to school effectiveness. Academic optimism is an academic environment comprised of three dimensions: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust (Hoy, Tarter, & Hoy, 2006). The Organizational Climate Index…

Reeves, Jonathan Bart

2010-01-01

8

School Climate, Family Structure, and Academic Achievement: A Study of Moderation Effects.  

PubMed

School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family structure (i.e., two-parent, one-parent, foster-care, and homeless households), and academic performance (i.e., self-reported [grade point average] GPA). The present sample consisted of 902 California public high schools, including responses from over 490,000 students in Grades 9 and 11. Results indicated that, regardless of family structure, students with more positive school climate perceptions self-reported higher GPAs. Youths with two-parent, one-parent, and homeless family structures displayed stepwise, linear improvements in self-reported GPA as perceptions of climate improved. Foster-care students' positive school climate perceptions had a weaker effect on their self-reported GPA compared with students living in other family structures. A unique curvilinear trend was found for homeless students, as the relationship between their school climate perceptions and self-reported GPA was stronger at lower levels. Overall, the moderation effect of positive school climate perceptions on self-reported GPA was strongest for homeless youth and youth from one-parent homes, suggesting that school climate has a protective effect for students living in these family structures. A protective effect was not found for youth in foster-care. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25111464

O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L; Eklund, Katie

2014-08-11

9

School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of…

Wang, Ming-Te

2009-01-01

10

Implementing a Universal Stress Management Program for Young School Children: Are there Classroom Climate or Academic Effects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible academic and classroom climate effects of the universal school program Zippy's Friends, the primary objective of which is to strengthen children's ability to cope with stress. The sample consisted of 1483 children (aged 7–8 years) from 91 second-grade classes in 35 schools. The schools were matched and randomly assigned to

Solveig Holen; Trine Waaktaar; Arne Lervåg; Mette Ystgaard

2012-01-01

11

School Climate and Teacher Beliefs in a School Effectively Serving Poor South Carolina (USA) African-American Students: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the roles of school climate, teacher expectations, and instructional practices in one elementary school in South Carolina (USA) that produced effective achievement outcomes with poor and minority students. Survey data, teacher interviews, and classroom videotaping was used to identify school characteristics and instructional…

Brown, Kimberly E.; Medway, Frederic J.

2007-01-01

12

An Examination of School Climate in Effective Alternative Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The alternative education field lacks a common definition and has a major divide between the differing philosophies of alternative programs; little empirical evidence is available to identify the components necessary to create effective alternative educational programs. Tremendous growth in the availability of alternative programs in the United…

Quinn, Mary Magee; Poirier, Jeffrey M.; Faller, Susan E.; Gable, Robert A.; Tonelson, Steven W.

2006-01-01

13

School Climate: Changing Fear to Fun.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed middle school principals to examine middle level programmatic characteristics, appropriateness, and current implementation. The study also examined teachers' perceptions of school climate. Program implementation, rather than principal's perceptions, affected school climate. Intramural programs affected school climate, influencing…

Hanna, James W.

1998-01-01

14

Perceptions of School Climate as a Function of Bullying Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a social-ecological perspective, bullying exists within the larger context of school climate. In this study, 2,240 middle and high school students participated in a districtwide effort to assess the prevalence and effects of bullying and cyberbullying, as well as perceptions of school climate. Students reported positive school climate

Nickerson, Amanda B.; Singleton, Demian; Schnurr, Britton; Collen, Mary Helen

2014-01-01

15

School Climate Assessment Instruments: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to collect the necessary information on various practices and devices used in school climate assessment, 22 of the 39 school improvement projects mentioned in the Miles and Kaufman directory of effective schools programs were selected for a survey. A questionnaire was used to collect the primary data. Each program was asked for copies of…

Gottfredson, Denise C.; And Others

16

Making a Change: The Effects of the Leadership Role on School Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

School is a very important element of society. Students and teachers learn many lessons, academic and otherwise, that influence\\u000a their personal well-being and academic success. Often, however, school does not provide the positive learning or working environment\\u000a that is most beneficial for our students and teachers. As a first year principal, Pepper realized that a more positive school\\u000a climate was

Kaye Pepper; Lisa Hamilton Thomas

2002-01-01

17

Preparing Middle School Teachers to Use Science Models Effectively when Teaching about Weather and Climate Topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the National Science Education Standards (NSES), teachers are encouraged to use science models in the classroom as a way to aid in the understanding of the nature of the scientific process. This is of particular importance to the atmospheric science community because climate and weather models are very important when it comes to understanding current and future behaviors of our atmosphere. Although familiar with weather forecasts on television and the Internet, most people do not understand the process of using computer models to generate weather and climate forecasts. As a result, the public often misunderstands claims scientists make about their daily weather as well as the state of climate change. Therefore, it makes sense that recent research in science education indicates that scientific models and modeling should be a topic covered in K-12 classrooms as part of a comprehensive science curriculum. The purpose of this research study is to describe how three middle school teachers use science models to teach about topics in climate and weather, as well as the challenges they face incorporating models effectively into the classroom. Participants in this study took part in a week long professional development designed to orient them towards appropriate use of science models for a unit on weather, climate, and energy concepts. The course design was based on empirically tested features of effective professional development for science teachers and was aimed at teaching content to the teachers while simultaneously orienting them towards effective use of science models in the classroom in a way that both aids in learning about the content knowledge as well as how models are used in scientific inquiry. Results indicate that teachers perceive models to be physical representations that can be used as evidence to convince students that the teacher's conception of the concept is correct. Additionally, teachers tended to use them as ways to explain an idea to their students; they rarely discussed the idea that models are a representation of reality (as opposed to a replication of reality) and never discussed the predictive power of models and how they are used to further scientific knowledge. The results indicate that these teachers do not have a complete understanding of science models and the role they play in the scientific process. Therefore, the teachers struggled to incorporate modeling into the classroom in a way that aligns with what the NSES suggests. They tended to lean on models as "proof" of a particular concept rather than a representation of a concept. In actuality, scientists do not just use models to explain a concept, they also use them to make projections and as a way to improve our understanding the atmosphere. A possible consequence of teachers using models as "proof" of a concept is that students expect climate and forecast models to be concrete and exact, rather than tentative and representative. Increasing student understanding of climate and weather models is important to meet the needs of future STEM professionals, decision-makers, and the general populace to support rational decision-making about weather and the future of climate by an educated society.

Yarker, M. B.; Stanier, C. O.; Forbes, C.; Park, S.

2012-12-01

18

Altering School Climate through School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Findings from a Group-Randomized Effectiveness Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a universal, school-wide prevention strategy that is currently implemented\\u000a in over 7,500 schools to reduce disruptive behavior problems. The present study examines the impact of PBIS on staff reports\\u000a of school organizational health using data from a group-randomized controlled effectiveness trial of PBIS conducted in 37\\u000a elementary schools. Longitudinal multilevel analyses on data

Catherine P. Bradshaw; Christine W. Koth; Leslie A. Thornton; Philip J. Leaf

2009-01-01

19

Academic self-efficacy mediates the effects of school psychological climate on academic achievement.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24708286

Høigaard, Rune; Kova?, Velibor Bobo; Overby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

2014-04-01

20

A Psychometric Evaluation of a Revised School Climate Teacher Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of school climate has been an important topic for education and it has been studied extensively over the past several decades. One of the challenges in such a research effort is to develop instruments that effectively and efficiently measure the construct. Literature has documented a number of school climate instruments, most of which…

Liu, Ying; Ding, Cody; Berkowitz, Marvin W.; Bier, Melinda C.

2014-01-01

21

School Climate: An Organizational Development View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature on school climate provides a conceptual framework for this study in which the Kettering School Climate Profile was administered twice to students, teachers, parents, and administrators in the Stoughton Middle School (Stoughton, Wisconsin). The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between organizational…

Wallich, Lynn R.

22

Students' Perceptions of the School Climate: Implications for School Safety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed school climate for both interpersonal and intrapersonal character traits and examined the links between school climate and students' perceptions of safety at school. Sixty-four elementary and 159 secondary students completed questionnaires in the spring. Findings revealed that character traits were reliably assessed for both…

DeRosier, Melissa E.; Newcity, Janet

2005-01-01

23

Middle School Organization, Teacher Job Satisfaction, and School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes of middle and junior high school teachers toward their job and school climate are compared in this study. Twenty-nine teachers from a school having a modern middle school orientation (multi-age grouping, exploratory curriculum, and an interdisciplinary team organization) were compared with twenty teachers from a departmentally…

Ashton, Patricia; And Others

24

Principals' Leadership Behaviors in Gang-Impacted High Schools and Their Effects on Pupil Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although viable leadership models for schools with differing social contexts are in great demand, empirical studies of high school principals have not produced consistent results. This paper summarizes part of a larger project designed to identify leadership behaviors of principals in "gang-impacted" and other secondary schools. The research was…

Schwartz, Audrey J.

25

The Effect of Improved School Climate over Time on Fifth-Grade Students' Achievement Assessment Scores and Teacher Administered Grade Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of improved school climate, as teachers' beliefs changed from negative to positive over time, on students' reading, math, and writing assessment scores and teacher administered grade scores in reading, math, and writing. Overall, findings indicate that lose, maintain, or improve…

Marten, Dawn M.

2012-01-01

26

School Climate in Middle Schools: A Cultural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007-08 and 2008-09, 2,500 randomly-selected middle school students completed an annual survey on school climate and character development. In examining differences based upon grade, gender, race/ethnicity, school, and length of program participation, significant differences were found for all but length of program participation. Responses of…

Schneider, Stephanie H.; Duran, Lauren

2010-01-01

27

Schools of the Pacific rainfall climate experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SPaRCE program is a cooperative rainfall climate field project involving high school and college level students and teachers from various Pacific island and atoll nations. The goals of the SPaRCE program are: (1) to foster interest and increase understanding among Pacific-area students and teachers of climate and climate change; (2) to educate the students and teachers as to the importance of rainfall in the Pacific area to climate studies; (3) to provide the students and teachers an opportunity of making a major contribution to the global climate research effort by collecting and analyzing Pacific rainfall data; and (4) to incorporate collected rainfall observations into a comprehensive Pacific daily rainfall data base to be used for climate research purposes. Schools participating in SPaRCE have received standard raingauges with which to measure rainfall at their sites. Students learned to site and use their raingauges by viewing a video produced at the University of Oklahoma. Four more videos will be produced which will include information on Earth's atmosphere, global climate and climate change, regional climate and implications of climate change, and how to analyze and use the rainfall data they are collecting. The videos are accompanied by workbooks which summarize the main points of each video, and contain concrete learning activities to help the student better understand climate and climate change. Following each video, interactive sessions are held with the students using the PEACESAT (Pan-Pacific Education And Communication Experiments by Satellite) satellite radio communication system.

Postawko, S. E.; Morrissey, M. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Mouginis-Mark, P.

1993-01-01

28

Transformational Leadership Related to School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between teacher perceptions of the degree to which a principal displays the factors of transformational leadership (idealized attributes, idealized behaviors, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulations, and individual considerations) and the perceived school climate (supportive principal behavior,…

McCarley, Troy A.

2012-01-01

29

Heteronormativity, school climates, and perceived safety for gender nonconforming peers.  

PubMed

Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined student- and school-level effects on students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers. We found that older students, bisexual youth, Latino youth, and youth who experienced school violence perceived their gender nonconforming male peers to be less safe. Similarly, we found that older students and students who experienced school violence and harassment due to gender nonconformity perceived their gender nonconforming female peers to be less safe. At the school-level, we found that when schools included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues in the curriculum and had a Gay-Straight Alliance, students perceived their schools as safer for gender nonconforming male peers. PMID:21481925

Toomey, Russell B; McGuire, Jenifer K; Russell, Stephen T

2012-02-01

30

Perceptions of Michigan middle school principals regarding leadership styles, communication, and school climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of public school middle school principals in the State of Michigan regarding leadership, communication climate, and school climate. In addition, the study also examined the influence of school climate and culture on the four frameworks of leadership, communication, and school climate. ^ A nonexperimental, descriptive research design was used in this

Goharik K Torres

2009-01-01

31

Reducing School Violence: School-Based Curricular Programs and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.

Greene, Michael B.

2008-01-01

32

School Climate that Promotes Student Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All over the world, educators are recognizing that creating a school culture and climate that genuinely engages and supports all students is essential to increasing students' achievement and preventing students from dropping out. Research supports the view that schools must encourage students to express themselves--clearly and often--and be places…

Elias, Maurice J.

2010-01-01

33

Teachers' Perspectives on School Climate at a Low-Performing School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of research studies have indicated that issues with school climate may be a source of the low academic and social success of students in the public school system. A poor school climate is often associated with low-performing schools; a positive school climate can increase student achievement and other indicators of school success such as…

Carson, Paul Kit

2012-01-01

34

Measuring parent perceptions of school climate.  

PubMed

Parents' attitudes about their children's schools matter. Their views can shape their children's attitudes about school, affect their levels of family-school engagement, and influence their residential and school enrollment decisions. In this article, we describe the development of a survey scale to assess parent perceptions of the climate of their child's school. Our comprehensive scale development process incorporated feedback from academics and potential respondents from the outset of the design process to enhance scale quality. We conducted 3 studies with national samples of parents (n = 385; n = 253; n = 266) to gather evidence of scale score reliability and valid score inferences based on convergent and discriminant validity. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we identified a theoretically grounded factor structure that fit the data well but found no evidence that parental response patterns distinguish between academic and social elements of school climate. Furthermore, we found that parents of younger children, on average, had a more positive perception of the school's climate than did parents of older children. We conclude by discussing how researchers and Pre-K-12 schools and districts can use the scale to aid school improvement efforts. PMID:24219701

Schueler, Beth E; Capotosto, Lauren; Bahena, Sofía; McIntyre, Joseph; Gehlbach, Hunter

2014-03-01

35

Australian Secondary School Students' Understanding of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated 438 Year 10 students (15 and 16 years old) from Western Australian schools, on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and climate change, and the sources of their information. Results showed that most students have an understanding of how the greenhouse effect works, however, many students merge the processes of the…

Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine

2013-01-01

36

Effects of "Safe School" Programs and Policies on the Social Climate for Sexual-Minority Youth: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are a vulnerable population--a status that can be attributed to a hostile social climate at school. Intervention strategies, such as educational policies, programs, and a supportive environment, improve the social climate for LGBT students in secondary schools and…

Black, Whitney W.; Fedewa, Alicia L.; Gonzalez, Kirsten A.

2012-01-01

37

An Evaluation of Instructional Coaching at Selected High Schools in North Louisiana and Its Effect on Student Achievement, Organizational Climate, and Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare high schools in north Louisiana to determine if the presence or absence of instructional coaches influenced student achievement, organizational climate, and/or teacher efficacy in any significant manner. The 11 high schools in north Louisiana utilizing instructional coaches were matched to 11 high schools

Hearn, Richard M.

2010-01-01

38

What Greek Secondary School Students Believe about Climate Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate what Greek secondary school students (grades 8 and 11) believe about the greenhouse effect and climate change. A total of 626 students completed a closed-form questionnaire consisting of statements regarding the causes, impacts and solutions for this global environmental issue. The possible influence of…

Liarakou, Georgia; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Gavrilakis, Costas

2011-01-01

39

Improving School Climate to Reduce Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying harms kids in nearly every way imaginable. It disrupts their learning; it causes them to suffer anxiety and depression; and it undermines their feelings of safety and connection to school. New understandings of bullying are based on relationships and connect directly to the growing appreciation of the role of the social climate within…

Smith, David

2012-01-01

40

School Climate and Teachers' Perceptions on Climate Factors: Research into Nine Urban High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the difference in the levels of the variables related to the school climate factors among the teachers teaching social science courses, the teachers teaching natural science courses, and the teachers teaching art, music and physical education. As a result of the analyzes, all the teachers reported open climate in relation to…

Gunbayi, Ilhan

2007-01-01

41

Volcanic effects on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

Robock, Alan

1991-01-01

42

Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

Cook, J.

2011-12-01

43

CEC's Policy on Safe and Positive School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) recognizes the important impact a safe and positive school climate has on the personal development and academic achievement of all students. Research has shown that schools implementing supportive and positive school climate strategies are more successful in creating environments conducive to learning. As…

Council for Exceptional Children (NJ3), 2008

2008-01-01

44

Students' perceptions of school climate in the U.S. and China.  

PubMed

Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States. Differences in school climate between the two countries were examined in this study. The sample consisted of 10,400 American and 3,435 Chinese students across three grade levels (elementary, middle, and high school) in 85 American and 22 Chinese schools. Factor structure and measurement invariance across countries were first established for the Modified-Delaware School Climate Survey-Student. Differences in latent means were then tested. Across all three grade levels Chinese students scored significantly higher than American students on all four subscales (Teacher-Student Relations, Student-Student Relations, School Liking, and Fairness of School Rules). Effects sizes tended to be smallest in elementary schools and largest in middle schools. Significant differences between American and Chinese students exist in their perceptions of school climate. It is likely that those differences can be attributed to cultural differences in respect of authority, academic and social values, self-regulation and peer-regulation of behaviors, and teachers' classroom management. PMID:23506022

Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C; Huang, Xishan

2013-03-01

45

Effective Schools Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research studies that have focused on identifying the characteristics or correlates of elementary and secondary schools that are unusually effective are reviewed, concentrating on the "effective schools" movement. Research on effective schools supports the conclusion that they rank high on certain characteristics frequently referred to as…

Levine, Daniel U.; Lezotte, Lawrence W.

46

School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2011-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools. In 2011-2012, the survey was distributed to approximately 93,000 parents, 52,000 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 24,000 staff. This report summarizes…

Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2012

2012-01-01

47

A New Framework for School Climate: Exploring Predictive Capability of School Climate Attributes and Impact on School Performance Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much emphasis is being placed on the use of school performance scores as a means of indicating effective schools. Schools are being held accountable for not only teaching the curriculum, but also affording the student a quality education that encompasses the skills and knowledge needed to be successful. Although many schools have a similar…

Craig, Amy Vermaelen

2012-01-01

48

Correlational Analysis of Servant Leadership and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this mixed-method research study was to determine the extent that servant leadership was correlated with perceptions of school climate to identify whether there was a relationship between principals' and teachers' perceived practice of servant leadership and of school climate. The study employed a mixed-method approach by first…

Black, Glenda Lee

2010-01-01

49

Measuring School Climate: An Overview of Measurement Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School climate is a heterogeneous concept with a multitude of standardised and validated instruments available to measure it. Purpose: This overview of measurement scales aims to provide researchers with short summaries of some of the self-report instruments in existence, especially in relation to the link between school climate and…

Kohl, Diane; Recchia, Sophie; Steffgen, Georges

2013-01-01

50

A Reflection of My School: One Student Looks at School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A late 1960s graduate of racially segregated school in Mississippi evaluates her high school's performance against Ron Edmonds's five school effectiveness correlates (strong instructional leadership; clear instructional mission; orderly, safe climate; high expectations; close monitoring with standardized tests). School passed only one; all…

Duren, O'ka R.

1992-01-01

51

Nevada's Climate Change High School Science Fair Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this 3 year project funded by NSF (GEO 1035049) is to increase the climate change science content knowledge and teaching effectiveness of in-service high school science teachers and increase the numbers of quality of high school geoscience projects competing in Nevada's three regional Intel ISEF (International Science & Engineering Fair) affiliated science fairs. In year 1 of the project participants consisted of six female and three male high school teachers from across Nevada. Eight of the participants were white and one was Asian. Five participants taught in Clark County, two taught in Owyhee, one taught in Elko and one taught in Spring Creek. Over 20% of the projects were noted (by the teachers) as being submitted by underrepresented students; however, this information is not reliable as most students did not provide this data themselves. Pre-and post- content tests were given. Teachers improved from an average of eight missed on the pre-test to an average of only four items missed on the post-test. Participants were also asked to evaluate their own teaching efficacy. In general, participants had a strong science efficacy. The item on which there was the most discrepancy among participants was on #10, the one stating that "The low achievement of some students cannot generally be blamed on their teachers." Most teachers completed an end of year program evaluation. All but one of the participants felt that the pace of the workshop was comfortable. All participants who used faculty mentors in helping their students rated their faculty mentors very highly. All participants rated the program content very highly in terms of clarity, organization, relevance, helpfulness and usefulness. All participants gave the program a very high rating overall and stated they would likely use the information to mentor future students and in instruction in future classes. The science fairs are the culmination of the program. Teachers were required to have at least one student submit a project related to climate change science in their regional fair. There were 28 projects submitted in 2011; of these there were 10 first place winners, 5 second place winners, and 1 third place winner. Over half of the projects entered in the regional science fairs received an award. The reported student science fair projects relating to climate change include, among others: comparing CO2 emissions in old and new cars, comparing travel by mass transit with travel by private car, studying how CO2 effects global warming, studying seedlings in a climate controlled environment, studying the effect of climate change on hurricanes, determining ammonia emission from bovine manure, and studying the effect of Dendroctonus brevicomis on the depopulation of Pinus edulis and Pinus ponderosa due to climate change.

Buck, P.

2012-12-01

52

Heteronormativity, School Climates, and Perceived Safety for Gender Nonconforming Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined…

Toomey, Russell B.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Russell, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

53

Case Studies of Expectation Climate at Two Bilingual Education Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this inquiry was to examine expectation climate at two schools where bilingual education was an approach to educating language minority students. Using purposive sampling based on criteria of similar student demographics but with contrasting settings, two schools were selected for the inquiry. Case studies were prepared of each school based on qualitative data collected, such as interviews,

Robert J. Johnson

2000-01-01

54

A study of parental involvement and school climate: Perspective from the middle school  

E-print Network

This study examines school level differences on different dimensions of teacherrated parent involvement and school climate while adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, how certified, and number of years teaching. Two hundred twenty-four elementary...

Dixon, Shantina Rayford

2009-05-15

55

The relationship among self-efficacy, perceived school climate, and stress in middle school teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among self-efficacy, perceptions of school climate and levels of stress in middle school teachers in a large public school system in a suburb of Detroit. A multiple regression analysis was run to examine the amount of stress that could be accounted for by the predictor variables, self-efficacy and school

Kristine A Dunn-Wisner

2004-01-01

56

The Study of Factor Structure and Reliability of an Abbreviated School Climate Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of school climate has been an important variable in research on quality of school life and student learning. One of the challenges in such a research effort is to develop instruments that could effectively and efficiently measure the construct. The purpose of the current study was to examine the factor structure and reliability of an…

Ding, Cody; Liu, Ying; Berkowitz, Marvin

2011-01-01

57

Integrating School Indicators, School Effectiveness, and School Improvement Research: The Louisiana School Effectiveness Pilot (SEAP).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six papers discuss the Louisiana School Effectiveness and Assistance Pilot (SEAP) program, an ongoing 3-year research project associated with a legislatively mandated school and district accountability program. In three phases, the project joins school indicators, school effectiveness, and school improvement initiatives. The following papers are…

1998

58

Effective Teachers in Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While effective schools research has inspired new efforts toward improving education for all students, it is flawed by offering simplistic prescriptions based on correlational studies focusing on basic skills achievement. Effective school research and theory can be upgraded by a more careful definition of the goals of learning and a systematic…

Hathaway, Walter E.

59

The Relationship Between Elementary School Climate and Teachers' Attitudes Toward Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between teachers' attitudes toward evaluation and elementary school climate. The instrument used in the study was the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ) which described eight dimensions of school climate. (Author/DWH)

Johnston, Gladys S.; And Others

1985-01-01

60

Measuring School Climate in High Schools: A Focus on Safety, Engagement, and the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model.…

Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

2014-01-01

61

Explaining Charter School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses entrance lotteries to explore heterogeneity in the achievement effects of charter schools across demographic groups and between urban and non-urban areas in Massachusetts. The authors develop a framework for interpreting this heterogeneity using both student- and school-level explanatory variables. (Contains 4 tables.)

Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.; Walters, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

62

Measuring Inviting School Climate: A Case Study of a Public Primary School in an Urban Low Socioeconomic Setting in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study utilized the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R) (Smith, 2005b, 2013) based on Invitational Theory and Practice (Purkey & Novak, 2008) to examine the school climate of a public primary school in a low urban socio-economic setting in Kenya. School climate was defined as the perceptions of primary school teachers and pupils…

Okaya, Tom Mboya; Horne, Marj; Lamig, Madeleine; Smith, Kenneth H.

2013-01-01

63

The Relationship of Principal Conflict Management Style and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined conflict management styles of elementary school principals in South Carolina and the relationship of conflict management style and school climate. The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form B, which identifies five styles of managing conflict, was used to determine principal conflict…

Boucher, Miriam Miley

2013-01-01

64

Working Together: Collaborative School Leadership Fosters a Climate of Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Montessori schools, the best way to strengthen the climate of success by the administrators is called "transformational leadership". Leadership theorist James McGregor Burns identifies transformational leadership as a mutual belief and value system, and a commitment between a principal and teachers to focus on what works best for their school.…

McKenzie, Ginger Kelley

2005-01-01

65

Adolescent Perception of Family Climate and Adaptation to Residential Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in adolescents' perceptions of the family as they adapt to residential schooling were studied for 51 residential and 57 nonresidential tenth graders in a school in Israel. No differences in the perception of family climate were found between the groups, suggesting no change with the individual's act of leaving. (SLD)

Shulman, Shmuel; Prechter, Eti

1989-01-01

66

Climate Change: What You Can Do At School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students, educators and school administrators can all play a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This website provides a directory of some education and action planning resources, including tips for recycling and ideas for determining a school's impact on global climate change.

2007-01-01

67

Development and validation of the school interracial climate scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale to measure student perceptions of school interracial climate was developed. Items were written to reflect contact theory criteria for successful desegregation. Nearly 3,100 students in five middle schools responded to a pool of Likert-format items. Those responses were factor analyzed, and four factors emerged: Interdependence, Supportive Norms, Association, and Equal Status. Total scale internal consistency reliability was .89.

Charles W. Green; Afesa M. Adams; Charles W. Turner

1988-01-01

68

Promoting an equitable and supportive school climate in high schools: The role of school organizational health and staff burnout.  

PubMed

In response to persistent racial disparities in academic and behavioral outcomes between Black and White students, equitable school climate has drawn attention as a potential target for school reform. This study examined differences in Black and White students' experiences of school climate and explored whether indicators of school organizational health and staff burnout moderated differences in students' school experiences by race. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of 18,397 Black students (n=6228) and White students (n=12,169) and 2391 school staff in 53 schools, we found a consistent pattern of racial inequalities, such that Black students reported less positive experiences than White students across three indicators of school climate (caring ?=-0.08, p<.001; equity ?=-0.05, p=.007; and engagement ?=-0.05, p<.001). In addition, we found significant, positive associations between aggregated staff-report of school organizational health and student-reported school climate (e.g., staff affiliation and student-perceived equity, ?=0.07, p<.001). Surprisingly, a number of school organizational health indicators were more strongly associated with positive perceptions of school climate among White students than Black students, translating into greater racial disparities in perceived school climate at schools with greater organizational health (e.g., supportive leadership by race on student-perceived engagement, ?=-0.03, p=.042). We also found negative associations between staff-reported burnout and students' experience of equity, such that the racial gap was smaller in schools with high ratings of burnout (?=0.04, p=.002). These findings have implications for educators and education researchers interested in promoting school social contexts that equitably support student engagement and success. PMID:25432272

Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar

2014-12-01

69

Hierarchical Linear Modelling of Student and School Effects on Academic Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) and data from the New Brunswick School Climate Study were used to examine student background, school context, and school climate effects on Grade 6 student achievement in mathematics, science, reading, and writing. Gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and Native ethnicity were significant predictors of academic achievement. Schools showed the smallest variation in reading, the largest in mathematics.

Xin Ma; Don A. Klinger

2000-01-01

70

Schoolwide Social-Behavioral Climate, Student Problem Behavior, and Related Administrative Decisions: Empirical Patterns from 1,510 Schools Nationwide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Office discipline referral (ODR) data provide useful information about problem behavior and consequence patterns, social-behavioral climates, and effects of social-behavioral interventions in schools. The authors report patterns of ODRs and subsequent administrative decisions from 1,510 schools nationwide that used the School-Wide Information…

Spaulding, Scott A.; Irvin, Larry K.; Horner, Robert H.; May, Seth L.; Emeldi, Monica; Tobin, Tary J.; Sugai, George

2010-01-01

71

Middle School Students' Understandings About Anthropogenic Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009; Golden & Francis, 2013), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdotes to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. Additionally, we found that students' understandings of climate change were tied to their ontological constructions of the subject matter, i.e., many perceived climate change as just another environmentally sensitive issue such as littering and pollution, and were therefore limited in their ability to understand anthropogenic climate change in the vast and robust sense meant by current scientific consensus. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.

2013-12-01

72

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER SYSTEM Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012020 Prepared for: California consideration of climate change effects on highelevation hydropower supply and demand in California. Artificial

73

School climate and delinquency among chinese adolescents: analyses of effortful control as a moderator and deviant peer affiliation as a mediator.  

PubMed

School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age?=?13.53 years, SD?=?1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency. PMID:24962709

Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui

2015-01-01

74

Administrative Style and Organizational Climate in Junior High and Middle Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares the administrative styles of principals of junior high schools with those of middle school principals. It also examines the school climates of these schools and analyzes the relationships between climate and administrative style. The population for the study consisted of 77 teachers from 19 middle schools and 69 teachers from…

Edge, David L.; Valentine, Jerry W.

75

The Effect of a Case-Based Reasoning Instructional Model on Korean High School Students' Awareness in Climate Change Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the case-based reasoning instructional model on learning about climate change unit. Results suggest that students showed interest because it allowed them to find the solution to the problem and solve the problem for themselves by analogy from other cases such as crossword puzzles in an…

Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Hyoungbum; Chae, Dong-hyun; Kim, Eunjeong

2014-01-01

76

School Effectiveness and the Disadvantaged Schools Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) has been an important and integral part of education for many Australian students for over a decade. After reviewing eight school effectiveness variables, this paper argues that adding a new emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills will enhance the DSP program. Includes 3 tables and 20 references.…

Walker, Allan; Murphy, Joseph

1986-01-01

77

What Effective Schools Do  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has been showing that the most important development in K-12 education over the past decade has been the emergence of a growing number of urban schools that have been convincingly shown to have dramatic positive effects on the achievement of disadvantaged students. Those with the strongest evidence of success are oversubscribed charter…

West, Martin R.; Gabrieli, Christopher F. O.; Finn, Amy S.; Kraft, Matthew A.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

2014-01-01

78

Perceptions of School Climate and Student Achievement in Middle and Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of middle school climate to academic achievement was examined. Participants were members of eight 6th grade classes. Four of the classes were in elementary settings, and four in middle school settings. Classes were matched as closely as possible on economic status and ethnic composition. Entered into correlational analyses were…

Montoya, Alicia L.; Brown, Neil L.

79

Best Practices: Creating an LGBT-Inclusive School Climate. A Teaching Tolerance Guide for School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are places of learning and also miniature societies. The climate of a school has a direct impact on both how well students learn and how well they interact with their peers. Teachers and administrators work hard to make their classrooms welcoming places where each student feels included. But despite these efforts, students who are--or who…

Southern Poverty Law Center (NJ1), 2013

2013-01-01

80

Middle School Improvement and Reform: Development and Validation of a School-Level Assessment of Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and School Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the structure of perceived school climate and the relationship of climate dimensions to adaptation of students who attend middle-grade-level schools. The climate scales exhibited a stable dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability. Ratings of multiple climate dimensions were associated…

Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert; Shim, Minsuk; Seitsinger, Anne; Dumas, Thaddeus

2003-01-01

81

Measurement of Perceived School Climate for Active Travel in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To describe the development of an original scale that measures perceived school climate for active travel in fourth- and fifth-grade girls and boys. Methods: The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to provide evidence of factorial validity, factorial invariance, and construct validity. Results: The CFA supported…

Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Ward, Dianne S.

2007-01-01

82

School Climate Factors Relating to Teacher Burnout: A Mediator Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated components of school climate (i.e. parent/community relations, administration, student behavioral values) and assessed their influence on the core burnout dimensions of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and feelings of low Personal Accomplishment. The study weighed the relative contributions of demographic…

Grayson, Jessica L.; Alvarez, Heather K.

2008-01-01

83

Transforming School Climate and Learning: Beyond Bullying and Compliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators agree that children learn better in an honoring and respectful culture. They also know that top-down imposed change rarely sticks. In "Transforming School Climate and Learning", Bill Preble and Rick Gordon show how to accomplish lasting results by engaging both teachers and students in the five-step SafeMeasures[TM] process, a…

Preble, Bill; Gordon, Rick

2011-01-01

84

The Impact of Principal Perception on Student Academic Climate and Achievement in High School: How Does It Measure Up?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine the independent direct effects of student and principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement in high school. To date, few studies have considered the influence of principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement. In the present study, we test a set of two-level hierarchical…

Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.

2014-01-01

85

Delaware School Climate Survey--Student: Its Factor Structure, Concurrent Validity, and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (DSCS-S) was developed to provide schools with a brief and psychometrically sound student survey for assessing school climate, particularly the dimensions of social support and structure. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 11,780 students in 85 schools, showed that a bifactor model…

Bear, George G.; Gaskins, Clare; Blank, Jessica; Chen, Fang Fang

2011-01-01

86

Effect of climate change on air quality Daniel J. Jacob a,*, Darrell A. Winner b  

E-print Network

meteorology Ozone Particulate matter Mercury a b s t r a c t Air quality is strongly dependent on weatherEffect of climate change on air quality Daniel J. Jacob a,*, Darrell A. Winner b a School.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA Keywords: Climate change Air quality Air pollution

Jacob, Daniel J.

87

Organizational Climate, Faculty Trust: Predicting Student Bullying--An Elementary School Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying is a serious problem among students. Research linking school climate and trust as to bullying is minimal. This study examined elements of school climate and trust in relation to bullying and protection using Hoy and Smith's (2004) climate study and Smith and Birney's (2005) trust study. Trust was found to be the significant…

Anderton, Tenna

2012-01-01

88

An Examination of Bullying in Georgia Schools: Demographic and School Climate Factors Associated with Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Situations  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. Methods: We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Results: Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. Conclusion: These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates. PMID:23930145

Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H.; Strasser, Sheryl M.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Meyers, Joel

2013-01-01

89

Middle School Student Perceptions of School Climate: Examining Protective Functions on Subsequent Adjustment Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the roles of student perceptions of four aspects of school climate (friction, cohesion, competition among students, and satisfaction with classes) as moderators of the relations between effortful control and subsequent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Participants were 488 10-to-14-year old students involved in…

Loukas, Alexandra; Murphy, Jonna L.

2007-01-01

90

Climate Kids: What is the Greenhouse Effect?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The greenhouse effect is explained in this series of related questions and answers. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

91

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores how Earth's climate has changed in the past and how it may change in the future. Climate change may occur as a result of changes in Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans. Such changes may be abrupt (such as gas and dust from volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts) or may occur over very long times (such as changes in landscape or increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). Even relatively small changes in atmospheric or ocean content and/or temperature can have widespread effects on climate if the change lasts long enough. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate. Though climate change and changes in the composition of the oceans and atmosphere are natural, present modifications far exceed natural rates. Learning Outcomes:? Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.? Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.? Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.? Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

92

Instructional Leadership and Schools Effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.

Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy

93

Profiles of School Anxiety: Differences in Social Climate and Peer Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: School anxiety is often defined as a set of symptoms grouped into cognitive, psychophysiological and motor responses emitted by an individual in school situations that can be perceived as threatening and/or dangerous. School anxiety may be influenced--among other relevant school variables - by the perception of social climate and the…

Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Ingles, Candido J.; Trianes, Maria V.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

2011-01-01

94

School-Based Management as a Factor in School Effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advocates of a policy of greater autonomy for schools in the public education system argue that such a policy makes for more effective schools. This article, based on a study carried out in Israel, examines how important the autonomy factor is in influencing school effectiveness as measured by such criteria as teachers' sense of motivation and commitment to the school. While welcoming the trend towards greater autonomy for schools, the author argues that further research is needed before we can formulate any theory concerning the relationship between school autonomy and school effectiveness.

Gaziel, Haim

1998-07-01

95

Effective Schools, Teaching and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluates current research literature on effective schools. While acknowledging that the research provides systematic direction for school improvement, the author also points out some shortcomings of existing studies, including (1) inadequate description of curriculum content and of circumstances believed to result in test success; (2)…

Perrone, Vito

1983-01-01

96

Health Effects of Climate Change  

MedlinePLUS

... over generations. TODAY It is now established that climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. These ... are becoming alert to the dynamic relationship between climate change and human health. Some of these impacts are ...

97

Some effects of parent involvement in schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the interrelationships among components of parent involvement at schools and investigates their effects on school outcomes. The study used data collected during an evaluation of California's Early Childhood Education Program. Varinbles included socioeconomic status, the frequency of school-parent communications, parent awareness of school events, amount of parent involvement at the school, parent influence in school decision making,

Joan L. Herman; Jennie P. Yeh

1983-01-01

98

Neighborhood crime and school climate as predictors of elementary school academic quality: a cross-lagged panel analysis.  

PubMed

Past research has found negative relationships between neighborhood structural disadvantage and students' academic outcomes. Comparatively little work has evaluated the associations between characteristics of neighborhoods and schools themselves. This study explored the longitudinal, reciprocal relationships between neighborhood crime and school-level academic achievement within 500 urban schools. Results revealed that higher neighborhood crime (and particularly violent crime) predicted decreases in school academic achievement across time. School climate emerged as one possible mechanism within this relationship, with higher neighborhood crime predicting decreases in socioemotional learning and safety, but not academic rigor. All three dimensions of school climate were predictive of changes in academic achievement. Although this research supports a primarily unidirectional hypothesis of neighborhoods' impacts on embedded settings, additional work is needed to understand these relationships using additional conceptualizations of neighborhood climate. PMID:23764745

McCoy, Dana Charles; Roy, Amanda L; Sirkman, Gabriel M

2013-09-01

99

School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception in Traditional and Cyberbullying Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in perceptions of school social climate and peers in terms of bullying status, and to investigate the psychometric properties of the School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception Scales. The students participated from six different cities in Turkey were in…

Bayar, Yusuf; Ucanok, Zehra

2012-01-01

100

Spanish Secondary School Students' Notions on the Causes and Consequences of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse…

Punter, Pilar; Ochando-Pardo, Montserrat; Garcia, Javier

2011-01-01

101

An Analysis of the Relation between Secondary School Organizational Climate and Teacher Job Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates and analyzes the relation between the secondary school organizational climate and teacher job satisfaction using a self-designed school organizational climate scale based on studies in China and abroad. The findings show that except for interpersonal factors there are significant correlations between the various factors of…

Xiaofu, Pan; Qiwen, Qin

2007-01-01

102

The Impact of a Principal's Sex on the Climate of Alternative Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of a leader's sex on the climate of alternative schools. Specifically, the problem was "Does a principal's sex have an impact on the climate of alternative schools?" The research attempted to answer the following questions: (1) Do differences with regard to a principal's sex exist within the following subsets of…

Wenton, Jessica

2010-01-01

103

The Contribution of Student Perceptions of School Climate to Understanding the Disproportionate Punishment of African American Students in a Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the contribution of student perceptions of school climate to racial differences in school discipline. Four hundred middle school students completed a school climate survey. Compared to Caucasian students, African-American students were referred to the office for discipline three times as frequently and received five times…

Shirley, Erica L. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.

2012-01-01

104

Assessing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers knowledge base about global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change (GCC) is a crucial environmental issue that is challenging all Americans. With an effective collaboration between researchers, scientists and teachers, conceptual frameworks and methods can be developed for creating climate change content for classroom implementation. In this paper, we describe how teachers' conceptualize and understand global climate change. The information generated by this study can further be used to develop theme based, structured curricula to enhance teachers' understanding of the phenomenon of global climate change. Recent national documents concerning science education have focused on an Earth System approach and concentrate on the fundamental concepts and big ideas in earth science and climate change (e.g., The Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) (National Science Foundation (NSF), 2009) and Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009)). Unfortunately, research related to teachers' earth science content knowledge has not focused on an earth systems approach rather researchers have examined teachers' misconceptions about isolated earth science concepts, such as moon phases and plate tectonics. While such research implies teachers' lack of knowledge and awareness of earth as a system, it does not provide direct information about teachers' earth system knowledge. Similarly, research on teachers' and students' knowledge of climate change has focused on isolated topics, such as the greenhouse effect and global warming. Our study focused on eliciting secondary school science teachers' understanding of global climate change using a multifaceted and integrated approach. We do so in the context of a 3-year teacher professional development program where the climate science content provided to the teachers was aligned with essential principles of climate science (EPCS-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009). Our study was guided by the following research questions 1) What is the nature of teachers' climate literacy? 2)What is the structure of teachers' knowledge of climate change?3)What is the level of teachers' understanding of principles essential to understand Earth's climate system? This study employed a phenomenographical approach to analyze data for a qualitative measurement of different ways in which the teachers experienced and conceptualized climate change. We collected and analyzed data from the teachers' concept maps, supplemented it with the data from the Photo Elicitation Interviews and then aligned the outcomes with the seven essential principals of climate literacy (EPCS) to estimate the distribution of teacher knowledge. Our findings indicate that where teachers understand a diverse array of topics related to the science of global climate change, they need specific tools like place-based data simulations to correlate various local and global aspects of the phenomenon. Our findings also indicate teachers' perceptions about timescale, data projections using modeling and the level of uncertainty in the data. Our results will provide crucial information about providing conceptual knowledge and addressing misconceptions regarding the science of climate change and the educational approach towards teaching it in the best possible way.

Bhattacharya, D.; Roehrig, G. H.; Karahan, E.; Liu, S.

2012-12-01

105

Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

2011-01-01

106

Examining the Impact of Leadership Style and School Climate on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…

Robinson, Tina

2010-01-01

107

Coordinating Social-Emotional and Character Development (SECD) Initiatives Improves School Climate and Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many schools attempt to implement multiple programs to promote positive young adolescent development; however, these programs are often fragmented and lack coordination. The authors describe an initiative designed to help schools coordinate their social-emotional and character development (SECD) efforts to improve school climate and help students…

Elias, Maurice J.; DeFini, Jennifer; Bergmann, Jennifer

2010-01-01

108

Positive School Climate Is Associated with Lower Body Mass Index Percentile among Urban Preadolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools are an important environmental context in children's lives and are part of the complex web of factors that contribute to childhood obesity. Increasingly, attention has been placed on the importance of school climate (connectedness, academic standards, engagement, and student autonomy) as 1 domain of school environment…

Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M.; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

2014-01-01

109

Analysis of the Energy Savings Potential in K-5 Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-print Network

This paper presents the analysis of the energy savings potential in K-5 schools in hot and humid climates. For the analysis, an existing K-5 school in Central Texas was selected as a case study school, and the building energy related data...

Im, P.; Haberl, J.

110

Identifying Effective School Principals  

E-print Network

focus on three dimensions: student performance, teacher retention, and financial management. Data is derived from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to develop a total of seven specific indicators to measure success in these three areas for Texas.... Teacher retention may also affect student performance and impose costs on a school. Because beginning teacher turnover is systematically higher than the turnover of more experienced teachers, we recommend evaluating principals on beginning...

Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber

2007-01-01

111

Accelerated School Programmes: Assessing Their Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effectiveness of Accelerated School Programs (ASPs) on the basis of a study of four comprehensive schools in Israel. Assesses the influence of ASPs upon internal school processes, such as school goals, structures, and cultures, as perceived by school staff. Determines the project's impact on staff and parents' attitudes, and examines…

Gaziel, Haim

2001-01-01

112

Climate Change and Agriculture: Effects and Adaptation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This document is a synthesis of science literature on the effects of climate change on agriculture and issues associated with agricultural adaptation to climate change. Information is presented on how long-term changes in air temperatures, precipitation, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide wi...

113

Principals' Perceptions of Superintendents' Leadership Practices and Its Impact on School Climate in Selected South Florida Public School District Areas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This research study sought to determine the leadership practices of area superintendents in selected South Florida public school district areas based on principals' perceptions and assess school climate impact using descriptive and inferential approaches. Methodology: The "Leadership Practices Inventory" ("LPI") 360 Online was used…

McFarlane, Donovan A.

2010-01-01

114

The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.

2012-01-01

115

Effective Schools: Mirror or Mirage?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and analyzes characteristics which are frequently mentioned as contributing to effective schools. Among the characteristics are that they improve the effectiveness and efficiency of students' work by organizing material and/or instruction, increase the amount of work students perform per unit of time, reduce distractions, and encourage…

Tomlinson, Tommy M.

1981-01-01

116

Beyond Standardized Test Scores: An Examination of Leadership and Climate as Leading Indicators of Future Success in the Transformation of Turnaround Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Districts throughout the nation are engaged in comprehensive transformation to "turn around" low performing schools. Standardized test scores are used to gauge student achievement; however, academic gains may lag behind leading indicators such as improved school climate and effective leadership. This study examines 16 underperforming…

May, Judy Jackson; Sanders, Eugene T. W.

2013-01-01

117

OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE INFORMATION NEEDS FOR ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric scientists engaged in climate change research require a basic understanding of how ecological effects models incorporate climate. This report provides an overview of existing ecological models that might be used to model climate change effects on vegetation. ome agric...

118

Effective Schools: Do Elementary Prescriptions Fit Secondary Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the recent research identifying organizational characteristics that seem to make schools unusually effective has been conducted at the elementary level and may not be applicable to secondary schools. Research currently underway suggests that the basic organizational structures of elementary and secondary schools dictate two different…

Firestone, William A.; Herriott, Robert E.

119

Navigating middle grades: role of social contexts in middle grade school climate.  

PubMed

During early adolescence, most public school students undergo school transitions, and many students experience declines in academic performance and social-emotional well-being. Theories and empirical research have highlighted the importance of supportive school environments in promoting positive youth development during this period of transition. Despite this, little is known about the proximal social and developmental contexts of the range of middle grade public schools US students attend. Using a cross-sectional dataset from the eighth grade wave of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 1998-1999, the current study examines the middle grade school social context from the perspectives of administrators and teachers in public schools with typical grade configurations (k-8 schools, middle schools, and junior high schools) and how it relates to students' perceptions of school climate. We find that administrators and teachers in k-8 schools perceive a more positive school social context, controlling for school structural and demographic characteristics. This school social context, in turn, is associated with students' perceptions of their schools' social and academic climate. Implications for educational policy and practice are discussed. PMID:24830348

Kim, Ha Yeon; Schwartz, Kate; Cappella, Elise; Seidman, Edward

2014-09-01

120

Protective School Climates and Reduced Risk for Suicide Ideation in Sexual Minority Youths  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether sexual minority students living in states and cities with more protective school climates were at lower risk of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts. Methods. Data on sexual orientation and past-year suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts were from the pooled 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Surveys from 8 states and cities. We derived data on school climates that protected sexual minority students (e.g., percentage of schools with safe spaces and Gay–Straight Alliances) from the 2010 School Health Profile Survey, compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students living in states and cities with more protective school climates reported fewer past-year suicidal thoughts than those living in states and cities with less protective climates (lesbians and gays: odds ratio [OR]?=?0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.47, 0.99; bisexuals: OR?=?0.81; 95% CI?=?0.66, 0.99). Results were robust to adjustment for potential state-level confounders. Sexual orientation disparities in suicidal thoughts were nearly eliminated in states and cities with the most protective school climates. Conclusions. School climates that protect sexual minority students may reduce their risk of suicidal thoughts. PMID:24328634

Birkett, Michelle; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Meyer, Ilan H.

2014-01-01

121

Form 20 Heriot-Watt University -Module Descriptor Template (RAY) Version 3.0 (2007/2008) Module Title Climate Change: Mitigation and Adaptation Measures School School of Life Sciences On or Off-  

E-print Network

Title Climate Change: Mitigation and Adaptation Measures School School of Life Sciences On or Off 3.0 (2007/2008) Module Title Climate Change: Mitigation and Adaptation Measures School School this is a core module Climate Change: Managing the Marine Environment Climate Change: Impacts and Mitigation 7

Painter, Kevin

122

School-Family Relations and Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents reasons why parent involvement is of vital concern to school administrators. Provides an overview of this special issue which focuses on the role of the administrator in promoting educationally helpful forms of parent involvement. (Author/LHW)

Gotts, Edward E.; Purnell, Richard F.

1987-01-01

123

The Effectiveness of Cohesive Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research findings concerning leadership and management of (Dutch) secondary schools, using configuration theory. Distinguishes among three different management styles (two nonparticipative and one participative) that make use of six coordinating mechanisms. The participatory style was more effective and conducive to higher student math…

Hofman, Roelande; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Guldemond, Henk

2001-01-01

124

Effective School Management. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this book is to help teachers with senior management responsibilities, and the schools and colleges that they work in, to become more effective. It is a book by practitioners for practitioners. They authors believe their book is unique, because there are so few people who have had enough management responsibility and training…

Everard, K.B.; Morris, Geoffrey; Wilson, Ian

2004-01-01

125

Bringing Global Climate Change Education to Alabama Middle School and High School Classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A NASA-funded Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program has been launched in Alabama to improve high school and middle school education in climate change science. The overarching goal is to generate a better informed public that understands the consequences of climate change and can contribute to sound decision making on related issues. Inquiry based NICE modules have been incorporated into the existing course of study for 9-12 grade biology, chemistry, and physics classes. In addition, new modules in three major content areas (earth and space science, physical science, and biological science) have been introduced to selected 6-8 grade science teachers in the summer of 2013. The NICE modules employ five E's of the learning cycle: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend and Evaluate. Modules learning activities include field data collection, laboratory measurements, and data visualization and interpretation. Teachers are trained in the use of these modules for their classroom through unique partnership with Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) and the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Certified AMSTI teachers attend summer professional development workshops taught by ASIM and AMSTI specialists to learn to use NICE modules. During the school year, the specialists in turn deliver the needed equipment to conduct NICE classroom exercises and serve as an in-classroom resource for teachers and their students. Scientists are partnered with learning and teaching specialists and lead teachers to implement and test efficacy of instructional materials, models, and NASA data used in classroom. The assessment by professional evaluators after the development of the modules and the training of teachers indicates that the modules are complete, clear, and user-friendly. The overall teacher satisfaction from the teacher training was 4.88/5.00. After completing the module teacher training, the teachers reported a strong agreement that the content developed in the NICE modules should be included in the Alabama secondary curriculum. Eventually, the NICE program has the potential to reach over 200,000 students when the modules are fully implemented in every school in the state of Alabama. The project can give these students access to expertise and equipment, thereby strengthening the connections between the universities, state education administrators, and the community.

Lee, M.; Mitra, C.; Percival, E.; Thomas, A.; Lucy, T.; Hickman, E.; Cox, J.; Chaudhury, S. R.; Rodger, C.

2013-12-01

126

Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-print Network

A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily...

Im, Piljae

2010-07-14

127

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Climate Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. Learning Outcomes:? Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.? Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.? Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

128

ASK Florida; a climate change education professional development program for middle school teachers in Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of professional development workshops covering the fundamentals of climate change have been developed and facilitated for two groups of middle school science teachers in three Florida counties. The NASA-supported joint venture between Florida State University's Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) and the University of South Florida's (USF's) Coalition for Science Literacy, ASK Florida, focuses on expanding and deepening teachers' content knowledge of a wide range of climate change topics, connecting local and regional changes to the global picture, and supporting classroom implementation and effective teaching practices. Education experts from USF, climate scientists from COAPS, and Hillsborough county teachers and science coaches coordinated and developed the workshop content, which is based on Florida's Next Generation Sunshine State Standards in science, science curriculum guides for 6th grade, and teacher interest. Several scientists have facilitated activities during the workshop, including professors in meteorology and climatology, research scientists in the field, a NOAA program manager, the state climatologists for Florida, and others. Having these climate scientists present during the workshop provides teachers an opportunity to interact directly with the scientists and gain insight into the climatology field. Additionally, we host an open-forum discussion panel during which teachers can ask the experts about any topics of interest. Activities are designed to enhance the scientific skill level of the teachers. Introductory activities reinforce teachers' abilities to distinguish facts from opinions and to evaluate sources. Other activities provide hands-on experience using actual scientific data from NASA and other agencies. For example, teachers analyze precipitation data to create distributions of Florida rainfall, examine sea level trends at various locations, identify Atlantic hurricane frequencies during the phases of ENSO, and create maps of climate data available on the MYNASADATA web portal. The human aspect of climate change is addressed by discussing anthropological influences such as land use changes. In addition, we examine scientific and public use and interpretation of climate models, scenarios, and projections, and explore adaptation and mitigation strategies for Florida-specific climate projections. Pedagogy is incorporated throughout the workshops to demonstrate how the content and activities can be adapted for their students. Furthermore, we support educators in overcoming obstacles associated with teaching global and regional climate change. This program targets teachers from Title-I schools because students from these schools are typically underrepresented in the STEM fields. Additionally, classroom technology is often limited; therefore, it is important to adapt resources so they can be used in the classroom with or without computers. Activities are presented through an inquiry-based format to encourage knowledge acquisition and discovery similar to that occurring in the actual scientific field. Finally, we prepare teachers to address apathetic or antiscientific sentiments their students may have about climate change by identifying the background issues and ideology and developing strategies to make the content more relevant to their students' lives.

Weihs, R. R.

2012-12-01

129

When Climate is Changing: Effects of Phenology and Local Climate on  

E-print Network

When Climate is Changing: Effects of Phenology and Local Climate on Individual Fitness Meit �berg-91-576-7973-4 © 2014 Meit �berg, Uppsala Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2014 Cover: Meit �berg #12;When Climate is Changing: Effects of Phenology and Local Climate on Individual Fitness Abstract The fitness impacts

130

Combining Knowledge and Beliefs in High School Climate Science Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teachers face a seemingly insurmountable task when asked to address the science of climate change with the general public. This topic is unique because of its complexity, political implications and urgency for action. Developing tools that teachers need to address the National Science Standards begin with comprehensive professional development. After one year's implementation of our program (after participation in UCAR's NASA-funded Research Experiences for Teachers Institute), we are beginning to see evidence that with intentional delivery and preparation of climate science curriculum it is possible to combine knowledge and beliefs in order to nurture a desire for action. Teachers need to acquire an appreciation and understanding for the level of connectedness between disciplines used to study climate and repeatedly present the scientific process as a way of gathering evidence to arrive at factual conclusions. This emphasis on scientific process is important in dealing with the difference between personal beliefs and knowledge. In students' everyday lives their beliefs often matter much more to them than scientific facts. Today's media frequently gives opinions as much clout as verifiable data. Therefore, science teachers need to become anthropologists in order to navigate between cultures, traditions, economic realities and foundational beliefs to effect a change in attitude. Climate change affects us all whether we like it or not, and the challenge is finding a personal connection for each student that supports their journey instead of polarizing each other into the "believers" and "non-believers". It is important to listen to those whose worldview is not best explained by science in order to address the problem with the least resistance. At the end of a program that implemented techniques described above the student's overwhelming response was not: "climate change is a hoax" but instead "ok, I get it, NOW WHAT?" This is the million-dollar question that we strive to be asked and struggle to answer. We can get the student's attention but keeping them active in the pursuit of change is our next hurdle. Initial results are available in the form of case studies including pre and post attitudes about this global issue.

Davis, J.

2012-12-01

131

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains recommendations for designing high performance, energy efficient schools located in hot and dry climates. A high performance checklist for designers is included along with several case studies of projects that successfully demonstrated high performance design solutions for hot and dry climates. The guide's 10 sections…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

132

The Relationship of Bureaucratic Structure to School Climate: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Construct Validity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…

Lennon, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

133

The Perceived School Climate in Invitational Schools in Hong Kong: Using the Chinese Version of the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of the Chinese translation of the revised Inviting School Survey (ISS-R; Smith, 2005; Smith & Bernard, 2004) to measure the invitational climate of seven invitational secondary schools in Hong Kong. The five subscales of Chinese version of ISS-R were found to be valid and reliable in a sample of 706 Grade 11…

Ng, Carmen K. M.; Yuen, Mantak

2011-01-01

134

Development of Theories of School-Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts from organizational theory are used to interpret and review major findings of school effectiveness research to develop a broader perspective for understanding school effectiveness. Results of school-effectiveness research in the Netherlands are compared with those from research in the United States and England. A more-or-less established…

Scheerens, Jaap; Stoel, Wouter G. R.

135

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack explores concepts related to Earth's weather and climate. The focus is on Standards and Benchmarks related to weather and climate, the water cycle, climate change, and the role of solar energy and its affect on the atmosphere and oceans. The unique role oceans play in defining Earth's weather and climate patterns is also specifically addressed. In addition to comprehensive inquiry-based learning materials tied to Science Education Standards and Benchmarks, the SciPack includes the following additional components:? Pedagogical Implications section addressing common misconceptions, teaching resources and strand maps linking grade band appropriate content to standards. ? Access to one-on-one support via e-mail to content "Wizards".? Final Assessment which can be used to certify mastery of the concepts.Learning Outcomes:Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Climate Patterns? Explain why the temperature of the ocean does not generally fluctuate as dramatically as the temperature of the land.? Describe the relationship between density of liquids and gases and their temperature.? Explain how a difference in density of different layers/portions of a fluid will cause internal currents (rising and falling of the fluid).? Explain the cause of predictable wind patterns along the coastal regions of large land masses.? Describe how the Coriolis Effect helps determine the direction of movement of air and water currents.? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the atmosphere.? Provide an example showing how the transfer of energy affects weather and climate.? Explain how convection relates to weather, including its role in the development of circulation patterns. Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Precipitation and Energy? Outline the basic steps in the water cycle in terms of density, energy of the water, and the relative molecular arrangement and motion in each phase.? Describe how energy is transferred to the atmosphere by heating from the ocean and by the evaporation of water and its subsequent condensation. ? Identify the Sun as the energy source that drives atmospheric circulation and the movement of masses of air and water from one place on Earth to another (via convection).? Llist sources for the water cycle and identify the largest source.? Explain the relationship between water, temperature, the amount of water evaporated into the atmosphere (and subsequently condensed), and the energy of the atmosphere at or near the location of evaporation.Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Circulation Patterns? Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.? Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.? Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate? Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.? Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.? Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.? Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

136

The effect of climatic factors on the toxicity of certain organic insecticides  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN ORGANIC INSECTICIDES A Dissertation By MILTER JOSEPH MISTRIC, JR, Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ?7*(Head Df Department) May THEF L IB R A R Y A & M... COLLEGE OF TEXAS. THE EFFECT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN ORGANIC INSECTICIDES By HALTER JOSEPH MISTRIC, JR A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment...

Mistric, Walter Joseph

2013-10-04

137

The Influences of Leadership Style and School Climate to Faculty Psychological Contracts: A Case of S University in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school

Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

2006-01-01

138

Validation of a Brief Measure of Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate: Relations to Student Achievement and Suspensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on theory and research on learning environments, the Delaware School Climate Survey-Teacher/Staff (DSCS-T/S) was developed to provide schools with a brief, psychometrically sound measure of teachers' perceptions of school climate. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 5,781 teachers, support staff,…

Bear, George G.; Yang, Chunyan; Pell, Megan; Gaskins, Clare

2014-01-01

139

The Relationships between Teachers' Perceptions of Principal Leadership and Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research considered relationships among teachers' perceptions of principal leadership and teachers' perceptions of school climate by using the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) survey and the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (Revised) for Middle Schools (OCDQ-RM) survey. Teachers from six middle schools in the…

Pulleyn, Janet L.

2012-01-01

140

e-Leadership of School Principals: Increasing School Effectiveness by a School Data Management System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, school management systems have become an important tool for effective e-leadership and data-based decision making. School management systems emphasize information flow and e-communication between teachers, students and parents. This study examines e-leadership by secondary-school principals through the Mashov school management…

Blau, Ina; Presser, Ofer

2013-01-01

141

Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the…

Im, Piljae

2009-01-01

142

Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing positive school climates and improving school discipline policies and practices are critical steps to raising academic achievement and supporting student success. However, there is no single formula for doing so. Rather, the growing body of research and best practices in the field should inform locally developed approaches to improving…

US Department of Education, 2014

2014-01-01

143

High School Social Climate and Antisocial Behavior: A 10 Year Longitudinal and Multilevel Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…

Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2008-01-01

144

Evaluation of Authentic Science Projects on Climate Change in Secondary Schools: A Focus on Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and purpose: This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from…

Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin

2011-01-01

145

Perceived Motivational Climates and Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Norwegian Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the relationship between perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems (EBP: symptoms of depression, lack of on-task-orientation and disruptive behaviour), among 1171 Norwegian 8th grade secondary school students from 65 school classes. Statistical analyses showed significant…

Stornes, Tor; Bru, Edvin

2011-01-01

146

Perceptions of School and Family Climates and Experiences of Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of family and school-level variables on relational aggression and relational victimization was investigated among 158 fourth- and fifth-grade children. Family cohesion, maternal and paternal responsiveness, and school climate were hypothesized to be significant predictors of relational aggression and relational victimization. The results…

Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Taiariol, Jennifer; Yoon, Jina

2010-01-01

147

STEM417: NASA Resources for Teaching Global Climate Change in High School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, facilitated course is designed for high-school educators wishing to teach global climate change using an inquiry/problem-based approach. The course focusses on evidence that supports global climate change and how to use NASA data and resources to help high-school students discover mitigations or adaptations to climate change. The course is part of PBS Education's outreach and offerings to educators across the country; it is a 45-hour experience over six weeks and eligible for three graduate credits.

148

Perceptions of school climate in charter schools and teacher motivation levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of leadership style and its influence on teacher motivation have shown that leader behavior is an important factor in group effectiveness. Research showed that it is one factor among many. A review of the literature supported the concept that teachers' motivation and performance in schools were affected by the principal's leadership style, but no leadership style has been shown

Cheryl L Mason-Bush

2003-01-01

149

Profiles of Organizational Culture and Effective Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study intends to investigate how school organizational culture is related to important organizational characteristics and observe how the profiles of strong culture?effective schools are different from those of weak culture?ineffective schools in terms of organizational variables (such as principal's leadership, organizational structure, and teachers’ social interactions), teachers’ job attitudes, and school effectiveness criteria. It is a cross?sectional survey research

Yin Cheong Cheng

1993-01-01

150

Implementing Effective Schools Research: The Audit Process High School Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During May of 1985, an external audit team was engaged by the Lorain (Ohio) City Schools to assess implementation of the seven correlates of an effective school. The correlates, developed by the Ohio State Department of Education, included: (1) a sense of mission; (2) strong building leadership; (3) high expectations for all students and staff;…

Brubaker, Hal; Partin, Ron

151

Improving Middle School Climate through Teacher-Centered Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collaborative school-based intervention aimed at modifying relationships among administrators and teachers was implemented in three middle and junior high schools. Across the intervention schools, teachers were active collaborators in identifying problems and then articulating and implementing customized interventions to redress those problems.…

Rhodes, Jean E.; Camic, Paul M.; Milburn, Michael; Lowe, Sarah R.

2009-01-01

152

High School Identity Climate and Student Identity Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated whether schools characterized by high school students as being rich in identity promoting features contribute to student identity development. A theoretical model posited that student perceptions of teachers as caring role models and their school as cultivating the whole student will foster student exploration and…

Rich, Yisrael; Schachter, Elli P.

2012-01-01

153

Magnets Adjust to New Climate of School Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Once considered a way to help integrate racially divided districts, magnet schools today have been forced to evolve, given increasing pressure to provide more public school choices and legal barriers against using race to determine school enrollment. In a post-desegregation era, many large districts like Chicago, Los Angeles, and Baltimore County…

Fleming, Nora

2012-01-01

154

Preliminary Development of the Brief-California School Climate Survey: Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance across Teachers and Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief 15-item version of the California School Climate Scale (Brief-CSCS) is presented to fill a need for a measure that could be used for periodic monitoring of school personnel's general perception of the climate of their school campus. From a sample of 81,261 California school personnel, random subsamples of 2,400 teachers and 2,400…

You, Sukkyung; O'Malley, Meagan D.; Furlong, Michael J.

2014-01-01

155

The Climatic Effects of Nuclear War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings by this group confirmed by workers in Europe, the US and the USSR, suggest that the long-term climatic effects of a major nuclear war are likely to be much severer and farther-reaching than had been supposed. In the aftermath of such a war vast areas of the earth could be subjected to prolonged darkness, abnormally low temperatures, violent

Richard P. Turco; Owen B. Toon; Thomas P. Ackerman; James B. Pollack; Carl Sagan

1984-01-01

156

Effects of climate change on croplands  

EPA Science Inventory

This talk will describe likely changes in temperature and precipitation expected in the northwestern US with global climate change, and their potential impacts on Oregon croplands. The focus will be on the effects of temperature and carbon dioxide on crop productivity, weed cont...

157

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes to Ecosystems K. A. Garrett, S. P. Dendy, E. E. Frank, M. N. Rouse, and S. E. Travers Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan@ksu.edu Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 2006. 44:489­509 First published online as a Review in Advance on May 23, 2006

Garrett, Karen A.

158

Measuring School Climate for Gauging Principal Performance: A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Publicly Accessible Measures. A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief provides principal evaluation system designers information about the technical soundness and cost (i.e., time requirements) of publicly available school climate surveys. The authors focus on the technical soundness of school climate surveys because they believe that using validated and reliable surveys as an outcomes measure can…

Clifford, Matthew; Menon, Roshni; Gangi, Tracy; Condon, Christopher; Hornung, Katie

2012-01-01

159

Differences among Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate: Does Support for the Local Teacher Union Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although some school improvement literature has suggested that schools will improve when unions are removed from the school system, unions have rarely been isolated in the research. This study involved a mixed method case study approach to explore whether support of the local teacher union affected perceptions of school climate, as measured by the…

Griffith, Jason S.

2009-01-01

160

The Effectiveness of the Geospatial Curriculum Approach on Urban Middle-Level Students' Climate Change Understandings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change science is a challenging topic for student learning. This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial curriculum approach to promote climate change science understandings in an urban school district with eighth-grade students and investigated whether teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students'…

Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong

2014-01-01

161

Climatic Effects of Regional Nuclear War  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use a modern climate model and new estimates of smoke generated by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the response of the climate system to a regional nuclear war between emerging third world nuclear powers using 100 Hiroshima-size bombs (less than 0.03% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal) on cities in the subtropics. We find significant cooling and reductions of precipitation lasting years, which would impact the global food supply. The climate changes are large and longlasting because the fuel loadings in modern cities are quite high and the subtropical solar insolation heats the resulting smoke cloud and lofts it into the high stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow. While the climate changes are less dramatic than found in previous "nuclear winter" simulations of a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers, because less smoke is emitted, the changes seem to be more persistent because of improvements in representing aerosol processes and microphysical/dynamical interactions, including radiative heating effects, in newer global climate system models. The assumptions and calculations that go into these conclusions will be described.

Oman, Luke D.

2011-01-01

162

School Effectiveness: Overview of the Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is presented of school effectiveness research which has identified characteristics of academically successful schools. The research reviewed has reexamined such things as the way educators manage time, assign students, define curriculum, determine class size, organize schools, and assess achievement. This report focuses upon three…

Everson, Susan T.

163

Effects of nontropical forest cover on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The albedo of a forest with snow on the ground is much less than that of snow-covered low vegetation such as tundra. As a result, simulation of the Northern Hemisphere climate, when fully forested south of a suitably chosen taiga/tundra boundary (ecocline), produces a hemispheric surface air temperature 1.9 K higher than that of an earth devoid of trees. Using variations of the solar constant to force climate changes in the GLAS Multi-Layer Energy Balance Model, the role of snow-albedo feedback in increasing the climate sensitivity to external perturbations is reexamined. The effect of snow-albedo feedback is found to be significantly reduced when a low albedo is used for snow over taiga, south of the fixed latitude of the ecocline. If the ecocline shifts to maintain equilibrium with the new climate - which is presumed to occur in a prolonged perturbation when time is sufficient for trees to grow or die and fall - the feedback is stronger than for a fixed ecocline, especially at high latitudes. However, this snow/vegetation-albedo feedback is still essentially weaker than the snow-albedo feedback in the forest-free case. The loss of forest to agriculture and other land-use would put the present climate further away from that associated with the fully forested earth south of the ecocline and closer to the forest-free case. Thus, the decrease in nontropical forest cover since prehistoric times has probably affected the climate by reducing the temperatures and by increasing the sensitivity to perturbations, with both effects more pronounced at high latitudes.

Otterman, J.; Chou, M.-D.; Arking, A.

1984-01-01

164

Climate change effects on poikilotherm tritrophic interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of plants and animals have characteristic climatic requirements for growth, survival and reproduction that limit their\\u000a geographic distribution, abundance and interactions with other species. To analyze this complexity requires the development\\u000a of models that include not only the effects of biotic factors on species dynamics and interactions, but also the effects of\\u000a abiotic factors including weather. The need for

Andrew Paul Gutierrez; Luigi Ponti; Thibaud d’Oultremont; C. K. Ellis

2008-01-01

165

Accelerated School Programmes: Assessing Their Effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerated School Programmes (ASPs) apply three principles designed to raise schools' effectiveness and to narrow the gap between low-achieving and high achieving students. These principles are: (1) giving the school a unifying purpose or vision; (2) allowing the school greater autonomy in its own management; (3) developing a collaborative approach to teaching, involving teachers, students, parents and the community. This article examines the effectiveness of ASPs on the basis of a study of four comprehensive schools in Israel. While the size of the sample is small, the positive results indicate that similar research on a wider scale would be valuable in shaping future educational policy.

Gaziel, Haim

2001-03-01

166

Influence of Classroom and School Climate on Teacher Perceptions of Student Problem Behavior.  

PubMed

Reducing student problem behavior remains a leading concern for school staff, as disruptive and aggressive behavior interferes with student achievement and the school climate. However, the multi-systemic nature of schools makes it difficult for researchers and practitioners to identify factors influencing to students' behavior. The current study examined student problem behavior through an ecological lens by taking into account individual (e.g., gender, ethnicity, prosocial behavior), classroom (e.g., class size, average classroom behavior), and school-level factors (e.g., location, school climate). Using data from 37 elementary schools, 467 classrooms, and 8,750 students, a series of hierarchical linear models was tested. Multilevel analyses revealed that while individual student characteristics had the largest influence on problem behavior, average prosocial behavior and concentration problems of students within the classroom, as well as teacher perceptions of the school climate significantly related to how students behaved. These findings support the use of classroom-based intervention programs to reduce student problem behavior. PMID:25346779

O'Brennan, Lindsey M; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Furlong, Michael J

2014-06-01

167

School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

2009-01-01

168

Corporate Discourses in School: Adapting to the Prevailing Economic Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines adaptations made by one high school when the surrounding city shifted from a textile mill-driven manufacturing economy to a post-industrial service economy. Using data from an extended field study, the paper examines how school discourses emerged from three related sources (a corporate sponsor, competition for good students, and preparing…

Bettis, Pamela J.

2000-01-01

169

To What Extent Is Behaviour a Problem in English Schools? Exploring the Scale and Prevalence of Deficits in Classroom Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The working atmosphere in the classroom is an important variable in the process of education in schools, with several studies suggesting that classroom climate is an important influence on pupil attainment. There are wide differences in the extent to which classroom climate is considered to be a problem in English schools. Some…

Haydn, Terry

2014-01-01

170

Tapping into the Power of School Climate to Prevent Bullying: One Application of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…

Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann

2014-01-01

171

Perceptions of MBA Students towards Learning Climate for Managerial Knowledge: A Study of Business School in Lahore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore different cultural dimensions of the learning climate at a business school located at Lahore, Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports the result of an empirical study of the learning climate for managerial knowledge at a business school, located in Lahore, Pakistan. A sample of 150…

Raza, Ahmad; Murad, Hasan; Kayani, Ashraf

2010-01-01

172

Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback…

Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

2014-01-01

173

Academic Achievement in Effective Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

2013-01-01

174

A Meta Analytical Approach Regarding School Effectiveness: The True Size of School Effects and the Effect Size of Educational Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-effectiveness research has not yet been able to identify the factors of effective and noneffective schools, the real contribution of the significant factors, the true sizes of school effects, and the generalizability of school-effectiveness results. This paper presents findings of a meta analysis, the Dutch PSO programme, that was used to…

Bosker, Roel J.; Witziers, Bob

175

Making Schools Safe and Inclusive: Gay-Straight Alliances and School Climate in Ontario  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) have become widespread in Ontario schools and, starting in 2012, all schools are required to permit students to form GSAs. While American research suggests that GSAs have a positive impact on school safety and inclusion, there is little research on the impact of GSAs in Canadian schools. This study, based on a survey…

Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

2013-01-01

176

School Climate Factors Contributing to Student and Faculty Perceptions of Safety in Select Arizona Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Methods: Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected…

Bosworth, Kris; Ford, Lysbeth; Hernandaz, Diley

2011-01-01

177

Uncertainty in deforestation's effects on Amazonian climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest is expected to cause the temperature in the region to rise and rainfall patterns to shift. Exactly how and how much the regional climate will change in the face of rampant deforestation, however, is a matter of considerable ongoing investigation. With their research, Lorenz and Pitman add a new piece to the puzzle by showing that the strength of land-atmosphere coupling in a given model influences how it represents deforestation's effects.

Schultz, Colin

2014-12-01

178

Climate Effects on Food Security: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There are roughly 1 billion food insecure people in the world today, each having this status because food is unavailable to\\u000a them, because it is unaffordable, or because they are too unhealthy to make use of it – or some combination of the three.\\u000a Assessing the potential effects of climate change on food security requires understanding the underlying determinants of

Marshall Burke; David Lobell

179

The Role of School Climate in School Violence: A Validity Study of a Web-Based School Violence Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "School Violence Survey" (SVS) was developed as an instrument to investigate students' perceptions of school environment, their experiences and interactions within diverse social groups, and their views on school violence issues including bullying. A total of 806 students across four Midwest high schools and middle schools completed the paper…

Hurford, David P.; Lindskog, Rick; Cole, AmyKay; Jackson, Robyn; Thomasson, Sara; Wade, Amanda

2010-01-01

180

Conceptual Change regarding middle school students' experience with Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdote to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. A third finding underscores prior research in conceptual change, indicating that learning, especially conceptual change, is not a strictly rational process. Students, and others, are highly influenced by extra rational factors, such as the given political, scientific, and/or religious leanings of their families, their own willingness to explore anomalies, and other factors. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.; Lutz, B.

2011-12-01

181

Population effects of increased climate variation  

PubMed Central

Global circulation models predict and numerous observations confirm that anthropogenic climate change has altered high-frequency climate variability. However, it is not yet well understood how changing patterns of environmental variation will affect wildlife population dynamics and other ecological processes. Theory predicts that a population's long-run growth rate is diminished and the chance of population extinction is increased as environmental variation increases. This results from the fact that population growth is a multiplicative process and that long-run population growth rate is the geometric mean of growth rates over time, which is always less than the arithmetic mean. However, when population growth rates for unstructured populations are related nonlinearly to environmental drivers, increasing environmental variation can increase a population's long-run growth rate. This suggests that patterns of environmental variation associated with different aspects of climate change may affect population dynamics in different ways. Specifically, increasing variation in rainfall might result in diminished long-run growth rates for many animal species while increasing variation in temperature might result in increased long-run growth rates. While the effect of rainfall is theoretically well understood and supported by data, the hypothesized effect of temperature is not. Here, I analyse two datasets to study the effect of fluctuating temperatures on growth rates of zooplankton. Results are consistent with the prediction that fluctuating temperatures should increase long-run growth rates and the frequency of extreme demographic events. PMID:16096095

Drake, John M

2005-01-01

182

Effective Schools Questionnaires, 1981-82.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five questionnaires based on Ronald Edmonds' work on "effective schools" were developed for elementary and secondary students, teachers, principals, and parents. They were designed to assess the perceptions of each group on the five areas identified by Edmonds as distinguishing effective and ineffective schools for students from low-income…

Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

183

Considering Students' Out-of-School Lives and Values in Designing Learning Environments for Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What are the implications of social controversy for the teaching and learning of climate change science? How do the political dimensions of this controversy affect learners' attitudes towards and reasoning about climate change and climate science? Case studies from a pilot enactment of an ecological impacts of climate change curriculum explore these questions by describing how five high school students' understandings of climate change science developed at the intersection of political and scientific values, attitudes, and ways of knowing. Case studies combine qualitative, ethnographic methods including interviews and classroom video observations with quantitative pre/post-assessments of student conceptual understandings and weekly surveys of student engagement. Data indicate that students had initial perceptions of climate change informed by the media and their families—both supporting and rejecting the scientific consensus—that influenced how they engaged with the scientific evidence. While students who were initially antagonistic to anthropogenic climate change did develop conceptual understandings of the scientific evidence for human-influences on climate change, this work was challenging and at times frustrating for them. These case studies demonstrate the wide range of initial attitudes and understandings that students bring to the study of climate change. They also demonstrate that it is possible to make significant shifts in students' understandings of climate change science, even in students who were initially resistant to the idea of anthropogenic climate change. Finally, multiple case studies discuss ways that the learning that occurred in the classroom crossed out of the classroom into the students' homes and family talk. This work highlights how learners' pathways are shaped not only by their developing understanding of the scientific evidence but also by the political and social influences that learners navigate across the contexts of their lives. It underscores the need to understand and support students as they interact with climate change across the contexts of their lives.

Walsh, E.; Tsurusaki, B.

2012-12-01

184

Development of a Climate Concept Inventory and Assessment of High-school Students Engaged in the EarthLabs Climate Modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of climate change education materials and curriculum is necessary to support educators in implementing easily accessible, reliable and accurate information for the classroom. Developers must design materials that are effective at reaching their learning goals. They also must use appropriate assessments that align with these goals and the content being taught in order to provide evidence of efficacy. EarthLabs consists of three on-line climate modules: Climate and the Cryosphere, Climate and the Biosphere, and Climate and the Carbon Cycle, where students engage in hands-on, visualization, and inquiry activities in each ~3 week module in their classroom. The project includes curriculum development, teacher professional development, research on student learning, and project evaluation components. In this presentation, we emphasize the research on student learning conducted in the classroom. We have worked with curriculum developers and scientists to develop a climate concept inventory which meets curriculum goals and is scientifically valid. We have completed the first phase of the climate concept inventory and assessed over 230 students in nine high school classrooms in Mississippi and Texas pre- and post-implementation of EarthLabs. The developed concept inventory included 10 content-driven multiple choice questions, six affective-based multiple choice questions, one confidence question, six open-ended questions, and eight demographic questions. Results indicate that students had gains on 9 out of the 10 of the content based multiple choice questions with positive gains in answer choice selection ranging from 1.72% to 42%. In regard to the confidence question, students significantly reported increased confidence with 15% more student reporting that they were either very or fairly confident with their answers. Of the six affective questions posed, 5 of 6 showed significant shifts towards gains in knowledge, awareness, and information about Earth's climate system. Open-ended responses provided information on common student misconceptions for the development of new multiple choice question stems and distractors. Our analysis considers reliability and validity of the assessment, including item response characteristic curve analysis, as well as expert and teacher responses to the climate concept inventory, as a validity comparison.

McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, E.

2013-12-01

185

Examining the Moderating Role of Perceived School Climate in Early Adolescent Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the unique and interactive relations of 4 aspects of student-perceived school climate (cohesion, friction, and competition among students, and overall satisfaction with classes) and adolescent effortful control in the conduct problems and depressive symptoms of 868 ten- to fourteen-year-old adolescents. Hierarchical…

Loukas, Alexandra; Robinson, Sheri

2004-01-01

186

New Opportunities for Principal Leadership: Shaping School Climates for Enhanced Teacher Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Improved professional development for teachers and principals is central to our national educational agenda. Principals struggle with the challenge of how to build school climates that improve practice in an era of heightened accountability and increasingly complex adaptive challenges. Purpose/Objective/Research Questions/Focus…

Drago-Severson, Eleanor

2012-01-01

187

School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning: Predicting Teacher Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Teaching Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables--teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction--and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables. Along with sense of job…

Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

2012-01-01

188

Middle School Students' Conceptual Change in Global Climate Change: Using Argumentation to Foster Knowledge Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the "framework theory" of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct…

Golden, Barry W.

2011-01-01

189

Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Climate, and Prevalence of Eczema in Taiwanese School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of childhood eczema is increasing in many countries. Epidemiological studies, however, say little of its association to outdoor air pollution and climate factors. We conducted a nationwide survey of middle-school students in Taiwan from 1995 to 1996. The 12-month prevalence of eczema was compared with air monitoring station data of temperature, relative humidity, and criteria air pollutants. A

Yung-Ling Lee; Huey-Jen Su; Hamm-Ming Sheu; Hsin-Su Yu; Yueliang L. Guo

2008-01-01

190

Climate,Traffic-Related Air Pollutants, and Asthma Prevalence in Middle-School Children in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the prevalence of asthma with climate and air pollutant data to determine the relationship between asthma prevalence and these factors. We conducted a nationwide survey of respiratory illness and symptoms in middle-school students in Taiwan. Lifetime prevalences of physician-diagnosed asthma and of typical symptoms of asthma were compared to air monitoring station data for temperature, relative humidity,

Yueliang Leon Guo; Ying-Chu Lin; Fung-Chang Sung; Song-Lih Huang; Ying-Chin Ko; Jim-Shoung Lai; Huey-Jen Su; Cheng-Kuang Shaw; Ruey-Shiung Lin; Douglas W. Dockery

1999-01-01

191

Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: Advancing the Science of Climate Change in the Public Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of K-12 educational programs and resources that seek to share the science of climate change has recently come into focus. During the fall 2006 AGU meeting, we presented the conceptual framework used to guide both the curriculum and year-one programs of Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: The Global Warming Road Show. Currently this dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program selects and empowers a diverse population of 11th and 12th grade students from a large urban high school in the Midwest to teach a curriculum on climate change to 7th graders from a local feeder school. In December 2007 we will complete year-one of the program and will present an overview of 1) students' conceptual representations of climate change, 2) the most recent curriculum and programs, and 3) the ongoing program evaluation. We will synthesize these three areas and reflect on how to improve upon year-two of both the curriculum and the program. During various stages of the program, students have constructed concept maps, written in journals, created lesson plans, and participated in focus group interviews. These materials are being analyzed to provide a brief overview of high school students' initial conceptualizations of climate change. During the intensive 2007 summer workshop, these 11th and 12th grade students were supported by university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators as they attempted to better understand climate change and as they reflected on how to effectively teach this topic to 7th graders. During the fall semester of 2007, the workshop graduates are scheduled to teach 25 to 30 7th graders a five week climate unit. The program will culminate with the 11th and 12th grade student-mentors working with the 7th graders to create a "Road Show," which will be presented to other 7th and 8th graders within the same school district. To ensure that this program is current, a team of scientists and science educators supplemented and further developed a well known and tested 15-year-old curriculum (Great Explorations in Math and Science, 1990) with recent data and analysis focusing on key concepts of climate change. The updated curriculum was structured using two driving questions: - How do we know the earth has experienced climate change in the past, including the ice ages and the age of the dinosaurs? - How do we know that humans have an impact on climate? Science educators and scientists also worked together to create templates that prompted the 11th and 12th grade students to first reflect on their understandings of climate change and then on how they would teach their younger peers. As students work with experiments, data sets, and news-media articles, they are also prompted to reflect on discrepancies between primary science sources and secondary media sources (Drake and Nelson, 2005). An evaluation team observed the summer workshops, administered surveys, reviewed the adapted curriculum, and participated in planning sessions. The evaluators are in the process of analyzing these multiple indicators to examine the extent to which the program aligns with its stated goals. The initial formative evaluation findings suggest that students were active participants in the workshop and that they enjoyed their experience. Areas of year-two development include improved communication and collaboration between university and secondary school units.

Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Smith, J. S.; Wood, E. J.; Filippelli, G. M.

2007-12-01

192

The Relationship between Student Voice and Perceptions of Motivation, Attachment, Achievement and School Climate in Davidson and Rutherford Counties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the extent to which there were statistically significant relationships between school administrators' systemic implementation of student voice work and student perceptions (i.e. achievement, motivation, attachment and school climate) and PLAN performance. Student voice was defined as students being equal partners in school

Matthews, Sharon Elizabeth

2010-01-01

193

Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change  

SciTech Connect

There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

2005-08-24

194

Using TIMSS 2007 data to examine STEM school effectiveness in an international context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because results from TIMSS 2007 showed a gap in mathematics and science achievement between students in the United States and those in the top-performing countries, TIMSS 2007 data were used to investigate how school effectiveness factors known to be strongly associated with higher STEM achievement operated in the United States compared to Chinese Taipei, the Czech Republic, Singapore, and Slovenia. In each of the five countries, multilevel modeling was used to examine STEM achievement in relation to 11 school effectiveness factors associated with school resources, fidelity of curriculum implementation, and school climate, controlling for student home resources. A secondary purpose of this dissertation research was to help the TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center prepare for multilevel modeling planned for the TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 data. Findings from this research showed that across the five countries, there were differences in how important school effectiveness factors operated. Teacher preparation, teaching the curriculum, and using instructional strategies involving reasoning and inquiry all were important school characteristics related to STEM achievement in some countries. A school environment conducive to learning emerged as being strongly associated with high STEM achievement in three of the countries, including the United States. Both absence of discipline and attendance problems as well as a school climate supportive of academic success were important predictors of student STEM achievement. This dissertation research also showed the potential of using TIMSS data as a basis for conducting school effectiveness analyses across different country contexts.

Stanco, Gabrielle

195

The International Baccalaureate Diploma Program's Impacting High School Culture and Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School reformers are often searching for a program that will have a positive and far-reaching effect on a school campus. Researchers and writers have described the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program (IB DP) as a largely positive influence on a school campus, providing a rigorous and standards-based curriculum to IB DP students. However,…

Duarte, George

2013-01-01

196

Game Based Learning as a Means to Teach Climate Literacy in a High School Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of RPI's GK-12 graduate fellowship program (which involves graduate STEM fellows in K-12 education) a climate change board game activity was developed and implemented at inner city Troy High School in Troy, New York. The goal was to engage and teach two classes of the Earth Science General Repeat (GR) tenth grade students about climate change through a game-based leaning module. Students placed in the GR course had previously failed Earth Science, and had never passed a general science class in high school. In the past, these students have responded positively to hands-on activities. Therefore, an interactive board game activity was created to teach students about climate, explore how humans impact our environment, and address the future of climate change. The students are presented with a draft version of the game, created by the graduate fellow, and are asked to redesign the game for their peers in the other GR class. The students' version of the game is required to include certain aspects of the original game, for example, the climate change Trivia and Roadblock cards, but the design, addition of rules and overall layout are left to the students. The game-based learning technique allows the students to learn through a storyline, compete against each other, and challenge themselves to perfect their learning and understanding of climate change. The climate change board game activity also incorporates our cascade learning model, in which the graduate fellow designs the activity, works with a high school teacher, and implements the game with high school students. In addition, the activity emphasizes peer-to-peer learning, allowing each classroom to design the game for a different group of students. This allows the students to take leadership and gives them a sense of accomplishment with the completed board game. The nature of a board game also creates a dynamic competitive atmosphere, in which the students want to learn and understand the material to succeed in the overall game. Although this board game activity was designed for high school students, it could easily be adapted for all K-12 levels as an interactive, informative and successful way of teaching students about climate literacy.

Fung, M. K.; Tedesco, L.; Katz, M. E.

2013-12-01

197

The evolution of climate. [climatic effects of polar wandering and continental drift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative evaluation is made of the climatic effects of polar wandering plus continental drift in order to determine wether this mechanism alone could explain the deterioration of climate that occurred from the warmth of Mesozoic time to the ice age conditions of the late Cenozoic. By way of procedure, to investigate the effect of the changing geography of the past on climate Adem's thermodynamic model was selected. The application of the model is discussed and preliminary results are given.

Donn, W. L.; Shaw, D.

1975-01-01

198

Smathers Ocean Circulation and its Effect on Climate Change  

E-print Network

1 Ocean Circulation and its Effect on Climate Change Zachary Smathers At the turn of the 20th of warfare. Scientists began asking questions about the climate and how determining the World's oceans were when it came to climate change. Did the chemical makeup of the oceans matter? Why were there trends

Marzuola, Jeremy

199

America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A video that discusses the perspectives and insights necessary to report out about climate change. The video can be used to demonstrate how different perspectives impact different stakeholders and different levels, and that there is a need to have a clear, coordinated national response.

Academies, The N.

200

Effects of climate change on typical forests in northeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using the forest gap model-FAREAST, we simulated the effects of future climate change on forest composition and forest\\u000a biomass of typical forests in northeastern China. We selected three different climate change scenarios, developed from GCMs\\u000a results, of the ECHAM5-OM and HadCM3 models: the current climate, a warmer climate and a state of changing precipitation with\\u000a higher temperatures. The results

Xiaoxia Cheng; Xiaodong Yan

2009-01-01

201

The climatic effects of nuclear war  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of various US-USSR nuclear-exchange scenarios on global climate are investigated by means of computer simulations, summarizing the results of Turco et al. (1983) and follow-up studies using 3D global-circulation models. A nuclear-scenario model is used to determine the amounts of dust, smoke, radioactivity, and pyrotoxins generated by a particular type of nuclear exchange (such as a general 5,000-Mt exchange, a 1,000-Mt limited exchange, a 5,000-Mt hard-target counterforce attack, and a 100-Mt attack on cities only): a particle-microphysics model predicts the evolution of the dust and smoke particles; and a radiative-convective climate model estimates the effects of the dust and smoke clouds on the global radiation budget. The findings are presented in graphs, diagrams, and a table. Thick clouds blocking most sunlight over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes for weeks or months and producing ground-temperature reductions of 20-40 C, disruption of global circulation patterns, and rapid spread of clouds to the Southern Hemisphere are among the 'nuclear-winter' effects predicted for the 5,000-Mt baseline case. The catastrophic consequences for plant, animal, and human populations are considered, and the revision of superpower nuclear strategies is urged.

Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, C.

1984-01-01

202

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects ANN DENISE FISSEKIS  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on the Sacramento Basin's Flood Control Projects By ANN DENISE FISSEKIS B.......................................................................6 Chapter III. Climate Change................................................................11 models...........................................................20 Climate change data

Lund, Jay R.

203

Making Schools More Effective: Report of the Australian Effective Schools Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost a third of all schools in Australia responded to an invitation to express views about how Australia's schools might be made more effective. This report presents the views that schools should have a full-blown view of what Australia wants for its children and youth, and they should be concerned with personal and social as well as…

McGaw, Barry; And Others

204

Effect of global climate on termites population. Effect of termites population on global climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global climate is under control of factors having both earth and space origin. Global warming took place from XVII century till 1997. Then global cold snap began. This dynamics had effect on global distribution of some animals including termites. Direct human effect on climate is not significant. At the same time man plays role of trigger switching on significant biosphere processes controlling climate. The transformation of marginal lands, development of industry and building, stimulated increase of termite niche and population. Termite role in green house gases production increases too. It may have regular effect on world climate. The dry wood is substrate for metabolism of termites living under symbiosis with bacteria Hypermastigina (Flagellata). The use of dry wood by humanity increased from 18 *108 ton in XVIII to 9*109 to the middle of XX century. Then use of wood decreased because of a new technology development. Hence termite population is controlled by microevolution depending on dry wood and climate dynamics. Producing by them green house gases had reciprocal effect on world climate. It is possible to describe and predict dynamic of termite population using methods of mathematical ecology and analogs with other well studied insects (Colorado potatoes beetle, Chrisomelid beetle Zygogramma and so on). Reclamation of new ecological niche for such insects as termites needs 70 - 75 years. That is delay of population dynamics in relation to dynamics of dry wood production. General principles of population growth were described by G.Gause (1934) and some authors of the end of XX century. This works and analogs with other insects suggest model of termite distribution during XXI century. The extremum of population and its green house gases production would be gotten during 8 - 10 years. Then the number of specimens and sum biological mass would be stabilized and decreased. Termite gas production is not priority for climate regulation, but it has importance as fine regulator of global temperature and climate stability. Key words: termites, green house gases, mathematical modeling. Union symposia Biogeoscience BG2.1

Sapunov, Valentin

2010-05-01

205

Middle and High School Students' Conceptions of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both scientists and policy-makers emphasize the importance of education for influencing pro-environmental behavior and minimizing the effects of climate change on biological and physical systems. Education has the potential to impact students' system knowledge--their understanding of the variables that affect the climate system--and action…

Bofferding, Laura; Kloser, Matthew

2015-01-01

206

Achieving health and educational goals through schools—a study of the importance of the school climate and the students' satisfaction with school  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Over the past two decades many,studies have examined the effectiveness of classroom teaching in influencing present and future health and health behaviours. Few of these studies have examined the importance of the students' satis- faction with school as a variable which explains effect, and in particular what determines their satisfaction with school. Based on data from the 'Health Behaviour

O. Samdal; D. Nutbeam; B. Wold; L. Kannas

1998-01-01

207

UWHS Climate Science: Uniting University Scientists and High School Teachers in the Development and Implementation of a Dual-Credit STEM-Focused Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Washington is adapting a popular UW Atmospheric Sciences course on Climate and Climate Change for the high school environment. In the process, a STEM-focused teaching and learning community has formed. With the support of NASA Global Climate Change Education 20 teachers have participated in an evolving professional development program that brings those actively engaged in research together with high school teachers passionate about bringing a formal climate science course into the high school. Over a period of several months participating teachers work through the UW course homework and delve deeply into specific subject areas. Then, during a week-long summer institute, scientists bring their particular expertise (e.g. radiation, modeling) to the high school teachers through lectures or labs. Together they identify existing lectures, textbook material and peer-reviewed resources and labs available through the internet that can be used to effectively teach the UW material to the high school students. Through this process the scientists learn how to develop teaching materials around their area of expertise, teachers engage deeply in the subject matter, and both the university and high school teachers are armed with the tools to effectively teach a STEM-focused introductory course in climate science. To date 12 new hands-on modules have been completed or are under development, exploring ice-cores, isotopes, historical temperature trends, energy balance, climate models, and more. Two modules have been tested in the classroom and are ready for peer-review through well-respected national resources such as CLEAN or the National Earth Science Teachers Association; three others are complete and will be implemented in a high school classroom this year, and the remainder under various stages of development. The UWHS ATMS 211 course was piloted in two APES (Advanced Placement Environmental Science classrooms) in Washington State in 2011/2012. The high school course used the UW Atmospheric Sciences curriculum, exams, and textbook (The Earth System, 3rd edition, Kump, Kasting and Crane, 2010), and one of the hands-on modules. Communication with these instructors during the year helped us define assessment strategies and to identify challenges of bringing the material into the high school classroom. This knowledge will be shared with teachers during our summer 2012 workshop and will inform approaches to teaching the course in 2012/2013. Proposed formats for implementation include year-long courses, using the APES/Climate format of 2011/2012, a union of Oceanography and Climate content, or in the context of an engineering course. Our initial vision was for a stand-alone semester or year-long course in climate science, incorporating excel and data handling as a learning tool and a suite of hands-on learning opportunities. Yet, the creative approaches to implementation of a new course in the schools, together with the breadth and depth of the UW curriculum and the Kump et al. 2010 textbook, have resulted in diverse educational approaches for bringing climate science into the high school.

Bertram, M. A.; Thompson, L.; Ackerman, T. P.

2012-12-01

208

Effect of daylighting on energy consumption and daylight quality in an existing elementary school  

E-print Network

elementary school in College Station, Texas. The conclusions are generalizable to similar school designs in hot and humid climates. This study focuses on the trends observed in the building?s heating, cooling, and lighting energy consumption due... to daylighting, and the overall effect on total energy consumption. Skylights with 1% to 10% glazing surface to floor area and clerestories from 2 ft to 8 ft glazing height were analyzed to formulate balanced daylighting designs that could provide...

Atre, Umesh Vinayak

2005-08-29

209

Climate variation and its effects on our land and water : Part C, Geological Survey climate plan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To better coordinate information being generated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a workshop was convened near Denver, Colo., on December 7-9, 1976, to exchange ideas about research that is oriented toward climate, climate variation, and the effects of climate on the Nation 's land and water resources. This is the first circular of a three-part report resulting from that workshop. Hydrologic records provide information to the earth scientist about the responses of ground water, surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface responses to climatic change; biological records yield information about the effects of climatic change on the Earth 's biota; archeological records tell us where and how man was able to live under changing climatic conditions; and historical records allow the specific effects of short-term changes in climate to be accurately documented. The interrelation between present and past geologic environments, various methods of study , and the span of time over which the results can be applied are shown in a table. (Woodard-USGS)

Howard, Keith A.; Smith, George I.

1978-01-01

210

Case Studies of School Community and Climate: Success Narratives of Schools in Challenging Circumstances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a Canadian qualitative case study project funded by the Elementary Teachers' Federation of Ontario. The paper describes success stories of students and communities affected by poverty from a diverse sample of eleven elementary schools throughout the province of Ontario. Over the period of one school year (2007-2008) and…

Parker, Darlene Ciuffetelli; Grenville, Heather; Flessa, Joseph

2011-01-01

211

Relational Aggression at School: Associations with School Safety and Social Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines how exposure to relational aggression at school is associated with adolescents' perceptions of, and participation in, a hostile school environment. Participants were 1,335 African American and European American adolescents in grades 7 through 12 (52% female, 49% African American). Results indicate that exposure to…

Goldstein, Sara E.; Young, Amy; Boyd, Carol

2008-01-01

212

The Contextual Effect of School Satisfaction on Health-Risk Behaviors in Japanese High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The importance of school contextual effects on health and well-being among young people is currently recognized. This study examines the contextual effects of school satisfaction as well as the effects of individual-level school satisfaction on health-risk behaviors in Japanese high school students. Methods: Self-administered…

Takakura, Minoru; Wake, Norie; Kobayashi, Minoru

2010-01-01

213

School Nurse Communication Effectiveness with Physicians and Satisfaction with School Health Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined school nurses' communication with community physicians and its relationship to school nurse satisfaction with school health services. A stratified random sample of school nurses in Pennsylvania (N = 615) were surveyed about communication effectiveness with community physicians, satisfaction with school health services for…

Volkman, Julie E.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

2008-01-01

214

Paleo Slide Set: Coral Paleoclimatology - Natural Record of Climate Change for High School Student  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show was designed specifically for secondary schools. It contains comprehensive text and colorful images that help illustrate many aspects of tropical marine ecosystems, including the anatomy and physiology of corals, ecology of coral reefs, and habitat destruction. In addition to discussing the ecological aspects of coral reefs, this slide set also addresses topics in climatology giving a comprehensive introduction to the Earth's climate system, climate variability, and how these scientific concepts relate to current phenomena such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This set would be appropriate for upper level high school students and could be used in conjunction with other educational materials to promote global awareness in the areas of habitat destruction, global warming, paleoclimatology, and ENSO. It includes a glossary and further reading lists for both educators and students.

215

Estimating Contrail Climate Effects from Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated contrail detection algorithm (CDA) is developed to exploit six of the infrared channels on the 1-km MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites. The CDA is refined and balanced using visual error analysis. It is applied to MODIS data taken by Terra and Aqua over the United States during 2006 and 2008. The results are consistent with flight track data, but differ markedly from earlier analyses. Contrail coverage is a factor of 4 less than other retrievals and the retrieved contrail optical depths and radiative forcing are smaller by approx.30%. The discrepancies appear to be due to the inability to detect wider, older contrails that comprise a significant amount of the contrail coverage. An example of applying the algorithm to MODIS data over the entire Northern Hemisphere is also presented. Overestimates of contrail coverage are apparent in some tropical regions. Methods for improving the algorithm are discussed and are to be implemented before analyzing large amounts of Northern Hemisphere data. The results should be valuable for guiding and validating climate models seeking to account for aviation effects on climate.

Minnis, Patrick; Duda, David P.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Bedka, Sarah T.; Boeke, Robyn; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Chee, Thad; Bedka, Kristopher T.

2011-01-01

216

The Effect of School Building Renovation/Construction on School Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School construction or renovation projects can have a profound affect on students, faculty and administration. The literature revealed that continuous communication is essential for a smooth process. This research identified bureaucratic issues and school climate to be leading factors of concern during construction projects. Analysis of this study…

Lesisko, Lee J.; Wright, Robert J.; O'Hern, Brenda

2010-01-01

217

Not Just Numbers: Creating a Partnership Climate to Improve Math Proficiency in Schools  

PubMed Central

Although we know that family involvement is associated with stronger math performance, little is known about what educators are doing to effectively involve families and community members, and whether this measurably improves math achievement at their schools. This study used data from 39 schools to assess the effects of family and community involvement activities on school levels of math achievement. The study found that better implementation of math-related practices of family and community involvement predicted stronger support from parents for schools’ partnership programs, which, in turn, helped estimate the percentage of students scoring proficient on math achievement tests. PMID:20200592

Sheldon, Steven B.; Epstein, Joyce L.; Galindo, Claudia L.

2009-01-01

218

Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy at the High School Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy (CCCL) is a research and development project designed to help high school students grasp the range of temporal and spatial scales at which climate can be defined and at which Earth system processes occur. CCCL includes three lab-based climate curriculum modules and a strong professional development component that helps partner teachers strengthen their own understanding of climate literacy and develop into climate literacy professional development providers. The research and evaluation components of this 4-year project provide essential guidance as they probe the efficacy of the evolving curriculum units, the professional development component, and the teamwork that is essential to the success of the project. In this session we will review the three curriculum modules, covering the Cryosphere, Weather and Climate, and Carbon, which comprise the CCCL sequence now being pilot-tested. We will identify ways in which we address some of the well-know misconceptions about climate and the Earth system that impede student understanding, as well as the approaches we are using to strengthen students grasp of the challenging range of temporal and spatial scales at which Earth system processes and climate occur. We will describe the professional development component of the program, which draws teachers from Mississippi and Texas into a partnership with curriculum developers to contribute to the curriculum modules, pilot test the modules in their classrooms, and eventually lead professional development workshops for their peers. We will also identify the key research questions around student learning that we will be exploring when the teachers engaged in the professional development implement the revised modules in their classrooms.

Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, B.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

2011-12-01

219

Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n?=?20). This includes analysis of the…

Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami

2013-01-01

220

America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study examines information needs and recommends ways the federal government can better inform responses by enhancing climate change and greenhouse gas information and reporting systems and by improving climate communication and education. Demand for better information to support climate-related decisions has grown rapidly as people, organizations, and governments have moved ahead with plans and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. To meet this demand, good information systems and services are needed. Without such systems, decision makers cannot evaluate whether particular policies and actions are achieving their goals or should be modified. Although the many non-federal efforts to reduce emissions and/or adapt to future climate changes carry considerable potential to reduce risks related to climate change, there is currently no comprehensive way to assess the effectiveness of those efforts. In addition, the diverse climate change responses to date have resulted in a patchwork of regional, state, and local policies that has prompted many state and business leaders to call for the development of a more predictable and coherent policy environment at the federal level. This report demonstrates that the nation lacks comprehensive, robust, and credible information and reporting systems to inform climate choices and evaluate their effectiveness. This report also argues that decision makers can benefit from a systematic and iterative framework for responding to climate change, in which decisions and policies can be revised in light of new information and experience and that improved information and reporting systems allow for ongoing evaluation of responses to climate risks. The climate-related decisions that society will confront over the coming decades will require an informed and engaged public and an education system that provides students with the knowledge to make informed choices. Although nearly all Americans have now heard of climate change, many have yet to understand the full implications of the issue and the opportunities and risks that lie in the solutions. Nonetheless, national surveys demonstrate a clear public desire for more information about climate change and how it might affect local communities. A majority of Americans want the government to take action in response to climate change and are willing to take action themselves. Although communicating about climate change and choices is vitally important, it can be difficult. This report summarizes some simple guidelines for more effective communications.

Liverman, D. M.; McConnell, M. C.; Raven, P.

2010-12-01

221

Enabling the use of climate model data in the Dutch climate effect community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the climate effect community the usage of climate model data is emerging. Where mostly climate time series and weather generators were used, there is a shift to incorporate climate model data into climate effect models. The use of climate model data within the climate effect models is difficult, due to missing metadata, resolution and projection issues, data formats and availability of the parameters of interest. Often the climate effect modelers are not aware of available climate model data or are not aware of how they can use it. Together with seven other partners (CERFACS, CNR-IPSL, SMHI, INHGA, CMCC, WUR, MF-CNRM), KNMI is involved in the FP7 IS ENES (http://www.enes.org) project work package 10/JRA5 ‘Bridging Climate Research Data and the Needs of the Impact Community. The aims of this work package are to enhance the use of Climate Research Data and to enhance the interaction with climate effect/impact communities. Phase one is to define use cases together with the Dutch climate effect community, which describe the intended use of climate model data in climate effect models. We defined four use cases: 1) FEWS hydrological Framework (Deltares) 2) METAPHOR, a plants and species dispersion model (Wageningen University) 3) Natuurplanner, an Ecological model suite (Wageningen University) 4) Land use models (Free University/JRC). Also the other partners in JRA5 have defined use cases, which are representative for the climate effect and impact communities in their country. Goal is to find commonalities between all defined use cases. The common functionality will be implemented as e-tools and incorporated in the IS-ENES data portal. Common issues relate to e.g., need for high resolution: downscaling from GCM to local scale (also involves interpolation); parameter selection; finding extremes; averaging methods. At the conference we will describe the FEWS case in more detail: Delft FEWS is an open shell system (in development since 1995) for performing hydrological predictions and the handling of time series data. The most important capabilities of FEWS are importing of meteorological and hydrological data and organizing the workflows of the different models which can be used within FEWS, like the Netherlands Hydrological Instrumentarium (NHI). Besides predictions, the system is currently being used for hydrological climate effects studies. Currently regionally downscaled data are used, but using model data will be the next step. This coupling of climate model data to FEWS will open a wider rage of climate impact and effect research, but it is a difficult task to accomplish. Issues to be dealt with are: regridding, downscaling, format conversion, extraction of required data and addition of descriptive metadata, including quality and uncertainty parameters. Finding an appropriate solution involves several iterations: first, the use case was defined, then we just provided a single data file containing some data of interest provided via FTP, next this data was offered through OGC services. Currently we are working on providing larger datasets and improving on the parameters and metadata. We will present the results (e-tools/data) and experiences gained on implementing the described use cases. Note that we are currently using experimental data, as the official climate model runs are not available yet.

Som de Cerff, Wim; Plieger, Maarten

2010-05-01

222

Relational Aggression at School: Associations with School Safety and Social Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines how exposure to relational aggression at school is associated with adolescents’ perceptions of,\\u000a and participation in, a hostile school environment. Participants were 1,335 African American and European American adolescents\\u000a in grades 7 through 12 (52% female, 49% African American). Results indicate that exposure to relational aggression is associated\\u000a with several components of adolescents’ perceptions of the

Sara E. Goldstein; Amy Young; Carol Boyd

2008-01-01

223

Achievement and Climate Outcomes for the Knowledge Is Power Program in an Inner-City Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effects of a whole school reform, the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP), specifically designed to raise academic achievement of at-risk urban middle school students by establishing an extended school day and year, a rigorous curriculum, after-school access to teachers, and increased family-school connections.…

Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron J.; Alberg, Marty; McSparrin-Gallagher, Brenda

2007-01-01

224

Dietary Effects of Universal-Free School Breakfast: Findings from the Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the effects of offering universal- free school breakfast in elementary schools on students' dietary outcomes. Design Experimental study with random assignment of 153 matched elementary schools in six school districts. Treatment schools offered universal-free school break- fast, and control schools continued to operate the tradi- tional means-tested School Breakfast Program. Twenty- four- hour dietary recalls were collected

MARY KAY CREPINSEK; ANITA SINGH; LAWRENCE S. BERNSTEIN; JOAN E. MCLAUGHLIN

225

Modelling Innovation and Threshold Effects In Climate Change Mitigation  

E-print Network

, with the exception of statistics on hydrogen, the use of which is currently confined to the oil refinery and chemicalModelling Innovation and Threshold Effects In Climate Change Mitigation Dennis Anderson and Sarah Innovation and Threshold Effects In Climate Change Mitigation Dennis Anderson and Sarah Winne Imperial

Watson, Andrew

226

Effects of Part-Time Work on School Achievement During High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors explored the effects of part-time work on school achievement during high school. To estimate the true effects of part-time work on school grades, the authors included family background, students' educational aspirations, and school engagement as controls. Although a substantial literature exists on the relationship of part-time work…

Singh, Kusum; Chang, Mido; Dika, Sandra

2007-01-01

227

High School Improvement: Indicators of Effectiveness and School-Level Benchmarks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National High School Center's "Eight Elements of High School Improvement: A Mapping Framework" provides a cohesive high school improvement framework comprised of eight elements and related indicators of effectiveness. These indicators of effectiveness allow states, districts, and schools to identify strengths and weaknesses of their current…

National High School Center, 2012

2012-01-01

228

Students’ conceptions about the greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ conceptions of the greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change.\\u000a The study was descriptive in nature and reflected a cross-age design involving the collection of qualitative data from 51\\u000a secondary students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. These data were analyzed for content in an inductive\\u000a manner to identify

Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Soyoung Choi; Umarporn Charusombat

2011-01-01

229

How Students' Perceptions of the School Climate Influence Their Choice to Upstand, Bystand, or Join Perpetrators of Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this article, Silvia Diazgranados Ferráns and Robert Selman, use an emergent framework to explore how the rules of the school culture at different perceived school climates affect early adolescents' decisions to upstand, bystand, or join the perpetrators when they witness peer aggression and bullying. Through a grounded theory…

Ferráns, Silvia Diazgranados; Selman, Robert L.

2014-01-01

230

A Developmental Examination of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Elementary School: Behavior Patterns, School Climate, and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) programs integrate research-based practice within a three-tier approach of prevention and intervention to impact change within school systems. Research suggests positive changes in student outcomes with the implementation of SWPBS. Supported by social-ecological and behavioral theory, this longitudinal…

Betters-Bubon, Jennifer

2012-01-01

231

Challenges of Communicating Climate Change in North Dakota: Undergraduate Internship and Collaboration with Middle School Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In summer 2010, the University of North Dakota (UND) hosted an internship for undergraduates to learn about climate change in both the classroom and group research projects. As a final project, the undergraduates were tasked to present their findings about different aspects of climate change in webcasts that would be later used in middle school classrooms in the region. Interns indicated that participation significantly improved their own confidence in future scholarly pursuits. Also, communicating about climate change, both during the project and afterwards, helped the interns feel more confident in their own learning. Use of webcasts widened the impact of student projects (e.g. YouTube dissemination), and multiple methods of student communication should continue to be an important piece of climate change education initiatives. Other key aspects of the internship were student journaling and group building. Challenges faced included media accessibility and diverse recruiting. Best practices from the UND internship will be discussed as a model for implementation at other universities. Lesson plans that complement the student-produced webcasts and adhere to regional and national standards were created during 2011. Communication between scientists and K-12 education researchers was found to be a challenge, but improved over the course of the project. These lesson plans have been reviewed both during a teacher workshop in January 2012 and by several Master teachers. Although select middle school educators have expressed enthusiasm for testing of these modules, very little hands-on testing with students has occurred. Wide-ranging roadblocks to implementation exist, including the need for adherence to state standards and texts, inadequate access to technology, and generally negative attitudes toward climate change in the region. Feedback from regional educators will be presented, and possible solutions will be discussed. Although some challenges are specific to the Northern Great Plains region, understanding these challenges are important for agencies and universities with goals of national dissemination.

Mullendore, G. L.; Munski, L.; Kirilenko, A.; Remer, F.; Baker, M.

2012-12-01

232

75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “Consideration of the Effects of Climate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions...Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions...Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas...

2010-02-23

233

What Influences Principals' Perceptions of Academic Climate? A Nationally Representative Study of the Direct Effects of Perception on Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a nationally representative sample of public high schools (N = 439), we examined the extent to which the principal's perception of their influence over instruction, the evaluation of nonacademic related tasks as well as academic related tasks, and their relationship with the school district relates to their perception of academic climate

Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.

2011-01-01

234

Improving Australia's Schools. Executive Summary of "Making Schools More Effective: Report of the Australian Effective Schools Project".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet summarizes findings of a study, the Effective Schools Project, which sought to promote public discussion about improving educational quality in Australia. Questionnaires that were distributed with 300,000 booklets elicited a total of 7,203 responses from principals, parents, staff, and schools. Respondents were asked to identify the…

McGaw, Barry; And Others

235

The Influence of School Climate on Students' Experiences of Peer Sexual Harassment in High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in schools have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…

Tully, Carol A.

2010-01-01

236

Direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibian populations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of an overall decline in biodiversity, populations of many organisms are declining and species are being lost at unprecedented rates around the world. This includes many populations and species of amphibians. Although numerous factors are affecting amphibian populations, we show potential direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibians at the individual, population and community level. Shifts in amphibian ranges are predicted. Changes in climate may affect survival, growth, reproduction and dispersal capabilities. Moreover, climate change can alter amphibian habitats including vegetation, soil, and hydrology. Climate change can influence food availability, predator-prey relationships and competitive interactions which can alter community structure. Climate change can also alter pathogen-host dynamics and greatly influence how diseases are manifested. Changes in climate can interact with other stressors such as UV-B radiation and contaminants. The interactions among all these factors are complex and are probably driving some amphibian population declines and extinctions.

Blaustein, Andrew R.; Walls, Susan C.; Bancroft, Betsy A.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Searle, Catherine L.; Gervasi, Stephanie S.

2010-01-01

237

Toward effective climate services: lessons for design and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite growing interest in climate services, there is little agreement on what climate services are, where they are most effective, and how they should be designed to best deliver results. Questions regarding what kinds of information on which climate services should be based, the sorts of problems they can most effectively address, and the institutional arrangements needed to support them remain unresolved, with hundreds of climate service users and providers proceeding with a simultaneous and loosely coordinated process of learning by doing. This presentation will draw on case studies developed by the Global Framework for Climate Services and the Climate Services Partnership to provide a snapshot of current practice regarding climate service provision. The presentation will also provide thoughts regarding the design of certain services and the overall development of the field. We will conclude with suggestions for research questions that may serve to accelerate our collective understanding of how best to design climate services as a means to mitigate climate-related risk.

Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje; Zebiak, Stephen

2014-05-01

238

Carbon Cycling in Grasslands: Effects of Climate Change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large amounts of carbon are stored in grassland soils, which can potentially buffer or exacerbate climate change depending on interacting climate factors. Here we discuss results from several grassland field studies examining the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment and/or temperature rise on carbo...

239

Effects of Different Teaching Styles on the Teacher Behaviours that Influence Motivational Climate and Pupils' Motivation in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of different teaching styles on the teaching behaviours that influence motivational climate and pupils' cognitive and affective responses in physical education. Four (two male, two female) initial teacher education (ITE) students and 92 pupils (47 boys, 45 girls), from two schools in the UK, participated in the…

Morgan, Kevin; Kingston, Kieran; Sproule, John

2005-01-01

240

School Policy on Teaching and School Learning Environment: Direct and Indirect Effects upon Student Outcome Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School policy on teaching and the school learning environment (SLE) are the main school factors of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness (Creemers & Kyriakides, 2008). A longitudinal study in which 50 primary schools, 108 classes, and 2369 students participated generated evidence supporting the validity of the dynamic model. This article…

Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

2012-01-01

241

Principal Efficacy: An Investigation of School Principals' Sense of Efficacy and Indicators of School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the individual school level, the responsibility for demonstrating school effectiveness lies on the shoulders of the building administrator. In fact, "it is widely accepted that good principals are the cornerstones of good schools and that, without a principal's leadership efforts to raise student achievement, schools cannot succeed"…

Lovell, Charles Wayne

2009-01-01

242

Using Shocks to School Enrollment to Estimate the Effect of School Size on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies of the connection between school enrollment size and student achievement use cross-sectional econometric models and thus do not account for unobserved heterogeneity across schools. To address this concern, I utilize school-level panel data, and generate first-differences estimates of the effect of school size on achievement.…

Kuziemko, Ilyana

2006-01-01

243

The Effects of an After-School Tutoring Program on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the challenges of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, many schools and school districts are implementing after-school tutoring programs to provide students additional instruction to score proficient or better in reading and mathematics. This doctoral study analyzed the effects of the ABC Middle School Educational Assistance Program…

Carbone, Peter M.

2010-01-01

244

Why should we care? Awakening Middle and High School students to the reality of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our students, like too much of the American public, are largely unaware or apathetic to the changes in world climate and the impact that these changes have for life on Earth. This last year we, as two Middle and High School science teachers, were given the opportunity to use a new trial curriculum currently in development for TERC's EarthLabs collection to awaken those brains and assist our students in making personal lifestyle choices based on what they had learned. In addition, with support from TERC and The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics we began training other teachers on how to implement this curriculum in their classrooms to expose their students to our changing climate. Traditionally, the cryosphere and the carbon cycle are taught as discrete units without meaningful connections to areas of study that have personal relevance and impact. While pictures of polar bears and penguins evoke emotional responses, the changes coming to their worlds usually result only in another tug at the heartstrings. What if teachers better understood two vital components of Earth's climate system and were able to impart his understanding to their students? What if students based their responses to the information taught not on emotion, but on a deeper understanding of the forces driving climate change, their analysis of the scientific evidence and in the context of earth system science? In our presentation, we will give you (1) a glimpse into the challenges faced by today's science teachers in communicating the complicated, but ever-deepening understanding of the linkages between natural and human-driven factors on climate; (2) introduce you to two new modules in the EarthLabs curriculum designed to expose teachers and students to global scientific climate data and instrumentation; and (3) illustrate how student worldviews are changed though exposure to the latest in scientific discovery and understanding.

Manley, J. M.; Barr, A. N.; Ellins, K. K.; Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Dunlap, C.; Bardar, E.

2012-12-01

245

Atmospheric greenhouse effect in the context of global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Great interest in the problem of the atmospheric greenhouse effect (not only in scientific publications, but also in mass\\u000a media), on the one hand, and the undoubtfully overemphasised contribution of the greenhouse effect to the global climate change,\\u000a on the other hand, motivate a necessity to analyse the role which the greenhouse effect plays as a factor of climate change.

K. Ya. Kondratyev; C. Varotsos

1995-01-01

246

Effects of Air Pollution Control on Climate  

E-print Network

Urban air pollution and climate are closely connected due to shared generating processes (e.g., combustion) for emissions of the driving gases and aerosols. They are also connected because the atmospheric lifecycles of ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

247

Examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade: A hierarchical analysis of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explored school effectiveness in mathematics and science at the fourth grade using data from IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Fourteen of the 26 countries participating in TIMSS at the fourth grade possessed sufficient between-school variability in mathematics achievement to justify the creation of explanatory models of school effectiveness while 13 countries possessed sufficient between-school variability in science achievement. Exploratory models were developed using variables drawn from student, teacher, and school questionnaires. The variables were chosen to represent the domains of student involvement, instructional methods, classroom organization, school climate, and school structure. Six explanatory models for each subject were analyzed using two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and were compared to models using only school mean SES as an explanatory variable. The amount of variability in student achievement in mathematics attributable to differences between schools ranged from 16% in Cyprus to 56% in Latvia, while the amount of between-school variance in science achievement ranged from 12% in Korea to 59% in Latvia. In general, about one-quarter of the variability in mathematics and science achievement was found to lie between schools. The research findings revealed that after adjusting for differences in student backgrounds across schools, the most effective schools in mathematics and science had students who reported seeing a positive relationship between hard work, belief in their own abilities, and achievement. In addition, more effective schools had students who reported less frequent use of computers and calculators in the classroom. These relationships were found to be stable across explanatory models, cultural contexts, and subject areas. This study has contributed a unique element to the literature by examining school effectiveness at the fourth grade across two subject areas and across 14 different countries. The results indicate that further exploration of the relationship between school effectiveness and student locus of control warrants serious consideration. Future research on school effectiveness is recommended, perhaps using trend data and looking at different grade levels.

Stemler, Steven Edward

248

Assessing black carbon's effects on climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon aerosol, commonly known as soot, plays an important role in Earth's climate system by absorbing solar radiation, affecting cloud processes, and influencing melting of snow and ice. In fact, after carbon dioxide, black carbon is the second most important individual climate forcing agent in the industrial era, a new study indicates. Large sources of black carbon emissions include burning of forests, industrial and residential burning of coal and biomass for fuel, and burning of diesel fuels for transportation.

Balcerak, Ernie

2013-03-01

249

A Guide to Effective School Leadership Theories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational administrators know that leadership requires hundreds of judgments each day that require a sensitivity and understanding of various leadership strategies. Bridging the gap between the academic and practical world, "A Guide to Effective School Leadership Theories" provides an exploration of ten dominant leadership strategies to give…

Lynch, Matthew

2012-01-01

250

Climate change due to greenhouse effects in China as simulated by a regional climate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of greenhouse effects (2 ? CO2) upon climate change over China as simulated by a regional climate model over China (RegCM \\/ China) have been investigated.\\u000a The model was based on RegCM2 and was nested to a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model (CSIRO R21L9 AOGCM model). Results of the control run (1 ? CO2) indicated that simulations of surface air

Xuejie Gao; Zongci Zhao; Yihui Ding; Ronghui Huang; Giorgi Filippo

2001-01-01

251

Climate change effects on forests: A critical review  

SciTech Connect

While current projections of future climate change associated with increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases have a high degree of uncertainty, the potential effects of climate change on forests are of increasing concern. A number of studies based on forest simulation models predict substantial temperatures associated with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. However, the structure of these computer models may cause them to overemphasize the role of climate in controlling tree growth and mortality. We propose that forest simulation models be reformulated with more realistic representations of growth responses to temperature, moisture, mortality, and dispersal. We believe that only when these models more accurately reflect the physiological bases of the responses of tree species to climate variables can they be used to simulate responses of forests to rapid changes in climate. We argue that direct forest responses to climate change projected by such a reformulated model may be less traumatic and more gradual than those projected by current models. However, the indirect effects of climate change on forests, mediated by alterations of disturbance regimes or the actions of pests and pathogens, may accelerate climate-induced change in forests, and they deserve further study and inclusion within forest simulation models.

Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); LeBlanc, D. [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology

1996-02-01

252

The Effects of Weather and Climate Change on Dengue  

PubMed Central

Background There is much uncertainty about the future impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases. Such uncertainty reflects the difficulties in modelling the complex interactions between disease, climatic and socioeconomic determinants. We used a comprehensive panel dataset from Mexico covering 23 years of province-specific dengue reports across nine climatic regions to estimate the impact of weather on dengue, accounting for the effects of non-climatic factors. Methods and Findings Using a Generalized Additive Model, we estimated statistically significant effects of weather and access to piped water on dengue. The effects of weather were highly nonlinear. Minimum temperature (Tmin) had almost no effect on dengue incidence below 5°C, but Tmin values above 18°C showed a rapidly increasing effect. Maximum temperature above 20°C also showed an increasing effect on dengue incidence with a peak around 32°C, after which the effect declined. There is also an increasing effect of precipitation as it rose to about 550 mm, beyond which such effect declines. Rising access to piped water was related to increasing dengue incidence. We used our model estimations to project the potential impact of climate change on dengue incidence under three emission scenarios by 2030, 2050, and 2080. An increase of up to 40% in dengue incidence by 2080 was estimated under climate change while holding the other driving factors constant. Conclusions Our results indicate that weather significantly influences dengue incidence in Mexico and that such relationships are highly nonlinear. These findings highlight the importance of using flexible model specifications when analysing weather–health interactions. Climate change may contribute to an increase in dengue incidence. Rising access to piped water may aggravate dengue incidence if it leads to increased domestic water storage. Climate change may therefore influence the success or failure of future efforts against dengue. PMID:24244765

Colón-González, Felipe J.; Fezzi, Carlo; Lake, Iain R.; Hunter, Paul R.

2013-01-01

253

Using Photo Elicitation Interview to Conceptualize In-Service Secondary School Science Teachers' Knowledge Base For Teaching Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo Elicitation Interviews (PEI) were used for assessing in-service secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding about global climate change (GCC). We selected PEI over attitude surveys, multiple-choice content assessments and interviews because we believe that evaluating knowledge about GCC requires an understanding of the system as a whole (Papadimitriou, 2004). Hence we conducted interviews with ten teachers using visual representations of GCC. The 8 images used in this approach were obtained from NASA image collection and local climatology websites. Questions associated with these images were developed, aligned with Essential Principles for Climate Literacy (NOAA, 2009) and interviews were conducted following a weeklong, summer professional development workshop based on propagating climate literacy. Image1 elicited teachers' understanding about global warming. Almost all said that they were intrigued but they needed for more evidence to fully understand the issue. Image 2 was designed to elicit teachers' understandings of weather vs. climate. All ten teachers were able to distinguish between weather and climate but were aware of how many years of weather data was needed to make climate predictions. Their answers varied from 10 years to 100 years. Image 3 showed the Greenhouse effect, which most of the teachers were able to describe but they were not able, describe 'enhanced green house effect'. Gaps in knowledge about 'earth as a radiating body' and 'long wave and short wave radiations' also became evident during the process. Similar to Grima et al., 2010, Gautier, 2006 and Kempton, 1991, three participants attributed the increase in global temperatures to the size of the ozone hole, which is a commonly held misconception. Image 4 showed an image of the Keeling curve, which was well explained by most, but only five teachers were able to identify the cause of seasonal fluctuations in the amount of carbon dioxide gas released in the atmosphere. Image 5 and 6 were a pictorial representation of the carbon dioxide levels and increasing temperatures in our atmosphere that all ten participants were able to describe confidently. Images7, 8 represented a flooding event in the Mississippi River in the Midwest USA. When asked about the direct and indirect impacts of changing climate especially in regards to flooding and droughts, all the participants mentioned that increasing temperatures are correlated with the increased chances of drought or precipitation. They attributed this to the global circulation pattern of winds. Most participants were not sure about the interplay of several factors at a very local scale. Using this process of PEI, we were able to analyze teachers' overall understanding of GCC along with their misconceptions. We also observed that all ten participants of this study displayed their strongest knowledge towards climate literacy principles 6 and 7 related to the causes and implications in a GCC scenario. There was a general lack of appreciation for feedbacks that occur within the climate system, with almost no mentions of the connection between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle.

Bhattacharya, D.; Roehrig, G.; Karahan, E.; Liu, S.

2013-12-01

254

Climatic changes and effect on wild sheep habitat  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wild sheep are sensitive to environmental change and may be an effective indicator species of climate change in arctic and high mountain ecosystems. To understand the effects of climatic changes on Dall sheep habitat, U.S. Geological Survey scientists have been studying selected areas in Alaska since 2007. The research focus is on forage quality, nutrient levels, and changes resulting from warming or cooling climate trends. Preliminary results indicate significant changes in Dall sheep diet accompanying vegetation changes and upslope retreat of glaciers.

Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Heimer, Wayne; Roffler, Gretchen; Valdez, Raul; Gahl, Megan

2012-01-01

255

Exploring Ice Sheets and Climate Change through Supercomputer Visualizations in Middle and Secondary Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public awareness of changing atmospheric conditions, melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and sea level rise have become powerful instruments for intriguing and teaching middle and secondary science students the complex concepts of atmosphere-cryosphere interactions. Visualization of the changing atmosphere and cryosphere through simple mass balance and finite element ice sheet models developed at the University of Maine, coupled with supercomputing and the Maine Laptop Initiative (ITEST/IDEAS), allows students to explore climatic and mechanical influences on ice sheets. The simple mass balance model provides high-resolution global solutions of snow accumulation/ablation based on modern climatic conditions. Within the model, students are also able to change basic climate parameters such as global temperature and annual precipitation to produce departures from modern conditions to address questions such as “How cold would it have to be for there to be snow year-round on a specific mountain?” The finite element ice sheet model takes these solutions further by modeling the associated glaciers and ice sheets thus allowing students to see how ice sheets and glacial parameters are altered with a changing climate. Students are therefore provided with useful tools necessary to address questions facing modern society including, “Under what climatic conditions would the Greenland Ice Sheet collapse?” High-resolution visualizations of the Greenland Ice Sheet also allow students to investigate the concept of mechanical processes within the ice sheets including ice streams and calving that give rise to non-linear instabilities. With their understanding of climatic and mechanical effects on ice sheets, students will then be able to hypothesize and discuss how different parameters can stabilize or destabilize any ice sheet. With increased knowledge and understanding of atmosphere-cryosphere interactions and ice-sheet response to altered climatic conditions, students will be prepared to respond and address the growing concern of continued climatic change. This work was partially funded by NSF grant DRL 0737583.

Pingree, K. A.; Koons, P. O.; Birkel, S. D.; Segee, B.; Zhu, Y.; Schauffler, M.

2009-12-01

256

Climate change and wildlife health: direct and indirect effects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate change will have significant effects on the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans, according to scientists. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that unprecedented rates of climate change will result in increasing average global temperatures; rising sea levels; changing global precipitation patterns, including increasing amounts and variability; and increasing midcontinental summer drought (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Increasing temperatures, combined with changes in rainfall and humidity, may have significant impacts on wildlife, domestic animal, and human health and diseases. When combined with expanding human populations, these changes could increase demand on limited water resources, lead to more habitat destruction, and provide yet more opportunities for infectious diseases to cross from one species to another. Awareness has been growing in recent years about zoonotic diseases— that is, diseases that are transmissible between animals and humans, such as Lyme disease and West Nile virus. The rise of such diseases results from closer relationships among wildlife, domestic animals, and people, allowing more contact with diseased animals, organisms that carry and transmit a disease from one animal to another (vectors), and people. Disease vectors include insects, such as mosquitoes, and arachnids, such as ticks. Thus, it is impossible to separate the effects of global warming on wildlife from its effects on the health of domestic animals or people. Climate change, habitat destruction and urbanization, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and pollution—all affect ecosystem and human health. Climate change can also be viewed within the context of other physical and climate cycles, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (El Niño), the North Atlantic Oscillation, and cycles in solar radiation that have profound effects on the Earth’s climate. The effects of climate change on wildlife disease are summarized in several areas of scientific study discussed briefly below: geographic range and distribution of wildlife diseases, plant and animal phenology (Walther and others, 2002), and patterns of wildlife disease, community and ecosystem composition, and habitat degradation.

Hofmeister, Erik; Rogall, Gail Moede; eWsenberg, Kathy; Abbott, Rachel; Work, Thierry; Schuler, Krysten; Sleeman, Jonathan; Winton, James

2010-01-01

257

The thermoinsulation effect of snow cover within a climate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a state of the art climate model (CAM3–CLM3) to investigate the sensitivity of surface climate and land surface processes\\u000a to treatments of snow thermal conductivity. In the first set of experiments, the thermal conductivity of snow at each grid\\u000a cell is set to that of the underlying soil (SC-SOIL), effectively eliminating any insulation effect. This scenario is compared

Benjamin I. Cook; Gordon B. Bonan; Samuel Levis; Howard E. Epstein

2008-01-01

258

The New England School Effectiveness Project: A Facilitator's Sourcebook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The School Team Facilitator assists participating New England secondary schools in planning and implementing improvement efforts based on school effectiveness research. This publication, distributed at a team training conference, begins with the conference schedule, a list of facilitators, instructions on choosing a school team, and letters to…

Northeast Regional Exchange, Inc., Chelmsford, MA.

259

Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

2006-01-01

260

Global Climate Change: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about ways in which scientists study past climate change. These studies involve investigations of ice cores taken from the vast ice sheet that covers Greenland and fossil evidence that parts of the Sahara Desert were once lush and filled with animal species more often associated with the African savanna far to the south. With the help of multimedia interactives and video, they will understand what global climate change is and that it has fluctuated many times during the history of the planet. They will also understand how changing climate affects our lives, learn about greenhouse gases, and consider the events that are causing an increase in the amount of these gases in the atmosphere.

2005-01-01

261

Measuring School and Teacher Effectiveness in EPIC Charter School Consortium--Year 2. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New Leaders for New Schools, a nonprofit organization committed to training school principals, heads the Effective Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to effective educators. Through this initiative, New Leaders offers financial awards to educators in two urban school districts and a consortium of…

Potamites, Liz; Booker, Kevin; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric

2009-01-01

262

The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

2012-01-01

263

Service-Learning in the Undergraduate Geoscience Classroom: Establishing Community Partnerships to Enhance Education in Climate Change Science in Local Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of the science surrounding global climate change makes effective communication about this issue to the public difficult, especially at a time when many would argue that public understanding of science in general has decreased. As a service-learning project, a partnership was created between an upper-level environmental studies climate change class at Ursinus College (UC) and the UC Science In Motion (SIM) program to construct an appropriate lab activity that would foster scientific knowledge and abilities in high school students particularly in relation to basic climate change science. The Pennsylvania SIM program is a state-funded initiative to make a selection of lab activities, equipment, and expertise available to teachers at secondary schools at no cost to the schools with the goal to “strengthen the quality of science education for all.” The twelve SIM sites are dispersed throughout PA and serve over 200 school districts overall. The UC SIM program has served over 30 local schools with labs and activities from which the teachers may select. Prior to the partnership discussed here, there were no labs in the UC SIM program that incorporated the concepts of climate change and though a “drop-off” climate change lab was desired, the staff would have no time to design one. The adaptation of a previously written lab set on climate change was assigned as a project for the 9 environmental studies majors at UC enrolled in a Fall 2008 course exploring the science of global climate change. While an advanced course within the environmental studies curriculum, the science backgrounds of the college students themselves were mixed, ranging from science majors to students for whom this was the first or second science course taken at college. In addition to the typical load of coursework, the students worked in small groups on this project throughout the semester, collecting the supplies, testing and adapting the labs, creating a video to guide users through the lab, visiting a local high school for a trial run, and editing and writing the worksheets and teacher guides. It was necessary for the students to clearly understand the concepts behind the labs so the activities could be adapted and presented appropriately. Effective communication of the concepts through visuals and written work was also important. Continued coordination with UC SIM staff was required and helpful and the final product was turned over to the UC SIM for further adaptation and use. The college students appreciated the positive impact the lab could have on climate change science education even after the end of the semester and found it both motivating and rewarding. Partnering with an organization already established and utilized as a source of science education activities for the local school districts ensured quick dissemination of the lab activity. Between 1/09-6/09, ~12 teachers have used this global climate change lab with ~500 students of mixed academic levels. The lab has received positive feedback from teachers and supplies have been duplicated to meet demand, likely indicative of a desire for accessible lab activities within the field of environmental science.

Joseph, L. H.; Faust, R.

2009-12-01

264

Climate, traffic-related air pollutants and allergic rhinitis prevalence in middle-school children in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate, traffic-related air pollutants and allergic rhinitis prevalence in middle-school children in Taiwan. Y-L. Lee, C-K. Shaw, H-J. Su, J-S. Lai, Y-C. Ko, S-L. Huang, F-C. Sung, Y.L. Guo. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: The prevalence of allergic rhinitis, a common respiratory disorder, may be rapidly increasing. Epidemiological studies, however, indicate little about its association with climatic factors and air

Y. L. Lee; H. J. Su; J. S. Lai; S. L. Huang; Y. L. Guo

2003-01-01

265

Effectiveness of Cyber Charter Schools: A Review of Research on Learnings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cyber charter schools in the United States have attracted considerable interest for students and families as alternatives to other public schools, as well as from policymakers. As charter school laws are enacted state-by-state, the climate for charter schools, including cyber charters grows more favorable. As of 2008, over 4500 charter schools

Cavanaugh, Cathy

2009-01-01

266

Effect of climate change in hydropower generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact of potential climatic change in hydropower generation has been the main objective of this research. Two flood control, hydropower, and recreation projects located in the midwest USA have been selected as the subject of the analysis given the consistency of the available climatic data and the adequate energy generation records. These two reservoirs are Stockton and Harry S. Truman Reservoirs located on the Osage River Basin which is part of the Lower Missouri River Basin. Both reservoirs were designed, constructed and are currently managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District. Long-term monthly precipitation, evaporation, temperature, streamflow and power generation records were used in the statistical analysis. The hydrologic data, precipitation, temperature, and streamflow data were utilized in a multivariate analysis with the purpose of producing a regression model capable of reproducing baseline conditions. From the baseline conditions, ten different climatic variation scenarios were studied. Each scenario produced a series of streamflow records that were extended using a randomly generated data to produce 21-year long reservoir inflow series. Reservoir inflow series in each scenario were modeled using a reservoir operation model. Firm energy was then evaluated and compared with baseline conditions to determine the economic impact of the climatic variations. In summary, operating rules and water reservoir management for different purposes are impacted and need further evaluation by operating managers, if streamflow records were to follow studied trends.

Pacheco Gomez, Rodolfo Guillermo

2000-10-01

267

The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E.; Soja, A. J.

2009-10-01

268

Multi-factor climate change effects on insect herbivore performance  

PubMed Central

The impact of climate change on herbivorous insects can have far-reaching consequences for ecosystem processes. However, experiments investigating the combined effects of multiple climate change drivers on herbivorous insects are scarce. We independently manipulated three climate change drivers (CO2, warming, drought) in a Danish heathland ecosystem. The experiment was established in 2005 as a full factorial split-plot with 6 blocks × 2 levels of CO2 × 2 levels of warming × 2 levels of drought = 48 plots. In 2008, we exposed 432 larvae (n = 9 per plot) of the heather beetle (Lochmaea suturalis Thomson), an important herbivore on heather, to ambient versus elevated drought, temperature, and CO2 (plus all combinations) for 5 weeks. Larval weight and survival were highest under ambient conditions and decreased significantly with the number of climate change drivers. Weight was lowest under the drought treatment, and there was a three-way interaction between time, CO2, and drought. Survival was lowest when drought, warming, and elevated CO2 were combined. Effects of climate change drivers depended on other co-acting factors and were mediated by changes in plant secondary compounds, nitrogen, and water content. Overall, drought was the most important factor for this insect herbivore. Our study shows that weight and survival of insect herbivores may decline under future climate. The complexity of insect herbivore responses increases with the number of combined climate change drivers. PMID:23789058

Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J; Stevnbak, Karen; Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Michelsen, Anders; Albert, Kristian Rost; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Beier, Claus; Christensen, Søren

2013-01-01

269

Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks  

PubMed Central

Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m2. The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change. PMID:24344285

Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlík, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, Page; Von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d’Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Müller, Christoph; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, Erwin; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

2014-01-01

270

Climate, traffic-related air pollutants, and asthma prevalence in middle-school children in taiwan.  

PubMed Central

This study compared the prevalence of asthma with climate and air pollutant data to determine the relationship between asthma prevalence and these factors. We conducted a nationwide survey of respiratory illness and symptoms in middle-school students in Taiwan. Lifetime prevalences of physician-diagnosed asthma and of typical symptoms of asthma were compared to air monitoring station data for temperature, relative humidity, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [less than/equal to] 10 microm (PM(10)). A total of 331,686 nonsmoking children attended schools located within 2 km of 55 stations. Asthma prevalence rates adjusted for age, history of atopic eczema, and parental education were associated with nonsummer (June-August) temperature, winter (January-March) humidity, and traffic-related air pollution, especially carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, for both girls and boys. Nonsummer temperature, winter humidity, and traffic-related air pollution, especially carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, were positively associated with the prevalence of asthma in middle-school students in Taiwan. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10585904

Guo, Y L; Lin, Y C; Sung, F C; Huang, S L; Ko, Y C; Lai, J S; Su, H J; Shaw, C K; Lin, R S; Dockery, D W

1999-01-01

271

Simulating climate change effects in a Minnesota agricultural watershed  

SciTech Connect

The effect of climate change on quality and quantity of runoff from a northern, agricultural watershed was simulated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, 1996 Version (SWAT96). SWAT`s snow evaporation submodel was modified. SWAT was calibrated using water quality and quantity data measured in the Cottonwood River near New ULM, MN. The standard errors after calibration were 3.31 mm, 157 kg/d, 752 kg/d, 3744 kg/d, and 85 t/d for mean monthly streamflow, P yield, ammonia (NH{sub 3})/organic N yield, nitrate (NO{sub 3}) yield, and sediment yield, respectively. The standard error for monthly streamflow was 9.62 mm. SWAT96 was then used to simulate the effect on the Cottonwood River watershed of a 2xCO{sub 2} climate scenario, obtained from the Canadian Climate Center`s global circulation model. Assuming land cover and land management remained constant, SWAT96 projected a decrease in mean annual streamflow, P yield, NH{sub 3}/organic N yield, NO{sub 3}/nitrate (NO{sub 2}) yield, and sediment yield. Mean monthly values changed significantly for many months of the year under the 2xCO{sub 2} climate scenario. The standard errors in SWATs baseline simulations, however, were too high for the simulated climate change effects to be measurable for NO{sub 3}/NO{sub 2} and sediment yields. The model assumptions and calibration methods used to obtain the accuracy required for simulating the effects of climate change lead to the conclusions that land use/land cover and land management practices are likely to have a greater impact on water quality than climate change and that SWAT must be calibrated to be used for climate change analysis.

Hanratty, M.P.; Stefan, H.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). St. Anthony Falls Lab.

1998-11-01

272

School and pupil effects on secondary pupils' feelings of safety in school, around school, and at home.  

PubMed

In line with fear of crime research, schools should be secure places where pupils feel safe in order to function well. Various types of risk and promotive variables at school and pupil level may differently influence a pupil's feelings of safety in school, the school surroundings, and at home. The aim is to elaborate and test a theoretical two-level model on risk and promotive variables by using national data from an Internet-based survey in all types of Dutch secondary education. The cross-sectional research involves 71,560 pupils from 185 schools. Confirmatory factor analysis and multilevel logistic regression analysis including latent variables are used to analyze the data. The results demonstrate that school size, pupil attainment level in education, and intactness of a pupil's family have positive effects on a pupil's feelings of safety in and around school and at home; overall negative effects concern the school's curricular differentiation and a pupil's playing truant and not feeling most at home in the Netherlands. A school's social, teaching, and instructional qualities and a pupil's being older, being a boy, and being baptized positively affect the feelings of safety in and around school. A school's safety policy and rules of conduct have no effects. Attending a church or mosque has negative effects on a pupil's feelings of safety around school and at home. The findings confirm part of the two-level model. The Internet-based data collection and feedback procedure enable each school to longitudinally assess and evaluate own results at school level; in addition, cross-sectional comparison of school results with national benchmarks is possible. PMID:23248356

Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan

2013-04-01

273

Using Haptics to Convey Cause-and-Effect Relations in Climate Visualization  

E-print Network

produced by climate simulation programs typically consists of values for a set of some 10 climate variablesUsing Haptics to Convey Cause-and-Effect Relations in Climate Visualization Nesra Yannier, Cagatay in augmenting the visualization of climate data. In existing approaches to climate visualization, dimensions

Basdogan, Cagatay

274

Effects of climate change on southeastern forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forests of the coastal plain region of the southeastern United States are among the most productive in North America. Because they form the basis of a large timber and wood products industry, these forests are of considerable economic importance. Also, the forests are rich in plant and animal species. Because they are diverse as well as productive, they have considerable conservation importance. Therefore, understanding potential impacts of climate change on southern forests is critical.

Harcombe, Paul A.

1997-01-01

275

Middle school students' conceptual change in global climate change: Using argumentation to foster knowledge construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the framework theory of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct incorrect ideas with correct ones, but instead weigh incoming ideas against already existing explanatory frameworks, which have likely served the learner well to this point. The research questions were as follows: (1) What are the patterns of students' conceptual change in GCC? (a) What conceptions are invoked in student learning in this arena? (b) What conceptions are most influential? (c) What are the extra-rational factors influencing conceptual change in GCC? This research took place in an urban public school in a medium sized city in the southeastern United States. A sixth grade science teacher at Central Middle school, Ms. Octane, taught a course titled "Research Methods I., which was an elective science course that students took as part of a science magnet program. A unit was designed for 6th grade instruction that incorporated an Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) approach, centered on the subject matter of Global Climate change and Global Warming. Students were immersed in three separate lessons within the unit, each of which featured an emphasis upon creating scientific explanations based upon evidence. Additionally, each of the lessons placed a premium on students working towards the development of such explanations as a part of a group, with an emphasis on peer review of the robustness of the explanations proposed. The students were involved in approximately a two week unit emphasizing global climate change. This unit was based on an argumentation model that provided data to students and asked them to develop explanations that accounted for the data. The students then underwent a peer-review process to determine if their explanations could be modified to better account for the data as pointed out by peers. As the students experienced the three lessons comprising the unit, data were taken of various modes, including pre-unit, mid-unit, post-unit, and delayed-post unit interviews, observer notes from the classroom, and artifacts created by the students as individuals and as members of a group. At the end of the unit, a written post-assessment was administered, and post-interviews were conducted with the selected students. These varied data sources were analyzed in order to develop themes corresponding to their frameworks of climate change. Negative cases were sought in order to test developing themes. Themes that emerged from the data were triangulated across the various data sources in order to ensure quality and rigor. These themes were then used to construct understandings of various students' frameworks of the content. Several findings emerged from this research. The first finding is that each student underwent some conceptual change regarding GCC, although of varying natures. The students' synthetic frameworks of GCC were more complex than their initial, or naive frameworks. Some characteristics of the naive frameworks included that the students tended to conflate climate change with a broader, generic category of environmental things. Examples of this conflation include the idea that climate change entails general pollution, litter, and needless killing of dolphins while fishing for tuna. This research suggests that students might benefit from explicit attention to this concept in terms of an ontological category, with the ideal synthetic view realizing that GCC is itself an example of an emergent process. Another characteristic of their naive frameworks includes some surprisingly accurate notions of GCC, including a general sense that temperatures and sea levels are rising. At the same time, none of the students were able to adequately invoke data to support their understandings of GCC. Instead, when data were invoked, students tended to include anecdotal informat

Golden, Barry W.

276

The Cost Effectiveness of Whole School Reforms. Urban Diversity Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines issues related to the cost effectiveness of whole school reform. The first section discusses the development of whole school reform models, criteria for model adoption, and challenges of whole school reform for evaluation. The second section, "Comparing Effectiveness," looks at models for evaluation (experimental,…

Levin, Henry M.

277

School effects on psychological outcomes during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine school-level differences in the relations between school belonging and various outcomes. In Study 1, predictors of belonging were examined. Results indicated that belonging was lower in urban schools than in suburban schools, and lower in schools that used busing practices than those that did not. In Study

Eric M. Anderman

2002-01-01

278

Conceptualizing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers' Knowledge Base for Climate Change Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to deepen teachers' knowledge of the science of climate change is crucial under a global climate change (GCC) scenario. With effective collaboration between researchers, scientists and teachers, conceptual frameworks can be developed for creating climate change content for classroom implementation. Here, we discuss how teachers' conceptualized content knowledge about GCC changes over the course of a professional development program in which they are provided with place-based and culturally congruent content. The NASA-funded Global Climate Change Education (GCCE) project, "CYCLES: Teachers Discovering Climate Change from a Native Perspective", is a 3-year teacher professional development program designed to develop culturally-sensitive approaches for GCCE in Native American communities using traditional knowledge, data and tools. As a part of this program, we assessed the progression in the content knowledge of participating teachers about GCC. Teachers were provided thematic GCC content focused on the elements of the medicine wheel-Earth, Fire, Air, Water, and Life -during a one week summer workshop. Content was organized to emphasize explanations of the natural world as interconnected and cyclical processes and to align with the Climate and Earth Science Literacy Principles and NASA resources. Year 1 workshop content was focused on the theme of "Earth" and teacher knowledge was progressively increased by providing content under the themes of 1) understanding of timescale, 2) understanding of local and global perspectives, 3) understanding of proxy data and 4) ecosystem connectivity. We used a phenomenographical approach for data analysis to qualitatively investigate different ways in which the teachers experienced and conceptualized GCC. We analyzed categories of teachers' climate change knowledge using information generated by tools such as photo elicitation interviews, concept maps and reflective journal perceptions. Preliminary findings from the pre-workshop interviews indicate teachers' different perceptions about timescale, their understanding about data projections using modeling, and their acceptance of the level of uncertainty in the data. Preliminary results from the progressive mapping of the core concepts highlighted 1) a direct correlation between the content provided and the concepts generated. 2) misconceptions generated during the process and 3) connections between various concepts related to the science of global climate change. Analysis of the responses of teachers to the content-based questions revealed a gradual progression in understanding of the science behind GCC. While the initial responses were limited to what causes GCC, later ones were based on local and global implications of GCC and possible adaptive solutions for the same. Our results will provide crucial information about providing conceptual knowledge and addressing misconceptions regarding the science of climate change. The information generated by this study can be used to further develop theme-based structured curricula to enhance teachers' understanding of the phenomenon of GCC.

Campbell, K. M.; Roehrig, G.; Dalbotten, D. M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Nam, Y.; Varma, K.; Wang, J.

2011-12-01

279

Effect of a School Choice Policy Change on Active Commuting to Elementary School.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . The purposes of this study were to assess the effect of restricting school choice on changes in travel distance to school and transportation mode for elementary school students. Design . Study design was pre-post (spring 2010-fall 2010) quasi-experimental. Setting . Study setting was all public elementary schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Subjects . Subjects comprised approximately 20,500 students across 39 schools. Intervention . Study assessed a school choice policy change that restricted school choice to a school closer to the family's home. Measures . School district transportation data were used to determine distance to school. Direct observations of student travel modes (two morning and two afternoon commutes at each time point) were used to assess transportation mode. Analysis . Chi-square and independent-sample t-tests were calculated to describe the schools. Repeated measures general linear models were used to assess changes in travel distance to school and observed commuting behavior. Results . Distance to school significantly decreased (1.83 ± .48 miles to 1.74 ± .46 miles; p = .002). We failed to observe any significant changes in morning (+.7%) or afternoon (-.7%) active commuting (both p = .08) or the number of automobiles in the morning (-7 autos per school; p = .06) or afternoon (+3 autos per school; p = .14). Conclusion . The more restrictive school choice policy decreased distance to school but had no significant effect on active commuting. Policy interventions designed to increase active commuting to school may require additional time to gain traction and programmatic support to induce changes in behavior. PMID:25162323

Sirard, John R; McDonald, Kelsey; Mustain, Patrick; Hogan, Whitney; Helm, Alison

2014-08-27

280

School Segregation and Its Effects on Educational Equality and Efficiency in 16 OECD Comprehensive School Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using PISA data for 16 Western OECD countries having comprehensive school systems, we explore the conditions under which the socioeconomic composition of schools affects educational efficiency and equality, to a greater or lesser extent. First, a multilevel analysis is applied to examine and compare the effect of school socioeconomic composition…

Benito, Ricard; Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Gonzàlez-Balletbò, Isaac

2014-01-01

281

The Effects of School Gardens on Students and Schools: Conceptualization and Considerations for Maximizing Healthy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are thousands of school gardens in the United States, and there is anecdotal evidence that school garden programs can enhance students' learning in academic, social, and health-related domains. There has been little rigorous research, however, on the effects of school gardens or on the factors that promote the sustainability of these…

Ozer, Emily J.

2007-01-01

282

Effectiveness of School-Based Bullying Intervention Programs in Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying behavior has reached pandemic proportions and is a growing concern in primary school. Most intervention programs in primary school are focused on bullying prevention or principally on the behavior of the bully. The purpose of this study was to explore whether a school-based bullying intervention program is an effective method for reducing…

Dogini, Eric U.

2012-01-01

283

Exploring school effects across southern and eastern African school systems and in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) II data are analysed, using multilevel modelling techniques, to explore the key issues underlying the development of school effectiveness models. Differences between schools in Grade 6 pupils’ reading and mathematics achievements are examined and the percentage of variance in pupil outcomes attributable to school and country levels is estimated

Guoxing Yu; Sally M. Thomas

2008-01-01

284

Distribution-wide effects of climate on population densities of a declining migratory landbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Increases in global temperatures have created concern about effects of climatic vari- ability on populations, and climate has been shown to affect population dynamics in an increasing number of species. Testing for effects of climate on population densities across a species' distribution allows for elucidation of effects of climate that would not be apparent at smaller spatial scales.

ANGELA D. ANDERS; ERIC POST

2006-01-01

285

Climate Change Collection (CCC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Climate Change Collection (CCC) provides access to high quality, digital materials relating to natural and human induced climate change and variability, including scientific, economic and policy issues of climate change. The collection focuses on background resources and learning activities that communicate the principles that underlie climate change and variability, including the differences and links between weather and climate; the basics of the climate system including the greenhouse effect and energy balance; climatic processes that occur at varying time scales, including orbital cycles and forcing; how scientific research is conducted relative to measuring change and variability; and how human activities, including the combustion of fossil fuels and changes of land cover, impact the climate system. The resources have been reviewed for scientific accuracy and currency, and annotated with comments and suggestions relating to their potential value to Earth system science teachers and their students, particularly at the middle school level.

286

Effects of corpuscular radiation on weather and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is no doubt that the antropogenic effect play an important role in the effects of corpuscular radiation on weather and climate. The task, however, is to distinguish between antropogenic effect in the atmosphere due to human activities and natural climatic fluctuations influencing biological systems. The increase in global temperature during the past 100 years is in relatively good coincidence with the increase in geomagnetic (corpuscular) activity. It is concluded that it could have been the increase in temperature on the Northern Hemisphere, due to the processes occurring in the auroral oval under enhanced corpuscular radiation which led to an increased atmospheric concentration of CO2 in the past. Both processes, i.e., antropogenic and solar activity effects, should be therefore intensively studied due to their important role for elucidating the past and present global change mainly in temperature, climate and biological systems.

Bucha, V.

1989-01-01

287

Climate change and health effects in Northwest Alaska  

PubMed Central

This article provides examples of adverse health effects, including weather-related injury, food insecurity, mental health issues, and water infrastructure damage, and the responses to these effects that are currently being applied in two Northwest Alaska communities. Background In Northwest Alaska, warming is resulting in a broad range of unusual weather and environmental conditions, including delayed freeze-up, earlier breakup, storm surge, coastal erosion, and thawing permafrost. These are just some of the climate impacts that are driving concerns about weather-related injury, the spread of disease, mental health issues, infrastructure damage, and food and water security. Local leaders are challenged to identify appropriate adaptation strategies to address climate impacts and related health effects. Implementation process The tribal health system is combining local observations, traditional knowledge, and western science to perform community-specific climate change health impact assessments. Local leaders are applying this information to develop adaptation responses. Objective The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium will describe relationships between climate impacts and health effects and provide examples of community-scaled adaptation actions currently being applied in Northwest Alaska. Findings Climate change is increasing vulnerability to injury, disease, mental stress, food insecurity, and water insecurity. Northwest communities are applying adaptation approaches that are both specific and appropriate. Conclusion The health impact assessment process is effective in raising awareness, encouraging discussion, engaging partners, and implementing adaptation planning. With community-specific information, local leaders are applying health protective adaptation measures. PMID:22022304

Brubaker, Michael; Berner, James; Chavan, Raj; Warren, John

2011-01-01

288

How shorter black carbon lifetime alters its climate effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC), unlike most aerosol types, absorbs solar radiation. However, the quantification of its climate impact is uncertain and presently under debate. Recently, attention has been drawn both to a likely underestimation of global BC emissions in climate models, and an overestimation of BC at high altitudes. Here we show that doubling present day BC emissions in a model simulation, while reducing BC lifetime based on observational evidence, leaves the direct aerosol effect of BC virtually unchanged. Increased emissions, together with increased wet removal that reduces the lifetime, yields modelled BC vertical profiles that are in strongly improved agreement with recent aircraft observations. Furthermore, we explore the consequences of an altered BC profile in a global circulation model, and show that both the vertical profile of BC and rapid climate adjustments need to be taken into account in order to assess the total climate impact of BC.

Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Samset, Bjørn H.

2014-09-01

289

How shorter black carbon lifetime alters its climate effect.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC), unlike most aerosol types, absorbs solar radiation. However, the quantification of its climate impact is uncertain and presently under debate. Recently, attention has been drawn both to a likely underestimation of global BC emissions in climate models, and an overestimation of BC at high altitudes. Here we show that doubling present day BC emissions in a model simulation, while reducing BC lifetime based on observational evidence, leaves the direct aerosol effect of BC virtually unchanged. Increased emissions, together with increased wet removal that reduces the lifetime, yields modelled BC vertical profiles that are in strongly improved agreement with recent aircraft observations. Furthermore, we explore the consequences of an altered BC profile in a global circulation model, and show that both the vertical profile of BC and rapid climate adjustments need to be taken into account in order to assess the total climate impact of BC. PMID:25255429

Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Samset, Bjørn H

2014-01-01

290

Leadership and Learning: A Measurement-Based Approach for Analyzing School Effectiveness and Developing Effective School Leaders. Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attending to the questions of how school leadership influences learning and achievement and what effective school leaders do, this document describes a measurement-based approach for studying and developing effective school leadership. The document details the conception, refinement, and psychometric properties of the Instructional Leadership…

Krug, Samuel E.

291

The Effects of Middle School Teachers' Beliefs on Classroom Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The students in 21st-century public middle schools are increasingly diverse in terms of language proficiency, cultural and ethnic representation, and varied levels of poverty; and, yet, they are being educated in a political climate that encourages mainstreaming special education and gifted services in the regular classroom. Given this context,…

Brighton, Catherine M.

2003-01-01

292

The Effect of Outsourcing on the Performance of Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public education in the 21st century is faced with many difficult challenges. The first and probably most common issue is related to finance. As the economy continues to worsen, school districts are forced to find new revenue streams while at the same time reducing expenditures. In the current economic climate, it is becoming more difficult for…

Rivera, Lonny J.

2009-01-01

293

Rx for Success. Improving the Climate for Women in Medical Schools and Teaching Hospitals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report focuses attention on those areas of medical school education that may have a negative effect on women students' confidence and competence. It examines the different ways that male and female medical students experience their training and the particular stresses that women may face, including: role conflicts; questions about commitment;…

Ehrhart, Julie Kuhn; Sandler, Bernice R.

294

The Longitudinal Impact of a Universal School-Based Social-Emotional and Literacy Intervention on Classroom Climate and Teacher Processes and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation capitalizes on a three-year, longitudinal, school-randomized trial of the 4Rs Program, a comprehensive, school-based social-emotional and literacy program for elementary schools, to test intervention induced changes in features of classroom climate and key dimensions of teacher affective and pedagogical processes and practices…

Brown, Joshua L.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Aber, J. Lawrence

2010-01-01

295

Effective Engagement of Hostile Audiences on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communicating effectively about climate change can be very frustrating because hostility to climate science is rooted in deeply held beliefs rather than facts. Opposition can be more effectively countered by respecting ideological objections than by aggressive insistence on acceptance of consensus evidence. When presented with a stark choice between sacred beliefs and factual evidence, social science research shows that nearly everyone will choose the latter. Rational argument from authority is often the weakest approach in such situations. Climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

Denning, S.

2012-12-01

296

Greenland elders and high school students offer perspectives on climate change and science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

KANGERLUSSUAQ, GREENLAND—This small town in central western Greenland, which has a population of about 650 and a major airstrip dating from World War II, is a center for scientific research and a starting point for scientists working in the region and on Greenland's ice sheet to study climate change and other issues. The town, just north of the Arctic Circle, sits at the edge of the 190-kilometer-long Kangerlussuaq Fjord and straddles the Qinnguata Kuussua River estuary, whose source water is the Russell Glacier, about 20 kilometers to the east. Between Kanger—as some refer to the town—and the glacier, some Eskimo-Kalaallit elders held a traditional gathering last month and also offered their perspectives on climate change during an impromptu 14 July meeting with high school students and other visitors. The evening before that meeting, Ole Olsvig, Kurt Olsen, Avaruna Mathaeussen, and other high schoolers from Greenland were in a makeshift classroom at the back of a renovated former U.S. Army barracks in Kanger, which had served as a U.S. military base. The students, who said they care deeply about their traditional culture and also are very aware of recent changes in climate, were helping to make presentations about their summer science projects. A total of 16 high schoolers from Greenland, 3 from Denmark, and 5 from the United States were there, participating in Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) activities; JSEP is an international collaborative polar science education effort between Greenland, Denmark, and the United States that receives support from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF).

Showstack, Randy

2011-08-01

297

Forest decline: modeling the effect of climate in tree rings.  

PubMed

Tree rings provide an historical record of forest growth that reflects changes with time in site factors including, competition, tree and stand age, fire and other disturbances, and climate. Statistical methods can be used to factor out climatic influences on radial growth to yield a climate response model that can indicate whether declines in forest productivity are related to the modeled climatic variables or to other influences such as atmospheric pollutants. A general method, based on ordinary least squares, is presented for creating climatic response models for forest decline studies. The crux of the method is model verification, whereby the time-stability of the model is tested before it is used to forecast tree-ring variations during a period of decline. Three studies are described that employ monthly mean temperatures to predict tree-ring indices in declining red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands in the Appalachian Mountains of North America. The results indicate that, since 1960, red spruce trees at most of the sites sampled have undergone a period of growth decline that is unrelated to changes in mean monthly temperature. However, an association between annual ring width and unusual departures from the mean summer and winter temperatures during both present and past periods of decline suggests that climatic effects are implicated to some degree in the current decline. PMID:14975833

Cook, E R; Johnson, A H; Blasing, T J

1987-03-01

298

School Violence Prevention: Climate and Moral Perspectives of Sixth through Eighth Grade Students Attending a Southern California Catholic School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for U.S. teachers to better understand School Violence Prevention is growing. Evidence suggests however, that 10 years and 10 billion dollars after the Columbine High School massacre, our public schools are not safer (www.community-matters.org). There has been an "after the fact" approach to the problem of school violence. After an…

Gomez, Diane Diaz

2010-01-01

299

Assessing Teacher, Classroom, and School Effects, Including Fiscal Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we argue that too much previous research has tended to assess the effects of student, classroom, and school variables in isolation from other variables and has often used statistical techniques that ignored the nested na- ture of the 3 classes of factors. We then argue that a more educationally ori- ented framework should be used to assess

Allan Odden; Geoffrey Borman; Mark Fermanich

2004-01-01

300

Secondary School Leadership Practice in Botswana: Implications for Effective Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the views of selected headteachers on the impact of the 10-year basic education policy on the leadership skills of secondary school headteachers in Botswana. Research literature on school leadership and management in Botswana is sparse. Despite this, demands for effective leadership in schools have continued as the education…

Pheko, Bolelang

2008-01-01

301

The Stability of School Effectiveness Indices across Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School effectiveness indices (SEIs) based on residuals from regressing test performance in reading and mathematics onto prior-year test performance and a socioeconomic status measure (percentage eligible for a subsidized lunch program) were obtained for two consecutive years for 431 South Carolina elementary schools. The analysis involved school

Mandeville, Garrett K.

302

The Effectiveness of Smart Schooling on Students' Attitudes towards Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports the relative effect of Smart and Mainstream schooling on students' attitudes towards science which was measured using ATSSA(M)--the Malay version of the Germann's (1988) Attitudes Towards Science in School Assessment (ATSSA) instrument. The participants comprised 775 Form 3 (15-year-old) students from two Smart Schools and two…

Ong, Eng-Tek; Ruthven, Kenneth

2009-01-01

303

The Keys to Effective Schools: Educational Reform as Continuous Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational researchers and policy analysts concur increasingly that the organizational design and culture of schools can either enhance or hinder the effectiveness of school reform efforts. This book offers a series of essays that may help parents, educators, and policymakers understand and solve school organizational problems that get in the way…

Hawley, Willis D., Ed.

304

Rethinking School Effectiveness and Improvement: A Question of Paradigms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to contribute to progressive school change by developing a more systematic critique of school effectiveness (SE) and school improvement (SI) as paradigms. Diverse examples of paradigms and paradigm change in non-educational fields are used to create a model of paradigms for application to SE and SI, and to explore…

Wrigley, Terry

2013-01-01

305

The Effective High School Principal: Sketches for a Portrait.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there has been a paucity of research on what effective secondary school principals do, two recent studies offer some clues. A 1983 report by William Firestone and Bruce Wilson asserts that a high school principal may best be able to influence the school through bureaucratic and cultural linkages. Bureaucratic linkages are formal enduring…

Mazzarella, Jo Ann

1985-01-01

306

Why Evaluation Matters: Determining Effective School Counseling Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why does evaluation matter so much in school counseling? Most importantly, when school counselors evaluate their interventions and programs, they can be more certain that what they are doing is making a difference for their students. School counselors have a professional responsibility to show that what they are doing is effective. With evaluation…

Dimmitt, Carey

2009-01-01

307

Effect of School Library on Students' Learning Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to unfold the perceptions of school teachers about the importance of school libraries in developing academic attitude among students. It is an attempt to know the opinion of teachers, what they perceive about the effect of the sue of libraries. For this purpose, 560 school teachers (male= 280 and female=280) were…

Shah, Syed Zia Ullah; Farooq, Muhammad Shahid

2009-01-01

308

Effective Instruction: The Forgotten Component in Preventing School Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of school violence and student misbehavior reviews research showing that violent and unsafe student behaviors are the outcome of a predictable chain of events that begins with academic failure. The paper urges a greater emphasis on effective academic instruction in any efforts to prevent school violence and improve school safety.…

Scott, Terrance M.; Nelson, C. Michael; Liaupsin, Carl J.

2001-01-01

309

Leadership effects on student achievement and sustained school success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of leadership on student achievement and sustained school success, especially in challenging, high-poverty schools. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper combines a review of the leadership literature with findings drawn from longitudinal studies of the International Successful School Principalship Project (ISSPP). Findings – Direction setting, developing people and redesigning the

Stephen Jacobson

2011-01-01

310

Climate change effects on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions.  

PubMed

It is well known that beneficial plant-associated microorganisms may stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to disease and abiotic stresses. The effects of climate change factors such as elevated CO(2), drought and warming on beneficial plant-microorganism interactions are increasingly being explored. This now makes it possible to test whether some general patterns occur and whether different groups of plant-associated microorganisms respond differently or in the same way to climate change. Here, we review the results of 135 studies investigating the effects of climate change factors on beneficial microorganisms and their interaction with host plants. The majority of studies showed that elevated CO(2) had a positive influence on the abundance of arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal fungi, whereas the effects on plant growth-promoting bacteria and endophytic fungi were more variable. In most cases, plant-associated microorganisms had a beneficial effect on plants under elevated CO(2). The effects of increased temperature on beneficial plant-associated microorganisms were more variable, positive and neutral, and negative effects were equally common and varied considerably with the study system and the temperature range investigated. Moreover, numerous studies indicated that plant growth-promoting microorganisms (both bacteria and fungi) positively affected plants subjected to drought stress. Overall, this review shows that plant-associated microorganisms are an important factor influencing the response of plants to climate change. PMID:20528987

Compant, Stéphane; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Sessitsch, Angela

2010-08-01

311

School Effects: Examining the Race Gap in Mathematics Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gap in achievement between minority and non-minority students has become a national priority. To investigate the relationship\\u000a between school racial composition and the race-based gaps in mathematic achievement, High School Effectiveness Study data\\u000a on 3,392 students in 177 schools were analyzed. Multilevel analyses revealed that when at least half of the students in a\\u000a school are Black or Hispanic,

Shelly Brown-Jeffy

2009-01-01

312

Effects Of Climate, Permafrost And Fire On Potential Vegetation Change In Siberia In A Warming Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century, which are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Increased permafrost melt and forest fire directly affected by climate warming are predicted to additionally influence vegetation change. Our goal is to model potential vegetation change across Siberia (within the territory between the Urals and Yakutia and between the southern border of Russia and the Arctic ocean) using several Hadley Center climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. To predict vegetation change, we use SiBCliM, our Siberian BioClimatic Model, an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5oC; negative degree days below 0oC; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). All vegetation predictions are corrected for the influence of climate on permafrost active layer depth. Potential fire danger is evaluated using a regression model that relates the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10000) to annual moisture index. Shifts in the climate necessary to support current Siberian vegetation are notable by 2020. Biomes and major tree species are predicted to shift northwards as far as 600-1000 km by 2080. Forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems rather than forests are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of their ability to withstand continuous permafrost. Our model also predicts new temperate broadleaf and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Fire danger is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia, where wildland fires would promote habitats for steppe and forest-steppe. Melting permafrost and fire are the principal mechanisms that facilitate vegetation change, which leads to a new equilibrium between vegetation and climate across Siberia.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

2008-12-01

313

School Climate Characteristics Associated with Dropout Rates for Black and White Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated school characteristics that were predictive of high school dropout rates for Black and White students using a sample of 289 public high schools from the Virginia High School Safety Study. School structure (consistency and enforcement of school rules and discipline) and support (availability of caring adults) were tested for…

Lee, Talisha

2010-01-01

314

Effects of changes in climate on landscape and regional processes, and feedbacks to the climate system.  

PubMed

Biological and physical processes in the Arctic system operate at various temporal and spatial scales to impact large-scale feedbacks and interactions with the earth system. There are four main potential feedback mechanisms between the impacts of climate change on the Arctic and the global climate system: albedo, greenhouse gas emissions or uptake by ecosystems, greenhouse gas emissions from methane hydrates, and increased freshwater fluxes that could affect the thermohaline circulation. All these feedbacks are controlled to some extent by changes in ecosystem distribution and character and particularly by large-scale movement of vegetation zones. Indications from a few, full annual measurements of CO2 fluxes are that currently the source areas exceed sink areas in geographical distribution. The little available information on CH4 sources indicates that emissions at the landscape level are of great importance for the total greenhouse balance of the circumpolar North. Energy and water balances of Arctic landscapes are also important feedback mechanisms in a changing climate. Increasing density and spatial expansion of vegetation will cause a lowering of the albedo and more energy to be absorbed on the ground. This effect is likely to exceed the negative feedback of increased C sequestration in greater primary productivity resulting from the displacements of areas of polar desert by tundra, and areas of tundra by forest. The degradation of permafrost has complex consequences for trace gas dynamics. In areas of discontinuous permafrost, warming, will lead to a complete loss of the permafrost. Depending on local hydrological conditions this may in turn lead to a wetting or drying of the environment with subsequent implications for greenhouse gas fluxes. Overall, the complex interactions between processes contributing to feedbacks, variability over time and space in these processes, and insufficient data have generated considerable uncertainties in estimating the net effects of climate change on terrestrial feedbacks to the climate system. This uncertainty applies to magnitude, and even direction of some of the feedbacks. PMID:15573573

Callaghan, Terry V; Björn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Sitch, Stephen

2004-11-01

315

CLEAN: Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CLEAN: Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Pathway builds on climate literacy guidelines outlined in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program guiding document, "Essential Principles of Climate Science", to provide a collection of educational resources that facilitate students, teachers, and citizens becoming climate literate and informed about climate issues. The collection supports and provides outreach to these developing communities of users and focuses on integrating effective use of the resources across all educational levels, especially middle-school through undergraduate levels (grades 6-16). Climate and energy topics include climate system, causes of climate change, measuring and modeling climate, impacts of climate change, human responses to climate change, and energy use. Resources are reviewed for scientific accuracy and pedagogic relevancy.

2011-01-22

316

Estimating How Inflated or Obscured Effects of Climate Affect Forecasted Species Distribution  

PubMed Central

Climate is one of the main drivers of species distribution. However, as different environmental factors tend to co-vary, the effect of climate cannot be taken at face value, as it may be either inflated or obscured by other correlated factors. We used the favourability models of four species (Alytes dickhilleni, Vipera latasti, Aquila fasciata and Capra pyrenaica) inhabiting Spanish mountains as case studies to evaluate the relative contribution of climate in their forecasted favourability by using variation partitioning and weighting the effect of climate in relation to non-climatic factors. By calculating the pure effect of the climatic factor, the pure effects of non-climatic factors, the shared climatic effect and the proportion of the pure effect of the climatic factor in relation to its apparent effect (?), we assessed the apparent effect and the pure independent effect of climate. We then projected both types of effects when modelling the future favourability for each species and combination of AOGCM-SRES (two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models: CGCM2 and ECHAM4, and two Special Reports on Emission Scenarios (SRES): A2 and B2). The results show that the apparent effect of climate can be either inflated (overrated) or obscured (underrated) by other correlated factors. These differences were species-specific; the sum of favourable areas forecasted according to the pure climatic effect differed from that forecasted according to the apparent climatic effect by about 61% on average for one of the species analyzed, and by about 20% on average for each of the other species. The pure effect of future climate on species distributions can only be estimated by combining climate with other factors. Transferring the pure climatic effect and the apparent climatic effect to the future delimits the maximum and minimum favourable areas forecasted for each species in each climate change scenario. PMID:23349726

Real, Raimundo; Romero, David; Olivero, Jesús; Estrada, Alba; Márquez, Ana L.

2013-01-01

317

CLIMATE  

EPA Science Inventory

In this chapter, the general patterns and causes of climate over the western United States are described. ore detailed climatic descriptions are then presented for the five regions of the western nited States discussed later in this volume: Northwestern Washington (Chapter 8); th...

318

The Effects of Principal's Leadership Style on Support for Innovation: Evidence from Korean Vocational High School Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A climate of innovation and principal leadership in schools are regarded as significant factors in successfully implementing school change or innovation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the school climate supportive of innovation and the principal's leadership has rarely been addressed to determine whether schools successfully perform their…

Park, Joo-Ho

2012-01-01

319

Demonstration of the greenhouse effect for elementary school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The school where I work is part of the "Step by step towards the sustainable development school" project. Project activities are partly directed towards the popularization of science. As a physics teacher, I have had the opportunity to engage in designing interactive workshops, aiming to introduce younger students to simple experiments which illustrate different natural phenomena, and also in organization, preparation and implementation of school and city science festival (in 2012 and 2013). Numerous displays, workshops and experiments served to introduce a large number of visitors to different topics in the area of science and technology. One of the subjects of forthcoming science festival, planned for May of 2014, is the climate change. To that effect, eight grade students will hold a demonstration and explanation of the greenhouse effect. Although the terms greenhouse effect and global warming are widely used in media, most of the elementary school students in Serbia have poor understanding of the underlying scientific concepts. The experiment with analysis and discussion will first be implemented in one eight-grade class (14 years of age). After that, a group of students from this class will present their newly-acquired knowledge to their peers and younger students at the science fair. Activity objectives: • Explain how atmosphere affects the surface temperature of Earth • Conduct an experiment to demonstrate the greenhouse effect • Analyze the consequences of climate changes Experiment description: Take two empty, transparent containers and add a layer of garden soil. Use cardboard or similar material to make housings for the thermometers. Hang them in the containers, so that they don't touch the soil. Cover one container with a glass panel, and leave the other one open. Place identical incandescent light bulbs at the same distance above each container. Turn the light bulbs on. The students should mark the thermometer readings every 2 minutes, for 20 minutes in total. Turn the light bulbs off and continue the measurements in the same way. Use the acquired data to plot a graph of temperature against time for both containers. Analyze and discuss the results. Although the experiment itself is simple, conducting it and subsequently analyzing the results contributes to numerous goals listed in the official physics curriculum, such as: development of functional literacy; understanding of phenomena, processes and natural relationships based on physical laws; development of active learning through research; understanding of methods behind experiments and importance of measurements; development of ability to apply knowledge of physics; understanding of interconnections between physics and ecology and increasing awareness of the need to protect, restore and improve the environment. Physics classes are an appropriate place to conduct this experiment, because it builds on knowledge of heat transfer methods, with the potential to gain new insights into the properties of electromagnetic spectrum, and is highly correlated to other disciplines, most notably with chemistry, mathematics and ecology.

Radovanovic, Jelena

2014-05-01

320

Callaway Action Plan for An Effective School. Callaway High School, Jackson, Mississippi.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines the Callaway Action Plan for an Effective School (CAPES), a three year plan of action designed to produce the following characteristics of an "effective school": (1) administrative leadership; (2) instructional focus; (3) an orderly, safe environment; (4) high teacher expectations of students; and (5) the use of measures of…

Mathews, Gary S.; And Others

321

Climate change: Effects on reef island resources  

SciTech Connect

The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1988-06-27

322

Effects of climate on chemical_ weathering in watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic effects on chemical weathering are evaluated by correlating variations On solute concentrations and fluxes with temperature, precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET) for a worldwide distribution of sixty-eight watersheds underlain by granitoid rock types. Stream solute concentrations are strongly correlated with proportional ET loss, and evaporative concentration makes stream solute concentrations an inappropriate surrogate for chemical weathering. Chemical fluxes are

Art F. White; Alex E. Blum

1995-01-01

323

School Library Media Specialists as Effective School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (2006), "Accomplished library media specialists are instructional leaders who forge greater opportunities for learners" (55). As one of the few school personnel responsible for all students, the media specialist can serve as a coordinator and an advocate. They can ensure equitable…

Everhart, Nancy

2007-01-01

324

Research on the climatic effects of nuclear winter: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) has undertaken a series of research efforts to develop and implement improvements to the Community Climate Model (CCM) needed to make the model more applicable to studies of the climatic effects of nuclear war. The development of the model improvements has reached a stage where implementation may proceed, and several of the developed routines are being incorporated into the next approved version of the CCM (CCM1). Formal documentation is being completed describing the specific model improvements that have been successfully implemented. This final report includes the series of annual proposals and progress reports that have guided the project.

Dickinson, R.E.

1986-12-03

325

Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The terms greenhouse effect, climate change, and global warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three separate and distinct processes. This activity examines all three and assesses whether Earth's atmosphere is getting warmer. Students will read two articles from the journal of Science that discuss the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and investigate the bias of both groups of authors. This activity requires the use of two articles from the July 20, 2001 issue of the journal Science.

Fox, Chris

326

Endotoxins in indoor air and settled dust in primary schools in a subtropical climate.  

PubMed

Endotoxins can significantly affect the air quality in school environments. However, there is currently no reliable method for the measurement of endotoxins, and there is a lack of reference values for endotoxin concentrations to aid in the interpretation of measurement results in school settings. We benchmarked the "baseline" range of endotoxin concentration in indoor air, together with endotoxin load in floor dust, and evaluated the correlation between endotoxin levels in indoor air and settled dust, as well as the effects of temperature and humidity on these levels in subtropical school settings. Bayesian hierarchical modeling indicated that the concentration in indoor air and the load in floor dust were generally (<95th percentile) <13 EU/m(3) and <24,570 EU/m(2), respectively. Exceeding these levels would indicate abnormal sources of endotoxins in the school environment and the need for further investigation. Metaregression indicated no relationship between endotoxin concentration and load, which points to the necessity for measuring endotoxin levels in both the air and settled dust. Temperature increases were associated with lower concentrations in indoor air and higher loads in floor dust. Higher levels of humidity may be associated with lower airborne endotoxin concentrations. PMID:23927534

Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Létourneau, Valérie; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Morawska, Lidia

2013-09-01

327

Climatic effects of air pollutants over china: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) and aerosols are major air pollutants in the atmosphere. They have also made significant contributions to radiative forcing of climate since preindustrial times. With its rapid economic development, concentrations of air pollutants are relatively high in China; hence, quantifying the role of air pollutants in China in regional climate change is especially important. This review summarizes existing knowledge with regard to impacts of air pollutants on climate change in China and defines critical gaps needed to reduce the associated uncertainties. Measured monthly, seasonal, and annual mean surface-layer concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China are compiled in this work, with the aim to show the magnitude of concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China and to provide datasets for evaluation of model results in future studies. Ground-based and satellite measurements of O3 column burden and aerosol optical properties, as well as model estimates of radiative forcing by tropospheric O3 and aerosols are summarized. We also review regional and global modeling studies that have investigated climate change driven by tropospheric O3 and/or aerosols in China; the predicted sign and magnitude of the responses in temperature and precipitation to O3/aerosol forcings are presented. Based on this review, key priorities for future research on the climatic effects of air pollutants in China are highlighted.

Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan; Yang, Yang

2015-01-01

328

Jump In! An Investigation of School Physical Activity Climate, and a Pilot Study Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Novel Tool to Increase Activity during Learning  

PubMed Central

Physical activity (PA) benefits children’s physical and mental health and enhances academic performance. However, in many nations, PA time in school is decreasing under competing pressures for time during the school day. The present paper argues that PA should not be reduced or seen as incompatible with academic learning. Instead, the authors contend that it is critical to develop tools that incorporate PA into content learning during the school day. To facilitate the development of such tools, the authors conducted 6 focus group discussions with 12 primary school teachers and administrators to better understand the school climate around PA as well as school readiness to embrace PA tools that can be used during academic content learning. In addition, a pilot test of a new health promotion tool, the Jump In! educational response mat, was conducted with 21 second-grade students from one classroom in Northern Colorado in 2013. The results of both studies demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of incorporating PA into classroom learning, and suggested that tools like Jump In! may be effective at overcoming many of the PA barriers at schools. Teachers and administrators valued PA, believed that students were not getting enough PA, and were receptive to the idea of incorporating PA into classroom learning. Students who used Jump In! mats during a math lesson reported more interest in the class material and rated themselves as more alert during the lesson, compared to students who did not use the response mats. In addition, incorporating PA into the lesson did not impair performance on a quiz that assessed learning of the math content. Jump In! mats were successfully integrated into the lesson plan and were well-received by teachers and students. Together, the results of these studies suggest that, given the right tools, incorporating more PA into classroom learning may be beneficial and well-received by students, teachers, and administrators. PMID:24904919

Graham, Dan J.; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; O’Donnell, Maeve B.

2014-01-01

329

Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global Warming and Environmental Attitude Using Climate Change Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that…

Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Bin Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir

2015-01-01

330

Effects Climate Change on Water Resources Availability and Vegetation Patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Society is facing growing environmental problems that require new research efforts to understand the way ecosystems operate and survive and their mutual relationships with the hydrologic cycle. Ecohydrology faces this task with the aim to provide better understanding of implications of land use changes on terrestrial ecosystems and better comprehension of climatic changes effects on terrestrial ecosystems. The scope of the present research is to deepen our understanding on the mutual relationship between climate, vegetation and basin water budget within an ecohydrological framework. With this aim, a coupled hydrological/ecological model is adopted to describe simultaneously vegetation pattern evolution and hydrological water budget at the basin scale. Analyses have been carried out over the Basilicata Region (in Southern Italy) that is an ideal test area located in the core of the Biodiversity Hotspot area of the Mediterranean basin with a significant variety of climatic conditions ranging from humid to semi-arid and arid. The hydrological analysis have been carried out using a recently formulated framework for the water balance at the daily level linked with a spatial model for the description of the spatial organization of vegetation. This makes possible to quantitatively assess the effects on soil water balance of future climatic scenario and to identify the most vulnerable area of the region under study. Results describe the non-linear relationship between climatic forcing, vegetation patterns and water budget. It is interesting to underline that in the most vulnerable ecosystems small change in climatic conditions may produce significant transformation on vegetation patterns and water resources availability.

Manfreda, S.; Pizzolla, T.; Caylor, K. K.

2012-12-01

331

Climatic effects of atmospheric water vapor distribution through volcanic eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions play an important role in changing the water vapor distribution of the atmosphere. In comparison with the emission of carbon dioxide released during the consumption of fossil fuel, water vapor's role in climate change has been grossly underestimated. Studies made of modern volcanic eruptions, including satellite images and meteorological records, have revealed climatic effects in different parts of the globe through the migration of volcanic clouds, depending mainly on their timing, location, Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) and composition. The climatic effects of volcanic eruptions include: (1) Reduction in solar heating because of the particulates discharged. (2) Interference with the 'normal' atmospheric circulation and/or oceanic circulation. (3) The ash particles and aerosols provide condensation nuclei for water. (4) The transfer from the troposphere into the stratosphere of water vapor which act as a greenhouse gas more important than carbon dioxide. (5) Variability in regional rainfall including the occurrence of droughts, floods, landslides salinization and crop failures. (6) Anomalous regional wind and rain storms. (7) Acid rain. Selected volcanic eruptions will be used as examples to illustrate the different climatic effects.

Yim, W. W.

2011-12-01

332

Graduate School of Education Assessing Our Effectiveness  

E-print Network

School of Education What we accomplished (continued) Administered online SDEP Follow-up Graduate and Employer survey Administered online Validation Survey to PSU Supervisors #12;Graduate School of Education able to have access to documents online. #12;Graduate School of Education Supervisor Survey Things you

333

Effects of School Design on Student Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare student achievement with three school design classifications: movement and circulation, day lighting, and views. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 71 schools, measures of these three school designs, taken with a ten-point Likert scale, are compared to students' outcomes defined by six…

Tanner, C. Kenneth

2009-01-01

334

Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real’ vegetation under the ‘real’ moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) climate due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of climate change effects on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, climate change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze climate change effects on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.

Bartholomeus, R.; Voortman, B.; Witte, J.

2010-12-01

335

Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real' vegetation under the ‘real' moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the fraction of vascular plants may drop from 70 to 20 percent in the future (2050) climate due to increased moisture deficits. ET of bare soil and non-rooting species is much lower than that of vascular plants and thus the vegetation composition feeds back on the soil moisture conditions. Knowledge on such feedback mechanisms is indispensable in the analysis of climate change effects on the future groundwater recharge. Important questions are how, in the course of time, climate change will affect both groundwater table depth and dynamics, and how water management could adapt to these changes. We pursue a dynamic modeling approach that takes account of the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, including feedback mechanisms of the vegetation. This allows us to analyze climate change effects on groundwater recharge and thus future freshwater availability.

(Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Gijsbert) Cirkel, D. G.

2010-05-01

336

Interannual variability of regional climate and its change due to the greenhouse effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interannual variability of regional climate was investigated on a seasonal basis. Observations and two global climate model (GCM) simulations were intercompared to identify model biases and climate change signals due to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Observed record length varies from 40 to 100 years, while the model output comes from two 100-year equilibrium climate simulations corresponding to atmospheric greenhouse gas

Xin-Zhong Liang; Wei-Chyung Wang; Michael P. Dudek

1995-01-01

337

Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe School Climates. Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since June 1999, the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Secret Service have been working as a team to try to better understand--and ultimately help prevent--school shootings in America. The authors believe the results of this effort have given schools and communities real cause for hope. Through the "Safe School Initiative," staff from the…

Fein, Robert A.; Vossekuil, Bryan; Pollack, William S.; Borum, Randy; Modzeleski, William; Reddy, Marisa

2004-01-01

338

Well-being, school climate, and the social identity process: a latent growth model study of bullying perpetration and peer victimization.  

PubMed

The present study concerns longitudinal research on bullying perpetration and peer victimization. A focus is on school factors of school climate (academic support, group support) and school identification (connectedness or belonging), which are conceptualized as related but distinct constructs. Analysis of change on these factors as well as individual well-being across time contributes to understanding bullying behavior. Latent growth modeling was employed to examine the predictors of anxiety, depression, 2 school climate factors and school identification in understanding change in physical and verbal bullying behavior. The sample included 492 Australian school students (means age 15 years, 53.5% male) in Grades 7 to 10 who completed measures over 3 years. Academic support and group support were the strongest predictors of change in bullying and victimization. Positive change in school identification also predicted a decrease in bullying behavior over time. An increase in depression or anxiety across time predicted an increase in rates of both bullying and victimization over time. Future research should continue to examine the complex relationship between individual-psychological and social-psychological variables in impacting on incidence of school-based bullying. On a practical note, school-based intervention programs may benefit from an approach that aims to target the school climate, social identity with the school, and promote individual psychological well-being. PMID:24933217

Turner, Isobel; Reynolds, Katherine J; Lee, Eunro; Subasic, Emina; Bromhead, David

2014-09-01

339

The effects of atmospheric cloud radiative forcing on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to isolate the effects of atmospheric cloud radiative forcing (ACRF) on climate, the general circulation of an ocean-covered earth called 'Seaworld' was simulated using the Colorado State University GCM. Most current climate models, however, do not include an interactive ocean. The key simplifications in 'Seaworld' are the fixed boundary temperature with no land points, the lack of mountains and the zonal uniformity of the boundary conditions. Two 90-day 'perpetual July' simulations were performed and analyzed the last sixty days of each. The first run included all the model's physical parameterizations, while the second omitted the effects of clouds in both the solar and terrestrial radiation parameterizations. Fixed and identical boundary temperatures were set for the two runs, and resulted in differences revealing the direct and indirect effects of the ACRF on the large-scale circulation and the parameterized hydrologic processes.

Randall, David A.

1989-01-01

340

The Administrative Control of Principals in Effective School Districts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on findings of a research study on the district-level control of principals in 12 effective school districts in California. Primary research objectives were (1) to expand knowledge on the nature of administrative control, (2) to develop a better understanding of the processes and activities in effective school districts, and (3)…

Murphy, Joseph; And Others

341

Measuring School Effectiveness in Memphis--Year 2. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New Leaders for New Schools, a nonprofit organization committed to training school principals, heads the Effective Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to effective educators. New Leaders and its partner organizations have received from the U.S. Department of Education tens of millions of dollars in…

Potamites, Liz; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric; Booker, Kevin

2009-01-01

342

Recent School Effectiveness Counter-critiques: Problems and Possibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent responses of several school effectiveness researchers to concerns of their critics. Examines complexity of debate over school effectiveness research (SER), value of pragmatism, impact of social class, significance of methodological problems, value of current attempts to theorize SER, relationship of SER to educational politics and…

Thrupp, Martin

2001-01-01

343

Concepts of Administrative Effectiveness and the Evaluation of School Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several different meanings of effectiveness as applied to school administrators are identified and analyzed. The criteria of purpose, validity, measurement, and administrative image are used to enhance understanding of four concepts of administrator effectiveness and their implications for the evaluation of school administrators. (SLD)

Duke, Daniel L.

1992-01-01

344

The greenhouse effect and climate change revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

On any planet with an atmosphere, the surface is warmed not only by the Sun directly but also by downward-propagating infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere. On the Earth, this phenomenon, known as the greenhouse effect, keeps the mean surface temperature some 33 K warmer than it would otherwise be and is therefore essential to life. The radiative processes which

F. W. Taylor

2002-01-01

345

The greenhouse effect and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

On any planet with an atmosphere, the surface is warmed not only by the Sun directly but also by downward-propagating infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere. On the Earth, this phenomenon, known as the greenhouse effect, keeps the mean surface temperature some 33 K warmer than it would otherwise be and is therefore essential to life. The radiative processes which

F. W. Taylor

1991-01-01

346

Greenhouse effect due to chlorofluorocarbons - Climatic implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.

Ramanathan, V.

1975-01-01

347

Coevolution and the Effects of Climate Change on Interacting Species  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest that environmental changes may tip the balance between interacting species, leading to the extinction of one or more species. While it is recognized that evolution will play a role in determining how environmental changes directly affect species, the interactions among species force us to consider the coevolutionary responses of species to environmental changes. Methodology/Principle Findings We use simple models of competition, predation, and mutualism to organize and synthesize the ways coevolution modifies species interactions when climatic changes favor one species over another. In cases where species have conflicting interests (i.e., selection for increased interspecific interaction strength on one species is detrimental to the other), we show that coevolution reduces the effects of climate change, leading to smaller changes in abundances and reduced chances of extinction. Conversely, when species have nonconflicting interests (i.e., selection for increased interspecific interaction strength on one species benefits the other), coevolution increases the effects of climate change. Conclusions/Significance Coevolution sets up feedback loops that either dampen or amplify the effect of environmental change on species abundances depending on whether coevolution has conflicting or nonconflicting effects on species interactions. Thus, gaining a better understanding of the coevolutionary processes between interacting species is critical for understanding how communities respond to a changing climate. We suggest experimental methods to determine which types of coevolution (conflicting or nonconflicting) drive species interactions, which should lead to better understanding of the effects of coevolution on species adaptation. Conducting these experiments across environmental gradients will test our predictions of the effects of environmental change and coevolution on ecological communities. PMID:24167443

Northfield, Tobin D.; Ives, Anthony R.

2013-01-01

348

Cost-effectiveness of active transport for primary school children - Walking School Bus program  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To assess from a societal perspective the incremental cost-effectiveness of the Walking School Bus (WSB) program for Australian primary school children as an obesity prevention measure. The intervention was modelled as part of the ACE-Obesity study, which evaluated, using consistent methods, thirteen interventions targeting unhealthy weight gain in Australian children and adolescents. METHODS: A logic pathway was used to

Marjory Moodie; Michelle Haby; Leah Galvin; Boyd Swinburn; Robert Carter

2009-01-01

349

Exploring School Effects across Southern and Eastern African School Systems and in Tanzania  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) II data are analysed, using multilevel modelling techniques, to explore the key issues underlying the development of school effectiveness models. Differences between schools in Grade 6 pupils' reading and mathematics achievements are examined and the percentage…

Yu, Guoxing; Thomas, Sally M.

2008-01-01

350

The Effect of an Active Transport to School Intervention at a Suburban Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Many children do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. One strategy that may enhance PA is to increase active transport to school (ATS) rates. Purpose: To assess the effects of an ATS intervention. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare ATS and vehicle traffic rates at a school that participated in a statewide…

Bungum, Timothy J.; Clark, Sheila; Aguilar, Brenda

2014-01-01

351

Preparation and Role of School Personnel for Effective School-Family Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of analyzing the responses of 238 elementary and 208 secondary teachers about school-family interactions are presented. The questionnaire obtained information on: (1) the effect of and reasons for school-family interaction; (2) the preparation of personnel to work with families; (3) whether training to work with families is needed or…

Purnell, Richard F.; Gotts, Edward E.

352

Effects of Participation in after-School Programs for Middle School Students: A Randomized Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the effects of attending an after-school program (ASP) on a range of outcomes for middle school youths. The program operated for 9 hr per week for 30 weeks and included attendance monitoring and reinforcement, academic assistance, a prevention curriculum, and recreational programming. Participants were 447 students randomly…

Gottfredson, Denise; Cross, Amanda Brown; Wilson, Denise; Rorie, Melissa; Connell, Nadine

2010-01-01

353

Seeking Effective Schools for African American Children: Strategies for Teachers and School Managers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook focuses on five long-standing correlates for effective schools postulated by the late Ron Edmonds. Edmonds searched long and hard for those variables that were present in successful inner-city schools populated primarily by African American children. His work demonstrated that it is possible to educate so-called hard-to-reach…

Bryant, Bunyan; Jones, Alan H.

354

Studies towards assessing the effects of aviation on climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from aviation are an important component in the overall concerns about the effects of human activities on climate. Aviation emissions modify the chemical and physical properties of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) in various ways. Aircraft emit gases and particles that can either directly or indirectly affect climate and air quality, including: carbon dioxide (CO2); nitrogen oxides (NOx) that can increase ozone (O3) production and increase the destruction of methane (CH4); water vapor that under certain atmospheric conditions can lead to contrail formation; and soot and other particles that along with contrails can affect the amount and characteristics of cirrus clouds. Soot and sulfate particles can also change the cloudiness by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. Due to the high growth in air traffic that is projected to continue, it is important to understand the effects of aviation on air quality and climate. Based on then existing analyses of the emissions and their effects, the aviation contribution in changing the radiative forcing on the climate system was about 5% of the total human-related emissions (relative to 1750) in 2005 (Lee et al., 2009). This contribution is a result of various effects, especially the direct effects of CO2, NOx-induced effects, aerosol direct and indirect effects, and increased cloudiness from contrail formation and aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei. One of the main challenges of the aviation scientific community has been to increase the level of scientific understanding of these effects, especially with respect to those most uncertain (i.e. NOx effects, contrail-cirrus and aerosol effects). Another challenge has been to develop a simple climate model (SCM) that has the level of sophistication necessary to accurately assess aviation induced climate effects while being easy to use by policy makers for use in policy considerations. The main objectives in this study were: (1) to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of simple climate models for evaluating aviation policy options and tradeoffs, and (2) to increase the scientific understanding of aviation NOx-induced effects on climate. With regard to the first goal, enhancing the evaluation of SCMs, the carbon cycle and energy balance treatments in several widely used simplified climate models were evaluated. The findings from this study resulted in modifications to the carbon cycle and energy balance model components of the APMT model that is used extensively by FAA in aviation policy analyses. With regard to the second goal, 3 lines of research were pursued to increase the scientific understanding of aviation NOx-induced effects on climate. First, aviation NOx-induced effects were quantified using three-dimensional (3-D) climate-chemistry models and further, an intercomparison of NOx-induced effects in 3-D climate-chemistry models was performed. The NOx-induced forcings obtained in 3-D simulations were further used to update the parameterization of these effects in SCMs. Second, two additional NOx-induced effects (i.e., reduction in long-term O3 concentrations and lower stratospheric water vapor (SWV)) that have not been fully accounted for in previous studies were quantified based on parameterizing the results obtained in the 3-D simulations. Results indicate that the inclusion of long-term O3 and SWV RFs decreases the net aviation-induced RFs by about 21 to 31% for different range of scenarios studied. Finally, the representation of aviation NOx-induced effects in SCMs were evaluated and improved. The parameterization was improved based on the results of the 3-D simulations and by including the lifetime of the perturbed species and their emissions history into RF calculations. This resulted in 10 to 36% higher aviation NOx-induced net forcing than the net forcings that were reported in the literature, previously. Third, a set of experiments were performed to directly calculate the aviation NOx-induced changes in CH4 that were otherwise calculated through a simple parameterization, and also to

Khodayari, Arezoo

355

Uniform Effects?: Schools Cite Benefits of Student Uniforms, but Researchers See Little Evidence of Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the effectiveness of school uniform policies. At Stephen Decatur Middle School, it is the school's policy that all students wear the standard school attire consisting of khaki pants with polo shirts in white, burgundy, or navy blue. Some of the shirts also sport an embroidered Decatur eagle, an optional embellishment.…

Viadero, Debra

2005-01-01

356

The Effects of Climate Change on the Hydrology and Water Resources of the Colorado River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado River basin are assessed by comparing simulated hydrologic and water resources scenarios derived from downscaled climate simulations of the U.S. Department of Energy\\/National Center for Atmospheric Research Parallel Climate Model (PCM) to scenarios driven by observed historical (1950–1999) climate. PCM climate scenarios include an ensemble

Niklas S. Christensen; Andrew W. Wood; Nathalie Voisin; Dennis P. Lettenmaier; Richard N. Palmer

2004-01-01

357

Climate implications of including albedo effects in terrestrial carbon policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed strategies for managing terrestrial carbon in order to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, such as financial incentives for afforestation, soil carbon sequestration, or biofuel production, largely ignore the direct effects of land use change on climate via biophysical processes that alter surface energy and water budgets. Subsequent influences on temperature, hydrology, and atmospheric circulation at regional and global scales could potentially help or hinder climate stabilization efforts. Because these policies often rely on payments or credits expressed in units of CO2-equivalents, accounting for biophysical effects would require a metric for comparing the strength of biophysical climate perturbation from land use change to that of emitting CO2. One such candidate metric that has been suggested in the literature on land use impacts is radiative forcing, which underlies the global warming potential metric used to compare the climate effects of various greenhouse gases with one another. Expressing land use change in units of radiative forcing is possible because albedo change results in a net top-of-atmosphere radiative flux change. However, this approach has also been critiqued on theoretical grounds because not all climatic changes associated with land use change are principally radiative in nature, e.g. changes in hydrology or the vertical distribution of heat within the atmosphere, and because the spatial scale of land use change forcing differs from that of well-mixed greenhouse gases. To explore the potential magnitude of this discrepancy in the context of plausible scenarios of future land use change, we conduct three simulations with the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) utilizing a slab ocean model. Each simulation examines the effect of a stepwise change in forcing relative to a pre-industrial control simulation: 1) widespread conversion of forest land to crops resulting in approximately 1 W/m2 global-mean radiative forcing from albedo change, 2) an increase in CO2 concentrations that exactly balances the forcing from land use change at the global level, and 3) a simulation combining the first two effects, resulting in net zero global-mean forcing as would occur in an idealized carbon cap-and-trade scheme that accounts for the albedo effect of land use change. The pattern of land use change that we examine is derived from an integrated assessment model that accounts for population, demographic, technological, and policy changes over the 21st century. We find significant differences in the pattern of climate change associated with each of these forcing scenarios, demonstrating the non-additivity of radiative forcing from land-use change and greenhouse gases in the context of a hypothetical scenario of future land use change. These results have implications for the development of land use and climate policies.

Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Torn, M. S.; Calvin, K. V.

2012-12-01

358

Overview of different aspects of climate change effects on soils.  

SciTech Connect

Climate change [i.e., high atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (?400 ppm); increasing air temperatures (2-4°C or greater); significant and/or abrupt changes in daily, seasonal, and inter-annual temperature; changes in the wet/dry cycles; intensive rainfall and/or heavy storms; extended periods of drought; extreme frost; heat waves and increased fire frequency] is and will significantly affect soil properties and fertility, water resources, food quantity and quality, and environmental quality. Biotic processes that consume atmospheric CO2 and create organic carbon (C) that is either reprocessed to CO2 or stored in soils, are the subject of active current investigations with great concern over the influence of climate change. In addition, abiotic C cycling and its influence on the inorganic C pool in soils is a fundamental global process in which acidic atmospheric CO2 participates in the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, ultimately delivering bicarbonate and Ca2+ or other cations that precipitate in the form of carbonates in soils or are transported to the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Soil responses to climate change will be complex, and there are many uncertainties and unresolved issues. The objective of the review is to initiate and further stimulate a discussion about some important and challenging aspects of climate-change effects on soils, such as accelerated weathering of soil minerals and resulting C and elemental fluxes in and out of soils, soil/geo-engineering methods used to increase C sequestration in soils, soil organic matter (SOM) protection, transformation and mineralization, and SOM temperature sensitivity. This review reports recent discoveries and identifies key research needs required to understand the effects of climate change on soils.

Qafoku, Nikolla

2014-08-01

359

Research on Effective Schools/Classroom Processes. Research Resources Dealing with the "Effective School" Literature. Classroom Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is intended as a resource for educators on the subject of effective schools literature as it pertains specifically to classroom processes. The first chapter presents some basic notions which underlie the effective schools literature and the classroom process aspects of that literature. A detailed analysis is offered in the second…

Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

360

Teachers' Perceptions of School Organizational Climate as Predictors of Dosage and Quality of Implementation of a Social-Emotional and Character Development Program.  

PubMed

Organizational climate has been proposed as a factor that might influence a school's readiness to successfully implement school-wide prevention programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of teachers' perceptions of three dimensions of school organizational climate on the dosage and quality of teacher implementation of Positive Action, a social-emotional and character development (SECD) program. The dimensions measured were teachers' perceptions of (a) the school's openness to innovation, (b) the extent to which schools utilize participatory decision-making practices, and (c) the existence of supportive relationships among teachers (teacher-teacher affiliation). Data from 46 teachers in seven schools enrolled in the treatment arm of a longitudinal, cluster-randomized, controlled trial were analyzed. Teacher perceptions of a school's tendency to be innovative was associated with a greater number of lessons taught and self-reported quality of delivery, and teacher-teacher affiliation was associated with a higher use of supplementary activities. The findings suggest that perceptions of a school's organizational climate impact teachers' implementation of SECD programs and have implications for school administrators and technical assistance providers as they work to implement and sustain prevention programs in schools. PMID:25468408

Malloy, Margaret; Acock, Alan; DuBois, David L; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R

2014-12-01

361

CURRENT UNCERTAINTIES IN ASSESSING AEROSOL EFFECTS ON CLIMATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of anthropogenic emissions from activities, such as fossil-fuel, biomass, and biofuel burning; transportation; and land-clearing; have a profound impact on the climate system. The impact of these activities is manifested in observed changes in temperature, precipitation, sea-level rise, melting of glaciers, air quality, health, and agriculture yields, to name a few. The obvious question to ask is the

Surabi Menon; Surabi

2004-01-01

362

Effects of dynamical heat fluxes on model climate sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the meridional and vertical dynamic heat fluxes on climate sensitivity is investigated using an annual mean coupled high and low latitude radiative-dynamical model of the northern hemisphere. The model was constructed by incorporating a meridonal (atmosphere and ocean) dynamical heat flux parameterization into a two-zone (flow latitude 0°-30°N and high latitude 30°-90°N) version of the vertical radiative-convective

Wei-Chyung Wang; Gyula Molnar; Todd P. Mitchell; Peter H. Stone

1984-01-01

363

Effects of Dynamical Heat Fluxes on Model Climate Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the meridional and vertical dynamical heat fluxes on climate sensitivity is investigated using an annual mean coupled high and low latitude radiative-dynamical model of the northern hemisphere. The model was constructed by incorporating a meridional (atmosphere and ocean) dynamical heat flux parameterization into a two-zone (low latitude 0ø-30øN and high latitude 30ø-90øN) version of the vertical radiative-convective

Wei-Chyung Wang; Gyula Molnar; Todd P. Mitchell; Peter H. Stone

1984-01-01

364

Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.

Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.

1994-05-01

365

Defining the Core of Positive School Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the traits and leadership tactics of an effective leader that influenced the climate and culture of a school. This study examined changes a principal made to the climate in order to establish leadership and cultivate positive school culture. The purpose of this study was to examine leadership and culture together by observing…

Alexander, Justin T.

2012-01-01

366

Ionospheric Effect on a GNSS Radio Occultation Climate Data Record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio occultation (RO) is widely considered to be an observation technique that is particularly well suited for establishing a long-term stable global climate record of density, temperature and bending angle profiles in the 8-30 km height range of the atmosphere. To measure profiles in this height range the ionospheric effect on the RO signals must be eliminated. This ionospheric correction is not perfect and is the most challenging noise source affecting GPS radio occultation temperature profiles in the upper stratosphere. The ionosphere introduces random noise on individual temperature profiles that can affect weather forecasting applications. More serious for climate monitoring are systematic bending angle and resulting temperature biases that change with the solar cycle. We have found a strong correlation between these bending angle biases and F10.7 solar flux values. We have also found a diurnal signal which shows stronger bending angle biases during the day than at night. While the ionosphere is expected to be the main source of these diurnal effects, additional neutral atmospheric influence due to tides cannot be ruled out and needs further investigation. With different GNSS signals and improving receiver technology ionospheric correction in RO processing will evolve in the future. We will also investigate if tracking of the stronger L2C GPS signal could introduce a bias between past and future GNSS observations. This presentation will discuss ways to quantify and limit the ionospheric effect on the RO climate record.

Rocken, C.; Schreiner, W.; Sokolovskiy, S.; Hunt, D.

2008-12-01

367

Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n = 20). This includes analysis of the communication styles used and the students' pre- and post-conceptualisation of climate change based on results obtained via essay writing and drawings. The essays and drawings concerned the students' unprompted pre- and post-conceptions about climate change, collected before and after each of the four inquiry-based science sessions (in physics, chemistry, biology and geography). Concept mapping was used in the analysis of the students' responses. The communication used in the four sessions was analysed with a communicative approach in order to find out the discussion about climate change between teacher and students. The analyses indicated that the students did not have the knowledge or the courage to participate in discussion, but post-conceptualisation map showed that students' thinking had become more coherent after the four sessions. Given the results of the present study, proposals for using concepts maps and/or communication analysis in studying students' conceptions are presented.

Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami

2012-11-01

368

The Effects of Climate Change on Biomes and Ecosystems- A Lesson on the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to learn about the different biomes and ecosystems and to apply inquiry skills in order to investigate effects of climate change on different environments. Applicable to all levels of middle school life science, grades 6-8. Primarily written for 6th grade general science. Upon completion of this activity, students will be able to: identify biomes and aquatic ecosystems and design and conduct an experiment that simulates the effects of greenhouse gases on biomes and aquatic ecosystems This teaching resource was developed by a K-12 science teacher in the American Physiological SocietyÂ?s 2007 Frontiers in Physiology Program. For more information on this program, please visit www.frontiersinphys.org.

Debbie Frankel (Sherwood Middle School)

2007-08-01

369

Effective Intervention for School Refusal Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of successful professional intervention for two case studies of female adolescents' school refusal behaviour is presented. Data gathered from the young person, professionals, and parents in each case are synthesised to propose a multi-level, ecologically situated model of intervention for school refusal behaviour. The proposed…

Nuttall, Clare; Woods, Kevin

2013-01-01

370

Housing, Schools, and Incremental Segregative Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study illustrates that the Supreme Court's effort to construe school cases narrowly should fail, and that policy-makers, whether they are concerned with housing, schools, or other domains, should cultivate a broad perspective on the unity of the nation's racial problems. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social…

Taeuber, Karl E.

1979-01-01

371

Plausibility Reappraisals and Shifts in Middle School Students' Climate Change Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plausibility is a central but under-examined topic in conceptual change research. Climate change is an important socio-scientific topic; however, many view human-induced climate change as implausible. When learning about climate change, students need to make plausibility judgments but they may not be sufficiently critical or reflective. The…

Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.; Nussbaum, E. Michael

2013-01-01

372

The 2009 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 20 years, GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network) has worked to ensure safe schools for all students, regardless of sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression. For 10 of those years, GLSEN has been documenting the school experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth: the prevalence of anti-LGBT…

Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.

2010-01-01

373

Grazing effects on the species-area relationship: Variation along a climatic gradient in NE Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Questions: Does grazing have the same effect on plant species richness at different spatial scales? Does the effect of spatial scale vary under different climatic conditions and vegetation types? Does the slope of the species-area curve change with grazing intensity similarly under different climatic conditions and vegetation types? Location: Pastures along a climatic gradient in northeastern Spain. Methods: In

Francesco de Bello; Jan Lepš; Maria-Teresa Sebastià

2007-01-01

374

Multidecadal North Atlantic climate variability and its effect on North American salmon abundance  

E-print Network

in parallel with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO); a basin-wide, low frequency climate modeMultidecadal North Atlantic climate variability and its effect on North American salmon abundance. Bradley, and F. Juanes (2005), Multidecadal North Atlantic climate variability and its effect on North

Bradley, Raymond S.

375

Grazing effects on the species-area relationship: Variation along a climatic gradient in NE Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions: Does grazing have the same effect on plant species richness at different spatial scales? Does the effect of spatial scale vary under different climatic conditions and vegetation types? Does the slope of the species-area curve change with grazing intensity similarly under different climatic conditions and vegetation types? Location: Pastures along a climatic gradient in northeastern Spain. Methods: In zones

Maria-Teresa Sebastià

376

Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.  

PubMed

The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

2014-01-01

377

Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

2014-02-01

378

Results of the 2010 Statewide New Mexico School Social Work Survey: Implications for Evaluating the Effectiveness of School Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's school social workers are facing unique challenges in the workplace. The results of the 2009 New Mexico School Social Work Survey reinforced the idea that school social workers must be able to prove their effectiveness. Building on the school social work literature on practice outcomes evaluation, a more extensive statewide survey of…

Whittlesey-Jerome, Wanda

2013-01-01

379

The Effects of Size of Student Body on School Costs and Performance in New York City High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Small size is often cited by reformers and parents as the key ingredient necessary to create an effective learning environment. In New York City, the new public secondary schools have consistently smaller numbers of students than most existing high schools. The literature is unambiguous that smaller schools show better outputs than schools of…

Stiefel, Leanna; Iatarola, Patrice; Fruchter, Norm; Berne, Robert

380

Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school

Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

2014-01-01

381

Predicting Perceptions of Fear at School and Going to and from School for African American and White Students: The Effects of School Security Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the School Crime Supplement of the National Crime Victimization Survey to investigate the factors related to White and African American students' perceived levels of fear of harm, while at school and while commuting to and from school. Of particular interest were the effects of school security measures, including metal detectors,…

Bachman, Ronet; Randolph, Antonia; Brown, Bethany L.

2011-01-01

382

Observations from old forests underestimate climate change effects on tree mortality  

PubMed Central

Understanding climate change-associated tree mortality is central to linking climate change impacts and forest structure and function. However, whether temporal increases in tree mortality are attributed to climate change or stand developmental processes remains uncertain. Furthermore, interpreting the climate change-associated tree mortality estimated from old forests for regional forests rests on an un-tested assumption that the effects of climate change are the same for young and old forests. Here we disentangle the effects of climate change and stand developmental processes on tree mortality. We show that both climate change and forest development processes influence temporal mortality increases, climate change-associated increases are significantly higher in young than old forests, and higher increases in younger forests are a result of their higher sensitivity to regional warming and drought. We anticipate our analysis to be a starting point for more comprehensive examinations of how forest ecosystems might respond to climate change. PMID:23552070

Luo, Yong; Chen, Han Y. H.

2013-01-01

383

Essays on the Effect of Climate Change over Agriculture and Forestry  

E-print Network

In this dissertation, I study the effects of climate change on agricultural total factor productivity and crop yields and their variability. In addition, an examination was conducted on the value of select climate change adaptation strategies...

Villavicencio Cordova, Xavier A.

2010-07-14

384

BRACE: Building Resilience against Climate Effects in Illinois PI: Samuel Dorevitch  

E-print Network

BRACE: Building Resilience against Climate Effects in Illinois PI: Samuel Dorevitch CO-PIs: Linda in individuals impacted by extreme weather events. Under the proposed "Building Resilience Against Climate

Illinois at Chicago, University of

385

Teacher challenges, perceptions, and use of science models in middle school classrooms about climate, weather, and energy concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research suggests that scientific models and modeling should be topics covered in K-12 classrooms as part of a comprehensive science curriculum. It is especially important when talking about topics in weather and climate, where computer and forecast models are the center of attention. There are several approaches to model based inquiry, but it can be argued, theoretically, that science models can be effectively implemented into any approach to inquiry if they are utilized appropriately. Yet, it remains to be explored how science models are actually implemented in classrooms. This study qualitatively looks at three middle school science teachers' use of science models with various approaches to inquiry during their weather and climate units. Results indicate that the teacher who used the most elements of inquiry used models in a way that aligned best with the theoretical framework than the teachers who used fewer elements of inquiry. The theoretical framework compares an approach to argument-based inquiry to model-based inquiry, which argues that the approaches are essentially identical, so teachers who use inquiry should be able to apply model-based inquiry using the same approach. However, none of the teachers in this study had a complete understanding of the role models play in authentic science inquiry, therefore students were not explicitly exposed to the ideas that models can be used to make predictions about, and are representations of, a natural phenomenon. Rather, models were explicitly used to explain concepts to students or have students explain concepts to the teacher or to each other. Additionally, models were used as a focal point for conversation between students, usually as they were creating, modifying, or using models. Teachers were not observed asking students to evaluate models. Since science models are an important aspect of understanding science, it is important that teachers not only know how to implement models into an inquiry environment, but also understand the characteristics of science models so that they can explicitly teach the concept of modeling to students. This study suggests that better pre-service and in-service teacher education is needed to prepare students to teach about science models effectively.

Yarker, Morgan Brown

386

Effects of Problem Based Economics on High School Economics Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study is to assess student-level impacts of a problem-based instructional approach to high school economics. The curriculum approach examined here was designed to increase class participation and content knowledge for high school students who are learning economics. This study tests the effectiveness of Problem Based…

Finkelstein, Neal; Hanson, Thomas

2011-01-01

387

Critical Components of Effective School-Based Feeding Improvement Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies critical components of effective school-based feeding improvement programs for students with feeding problems. A distinction is made between typical school-based feeding management and feeding improvement programs, where feeding, independent functioning, and mealtime behaviors are the focus of therapeutic strategies.…

Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

2004-01-01

388

The effect of schooling on income in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses cross-sectional data from the 1955, 1965, and 1975 Social Stratification and Mobility Surveys to investigate the effect of schooling on personal income in the Japanese male labor force. For each survey, log-income regressions are estimated which include (in addition to controls for years of work experience) two variables to indicate educational attainment: (1) years of schooling completed,

Arthur Sakamoto; Meichu D. Chen

1992-01-01

389

Summer School Effects in a Randomized Field Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This field-based randomized trial examined the effect of assignment to and participation in summer school for two moderately at-risk samples of struggling readers. Application of multiple regression models to difference scores capturing the change in summer reading fluency revealed that kindergarten students randomly assigned to summer school

Zvoch, Keith; Stevens, Joseph J.

2013-01-01

390

The Effects of School Quality on Long-Term Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I estimate the relationship between school quality and mortality. Although many studies have linked the quantity of education to health outcomes, the effect of school quality on health has yet to be examined. I construct synthetic birth cohorts and relate the quality of education they attained to their mortality rates. I find that…

Sansani, Shahar

2011-01-01

391

ADHD-Related School Compositional Effects: An Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) provide a test case through which to investigate psychosocial school compositional effects. Characterized by developmentally atypical levels of inattention, activity, and impulsivity, the condition often manifests itself, and is identified, in school settings and is…

Stone, Susan; Brown, Timothy T.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

2010-01-01

392

The Effect of Randomized School Admissions on Voter Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little causal evidence on the effect of economic and policy outcomes on voting behavior. This paper uses randomized outcomes from a school choice lottery to examine if lottery outcomes affect voting behavior in a school board election. We show that losing the lottery has no significant impact on overall voting behavior; however, among white families, those with above

Justine S. Hastings; Thomas J. Kane; Douglas O. Staiger; Jeffrey M. Weinstein

2005-01-01

393

The effect of randomized school admissions on voter participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little causal evidence on the effect of economic and policy outcomes on voting behavior. This paper uses randomized outcomes from a school choice lottery to examine if lottery outcomes affect voting behavior in a school board election. We show that losing the lottery has no significant impact on overall voting behavior; however, among white families, those with above

Justine S. Hastings; Thomas J. Kane; Douglas O. Staiger; Jeffrey M. Weinstein

2007-01-01

394

The Performing School: The Effects of Market & Accountability Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Market and accountability educational reforms have proliferated around the globe, along with high expectations of solving countries' school quality deficits and inequities. In this paper I develop an analytical framework from a critical sociology angle for analyzing the effects of these policies within schools. First I discuss conceptually…

Falabella, Alejandra

2014-01-01

395

Creating Two-Way Dual Language Schools through Effective Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two-way dual language schools promote second language learning for all and develop limited-English-proficient students' primary language literacy. Effective schools demonstrate the difference between being educated in a second language and merely speaking more than one language. (SK)

Aguirre-Baeza, Louisa

2001-01-01

396

Climate Change Effects on Shallow Landslide Location, Size, and Frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shallow landslides which typically involve just the soil mantle are influenced by root strength, storm-induced shallow pore pressures, and soil thickness. Field mapping indicates that landslides commonly occur in steep and topographically convergent areas along the soil-bedrock boundary. The susceptibility of a landscape to shallow landslides is controlled by topography and vegetation, while landslide triggering events are mostly related to hydrologic factors such as rainfall total and storm intensity and duration. Climate change can potentially affect both landslide susceptibility and triggering through changes in the hydro-meteorological variables as well as through feedbacks among climate, hydrology and vegetation. Vegetation (and forests in particular) plays an important role through the stabilizing effect of root systems and through its dynamic role on the hydrological cycle. Vegetation type and survival is directly related to climate through temperature and precipitation, and vegetation type could change significantly as some species may not survive while others could be displaced to more favorable locations in response to climate change. In addition, changes in soil moisture can negatively affect forest health by promoting forest disease, insect infestations and fires, and causing significant changes in forest composition. The conversion of forest vegetation to weaker-rooted or sparsely distributed vegetation as well as other disturbances to the forest ecosystem can enhance landslide susceptibility. Assessing the impact of climate change on shallow landsliding is challenging because we are currently unable to predict the size and location of landslides. Under the assumption that landslide location and size are controlled by the spatial structure of pore pressure development, soil depth, and vegetation across the landscape, we adopt a novel search procedure based on graph partitioning techniques to reformulate classical "factor of safety" analysis of a multidimensional slope stability model as an optimization problem. When tested on a unique data set of initial landslide scars, mapped on high resolution topography near Coos Bay, Oregon, our procedure successfully identifies the approximate size and location of most of the observed landslides and generally matches the observed size distribution. Preliminary results also indicate that in uniform vegetation scenarios the distribution of landslide sizes depends strongly on root strength, shifting towards larger sizes (and fewer numbers) with increasing root strength. To assess the impact of climate change on shallow landslide triggering on specific landscapes we consider changes in the hydro-meteorological variables and in vegetation (type and spatial distribution). We compare our simulation results to the Oregon dataset to quantify the effect of changes in storm patterns and vegetation type on the distribution of landslide frequency, magnitude, and location.

Bellugi, D.; McKean, J. A.; Rulli, M.; Dietrich, W. E.

2011-12-01

397

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Precipitation and Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. Learning Outcomes:? Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.? Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.? Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

398

Oceans Effect on Climate and Weather: Global Circulation Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. Learning Outcomes: ? Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents. ? Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year. ? Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns. ? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocea

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

399

The effects of school poverty on adolescents' sexual health knowledge.  

PubMed

Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students' sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment. PMID:22431188

Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole

2012-06-01

400

Effective Schools Research as a Basis for Statewide Accreditation of Public Schools: Report of a Pilot Study (1987).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Texas Education Agency (TEA) pilot study sought to identify a valid, reliable, and manageable way to use the expanding "effective schools" database to guide school accreditation development. The theoretical basis for the incorporation of effective schools correlates into the Campus Effectiveness Model (CEM). The underlying philosophy of this…

Norris, Cynthis J.; And Others

401

The Effect of Star-Planet Interactions on Planetary Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work I explored the effect on planetary climate and habitability of interactions between a host star, an orbiting planet and additional planets in a stellar system. I developed and tested models that include both radiative and gravitational effects, and simulated planets covered by ocean, land and water ice, with incident stellar radiation from stars of different spectral types. These simulations showed that ice-covered conditions occurred on an F-dwarf planet with a much smaller decrease in stellar flux than planets orbiting stars with less near-UV radiation, due to ice reflecting strongly in the visible and near-UV. The surface ice-albedo feedback effect is less important at the outer edge of the habitable zone, where ?3-10 bars of CO2 could entirely mask the climatic effect of ice and snow, leaving the traditional outer limit of the habitable zone unaffected by the spectral dependence of water ice and snow albedo. The exit out of global ice cover was also sensitive to host star spectral energy distribution. A planet orbiting an M-dwarf star exhibited a smaller resistance to melting out of a frozen state, requiring a smaller stellar flux to initiate deglaciation than planets orbiting hotter, brighter stars. Given their greater climate stability, planets orbiting cooler, lower-mass stars may be the best candidates for long-term habitability and life beyond the Solar System. A specific case was explored—that of Kepler-62f, a potentially habitable planet in a five-planet system orbiting a K-dwarf star. Simulations using a 3-D Global Climate Model indicated that Kepler-62f would have areas of the planet with surface temperatures above the freezing point of water with 1 bar or more of CO2 in its atmosphere. In a low-CO2 case, increases in planetary obliquity and orbital eccentricity coupled with an orbital configuration that places the summer solstice at or near pericenter generated regions of the planet with above-freezing surface temperatures, which may cause surface melting of an ice sheet formed during an annual cycle. The methods presented here can be used to assess the possible climates of newly discovered potentially habitable planets in systems with a wide range of orbital architectures.

Shields, Aomawa; Meadows, Victoria; Bitz, Cecilia; Pierrehumbert, Raymond; Joshi, Manoj; Robinson, Tyler; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Charnay, Benjamin; Virtual Planetary Laboratory

2015-01-01

402

Agricultural ecosystem effects on trace gases and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

Global climate change is an issue that has been thrust to the forefront of scientific, political, and general community interest. In the span of this human generation, the earth's climate is expected to change more rapidly than it has over any comparable period of recorded history. Some of the changes will result from natural processes, beyond human control, but much of this change is subject to anthropogenic influence arising from processes that are only beginning to be understood. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric radiatively active trace gases are being inadvertently affected by fossil fuel combustion; but other activities of industry, agriculture, forestry, changing land-use practices, waste disposal, and transportation also affect the chemical composition of the atmosphere. The measured and projected changes of the atmospheric concentrations of radiatively active trace gases have been modeled and estimated to predict changes in the global climate. Accuracy and reliability of these predictions are the subject of considerable debate among scientists and other concerned individuals, groups, and governmental agencies throughout the world. The objective of this book is to provide a review of current knowledge on the measurement of radiatively active trace gases in agricultural ecosystems and the effect of agriculture on the atmospheric concentrations of these gases. This book is compiled from written papers presented at a symposium entitled, Agroecosystem Effects on Radiatively Important Trace Gases and Global Climate Change, held at the American Society of Agronomy Meetings in Denver, CO, 27 Oct.-1 Nov. 1991. Fourteen chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Not Available

1993-01-01

403

School-wide implementation of the elements of effective classroom instruction: Lessons from a high-performing, high-poverty urban school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to identify structures and systems implemented in a high-performing high-poverty urban school to promote high academic achievement among students of color. The researcher used a sociocultural theoretical framework to examine the influence of culture on the structures and systems that increased performance by African American and Hispanic students. Four research questions guided the study: (1) What are the trends and patterns of student performance among students of color? (2) What are the organizational structures and systems that are perceived to contribute to high student performance in high-poverty urban schools with high concentrations of students of color? (3) How are the organizational structures and systems implemented to support school-wide effective classroom instruction that promotes student learning? (4) How is the construct of race reflected in the school's structures and systems? Qualitative data were collected through interviews, observations, and artifact collection. A single case study method was employed and collected data were triangulated to capture and explore the rich details of the study. The study focused on a high-performing high-poverty urban elementary school located in southern California. The school population consisted of 99% students of color and 93% were economically disadvantaged. The school was selected for making significant and consistent growth in Academic Performance Index and Adequate Yearly Progress over a 3-year period. The school-wide structures and systems studied were (a) leadership, (b) school climate and culture, (c) standards-based instruction, (d) data-driven decision making, and (e) professional development. Four common themes emerged from the findings: (a) instructional leadership that focused on teaching and learning; (b) high expectations for all students; (c) school-wide focus on student achievement using standards, data, and culturally responsive teaching; and (d) positive relationships and interactions among students, teachers, parents, and community. Suggestion for future research include a deep examination of how and why culturally relevant pedagogy supports students of color, research on leadership and its impact on creating a positive school climate and culture to produce high student achievement by students of color, and the impact of early education programs on student achievement among poor students and students of color.

Dyson, Hilarie

2008-10-01

404

Climate effect on forest fire static risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of a long data series of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allow to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. In addition, climate indexes obtained from the analysis of time series with more than 20 years of complete records allow to understand the role of climate on fire regime, both in terms of direct effects on fire behaviour and the effect on vegetation cover. In particular, indices of extreme events have been considered like CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and HWDI (heat wave duration index: maximum period > 5 consecutive days with Tmax >5°C above the 1961-1990 daily Tmax normal), together with the usual indices describing rainfall and temperature regimes. As a matter of fact, based on this information it is possible to develop statistical methods for the objective classification of forest fire static risk at regional scale. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in Liguria and is almost absent in Sardinia. What is common in the two regions is the widespread presence of shrub species frequently spread by fire. The analysis in the two regions thus allows in a rather limited area to consider almost all the species and the climate conditions that characterize the Mediterranean region. More than 10000 fire perimeters that burnt about 800 km2 were considered in the analysis. The analysis has been carried out at 20 m spatial resolution. Some important considerations relating to climate and the territorial features that characterize the fire regime in the considered regions contribute to better understand the forest fire phenomena. These results allow to define new strategies for forest fire prevention and management extendable to other geographical areas. This research is part of the project PROTERINA C, funded by the EU under the Italy-France Maritime Programme, aiming at investigating the effects that climate change could have on the environment (fuels).

Bodini, Antonella; Cossu, Antonello; Entrade, Erika; Fiorucci, Paolo; Gaetani, Francesco; Parodi, Ulderica

2010-05-01

405

Controlling the Climate of Your Schools: Tips On Choosing an HVAC System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides tips on choosing a school heating/ventilation and air-conditioning system that meets a school's needs and budget. Discusses how to assess a school's needs and offers suggestions for making the final decision. Data tables are provided that compare various systems, including costs, maintenance, and life expectancy. (GR)

Phelan, John G.

1998-01-01

406

The Impact of Social Climates: Differences between Conventional and Alternative Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Statements about Schools Inventory was used to assess the attitudes of teachers and students about the degree to which alternative and conventional high schools meet the needs in Maslow's hierarchy. Results showed that alternative school environments are more conducive to the satisfaction of basic human needs. (SK)

Gregory, Thomas B.; Smith, Gerald R.

1982-01-01

407

Improvements in School Climate Associated with Enhanced Health and Welfare Services for Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School improvement initiatives are needed to better meet the needs of underprivileged students, to reduce underachievement and to break a continuing cycle of disadvantage. This article describes part of a school improvement initiative in New Zealand that provided additional funding for school nurse and social worker services in nine secondary…

Anderson, Angelika; Thomas, David R.; Moore, Dennis W.; Kool, Bridget

2008-01-01

408

A Multilevel Assessment of School Climate, Bullying Victimization, and Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study integrated criminological and public health perspectives to examine the influence of bullying victimization and the school environment on physical activity (PA). Methods: We used a weighted sample of 7786 US middle school students surveyed as part of the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study to conduct a multilevel…

Roman, Caterina G.; Taylor, Caitlin J.

2013-01-01

409

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cool and Humid Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…

National Renewable Energy Lab. (DOE), Golden, CO.

410

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cold and Humid Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

411

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Temperate and Mixed Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…

National Renewable Energy Lab. (DOE), Golden, CO.

412

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Cool and Dry Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…

National Renewable Energy Lab. (DOE), Golden, CO.

413

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Temperate and Humid Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

414

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Humid Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Department of Energy's EnergySmart Schools provides school boards, administrators, and design staff with guidance to help them make informed decisions about energy and environmental issues important to school systems and communities. The design guidelines presented in this document outline high performance principles for the new or…

National Renewable Energy Lab. (DOE), Golden, CO.

415

Cascading climate effects and related ecological consequences during past centuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interface between climate and ecosystem structure and function is incompletely understood, partly because few ecological records start before the recent warming phase. Here, we analyse an exceptional 100-yr long record of the great tit (Parus major) population in Switzerland in relation to climate and habitat phenology. Using structural equation analysis, we demonstrate an uninterrupted cascade of significant influences of the large-scale atmospheric circulation (North-Atlantic Oscillation, NAO, and North-sea - Caspian Pattern, NCP) on habitat and breeding phenology, and further on fitness-relevant life history traits within great tit populations. We then apply the relationships of this analysis to reconstruct the circulation-driven component of fluctuations in great tit breeding phenology and productivity on the basis of new seasonal NAO and NCP indices back to 1500 AD. According to the structural equation model, the multi-decadal oscillation of the atmospheric circulation likely led to substantial variation in habitat phenology, productivity and consequently, tit population fluctuations with minima during the "Maunder Minimum" (∼ 1650-1720) and the Little Ice Age Type Event I (1810-1850). The warming since 1975 was not only related with a quick shift towards earlier breeding, but also with the highest productivity since 1500, and thus, the impact of the NAO and NCP has contributed to an unprecedented increase of the population. A verification of the structural equation model against two independent data series (1970-2000 and 1750-1900) corroborates that the retrospective model reliably depicts the major long-term NAO/NCP impact on ecosystem parameters. The results suggest a complex cascade of climate effects beginning at a global scale and ending at the level of individual life histories. This sheds light on how large-scale climate conditions substantially affect major life history parameters within a population, and thus influence key ecosystem parameters at the scale of centuries.

Naef-Daenzer, B.; Luterbacher, J.; Nuber, M.; Rutishauser, T.; Winkel, W.

2012-10-01

416

Climatic effects of 1950-2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols - Part 2: Climate response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the climate response to changing US anthropogenic aerosol sources over the 1950-2050 period by using the NASA GISS general circulation model (GCM) and comparing to observed US temperature trends. Time-dependent aerosol distributions are generated from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model applied to historical emission inventories and future projections. Radiative forcing from US anthropogenic aerosols peaked in 1970-1990 and has strongly declined since due to air quality regulations. We find that the regional radiative forcing from US anthropogenic aerosols elicits a strong regional climate response, cooling the central and eastern US by 0.5-1.0 °C on average during 1970-1990, with the strongest effects on maximum daytime temperatures in summer and autumn. Aerosol cooling reflects comparable contributions from direct and indirect (cloud-mediated) radiative effects. Absorbing aerosol (mainly black carbon) has negligible warming effect. Aerosol cooling reduces surface evaporation and thus decreases precipitation along the US east coast, but also increases the southerly flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico resulting in increased cloud cover and precipitation in the central US. Observations over the eastern US show a lack of warming in 1960-1980 followed by very rapid warming since, which we reproduce in the GCM and attribute to trends in US anthropogenic aerosol sources. Present US aerosol concentrations are sufficiently low that future air quality improvements are projected to cause little further warming in the US (0.1 °C over 2010-2050). We find that most of the warming from aerosol source controls in the US has already been realized over the 1980-2010 period.

Leibensperger, E. M.; Mickley, L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Chen, W.-T.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Nenes, A.; Adams, P. J.; Streets, D. G.; Kumar, N.; Rind, D.

2012-04-01

417

Climatic effects of 1950-2050 changes in US anthropogenic aerosols - Part 2: Climate response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the climate response to US anthropogenic aerosol sources over the 1950 to 2050 period by using the NASA GISS general circulation model (GCM) and comparing to observed US temperature trends. Time-dependent aerosol distributions are generated from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model applied to historical emission inventories and future projections. Radiative forcing from US anthropogenic aerosols peaked in 1970-1990 and has strongly declined since due to air quality regulations. We find that the regional radiative forcing from US anthropogenic aerosols elicits a strong regional climate response, cooling the central and eastern US by 0.5-1.0 °C on average during 1970-1990, with the strongest effects on maximum daytime temperatures in summer and autumn. Aerosol cooling reflects comparable contributions from direct and indirect (cloud-mediated) radiative effects. Absorbing aerosol (mainly black carbon) has negligible warming effect. Aerosol cooling reduces surface evaporation and thus decreases precipitation along the US east coast, but also increases the southerly flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico resulting in increased cloud cover and precipitation in the central US. Observations over the eastern US show a lack of warming in 1960-1980 followed by very rapid warming since, which we reproduce in the GCM and attribute to trends in US anthropogenic aerosol sources. Present US aerosol concentrations are sufficiently low that future air quality improvements are projected to cause little further warming in the US (0.1 °C over 2010-2050). We find that most of the potential warming from aerosol source controls in the US has already been realized over the 1980-2010 period.

Leibensperger, E. M.; Mickley, L. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Chen, W.-T.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Nenes, A.; Adams, P. J.; Streets, D. G.; Kumar, N.; Rind, D.

2011-08-01

418

Assessment of Student Homonegativity and the Effect on Campus Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have well documented how campus climate has affected students. The campus climate has affected a student's ability to persist through college and ultimately has impacted his or her entire life. Many campus climate studies have been conducted at universities, and most of these studies have focused on racial climate implications. The…

Pleus, Renee Cato

2011-01-01

419

The Effects of Orography on Midlatitude Northern Hemisphere Dry Climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of mountains in maintaining extensive midlatitude arid regions in the Northern Hemisphere was investigated using simulations from the GFDL Global Climate Model with and without orography. In the integration with mountains, dry climates were simulated over central Asia and the interior of North America, in good agreement with the observed climate. In contrast, moist climates were simulated in

A. J. Broccoli; S. Manabe

1992-01-01

420

Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population…

Milam, A. J.; Furr-Holden, C. D. M.; Leaf, P. J.

2010-01-01

421

Biogeophysical effects of CO2-fertilization on global climate  

SciTech Connect

CO{sub 2}-fertilization affects plant growth, which modifies surface physical properties, altering the surface albedo, and fluxes of sensible and latent heat. We investigate how such CO{sub 2}-fertilization effects on vegetation and surface properties would affect the climate system. Using a global three-dimensional climate-carbon model that simulates vegetation dynamics, we compare two multi-century simulations: a ''Control'' simulation with no emissions, and a ''Physiol-noGHG'' simulation where physiological changes occur as a result of prescribed CO{sub 2} emissions, but where CO{sub 2}-induced greenhouse warming is not included. In our simulations, CO{sub 2}-fertilization produces warming; we obtain an annual- and global-mean warming of about 0.65 K (and land-only warming of 1.4 K) after 430 years. This century-scale warming is mostly due to a decreased surface albedo associated with the expansion of the Northern Hemisphere boreal forests. On decadal time scales, the CO{sub 2} uptake by afforestation should produce a cooling effect that exceeds this albedo-based warming; but if the forests remain in place, the CO{sub 2}-enhanced-greenhouse effect would diminish as the ocean equilibrates with the atmosphere, whereas the albedo effect would persist. Thus, on century time scales, there is the prospect for net warming from CO{sub 2}-fertilization of the land biosphere. Further study is needed to confirm and better quantify our results.

Bala, G; Caldeira, K; Mirin, A; Wickett, M; Delire, C; Phillips, T J

2006-04-26

422

Perceived School Effectiveness: Case Study of a Liverpool College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A quantitative effectiveness measurement based on the perceptions of the local community has been established as an effective mode of evaluating the level of satisfaction or perceived effectiveness of a school. In order to measure the level of effectiveness as perceived by their communities, educational institutions could use this…

Samy, M.; Cook, K.

2009-01-01

423

The Effect of Eco-Schools on Children's Environmental Values and Behaviour  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…

Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

2013-01-01

424

Long-Term Effects of the Seattle Social Development Intervention on School Bonding Trajectories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of intervention during the elementary grades on changes in school bonding from middle school through high school, using hierarchical linear modeling. Findings suggest that social development interventions through elementary school can have positive long-term effects on school bonding and demonstrate the importance…

Hawkins, J. David; Guo, Jie; Hill, Karl G.; Battin-Pearson, Sara; Abbott, Robert D.

2001-01-01

425

Differential School Effectiveness: results from a reanalysis of the Inner London Education Authority's Junior School Project Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports the results of a reanalysis of data from a major longitudinal data base (the Inner London Education Authority's (ILEA) Junior School Project). Multilevel models are used to examine the extent of differential school effectiveness for reading and mathematics at entry (year 3) and at year 5, and the impact of pupil background characteristics. Differential school effectiveness is

Pamela Sammons; Desmond Nuttall; Peter Cuttance

1993-01-01

426

Evidence for a significant urbanization effect on climate in China  

PubMed Central

China has experienced rapid urbanization and dramatic economic growth since its reform process started in late 1978. In this article, we present evidence for a significant urbanization effect on climate based on analysis of impacts of land-use changes on surface temperature in southeast China, where rapid urbanization has occurred. Our estimated warming of mean surface temperature of 0.05°C per decade attributable to urbanization is much larger than previous estimates for other periods and locations. The spatial pattern and magnitude of our estimate are consistent with those of urbanization characterized by changes in the percentage of urban population and in satellite-measured greenness. PMID:15205480

Zhou, Liming; Dickinson, Robert E.; Tian, Yuhong; Fang, Jingyun; Li, Qingxiang; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Tucker, Compton J.; Myneni, Ranga B.

2004-01-01

427

Effects of climate change on drought risks in the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, and Flint River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Possible effects of climate change on the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River basin is simulated with a computer model. Model inputs are monthly temperature and precipitation that simulate several possible climate change scenarios. Preliminary results for climate scenarios based on output for three popular general circulation models indicate that lower flows will occur more frequently if the regional climate warms and monthly precipitation decreases during critical summer months.

Tasker, Gary D.

1993-01-01

428

Relation between Classroom Climate and Achievement in Physical Science of Secondary School Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimates the extent of relationship between "Achievement in Physical Science" and "Classroom Climate" for the total sample and Sub sample based on gender. The tools used for collecting the data are scale of classroom climate and achievement test in physical science. The study reveals that boys show indifferent or negligible but…

R., Smitha; Sajan, K. S.

2010-01-01

429

Teaching Climate Change Science in Senior Secondary School: Issues, Barriers and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that, despite its difficulties, climate change can (and perhaps needs to) be taught rigorously to students by enquiry rather than through transmission and that such a method will enable students to make judgments on other issues of scientific controversy. It examines the issues and barriers to the teaching of climate change,…

Bunten, Rod; Dawson, Vaille

2014-01-01

430

Smart Management in Effective Schools: Effective Management Configurations in General and Vocational Education in the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study the authors focus on different (configurations of) leadership or management styles in schools for general and vocational education. Findings: Using multilevel (students and schools) analyses, strong differences in effective management styles between schools with different student populations were observed. Conclusions: The…

Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Hofman, Roelande H.

2011-01-01

431

Does Your School Need to Improve?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how Dr. Ronald R. Edmonds discovered five characteristics common to 55 United States schools exhibiting academic effectiveness. Explains the characteristics: large portion of principal's time spent in classrooms, global understanding of school's major purpose, orderly school climate, teacher behavior, and close monitoring of students…

Cooper, Muriel

1983-01-01

432

Designing Effective Visualizations for Elementary School Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that technology-enhanced visualizations can improve inquiry learning in science when they are designed to support knowledge integration. Visualizations play an especially important role in supporting science learning at elementary and middle school levels because they can make unseen and complex processes visible. We identify 4…

Kali, Yael; Linn, Marcia C.

2008-01-01

433

Bullying in School: Nature, Effects and Remedies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Synthesizes recent research on bullying in school, showing the multifaceted coercive behaviors of bullying, demonstrating short- and long-term consequences for both victims and bullies, and outlining characteristics of victims, bullies, and bystanders. The paper discusses social tolerance of bullying and provides theoretical bases for explaining…

Ma, Xin; Stewin, Len L.; Mah, Deveda L.

2001-01-01

434

A Climate Process Team focused on better representation of aerosol indirect effects in climate models through improved cloud macrophysical parameterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The representation of aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) in climate models is hampered in part by a poor representation of cloud macrophysical processes. Accurate representation of AIEs involves a complex interplay between cloud microphysics, turbulent dynamics, and radiation. This presentation describes the goals, progress, and future activities of a NSF/NOAA Climate Process Team focused on the improved representation of cloud macrophysical processes through the incorporation of a unified cloud and turbulence scheme into two of the leading US climate models (NCAR CAM, GFDL AM3). We describe how a combination of process modeling, field observations, and single column modeling can be used to improve model physics. We then describe progress in the implementation of the scheme in the full climate model. We describe observational metrics from satellites that the team is using to establish the fidelity of the model results and guide future model development.

Wood, R.; Larson, V. E.; Donner, L.; Golaz, J.; Guo, H.; Gettelman, A.; Morrison, H.; Bogenschutz, P.; Feingold, G.; Yamaguchi, T.; Lee, S.; Stephens, G. L.; Lebsock, M. D.; Kubar, T. L.; Grosvenor, D. P.

2011-12-01

435

Differentiated Phonics Lessons Effect on Fluency and School Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed-methods study investigates the effect of differentiated phonics lessons on reading fluency and examines the effect of these lessons on student and teacher perceptions of school culture. The study examines quantitative data on the effectiveness of the skill lessons. The qualitative findings examine the impact of the lessons on the…

Boyd, Margaret Quinlan

2011-01-01

436

School Climate and the Relationship to Student Learning of Hispanic 10th Grade Students in Arizona Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study provided an analysis of Hispanic 10th grade student academic achievement in the areas of mathematics, reading and writing as measured by the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards. The study is based on data of 163 school districts and 25,103 (95%) students in the state of Arizona as published by the Arizona Department of…

Nava Delgado, Mauricio

2011-01-01

437

The Perceived Impact of a High School Advisory Program on Academic Performance, Character Development, Sense of Connectedness, and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to research teacher and student perceptions of the impact of an advisory program at a large, suburban high school. The advisory program on which this study focused was created in August 2004. Kottler and Kottler (1998) note "it is through your relationships with students that you affect and influence them most…

Walloff, Alyssa M.

2011-01-01

438

Effective Use of Social Media in Communicating Climate Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internet and social media have been a critical vector for misinformation on climate change. Scientists have not always been proactive or effective in utilizing the medium to bring attention to the best science, to correct misinformation and overcome urban myths. Similarly, mainstream journalists have been handicapped in dealing with the wide open nature of the medium, and often muted by editorial concerns or budget restrictions. Independent communicators who are highly motivated can make inroads in this area by using the internet's immediacy and connectivity to consistently connect viewers and readers to reliable information. Over the last 4 years, I have developed a series of you tube videos, made deliberately provocative to engage the internet's confrontational culture, but carefully crafted to bring the best science into the freewheeling community. In doing so, I have won the confidence of leading climate scientists, and in some cases assisted them in clarifying their message. This presentation will share simple tips, useful practices, and effective strategies for making complex material more clear and user friendly, and help scientists better convey the stories hidden in their data.

Sinclair, P. W.

2012-12-01

439

The effects of principal’s leadership style on support for innovation: evidence from Korean vocational high school change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A climate of innovation and principal leadership in schools are regarded as significant factors in successfully implementing\\u000a school change or innovation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the school climate supportive of innovation and the principal’s\\u000a leadership has rarely been addressed to determine whether schools successfully perform their intended change. In this vein,\\u000a this study investigated the impacts of the principal’s leadership

Joo-Ho Park

440

Review article. Studying climate effects on ecology through the use of climate indices: the North Atlantic Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation and beyond.  

PubMed Central

Whereas the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects weather and climate variability worldwide, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant climate pattern in the North Atlantic region. Both climate systems have been demonstrated to considerably influence ecological processes. Several other large-scale climate patterns also exist. Although less well known outside the field of climatology, these patterns are also likely to be of ecological interest. We provide an overview of these climate patterns within the context of the ecological effects of climate variability. The application of climate indices by definition reduces complex space and time variability into simple measures, 'packages of weather'. The disadvantages of using global climate indices are all related to the fact that another level of problems are added to the ecology-climate interface, namely the link between global climate indices and local climate. We identify issues related to: (i) spatial variation; (ii) seasonality; (iii) non-stationarity; (iv) nonlinearity; and (v) lack of correlation in the relationship between global and local climate. The main advantages of using global climate indices are: (i) biological effects may be related more strongly to global indices than to any single local climate variable; (ii) it helps to avoid problems of model selection; (iii) it opens the possibility for ecologists to make predictions; and (iv) they are typically readily available on Internet. PMID:14561270

Stenseth, Nils Chr; Ottersen, Geir; Hurrell, James W; Mysterud, Atle; Lima, Mauricio; Chan, Kung-Sik; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Adlandsvik, Bjørn

2003-01-01

441

Climate Change Has Cascading Ecological Effects on Mountain Ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence that ecosystems of the Northern Rocky Mountains are responding to climate change abounds. Alpine glaciers, as iconic landscape features, are disappearing rapidly with some glaciers losing one half of their area in five years. A model developed in the 1990s to predict future rates of melt has proved too conservative when compared to recent measurements. The largest glaciers in Glacier National Park are almost 10 years ahead of schedule in their retreat. The cascading ecological effects of losing glaciers in high-elevation watersheds includes shifts in distribution and dominance of temperature-sensitive stream macroinvertebrates as stream volume dwindles (or disappears) in later summer months and water temperatures increase. Critical spawning areas for threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) will be lost without the consistent supply of cold water that melting snow and ice provide and raise management questions regarding the efficacy of recovery efforts. Snowpacks are documented as becoming smaller and melting earlier in the spring, facilitating the invasion of subalpine meadows by trees and reducing habitat for current alpine wildlife. Even vital ecosystem disturbances, such as periodic snow avalanches that clear mountain slope forests, have been shown by tree-ring studies to be responsive to climatic trends and are likely to become less prevalent. Monitoring of high-elevation mountain environments is difficult and has largely been opportunistic despite the fact that these areas have experienced three times the temperature increases over the past century when compared to lowland environments. A system of alpine observatories is sorely needed. Tighter integration of mountains studies, and comparisons among diverse mountain systems of the western U.S. has been initiated by the USGS-sponsored Western Mountain Initiative and the Consortium for Integrated Climate Research in Western Mountains to begin addressing this need.

Fagre, D. B.

2007-12-01

442

Volcanic eruption produces smaller than expected climate effects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Climate changes after the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines were quantified. Results show that worldwide temperature change and the magnitude of climate response following the event are in contrast to most previous studies.

Douglass, David H.; Knox, Robert S.; Agu

443

Effective Strategies for Talking about Climate Change in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching about climate science presents some unique challenges. Unlike many other science topics, mitigation and adaptation to climate change will require students to take action. This article outlines five major challenges to communicating about climate change in the classroom, drawing on research in environmental psychology: scepticism,…

Busch, K. C.; Osborne, Jonathan

2014-01-01

444

Vocational Exploration in Middle School: Motivational Characteristics of Students and Perceptions of the Learning Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was twofold: first, to identify vocational exploration profiles in the second year of middle school (Grade 8), and second, to distinguish these profiles in terms of sociomotivational variables. The sample included 521 students (255 boys, 266 girls) attending middle schools in Quebec. Results revealed three vocational…

Duchesne, Stephane; Mercier, Adeline; Ratelle, Catherine F.

2012-01-01

445

The Changing Climate of Teaching and Learning School Geography: The Case of Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting on a personal journey as a geography student, an academic, an educator and a teacher trainer, the article provides a critical narrative of the state of school geography in Singapore and argues that its development has remained relevant to the changing issues at a global level. Using personal reflections and document analyses, school

Chang, Chew-Hung

2012-01-01

446

Bullying Prevention: Creating a Positive School Climate and Developing Social Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying is the most prevalent form of violence in American schools. In their new book "Bullying Prevention," authors Pamela Orpinas and Andy Horne bring together years of experience in research and applied behavioral sciences to show how educators, school psychologists, counselors, and other professionals can address the problem of bullying and…

Orpinas, Pamela; Horne, Arthur M.

2005-01-01

447

The Intellectual Climate of the Late Nineteenth Century and the Fate of American Normal Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1839 the first normal school in the United States opened in Lexington, Massachusetts. Heralded as "an instrument of great good" (Everett 1863, 769) and a spring in which was coiled "a vigor whose uncoiling may wheel the spheres" (Ogren 2005, 16), normal schools continued to grow in numbers throughout the nineteenth century and produced…

Diener, David

2008-01-01

448

Humor As a Management Technique: Its Impact on School Culture and Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ways in which humor is used as an administrative technique are explored in this paper, with a focus on its impact on school culture. Case study methodology is based on interviews with two principals and five staff members at a Tennessee high school. Following a review of transcript excerpts, the principal's use of humor is viewed through four…

Williams, Ronny A.; Clouse, R. Wilburn

449

Effectiveness of a Safe Routes to School Program in Preventing School-Aged Pedestrian Injury  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2005, the US Congress allocated $612 million for a national Safe Routes to School (SRTS) program to encourage walking and bicycling to schools. We analyzed motor vehicle crash data to assess the effectiveness of SRTS interventions in reducing school-aged pedestrian injury in New York City. Methods: Using geocoded motor vehicle crash data for 168?806 pedestrian injuries in New York City between 2001 and 2010, annual pedestrian injury rates per 10?000 population were calculated for different age groups and for census tracts with and without SRTS interventions during school-travel hours (defined as 7 am to 9 am and 2 pm to 4 pm, Monday through Friday during September through June). Results: During the study period, the annual rate of pedestrian injury decreased 33% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30 to 36) among school-aged children (5- to 19-year-olds) and 14% (95% CI: 12 to 16) in other age groups. The annual rate of school-aged pedestrian injury during school-travel hours decreased 44% (95% CI: 17 to 65) from 8.0 injuries per 10?000 population in the preintervention period (2001–2008) to 4.4 injuries per 10?000 population in the postintervention period (2009–2010) in census tracts with SRTS interventions. The rate remained virtually unchanged in census tracts without SRTS interventions (0% [95% CI: –8 to 8]). Conclusions: Implementation of the SRTS program in New York City has contributed to a marked reduction in pedestrian injury in school-aged children. PMID:23319533

Li, Guohua

2013-01-01

450

The Effect of Siblings' Education on School-Entry in the Ethiopian Highlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of sisters' and brothers' education on the annual school entry probability of boys and girls in rural Amhara are estimated, using within-household variation. There are negative effects of younger siblings' school attendance on girls' school entry, and positive effects of older brothers' literacy only when they have left school. This is…

Lindskog, Annika

2013-01-01

451

The effect of public and private competition on high school outputs in New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive data set on upstate New York school district is used to test whether competition from private schools and competition within the public school sector positively affect public school output and again whether different types of expenditures affect output differently. It finds generally significant positive effects of private competition for some measures of school output, but little if any

Kenneth V. Greene; Byung-Goo Kang

2004-01-01

452

Parental Choice and School Quality when Peer and Scale Effects Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a model of school choice with peer effects and scale economies within schools. Parents' perception of school quality depends on resources and on the characteristics of the student body. A network of local schools of uniform quality will be optimal, even though different households prefer different qualities. Whether schools of…

O'Shaughnessy, Terry

2007-01-01

453

Towards a Model for Research on the Effects of School Organizational Health Factors on Primary School Performance in Trinidad & Tobago  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a model for research on the effects of school organizational heath factors on primary school academic achievement in Trinidad and Tobago. The model can be applicable for evaluating schools in other developing countries. As proposed, the model hypothesizes relationships between external factors (exogenous variables),…

Ramdass, Mala; Lewis, Theodore

2012-01-01

454

The Effects of Competition from Private Schooling on French Public School Districts in the Province of Quebec  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Province of Quebec subsidizes nearly 50% of private education, and at the same time heavily regulates private schools. To date, no studies have been done to determine the effect of the unique nature of competition from K-12 private schools on public school education of the sort found in Quebec. The authors used multiple regression to determine…

Caldas, Stephen J.; Bernier, Sylvain

2012-01-01

455

Looking at Schools. Instruments and Processes for School Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory reviews a variety of instruments that may be used by educators to assess the performance of students, teachers, and administrators; school climate effectiveness; and school-community relations. The instruments were selected on the basis of their sound technical quality, ease of availability, and proven utility. The student…

McGrail, Janet; And Others

456

Training NOAA Staff on Effective Communication Methods with Local Climate Users  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2002 NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) offered training opportunities to NWS staff. As a result of eight-year-long development of the training program, NWS offers three training courses and about 25 online distance learning modules covering various climate topics: climate data and observations, climate variability and change, NWS national and local climate products, their tools, skill, and interpretation. Leveraging climate information and expertise available at all NOAA line offices and partners allows delivery of the most advanced knowledge and is a very critical aspect of the training program. NWS challenges in providing local climate services includes effective communication techniques on provide highly technical scientific information to local users. Addressing this challenge requires well trained, climate-literate workforce at local level capable of communicating the NOAA climate products and services as well as provide climate-sensitive decision support. Trained NWS climate service personnel use proactive and reactive approaches and professional education methods in communicating climate variability and change information to local users. Both scientifically-unimpaired messages and amiable communication techniques such as story telling approach are important in developing an engaged dialog between the climate service providers and users. Several pilot projects NWS CSD conducted in the past year applied the NWS climate services training program to training events for NOAA technical user groups. The technical user groups included natural resources managers, engineers, hydrologists, and planners for transportation infrastructure. Training of professional user groups required tailoring the instructions to the potential applications of each group of users. Training technical user identified the following critical issues: (1) Knowledge of target audience expectations, initial knowledge status, and potential use of climate information; (2) Leveraging partnership with climate services providers; and, (3) Applying 3H training approach, where the first H stands for Head (trusted science), the second H stands for Heart (make it easy), and the third H for Hand (support with applications).

Timofeyeva, M. M.; Mayes, B.

2011-12-01

457

Schulentwicklung durch Ruckmeldung der Lernwirksamkeit an die Einzelschule: Moglichkeiten und Grenzen der Schuleffizienzforschung (School Development through Feedback on the Effectiveness of Learning at the Individual School: Possibilities and Limits of School Effectiveness Research).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses School Effectiveness Research (SER) as a method of determining the learning effectiveness of individual schools and school systems. Determines that SER data offer valuable information for the advice, supervision, and further education of teachers, but lacks enough empirical evidence to make generalized decisions for individual school

Arnold, Karl-Heinz

2002-01-01

458

Researching the Characteristics of Effective Primary School Principals in Cyprus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study to identify characteristics and behaviors of effective elementary school principals in Cyprus, 49 principals judged as excellent by the Education Ministry were interviewed. Effective principals are ambitious, honest, and self-confident; deeply committed to their profession; proud of their country's heritage and traditions; deep thinkers…

Pashiardis, Petros

1998-01-01

459

How Large an Effect Can We Expect from School Reforms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Determining the effectiveness of reform strategies is a major part of the current and future educational research agenda. Effects of education reforms will be evaluated largely quantitatively, and an important aspect of this work will be judging how well reform strategies work. The rhetoric of contemporary school reform…

Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Hedges, Larry V.

2008-01-01

460

Effect of hand sanitizer use on elementary school absenteeism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several studies have indicated a connection between handwashing and illness-related absenteeism in school settings. The difficulty of ensuring consistent and effective handwashing among student populations has also been noted. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in the classroom to help decrease the illness-related absentee rate for

Brian Hammond; Yusuf Ali; Eleanor Fendler; Michael Dolan; Sandra Donovan

2000-01-01

461

Class Size. Research on School Effectiveness Project: Topic Summary Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Alaska School Effectiveness Project produced several reports in a series of reviews of research literature on such topics as class size. Using an ERIC search and conventional library methods, the question raised was "Do small classes have a positive effect on the academic achievement of elementary and secondary students?" Of the 35 documents…

Cotton, K.; Savard, W. G.

462

The Greenhouse Effect Misconceptions of the Elementary School Teacher Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to find out the greenhouse effect misconceptions of the elementary school teacher candidates. The participants of the study were 171 teacher candidates enrolled in the science and classroom teacher education program in the faculty of education. In the study the misconceptions related to the causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect and the ways

Zeki ARSAL

463

Research issues in determining the effects of changing climate variability on crop yields  

SciTech Connect

The authors discusses three aspects of research necessary for investigating possible effects of changes in climatic variability on crop yields. Additional information on changed variability effects is needed to further elucidate uncertainties in the knowledge of possible impacts of climate change on agriculture. First, sensitivity analyses of crop responses to shifting change in variability must be performed. Second, investigations of how climatic variability may change under perturbed climate conditions should be undertaken. If one has some confidence in estimates of how variability may change, then a third research task is the formation of climate change scenarios that incorporate changes in climatic variability and their application to crop-climate models to determine crop responses. In this chapter, these research tasks are discussed regarding one climate variable, precipitation. The authors summarize two research projects that have been undertaken to investigate the sensitivity of the CERES-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop model to changes in climatic variability, on daily to annual time scales, for sites in the central Great Plains. He also provides an example of determining possible changes in daily variability of precipitation through analysis of results from two regional climate model experiments, and then go on to describe an example of forming a climate change scenario that incorporates changes in daily precipitation variability estimated from the regional model runs. 27 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Mearns, L.O. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

464

Impact of Climate Change Effects on Contamination of Cereal Grains with Deoxynivalenol  

PubMed Central

Climate change is expected to aggravate feed and food safety problems of crops; however, quantitative estimates are scarce. This study aimed to estimate impacts of climate change effects on deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat and maize grown in the Netherlands by 2040. Quantitative modelling was applied, considering both direct effects of changing climate on toxin contamination and indirect effects via shifts in crop phenology. Climate change projections for the IPCC A1B emission scenario were used for the scenario period 2031-2050 relative to the baseline period of 1975-1994. Climatic data from two different global and regional climate model combinations were used. A weather generator was applied for downscaling climate data to local conditions. Crop phenology models and prediction models for DON contamination used, each for winter wheat and grain maize. Results showed that flowering and full maturity of both wheat and maize will advance with future climate. Flowering advanced on average 5 and 11 days for wheat, and 7 and 14 days for maize (two climate model combinations). Full maturity was on average 10 and 17 days earlier for wheat, and 19 and 36 days earlier for maize. On the country level, contamination of wheat with deoxynivalenol decreased slightly, but not significantly. Variability between regions was large, and individual regions showed a significant increase in deoxynivalenol concentrations. For maize, an overall decrease in deoxynivalenol contamination was projected, which was significant for one climate model combination, but not significant for the other one. In general, results disagree with previous reported expectations of increased feed and food safety hazards under climate change. This study illustrated the relevance of using quantitative models to estimate the impacts of climate change effects on food safety, and of considering both direct and indirect effects when assessing climate change impacts on crops and related food safety hazards. PMID:24066059

Van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; van Asselt, Esther D.; Madsen, Marianne S.; Olesen, Jørgen E.

2013-01-01

465

Building Resilience against Climate Effects—A Novel Framework to Facilitate Climate Readiness in Public Health Agencies  

PubMed Central

Climate change is anticipated to have several adverse health impacts. Managing these risks to public health requires an iterative approach. As with many risk management strategies related to climate change, using modeling to project impacts, engaging a wide range of stakeholders, and regularly updating models and risk management plans with new information—hallmarks of adaptive management—are considered central tenets of effective public health adaptation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has developed a framework, entitled Building Resilience Against Climate Effects, or BRACE, to facilitate this process for public health agencies. Its five steps are laid out here. Following the steps laid out in BRACE will enable an agency to use the best available science to project likely climate change health impacts in a given jurisdiction and prioritize interventions. Adopting BRACE will also reinforce public health’s established commitment to evidence-based practice and institutional learning, both of which will be central to successfully engaging the significant new challenges that climate change presents. PMID:24991665