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1

Examining School Connectedness as a Mediator of School Climate Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have suggested that good-quality school climates foster a sense of connection to the school and in this way contribute to fewer emotional and behavioral problems. However, few studies have directly assessed the role of school connectedness as a mediator of school climate effects. Using path analysis, this brief report examined whether…

Loukas, Alexandra; Suzuki, Rie; Horton, Karissa D.

2006-01-01

2

Measuring School Climate: Using Existing Data Tools on Climate and Effectiveness to Inform School Organizational Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite--or perhaps due to--the lack of consensus on its definition, there is abundant interest in and research on school climate. Researchers have determined that improving school climate is one way to increase academic achievement, school safety, school completion, teacher retention, healthy social interactions, and student well-being (Cohen,…

Durham, Rachel E.; Bettencourt, Amie; Connolly, Faith

2014-01-01

3

The Critical Role of School Climate in Effective Bullying Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown a negative association between positive school climate and bullying behavior. This article reviews research on school climate and bullying behavior and proposes that an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate (e.g., negative relationship between teachers and students, positive attitudes towards bullying) provides a social…

Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Swearer, Susan M.

2013-01-01

4

The Effects of School Culture and Climate on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Exemplary, Recognized and Acceptable schools differ in their school climates, as measured by the 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory. Significant differences were found on all 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory, with Exemplary schools out-performing Acceptable…

MacNeil, Angus J.; Prater, Doris L.; Busch, Steve

2009-01-01

5

Climate Change Schools Project...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

McKinzey, Krista

2010-01-01

6

School climate, family structure, and academic achievement: A study of moderation effects.  

PubMed

School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family structure (i.e., two-parent, one-parent, foster-care, and homeless households), and academic performance (i.e., self-reported [grade point average] GPA). The present sample consisted of 902 California public high schools, including responses from over 490,000 students in Grades 9 and 11. Results indicated that, regardless of family structure, students with more positive school climate perceptions self-reported higher GPAs. Youths with two-parent, one-parent, and homeless family structures displayed stepwise, linear improvements in self-reported GPA as perceptions of climate improved. Foster-care students' positive school climate perceptions had a weaker effect on their self-reported GPA compared with students living in other family structures. A unique curvilinear trend was found for homeless students, as the relationship between their school climate perceptions and self-reported GPA was stronger at lower levels. Overall, the moderation effect of positive school climate perceptions on self-reported GPA was strongest for homeless youth and youth from one-parent homes, suggesting that school climate has a protective effect for students living in these family structures. A protective effect was not found for youth in foster-care. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25111464

O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L; Eklund, Katie

2015-03-01

7

Improvement of School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: As a part of its School Improvement Program, James Monroe Junior High School planned to improve its school climate. Since the physical school environment was devoid of landscaping and did not provide places for student socialization, all interested groups (PTSA, student council, students, staff, and…

Sierra Sands Unified School District, Ridgecrest, CA.

8

Relationships among School Climate Domains and School Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the magnitude of the relationships between eight school climate domains and a measure of global school satisfaction among 2,049 middle and high school students. Tests of moderator effects were conducted to determine if the magnitude of the relationships between the school climate domains and school satisfaction differed as…

Zullig, Keith J.; Huebner, E. Scott; Patton, Jon M.

2011-01-01

9

Improving School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter of "The Best of the Best of ERIC," Volume 2, contains 16 summaries of documents and journal articles on improving school climate, all of which are indexed in either "Resources in Education" or "Current Index to Journals in Education." The materials included deal with various aspects of this topic, such as school climate and principal…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

10

The Black Box Revelation: In Search of Conceptual Clarity regarding Climate and Culture in School Effectiveness Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1970s, school effectiveness research has looked for process-variables filling the black box between mainly structural school features and cognitive outcomes in students. Two concepts came to the fore: school climate and school culture. Both concepts are currently used interchangeably, although it is open to debate whether both are…

Van Houtte, Mieke; Van Maele, Dimitri

2011-01-01

11

Simple Linear and Curvilinear Relationships of Leader Style and School Climate to Principal Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hypothesis guiding the study was that work motivation attitudes, behavior, and perceptions of others--as leader style concepts--and school climate--as a situational construct--are linearly and curvilinearly related to subordinate, superordinate, self, and organizational effectiveness criteria. A total of 179 principals, 996 teachers, and 41…

Miskel, Cecil

12

Perceptions of School Climate as a Function of Bullying Involvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a social-ecological perspective, bullying exists within the larger context of school climate. In this study, 2,240 middle and high school students participated in a districtwide effort to assess the prevalence and effects of bullying and cyberbullying, as well as perceptions of school climate. Students reported positive school climate

Nickerson, Amanda B.; Singleton, Demian; Schnurr, Britton; Collen, Mary Helen

2014-01-01

13

Effects of Cooperative Learning and Conflict Resolution on Student-Perceived Social Climate at an Alternative High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was done of the effects of cooperative learning and conflict resolution on the student perception of the social climate at three campuses of an alternative high school in New York City. The study looked at the effect on one campus that received 2 years of conflict resolution training, another campus that received 2 years of cooperative…

Weitzman, Eben A.

14

LGB and questioning students in schools: the moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam, J School Health 62(7):352-357, 1992). This study examined how school contextual factors such as homophobic victimization and school climate influence negative outcomes in LGB and questioning middle school students. Participants were 7,376 7th and 8th grade students from a large Midwestern county (50.7% Female, 72.7% White, 7.7% Biracial, 6.9% Black, 5.2% Asian, 3.7% Hispanic, and 2.2% reported "other"). LGB and sexually questioning youth were more likely to report high levels of bullying, homophobic victimization, and various negative outcomes than heterosexual youth. Students who were questioning their sexual orientation reported the most bullying, the most homophobic victimization, the most drug use, the most feelings of depression and suicidality, and more truancy than either heterosexual or LGB students. A positive school climate and a lack of homophobic victimization moderated the differences among sexual orientation status and outcomes. Results indicate that schools have the ability to lessen negative outcomes for LGB and sexually questioning students through creating positive climates and reducing homophobic teasing. PMID:19636741

Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L; Koenig, Brian

2009-08-01

15

Preparing Middle School Teachers to Use Science Models Effectively when Teaching about Weather and Climate Topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the National Science Education Standards (NSES), teachers are encouraged to use science models in the classroom as a way to aid in the understanding of the nature of the scientific process. This is of particular importance to the atmospheric science community because climate and weather models are very important when it comes to understanding current and future behaviors of our atmosphere. Although familiar with weather forecasts on television and the Internet, most people do not understand the process of using computer models to generate weather and climate forecasts. As a result, the public often misunderstands claims scientists make about their daily weather as well as the state of climate change. Therefore, it makes sense that recent research in science education indicates that scientific models and modeling should be a topic covered in K-12 classrooms as part of a comprehensive science curriculum. The purpose of this research study is to describe how three middle school teachers use science models to teach about topics in climate and weather, as well as the challenges they face incorporating models effectively into the classroom. Participants in this study took part in a week long professional development designed to orient them towards appropriate use of science models for a unit on weather, climate, and energy concepts. The course design was based on empirically tested features of effective professional development for science teachers and was aimed at teaching content to the teachers while simultaneously orienting them towards effective use of science models in the classroom in a way that both aids in learning about the content knowledge as well as how models are used in scientific inquiry. Results indicate that teachers perceive models to be physical representations that can be used as evidence to convince students that the teacher's conception of the concept is correct. Additionally, teachers tended to use them as ways to explain an idea to their students; they rarely discussed the idea that models are a representation of reality (as opposed to a replication of reality) and never discussed the predictive power of models and how they are used to further scientific knowledge. The results indicate that these teachers do not have a complete understanding of science models and the role they play in the scientific process. Therefore, the teachers struggled to incorporate modeling into the classroom in a way that aligns with what the NSES suggests. They tended to lean on models as "proof" of a particular concept rather than a representation of a concept. In actuality, scientists do not just use models to explain a concept, they also use them to make projections and as a way to improve our understanding the atmosphere. A possible consequence of teachers using models as "proof" of a concept is that students expect climate and forecast models to be concrete and exact, rather than tentative and representative. Increasing student understanding of climate and weather models is important to meet the needs of future STEM professionals, decision-makers, and the general populace to support rational decision-making about weather and the future of climate by an educated society.

Yarker, M. B.; Stanier, C. O.; Forbes, C.; Park, S.

2012-12-01

16

Five Climate Control Techniques for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many reasons for air-conditioning schools and among them are--(1) the improvement of learning and teaching efficiency, (2) effective use of the educational plant for a greater part of the year, and (3) more efficient use of space through compact building design. Five climate control techniques are cited as providing optimum…

Wilson, Maurice J.

1963-01-01

17

School Climate: Historical Review, Instrument Development, and School Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study's purpose is to examine the existing school climate literature in an attempt to constitute its definition from a historical context and to create a valid and reliable student-reported school climate instrument. Five historically common school climate domains and five measurement tools were identified, combined, and previewed by the…

Zullig, Keith J.; Koopman, Tommy M.; Patton, Jon M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

2010-01-01

18

Academic self-efficacy mediates the effects of school psychological climate on academic achievement.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24708286

Høigaard, Rune; Kova?, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

2015-03-01

19

Parental Employment, School Climate, and Children's Academic and Social Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal data were used to examine the effects of parental employment status and school climate on children's academic and social development. Hierarchical regression, analyses of covariance, and latent growth modeling were used to assess various aspects of change as a function of work status and school climate with family income and education as control variables. Parental employment was associated with

Neal Schmitt; Joshua M. Sacco; Sharon Ramey; Craig Ramey; David Chan

1999-01-01

20

Creating a Positive School Climate at the Junior High Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the seven correlates of an effective school, as identified by the Effective Schools Research, is a positive school climate: a positive attitude on the part of the entire staff and student body exhibited through overt behavior that creates a warm, orderly learning environment. Development of such an environment depends upon: (1) strong…

Licata, Vincent F.

21

A Large Scale Study of the Assessment of the Social Environment of Middle and Secondary Schools: The Validity and Utility of Teachers' Ratings of School Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and Safety Problems for Understanding School Effects and School Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young…

Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D.; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie

2008-01-01

22

A large scale study of the assessment of the social environment of middle and secondary schools: the validity and utility of teachers' ratings of school climate, cultural pluralism, and safety problems for understanding school effects and school improvement.  

PubMed

Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young adolescents. Teachers' climate ratings exhibited a robust dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability over 1-and 2-year time spans. Teachers' climate ratings were also found to be related consistently with students' ratings. In three large-scale samples of schools, teachers' climate ratings were associated significantly and consistently with students' performance on standardized tests of academic achievement, and with indexes of their academic, behavioral, and socio-emotional adjustment. PMID:19083370

Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie

2008-10-01

23

The Effect of a Zoo-Based Experiential Academic Science Program on High School Students' Math and Science Achievement and Perceptions of School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 11th-grade and 12th-grade zoo-based academic high school experiential science program compared to a same school-district school-based academic high school experiential science program on students' pretest and posttest science, math, and reading achievement, and student perceptions of…

Mulkerrin, Elizabeth A.

2012-01-01

24

School Climate and Students' Early Mathematics Learning: Another Search for Contextual Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K)--a large, nationally representative sample of US elementary school students, we employed multilevel analysis to answer the following research questions: (a) Does students' mathematics achievement growth in grades K-3 vary among schools? (b) To what extent does…

Bodovski, Katerina; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Walsh, Rachael

2013-01-01

25

School Ethical Climate and Teachers' Voluntary Absence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to offer a theoretical framework for linking school ethical climate with teachers' voluntary absence. The paper attempts to explain this relationship using the concept of affective organizational commitment. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 1,016 school teachers from 35 high schools in Israel. Data were…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

2010-01-01

26

LGB and Questioning Students in Schools: The Moderating Effects of Homophobic Bullying and School Climate on Negative Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam,…

Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian

2009-01-01

27

STEM412: Global Climate Change Education for Middle School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, facilitated course is designed for middle-school educators wishing to teach global climate change using an inquiry/problem-based approach. Teachers access the course by registering with PBS TeacherLine and enrolling in the course. The course supports teaching global climate change using a problem-solving approach and STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) methodology to engage middle-school students and help them understand the causes and effects of climate change and learn about the differences between climate and weather and how actions and nature affect the environment. The course includes pedagogic support for educators who are interested in using Web 2.0 tools when teaching about climate change in the classroom. Enhance content knowledge of climate change and learn how to effectively implement STEM instructional strategies using resources from NASA and WGBH’s Teachers’ Domain.

28

School Climate in Middle Schools: A Cultural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007-08 and 2008-09, 2,500 randomly-selected middle school students completed an annual survey on school climate and character development. In examining differences based upon grade, gender, race/ethnicity, school, and length of program participation, significant differences were found for all but length of program participation. Responses of…

Schneider, Stephanie H.; Duran, Lauren

2010-01-01

29

School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.  

PubMed

School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PMID:25198617

Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

2014-09-01

30

School Culture, School Effectiveness and School Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relevance of the concept of culture to school effectiveness and school improvement is explored. Two typologies are developed. The first proposes four ‘ideal type’ school cultures, based on two underlying domains; the second, a more elaborate and dynamic model, proposes two ‘ideal type’ school cultures, based on five underlying structures. Each is discussed for its heuristic, conceptual, methodological and

David H. Hargreaves

1995-01-01

31

Schools of the Pacific rainfall climate experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SPaRCE program is a cooperative rainfall climate field project involving high school and college level students and teachers from various Pacific island and atoll nations. The goals of the SPaRCE program are: (1) to foster interest and increase understanding among Pacific-area students and teachers of climate and climate change; (2) to educate the students and teachers as to the importance of rainfall in the Pacific area to climate studies; (3) to provide the students and teachers an opportunity of making a major contribution to the global climate research effort by collecting and analyzing Pacific rainfall data; and (4) to incorporate collected rainfall observations into a comprehensive Pacific daily rainfall data base to be used for climate research purposes. Schools participating in SPaRCE have received standard raingauges with which to measure rainfall at their sites. Students learned to site and use their raingauges by viewing a video produced at the University of Oklahoma. Four more videos will be produced which will include information on Earth's atmosphere, global climate and climate change, regional climate and implications of climate change, and how to analyze and use the rainfall data they are collecting. The videos are accompanied by workbooks which summarize the main points of each video, and contain concrete learning activities to help the student better understand climate and climate change. Following each video, interactive sessions are held with the students using the PEACESAT (Pan-Pacific Education And Communication Experiments by Satellite) satellite radio communication system.

Postawko, S. E.; Morrissey, M. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Mouginis-Mark, P.

1993-01-01

32

Transformational Leadership Related to School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between teacher perceptions of the degree to which a principal displays the factors of transformational leadership (idealized attributes, idealized behaviors, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulations, and individual considerations) and the perceived school climate (supportive principal behavior,…

McCarley, Troy A.

2012-01-01

33

Secondary School Organizational Climate and Professional Growth and Development Attitudes: Implications for School Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Besides setting the tone for accomplishing student learning goals and effecting improvement, school climate serves as a determinant of teacher attitudes toward personal and professional growth and development. Bureaucratization of schools decreases teacher effectiveness through rules, controls, and reduced autonomy and authority. The formal…

Norman, Jean M.

34

Reducing School Violence: School-Based Curricular Programs and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.

Greene, Michael B.

2008-01-01

35

School Climate that Promotes Student Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All over the world, educators are recognizing that creating a school culture and climate that genuinely engages and supports all students is essential to increasing students' achievement and preventing students from dropping out. Research supports the view that schools must encourage students to express themselves--clearly and often--and be places…

Elias, Maurice J.

2010-01-01

36

Teachers' Perspectives on School Climate at a Low-Performing School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of research studies have indicated that issues with school climate may be a source of the low academic and social success of students in the public school system. A poor school climate is often associated with low-performing schools; a positive school climate can increase student achievement and other indicators of school success such as…

Carson, Paul Kit

2012-01-01

37

Transforming School Climate: Educational and Psychoanalytic Perspectives: Introduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School climate refers to the character and quality of school life. It is based on these patterns and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching, learning, leadership practices, and organizational structures. School climate is at the nexus of individual and group experience. School climate is based on the individual's…

Cohen, Jonathan

2009-01-01

38

Australian Secondary School Students' Understanding of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated 438 Year 10 students (15 and 16 years old) from Western Australian schools, on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and climate change, and the sources of their information. Results showed that most students have an understanding of how the greenhouse effect works, however, many students merge the processes of the…

Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine

2013-01-01

39

Effects of "Safe School" Programs and Policies on the Social Climate for Sexual-Minority Youth: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are a vulnerable population--a status that can be attributed to a hostile social climate at school. Intervention strategies, such as educational policies, programs, and a supportive environment, improve the social climate for LGBT students in secondary schools and…

Black, Whitney W.; Fedewa, Alicia L.; Gonzalez, Kirsten A.

2012-01-01

40

Conceptualization and Measurement of Supervision as a School Organizational Climate Construct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports initial construct validity and reliability of a new measure of the organizational/supervisory climate of schools. The new measure contained six subscales validated by using three recognized indices of school effectiveness: school productivity, organizational effectiveness, and school holding power. Results support the OSCI's validity and…

Claudet, Joseph G.; Ellett, Chad D.

1999-01-01

41

School Climate: A Discipline View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School discipline is the foundation of education and ensures a safe and peaceful environment in which to learn and work. Establishing rules and the use of reward and sanction to enforce rules are the primary aspects of school rule formation. Incentive-based rules improve discipline better than punishment-based rules, which hurt the student-teacher…

Pang, Sun-Keung Nicholas

42

Chinese high school students' academic stress and depressive symptoms: gender and school climate as moderators.  

PubMed

In a sample of 368 Chinese high school students, the present study examined the different effects of Chinese high school students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms and the moderating effects of gender and students' perceptions of school climate on the relationships between their academic stress and depressive symptoms. Regression mixture model identified two different kinds of subgroups in the effects of students' academic stress on their depressive symptoms. One subgroup contained 90% of the students. In this subgroup, the students' perceptions of academic stress from lack of achievement positively predicted their depressive symptoms. For the other 10% of the students, academic stress did not significantly predict their depressive symptoms. Next, multinomial regression analysis revealed that girls or students who had high levels of achievement orientation were more likely to be in the first subgroup. The findings suggested that gender and students' perceptions of school climate could moderate the relationships between Chinese high school students' academic stress and their depressive symptoms. PMID:22190389

Liu, Yangyang; Lu, Zuhong

2012-10-01

43

School Effectiveness and Effectiveness Indicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines connections between Alberta practitioners' perceptions of current school effectiveness in elementary and junior high schools and the relative importance of various effectiveness indicators. Because of differences in practioners' perceptions, schools and school systems need to continually probe the dimensions of school-effectiveness

Holdaway, Edward A.; Johnson, Neil A.

1993-01-01

44

An Evaluation of Instructional Coaching at Selected High Schools in North Louisiana and Its Effect on Student Achievement, Organizational Climate, and Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare high schools in north Louisiana to determine if the presence or absence of instructional coaches influenced student achievement, organizational climate, and/or teacher efficacy in any significant manner. The 11 high schools in north Louisiana utilizing instructional coaches were matched to 11 high schools

Hearn, Richard M.

2010-01-01

45

What Greek Secondary School Students Believe about Climate Change?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate what Greek secondary school students (grades 8 and 11) believe about the greenhouse effect and climate change. A total of 626 students completed a closed-form questionnaire consisting of statements regarding the causes, impacts and solutions for this global environmental issue. The possible influence of…

Liarakou, Georgia; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Gavrilakis, Costas

2011-01-01

46

Assessing Climate Misconceptions of Middle School Learners and Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1) environmental literacy and inquiry and (2) foster the development of geospatial thinking and reasoning using geospatial technologies as an essential component of the middle school science curriculum. The curriculum is designed to align instructional materials and assessments with learning goals. The following frameworks were used to provide guidelines for the climate change science content in addition to the science inquiry upon which schools must focus: Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences (U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2009) and the AAAS Project 2061 Communicating and Learning About Global Climate Change (AAAS, 2007). The curriculum is a coherent sequence of learning activities that include climate change investigations with Google Earth, Web-based interactivities that include an online carbon emissions calculator and a Web-based geologic time-line, and inquiry-based ("hands-on") laboratories. The climate change science topics include the atmosphere, Earth system energy balance, weather, greenhouse gases, paleoclimatology, and "humans and climate". It is hoped that with a solid foundation of climate science in the classroom, middle school learners will be in a position to evaluate new scientific discoveries, emerging data sets, and reasonably assess information and misinformation by which they are surrounded on a daily basis.

Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.

2012-12-01

47

Volcanic effects on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

Robock, Alan

1991-01-01

48

Improving School Climate to Reduce Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying harms kids in nearly every way imaginable. It disrupts their learning; it causes them to suffer anxiety and depression; and it undermines their feelings of safety and connection to school. New understandings of bullying are based on relationships and connect directly to the growing appreciation of the role of the social climate within…

Smith, David

2012-01-01

49

Improving School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School effectiveness is an issue that has preoccupied researchers and policymakers for 3 decades. To study how ineffective schools become effective and what constitutes an effective school, the Improving School Effectiveness Project was carried out in Scotland from 1995 to 1997. This project forms the basis of discussion in this book, which has 11…

MacBeath, John, Ed.; Mortimore, Peter, Ed.

50

School Climate and Teachers' Perceptions on Climate Factors: Research into Nine Urban High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the difference in the levels of the variables related to the school climate factors among the teachers teaching social science courses, the teachers teaching natural science courses, and the teachers teaching art, music and physical education. As a result of the analyzes, all the teachers reported open climate in relation to…

Gunbayi, Ilhan

2007-01-01

51

School Social Capital and School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…

Tsang, Kwok-Kuen

2009-01-01

52

The Impact of an Economically Disadvantaged Student Population on School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student poverty levels, defined by the number of students identified as economically disadvantaged by qualifying for free and reduced lunch and school climate. The literature review examined school climate and culture, effects of student socioeconomic (SES) status on education,…

Null, Curtis F.

2012-01-01

53

Advocating for Safe Schools, Positive School Climate, and Comprehensive Mental Health Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tragedy at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, CT (USA) has brought the conversation about how to reduce violence, make schools safer, improve school climate, and increase access to mental health services to the forefront of the national conversation. Advocating for comprehensive initiatives to address school safety, school climate, and…

Cowan, Katherine C.; Vaillancourt, Kelly

2013-01-01

54

Teachers' Sickness Absence in Primary Schools, School Climate and Teachers' Sense of Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the period from 1978 to 1988, teacher absenteeism increased considerably in the Netherlands, especially in primary education. This study questions whether teacher absenteeism is related to school climate and teachers' sense of efficacy. When climates of low- and high-absenteeism schools are compared, several school climate characteristics…

Imants, Jeroen; van Zoelen, Ad

1995-01-01

55

The Trajectories of Adolescents’ Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems During the Middle School Years  

PubMed Central

This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents’ perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents’ perceptions of school climate. PMID:22822296

Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

2012-01-01

56

School-Based Mental Health Services in Baltimore: Association with School Climate and Special Education Referrals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the association between school-based mental health services and two proposed but untested outcomes of these services: (a) school climate and (b) patterns of referrals to special education. Results from a climate survey found that teachers and staff in eight elementary schools with expanded school mental health (ESMH)…

Bruns, Eric J.; Walrath, Christine; Glass-Siegel, Marcia; Weist, Mark D.

2004-01-01

57

School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2009-10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2009-2010, the survey was distributed to approximately 85,000 parents, 45,000 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…

Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2010

2010-01-01

58

School Climate Surveys: District Results for 2008-09  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2008-2009, the survey was distributed to approximately 90,200 parents, 54,200 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. This…

Research Services, Miami-Dade County Public Schools, 2009

2009-01-01

59

School Climate Factors 2009. Research Brief. Volume 0807  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each school year, the School Climate Survey is administered to gather information on the perceptions that students, their parents, and school staffs hold concerning their schools and their performance. In 2008-2009, the survey was distributed to approximately 90,200 parents, 54,200 elementary, secondary, and adult students, and 25,000 staff. In…

Froman, Terry

2009-01-01

60

The Enduring Influence of School Size and School Climate on Parents' Engagement in the School Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to examine the direct and indirect associations between school size and parents' perceptions of the invitations for involvement provided by their children's school in a school system that has actively attempted to reduce the negative effects of school size. Using data from the New York Public Schools' annual Learning Environment…

Goldkind, Lauri; Farmer, G. Lawrence

2013-01-01

61

The relationship between perceptions of a Chinese high school's ethical climate and students' school performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship of school ethical climate and students' school performance within the context of a Chinese high school. Gender and grade?level differences in ethical climate perceptions were also explored. Survey data on perceptions of school ethical climate based upon the dimensions of student?to?teacher, student?to?student and teacher?to?student interactions and relationships were obtained from 754 students. Results of the

Mingchu Luo; Wenmin Huang; Lotfollah Najjar

2007-01-01

62

A New Framework for School Climate: Exploring Predictive Capability of School Climate Attributes and Impact on School Performance Scores  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much emphasis is being placed on the use of school performance scores as a means of indicating effective schools. Schools are being held accountable for not only teaching the curriculum, but also affording the student a quality education that encompasses the skills and knowledge needed to be successful. Although many schools have a similar…

Craig, Amy Vermaelen

2012-01-01

63

Cyberbullying Expert Says School Climate Makes All the Difference  

E-print Network

Cyberbullying Expert Says School Climate Makes All the Difference February 12, 2013 by Helen Hu justice at Florida Atlantic University, has studied cyberbullying since 2002. The now-co-director of the Cyberbullying Research Center admits being bullied himself as a boy, and says building a good school "climate

Fernandez, Eduardo

64

Measuring School Climate: An Overview of Measurement Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School climate is a heterogeneous concept with a multitude of standardised and validated instruments available to measure it. Purpose: This overview of measurement scales aims to provide researchers with short summaries of some of the self-report instruments in existence, especially in relation to the link between school climate and…

Kohl, Diane; Recchia, Sophie; Steffgen, Georges

2013-01-01

65

Trace gas effects on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two primary objectives are to describe the new scientific challenges posed by the trace gas-climate problem and to summarize current strategies, and to make an assessment of the trace gas effects on troposphere-stratosphere temperature trends. Numerous reports on CO2-climate problems are examined with respect to climate modeling issues. The role of the oceans in governing the transient climate response to time varying CO2 concentrations is discussed.

Ramanathan, V.; Callis, L. B., Jr.; Cess, R. D.; Hansen, J. E.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Kuhn, W. R.; Lacis, A.; Luther, F. M.; Mahlman, J. D.; Reck, R. A.

1985-01-01

66

Critical Climate: Relations among Sexual Harassment, Climate, and Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n = 310) and boys (n = 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer…

Ormerod, Alayne J.; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Perry, Leigh Ann

2008-01-01

67

Nevada's Climate Change High School Science Fair Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this 3 year project funded by NSF (GEO 1035049) is to increase the climate change science content knowledge and teaching effectiveness of in-service high school science teachers and increase the numbers of quality of high school geoscience projects competing in Nevada's three regional Intel ISEF (International Science & Engineering Fair) affiliated science fairs. In year 1 of the project participants consisted of six female and three male high school teachers from across Nevada. Eight of the participants were white and one was Asian. Five participants taught in Clark County, two taught in Owyhee, one taught in Elko and one taught in Spring Creek. Over 20% of the projects were noted (by the teachers) as being submitted by underrepresented students; however, this information is not reliable as most students did not provide this data themselves. Pre-and post- content tests were given. Teachers improved from an average of eight missed on the pre-test to an average of only four items missed on the post-test. Participants were also asked to evaluate their own teaching efficacy. In general, participants had a strong science efficacy. The item on which there was the most discrepancy among participants was on #10, the one stating that "The low achievement of some students cannot generally be blamed on their teachers." Most teachers completed an end of year program evaluation. All but one of the participants felt that the pace of the workshop was comfortable. All participants who used faculty mentors in helping their students rated their faculty mentors very highly. All participants rated the program content very highly in terms of clarity, organization, relevance, helpfulness and usefulness. All participants gave the program a very high rating overall and stated they would likely use the information to mentor future students and in instruction in future classes. The science fairs are the culmination of the program. Teachers were required to have at least one student submit a project related to climate change science in their regional fair. There were 28 projects submitted in 2011; of these there were 10 first place winners, 5 second place winners, and 1 third place winner. Over half of the projects entered in the regional science fairs received an award. The reported student science fair projects relating to climate change include, among others: comparing CO2 emissions in old and new cars, comparing travel by mass transit with travel by private car, studying how CO2 effects global warming, studying seedlings in a climate controlled environment, studying the effect of climate change on hurricanes, determining ammonia emission from bovine manure, and studying the effect of Dendroctonus brevicomis on the depopulation of Pinus edulis and Pinus ponderosa due to climate change.

Buck, P.

2012-12-01

68

School Effectiveness: A View from the School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings of a study that examined the perceptions of educational stakeholders in two regions of the Victorian Ministry of Education toward effective-schools issues. Data were obtained from a survey mailed to a total of 1,060 principals, school councillors, teachers, parents, and students in 100 schools--50 schools each from the…

Townsend, Tony

69

Examining the Relationship between Teacher Leadership and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher leadership has recently become the centre of educational research on improving educational practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between primary school teachers' perceptions of school climate and teacher leadership. The study sample consisted of 259 primary school teachers who participated in an…

Kilinc, Ali Çagatay

2014-01-01

70

Local Communities and Schools Tackling Sustainability and Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Local communities and their schools remain key sites for actions tackling issues of sustainability and climate change. A government-funded environmental education initiative, the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI), working together with state based Sustainable Schools Programs (SSP), has the ability to support the development of…

Flowers, Rick; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

2009-01-01

71

Heteronormativity, School Climates, and Perceived Safety for Gender Nonconforming Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined…

Toomey, Russell B.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Russell, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

72

Relationships between Stimulus-Seeking, School Climate and Self-Reported Deviant Behavior in High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The interactions among student personality, school climate, and socially deviant behavior were examined by means of a survey of 483 high school students in three rural schools in eastern Ontario (Canada). Data were gathered on students' stimulus-seeking behavior, their self-reported deviant behavior in school, and their perceptions of whether the…

Wasson, Avtar S.; Dionne, Jean-Paul

73

Explaining Charter School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses entrance lotteries to explore heterogeneity in the achievement effects of charter schools across demographic groups and between urban and non-urban areas in Massachusetts. The authors develop a framework for interpreting this heterogeneity using both student- and school-level explanatory variables. (Contains 4 tables.)

Angrist, Joshua D.; Pathak, Parag A.; Walters, Christopher R.

2012-01-01

74

Measuring School Climate in High Schools: A Focus on Safety, Engagement, and the Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model.…

Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

2014-01-01

75

School culture, climate and ethos: interchangeable or distinctive concepts?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms school culture, climate and ethos appear to be used interchangeably. Within the context of differing national environments there is, however, a tendency to use climate when objective data is under consideration, ethos when more subjective descriptors are involved, and culture when these two are brought together as an integrative force in investigation or debate. Much in-service education makes

Derek Glover; Marianne Coleman

2005-01-01

76

Measuring Inviting School Climate: A Case Study of a Public Primary School in an Urban Low Socioeconomic Setting in Kenya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study utilized the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R) (Smith, 2005b, 2013) based on Invitational Theory and Practice (Purkey & Novak, 2008) to examine the school climate of a public primary school in a low urban socio-economic setting in Kenya. School climate was defined as the perceptions of primary school teachers and pupils…

Okaya, Tom Mboya; Horne, Marj; Lamig, Madeleine; Smith, Kenneth H.

2013-01-01

77

The Relationship between Transformational School Leadership and Ethical Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between transformational school leadership and ethical climate. The participants were 764 teachers in 50 elementary schools in Nigde during the 2008/2009 academic year. Two distinct instruments were used in this study. The Principal Leadership Style Inventory developed by Leithwood and Jantzi (1991)…

Sagnak, Mesut

2010-01-01

78

Working Together: Collaborative School Leadership Fosters a Climate of Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Montessori schools, the best way to strengthen the climate of success by the administrators is called "transformational leadership". Leadership theorist James McGregor Burns identifies transformational leadership as a mutual belief and value system, and a commitment between a principal and teachers to focus on what works best for their school.…

McKenzie, Ginger Kelley

2005-01-01

79

The Relationship of Principal Conflict Management Style and School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined conflict management styles of elementary school principals in South Carolina and the relationship of conflict management style and school climate. The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form B, which identifies five styles of managing conflict, was used to determine principal conflict…

Boucher, Miriam Miley

2013-01-01

80

Climate Change: What You Can Do At School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students, educators and school administrators can all play a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This website provides a directory of some education and action planning resources, including tips for recycling and ideas for determining a school's impact on global climate change.

2007-01-01

81

Adolescent Perception of Family Climate and Adaptation to Residential Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in adolescents' perceptions of the family as they adapt to residential schooling were studied for 51 residential and 57 nonresidential tenth graders in a school in Israel. No differences in the perception of family climate were found between the groups, suggesting no change with the individual's act of leaving. (SLD)

Shulman, Shmuel; Prechter, Eti

1989-01-01

82

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS ON THE HIGHELEVATION HYDROPOWER SYSTEM Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center JULY 2012 CEC5002012020 Prepared for: California consideration of climate change effects on highelevation hydropower supply and demand in California. Artificial

83

Middle School Students' Understandings About Anthropogenic Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009; Golden & Francis, 2013), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdotes to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. Additionally, we found that students' understandings of climate change were tied to their ontological constructions of the subject matter, i.e., many perceived climate change as just another environmentally sensitive issue such as littering and pollution, and were therefore limited in their ability to understand anthropogenic climate change in the vast and robust sense meant by current scientific consensus. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.

2013-12-01

84

A DIGEST OF CLIMATE CONTROLLED AND NON-CLIMATE CONTROLLED SCHOOLS--AN EVALUATIVE STUDY CONDUCTED IN PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A COMPARISON WAS MADE OF ONE CLIMATE CONTROLLED SCHOOL WITH ONE OR MORE NON-CLIMATE CONTROLLED SCHOOLS OF SIMILAR SIZE WITH RESPECT TO FACTORS OF COST AND OUTCOMES, IN THE PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. EACH OF THE FOUR SCHOOLS STUDIED HAD THE FOLLOWING SIMILARITIES--LOCATION, COST OF CONSTRUCTION, OCCUPANCY RATE, AND OPERATING…

CURTIS, H.A.; STUART, FRED

85

Evaluation of the Alliance for Climate Education's national high school edutainment program (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alliance for Climate Education educates high school students on the science of climate change and inspires them to create effective solutions. Since 2009, ACE has reached over 1.6 million students nationwide with its multi media assembly presentation. In this paper, we evaluate the climate science knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, behavior and communication impact of the ACE Assembly program in a random sample of 49 schools (from population of 779) and a panel of 1,241 high school students. Pre and post assembly surveys composed of questions from the Global Warming Six Americas segmentation and intervention specific questions were administered in classrooms. We demonstrate that exposure to climate science in an engaging edutainment format changes youths' beliefs, involvement, and behavior positively and moves them to more climate science literate audience segments. The net impact of scaled and engaging programs for youth could be a population shift in climate science literacy and positive engagement in the issue of climate change. In addition, such programs can empower youth for deeper engagement in school programs, personal action, political and consumer advocacy.

Lappe, M.; Flora, J.; Saphir, M.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.

2013-12-01

86

The Effect of a Case-Based Reasoning Instructional Model on Korean High School Students' Awareness in Climate Change Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the case-based reasoning instructional model on learning about climate change unit. Results suggest that students showed interest because it allowed them to find the solution to the problem and solve the problem for themselves by analogy from other cases such as crossword puzzles in an…

Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Hyoungbum; Chae, Dong-hyun; Kim, Eunjeong

2014-01-01

87

Playing Fair: The Contribution of High-Functioning Recess to Overall School Climate in Low-Income Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recess is a part of the elementary school day with strong implications for school climate. Positive school climate has been linked to a host of favorable student outcomes, from attendance to achievement. We examine 6 low-income elementary schools' experiences implementing a recess-based program designed to provide safe, healthy,…

London, Rebecca A.; Westrich, Lisa; Stokes-Guinan, Katie; McLaughlin, Milbrey

2015-01-01

88

Using NASA climate data to improve effectiveness of undergraduate-level climate change education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing society today, and yet the science of global climate change and the potential effects are poorly understood by the general population. Through a NASA Innovations in Climate Education grant, UC Riverside is addressing this disconnect by fully redesigning the undergraduate level Earth Sciences courses, which serve over 3,000 students every year. The majority of these students are not Earth Sciences majors and so these changes in the climate change education curriculum reach a very broad range of students. This new curriculum centers around a new website that hosts online activities that allows students to utilized and manipulate NASA climate data sets in order to directly observe changes in the global climate system. All lower division Earth Sciences courses will include online activities and a unit on global climate change. In addition to this general improvement in climate change education, we have restructured our lower division Climate Change course (GEO 11) to focus on these online activities in order to give students first-hand experience with both global and local climate data. Because these activities are hosted online, they can be seemlessly integrated with other online resources, accessed from school or home and be viewed on a variety of devices, thus vastly increasing student accessibility. In the future, these activities will be available to other institutions. UC Riverside is an ideal institution at which to launch a broad-reaching climate change education program like this. As one of the most socioeconomically and ethnically diverse universities and one of only two federally-designated Hispanic Serving Research Institutions, UC Riverside primarily educates undergraduate students from the portions of society that will be most heavily impacted by the effects of climate change. GEO 11 and the other lower division courses produce climate-literate students of different majors and backgrounds, who can continue on to serve as climate science advocates in society.

Dahl, R. M.; Droser, M. L.

2012-12-01

89

Best Practices: Creating an LGBT-Inclusive School Climate. A Teaching Tolerance Guide for School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are places of learning and also miniature societies. The climate of a school has a direct impact on both how well students learn and how well they interact with their peers. Teachers and administrators work hard to make their classrooms welcoming places where each student feels included. But despite these efforts, students who are--or who…

Southern Poverty Law Center (NJ1), 2013

2013-01-01

90

Student School Climate Perceptions as a Measure of School District Goal Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze one high school district's use of student survey data to measure district-wide goal achievement. The premise was that student school climate factors may serve as a more robust measure of district goal attainment than the district's use of discrete item analysis. The data were gathered from archived biennial…

Stichter, Kenneth

2008-01-01

91

Middle School Improvement and Reform: Development and Validation of a School-Level Assessment of Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and School Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the structure of perceived school climate and the relationship of climate dimensions to adaptation of students who attend middle-grade-level schools. The climate scales exhibited a stable dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability. Ratings of multiple climate dimensions were associated…

Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert; Shim, Minsuk; Seitsinger, Anne; Dumas, Thaddeus

2003-01-01

92

Positive School Climate: What It Looks Like and How It Happens. Nurturing Positive School Climate for Student Learning and Professional Growth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "school climate" has been around for more than a hundred years to explore the idea of school environmental or contextual factors that might have an impact on student learning and academic success. During the past three decades there has been growing research to support the importance of a positive school climate in promoting…

Smith, Tami Kopischke; Connolly, Faith; Pryseski, Charlene

2014-01-01

93

The Development and Validation of the Elementary School Ethical Climate Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument that measures the ethical climate of elementary schools. To create the Elementary School Ethical Climate Index (ESECI), we adapted the ethical climate index for middle and high schools. The ESECI assesses student and teacher interactions and relationships through the application…

Keiser, Kay A.; Schulte, Laura E.

2007-01-01

94

Identifying Effective School Principals  

E-print Network

focus on three dimensions: student performance, teacher retention, and financial management. Data is derived from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to develop a total of seven specific indicators to measure success in these three areas for Texas... tests and school accountability ratings. TEA data is used from 1996-2005 to develop indicators for these two measures. Since our goal was to capture the improvements in student performance attributable to principal effectiveness, we used a value...

Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber

2007-01-01

95

Transforming School Climate and Learning: Beyond Bullying and Compliance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators agree that children learn better in an honoring and respectful culture. They also know that top-down imposed change rarely sticks. In "Transforming School Climate and Learning", Bill Preble and Rick Gordon show how to accomplish lasting results by engaging both teachers and students in the five-step SafeMeasures[TM] process, a…

Preble, Bill; Gordon, Rick

2011-01-01

96

Hierarchical Linear Modelling of Student and School Effects on Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used hierarchical linear modeling with data from the New Brunswick School Climate Study (Canada) to examine student background, school context, and school climate effects on Grade 6 student achievement in mathematics, science, reading, and writing. Gender, socioeconomic status, and Native ethnicity were significant predictors of academic…

Ma, Xin; Klinger, Don A.

2000-01-01

97

Effect of climate change on air quality Daniel J. Jacob a,*, Darrell A. Winner b  

E-print Network

meteorology Ozone Particulate matter Mercury a b s t r a c t Air quality is strongly dependent on weatherEffect of climate change on air quality Daniel J. Jacob a,*, Darrell A. Winner b a School.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA Keywords: Climate change Air quality Air pollution

Jacob, Daniel J.

98

Hiring Effective Secondary School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's effective school counselors are integral in education reform, school leadership, and student achievement. It is typically the responsibility of building principals to hire effective school counselors. This article builds on previous literature and provides principals with questions to ask and information to gather that may be helpful in…

McGlothlin, Jason M.; Miller, Lynne Guillot

2008-01-01

99

Delaware School Climate Survey--Student: Its Factor Structure, Concurrent Validity, and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (DSCS-S) was developed to provide schools with a brief and psychometrically sound student survey for assessing school climate, particularly the dimensions of social support and structure. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 11,780 students in 85 schools, showed that a bifactor model…

Bear, George G.; Gaskins, Clare; Blank, Jessica; Chen, Fang Fang

2011-01-01

100

School Climate Factors in Selected Full-Service and Traditional Elementary Schools in a Southeastern City: Contrasts and Comparisons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory comparison of traditional and full-service schools' climates is an initial step in determining their differences. The authors established whether selected full-service and traditional elementary schools differ on five school climate factors indicating the student and teacher body composition, the students' socioeconomic status,…

Cornwill, William L.; Parks, Alicia L.

2007-01-01

101

The Graduate School of Climate Sciences, University of Bern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Graduate School of Climate Sciences, University of Bern, offers a specialised M.Sc. and a Ph.D. study programme in climate sciences. The graduate school has a highly interdisciplinary profile involving not only natural sciences, but also humanities/history, economics and law. The ten participating institutes with a total of 45 academics provide expertise in long-term climate variability, climate modelling, climate reconstruction, predictability of the future climate and extreme events, the impact of climate change on ecosystems and climate risks for society and economy. The graduate school is fully compliant with the Bologna Accords and collaborates closely with the sister institution C2SM at ETH Zurich by, e.g., jointly organised lectures. There are currently 23 master and 37 doctoral students in the programme. These originate from the University of Bern (28 %), from other Swiss universities (30 %) and from foreign universities (42 %). Comprehensive information about the Graduate School of Climate Sciences is available at http://www.climatestudies.unibe.ch . The M.Sc. in Climate Sciences programme (120 ECTS credits) is designed to attract students from all disciplines in natural sciences and offers them a tailor-made curriculum to reach their career aspirations. The students make their own course selection according to their profile envisaged (specialised versus broad education) and ideally already guided by a job perspective. Selecting the courses and the topic of the master thesis they specialise in one of five fields: climate and earth system science; atmospheric science; economics; economic, social and environmental history; statistics. Several courses are organised jointly with public authorities and the private industry, e.g. from experts working in the insurance business, in weather forecasting or in environmental pollution control. This provides the students hands-on experience and contacts to future employers. The master thesis (60 ECTS) involves the students in an ongoing research project and gives them the opportunity to collaborate with experienced scientists in a team. Alternatively, a short thesis (30 ECTS) may be combined with an internship (30 ECTS) at another university, in the private sector or in the administration. A bachelor degree in any field of science at university level (B.A. for specialisation in economics or history) or an equivalent degree is required for admission to the M.Sc. programme. The teaching language is English. The Ph.D. in Climate Sciences is research oriented and consists mainly of 3 to 4 years full time work in a project within one of the institutes involved in the Graduate School of Climate Sciences. The Ph.D. programme is research oriented and has a compulsory module of 12 ECTS credits containing workshops (professional skills), a summer school, an international conference, colloquia, seminars and optionally lectures. The compulsory module gives the Ph.D. students the opportunity to build up their own network in the local and international research community. The Ph.D. thesis is usually written in the form of research articles in international peer reviewed journals. A M.Sc. or an equivalent academic degree is conditional for admission to the Ph.D. programme.

Martin, L.

2012-04-01

102

The greenhouse effect and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical basis of the projected changes in climate due to enhancement of the greenhouse effect is outlined. Gases important to the greenhouse effect are discussed as well as the expected changes in the concentration of greenhouse gases, potential climatic effects, and the ways of detecting changes in the climate. The potential warming due to man-made changes over the last

John F. B. Mitchell; J. F. B

1989-01-01

103

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes  

E-print Network

Climate Change Effects on Plant Disease: Genomes to Ecosystems K. A. Garrett, S. P. Dendy, E. E in the effects of climate change on plant disease contin- ues to be limited, but some striking progress has been of the magnitude of climate change effects. Ecosystem ecologists are now addressing the role of plant disease

Garrett, Karen A.

104

A cluster randomised controlled trial of the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module in Australian secondary schools: study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The use of ecstasy is a public health problem and is associated with a range of social costs and harms. In recent years, there has been growing concern about the availability and misuse of new and emerging drugs designed to mimic the effects of illicit drugs, including ecstasy. This, coupled with the fact that the age of use and the risk factors for using ecstasy and emerging drugs are similar, provides a compelling argument to implement prevention for these substances simultaneously. The proposed study will evaluate whether a universal Internet-based prevention program, known as the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module, can address and prevent the use of ecstasy and emerging drugs among adolescents. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted among Year 10 students (aged 15–16 years) from 12 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. Schools will be randomly assigned to either the Climate Schools intervention group or the control group. All students will complete a self-report questionnaire at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-, 12- and 24-months post-baseline. The primary outcome measures will include ecstasy and emerging drug-related knowledge, intentions to use these substances in the future, and the patterns of use of ecstasy and emerging drugs. A range of secondary outcomes will also be assessed, including beliefs and attitudes about ecstasy and emerging drugs, peer pressure resistance, other substance use and mental health outcomes. Discussion To our knowledge, this will be the first evaluation of an Internet-based program designed to specifically target ecstasy and NED use among adolescents. If deemed effective, the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module will provide schools with an interactive and novel prevention program for ecstasy and emerging drugs that can be readily implemented by teachers. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12613000708752. PMID:24330505

2013-01-01

105

Climate Kids: What is the Greenhouse Effect?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The greenhouse effect is explained in this series of related questions and answers. This lesson is part of the Climate Kids website, a NASA education resource featuring articles, videos, images and games focused on the science of climate change.

106

How school can teach civic engagement besides civic education: The role of democratic school climate.  

PubMed

Civic engagement, defined as involvement in community life, is influenced by reciprocal relationships between individuals and contexts and is a key factor that contributes to positive youth development. The present study evaluates a theoretical model linking perceived democratic school climate with adolescent civic engagement (operationalized as civic responsibility and intentions for future participation), taking into account the mediating role of civic discussions and perceived fairness at school. Participants were 403 adolescents (47.9 % male) ranging in age from 11 to 15 years old (mean age = 13.6). Path analysis results partially validated the proposed theoretical model. Higher levels of democratic school climate were associated with higher levels of adolescent civic responsibility; the association was fully mediated by civic discussions and perceived fairness at school. Adolescents' civic responsibility, then, was positively associated with a stronger intention to participate in the civic domain in the future. PMID:25172202

Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Sharkey, Jill; Mayworm, Ashley; Scacchi, Luca; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

2014-12-01

107

Explaining Charter School Effectiveness  

E-print Network

Estimates using admissions lotteries suggest that urban charter schools boost student achievement, while charter schools in other settings do not. Using the largest available sample of lotteried applicants to charter ...

Angrist, Joshua

2012-04-12

108

Explaining Charter School Effectiveness  

E-print Network

Lottery estimates suggest Massachusetts' urban charter schools boost achievement well beyond that of traditional urban public schools students, while nonurban charters reduce achievement from a higher baseline. The fact ...

Angrist, Joshua

109

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Changing Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the fourth of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores how Earth's climate has changed in the past and how it may change in the future. Climate change may occur as a result of changes in Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans. Such changes may be abrupt (such as gas and dust from volcanic eruptions or asteroid impacts) or may occur over very long times (such as changes in landscape or increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere). Even relatively small changes in atmospheric or ocean content and/or temperature can have widespread effects on climate if the change lasts long enough. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased at an unprecedented rate. Though climate change and changes in the composition of the oceans and atmosphere are natural, present modifications far exceed natural rates. Learning Outcomes:? Explain the role that phenomena such as volcanic eruptions or asteroid impact play in changing climate.? Describe the type of atmospheric conditions and weather related data that can be obtained from ice core and deep-sea sediment records.? Describe how a small change in the content of oceans and atmosphere (such as a rise in carbon dioxide levels) can have significant impacts on global climate.? Describe human activity that has an affect on climate.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

110

Individual and Contextual Effects of School Adjustment on Adolescent Alcohol Use  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the effect of a student’s own school adjustment as well as the contextual level of school adjustment (the normative level of school adjustment among students in a school) on student's self-reported use of alcohol. Using a dataset of 43,465 male and female 8th grade students from 349 schools across the contiguous United States who participated in a national study of substance use in rural communities between 1996 and 2000, multilevel latent covariate models were utilized to disentangle the individual-level and contextual effects of three school adjustment variables (i.e., school bonding, behavior at school, and friend’s school bonding) on alcohol use. All three school adjustment factors were significant predictors of alcohol use both within and between schools. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a strong contextual effect; students who attended schools where the overall level of school adjustment was higher reported lower levels of alcohol use even after taking their own school adjustment into account. The results demonstrate the importance of both a student’s own level of school adjustment and the normative level of school adjustment among students in the school on an adolescent’s use of alcohol. Differences in school adjustment across schools were quite strongly related to an adolescent's own alcohol use, indicating that school adjustment is an important aspect of school climate. Initiatives aimed at improving school climate may have beneficial effects on students’ alcohol use. PMID:19242802

Stanley, Linda R.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Harkabus, Lindsey C.; Chapin, Laurie A.

2010-01-01

111

Organizational Climate, Faculty Trust: Predicting Student Bullying--An Elementary School Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying is a serious problem among students. Research linking school climate and trust as to bullying is minimal. This study examined elements of school climate and trust in relation to bullying and protection using Hoy and Smith's (2004) climate study and Smith and Birney's (2005) trust study. Trust was found to be the significant…

Anderton, Tenna

2012-01-01

112

Effect of climate change on air quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air quality is strongly dependent on weather and is therefore sensitive to climate change. Recent studies have provided estimates of this climate effect through correlations of air quality with meteorological variables, perturbation analyses in chemical transport models (CTMs), and CTM simulations driven by general circulation model (GCM) simulations of 21st-century climate change. We review these different approaches and their results.

Daniel J. Jacob; Darrell A. Winner

2009-01-01

113

Students' Perceptions of School Climate in the U.S. and China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States.…

Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G.; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C.; Huang, Xishan

2013-01-01

114

An Examination of Bullying in Georgia Schools: Demographic and School Climate Factors Associated with Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Situations  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Research dedicated to identification of precursors to cases of aggravated bullying in schools has led to enhanced knowledge of risk factors for both victimization and perpetration. However, characteristics among those who are more likely to intervene in such situations are less understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the associations between demographic characteristics, school climate and psychosocial factors, and willingness to intervene in a bullying situation among middle and high school students in Georgia. Methods: We computed analyses using cross-sectional data from the Georgia Student Health Survey II (GSHS 2006) administered to public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 (n=175,311). We used logistic regression analyses to determine the demographic, school climate and psychosocial factors associated with a willingness to intervene in a bullying situation. Results: Students who were white and who were girls were most likely to report willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Several school-climate factors, such as feeling safe at school, liking school, feeling successful at school and perceiving clear rules at school, were associated with willingness to intervene, while youth who reported binge drinking were less willing to intervene. Conclusion: These findings, while preliminary, indicate that girls, students who are white, and students who experience a relatively positive school climate and adaptive psychosocial factors are more likely to report that they would intervene in bullying situations. These findings may guide how bullying is addressed in schools and underscore the importance of safe school climates. PMID:23930145

Goldammer, Lori; Swahn, Monica H.; Strasser, Sheryl M.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Meyers, Joel

2013-01-01

115

Catholic School Leadership: School Climate and Culture and the Influence on Principal Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's Catholic educators face a very different world, creating a change in the role and responsibility of the principal. The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent the culture and climate affect satisfaction in the principal's role that warrants becoming and remaining a principal in today's Catholic schools. This…

Beckley, Gary M.

2012-01-01

116

Middle School Student Perceptions of School Climate: Examining Protective Functions on Subsequent Adjustment Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the roles of student perceptions of four aspects of school climate (friction, cohesion, competition among students, and satisfaction with classes) as moderators of the relations between effortful control and subsequent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Participants were 488 10-to-14-year old students involved in…

Loukas, Alexandra; Murphy, Jonna L.

2007-01-01

117

Instructional Leadership and Schools Effectiveness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.

Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy

118

Taking Action on Climate Change--Inside and Outside Our Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Without experience, students struggle to understand climate change. Uses the school environment as a starting point to explain the causes of climate change and involves students in activities concerning indoor and outdoor environments. (YDS)

Philippe, Denise; Kool, Richard

2000-01-01

119

Biological Effects of Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How important is climate change--something that has occurred throughout Earth's history? Can ecosystems tolerate the magnitude and rate of future change? How will other conservation threats interact with climate change? How likely are widespread extinction

Juanita Constible

2008-10-01

120

Health Effects of Climate Change  

MedlinePLUS

... over generations. TODAY It is now established that climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. These ... are becoming alert to the dynamic relationship between climate change and human health. Some of these impacts are ...

121

The Development of the Organizational Climate Index for High Schools: Its Measure and Relationship to Faculty Trust  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A parsimonious measure of organizational climate of high schools is developed and tested in this research. The Organizational Climate Index (OCI) captures open and healthy dimensions of high school climates at the student, teacher, principal, and community levels. Next the relationship between the climate of schools and faculty trust is examined…

Hoy, Wayne K.; Smith, Page A.; Sweetland, Scott R.

2003-01-01

122

Reciprocal associations between interpersonal and values dimensions of school climate and peer victimization in elementary school children.  

PubMed

We examine longitudinal relations among children's and parents' reports of peer victimization and their perceptions of school climate dimensions reflecting school interpersonal relationships (relationships among children and their teachers and peers, and of parents and principals) and values (fairness and equity of access to resources). Children were in Grades 3 and 4 at Time 1 (Mage = 9.32, SDage = .74; 49% boys). Bidirectional influences of school climate and reports of peer victimization were investigated in path models across grade (Time 1 to Time 2) and within a grade (Time 2 to Time 3). Child and parent reports of school climate dimensions showed considerable stability. Hypothesized reciprocal relationships between each of the school climate dimensions and peer victimization were significant. Child-reported frequency of parent involvement in school activities was associated with lower levels of peer victimization within a school year. Parent perceptions of involvement in school activities and the schools' connection with the community were unrelated to the children's reports of peer victimization. Children's negative cognitions or "worldviews" coupled with peer victimization may fuel problems with school connectedness, safety, and help seeking. Findings shed light on possible pathways for reducing peer victimization by leveraging specific aspects of the social climate within schools. PMID:24617984

Leadbeater, Bonnie; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Smith, David; Bowen, François

2015-01-01

123

Training for Effective School Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forces of societal change have placed new demands on school administrators for skills to manage schools. The result has been an increasing realization of the need for improved university preparation programs and for more effective Human Resource Development (HRD) for practicing administrators. A growing body of research shows a very positive…

Cawelti, Gordon

124

How Effective Are American Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress to argue that achievement growth in reading, mathematics, and science is possibly constrained by the (declining) growth and distribution of general intelligence. The failure of school practices to boost general intelligence would explain the disappointing effects of school reform…

Ralph, John; And Others

1994-01-01

125

Profiles of School Anxiety: Differences in Social Climate and Peer Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: School anxiety is often defined as a set of symptoms grouped into cognitive, psychophysiological and motor responses emitted by an individual in school situations that can be perceived as threatening and/or dangerous. School anxiety may be influenced--among other relevant school variables - by the perception of social climate and the…

Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Ingles, Candido J.; Trianes, Maria V.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

2011-01-01

126

The Perception of School Climate in Two Secondary Schools during the Implementation of a Peer Support Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The problem of school violence has been studied in the last decades from different perspectives, especially focused on bullying conflicts. Whole school approaches have been recommended by many experts in the field. The aim of the present study is to assess climate changes in two secondary schools that implement a peer support…

Gomez, Soledad Andres; Gaymard, Sandrine

2014-01-01

127

Some effects of parent involvement in schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the interrelationships among components of parent involvement at schools and investigates their effects on school outcomes. The study used data collected during an evaluation of California's Early Childhood Education Program. Varinbles included socioeconomic status, the frequency of school-parent communications, parent awareness of school events, amount of parent involvement at the school, parent influence in school decision making,

Joan L. Herman; Jennie P. Yeh

1983-01-01

128

Effectively engaging with climate skeptics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of my persistent challenges as a climate scientist involves friendly conversations with my extended (climate skeptic) family over the Thanksgiving table, as I try to inform and guide their perceptions about climate change. I modeled this writing assignment after these family gatherings, to give my students a chance to respond respectfully and completely to a skeptical argument in a safe setting, before entering the Thanksgiving arena!

Jessica Kleiss

129

CLIMAS SOCIALES TOXICOS Y CLIMAS SOCIALES NUTRITIVOS PARA EL DESARROLLO PERSONAL EN EL CONTEXTO ESCOLAR Toxic and nutritive social school climates and personal development in school contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Relevance of school social climate to personal development is described in this paper. Social school climate can be classified as toxic or nutritive and their main features are described. Teachers' judgements about both categories of school climates are reported based on focus groups held with teachers. The objectives of eight educational units of a Programme aimed to improve social

Neva Milicic

130

The Effective Schools Development Act of 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article, taken from the Effective Schools Development in Education Act of 1984, describes the effective schools movement and sketches a representative example of an effective schools program. It also gives the aims of the proposed act and urges more research on the dynamics of school effectiveness program implementation and impact. (RDN)

Hawkins, Augustus F.

1984-01-01

131

Leaner, More Effective Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts across North America are facing a crushing dilemma: invest millions of dollars to maintain outdated, educationally ineffective buildings or seek funding for expensive renovations, additions, and new construction to meet the evolving needs of today's learners. Compounding the issue is deferred facility maintenance. Educational…

Fielding, Randall

2012-01-01

132

Former Head Start Parents' Characteristics, Perceptions of School Climate, and Involvement in Their Children's Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored relations between former Head Start parents' self-efficacy beliefs, beliefs about their children's academic abilities, affective state of depression, perceptions of school climate, and reported level of involvement in their children's education at end of kindergarten year. Parents' views of school climate and beliefs in their ability to…

Seefeldt, Carol; Denton, Kristen; Galper, Alice; Younoszai, Tina

1998-01-01

133

Spanish Secondary School Students' Notions on the Causes and Consequences of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse of motor vehicles and factory emissions to

Pilar Punter; Javier Garcia

2011-01-01

134

Predicting Teacher Commitment: The Impact of School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate whether school climate and social-emotional learning impact teacher commitment. The sample included 664 public schoolteachers from British Columbia and Ontario in Canada. Participants completed an online questionnaire about teacher commitment, school climate, and social-emotional learning. Binary logistic…

Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

2011-01-01

135

The Impact of a Principal's Sex on the Climate of Alternative Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of a leader's sex on the climate of alternative schools. Specifically, the problem was "Does a principal's sex have an impact on the climate of alternative schools?" The research attempted to answer the following questions: (1) Do differences with regard to a principal's sex exist within the following subsets of…

Wenton, Jessica

2010-01-01

136

School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception in Traditional and Cyberbullying Status  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in perceptions of school social climate and peers in terms of bullying status, and to investigate the psychometric properties of the School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception Scales. The students participated from six different cities in Turkey were in…

Bayar, Yusuf; Ucanok, Zehra

2012-01-01

137

Spanish Secondary School Students' Notions on the Causes and Consequences of Climate Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse…

Punter, Pilar; Ochando-Pardo, Montserrat; Garcia, Javier

2011-01-01

138

An Analysis of the Relation between Secondary School Organizational Climate and Teacher Job Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates and analyzes the relation between the secondary school organizational climate and teacher job satisfaction using a self-designed school organizational climate scale based on studies in China and abroad. The findings show that except for interpersonal factors there are significant correlations between the various factors of…

Xiaofu, Pan; Qiwen, Qin

2007-01-01

139

Differences in Assessments of Organizational School Climate between Teachers and Adminsitrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the organizational school climate perceptions of teachers and principals and to ascertain the extent to which their perceptions differed. This causal comparative study used the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire for Elementary Schools (OCDQ-RE) as the survey instrument for data…

Duff, Brandy Kinlaw

2013-01-01

140

School climate for transgender youth: a mixed method investigation of student experiences and school responses.  

PubMed

Transgender youth experience negative school environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender students encounter in school environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260, 68 transgender youth) from study 1 and focus groups (n = 35) from study 2, we examine transgender youth's experience of school harassment, school strategies implemented to reduce harassment, the protective role of supportive school personnel, and individual responses to harassment, including dropping out and changing schools. In both studies, we found that school harassment due to transgender identity was pervasive, and this harassment was negatively associated with feelings of safety. When schools took action to reduce harassment, students reported greater connections to school personnel. Those connections were associated with greater feelings of safety. The indirect effects of school strategies to reduce harassment on feelings of safety through connection to adults were also significant. Focus group data illuminate specific processes schools can engage in to benefit youth, and how the youth experience those interventions. PMID:20428933

McGuire, Jenifer K; Anderson, Charles R; Toomey, Russell B; Russell, Stephen T

2010-10-01

141

Climate Change and Agriculture: Effects and Adaptation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This document is a synthesis of science literature on the effects of climate change on agriculture and issues associated with agricultural adaptation to climate change. Information is presented on how long-term changes in air temperatures, precipitation, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide wi...

142

Assessing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers knowledge base about global climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change (GCC) is a crucial environmental issue that is challenging all Americans. With an effective collaboration between researchers, scientists and teachers, conceptual frameworks and methods can be developed for creating climate change content for classroom implementation. In this paper, we describe how teachers' conceptualize and understand global climate change. The information generated by this study can further be used to develop theme based, structured curricula to enhance teachers' understanding of the phenomenon of global climate change. Recent national documents concerning science education have focused on an Earth System approach and concentrate on the fundamental concepts and big ideas in earth science and climate change (e.g., The Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) (National Science Foundation (NSF), 2009) and Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009)). Unfortunately, research related to teachers' earth science content knowledge has not focused on an earth systems approach rather researchers have examined teachers' misconceptions about isolated earth science concepts, such as moon phases and plate tectonics. While such research implies teachers' lack of knowledge and awareness of earth as a system, it does not provide direct information about teachers' earth system knowledge. Similarly, research on teachers' and students' knowledge of climate change has focused on isolated topics, such as the greenhouse effect and global warming. Our study focused on eliciting secondary school science teachers' understanding of global climate change using a multifaceted and integrated approach. We do so in the context of a 3-year teacher professional development program where the climate science content provided to the teachers was aligned with essential principles of climate science (EPCS-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009). Our study was guided by the following research questions 1) What is the nature of teachers' climate literacy? 2)What is the structure of teachers' knowledge of climate change?3)What is the level of teachers' understanding of principles essential to understand Earth's climate system? This study employed a phenomenographical approach to analyze data for a qualitative measurement of different ways in which the teachers experienced and conceptualized climate change. We collected and analyzed data from the teachers' concept maps, supplemented it with the data from the Photo Elicitation Interviews and then aligned the outcomes with the seven essential principals of climate literacy (EPCS) to estimate the distribution of teacher knowledge. Our findings indicate that where teachers understand a diverse array of topics related to the science of global climate change, they need specific tools like place-based data simulations to correlate various local and global aspects of the phenomenon. Our findings also indicate teachers' perceptions about timescale, data projections using modeling and the level of uncertainty in the data. Our results will provide crucial information about providing conceptual knowledge and addressing misconceptions regarding the science of climate change and the educational approach towards teaching it in the best possible way.

Bhattacharya, D.; Roehrig, G. H.; Karahan, E.; Liu, S.

2012-12-01

143

Supervisees' and Supervisors' Experiences of Group Climate in Group Supervision in Psychotherapy: Effects of Admission Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic aptitude test (SAT) versus high school grades/SAT + interview) to a program in professional psychology on students' and supervisors' experiences of the group climate in psychotherapy supervision groups during an eighteen-month…

Sundin, Eva C.; Ogren, Marie-Louise

2006-01-01

144

Notes: Where Is Reform Taking Place? An Analysis of Policy Changes and School Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the 1987-1988 NAEP School Questionnaire administered at the 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-grade levels. Relationships between policy changes and school climate, and individual grouping variables defining school poverty, school size, community type, and ethnicity were investigated. The results showed a fairly consistent pattern across all three grade levels in how schools ranked on the various grouping dimensions in

Lawrence Bernstein

1992-01-01

145

The Contribution of Student Perceptions of School Climate to Understanding the Disproportionate Punishment of African American Students in a Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the contribution of student perceptions of school climate to racial differences in school discipline. Four hundred middle school students completed a school climate survey. Compared to Caucasian students, African-American students were referred to the office for discipline three times as frequently and received five times…

Shirley, Erica L. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.

2012-01-01

146

Accelerated School Programmes: Assessing Their Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effectiveness of Accelerated School Programs (ASPs) on the basis of a study of four comprehensive schools in Israel. Assesses the influence of ASPs upon internal school processes, such as school goals, structures, and cultures, as perceived by school staff. Determines the project's impact on staff and parents' attitudes, and examines…

Gaziel, Haim

2001-01-01

147

OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE INFORMATION NEEDS FOR ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Atmospheric scientists engaged in climate change research require a basic understanding of how ecological effects models incorporate climate. This report provides an overview of existing ecological models that might be used to model climate change effects on vegetation. ome agric...

148

Assessing the effects of ocean diffusivity and climate sensitivity on the rate of global climate change  

E-print Network

sensitivity and ocean heat uptake on the rate of future climate change. We apply a range of values for climate a significant effect on the rate of transient climate change for high values of climate sensitivity, while values of climate sensitivity and low values of ocean diffusivity. Such high rates of change could

Schmittner, Andreas

149

The Biological Currency of Climate Change Effects?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well established that climate affects organisms in a wide range of different ways, including their distributions and, indeed, their performance (i.e. changes in growth, survival and reproduction). However, establishing whether species respond to changes in climate is not necessarily equal to establishing whether species performance is also affected. This argument also applies when climate effects are considered across trophic levels, such as consumer-resources interactions. For example, a phenological response of a plant may have no effect on its performance but may indeed have significant effects on herbivores. Here we emphasize and exemplify how the choice of a “biological currency” of climate change effects may be highly informative in one aspect but apparently useless in another. We do this by using the comprehensive data collected on plant species, large herbivore and their interactions at Zackenberg and Kangerlussuaq in Greenland.

Forchhammer, M. C.; Callaghan, T. V.; Post, E.

2009-12-01

150

Analysis of the Energy Savings Potential in K-5 Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-print Network

This paper presents the analysis of the energy savings potential in K-5 schools in hot and humid climates. For the analysis, an existing K-5 school in Central Texas was selected as a case study school, and the building energy related data...

Im, P.; Haberl, J.

151

Positive School Climate Is Associated with Lower Body Mass Index Percentile among Urban Preadolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools are an important environmental context in children's lives and are part of the complex web of factors that contribute to childhood obesity. Increasingly, attention has been placed on the importance of school climate (connectedness, academic standards, engagement, and student autonomy) as 1 domain of school environment…

Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M.; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

2014-01-01

152

Influence of School Climate on Students' Achievement and Teachers' Productivity for Sustainable Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study covers ten secondary schools in Lagos State of Nigeria. The purpose is to ascertain the relationship between school climate and student achievements and teachers' productivity for sustainable development. A total sample of 150 respondents was taken. Ten principals, seven teachers and seven students were randomly picked per school. This…

Adeogun, A. A.; Olisaemeka, Blessing U.

2011-01-01

153

The Appropriateness of a California Student and Staff Survey for Measuring Middle School Climate. REL 2014-039  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing number of states and school districts use school climate assessments in progress reporting systems and are interested in incorporating these assessments into accountability systems. This analysis of response data from middle school students and teachers on the California School Climate, Health, and Learning Survey examines the…

Hanson, Thomas; Voight, Adam

2014-01-01

154

The National School Climate Survey 2001: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students and Their Experiences in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings from the 2001 National School Climate Survey related to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) students' experiences and feelings of safety in school. A total of 904 LGBT students from 48 states and the District of Columbia participated. Results indicated that the overwhelming majority of students heard…

Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network, New York, NY.

155

The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.

2012-01-01

156

Effective Schools: Do Elementary Prescriptions Fit Secondary Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of the recent research identifying organizational characteristics that seem to make schools unusually effective has been conducted at the elementary level and may not be applicable to secondary schools. Research currently underway suggests that the basic organizational structures of elementary and secondary schools dictate two different…

Firestone, William A.; Herriott, Robert E.

157

Beyond Standardized Test Scores: An Examination of Leadership and Climate as Leading Indicators of Future Success in the Transformation of Turnaround Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Districts throughout the nation are engaged in comprehensive transformation to "turn around" low performing schools. Standardized test scores are used to gauge student achievement; however, academic gains may lag behind leading indicators such as improved school climate and effective leadership. This study examines 16 underperforming…

May, Judy Jackson; Sanders, Eugene T. W.

2013-01-01

158

The Effectiveness of Cohesive Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research findings concerning leadership and management of (Dutch) secondary schools, using configuration theory. Distinguishes among three different management styles (two nonparticipative and one participative) that make use of six coordinating mechanisms. The participatory style was more effective and conducive to higher student math…

Hofman, Roelande; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan; Guldemond, Henk

2001-01-01

159

Effective School Management. Fourth Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this book is to help teachers with senior management responsibilities, and the schools and colleges that they work in, to become more effective. It is a book by practitioners for practitioners. They authors believe their book is unique, because there are so few people who have had enough management responsibility and training…

Everard, K.B.; Morris, Geoffrey; Wilson, Ian

2004-01-01

160

The Measurement of School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applied a between-grade design to the estimation of school effectiveness and examined the agreement between the resulting estimates and those obtained from the traditional statistical control model. Analysis of data from 11,099 intermediate-grade students in Israel shows that neither method produced estimates that were stable across grade level…

Cahan, Sorel; Elbaz, J. Gabriel

2000-01-01

161

Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate: Global Climate Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Ocean's Effect on Weather and Climate SciPack. It explores ocean circulation patterns and the effect oceans have on climate. Water in the oceans hold a lot of thermal energy (more than an equal amount of land). Throughout the ocean there is a global, interconnected circulation system that transfers this thermal energy across Earth. The shape of ocean basins and adjacent land masses influence the path of circulation. As ocean currents transfer thermal energy to various locations, the temperature of the atmosphere above the ocean is affected. For example, the condensation of water that has been evaporated from warm seas provides the energy for hurricanes and cyclones. When the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere changes, global weather patterns are affected. An example of a large-scale change like this is the El Ni?o Southern Oscillation, which changes the pattern of thermal energy released into the atmosphere in the Pacific. Learning Outcomes:? Explain how the oceans might influence and affect local weather and climate, given a specific location (on the planet near the ocean) and the local ocean currents.? Describe the cause of hurricanes and explain why they usually occur within specific regions during certain times of the year.? Explain how changes in ocean temperatures (over a period of months) affect factors that influence weather patterns.? List the major variables that affect the transfer of energy through the ocean.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2007-03-28

162

When Climate is Changing: Effects of Phenology and Local Climate on  

E-print Network

When Climate is Changing: Effects of Phenology and Local Climate on Individual Fitness Meit �berg-91-576-7973-4 © 2014 Meit �berg, Uppsala Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2014 Cover: Meit �berg #12;When Climate is Changing: Effects of Phenology and Local Climate on Individual Fitness Abstract The fitness impacts

163

Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

MedlinePLUS

... Climate Change Home What is Climate Change Greenhouse Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water ... and climate-sensitive diseases on human health. Greenhouse Gases Threaten Public Health and the Environment (U.S. Environmental ...

164

Protective School Climates and Reduced Risk for Suicide Ideation in Sexual Minority Youths  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether sexual minority students living in states and cities with more protective school climates were at lower risk of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts. Methods. Data on sexual orientation and past-year suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts were from the pooled 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Surveys from 8 states and cities. We derived data on school climates that protected sexual minority students (e.g., percentage of schools with safe spaces and Gay–Straight Alliances) from the 2010 School Health Profile Survey, compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students living in states and cities with more protective school climates reported fewer past-year suicidal thoughts than those living in states and cities with less protective climates (lesbians and gays: odds ratio [OR]?=?0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.47, 0.99; bisexuals: OR?=?0.81; 95% CI?=?0.66, 0.99). Results were robust to adjustment for potential state-level confounders. Sexual orientation disparities in suicidal thoughts were nearly eliminated in states and cities with the most protective school climates. Conclusions. School climates that protect sexual minority students may reduce their risk of suicidal thoughts. PMID:24328634

Birkett, Michelle; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Meyer, Ilan H.

2014-01-01

165

Effective Hand Washing in an Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school is the perfect place to teach and reinforce the lifelong skill of effective handwashing for students and adults. One collaboration between an elementary school and a nursing education program to augment school health services without taxing the school budget is described. Nursing students spent 260 professional nursing service…

Hezel, Linda; Bartlett, Connie; Hileman, Judy Willis; Dillon, Lisa; Cessna, Tamara

2000-01-01

166

Bringing Global Climate Change Education to Alabama Middle School and High School Classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A NASA-funded Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program has been launched in Alabama to improve high school and middle school education in climate change science. The overarching goal is to generate a better informed public that understands the consequences of climate change and can contribute to sound decision making on related issues. Inquiry based NICE modules have been incorporated into the existing course of study for 9-12 grade biology, chemistry, and physics classes. In addition, new modules in three major content areas (earth and space science, physical science, and biological science) have been introduced to selected 6-8 grade science teachers in the summer of 2013. The NICE modules employ five E's of the learning cycle: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend and Evaluate. Modules learning activities include field data collection, laboratory measurements, and data visualization and interpretation. Teachers are trained in the use of these modules for their classroom through unique partnership with Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) and the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Certified AMSTI teachers attend summer professional development workshops taught by ASIM and AMSTI specialists to learn to use NICE modules. During the school year, the specialists in turn deliver the needed equipment to conduct NICE classroom exercises and serve as an in-classroom resource for teachers and their students. Scientists are partnered with learning and teaching specialists and lead teachers to implement and test efficacy of instructional materials, models, and NASA data used in classroom. The assessment by professional evaluators after the development of the modules and the training of teachers indicates that the modules are complete, clear, and user-friendly. The overall teacher satisfaction from the teacher training was 4.88/5.00. After completing the module teacher training, the teachers reported a strong agreement that the content developed in the NICE modules should be included in the Alabama secondary curriculum. Eventually, the NICE program has the potential to reach over 200,000 students when the modules are fully implemented in every school in the state of Alabama. The project can give these students access to expertise and equipment, thereby strengthening the connections between the universities, state education administrators, and the community.

Lee, M.; Mitra, C.; Percival, E.; Thomas, A.; Lucy, T.; Hickman, E.; Cox, J.; Chaudhury, S. R.; Rodger, C.

2013-12-01

167

Using transformational change to improve organizational culture and climate in a school of nursing.  

PubMed

A positive organizational culture and climate is closely associated with an affirming workplace and job satisfaction. Especially during a time of faculty shortages, academic leaders need to be cognizant of the culture and climate in schools of nursing. The culture of an organization affects employees, systems, and processes, and if the culture becomes problematic, transformational leadership is essential to create change. The purpose of this article is to describe an 8-year journey to change the culture and climate of a school of nursing from one of dissatisfaction and distrust to one of high employee satisfaction and trust. Kotter's model for transformational change was used to frame a longitudinal study using the Cultural and Climate Assessment Scale to transform the organizational culture and climate of a school of nursing. PMID:22201273

Springer, Pamela J; Clark, Cynthia M; Strohfus, Pamela; Belcheir, Marcia

2012-02-01

168

Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-print Network

A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily...

Im, Piljae

2010-07-14

169

A Tobit Regression Analysis of the Covariation between Middle School Students' Perceived School Climate and Behavioral Problems.  

PubMed

This study uses an ecological framework to examine how adolescents' perceptions of school climate in 6th grade covary with the probability and frequency of their engagement in problem behaviors in 7th and 8th grades. Tobit analysis was used to address the issue of having a highly skewed outcome variable with many zeros and yet account for censoring. The 677 participating students from 8 schools were followed from 6(th) through 8(th) grade. The proportions of students reporting a positive school climate perception decreased over the middle school years for both genders, while the level of problem behavior engagement increased. The findings suggested that students who perceived higher levels of school discipline and order, or more positive student-teacher relationships were associated with lower probability and frequency of subsequent behavioral problems. PMID:20535244

Wang, Ming Te; Selman, Robert L; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A

2010-06-01

170

Procedures for Research on School Effectiveness Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A unique feature of the Research on School Effectiveness Project (part of a larger program for school effectiveness initiated by the State of Alaska) is an intention to base the development of new standards for effective schooling upon documented research findings. First, a list of variables affecting some part of the educational community was…

Savard, William G.

171

Leadership Effects: School Principals and Student Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We identify the effect of individual high school principals on graduation rates and English exam scores using an administrative data set of grade 12 students in BC Canada. Many principals were rotated across schools by districts, permitting isolation of the effect of principals from the effect of schools. We estimate the variance of the…

Coelli, Michael; Green, David A.

2012-01-01

172

Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change Science into High School and Community College Energy Course Offerings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In reviewing studies evaluating trends in greenhouse gasses, weather, climate and/or ecosystems, it becomes apparent that climate change is a reality. It has also become evident that the energy sector accounts for most of the greenhouse gas emissions with worldwide emissions of carbon dioxide increasing by 31 percent from 1990 to 2005, higher than in the previous thousands of years. While energy courses and topics are presented in high school and community college classes the topic of Climate Change Science is not always a part of the conversation. During the summer of 2011 and 2012, research undergraduates conducted interviews with a total of 39 national community college and 8 high school instructors who participated in a two week Sustainable Energy Education Training (SEET) workshop. Interview questions addressed the barriers and opportunities to the incorporation of climate change as a dimension of an energy/renewable energy curriculum. Barriers found included: there is not enough instruction time to include it; some school administrators including community members do not recognize climate change issues; quality information about climate change geared to students is difficult to find; and, most climate change information is too scientific for most audiences. A Solution to some barriers included dialogue on sustainability as a common ground in recognizing environmental changes/concerns among educators, administrators and community members. Sustainability discussions are already supported in school business courses as well as in technical education. In conclusion, we cannot expect climate change to dissipate without humans making more informed energy and environmental choices. With global population growth producing greater emissions resulting in increased climate change, we must include the topic of climate change to students in high school and community college classrooms, preparing our next generation of leaders and workforce to be equipped to find solutions, (such as renewable energy and sustainability practices), to climate change and environmental sustainability.

Howell, C.

2013-05-01

173

Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains recommendations for designing high performance, energy efficient schools located in hot and dry climates. A high performance checklist for designers is included along with several case studies of projects that successfully demonstrated high performance design solutions for hot and dry climates. The guide's 10 sections…

Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

174

e-Leadership of School Principals: Increasing School Effectiveness by a School Data Management System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, school management systems have become an important tool for effective e-leadership and data-based decision making. School management systems emphasize information flow and e-communication between teachers, students and parents. This study examines e-leadership by secondary-school principals through the Mashov school management…

Blau, Ina; Presser, Ofer

2013-01-01

175

Effects of Climate Change on Inland Fishes of California  

E-print Network

Effects of Climate Change on Inland Fishes of California Rebecca M. Quiñones rmquinones of climate change on aquatic habitats in California · Climate change threats to native fishes · What can we - Warmer streams favor non-native species Photo: E. Yokel #12;Effects of climate change on native fishes

California at Davis, University of

176

The Perceived School Climate in Invitational Schools in Hong Kong: Using the Chinese Version of the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the use of the Chinese translation of the revised Inviting School Survey (ISS-R; Smith, 2005; Smith & Bernard, 2004) to measure the invitational climate of seven invitational secondary schools in Hong Kong. The five subscales of Chinese version of ISS-R were found to be valid and reliable in a sample of 706 Grade 11…

Ng, Carmen K. M.; Yuen, Mantak

2011-01-01

177

The Influences of Leadership Style and School Climate to Faculty Psychological Contracts: A Case of S University in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school

Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

2006-01-01

178

Psychometric Support of the School Climate Measure in a Large, Diverse Sample of Adolescents: A Replication and Extension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Methods: Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships,…

Zullig, Keith J.; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M.; Huebner, E. Scott; Ajamie, Jean

2014-01-01

179

Validation of a Brief Measure of Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate: Relations to Student Achievement and Suspensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on theory and research on learning environments, the Delaware School Climate Survey-Teacher/Staff (DSCS-T/S) was developed to provide schools with a brief, psychometrically sound measure of teachers' perceptions of school climate. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 5,781 teachers, support staff,…

Bear, George G.; Yang, Chunyan; Pell, Megan; Gaskins, Clare

2014-01-01

180

Exploring the Competitive Effects of Charter Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Central to the debate over school choice has been the question of how public schools respond to market-based competition. Many choice advocates suggest that competition can spur public schools to become more effective and efficient, but the evidence regarding the effect of competition from charters is comparably sparse and mixed. This article…

Carpenter, Dick M., II; Medina, Paul M.

2011-01-01

181

Evaluation of Authentic Science Projects on Climate Change in Secondary Schools: A Focus on Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background and purpose: This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from…

Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin

2011-01-01

182

Faculty Perceptions of Organizational Climate and Expressed Job Satisfaction in Selected Baccalaureate Schools of Nursing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of nursing school faculty job satisfaction and perceptions of organizational climate found that deans' behavior influenced those perceptions and that the longer a faculty member remained in his or her position at the same school, the less satisfied he or she was with the work, promotional opportunities, supervision, and fellow workers.…

Donohue, Janet D.

1986-01-01

183

Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the…

Im, Piljae

2009-01-01

184

High School Social Climate and Antisocial Behavior: A 10 Year Longitudinal and Multilevel Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…

Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

2008-01-01

185

Perceptions of School and Family Climates and Experiences of Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of family and school-level variables on relational aggression and relational victimization was investigated among 158 fourth- and fifth-grade children. Family cohesion, maternal and paternal responsiveness, and school climate were hypothesized to be significant predictors of relational aggression and relational victimization. The results…

Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Taiariol, Jennifer; Yoon, Jina

2010-01-01

186

BRACE: Building Resilience against Climate Effects in Illinois PI: Samuel Dorevitch  

E-print Network

BRACE: Building Resilience against Climate Effects in Illinois PI: Samuel Dorevitch CO-PIs: Linda disease outbreaks, cardiovascular events, heat-related illness, as well as depression and anxiety Effects in Illinois" (BRACE-Illinois), faculty and staff at the University of Illinois at Chicago School

Illinois at Chicago, University of

187

STEM417: NASA Resources for Teaching Global Climate Change in High School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online, facilitated course is designed for high-school educators wishing to teach global climate change using an inquiry/problem-based approach. The course focusses on evidence that supports global climate change and how to use NASA data and resources to help high-school students discover mitigations or adaptations to climate change. The course is part of PBS Education's outreach and offerings to educators across the country; it is a 45-hour experience over six weeks and eligible for three graduate credits.

2012-08-26

188

Perceptions of school climate in charter schools and teacher motivation levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of leadership style and its influence on teacher motivation have shown that leader behavior is an important factor in group effectiveness. Research showed that it is one factor among many. A review of the literature supported the concept that teachers' motivation and performance in schools were affected by the principal's leadership style, but no leadership style has been shown

Cheryl L Mason-Bush

2003-01-01

189

Profiles of Organizational Culture and Effective Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study intends to investigate how school organizational culture is related to important organizational characteristics and observe how the profiles of strong culture?effective schools are different from those of weak culture?ineffective schools in terms of organizational variables (such as principal's leadership, organizational structure, and teachers’ social interactions), teachers’ job attitudes, and school effectiveness criteria. It is a cross?sectional survey research

Yin Cheong Cheng

1993-01-01

190

Effects of climate change on croplands  

EPA Science Inventory

This talk will describe likely changes in temperature and precipitation expected in the northwestern US with global climate change, and their potential impacts on Oregon croplands. The focus will be on the effects of temperature and carbon dioxide on crop productivity, weed cont...

191

The Climatic Effects of Nuclear War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings by this group confirmed by workers in Europe, the US and the USSR, suggest that the long-term climatic effects of a major nuclear war are likely to be much severer and farther-reaching than had been supposed. In the aftermath of such a war vast areas of the earth could be subjected to prolonged darkness, abnormally low temperatures, violent

Richard P. Turco; Owen B. Toon; Thomas P. Ackerman; James B. Pollack; Carl Sagan

1984-01-01

192

Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter  

SciTech Connect

A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs. (ACR)

Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

1985-01-01

193

The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Middle School Students: Findings from the 2007 National School Climate Survey. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) conducted the fifth National School Climate Survey (NSCS), a biennial survey of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) secondary school students. The NSCS examines the experiences of LGBT youth in U.S. middle and high schools, documenting bias and behaviors that make schools

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2009

2009-01-01

194

Effects of climate changes on skin diseases.  

PubMed

Global climate is changing at an extraordinary rate. Climate change (CC) can be caused by several factors including variations in solar radiation, oceanic processes, and also human activities. The degree of this change and its impact on ecological, social, and economical systems have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing CC as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Moreover, studies based on observations and predictive models show how CC could affect human health. On the other hand, only a few studies focus on how this change may affect human skin. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, it is not surprising that cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. The current review focuses on the effects of CC on skin diseases showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence, clinical pattern and natural course of some dermatoses. PMID:24404995

Balato, Nicola; Megna, Matteo; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Napolitano, Maddalena; Patruno, Cataldo

2014-02-01

195

Effects of nontropical forest cover on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The albedo of a forest with snow on the ground is much less than that of snow-covered low vegetation such as tundra. As a result, simulation of the Northern Hemisphere climate, when fully forested south of a suitably chosen taiga/tundra boundary (ecocline), produces a hemispheric surface air temperature 1.9 K higher than that of an earth devoid of trees. Using variations of the solar constant to force climate changes in the GLAS Multi-Layer Energy Balance Model, the role of snow-albedo feedback in increasing the climate sensitivity to external perturbations is reexamined. The effect of snow-albedo feedback is found to be significantly reduced when a low albedo is used for snow over taiga, south of the fixed latitude of the ecocline. If the ecocline shifts to maintain equilibrium with the new climate - which is presumed to occur in a prolonged perturbation when time is sufficient for trees to grow or die and fall - the feedback is stronger than for a fixed ecocline, especially at high latitudes. However, this snow/vegetation-albedo feedback is still essentially weaker than the snow-albedo feedback in the forest-free case. The loss of forest to agriculture and other land-use would put the present climate further away from that associated with the fully forested earth south of the ecocline and closer to the forest-free case. Thus, the decrease in nontropical forest cover since prehistoric times has probably affected the climate by reducing the temperatures and by increasing the sensitivity to perturbations, with both effects more pronounced at high latitudes.

Otterman, J.; Chou, M.-D.; Arking, A.

1984-01-01

196

Climate change effects on poikilotherm tritrophic interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of plants and animals have characteristic climatic requirements for growth, survival and reproduction that limit their\\u000a geographic distribution, abundance and interactions with other species. To analyze this complexity requires the development\\u000a of models that include not only the effects of biotic factors on species dynamics and interactions, but also the effects of\\u000a abiotic factors including weather. The need for

Andrew Paul Gutierrez; Luigi Ponti; Thibaud d’Oultremont; C. K. Ellis

2008-01-01

197

The Effectiveness of the Geospatial Curriculum Approach on Urban Middle-Level Students' Climate Change Understandings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change science is a challenging topic for student learning. This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial curriculum approach to promote climate change science understandings in an urban school district with eighth-grade students and investigated whether teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students'…

Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong

2014-01-01

198

Potential effects of global climate change  

SciTech Connect

The difficulties of detecting climatic changes do not diminish the need to examine the consequences of a changing global radiative energy balance. In part, detecting global changes is difficult (even though many, though by no means all, theoretical climatic processes are well understood) because the potential effects of changes on the unmanaged ecosystems of the globe, especially forests, which may have great human significance, involve tightly woven ecosystems, inextricably linked to global habitat. Coniferous forests are of particular interest because they dominate high-latitude forest systems, and potential effects of global climate change are likely to be greatest at high latitudes. The degree of projected climate change is a function of many likely scenarios of fossil fuel consumption, and the ratios of manmade effects to natural sources and sinks of CO{sub 2}. Because CO{sub 2}, like water vapor, CH{sub 4}, CFCs, and other gases, absorbs infrared energy, it will alter the radiation balance of the global atmosphere. The consequences of this alteration to the radiation balance cannot simply be translated into changing climate because (1) the existence of large energy reservoirs (the oceans) can introduce a lag in responses, (2) feedback loops between atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere can change the net rate of buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, (3) complex interactions in the atmospheric water balance can change the rate of cloud formation with their persistence, in turn, changing the global albedo and the energy balance, and (4) there is intrusion of other global effects, such as periodic volcanic gas injections to the stratosphere.

Gucinski, H.; Vance, E.; Reiners, W.A.

1995-07-01

199

Magnets Adjust to New Climate of School Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Once considered a way to help integrate racially divided districts, magnet schools today have been forced to evolve, given increasing pressure to provide more public school choices and legal barriers against using race to determine school enrollment. In a post-desegregation era, many large districts like Chicago, Los Angeles, and Baltimore County…

Fleming, Nora

2012-01-01

200

High School Identity Climate and Student Identity Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated whether schools characterized by high school students as being rich in identity promoting features contribute to student identity development. A theoretical model posited that student perceptions of teachers as caring role models and their school as cultivating the whole student will foster student exploration and…

Rich, Yisrael; Schachter, Elli P.

2012-01-01

201

The Violence Continuum: Creating a Safe School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We expect schools to be a safe haven, but after more than a decade of targeted school violence prevention laws and safety plans, students are still marginalized and bullied to the point of despondence, retaliation, and even suicide. This thoughtful exploration of what makes a school a safe place is based on the understanding that violence is a…

Manvell, Elizabeth C.

2012-01-01

202

A Tobit Regression Analysis of the Covariation between Middle School Students' Perceived School Climate and Behavioral Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses an ecological framework to examine how adolescents' perceptions of school climate in 6th grade covary with the probability and frequency of their engagement in problem behaviors in 7th and 8th grades. Tobit analysis was used to address the issue of having a highly skewed outcome variable with many zeros and yet account for…

Wang, Ming-Te; Selman, Robert L.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

2010-01-01

203

Assessing Students' Views of School Climate: Developing and Validating the What's Happening in This School? (WHITS) Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and validation of a six-scale survey to assess school climate in terms of students' perceptions of the degree to which they feel welcome and connected, together with a scale to assess students' perceptions of bullying. The development of each survey involved a multi-stage approach, including: 1) an extensive…

Aldridge, Jill; Ala'I, Kate

2013-01-01

204

Preliminary Development of the Brief-California School Climate Survey: Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance across Teachers and Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief 15-item version of the California School Climate Scale (Brief-CSCS) is presented to fill a need for a measure that could be used for periodic monitoring of school personnel's general perception of the climate of their school campus. From a sample of 81,261 California school personnel, random subsamples of 2,400 teachers and 2,400…

You, Sukkyung; O'Malley, Meagan D.; Furlong, Michael J.

2014-01-01

205

Measuring School Climate for Gauging Principal Performance: A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Publicly Accessible Measures. A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief provides principal evaluation system designers information about the technical soundness and cost (i.e., time requirements) of publicly available school climate surveys. The authors focus on the technical soundness of school climate surveys because they believe that using validated and reliable surveys as an outcomes measure can…

Clifford, Matthew; Menon, Roshni; Gangi, Tracy; Condon, Christopher; Hornung, Katie

2012-01-01

206

Classroom Climate, Teacher Control Behavior, and Student Self-Control: Urban Public and Military High Schools Compared.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, teachers' control behavior, classroom climate, and student self-control were investigated. Differences between urban public and military high schools concerning these variables were also examined. Participants were 102 high school students from an urban public school and 94 students from an urban 4-year military high school. The…

Lunenburg, Fred C.; Sartori, Mary Ann; Bauske, Terri

207

Teaching about Climate Change: Cool Schools Tackle Global Warming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within the last couple of decades, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased significantly due to human activities. Today climate change is an important issue for humankind. This book provides a starting point for educators to teach about climate change, although there are obstacles caused by the industrialized…

Grant, Tim, Ed.; Littlejohn, Gail, Ed.

208

Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback…

Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

2014-01-01

209

Uncertainty in deforestation's effects on Amazonian climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest is expected to cause the temperature in the region to rise and rainfall patterns to shift. Exactly how and how much the regional climate will change in the face of rampant deforestation, however, is a matter of considerable ongoing investigation. With their research, Lorenz and Pitman add a new piece to the puzzle by showing that the strength of land-atmosphere coupling in a given model influences how it represents deforestation's effects.

Schultz, Colin

2014-12-01

210

Population effects of increased climate variation  

PubMed Central

Global circulation models predict and numerous observations confirm that anthropogenic climate change has altered high-frequency climate variability. However, it is not yet well understood how changing patterns of environmental variation will affect wildlife population dynamics and other ecological processes. Theory predicts that a population's long-run growth rate is diminished and the chance of population extinction is increased as environmental variation increases. This results from the fact that population growth is a multiplicative process and that long-run population growth rate is the geometric mean of growth rates over time, which is always less than the arithmetic mean. However, when population growth rates for unstructured populations are related nonlinearly to environmental drivers, increasing environmental variation can increase a population's long-run growth rate. This suggests that patterns of environmental variation associated with different aspects of climate change may affect population dynamics in different ways. Specifically, increasing variation in rainfall might result in diminished long-run growth rates for many animal species while increasing variation in temperature might result in increased long-run growth rates. While the effect of rainfall is theoretically well understood and supported by data, the hypothesized effect of temperature is not. Here, I analyse two datasets to study the effect of fluctuating temperatures on growth rates of zooplankton. Results are consistent with the prediction that fluctuating temperatures should increase long-run growth rates and the frequency of extreme demographic events. PMID:16096095

Drake, John M

2005-01-01

211

Academic Achievement in Effective Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

2013-01-01

212

School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

2009-01-01

213

Corporate Discourses in School: Adapting to the Prevailing Economic Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines adaptations made by one high school when the surrounding city shifted from a textile mill-driven manufacturing economy to a post-industrial service economy. Using data from an extended field study, the paper examines how school discourses emerged from three related sources (a corporate sponsor, competition for good students, and preparing…

Bettis, Pamela J.

2000-01-01

214

Perceptions of MBA Students towards Learning Climate for Managerial Knowledge: A Study of Business School in Lahore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore different cultural dimensions of the learning climate at a business school located at Lahore, Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports the result of an empirical study of the learning climate for managerial knowledge at a business school, located in Lahore, Pakistan. A sample of 150…

Raza, Ahmad; Murad, Hasan; Kayani, Ashraf

2010-01-01

215

To What Extent Is Behaviour a Problem in English Schools? Exploring the Scale and Prevalence of Deficits in Classroom Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The working atmosphere in the classroom is an important variable in the process of education in schools, with several studies suggesting that classroom climate is an important influence on pupil attainment. There are wide differences in the extent to which classroom climate is considered to be a problem in English schools. Some…

Haydn, Terry

2014-01-01

216

Tapping into the Power of School Climate to Prevent Bullying: One Application of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…

Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann

2014-01-01

217

School—Police Partnership Effectiveness in Urban Schools: An Analysis of New York City's Impact Schools Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite nationwide decreases in school crime and violence, a relatively high and increasing number of students report feeling unsafe at school. In response, some school officials are implementing school—police partnerships, especially in urban areas, as an effort to deter criminal activity and violence in schools. This article examines the initial effect of New York City's Impact Schools Initiative, a punitive-based

Kevin P. Brady; Sharon Balmer; Deinya Phenix

2007-01-01

218

Effects of Comprehensive School Reform on Student Achievement and School Change: A Longitudinal Multi-Site Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The longitudinal impacts on school change and student achievement of implementing varied Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models was investigated in 12 elementary schools in diverse geographic locations. Each school was individually matched and compared to a demographically similar control school on measures of school climate, teacher…

Sterbinsky, Allan; Ross, Steven M.; Redfield, Doris

2006-01-01

219

Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Effective School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been limited research on how teachers, parents and students perceive effective school leadership in practice. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study of key stakeholders' perceptions of effective school leadership. Key stakeholders were identified as teachers, students and parents. Data were…

Odhiambo, George; Hii, Amy

2012-01-01

220

Age versus Schooling Effects on Intelligence Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of effects of age and schooling in grades five and six on raw scores from a variety of general ability tests found that schooling: (1) is the major factor underlying the increase of intelligence test scores as a function of age; and (2) has a larger effect on verbal than nonverbal tests. (RH)

Cahan, Sorel; Cohen, Nora

1989-01-01

221

An Empirical Approach to Identifying Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One approach to identifying effective schools defines effectiveness in terms of student achievement in reading, mathematics, and language usage. Exceptional school achievement is indicated by performance above or below the level expected if students were merely to maintain their previous rate of growth. Regression analysis is used to compute…

Webster, William J.; Olson, George H.

222

Not Just Numbers: Creating a Partnership Climate to Improve Math Proficiency in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although we know that family involvement is associated with stronger math performance, little is known about what educators are doing to effectively involve families and community members, and whether this measurably improves math achievement at their schools. This study used data from 39 schools to assess the effects of family and community involvement activities on school levels of math achievement.

Steven B. Sheldon; Joyce L. Epstein; Claudia L. Galindo

2010-01-01

223

The GLSEN 2001 National School Climate Survey: The School-Related Experiences of Our Nation's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents data from the 2001 National School Climate Survey on school-related experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. LGBT students described experiences of homophobic remarks; verbal, physical, and sexual harassment; and comfort within their schools. They described experiences with racial and sexual…

Kosciw, Joseph G.; Cullen, M. K.

224

Conceptual Change regarding middle school students' experience with Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the validation of their beliefs. That is, we argue that the unit, and the emphases contained within the unit, resulted in the "epistemic scaffolding" of their ideas, to the extent that they shifted from arguing from anecdote to arguing based on other types of data, especially from line graphs. A third finding underscores prior research in conceptual change, indicating that learning, especially conceptual change, is not a strictly rational process. Students, and others, are highly influenced by extra rational factors, such as the given political, scientific, and/or religious leanings of their families, their own willingness to explore anomalies, and other factors. Given these known difficulties, it is critical to explore further research of this sort in order to better understand what students are actually thinking, and how that thinking is prone to change, modification, or not. Subsequently, K-12 strategies might be better designed, if that is indeed a priority of US/Western society.

Golden, B. W.; Lutz, B.

2011-12-01

225

Making Schools Safe and Inclusive: Gay-Straight Alliances and School Climate in Ontario  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) have become widespread in Ontario schools and, starting in 2012, all schools are required to permit students to form GSAs. While American research suggests that GSAs have a positive impact on school safety and inclusion, there is little research on the impact of GSAs in Canadian schools. This study, based on a survey…

Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

2013-01-01

226

Effects of climate on reproduction in cattle  

SciTech Connect

Animal environment is affected by climatic factors that include temperature, humidity, radiation, and wind. Extremes in climate alter energy transfer between the animal and its environment and can affect deleteriously reproduction. Seasonal variation of environment, nutrition, and management alters estrous activity and duration of estrus. Conception rates are reduced under stress of heat and cold. Endocrine functions are altered by climatic extremes. In hyperthermia, adrenal function is reduced, and this may allow the animal to cope with the environment because of the lower calorigenic actions of glucocorticoids. Estrogens are lower during the proestrus to metestrus period of the estrous cycle and during late gestation and appear to manifest their physiological actions through shorter duration of estrus and lower calf birth weights, respectively. Season alters endocrine profiles and influences fertility of males. Spermatogenesis is impaired, and testosterone is lower during early exposure to hyperthermia. Environmental modifications can alleviate stress of heat and cold to some extent. Experimentation using indices of environmental measures is needed to assess interactive effects of environment on reproduction.

Gwazdauskas, F.C.

1985-01-01

227

The Role of School Climate in School Violence: A Validity Study of a Web-Based School Violence Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "School Violence Survey" (SVS) was developed as an instrument to investigate students' perceptions of school environment, their experiences and interactions within diverse social groups, and their views on school violence issues including bullying. A total of 806 students across four Midwest high schools and middle schools completed the paper…

Hurford, David P.; Lindskog, Rick; Cole, AmyKay; Jackson, Robyn; Thomasson, Sara; Wade, Amanda

2010-01-01

228

Considering Students' Out-of-School Lives and Values in Designing Learning Environments for Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What are the implications of social controversy for the teaching and learning of climate change science? How do the political dimensions of this controversy affect learners' attitudes towards and reasoning about climate change and climate science? Case studies from a pilot enactment of an ecological impacts of climate change curriculum explore these questions by describing how five high school students' understandings of climate change science developed at the intersection of political and scientific values, attitudes, and ways of knowing. Case studies combine qualitative, ethnographic methods including interviews and classroom video observations with quantitative pre/post-assessments of student conceptual understandings and weekly surveys of student engagement. Data indicate that students had initial perceptions of climate change informed by the media and their families—both supporting and rejecting the scientific consensus—that influenced how they engaged with the scientific evidence. While students who were initially antagonistic to anthropogenic climate change did develop conceptual understandings of the scientific evidence for human-influences on climate change, this work was challenging and at times frustrating for them. These case studies demonstrate the wide range of initial attitudes and understandings that students bring to the study of climate change. They also demonstrate that it is possible to make significant shifts in students' understandings of climate change science, even in students who were initially resistant to the idea of anthropogenic climate change. Finally, multiple case studies discuss ways that the learning that occurred in the classroom crossed out of the classroom into the students' homes and family talk. This work highlights how learners' pathways are shaped not only by their developing understanding of the scientific evidence but also by the political and social influences that learners navigate across the contexts of their lives. It underscores the need to understand and support students as they interact with climate change across the contexts of their lives.

Walsh, E.; Tsurusaki, B.

2012-12-01

229

Development of a Climate Concept Inventory and Assessment of High-school Students Engaged in the EarthLabs Climate Modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of climate change education materials and curriculum is necessary to support educators in implementing easily accessible, reliable and accurate information for the classroom. Developers must design materials that are effective at reaching their learning goals. They also must use appropriate assessments that align with these goals and the content being taught in order to provide evidence of efficacy. EarthLabs consists of three on-line climate modules: Climate and the Cryosphere, Climate and the Biosphere, and Climate and the Carbon Cycle, where students engage in hands-on, visualization, and inquiry activities in each ~3 week module in their classroom. The project includes curriculum development, teacher professional development, research on student learning, and project evaluation components. In this presentation, we emphasize the research on student learning conducted in the classroom. We have worked with curriculum developers and scientists to develop a climate concept inventory which meets curriculum goals and is scientifically valid. We have completed the first phase of the climate concept inventory and assessed over 230 students in nine high school classrooms in Mississippi and Texas pre- and post-implementation of EarthLabs. The developed concept inventory included 10 content-driven multiple choice questions, six affective-based multiple choice questions, one confidence question, six open-ended questions, and eight demographic questions. Results indicate that students had gains on 9 out of the 10 of the content based multiple choice questions with positive gains in answer choice selection ranging from 1.72% to 42%. In regard to the confidence question, students significantly reported increased confidence with 15% more student reporting that they were either very or fairly confident with their answers. Of the six affective questions posed, 5 of 6 showed significant shifts towards gains in knowledge, awareness, and information about Earth's climate system. Open-ended responses provided information on common student misconceptions for the development of new multiple choice question stems and distractors. Our analysis considers reliability and validity of the assessment, including item response characteristic curve analysis, as well as expert and teacher responses to the climate concept inventory, as a validity comparison.

McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, E.

2013-12-01

230

The evolution of climate. [climatic effects of polar wandering and continental drift  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A quantitative evaluation is made of the climatic effects of polar wandering plus continental drift in order to determine wether this mechanism alone could explain the deterioration of climate that occurred from the warmth of Mesozoic time to the ice age conditions of the late Cenozoic. By way of procedure, to investigate the effect of the changing geography of the past on climate Adem's thermodynamic model was selected. The application of the model is discussed and preliminary results are given.

Donn, W. L.; Shaw, D.

1975-01-01

231

School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning: Predicting Teacher Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Teaching Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables--teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction--and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables. Along with sense of job…

Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

2012-01-01

232

Middle School Students' Conceptual Change in Global Climate Change: Using Argumentation to Foster Knowledge Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the "framework theory" of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct…

Golden, Barry W.

2011-01-01

233

Interface between Educational Facilities and Learning Climate in Three Northern Alabama K-2 Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to observe, record, and describe the interface between educational facilities and learning climate in three elementary schools, comparing the results with results from a 1990 study. Data came from taped informal interviews, videotape recordings, observations, and conversations with parents, teachers, and administrators.…

Yielding, A. C.

234

Examining the Moderating Role of Perceived School Climate in Early Adolescent Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the unique and interactive relations of 4 aspects of student-perceived school climate (cohesion, friction, and competition among students, and overall satisfaction with classes) and adolescent effortful control in the conduct problems and depressive symptoms of 868 ten- to fourteen-year-old adolescents. Hierarchical…

Loukas, Alexandra; Robinson, Sheri

2004-01-01

235

Smathers Ocean Circulation and its Effect on Climate Change  

E-print Network

1 Ocean Circulation and its Effect on Climate Change Zachary Smathers At the turn of the 20th of warfare. Scientists began asking questions about the climate and how determining the World's oceans were when it came to climate change. Did the chemical makeup of the oceans matter? Why were there trends

Marzuola, Jeremy

236

The effect of climate change on Antarctic terrestrial flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is expected to affect the high latitudes first and most severely, rendering Antarctica one of the most significant baseline environments for the study of global climate change. The indirect effects of climate warming, including changes to the availability of key environmental resources, such as water and nutrients, are likely to have a greater impact upon Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems

Jane Wasley

2004-01-01

237

Effects of climate change on animal and zoonotic helminthiases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Current knowledge of animal and zoonotic helminthiases in which effects of climate change have been detected is reviewed. Climate variables are able to affect the prevalence, intensity and geographical distribution of helminths, directly influencing free-living larval stages and indirectly influencing mainly invertebrate, but also vertebrate, hosts. The impact of climate change appears to be more pronounced in trematodes, and

S. Mas-Coma; M. A. Valero; M. D. Bargues

2008-01-01

238

Using TIMSS 2007 data to examine STEM school effectiveness in an international context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because results from TIMSS 2007 showed a gap in mathematics and science achievement between students in the United States and those in the top-performing countries, TIMSS 2007 data were used to investigate how school effectiveness factors known to be strongly associated with higher STEM achievement operated in the United States compared to Chinese Taipei, the Czech Republic, Singapore, and Slovenia. In each of the five countries, multilevel modeling was used to examine STEM achievement in relation to 11 school effectiveness factors associated with school resources, fidelity of curriculum implementation, and school climate, controlling for student home resources. A secondary purpose of this dissertation research was to help the TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center prepare for multilevel modeling planned for the TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 data. Findings from this research showed that across the five countries, there were differences in how important school effectiveness factors operated. Teacher preparation, teaching the curriculum, and using instructional strategies involving reasoning and inquiry all were important school characteristics related to STEM achievement in some countries. A school environment conducive to learning emerged as being strongly associated with high STEM achievement in three of the countries, including the United States. Both absence of discipline and attendance problems as well as a school climate supportive of academic success were important predictors of student STEM achievement. This dissertation research also showed the potential of using TIMSS data as a basis for conducting school effectiveness analyses across different country contexts.

Stanco, Gabrielle

239

The climatic effects of nuclear war  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of various US-USSR nuclear-exchange scenarios on global climate are investigated by means of computer simulations, summarizing the results of Turco et al. (1983) and follow-up studies using 3D global-circulation models. A nuclear-scenario model is used to determine the amounts of dust, smoke, radioactivity, and pyrotoxins generated by a particular type of nuclear exchange (such as a general 5,000-Mt exchange, a 1,000-Mt limited exchange, a 5,000-Mt hard-target counterforce attack, and a 100-Mt attack on cities only): a particle-microphysics model predicts the evolution of the dust and smoke particles; and a radiative-convective climate model estimates the effects of the dust and smoke clouds on the global radiation budget. The findings are presented in graphs, diagrams, and a table. Thick clouds blocking most sunlight over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes for weeks or months and producing ground-temperature reductions of 20-40 C, disruption of global circulation patterns, and rapid spread of clouds to the Southern Hemisphere are among the 'nuclear-winter' effects predicted for the 5,000-Mt baseline case. The catastrophic consequences for plant, animal, and human populations are considered, and the revision of superpower nuclear strategies is urged.

Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, C.

1984-01-01

240

Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: Advancing the Science of Climate Change in the Public Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of K-12 educational programs and resources that seek to share the science of climate change has recently come into focus. During the fall 2006 AGU meeting, we presented the conceptual framework used to guide both the curriculum and year-one programs of Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: The Global Warming Road Show. Currently this dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program selects and empowers a diverse population of 11th and 12th grade students from a large urban high school in the Midwest to teach a curriculum on climate change to 7th graders from a local feeder school. In December 2007 we will complete year-one of the program and will present an overview of 1) students' conceptual representations of climate change, 2) the most recent curriculum and programs, and 3) the ongoing program evaluation. We will synthesize these three areas and reflect on how to improve upon year-two of both the curriculum and the program. During various stages of the program, students have constructed concept maps, written in journals, created lesson plans, and participated in focus group interviews. These materials are being analyzed to provide a brief overview of high school students' initial conceptualizations of climate change. During the intensive 2007 summer workshop, these 11th and 12th grade students were supported by university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators as they attempted to better understand climate change and as they reflected on how to effectively teach this topic to 7th graders. During the fall semester of 2007, the workshop graduates are scheduled to teach 25 to 30 7th graders a five week climate unit. The program will culminate with the 11th and 12th grade student-mentors working with the 7th graders to create a "Road Show," which will be presented to other 7th and 8th graders within the same school district. To ensure that this program is current, a team of scientists and science educators supplemented and further developed a well known and tested 15-year-old curriculum (Great Explorations in Math and Science, 1990) with recent data and analysis focusing on key concepts of climate change. The updated curriculum was structured using two driving questions: - How do we know the earth has experienced climate change in the past, including the ice ages and the age of the dinosaurs? - How do we know that humans have an impact on climate? Science educators and scientists also worked together to create templates that prompted the 11th and 12th grade students to first reflect on their understandings of climate change and then on how they would teach their younger peers. As students work with experiments, data sets, and news-media articles, they are also prompted to reflect on discrepancies between primary science sources and secondary media sources (Drake and Nelson, 2005). An evaluation team observed the summer workshops, administered surveys, reviewed the adapted curriculum, and participated in planning sessions. The evaluators are in the process of analyzing these multiple indicators to examine the extent to which the program aligns with its stated goals. The initial formative evaluation findings suggest that students were active participants in the workshop and that they enjoyed their experience. Areas of year-two development include improved communication and collaboration between university and secondary school units.

Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Smith, J. S.; Wood, E. J.; Filippelli, G. M.

2007-12-01

241

America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A video that discusses the perspectives and insights necessary to report out about climate change. The video can be used to demonstrate how different perspectives impact different stakeholders and different levels, and that there is a need to have a clear, coordinated national response.

The National Academies

242

Supportive school climate and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relations between student perceptions of support and student willingness to seek help for bullying and threats of violence in a sample of 7318 ninth-grade students from 291 high schools who participated in the Virginia High School Safety Study. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that students who perceived their teachers and other school staff to be supportive were more likely to endorse positive attitudes toward seeking help for bullying and threats of violence. In schools with more perceived support, there was less of a discrepancy in help-seeking attitudes between girls and boys. Findings suggest that efforts by school staff to provide a supportive climate are a potentially valuable strategy for engaging students in the prevention of bullying and threats of violence. PMID:21094397

Eliot, Megan; Cornell, Dewey; Gregory, Anne; Fan, Xitao

2010-12-01

243

Rural Community Influences on Effective School Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores how rural communities influence school-level processes facilitating effective instruction. Rural community influences on structural aspects of schools (resources, instructional time, curricular emphasis, grouping practices, extra support, and parent involvement) vary, depending on the community's values. Rural communities can both…

Capper, Colleen A.

1993-01-01

244

Effective Inclusive Schools: Designing Successful Schoolwide Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…

Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.

2012-01-01

245

Effect of Family Structure on School Readiness?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of living in dual parent or single parent families on the school readiness of preschool children. The subjects were 40 prekindergarten children attending a program for at-risk children in a suburban school district. The results of an annual preschool screening test were utilized to determine…

Chilton, Telia Y.

246

Effective Schools. What Makes a Public School Work Well?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most effective schools share a number of key characteristics, including clear-cut goals and objectives, adequate funding and financial management, quality academic programs, valid assessment programs, parent and family involvement, teacher and staff development, high expectations for students, community involvement, comprehensive support services,…

Our Children, 1998

1998-01-01

247

Effect of global climate on termites population. Effect of termites population on global climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global climate is under control of factors having both earth and space origin. Global warming took place from XVII century till 1997. Then global cold snap began. This dynamics had effect on global distribution of some animals including termites. Direct human effect on climate is not significant. At the same time man plays role of trigger switching on significant biosphere processes controlling climate. The transformation of marginal lands, development of industry and building, stimulated increase of termite niche and population. Termite role in green house gases production increases too. It may have regular effect on world climate. The dry wood is substrate for metabolism of termites living under symbiosis with bacteria Hypermastigina (Flagellata). The use of dry wood by humanity increased from 18 *108 ton in XVIII to 9*109 to the middle of XX century. Then use of wood decreased because of a new technology development. Hence termite population is controlled by microevolution depending on dry wood and climate dynamics. Producing by them green house gases had reciprocal effect on world climate. It is possible to describe and predict dynamic of termite population using methods of mathematical ecology and analogs with other well studied insects (Colorado potatoes beetle, Chrisomelid beetle Zygogramma and so on). Reclamation of new ecological niche for such insects as termites needs 70 - 75 years. That is delay of population dynamics in relation to dynamics of dry wood production. General principles of population growth were described by G.Gause (1934) and some authors of the end of XX century. This works and analogs with other insects suggest model of termite distribution during XXI century. The extremum of population and its green house gases production would be gotten during 8 - 10 years. Then the number of specimens and sum biological mass would be stabilized and decreased. Termite gas production is not priority for climate regulation, but it has importance as fine regulator of global temperature and climate stability. Key words: termites, green house gases, mathematical modeling. Union symposia Biogeoscience BG2.1

Sapunov, Valentin

2010-05-01

248

The International Baccalaureate Diploma Program's Impacting High School Culture and Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School reformers are often searching for a program that will have a positive and far-reaching effect on a school campus. Researchers and writers have described the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program (IB DP) as a largely positive influence on a school campus, providing a rigorous and standards-based curriculum to IB DP students. However,…

Duarte, George

2013-01-01

249

The Effectiveness of the Geospatial Curriculum Approach on Urban Middle-Level Students' Climate Change Understandings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change science is a challenging topic for student learning. This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial curriculum approach to promote climate change science understandings in an urban school district with eighth-grade students and investigated whether teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students' climate change knowledge achievement. The participants included 12 science teachers and 956 eighth-grade students. Data included a pre- and posttest climate change assessment measures for both teachers and students and a teacher measure of Geospatial Science-Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Paired-sample t tests revealed statistically significant gains from pretest to posttest on their climate change knowledge ( p < .001; effect sizes being large on multiple-choice items and medium on the open-ended response assessment). Both ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression and 2-level hierarchical linear modeling found that students' initial climate change knowledge and gender were significant predictors for students' posttest scores, p < .05. Students' pretest scores were the strongest significant predictor of the posttest scores, p < .001. Neither the teachers' climate change knowledge nor their Geospatial Science-Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge had significant association with the students' posttest scores. Teaching years was a significant predictor for students' posttest scores in OLS regression ( p < .001). The findings provide support that a geospatial curriculum approach is an effective science curriculum approach for learners in urban middle-level education.

Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong

2014-08-01

250

New Orleans Effective Schools Project. An Interim Report to the Orleans Parish School Board.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of the Southern Coalition for Educational Equity's New Orleans Effective Schools Project is to improve academic achievement at one middle school, Martin Behrman, in ways that can be replicated by schools facing similar problems. The Project is based on research findings about school improvement from the school effectiveness

David, Jane L.

251

School Climate and Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes Associated with Implementation of the Positive Action Program: A Diffusion of Innovations Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher- and school-level factors influence the fidelity of implementation of school-based prevention and social character\\u000a and development (SACD) programs. Using a diffusion of innovations framework, the relationships among teacher beliefs and attitudes\\u000a towards a prevention\\/SACD program and the influence of a school’s administrative support and perceptions of school connectedness,\\u000a characteristics of a school’s climate, were specified in two cross-sectional mediation

Michael W. Beets; Brian R. Flay; Samuel Vuchinich; Alan C. Acock; Kin-Kit Li; Carol Allred

2008-01-01

252

Health Outcomes of Elementary School Students in New Brunswick: The Education Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined individual differences in and school effects on health outcomes of students using data for 6,883 Canadian students from 147 schools from the New Brunswick School Climate Study. Among the many findings of interest is that school context (socioeconomic status) and school climate (disciplinary climate) affected general health. Discusses the…

Ma, Xin

2000-01-01

253

A Resource Aid Packet on School Engagement, Disengagement, Learning Supports, & School Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most policy makers and administrators know that by itself good instruction delivered by highly qualified teachers is not enough to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed at school. Schools continue to suffer from high dropout rates of students and staff, an achievement gap that resists closure, a high incidence of schools

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

2011-01-01

254

Facilitators to Promoting Health in Schools: Is School Health Climate the Key?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Schools can promote healthy eating in adolescents. This study used a qualitative approach to examine barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in schools. Methods: Case studies were conducted with 8 low-income Michigan middle schools. Interviews were conducted with 1 administrator, the food service director, and 1 member of the…

Lucarelli, Jennifer F.; Alaimo, Katherine; Mang, Ellen; Martin, Caroline; Miles, Richard; Bailey, Deborah; Kelleher, Deanne K.; Drzal, Nicholas B.; Liu, Hui

2014-01-01

255

Learning Climate Correlates in Black and White Rural Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper discusses differences in classroom process and environment in two rural schools and relates these differences to attendant differences in student achievement and peer ratings. Relationships between pupil creativity, achievement, personality, peer ratings and ability in classes are described using Flanders' Interaction Analysis; comparing…

Powell, Evan R.; White, William F.

256

Game Based Learning as a Means to Teach Climate Literacy in a High School Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of RPI's GK-12 graduate fellowship program (which involves graduate STEM fellows in K-12 education) a climate change board game activity was developed and implemented at inner city Troy High School in Troy, New York. The goal was to engage and teach two classes of the Earth Science General Repeat (GR) tenth grade students about climate change through a game-based leaning module. Students placed in the GR course had previously failed Earth Science, and had never passed a general science class in high school. In the past, these students have responded positively to hands-on activities. Therefore, an interactive board game activity was created to teach students about climate, explore how humans impact our environment, and address the future of climate change. The students are presented with a draft version of the game, created by the graduate fellow, and are asked to redesign the game for their peers in the other GR class. The students' version of the game is required to include certain aspects of the original game, for example, the climate change Trivia and Roadblock cards, but the design, addition of rules and overall layout are left to the students. The game-based learning technique allows the students to learn through a storyline, compete against each other, and challenge themselves to perfect their learning and understanding of climate change. The climate change board game activity also incorporates our cascade learning model, in which the graduate fellow designs the activity, works with a high school teacher, and implements the game with high school students. In addition, the activity emphasizes peer-to-peer learning, allowing each classroom to design the game for a different group of students. This allows the students to take leadership and gives them a sense of accomplishment with the completed board game. The nature of a board game also creates a dynamic competitive atmosphere, in which the students want to learn and understand the material to succeed in the overall game. Although this board game activity was designed for high school students, it could easily be adapted for all K-12 levels as an interactive, informative and successful way of teaching students about climate literacy.

Fung, M. K.; Tedesco, L.; Katz, M. E.

2013-12-01

257

Urban High School Students' Critical Science Agency: Conceptual Understandings and Environmental Actions Around Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates how the enactment of a climate change curriculum supports students' development of critical science agency, which includes students developing deep understandings of science concepts and the ability to take action at the individual and community levels. We examined the impact of a four to six week urban ecology curriculum on students from three different urban high schools in the USA. Data collection included pre and posttest written assessments from all students ( n = 75) and pre and post interviews from focal students ( n = 22) to examine how students' conceptual understandings, beliefs and environmental actions changed. Our analyses showed that at the beginning of the curriculum, the majority of students believed that climate change was occurring; yet, they had limited conceptual understandings about climate change and were engaged in limited environmental actions. By the end of the curriculum, students had a significant increase in their understanding of climate change and the majority of students reported they were now engaged in actions to limit their personal impact on climate change. These findings suggest that believing a scientific theory (e.g. climate change) is not sufficient for critical science agency; rather, conceptual understandings and understandings of personal actions impact students' choices. We recommend that future climate change curriculum focus on supporting students' development of critical science agency by addressing common student misconceptions and by focusing on how students' actions can have significant impacts on the environment.

McNeill, Katherine L.; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

2012-04-01

258

Effects of Oceans on Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The oceans cover more than 70% of Earth's surface and play a major role in regulating the weather and climate of the planet. Earth's oceans absorb heat from sunlight, hold on to that heat, and transport it around the globe through the movement of ocean currents. The motion of the atmosphere, or winds, above it, also affects the oceans currents. The energy in the wind gets transferred to the ocean at the ocean surface affecting the motion of the water there. With the use of sensitive instruments we are able to get a better view of the functioning of our oceans and atmosphere. This science guide will point teachers and students to resources to help develop a better understanding of some of the factors that impact Earth's weather and climate. Sites with recent research and satellite data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other organizations help students understand how changes in temperature or air circulation are part of complex, longer-term cycles. They'll also learn about the interconnections between air, sea, and land and that any change could have multiple causes--and multiple effects.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2005-05-01

259

Estimating Contrail Climate Effects from Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automated contrail detection algorithm (CDA) is developed to exploit six of the infrared channels on the 1-km MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites. The CDA is refined and balanced using visual error analysis. It is applied to MODIS data taken by Terra and Aqua over the United States during 2006 and 2008. The results are consistent with flight track data, but differ markedly from earlier analyses. Contrail coverage is a factor of 4 less than other retrievals and the retrieved contrail optical depths and radiative forcing are smaller by approx.30%. The discrepancies appear to be due to the inability to detect wider, older contrails that comprise a significant amount of the contrail coverage. An example of applying the algorithm to MODIS data over the entire Northern Hemisphere is also presented. Overestimates of contrail coverage are apparent in some tropical regions. Methods for improving the algorithm are discussed and are to be implemented before analyzing large amounts of Northern Hemisphere data. The results should be valuable for guiding and validating climate models seeking to account for aviation effects on climate.

Minnis, Patrick; Duda, David P.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Bedka, Sarah T.; Boeke, Robyn; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Chee, Thad; Bedka, Kristopher T.

2011-01-01

260

The Effect of School Inspections on School Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses a school-level longitudinal control-group design to examine how teachers and principals of inspected versus uninspected schools perceive school improvement at their schools. During the phasing in of school inspections in the states of Berlin and Brandenburg (Germany), both inspected and uninspected schools were surveyed with…

Gaertner, Holger; Wurster, Sebastian; Pant, Hans Anand

2014-01-01

261

Middle and High School Students' Conceptions of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both scientists and policy-makers emphasize the importance of education for influencing pro-environmental behavior and minimizing the effects of climate change on biological and physical systems. Education has the potential to impact students' system knowledge--their understanding of the variables that affect the climate system--and action…

Bofferding, Laura; Kloser, Matthew

2015-01-01

262

ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON WEATHER-RELATED MORBIDITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The potential effects of climate change and climate variability on weather-related morbidity are assessed. Heat-related and cold-related morbidity in children are analyzed. The impact of inclement weather on accidental injuries is evaluated. The relationship of violent crime to w...

263

Living the Effective Schools Philosophy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Altering the normal flow" is the statement in Larry Lezotte's article (in same issue) that best describes changes in Illinois school district. Although district was well run when new superintendent took over, its internal change process geared toward learning for all proved more challenging than cooperating to pass a tax referendum. Interrupting…

Markavitch, Vickie L.

1994-01-01

264

America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study examines information needs and recommends ways the federal government can better inform responses by enhancing climate change and greenhouse gas information and reporting systems and by improving climate communication and education. Demand for better information to support climate-related decisions has grown rapidly as people, organizations, and governments have moved ahead with plans and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. To meet this demand, good information systems and services are needed. Without such systems, decision makers cannot evaluate whether particular policies and actions are achieving their goals or should be modified. Although the many non-federal efforts to reduce emissions and/or adapt to future climate changes carry considerable potential to reduce risks related to climate change, there is currently no comprehensive way to assess the effectiveness of those efforts. In addition, the diverse climate change responses to date have resulted in a patchwork of regional, state, and local policies that has prompted many state and business leaders to call for the development of a more predictable and coherent policy environment at the federal level. This report demonstrates that the nation lacks comprehensive, robust, and credible information and reporting systems to inform climate choices and evaluate their effectiveness. This report also argues that decision makers can benefit from a systematic and iterative framework for responding to climate change, in which decisions and policies can be revised in light of new information and experience and that improved information and reporting systems allow for ongoing evaluation of responses to climate risks. The climate-related decisions that society will confront over the coming decades will require an informed and engaged public and an education system that provides students with the knowledge to make informed choices. Although nearly all Americans have now heard of climate change, many have yet to understand the full implications of the issue and the opportunities and risks that lie in the solutions. Nonetheless, national surveys demonstrate a clear public desire for more information about climate change and how it might affect local communities. A majority of Americans want the government to take action in response to climate change and are willing to take action themselves. Although communicating about climate change and choices is vitally important, it can be difficult. This report summarizes some simple guidelines for more effective communications.

Liverman, D. M.; McConnell, M. C.; Raven, P.

2010-12-01

265

The effects of global climate change on seagrasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing rate of global climate change seen in this century, and predicted to accelerate into the next, will significantly impact the Earth's oceans. In this review, we examine previously published seagrass research through a lens of global climate change in order to consider the potential effects on the world's seagrasses. A primary effect of increased global temperature on seagrasses

Frederick T. Short; Hilary A. Neckles

1999-01-01

266

Special Section Assessing the Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic  

E-print Network

Special Section Assessing the Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Invasive Species FRANK J. RAHEL a conceptual framework and empirical review of the interactive effects of climate change and invasive species and conveyance structures. These changes will alter the pathways by which non-native species enter aquatic

Olden, Julian D.

267

UWHS Climate Science: Uniting University Scientists and High School Teachers in the Development and Implementation of a Dual-Credit STEM-Focused Curriculum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Washington is adapting a popular UW Atmospheric Sciences course on Climate and Climate Change for the high school environment. In the process, a STEM-focused teaching and learning community has formed. With the support of NASA Global Climate Change Education 20 teachers have participated in an evolving professional development program that brings those actively engaged in research together with high school teachers passionate about bringing a formal climate science course into the high school. Over a period of several months participating teachers work through the UW course homework and delve deeply into specific subject areas. Then, during a week-long summer institute, scientists bring their particular expertise (e.g. radiation, modeling) to the high school teachers through lectures or labs. Together they identify existing lectures, textbook material and peer-reviewed resources and labs available through the internet that can be used to effectively teach the UW material to the high school students. Through this process the scientists learn how to develop teaching materials around their area of expertise, teachers engage deeply in the subject matter, and both the university and high school teachers are armed with the tools to effectively teach a STEM-focused introductory course in climate science. To date 12 new hands-on modules have been completed or are under development, exploring ice-cores, isotopes, historical temperature trends, energy balance, climate models, and more. Two modules have been tested in the classroom and are ready for peer-review through well-respected national resources such as CLEAN or the National Earth Science Teachers Association; three others are complete and will be implemented in a high school classroom this year, and the remainder under various stages of development. The UWHS ATMS 211 course was piloted in two APES (Advanced Placement Environmental Science classrooms) in Washington State in 2011/2012. The high school course used the UW Atmospheric Sciences curriculum, exams, and textbook (The Earth System, 3rd edition, Kump, Kasting and Crane, 2010), and one of the hands-on modules. Communication with these instructors during the year helped us define assessment strategies and to identify challenges of bringing the material into the high school classroom. This knowledge will be shared with teachers during our summer 2012 workshop and will inform approaches to teaching the course in 2012/2013. Proposed formats for implementation include year-long courses, using the APES/Climate format of 2011/2012, a union of Oceanography and Climate content, or in the context of an engineering course. Our initial vision was for a stand-alone semester or year-long course in climate science, incorporating excel and data handling as a learning tool and a suite of hands-on learning opportunities. Yet, the creative approaches to implementation of a new course in the schools, together with the breadth and depth of the UW curriculum and the Kump et al. 2010 textbook, have resulted in diverse educational approaches for bringing climate science into the high school.

Bertram, M. A.; Thompson, L.; Ackerman, T. P.

2012-12-01

268

Teacher Perception of School Culture and School Climate in the "Leader in Me" Schools and Non "Leader in Me" Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1989 Dr. Stephen Covey wrote "The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People" which revealed seven habits that people should integrate into their lives that would help them on the two levels of relationships. First, it would help people to establish a better relationship personally. Secondly, it would help people to improve their…

Barkley, Brian Patrick

2013-01-01

269

The climatic effects of modifying cirrus clouds in a climate engineering framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climatic effects of climate engineering—or geoengineering—via cirrus cloud thinning are examined. Thinner cirrus clouds can allow more outgoing longwave radiation to escape to space, potentially cooling the climate. The cloud properties and climatic effects due to perturbing the ice crystal fall speed are investigated in a set of hemispheric scale sensitivity experiments with the Community Earth System Model. It is found that increasing the ice crystal fall speed, as an analog to cirrus cloud seeding, depletes high-level clouds and reduces the longwave cloud forcing. Deliberate depletion of cirrus clouds increases outgoing longwave radiation, reduces the upper tropospheric water vapor, and cools the climate. Global cirrus cloud thinning gave a net cloud forcing change of -1.55 W m-2 and a global annual mean temperature change of -0.94 K. Though there is negligible change in the global annual mean precipitation (-0.001 mm/d), the spatially nonhomogeneous forcing induces circulation changes and hence remote climate changes. Climate engineering the Southern Hemisphere only results in a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and possible Sahelian drought alleviation, while targeting the Northern Hemisphere alone causes a greater cooling. It was found that targeting cirrus clouds everywhere outside of the tropics results in changes to the circulation and precipitation even in the nonclimate engineered regions, underscoring the risks of remote side effects and indeed the complexity of the climate system.

Muri, H.; Kristjánsson, J. E.; Storelvmo, T.; Pfeffer, M. A.

2014-04-01

270

The Effect of School Building Renovation/Construction on School Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School construction or renovation projects can have a profound affect on students, faculty and administration. The literature revealed that continuous communication is essential for a smooth process. This research identified bureaucratic issues and school climate to be leading factors of concern during construction projects. Analysis of this study…

Lesisko, Lee J.; Wright, Robert J.; O'Hern, Brenda

2010-01-01

271

The School Counsellor: An Essential Partner in Today's Coordinated School Health Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth today face many health, educational, and social challenges not experienced at such epidemic levels by previous generations of young people. By providing collaborative, comprehensive services that address student needs and promote learning and healthy development, a coordinated school health team can help students succeed in school, as well…

Henry, Jean; McNab, Warren; Coker, J. Kelly

2005-01-01

272

School Climate for Transgender Youth: A Mixed Method Investigation of Student Experiences and School Responses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transgender youth experience negative school environments and may not benefit directly from interventions defined to support Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) youth. This study utilized a multi-method approach to consider the issues that transgender students encounter in school environments. Using data from two studies, survey data (total n = 2260,…

McGuire, Jenifer K.; Anderson, Charles R.; Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.

2010-01-01

273

Blocking the Bullies: Has South Carolina's Safe School Climate Act Made Public Schools Safer?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent news in the national media about two students' deaths as a result of harassment in school has highlighted a renewed desire for educators to address the culture of bullying and harassment in public schools, especially when the victims are targeted for their real or perceived differences. South Carolina's legislature responded to this need in…

Terry, Troy M.

2010-01-01

274

Threat Assessment in Schools: A Guide to Managing Threatening Situations and to Creating Safe School Climates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since June 1999, the U.S. Department of Education and the U.S. Secret Service have been working as a team to better understand--and ultimately help prevent--school shootings in America. Findings indicated that incidents of targeted violence in school were rarely impulsive; that the students who perpetrated attacks usually planned them out in…

Fein, Robert A.; Vossekuil, Bryan; Pollack, William S.; Borum, Randy; Modzeleski, William; Reddy, Marisa

275

Blocking the Bullies: Has South Carolina's Safe School Climate Act Made Public Schools Safer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent news in the national media about two students’ deaths as a result of harassment in school has highlighted a renewed desire for educators to address the culture of bullying and harassment in public schools, especially when the victims are targeted for their real or perceived differences. South Carolina's legislature responded to this need in June 2006 with the passage

Troy M. Terry

2010-01-01

276

The 2011 National School Climate Survey: Key Findings on the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools. Executive Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012

2012-01-01

277

The Social Environment of Schools and Adolescent Nutrition: Associations between the School Nutrition Climate and Adolescents' Eating Behaviors and Body Mass Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the school nutrition climate and students' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative health survey of high school students in New Zealand. Overall, 9107 randomly selected students from…

Cvjetan, Branko; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth; Denny, Simon

2014-01-01

278

Climate Change Effects on Marine Ecological Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is no secret that our climate is changing – rapidly – and together with it, oceans change as well. The Intergovernmental\\u000a Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), consisting of hundreds of scientists worldwide, have shown that changes in global climate\\u000a have accelerated since the 1750s, causing an overall increase in temperature both on land and in the sea. The IPCC

Gil Rilov; Haim Treves

279

Students’ conceptions about the greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ conceptions of the greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change.\\u000a The study was descriptive in nature and reflected a cross-age design involving the collection of qualitative data from 51\\u000a secondary students from three different schools in the Midwest, USA. These data were analyzed for content in an inductive\\u000a manner to identify

Daniel P. Shepardson; Dev Niyogi; Soyoung Choi; Umarporn Charusombat

2011-01-01

280

Motivational climate and attitudes towards exercise in Greek senior high school: A year-long intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was the application of a year-long intervention program, in typical Greek physical education school classes, which aimed to change motivational climate, goal orientations, motivation, and students' attitudes toward exercise and nutrition. Participants in the intervention program included 105 Grade-10 students, and 529 students of the same age took part as a control grou|pImmediately after the

Triantafylos Christodoulidis; Athanasios Papaioannou; Nikolaos Digelidis

2001-01-01

281

Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and mitigation.

Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

2011-12-01

282

Comparing New School Effects in Charter and Traditional Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates whether student achievement varies during the institutional life span of charter schools by comparing them to new public schools. The results show that there is little evidence that new public schools struggle with initial start-up issues to the same extent as new charter schools. Even after controlling for school

Kelly, Andrew P.; Loveless, Tom

2012-01-01

283

Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy at the High School Level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confronting the Challenges of Climate Literacy (CCCL) is a research and development project designed to help high school students grasp the range of temporal and spatial scales at which climate can be defined and at which Earth system processes occur. CCCL includes three lab-based climate curriculum modules and a strong professional development component that helps partner teachers strengthen their own understanding of climate literacy and develop into climate literacy professional development providers. The research and evaluation components of this 4-year project provide essential guidance as they probe the efficacy of the evolving curriculum units, the professional development component, and the teamwork that is essential to the success of the project. In this session we will review the three curriculum modules, covering the Cryosphere, Weather and Climate, and Carbon, which comprise the CCCL sequence now being pilot-tested. We will identify ways in which we address some of the well-know misconceptions about climate and the Earth system that impede student understanding, as well as the approaches we are using to strengthen students grasp of the challenging range of temporal and spatial scales at which Earth system processes and climate occur. We will describe the professional development component of the program, which draws teachers from Mississippi and Texas into a partnership with curriculum developers to contribute to the curriculum modules, pilot test the modules in their classrooms, and eventually lead professional development workshops for their peers. We will also identify the key research questions around student learning that we will be exploring when the teachers engaged in the professional development implement the revised modules in their classrooms.

Haddad, N.; Ledley, T. S.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, B.; McNeal, K. S.; Libarkin, J.

2011-12-01

284

Dimensions of school climate: teachers' or principals' power styles and subjects' propensities to be climate vigilant as related to students' perceptions of satisfaction and of peers' abusive behavior.  

PubMed

Two studies investigated teachers' and principals' power styles as related to college students' retrospective ratings of satisfaction and peers' abusive behavior. One study also investigated retrospective self-perception as related to students' sensitivity to the occurrence of physical and psychological abuse in the school environment. Among the findings were positive correlations between subjects' perceptions that their typical elementary school teacher used referent, legitimate, or expert power styles and subjects' reported satisfaction with their elementary school experience. Small but statistically significant correlations were found suggesting that principals' power style was weakly associated with ratings of psychological abuse in elementary school and physical abuse in middle school. Also, students who rated themselves as intelligent, sensitive, attractive, and depressive had higher ratings of perceived psychological and physical abuse at school. It was concluded that parameters of leaders' power styles and subjects' vigilance might be useful for understanding school climates. Experimentally designed studies are required. PMID:12353790

Verhoek-Miller, Nancy; Miller, Duane I; Shirachi, Miyoko; Hoda, Nicholas

2002-08-01

285

Effective Fall The Graduate School at UMBC, 1000 Hilltop Circle,  

E-print Network

School Catalog and on the Graduate School website, , and with the specialGraduate Assistant Handbook Effective Fall 2011 The Graduate School at UMBC, 1000 Hilltop Circle to the Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships. Its website is . GAs should

Adali, Tulay

286

Variability in effect of climate change on rain-on-snow peak flow events in a temperate climate  

E-print Network

Variability in effect of climate change on rain-on-snow peak flow events in a temperate climate-in-Chief Keywords: Climate change Rain-on-snow Peak flows Snow hydrology Temperate climate s u m m a r y The frequency of rain-on-snow (ROS) hydrologic events, which produce high runoff volumes and lead to large

Tullos, Desiree

287

Primary School Student Teachers' Understanding of Climate Change: Comparing the Results Given by Concept Maps and Communication Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change is a complex environmental problem that can be used to examine students' understanding, gained through classroom communication, of climate change and its interactions. The present study examines a series of four science sessions given to a group of primary school student teachers (n?=?20). This includes analysis of the…

Ratinen, Ilkka; Viiri, Jouni; Lehesvuori, Sami

2013-01-01

288

Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive School Reform in Low Achieving Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of Struggling Schools, a user-generated approach to Comprehensive School Reform implemented in 100 low achieving schools serving disadvantaged students in a Canadian province. The results show that while Struggling Schools had a statistically significant positive effect on Grade 3 Reading achievement, d = 0.48…

Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Sibbald, Tim M.

2012-01-01

289

Progress at School and School Effectiveness: Non-cognitive Dispositions and Within-Class Markets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New Zealand Progress at School project, investigating school effects, found that individual academic progress is associated with a set of noncognitive dispositions: aspirations, self-concept, and acceptance of the institutional regime. School composition or mix effects were minor. Working-class kids read more proficiently in high-SES schools.…

Nash, Roy

2001-01-01

290

High School Improvement: Indicators of Effectiveness and School-Level Benchmarks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National High School Center's "Eight Elements of High School Improvement: A Mapping Framework" provides a cohesive high school improvement framework comprised of eight elements and related indicators of effectiveness. These indicators of effectiveness allow states, districts, and schools to identify strengths and weaknesses of their current…

National High School Center, 2012

2012-01-01

291

Population effects of increased climate variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global circulation models predict and numerous observations confirm that anthropogenic climate change has altered high-frequency climate variability. However, it is not yet well understood how changing patterns of environmental variation will affect wildlife population dynamics and other ecological processes. Theory predicts that a population's long-run growth rate is diminished and the chance of population extinction is increased as environmental variation

John M Drake

2005-01-01

292

Class-Size Effects in Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We analyze class-size effects on academic achievement in secondary school in Denmark exploiting an institutional setting where pupils cannot predict class size prior to enrollment, and where post-enrollment responses aimed at affecting realized class size are unlikely. We identify class-size effects combining a regression discontinuity design with…

Krassel, Karl Fritjof; Heinesen, Eskil

2014-01-01

293

75 FR 8046 - National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Draft Guidance, “Consideration of the Effects of Climate...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions...Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions...Consideration of the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas...

2010-02-23

294

Relational Aggression at School: Associations with School Safety and Social Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines how exposure to relational aggression at school is associated with adolescents’ perceptions of,\\u000a and participation in, a hostile school environment. Participants were 1,335 African American and European American adolescents\\u000a in grades 7 through 12 (52% female, 49% African American). Results indicate that exposure to relational aggression is associated\\u000a with several components of adolescents’ perceptions of the

Sara E. Goldstein; Amy Young; Carol Boyd

2008-01-01

295

Achievement and Climate Outcomes for the Knowledge Is Power Program in an Inner-City Middle School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effects of a whole school reform, the Knowledge is Power Program (KIPP), specifically designed to raise academic achievement of at-risk urban middle school students by establishing an extended school day and year, a rigorous curriculum, after-school access to teachers, and increased family-school connections.…

Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron J.; Alberg, Marty; McSparrin-Gallagher, Brenda

2007-01-01

296

Climate Change Effects on Agriculture: Economic Responses to Biophysical Shocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and thus directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's representative concentration pathway with end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 W/m(sup 2). The mean biophysical yield effect with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17% reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11%, increase area of major crops by 11%, and reduce consumption by 3%. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences include model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

Nelson, Gerald C.; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald D.; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina

2014-01-01

297

Early Agriculture: Land Clearance and Climate Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 2003 AGU Emiliani Lecture, I proposed the 'early anthropogenic hypothesis' --the idea that major anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gases and climate occurred thousands of years before the industrial era. In the decade since then, several dozen published papers have argued its pros and cons. In the 2013 Tyndall History of Global Change Lecture I will update where matters now stand. I will show figures from the 2003 Climate Change paper that laid out the initial hypothesis, and then update subsequent evidence from ice-core drilling, archeology, and land-use histories. The primary claims in the 2003 hypothesis were these: (1) the CH4 rise since 5000 years ago is anthropogenic; (2) the CO2 rise since 7000 years ago is also anthropogenic; (3) the amount of carbon emitted from preindustrial deforestation was roughly twice the amount released during the industrial era; (4) global temperature would have been cooler by about 0.8oC by the start of the industrial era if agricultural CO2 and CH4 emissions had not occurred; (5) early anthropogenic warming prevented the inception of new ice sheets at high northern latitudes; and (6) pandemics and other population catastrophes during the last 2000 years caused CO2 decreases lasting decades to centuries. The new evidence shows that these claims have held up well. The late-Holocene CO2 and CH4 rises are anomalous compared to average gas trends during previous interglaciations of the last 800,000 years. Land-use models based on historical data simulate pre-industrial CO2 carbon releases more than twice the industrial amounts. Archeological estimates of CH4 emissions from expanding rice irrigation account for much of the late Holocene CH4 rise, even without including livestock emissions or biomass burning. Model simulations show that the large pre-industrial greenhouse-gas emissions indicated by these historical and archeological estimates would have warmed global climate by more than 1oC and prevented northern glacial inception. Well-dated high-resolution CO2 (and CH4) records from ice cores show gas decreases that correlate closely with major pandemics and civil strife, but show little if any link to temperature or precipitation trends. One significant (and intriguing) discrepancy with the original hypothesis remains. Most of the CO2 rise occurred between 6000 and 2500 years ago, well before the major increase in global population that has been hindcast from geometric models that assume a constant fractional rate of population increase. Some of this discrepancy has been reconciled by historical evidence showing much higher per-capita clearance millennia ago than later in pre-industrial time, resulting in disproportionately large early clearance and CO2 emissions. In addition, DNA studies and archeological syntheses now indicate that early farming populations initially grew at very fast rates favored by environments rich in basic resources (especially fertile soils), but then slowed in later millennia because of growing resource limitations and the effects of pandemics and civil strife in checking population growth. This emerging view of fast-rising early population trends has the potential to account for the early timing of the CO2 increase.

Ruddiman, W. F.

2013-12-01

298

Building the Capacity of Principals and Teacher-Leaders to Implement Effective School and Classroom Practices. High Schools That Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Great leaders make great schools. The most successful school leaders create a school climate of high achievement and continuous improvement, give teachers a voice in decision-making, use data to drive curriculum and instruction, and assure students and parents that everyone at the school is focusing on student success. They know what is going on…

Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2012

2012-01-01

299

Examiner's Manual. School Climate Survey: Student Satisfaction Survey, Teacher Satisfaction Survey, Parent Satisfaction Survey: Form A. Sampler Kit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for examiners administering the School Climate Survey (SCS), the Teacher Satisfaction Survey (TSS), the Student Satisfaction Survey (SSS), and the Parent Satisfaction Survey (PSS) of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) are provided. These four surveys are the initial result of research/development efforts by…

Halderson, Cynthia; And Others

300

Great Lakes Climate and Water Movement. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes climate and water movement. Students learn about land-sea…

Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

301

Sharing the Data along with the Responsibility: Examining an Analytic Scale-Based Model for Assessing School Climate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was a pilot effort to examine the efficacy of an analytic trait scale school climate assessment instrument and democratic change system in two urban high schools. Pilot study results indicate that the instrument shows promising soundness in that it exhibited high levels of validity and reliability. In addition, the analytic trait format…

Shindler, John; Taylor, Clint; Cadenas, Herminia; Jones, Albert

302

How Students' Perceptions of the School Climate Influence Their Choice to Upstand, Bystand, or Join Perpetrators of Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors of this article, Silvia Diazgranados Ferráns and Robert Selman, use an emergent framework to explore how the rules of the school culture at different perceived school climates affect early adolescents' decisions to upstand, bystand, or join the perpetrators when they witness peer aggression and bullying. Through a grounded theory…

Ferráns, Silvia Diazgranados; Selman, Robert L.

2014-01-01

303

Global Climate Effects on Avian Reproduction Good News About HSA  

E-print Network

Global Climate Effects on Avian Reproduction Good News About HSA ENSO and NAO: What Are They scientists agree that global warming is real and that the global climate is changing rapidly. Our question is affect 29 of the 34 species studied, El Niño winters, the warm phase of ENSO (see page 4), favors

DeSante, David F.

304

Effects of climatic temperature stress on cardiovascular diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The climatic stress was anticipated to increase direct and indirect risks to human health via different pathways and mechanisms. Extremely high air temperature might trigger the onset of cardiovascular events in the vulnerable. Cold-related mortality was much less understood than heat-related one, and was considered another climatic example of the effects on the human health. Increases in mortality with cardiovascular

Xiaoshu Cheng; Hai Su

2010-01-01

305

The Effects of Climate Change on Harp Seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) have evolved life history strategies to exploit seasonal sea ice as a breeding platform. As such, individuals are prepared to deal with fluctuations in the quantity and quality of ice in their breeding areas. It remains unclear, however, how shifts in climate may affect seal populations. The present study assesses the effects of climate change on

David W. Johnston; Matthew T. Bowers; Ari S. Friedlaender; David M. Lavigne

2012-01-01

306

Testing effects of climate change in crop models  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Climate change induced by increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is expected to increase temperature, alter rainfall patterns, and extended growing seasons in many regions. Crop simulation models can be used as a tool for evaluating effects of climate change on production, as well as for evaluat...

307

Anticipated Effects of Climate Change on Estuarine and Coastal Fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the timing and magnitude of global climate change is in dispute, the possible effects of such change merit consideration to allow for discussion of policy ramifications and mitigative actions. Climate change may result in sea level rise; water temperature increase; and deviations from present patterns of precipitation, wind, and water circulation. Estuaries may experience loss of marsh habitat, intrusion

Victor S. Kennedy

1990-01-01

308

Assessing the Effects of Climate Change on Aquatic Invasive Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different components of global environmental change are typically studied and managed in- dependently, although there is a growing recognition that multiple drivers often interact in complex and nonadditive ways. We present a conceptual framework and empirical review of the interactive effects of climate change and invasive species in freshwater ecosystems. Climate change is expected to result in warmer water temperatures,

FRANK J. RAHEL; JULIAN D. OLDEN

2008-01-01

309

Toward effective climate services: lessons for design and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite growing interest in climate services, there is little agreement on what climate services are, where they are most effective, and how they should be designed to best deliver results. Questions regarding what kinds of information on which climate services should be based, the sorts of problems they can most effectively address, and the institutional arrangements needed to support them remain unresolved, with hundreds of climate service users and providers proceeding with a simultaneous and loosely coordinated process of learning by doing. This presentation will draw on case studies developed by the Global Framework for Climate Services and the Climate Services Partnership to provide a snapshot of current practice regarding climate service provision. The presentation will also provide thoughts regarding the design of certain services and the overall development of the field. We will conclude with suggestions for research questions that may serve to accelerate our collective understanding of how best to design climate services as a means to mitigate climate-related risk.

Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje; Zebiak, Stephen

2014-05-01

310

A Developmental Examination of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Elementary School: Behavior Patterns, School Climate, and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) programs integrate research-based practice within a three-tier approach of prevention and intervention to impact change within school systems. Research suggests positive changes in student outcomes with the implementation of SWPBS. Supported by social-ecological and behavioral theory, this longitudinal…

Betters-Bubon, Jennifer

2012-01-01

311

What Influences Principals' Perceptions of Academic Climate? A Nationally Representative Study of the Direct Effects of Perception on Climate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a nationally representative sample of public high schools (N = 439), we examined the extent to which the principal's perception of their influence over instruction, the evaluation of nonacademic related tasks as well as academic related tasks, and their relationship with the school district relates to their perception of academic climate

Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.

2011-01-01

312

Effectiveness of school programs in tobacco control.  

PubMed

The authors reviewed published data dealing with the effectiveness of school programs in tobacco control. Most of the evaluated school programs showed at least partial effect including namely improved knowledge level, decreased prevalence of smoking initiation and continuation. Less successful was achieving of behavioural changes and social resistance. Effect of the school programs can be significantly amplified by combination with other interventions such as mass media campaigns, parent involvement and extracurricular activities. The main problem of the studies in this field is a relatively short follow-up time not allowing considering findings as relevant evidences for long-term effects of school programs. However, even assuming only time limited decrease of prevalence of smoking among intervened students, such temporary effect leads to the decrease of a lifetime cigarette exposure having beneficial health effects. Considering social, demographic and cultural aspects of the epidemiology of smoking habit, evidence based data in this field, relevant for Central and Eastern Countries, are required. Such situation calls for authentic trials and studies respecting specific conditions in these countries. PMID:15666454

Baska, T; Straka, S; Basková, M; Mad'ar, R

2004-12-01

313

Atmospheric greenhouse effect in the context of global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Great interest in the problem of the atmospheric greenhouse effect (not only in scientific publications, but also in mass\\u000a media), on the one hand, and the undoubtfully overemphasised contribution of the greenhouse effect to the global climate change,\\u000a on the other hand, motivate a necessity to analyse the role which the greenhouse effect plays as a factor of climate change.

K. Ya. Kondratyev; C. Varotsos

1995-01-01

314

Effects of Air Pollution Control on Climate  

E-print Network

Urban air pollution and climate are closely connected due to shared generating processes (e.g., combustion) for emissions of the driving gases and aerosols. They are also connected because the atmospheric lifecycles of ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

315

Effects of Different Teaching Styles on the Teacher Behaviours that Influence Motivational Climate and Pupils' Motivation in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of different teaching styles on the teaching behaviours that influence motivational climate and pupils' cognitive and affective responses in physical education. Four (two male, two female) initial teacher education (ITE) students and 92 pupils (47 boys, 45 girls), from two schools in the UK, participated in the…

Morgan, Kevin; Kingston, Kieran; Sproule, John

2005-01-01

316

School Board Training: Its Effect on Southern California Governance Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact the California School Boards Association's (CSBA) Masters in Governance (MIG) training program has on effective school board governance practice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between effective school boards and a commitment to seek and attend school board training.…

Turley, Kristina

2013-01-01

317

Online and Blended Climate Change Courses for Secondary School Educators from the American Museum of Natural History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) has created both online and blended climate change education courses directed toward secondary school educators. The online course carries graduate credit and is authored by leading scientists at AMNH and at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. It focuses on weather and climate; sources of climate change; the response of the climate system to input; modeling, theory and observation; what we can learn from past climates; and potential consequences, risks and uncertainties. The blended course includes an abbreviated version of the online course along with additional activities, many suitable for classroom use. Both the online and blended course experiences will be reviewed, including the use of an educational version of NASA's Global Climate Model. Attendees will be provided with a DVD of Climate Change videos and data visualizations from the American Museum of Natural History.

Steiner, R. V.; Contino, J.; Kinzler, R. J.; Mathez, E. A.; Randle, D. E.; Schmidt, G. A.; Shindell, D. T.

2012-12-01

318

Online and Blended Climate Change Courses for Secondary School Educators from the American Museum of Natural History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) has created both online and blended climate change education courses directed toward secondary school educators. The online course carries graduate credit and is authored by leading scientists at AMNH and at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. It focuses on weather and climate; sources of climate change; the response of the climate system to input; modeling, theory and observation; what we can learn from past climates; and potential consequences, risks and uncertainties. The blended course includes an abbreviated version of the online course along with additional activities, many suitable for classroom use. Both the online and blended course experiences will be reviewed, including the use of an educational version of NASA's Global Climate Model. Attendees will be provided with a DVD of Climate Change videos and data visualizations from the American Museum of Natural History.

Steiner, Robert

2012-03-01

319

Challenges of Communicating Climate Change in North Dakota: Undergraduate Internship and Collaboration with Middle School Educators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In summer 2010, the University of North Dakota (UND) hosted an internship for undergraduates to learn about climate change in both the classroom and group research projects. As a final project, the undergraduates were tasked to present their findings about different aspects of climate change in webcasts that would be later used in middle school classrooms in the region. Interns indicated that participation significantly improved their own confidence in future scholarly pursuits. Also, communicating about climate change, both during the project and afterwards, helped the interns feel more confident in their own learning. Use of webcasts widened the impact of student projects (e.g. YouTube dissemination), and multiple methods of student communication should continue to be an important piece of climate change education initiatives. Other key aspects of the internship were student journaling and group building. Challenges faced included media accessibility and diverse recruiting. Best practices from the UND internship will be discussed as a model for implementation at other universities. Lesson plans that complement the student-produced webcasts and adhere to regional and national standards were created during 2011. Communication between scientists and K-12 education researchers was found to be a challenge, but improved over the course of the project. These lesson plans have been reviewed both during a teacher workshop in January 2012 and by several Master teachers. Although select middle school educators have expressed enthusiasm for testing of these modules, very little hands-on testing with students has occurred. Wide-ranging roadblocks to implementation exist, including the need for adherence to state standards and texts, inadequate access to technology, and generally negative attitudes toward climate change in the region. Feedback from regional educators will be presented, and possible solutions will be discussed. Although some challenges are specific to the Northern Great Plains region, understanding these challenges are important for agencies and universities with goals of national dissemination.

Mullendore, G. L.; Munski, L.; Kirilenko, A.; Remer, F.; Baker, M.

2012-12-01

320

Climate change due to greenhouse effects in China as simulated by a regional climate model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of greenhouse effects (2 ? CO2) upon climate change over China as simulated by a regional climate model over China (RegCM \\/ China) have been investigated.\\u000a The model was based on RegCM2 and was nested to a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model (CSIRO R21L9 AOGCM model). Results of the control run (1 ? CO2) indicated that simulations of surface air

Xuejie Gao; Zongci Zhao; Yihui Ding; Ronghui Huang; Giorgi Filippo

2001-01-01

321

School Policy on Teaching and School Learning Environment: Direct and Indirect Effects upon Student Outcome Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School policy on teaching and the school learning environment (SLE) are the main school factors of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness (Creemers & Kyriakides, 2008). A longitudinal study in which 50 primary schools, 108 classes, and 2369 students participated generated evidence supporting the validity of the dynamic model. This article…

Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

2012-01-01

322

Using Shocks to School Enrollment to Estimate the Effect of School Size on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies of the connection between school enrollment size and student achievement use cross-sectional econometric models and thus do not account for unobserved heterogeneity across schools. To address this concern, I utilize school-level panel data, and generate first-differences estimates of the effect of school size on achievement.…

Kuziemko, Ilyana

2006-01-01

323

Principal Efficacy: An Investigation of School Principals' Sense of Efficacy and Indicators of School Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the individual school level, the responsibility for demonstrating school effectiveness lies on the shoulders of the building administrator. In fact, "it is widely accepted that good principals are the cornerstones of good schools and that, without a principal's leadership efforts to raise student achievement, schools cannot succeed"…

Lovell, Charles Wayne

2009-01-01

324

The Influence of School Climate on Students' Experiences of Peer Sexual Harassment in High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in schools have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…

Tully, Carol A.

2010-01-01

325

A study of parental involvement and school climate: Perspective from the middle school  

E-print Network

Fournier for all of her help with the Bryan ISD group therapy practicums. You really did help me to find my niche in counseling. It made a difference on internship. And to all of the school districts who helped to make this possible. Thank you very...

Dixon, Shantina Rayford

2009-05-15

326

Effectiveness of Groups in the Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the current literature, specifically meta-analytic research, on the effectiveness of psychoeducational and counseling groups in the schools. Topics for such groups include: eating disorders, anger management/bullying, child sexual abuse prevention, pregnancy prevention, and social competency. There is support for groups in the…

Gerrity, Deborah A.; DeLucia-Waack, Janice L.

2007-01-01

327

Transformational School Leadership Effects on Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a synthesis of unpublished transformational school leadership (TSL) research completed during the last 14 years, this study inquired into the nature of TSL and its effects on student achievement using review methods including standard meta-analysis and vote-counting techniques. Results identify a wider range of TSL practices than…

Sun, Jingping; Leithwood, Kenneth

2012-01-01

328

The Principal: Creative Leadership for Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research points to a strong correlation between effective school practices and creative administrative leadership. This book focuses on the personal skills and attributes and the organizational conditions necessary for providing this kind of leadership. Principals' primary tasks of efficient building operation, personnel management, budget…

Ubben, Gerald C.; Hughes, Larry W.

329

The Effects of Weather and Climate Change on Dengue  

PubMed Central

Background There is much uncertainty about the future impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases. Such uncertainty reflects the difficulties in modelling the complex interactions between disease, climatic and socioeconomic determinants. We used a comprehensive panel dataset from Mexico covering 23 years of province-specific dengue reports across nine climatic regions to estimate the impact of weather on dengue, accounting for the effects of non-climatic factors. Methods and Findings Using a Generalized Additive Model, we estimated statistically significant effects of weather and access to piped water on dengue. The effects of weather were highly nonlinear. Minimum temperature (Tmin) had almost no effect on dengue incidence below 5°C, but Tmin values above 18°C showed a rapidly increasing effect. Maximum temperature above 20°C also showed an increasing effect on dengue incidence with a peak around 32°C, after which the effect declined. There is also an increasing effect of precipitation as it rose to about 550 mm, beyond which such effect declines. Rising access to piped water was related to increasing dengue incidence. We used our model estimations to project the potential impact of climate change on dengue incidence under three emission scenarios by 2030, 2050, and 2080. An increase of up to 40% in dengue incidence by 2080 was estimated under climate change while holding the other driving factors constant. Conclusions Our results indicate that weather significantly influences dengue incidence in Mexico and that such relationships are highly nonlinear. These findings highlight the importance of using flexible model specifications when analysing weather–health interactions. Climate change may contribute to an increase in dengue incidence. Rising access to piped water may aggravate dengue incidence if it leads to increased domestic water storage. Climate change may therefore influence the success or failure of future efforts against dengue. PMID:24244765

Colón-González, Felipe J.; Fezzi, Carlo; Lake, Iain R.; Hunter, Paul R.

2013-01-01

330

Climate change effects on forests: A critical review  

SciTech Connect

While current projections of future climate change associated with increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases have a high degree of uncertainty, the potential effects of climate change on forests are of increasing concern. A number of studies based on forest simulation models predict substantial temperatures associated with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. However, the structure of these computer models may cause them to overemphasize the role of climate in controlling tree growth and mortality. We propose that forest simulation models be reformulated with more realistic representations of growth responses to temperature, moisture, mortality, and dispersal. We believe that only when these models more accurately reflect the physiological bases of the responses of tree species to climate variables can they be used to simulate responses of forests to rapid changes in climate. We argue that direct forest responses to climate change projected by such a reformulated model may be less traumatic and more gradual than those projected by current models. However, the indirect effects of climate change on forests, mediated by alterations of disturbance regimes or the actions of pests and pathogens, may accelerate climate-induced change in forests, and they deserve further study and inclusion within forest simulation models.

Loehle, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); LeBlanc, D. [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology

1996-02-01

331

Climate Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols in China and India  

E-print Network

Climate Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols in China and India Surabi Menon,1,2 * James Hansen,1 contaminants, are cause for public health concern in China, Japan, and Korea, and some of the aerosols even

332

Climate and vegetation effects on sediment transport and catchment properties along an arid to humid climatic gradient   

E-print Network

Recent attempts to elucidate a climatic effect on erosion rates at the catchment scale have generally found little or no correlation between precipitation and erosion rates, yet climate has been shown to exert a significant ...

Callaghan, Lynsey Elizabeth

2012-06-25

333

Potential effects of climate change on birds of the Northeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used three approaches to assess potential effects of climate change on birds of the Northeast. First, we created distribution\\u000a and abundance models for common bird species using climate, elevation, and tree species variables and modeled how bird distributions\\u000a might change as habitats shift. Second, we assessed potential effects on high-elevation birds, especially Bicknell’s thrush\\u000a (Catharus bicknelli), that may be

N. L. Rodenhouse; S. N. Matthews; K. P. McFarland; J. D. Lambert; L. R. Iverson; A. Prasad; T. S. Sillett; R. T. Holmes

2008-01-01

334

Climate change and wildlife health: direct and indirect effects  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climate change will have significant effects on the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans, according to scientists. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that unprecedented rates of climate change will result in increasing average global temperatures; rising sea levels; changing global precipitation patterns, including increasing amounts and variability; and increasing midcontinental summer drought (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). Increasing temperatures, combined with changes in rainfall and humidity, may have significant impacts on wildlife, domestic animal, and human health and diseases. When combined with expanding human populations, these changes could increase demand on limited water resources, lead to more habitat destruction, and provide yet more opportunities for infectious diseases to cross from one species to another. Awareness has been growing in recent years about zoonotic diseases— that is, diseases that are transmissible between animals and humans, such as Lyme disease and West Nile virus. The rise of such diseases results from closer relationships among wildlife, domestic animals, and people, allowing more contact with diseased animals, organisms that carry and transmit a disease from one animal to another (vectors), and people. Disease vectors include insects, such as mosquitoes, and arachnids, such as ticks. Thus, it is impossible to separate the effects of global warming on wildlife from its effects on the health of domestic animals or people. Climate change, habitat destruction and urbanization, the introduction of exotic and invasive species, and pollution—all affect ecosystem and human health. Climate change can also be viewed within the context of other physical and climate cycles, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (El Niño), the North Atlantic Oscillation, and cycles in solar radiation that have profound effects on the Earth’s climate. The effects of climate change on wildlife disease are summarized in several areas of scientific study discussed briefly below: geographic range and distribution of wildlife diseases, plant and animal phenology (Walther and others, 2002), and patterns of wildlife disease, community and ecosystem composition, and habitat degradation.

Hofmeister, Erik; Rogall, Gail Moede; eWsenberg, Kathy; Abbott, Rachel; Work, Thierry; Schuler, Krysten; Sleeman, Jonathan; Winton, James

2010-01-01

335

Global Climate Change: Understanding the Greenhouse Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about ways in which scientists study past climate change. These studies involve investigations of ice cores taken from the vast ice sheet that covers Greenland and fossil evidence that parts of the Sahara Desert were once lush and filled with animal species more often associated with the African savanna far to the south. With the help of multimedia interactives and video, they will understand what global climate change is and that it has fluctuated many times during the history of the planet. They will also understand how changing climate affects our lives, learn about greenhouse gases, and consider the events that are causing an increase in the amount of these gases in the atmosphere.

2005-01-01

336

The Effect of Physical Education Climates on Elementary Students’ Physical Activity Behaviors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND With the growing need for children from underserved populations to be physically active it is imperative to create developmentally appropriate and enjoyable physical education programs that promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of mastery and performance climates on physical activity during physical education. METHODS Children (N = 108) in grades K-2 from a rural southeastern elementary school in the US were randomly assigned to a mastery or performance oriented climate. The climates were implemented over 10 school days during regular scheduled physical education classes, and physical activity was measured with pedometers and SOFIT. Two experts in mastery motivational climates served as teachers for the study and were counterbalanced between conditions. RESULTS Results showed that steps/minute were significantly higher for the mastery condition and participants in the mastery condition spent significantly less time sitting (p < .001) and in management (p < .001) and more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; p = .002) and fitness activities (p = .001). CONCLUSION Results indicate that a mastery approach, which allows children the opportunity to drive their own physical activity, elicits higher step counts and more time spent in MVPA compared to a performance-oriented approach. PMID:23516997

Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Gell, Nancy

2013-01-01

337

Predicting potential responses to future climate in an alpine ungulate: interspecific interactions exceed climate effects.  

PubMed

The altitudinal shifts of many montane populations are lagging behind climate change. Understanding habitual, daily behavioural rhythms, and their climatic and environmental influences, could shed light on the constraints on long-term upslope range-shifts. In addition, behavioural rhythms can be affected by interspecific interactions, which can ameliorate or exacerbate climate-driven effects on ecology. Here, we investigate the relative influences of ambient temperature and an interaction with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) on the altitude use and activity budgets of a mountain ungulate, the Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). Chamois moved upslope when it was hotter but this effect was modest compared to that of the presence of sheep, to which they reacted by moving 89-103 m upslope, into an entirely novel altitudinal range. Across the European Alps, a range-shift of this magnitude corresponds to a 46% decrease in the availability of suitable foraging habitat. This highlights the importance of understanding how factors such as competition and disturbance shape a given species' realised niche when predicting potential future responses to change. Furthermore, it exposes the potential for manipulations of species interactions to ameliorate the impacts of climate change, in this case by the careful management of livestock. Such manipulations could be particularly appropriate for species where competition or disturbance already strongly restricts their available niche. Our results also reveal the potential role of behavioural flexibility in responses to climate change. Chamois reduced their activity when it was warmer, which could explain their modest altitudinal migrations. Considering this behavioural flexibility, our model predicts a small 15-30 m upslope shift by 2100 in response to climate change, less than 4% of the altitudinal shift that would be predicted using a traditional species distribution model-type approach (SDM), which assumes that species' behaviour remains unchanged as climate changes. Behavioural modifications could strongly affect how species respond to a changing climate. PMID:24957266

Mason, Tom H E; Stephens, Philip A; Apollonio, Marco; Willis, Stephen G

2014-12-01

338

Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

2006-01-01

339

The Effect of Schooling and Ability on Achievement Test Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; Kathleen J. Mullen

2003-01-01

340

The effect of schooling and ability on achievement test scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops two methods for estimating the effect of schooling on achievement test scores that control for the endogeneity of schooling by postulating that both schooling and test scores are generated by a common unobserved latent ability. These methods are applied to data on schooling and test scores. Estimates from the two methods are in close agreement. We find

Karsten T. Hansen; James J. Heckman; K. J. Kathleen J. Mullen

2004-01-01

341

Who, What, Where, When, and Why: Demographic and Ecological Factors Contributing to Hostile School Climate for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how locational (region and locale), community-level (school district poverty and adult educational attainment), and school district-level (district size and ratios of students to key school personnel) variables are related to indicators of hostile school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth.…

Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.

2009-01-01

342

Climatic effects on mosquito abundance in Mediterranean wetlands  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases is highly controversial. One of the principal points of debate is whether or not climate influences mosquito abundance, a key factor in disease transmission. Methods To test this hypothesis, we analysed ten years of data (2003–2012) from biweekly surveys to assess inter-annual and seasonal relationships between the abundance of seven mosquito species known to be pathogen vectors (West Nile virus, Usutu virus, dirofilariasis and Plasmodium sp.) and several climatic variables in two wetlands in SW Spain. Results Within-season abundance patterns were related to climatic variables (i.e. temperature, rainfall, tide heights, relative humidity and photoperiod) that varied according to the mosquito species in question. Rainfall during winter months was positively related to Culex pipiens and Ochlerotatus detritus annual abundances. Annual maximum temperatures were non-linearly related to annual Cx. pipiens abundance, while annual mean temperatures were positively related to annual Ochlerotatus caspius abundance. Finally, we modelled shifts in mosquito abundances using the A2 and B2 temperature and rainfall climate change scenarios for the period 2011–2100. While Oc. caspius, an important anthropophilic species, may increase in abundance, no changes are expected for Cx. pipiens or the salt-marsh mosquito Oc. detritus. Conclusions Our results highlight that the effects of climate are species-specific, place-specific and non-linear and that linear approaches will therefore overestimate the effect of climate change on mosquito abundances at high temperatures. Climate warming does not necessarily lead to an increase in mosquito abundance in natural Mediterranean wetlands and will affect, above all, species such as Oc. caspius whose numbers are not closely linked to rainfall and are influenced, rather, by local tidal patterns and temperatures. The final impact of changes in vector abundance on disease frequency will depend on the direct and indirect effects of climate and other parameters related to pathogen amplification and spillover on humans and other vertebrates. PMID:25030527

2014-01-01

343

Using Photo Elicitation Interview to Conceptualize In-Service Secondary School Science Teachers' Knowledge Base For Teaching Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo Elicitation Interviews (PEI) were used for assessing in-service secondary school teachers' conceptual understanding about global climate change (GCC). We selected PEI over attitude surveys, multiple-choice content assessments and interviews because we believe that evaluating knowledge about GCC requires an understanding of the system as a whole (Papadimitriou, 2004). Hence we conducted interviews with ten teachers using visual representations of GCC. The 8 images used in this approach were obtained from NASA image collection and local climatology websites. Questions associated with these images were developed, aligned with Essential Principles for Climate Literacy (NOAA, 2009) and interviews were conducted following a weeklong, summer professional development workshop based on propagating climate literacy. Image1 elicited teachers' understanding about global warming. Almost all said that they were intrigued but they needed for more evidence to fully understand the issue. Image 2 was designed to elicit teachers' understandings of weather vs. climate. All ten teachers were able to distinguish between weather and climate but were aware of how many years of weather data was needed to make climate predictions. Their answers varied from 10 years to 100 years. Image 3 showed the Greenhouse effect, which most of the teachers were able to describe but they were not able, describe 'enhanced green house effect'. Gaps in knowledge about 'earth as a radiating body' and 'long wave and short wave radiations' also became evident during the process. Similar to Grima et al., 2010, Gautier, 2006 and Kempton, 1991, three participants attributed the increase in global temperatures to the size of the ozone hole, which is a commonly held misconception. Image 4 showed an image of the Keeling curve, which was well explained by most, but only five teachers were able to identify the cause of seasonal fluctuations in the amount of carbon dioxide gas released in the atmosphere. Image 5 and 6 were a pictorial representation of the carbon dioxide levels and increasing temperatures in our atmosphere that all ten participants were able to describe confidently. Images7, 8 represented a flooding event in the Mississippi River in the Midwest USA. When asked about the direct and indirect impacts of changing climate especially in regards to flooding and droughts, all the participants mentioned that increasing temperatures are correlated with the increased chances of drought or precipitation. They attributed this to the global circulation pattern of winds. Most participants were not sure about the interplay of several factors at a very local scale. Using this process of PEI, we were able to analyze teachers' overall understanding of GCC along with their misconceptions. We also observed that all ten participants of this study displayed their strongest knowledge towards climate literacy principles 6 and 7 related to the causes and implications in a GCC scenario. There was a general lack of appreciation for feedbacks that occur within the climate system, with almost no mentions of the connection between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle.

Bhattacharya, D.; Roehrig, G.; Karahan, E.; Liu, S.

2013-12-01

344

Multi-factor climate change effects on insect herbivore performance  

PubMed Central

The impact of climate change on herbivorous insects can have far-reaching consequences for ecosystem processes. However, experiments investigating the combined effects of multiple climate change drivers on herbivorous insects are scarce. We independently manipulated three climate change drivers (CO2, warming, drought) in a Danish heathland ecosystem. The experiment was established in 2005 as a full factorial split-plot with 6 blocks × 2 levels of CO2 × 2 levels of warming × 2 levels of drought = 48 plots. In 2008, we exposed 432 larvae (n = 9 per plot) of the heather beetle (Lochmaea suturalis Thomson), an important herbivore on heather, to ambient versus elevated drought, temperature, and CO2 (plus all combinations) for 5 weeks. Larval weight and survival were highest under ambient conditions and decreased significantly with the number of climate change drivers. Weight was lowest under the drought treatment, and there was a three-way interaction between time, CO2, and drought. Survival was lowest when drought, warming, and elevated CO2 were combined. Effects of climate change drivers depended on other co-acting factors and were mediated by changes in plant secondary compounds, nitrogen, and water content. Overall, drought was the most important factor for this insect herbivore. Our study shows that weight and survival of insect herbivores may decline under future climate. The complexity of insect herbivore responses increases with the number of combined climate change drivers. PMID:23789058

Scherber, Christoph; Gladbach, David J; Stevnbak, Karen; Karsten, Rune Juelsborg; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Michelsen, Anders; Albert, Kristian Rost; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Beier, Claus; Christensen, Søren

2013-01-01

345

The Effects of School Bonding on High School Seniors' Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examine the effects of school bonding on academic achievement (measured by math achievement scores) in a sample of 12th graders from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (Ingels, Pratt, Rogers, Siegel, & Stutts, 2005). Components of school bonding have proximal and distal effects on academic achievement. Attachment to school and…

Bryan, Julia; Moore-Thomas, Cheryl; Gaenzle, Stacey; Kim, Jungnam; Lin, Chia-Huei; Na, Goeun

2012-01-01

346

Exploring Ice Sheets and Climate Change through Supercomputer Visualizations in Middle and Secondary Schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public awareness of changing atmospheric conditions, melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and sea level rise have become powerful instruments for intriguing and teaching middle and secondary science students the complex concepts of atmosphere-cryosphere interactions. Visualization of the changing atmosphere and cryosphere through simple mass balance and finite element ice sheet models developed at the University of Maine, coupled with supercomputing and the Maine Laptop Initiative (ITEST/IDEAS), allows students to explore climatic and mechanical influences on ice sheets. The simple mass balance model provides high-resolution global solutions of snow accumulation/ablation based on modern climatic conditions. Within the model, students are also able to change basic climate parameters such as global temperature and annual precipitation to produce departures from modern conditions to address questions such as “How cold would it have to be for there to be snow year-round on a specific mountain?” The finite element ice sheet model takes these solutions further by modeling the associated glaciers and ice sheets thus allowing students to see how ice sheets and glacial parameters are altered with a changing climate. Students are therefore provided with useful tools necessary to address questions facing modern society including, “Under what climatic conditions would the Greenland Ice Sheet collapse?” High-resolution visualizations of the Greenland Ice Sheet also allow students to investigate the concept of mechanical processes within the ice sheets including ice streams and calving that give rise to non-linear instabilities. With their understanding of climatic and mechanical effects on ice sheets, students will then be able to hypothesize and discuss how different parameters can stabilize or destabilize any ice sheet. With increased knowledge and understanding of atmosphere-cryosphere interactions and ice-sheet response to altered climatic conditions, students will be prepared to respond and address the growing concern of continued climatic change. This work was partially funded by NSF grant DRL 0737583.

Pingree, K. A.; Koons, P. O.; Birkel, S. D.; Segee, B.; Zhu, Y.; Schauffler, M.

2009-12-01

347

Effect of global climatic change on carbonation progress of concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years, global warming has dramatically increased the atmospheric carbon-dioxide (CO2) concentration and temperature. As a consequence of this, carbonation has become one of the most critical durability issues for concrete structures in urban environment.In this study, the climate scenario IS92a recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is used for evaluating the effect of CO2 concentration

In-Seok Yoon; O?uzhan Çopuro?lu; Ki-Bong Park

2007-01-01

348

Effect of climate change and resource scarcity on health care.  

PubMed

Climate change and resource scarcity pose significant threats to healthcare delivery. Nurses should develop the skills to cope with these challenges in the future. Skills sessions using sustainability scenarios can help nursing students to understand the effect climate change and resource scarcity will have on health care. Involving design students in clinical skills sessions can encourage multidisciplinary working and help to find solutions to promote healthcare sustainability. PMID:25005416

Richardson, Janet; Grose, Jane; Jackson, Bethany; Gill, Jamie-Lee; Sadeghian, Hannah Becky; Hertel, Johannes; Kelsey, Janet

2014-07-15

349

Quantifying the effect of model development in climate predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is widely used in various scientific studies. CMIP has evolved through several phases (CMIP5 being the latest), both in order to better serve the data users and to remain representative of the state of scientific understanding being embedded to existing global climate models. Improving the scientific process understanding in these climate models has, however, ambiguous effects to the projections of future climate change. Are the improved climate model projections always superior compared to the older ones? We analyze temperature, precipitation and mean sea level pressure from those idealized climate simulations where global CO2 concentration is increased 1 % annually, from 13 climate models that have each participated to CMIP2, CMIP3 and CMIP5. Using this multi-ensemble sample with identical climate forcing in all of the simulations, we are able to quantify the effect which model development has to the climate model projections in a multi-model framework. We apply analysis of variance (ANOVA) method to our data and divide the total uncertainty in future climate predictions into three components of: characteristic model-specific differences, systematic part of climate model development shared by all models in the ensemble and unsystematic part of it. The unsystematic model development component is the largest over most of the world, while the systematic part is the smallest. This indicates that (i) the selection of the version of a particular model has a larger impact on climate projections than the choice of the basic model, while (ii) the systematic changes from one model generation to another have the smallest impact. The latter indicates that deterministic multi-model-mean estimates have improved very little due to model development. Only regionally, near the sea ice borderline for temperature and additionally over the mid-latitudes for mean sea level pressure, the part of model development shared by all of the models is significantly larger that would had been achieved using random data. Model-specific differences are the most important uncertainty source over several land regions for temperature, while these regions are located over sea for mean sea level pressure. For precipitation, each of the patterns is very noisy and any obvious improvement in climate model projections is hard to assess. Multi-model-mean estimates of future climate change have little room for improvement, as the effects of model development on climate projections are mostly unsystematic. Process-based assessment of the disagreement between different climate models could have more potential in improving temperature predictions as compared to individual development of each climate model. We argue that most of the practically achievable information on large-scale climate change is already available. However, on a smaller scale potential for improvement can be larger.

Ylhäisi, Jussi S.; Räisänen, Jouni; Masson, David; Räty, Olle; Järvinen, Heikki

2014-05-01

350

Effects of Climate Change- Permafrost and Glaciers - Google Earth Virtual Field Trip Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this two-part virtual field trip, students will explore permafrost, the effects that climate change has on current infrastructures built on it and other environmental impacts. The 2008 ATEEC Fellows Institute brought 18 environmental science community college and high school instructors to Alaska. They created virtual field trips using Google Earth. Part two of this activity will take your class to various glaciers in Alaska and around the world. Students will learn about the effects climate change has on these receding glaciers and discover what it means on a broader level. Materials include an excellent teacher's guide to help instructors implement this lesson in their classroom. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

351

A new model of school culture: a response to a call for conceptual clarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Van Houtte (2005) called for clarification of the terms school culture and school climate and the role of each in school effectiveness research. This article presents a theoretical framework for school culture that asserts that it is a context-specific branch of organizational culture comprised of 4 dimensions and 3 levels. This conceptualization presents school climate as the second level of

La Tefy Schoen; Charles Teddlie

2008-01-01

352

Traffic-related air pollution, climate, and prevalence of eczema in Taiwanese school children.  

PubMed

The prevalence of childhood eczema is increasing in many countries. Epidemiological studies, however, say little of its association to outdoor air pollution and climate factors. We conducted a nationwide survey of middle-school students in Taiwan from 1995 to 1996. The 12-month prevalence of eczema was compared with air monitoring station data of temperature, relative humidity, and criteria air pollutants. A total of 317,926 children attended schools located within 2 km of 55 stations. Prevalence rates of recurrent eczema were 2.4 and 2.3% in boys and girls, respectively, with prevalence rates of flexural eczema 1.7% in both sexes. After adjustment for possible confounders, flexural eczema was found to be associated with traffic-related air pollutants, including nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Recurrent eczema was associated with traffic-related air pollution only in girls. There were no associations for the highest monthly means of temperature, whereas the annual means and the lowest monthly means of temperature were negatively related to flexural eczema, but only in girls. The lowest monthly mean relative humidity was positively related to eczema. The results suggest that air pollution and climatic factors, which showed stronger associations in girls than boys, may affect the prevalence of childhood eczema. PMID:18449213

Lee, Yung-Ling; Su, Huey-Jen; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Yu, Hsin-Su; Guo, Yueliang L

2008-10-01

353

Distribution-wide effects of climate on population densities of a declining migratory landbird  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Increases in global temperatures have created concern about effects of climatic vari- ability on populations, and climate has been shown to affect population dynamics in an increasing number of species. Testing for effects of climate on population densities across a species' distribution allows for elucidation of effects of climate that would not be apparent at smaller spatial scales.

ANGELA D. ANDERS; ERIC POST

2006-01-01

354

Making It Work: How Effective Schools Address the Impact of Crime in the Community on School Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable research on effective schools, but there is very little research on the impact community crime has on schools and the academic achievement of students. Within the framework of neighborhood effect theory and 90-90-90 schools, this study aimed to determine what adults in effective schools in low-income high minority schools in…

Safie, Omar.

2012-01-01

355

Effects of corpuscular radiation on weather and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is no doubt that the antropogenic effect play an important role in the effects of corpuscular radiation on weather and climate. The task, however, is to distinguish between antropogenic effect in the atmosphere due to human activities and natural climatic fluctuations influencing biological systems. The increase in global temperature during the past 100 years is in relatively good coincidence with the increase in geomagnetic (corpuscular) activity. It is concluded that it could have been the increase in temperature on the Northern Hemisphere, due to the processes occurring in the auroral oval under enhanced corpuscular radiation which led to an increased atmospheric concentration of CO2 in the past. Both processes, i.e., antropogenic and solar activity effects, should be therefore intensively studied due to their important role for elucidating the past and present global change mainly in temperature, climate and biological systems.

Bucha, V.

1989-01-01

356

The Relationship between Teachers' Five Perceived Factors of School Climate and Their Satisfaction at Selected (K-8) School Districts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This non-experimental quantitative study followed a correlational design that examined the relationship between five factors of school climate: a) leadership, b) professional development, c) salary, d) working condition, and e) teacher collaboration as measured by the modified version of Teacher's Perception of Factors Leading to Attrition…

Bitar, Maysa H.

2012-01-01

357

Effects Of Climate, Permafrost And Fire On Potential Vegetation Change In Siberia In A Warming Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century, which are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Increased permafrost melt and forest fire directly affected by climate warming are predicted to additionally influence vegetation change. Our goal is to model potential vegetation change across Siberia (within the territory between the Urals and Yakutia

N. M. Tchebakova; E. I. Parfenova; A. J. Soja

2008-01-01

358

The Impact of Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) Professional Development on Teacher Perceptions of School Culture and Climate in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines relationships between Advancement via Individual Determination (AVID) implementation and school culture and climate and between AVID professional development and teachers' perceptions of whether AVIDhas had an impact on their schools' culture and climate. More than 3,100 teachers attending professional development workshops…

Watt, Karen M.; Huerta, Jeffery; Mills, Shirley J.

2010-01-01

359

The Influence of Negative School Climate Factors on African American Adolescent Males' Academic Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the relationship between negative school climate factors (i.e., teacher neglect, peer rejection, discrimination) and academic outcomes amongst a sample of adolescent African American males. Specifically, this study directly examines a) the influence of negative school climate perceptions on the students' academic…

Herring, Melvin H.

2013-01-01

360

Effective Six-Year High Schools: Israeli Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to examine six-year high school effectiveness as perceived subjectively by different stakeholders in three different schools. It examines the attitudes of principals, teachers, students and parents towards specific characteristics of the effective six-year high school: (1) collaboration between students and teachers; (2)…

Ghilay, Yaron; Ghilay, Ruth

2010-01-01

361

Principal Succession and Changes in School Coupling and Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the effects of principal turnover on school organizational structures and effectiveness at elementary and secondary levels, the operations of schools that changed principals were compared to those that retained principals. Studies of organizational dynamics have identified important structural variables that can be applied to school

Miskel, Cecil; Owens, Melva

362

Religiosity and Parochial School Choice: Cause or Effect?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we examine the effect of religiosity as measured by attendance at religious services on religious school choice. Particular attention is given to the possibly endogenous relationship between school choice and religiosity. We find that religiosity has an important causal effect on the demand for parochial schools. It is also shown…

Sander, William; Cohen-Zada, Danny

2012-01-01

363

How shorter black carbon lifetime alters its climate effect.  

PubMed

Black carbon (BC), unlike most aerosol types, absorbs solar radiation. However, the quantification of its climate impact is uncertain and presently under debate. Recently, attention has been drawn both to a likely underestimation of global BC emissions in climate models, and an overestimation of BC at high altitudes. Here we show that doubling present day BC emissions in a model simulation, while reducing BC lifetime based on observational evidence, leaves the direct aerosol effect of BC virtually unchanged. Increased emissions, together with increased wet removal that reduces the lifetime, yields modelled BC vertical profiles that are in strongly improved agreement with recent aircraft observations. Furthermore, we explore the consequences of an altered BC profile in a global circulation model, and show that both the vertical profile of BC and rapid climate adjustments need to be taken into account in order to assess the total climate impact of BC. PMID:25255429

Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Samset, Bjørn H

2014-01-01

364

Whole-School Learning Reform: Effective Strategies from Thai Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides 4 selected strategies that were drawn from 135 schools that engaged in a research and development project to reform their teaching/learning from teacher-centered to learner-centered through a whole-school approach. The 4 strategies are provision for continuous internal supervision, exchanges of ideas and experiences,…

Khemmani, Tisana

2006-01-01

365

Beyond Effective Schools to Good Schools: Some First Steps.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research indicates that the characteristics of schools can affect student performance. School improvement reforms depend on the involvement of individual teachers and administrators, but research also suggests that individuals are more likely to commit themselves to change when a positive, supportive change environment pervades the entire…

Purkey, Stewart C.; Degen, Susan

1985-01-01

366

America's Climate Choices: Cross-Cutting Research Themes to Support Effective Responses to Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science Panel of the America’s Climate Choices project concluded that the climate science research enterprise has to make substantial shifts to better meet the needs of the emerging policy and decision landscape in the US. While much scientific attention in the past necessarily and to great success focused on the physical and biogeochemical aspects of understanding the climate-Earth system, much greater focus is now needed in also developing a science of responses to climate change. To that end, the ACC Science report recommended seven cross-cutting themes, three of which will be highlighted in this talk as they touch on topics the physical science community tends to be less familiar with: (1) vulnerability and adaptation analyses of coupled human-environment systems; (2) research on strategies for limiting climate change; and (3) effective information and decision support systems. The presentation will define and sketch out the potential scope of each of these areas and provide examples from various sectors highlighted in the Science panel report.

Moser, S. C.; America'S Climate Choices Science Panel

2010-12-01

367

Effective Engagement of Hostile Audiences on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communicating effectively about climate change can be very frustrating because hostility to climate science is rooted in deeply held beliefs rather than facts. Opposition can be more effectively countered by respecting ideological objections than by aggressive insistence on acceptance of consensus evidence. When presented with a stark choice between sacred beliefs and factual evidence, social science research shows that nearly everyone will choose the latter. Rational argument from authority is often the weakest approach in such situations. Climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

Denning, S.

2012-12-01

368

Climate-chemical interactions and greenhouse effects of trace gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A completely coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective (RC) and photochemical-diffusion (PC) model has been developed recently and used to study the climate-chemical interactions. The importance of radiative-chemical interactions within the troposphere and stratosphere has been examined in some detail. We find that increases of radiatively and/or chemically active trace gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O have both the direct effects and the indirect effects on climate change by changing the atmospheric O3 profile through their interaction with chemical processes in the atmosphere. It is also found that the climatic effect of ozone depends strongly on its vertical distribution throughout the troposphere and stratosphere, as well on its column amount in the atmosphere.

Shi, Guang-Yu; Fan, Xiao-Biao

1994-01-01

369

Effectiveness of School-Based Bullying Intervention Programs in Primary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bullying behavior has reached pandemic proportions and is a growing concern in primary school. Most intervention programs in primary school are focused on bullying prevention or principally on the behavior of the bully. The purpose of this study was to explore whether a school-based bullying intervention program is an effective method for reducing…

Dogini, Eric U.

2012-01-01

370

Effects of Participation in After-School Programs for Middle School Students: A Randomized Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the effects of attending an after-school program (ASP) on a range of outcomes for middle school youths. The program operated for 9 hr per week for 30 weeks and included attendance monitoring and reinforcement, academic assistance, a prevention curriculum, and recreational programming. Participants were 447 students randomly assigned either to the ASP or to after-school activities as

Denise Gottfredson; Amanda Brown Cross; Denise Wilson; Melissa Rorie; Nadine Connell

2010-01-01

371

Parents' involvement in school administration as a correlate of effectiveness of secondary schools in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examined the relationship between parents' involvement in school administration and effectiveness of secondary schools in Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population consisted of all the teachers, principals and parents of the students in public secondary schools in South-West Nigeria. The sample comprised 1200 teachers, 300 parents and 60 principals from 60 secondary

I. A. Ajayi; T. Ekundayo Haastrup; B. B. Arogundade

2009-01-01

372

The Mixed Effects of Schooling for High School Girls in Jordan: The Case of Tel Yahya  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Access to schooling for adolescent girls in Jordan is still relatively new. It has been only in the past generation that girls have gone on to high school in significant numbers, and outside of urban areas this phenomenon is even more recent. Given a near universal rate of high school entry today, it is important to investigate the effect of this…

Adely, Fida

2004-01-01

373

Statistical Tests Conducted with School Environment Data: The Effect of Teachers Being Clustered in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the effect of clustering on statistical tests conducted with school environment data. Because most school environment studies involve the collection of data from teachers nested within schools, the hierarchical nature to these data cannot be ignored. In particular, this article considers the influence of intraschool…

Dorman, Jeffrey P.

2009-01-01

374

School Effects on Pupils' Health Behaviours: Evidence in Support of the Health Promoting School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with the volume of research on school effects on educational outcomes, and in spite of growing interest in the health promoting school, there are very few studies that have investigated the way schools influence pupils' health behaviours. This paper reports the results of a longitudinal study of over 2000 young people in the West of…

West, P.; Sweeting, H.; Leyland, A.

2004-01-01

375

The Effectiveness Level of School Administrator's Coaching Characteristic on School's Being Learning Organization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness level of the coaching skills of school administrators on the school becoming a learning organization. The population of the study consists of teachers who are working at public and private secondary schools affiliated to Ministry of National Education, Kutahya Province National Education…

Egmir, Eray; Yoruk, Sinan

2013-01-01

376

The Effects of School Gardens on Students and Schools: Conceptualization and Considerations for Maximizing Healthy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are thousands of school gardens in the United States, and there is anecdotal evidence that school garden programs can enhance students' learning in academic, social, and health-related domains. There has been little rigorous research, however, on the effects of school gardens or on the factors that promote the sustainability of these programs. This review draws on ecological theory to

Emily J. Ozer

2007-01-01

377

The Relationship between Principal Leadership Effectiveness and School Performance in South Carolina High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical component for successful schools is effective leadership. In the 1980's the concept of leadership emerged and the rules changed for school principals (Lashway, 2002). Previously, administrators were primarily evaluated based upon their abilities in managing school facilities and operations efficiently. Academics became the new focus.…

Lempesis, Costa

2009-01-01

378

School Violence Prevention: The Effects of a University and High School Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study assessed the level of violence in three high schools, testing the effects of universal and targeted strategies to reduce this violence. Pre- and post-intervention data from control and intervention schools indicated that student reports of perpetration at the intervention school were significantly lower than the combined scores at the…

Renfro, Joy; Huebner, Ruth; Ritchey, Becky

2003-01-01

379

Effect of a School Choice Policy Change on Active Commuting to Elementary School.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose . The purposes of this study were to assess the effect of restricting school choice on changes in travel distance to school and transportation mode for elementary school students. Design . Study design was pre-post (spring 2010-fall 2010) quasi-experimental. Setting . Study setting was all public elementary schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Subjects . Subjects comprised approximately 20,500 students across 39 schools. Intervention . Study assessed a school choice policy change that restricted school choice to a school closer to the family's home. Measures . School district transportation data were used to determine distance to school. Direct observations of student travel modes (two morning and two afternoon commutes at each time point) were used to assess transportation mode. Analysis . Chi-square and independent-sample t-tests were calculated to describe the schools. Repeated measures general linear models were used to assess changes in travel distance to school and observed commuting behavior. Results . Distance to school significantly decreased (1.83 ± .48 miles to 1.74 ± .46 miles; p = .002). We failed to observe any significant changes in morning (+.7%) or afternoon (-.7%) active commuting (both p = .08) or the number of automobiles in the morning (-7 autos per school; p = .06) or afternoon (+3 autos per school; p = .14). Conclusion . The more restrictive school choice policy decreased distance to school but had no significant effect on active commuting. Policy interventions designed to increase active commuting to school may require additional time to gain traction and programmatic support to induce changes in behavior. PMID:25162323

Sirard, John R; McDonald, Kelsey; Mustain, Patrick; Hogan, Whitney; Helm, Alison

2014-08-27

380

Middle school students' conceptual change in global climate change: Using argumentation to foster knowledge construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the framework theory of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct incorrect ideas with correct ones, but instead weigh incoming ideas against already existing explanatory frameworks, which have likely served the learner well to this point. The research questions were as follows: (1) What are the patterns of students' conceptual change in GCC? (a) What conceptions are invoked in student learning in this arena? (b) What conceptions are most influential? (c) What are the extra-rational factors influencing conceptual change in GCC? This research took place in an urban public school in a medium sized city in the southeastern United States. A sixth grade science teacher at Central Middle school, Ms. Octane, taught a course titled "Research Methods I., which was an elective science course that students took as part of a science magnet program. A unit was designed for 6th grade instruction that incorporated an Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) approach, centered on the subject matter of Global Climate change and Global Warming. Students were immersed in three separate lessons within the unit, each of which featured an emphasis upon creating scientific explanations based upon evidence. Additionally, each of the lessons placed a premium on students working towards the development of such explanations as a part of a group, with an emphasis on peer review of the robustness of the explanations proposed. The students were involved in approximately a two week unit emphasizing global climate change. This unit was based on an argumentation model that provided data to students and asked them to develop explanations that accounted for the data. The students then underwent a peer-review process to determine if their explanations could be modified to better account for the data as pointed out by peers. As the students experienced the three lessons comprising the unit, data were taken of various modes, including pre-unit, mid-unit, post-unit, and delayed-post unit interviews, observer notes from the classroom, and artifacts created by the students as individuals and as members of a group. At the end of the unit, a written post-assessment was administered, and post-interviews were conducted with the selected students. These varied data sources were analyzed in order to develop themes corresponding to their frameworks of climate change. Negative cases were sought in order to test developing themes. Themes that emerged from the data were triangulated across the various data sources in order to ensure quality and rigor. These themes were then used to construct understandings of various students' frameworks of the content. Several findings emerged from this research. The first finding is that each student underwent some conceptual change regarding GCC, although of varying natures. The students' synthetic frameworks of GCC were more complex than their initial, or naive frameworks. Some characteristics of the naive frameworks included that the students tended to conflate climate change with a broader, generic category of environmental things. Examples of this conflation include the idea that climate change entails general pollution, litter, and needless killing of dolphins while fishing for tuna. This research suggests that students might benefit from explicit attention to this concept in terms of an ontological category, with the ideal synthetic view realizing that GCC is itself an example of an emergent process. Another characteristic of their naive frameworks includes some surprisingly accurate notions of GCC, including a general sense that temperatures and sea levels are rising. At the same time, none of the students were able to adequately invoke data to support their understandings of GCC. Instead, when data were invoked, students tended to include anecdotal informat

Golden, Barry W.

381

Leadership and Learning: A Measurement-Based Approach for Analyzing School Effectiveness and Developing Effective School Leaders. Project Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attending to the questions of how school leadership influences learning and achievement and what effective school leaders do, this document describes a measurement-based approach for studying and developing effective school leadership. The document details the conception, refinement, and psychometric properties of the Instructional Leadership…

Krug, Samuel E.

382

Conceptualizing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers' Knowledge Base for Climate Change Content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to deepen teachers' knowledge of the science of climate change is crucial under a global climate change (GCC) scenario. With effective collaboration between researchers, scientists and teachers, conceptual frameworks can be developed for creating climate change content for classroom implementation. Here, we discuss how teachers' conceptualized content knowledge about GCC changes over the course of a professional development program in which they are provided with place-based and culturally congruent content. The NASA-funded Global Climate Change Education (GCCE) project, "CYCLES: Teachers Discovering Climate Change from a Native Perspective", is a 3-year teacher professional development program designed to develop culturally-sensitive approaches for GCCE in Native American communities using traditional knowledge, data and tools. As a part of this program, we assessed the progression in the content knowledge of participating teachers about GCC. Teachers were provided thematic GCC content focused on the elements of the medicine wheel-Earth, Fire, Air, Water, and Life -during a one week summer workshop. Content was organized to emphasize explanations of the natural world as interconnected and cyclical processes and to align with the Climate and Earth Science Literacy Principles and NASA resources. Year 1 workshop content was focused on the theme of "Earth" and teacher knowledge was progressively increased by providing content under the themes of 1) understanding of timescale, 2) understanding of local and global perspectives, 3) understanding of proxy data and 4) ecosystem connectivity. We used a phenomenographical approach for data analysis to qualitatively investigate different ways in which the teachers experienced and conceptualized GCC. We analyzed categories of teachers' climate change knowledge using information generated by tools such as photo elicitation interviews, concept maps and reflective journal perceptions. Preliminary findings from the pre-workshop interviews indicate teachers' different perceptions about timescale, their understanding about data projections using modeling, and their acceptance of the level of uncertainty in the data. Preliminary results from the progressive mapping of the core concepts highlighted 1) a direct correlation between the content provided and the concepts generated. 2) misconceptions generated during the process and 3) connections between various concepts related to the science of global climate change. Analysis of the responses of teachers to the content-based questions revealed a gradual progression in understanding of the science behind GCC. While the initial responses were limited to what causes GCC, later ones were based on local and global implications of GCC and possible adaptive solutions for the same. Our results will provide crucial information about providing conceptual knowledge and addressing misconceptions regarding the science of climate change. The information generated by this study can be used to further develop theme-based structured curricula to enhance teachers' understanding of the phenomenon of GCC.

Campbell, K. M.; Roehrig, G.; Dalbotten, D. M.; Bhattacharya, D.; Nam, Y.; Varma, K.; Wang, J.

2011-12-01

383

The Effect of Outsourcing on the Performance of Public Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public education in the 21st century is faced with many difficult challenges. The first and probably most common issue is related to finance. As the economy continues to worsen, school districts are forced to find new revenue streams while at the same time reducing expenditures. In the current economic climate, it is becoming more difficult for…

Rivera, Lonny J.

2009-01-01

384

Climate change effects on river flow to the Baltic Sea.  

PubMed

River flow to the Baltic Sea originates under a range of different climate regimes in a drainage basin covering some 1,600,000 km2. Changes to the climate in the Baltic Basin will not only affect the total amount of freshwater flowing into the sea, but also the distribution of the origin of these flows. Using hydrological modeling, the effects of future climate change on river runoff to the Baltic Sea have been analyzed. Four different climate change scenarios from the Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Programme (SWECLIM) were used. The resulting change to total mean annual river flow to the Baltic Sea ranges from -2% to +15% of present-day flow according to the different climate scenarios. The magnitude of changes within different subregions of the basin varies considerably, with the most severe mean annual changes ranging from -30% to +40%. However, common to all of the scenarios evaluated is a general trend of reduced river flow from the south of the Baltic Basin together with increased river flow from the north. PMID:15264602

Graham, L Phil

2004-06-01

385

Water, Biodiversity and Climate Change Studies in International Schools Network of the Park Škocjan Caves, Slovenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As UNESCO World Heritage Site, Ramsar Site and Biosphere Reserve the Park Škocjan Caves strongly believes in development of quality educational programme in order to fulfill the guidelines of international conventions and also provide for awareness and development in the future. Ten years ago we started with water analysis projects and performed several projects related to natural, cultural and social aspect of water protection. We developed a special model of training the teachers and educating the children. Together we have accomplished two international projects, two national project and several research projects dealing with The Reka river and karst phenomena. In 2003 we officially established the schools network, where we join in research education programmes five elementary schools form Slovenia and two from Italy. They are all located beside the surface and underground flow of the Reka River. Fifteen teachers and more than hundred children are involved in educational programme every year. Our work in the schools network enables us to bring science to society in a comprehensive way including the scientists and their work in preparation and implementation of projects. With teachers help we promote science studies but also encourage children to do social projects in order to keep intergeneration connections and gain knowledge of past experience and life from our grandparents. The paper will present the role of protected area in public awareness and education with special emphasis on natural phenomena of water in the Karst region as a toll for joint work in the field for scientists and school children. Chemical and biological analysis of the Reka River and other water bodies will be presented and accompanied with the biodiversity survey and climate change research projects. New approach of performing the research studies and presentation of results for schoolchildren will be explained.

Debevec Gerjevic, Vanja

2010-05-01

386

The Relationship between Political Participation Intentions of Adolescents and a Participatory Democratic Climate at School in 35 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the literature it is expected that a participatory democratic climate is associated with civic and political engagement intentions of adolescents. In this paper we use a three level multilevel analysis to explore these relations: the individual, school and country level. Using data from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study…

Quintelier, Ellen; Hooghe, Marc

2013-01-01

387

Shallow Horizontal GCHP Effectiveness in Arid Climate Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground coupled heat pumps (GCHPs) have been used successfully in many environments to improve the heating and cooling efficiency of both small and large scale buildings. In arid climate regions, such as the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area, where the air condi-tioning load is dominated by cooling in the summer, GCHPs are difficult to install and operate. This is because the nature of soils in arid climate regions, in that they are both dry and hot, renders them particularly ineffective at dissipating heat. The first part of this thesis addresses applying the SVHeat finite element modeling soft-ware to create a model of a GCHP system. Using real-world data from a prototype solar-water heating system coupled with a ground-source heat exchanger installed in Menlo Park, California, a relatively accurate model was created to represent a novel GCHP panel system installed in a shallow vertical trench. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the calibrated model. The second part of the thesis involved adapting the calibrated model to represent an ap-proximation of soil conditions in arid climate regions, using a range of thermal properties for dry soils. The effectiveness of the GCHP in the arid climate region model was then evaluated by comparing the thermal flux from the panel into the subsurface profile to that of the prototype GCHP. It was shown that soils in arid climate regions are particularly inefficient at heat dissipation, but that it is highly dependent on the thermal conductivity inputted into the model. This demonstrates the importance of proper site characterization in arid climate regions. Finally, several soil improvement methods were researched to evaluate their potential for use in improving the effectiveness of shallow horizontal GCHP systems in arid climate regions.

North, Timothy James

388

Contrasting Effects of Climate Change on Rabbit Populations through Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Background Climate change is affecting many physical and biological processes worldwide. Anticipating its effects at the level of populations and species is imperative, especially for organisms of conservation or management concern. Previous studies have focused on estimating future species distributions and extinction probabilities directly from current climatic conditions within their geographical ranges. However, relationships between climate and population parameters may be so complex that to make these high-level predictions we need first to understand the underlying biological processes driving population size, as well as their individual response to climatic alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence that climate change may have on species population dynamics through altering breeding season. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a mechanistic model based on drivers of rabbit reproductive physiology together with demographic simulations to show how future climate-driven changes in breeding season result in contrasting rabbit population trends across Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula, where rabbits are a native species of high ecological and economic value, breeding seasons will shorten and become more variable leading to population declines, higher extinction risk, and lower resilience to perturbations. Whereas towards north-eastern countries, rabbit numbers are expected to increase through longer and more stable reproductive periods, which augment the probability of new rabbit invasions in those areas. Conclusions/Significance Our study reveals the type of mechanisms through which climate will cause alterations at the species level and emphasizes the need to focus on them in order to better foresee large-scale complex population trends. This is especially important in species like the European rabbit whose future responses may aggravate even further its dual keystone/pest problematic. Moreover, this approach allows us to predict not only distribution shifts but also future population status and growth, and to identify the demographic parameters on which to focus to mitigate global change effects. PMID:23152836

Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy

2012-01-01

389

Climate Conditioning for the Learning Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses heating, cooling, and ventilation for the classroom in relationship to students' learning abilities. It is designed to assist school boards, administrators, architects and engineers in understanding the beneficial effects of total climate control, and in evaluating the climate conditioning systems available for schools. Discussion…

Perkins and Will, Architects, Chicago, IL.

390

Classroom Computer Climate, Teacher Reflections and "Reenvisioning" Pedagogy in Australian Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerable resources have been committed to providing information and communication technology in Australian schools. However, little is known about their effects on professional practice and student learning. This paper reports two main aspects of the data emerging from a current, ongoing three-year study (2002-04) Years 3, 5 and 7 of…

Robertson, Margaret; Fluck, Andrew; Webb, Ivan; Loechel, Barton

2004-01-01

391

Cooling the Climate Using Peace Education in an Urban Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details implementation of a peace education program in a Milwaukee, Wisconsin, middle school in order to help students understand the nature of violence and to stress the potential of nonviolence in solving problems caused by conflict. Considers including peace efforts in the curriculum, learning and practicing nonviolence, and the effects of the…

Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes; Harris, Ian M.

1998-01-01

392

Communicating climate science to high school students in the Arctic: Adventure Learning @ Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adventure Learning @ Greenland (AL@GL) engaged high school students in atmospheric research in the Arctic and in local environments to enhance climate literacy. The overarching objective for this project was to support climate literacy in high school students, specifically the concept of energy exchange between the Earth, atmosphere, and space. The goal then is to produce a model of education and outreach for remote STEM research that can be used to meaningfully engage K-12 and public communities. Over the course of the program experience, students conducted scientific inquiry associated with their place that supported a more focused science content at a field location. Approximately 45 students participated in the hybrid learning environments as part of this project at multiple locations in Idaho, USA, and Greenland. In Greenland, the Summit Camp research station located on the Greenland Ice Sheet was the primary location. The AL@GL project provided a compelling opportunity to engage students in an inquiry-based curriculum alongside a cutting-edge geophysical experiment at Summit: the Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) experiment. ICECAPS measures parameters that are closely tied to those identified in student misconceptions. Thus, ICECAPS science and the AL@ approach combined to create a learning environment that was practical, rich, and engaging. Students participating in this project were diverse, rural, and traditionally underrepresented. Groups included: students participating in a field school at Kangerlussuaq, Greenland and Summit Station as members of the JSEP; students at MOSS will were part of the Upward Bound Math Science (UBMS) and HOIST (Helping Orient Indian Students and Teachers) project. These project serve high school students who are first college generation and from low-income families. JSEP is an international group of students from the United States, Greenland, and Denmark. As a result of this project a model for education and outreach for remote science research was developed. The AL@ GL project was interested in the impact on student science and climate literacy. Survey data was collected from student participants two times and the surveys included questions pertaining to student knowledge of atmospheric science and climate and their impressions on scientific inquiry, and student interest and skills in technology. A subset of students were interviewed using a semi-structured, open-ended protocol at the end of the AL@ GL expedition. Beyond reaching 45 students directly through AL@GL instruction and field experiences, the web-based platform for communicating within this project reached over 10,000 site visits. This platform can be viewed at adventurelearningat.org and includes photos, videos and authentic narratives of the students and scientists involved with the project. The Adventure Learning @ (AL@) approach presents a powerful tool for teaching and learning exploring novel places through technology-rich curricula. By defining problems of local interest, and working with experts with local knowledge who have connections to the community, students can come to think of themselves as experts, scientists, and problem solvers within their own places.

Hougham, R. J.; Miller, B.; Cox, C. J.

2012-12-01

393

Estimating how inflated or obscured effects of climate affect forecasted species distribution.  

PubMed

Climate is one of the main drivers of species distribution. However, as different environmental factors tend to co-vary, the effect of climate cannot be taken at face value, as it may be either inflated or obscured by other correlated factors. We used the favourability models of four species (Alytes dickhilleni, Vipera latasti, Aquila fasciata and Capra pyrenaica) inhabiting Spanish mountains as case studies to evaluate the relative contribution of climate in their forecasted favourability by using variation partitioning and weighting the effect of climate in relation to non-climatic factors. By calculating the pure effect of the climatic factor, the pure effects of non-climatic factors, the shared climatic effect and the proportion of the pure effect of the climatic factor in relation to its apparent effect (?), we assessed the apparent effect and the pure independent effect of climate. We then projected both types of effects when modelling the future favourability for each species and combination of AOGCM-SRES (two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models: CGCM2 and ECHAM4, and two Special Reports on Emission Scenarios (SRES): A2 and B2). The results show that the apparent effect of climate can be either inflated (overrated) or obscured (underrated) by other correlated factors. These differences were species-specific; the sum of favourable areas forecasted according to the pure climatic effect differed from that forecasted according to the apparent climatic effect by about 61% on average for one of the species analyzed, and by about 20% on average for each of the other species. The pure effect of future climate on species distributions can only be estimated by combining climate with other factors. Transferring the pure climatic effect and the apparent climatic effect to the future delimits the maximum and minimum favourable areas forecasted for each species in each climate change scenario. PMID:23349726

Real, Raimundo; Romero, David; Olivero, Jesús; Estrada, Alba; Márquez, Ana L

2013-01-01

394

Teachers', parents', and students' perceptions of effective school characteristics of two Texas urban exemplary open-enrollment charter schools  

E-print Network

) safe and orderly environment, (d) positive school climate, (e) high expectations, (f) frequent monitoring, (g) basic skills, (h) opportunities for learning, (i) parent and community involvement, (j) professional development and (k) teacher involvement...

Albert - Green, DeEadra Florence

2005-11-01

395

Effective Schools: Critical Issues in the Education of Black Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays focuses on how Ronald Edmond's work on effective schools and school improvement can affect the education of black children. The book represents a cooperative effort of the Charles D. Moody Research Institute, established as a vehicle for the program services of the National Alliance of Black School Educators (NABSE), and…

Bates, Percy, Ed.; Wilson, Ted, Ed.

396

Effective 3/1/03 WHITING SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

1 Effective 3/1/03 WHITING SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING PRODCEDURES FOR DEALING WITH ISSUES of the General Counsel 7. Exclusivity of Procedure 1. Introduction The Whiting School of Engineering is dedicated administrative staff of the Whiting School of Engineering (hereafter WSE). It is not intended

Ghosh, Somnath

397

School Level Conditions Affecting the Effectiveness of Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the current status of school level factors, as they appear in research reviews and in school effectiveness models is criticised both from a theoretical and from an empirical perspective. School level factors are often related to student achievement without taking into account the classroom level, where teaching and learning primarily take place. As a theoretical alternative, an

Bert P. M. Creemers; Gerry J. Reezigt

1996-01-01

398

Leadership effects on student achievement and sustained school success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of leadership on student achievement and sustained school success, especially in challenging, high-poverty schools. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper combines a review of the leadership literature with findings drawn from longitudinal studies of the International Successful School Principalship Project (ISSPP). Findings – Direction setting, developing people and redesigning the

Stephen Jacobson

2011-01-01

399

Rethinking School Effectiveness and Improvement: A Question of Paradigms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to contribute to progressive school change by developing a more systematic critique of school effectiveness (SE) and school improvement (SI) as paradigms. Diverse examples of paradigms and paradigm change in non-educational fields are used to create a model of paradigms for application to SE and SI, and to explore…

Wrigley, Terry

2013-01-01

400

The Effective High School Principal: Sketches for a Portrait.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there has been a paucity of research on what effective secondary school principals do, two recent studies offer some clues. A 1983 report by William Firestone and Bruce Wilson asserts that a high school principal may best be able to influence the school through bureaucratic and cultural linkages. Bureaucratic linkages are formal enduring…

Mazzarella, Jo Ann

1985-01-01

401

The Stability of School Effectiveness Indices across Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School effectiveness indices (SEIs) based on residuals from regressing test performance in reading and mathematics onto prior-year test performance and a socioeconomic status measure (percentage eligible for a subsidized lunch program) were obtained for two consecutive years for 431 South Carolina elementary schools. The analysis involved school

Mandeville, Garrett K.

402

Effects of changes in climate on landscape and regional processes, and feedbacks to the climate system.  

PubMed

Biological and physical processes in the Arctic system operate at various temporal and spatial scales to impact large-scale feedbacks and interactions with the earth system. There are four main potential feedback mechanisms between the impacts of climate change on the Arctic and the global climate system: albedo, greenhouse gas emissions or uptake by ecosystems, greenhouse gas emissions from methane hydrates, and increased freshwater fluxes that could affect the thermohaline circulation. All these feedbacks are controlled to some extent by changes in ecosystem distribution and character and particularly by large-scale movement of vegetation zones. Indications from a few, full annual measurements of CO2 fluxes are that currently the source areas exceed sink areas in geographical distribution. The little available information on CH4 sources indicates that emissions at the landscape level are of great importance for the total greenhouse balance of the circumpolar North. Energy and water balances of Arctic landscapes are also important feedback mechanisms in a changing climate. Increasing density and spatial expansion of vegetation will cause a lowering of the albedo and more energy to be absorbed on the ground. This effect is likely to exceed the negative feedback of increased C sequestration in greater primary productivity resulting from the displacements of areas of polar desert by tundra, and areas of tundra by forest. The degradation of permafrost has complex consequences for trace gas dynamics. In areas of discontinuous permafrost, warming, will lead to a complete loss of the permafrost. Depending on local hydrological conditions this may in turn lead to a wetting or drying of the environment with subsequent implications for greenhouse gas fluxes. Overall, the complex interactions between processes contributing to feedbacks, variability over time and space in these processes, and insufficient data have generated considerable uncertainties in estimating the net effects of climate change on terrestrial feedbacks to the climate system. This uncertainty applies to magnitude, and even direction of some of the feedbacks. PMID:15573573

Callaghan, Terry V; Björn, Lars Olof; Chernov, Yuri; Chapin, Terry; Christensen, Torben R; Huntley, Brian; Ims, Rolf A; Johansson, Margareta; Jolly, Dyanna; Jonasson, Sven; Matveyeva, Nadya; Panikov, Nicolai; Oechel, Walter; Shaver, Gus; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Sitch, Stephen

2004-11-01

403

The Longitudinal Impact of a Universal School-Based Social-Emotional and Literacy Intervention on Classroom Climate and Teacher Processes and Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation capitalizes on a three-year, longitudinal, school-randomized trial of the 4Rs Program, a comprehensive, school-based social-emotional and literacy program for elementary schools, to test intervention induced changes in features of classroom climate and key dimensions of teacher affective and pedagogical processes and practices…

Brown, Joshua L.; Jones, Stephanie M.; Aber, J. Lawrence

2010-01-01

404

Climate change: Effects on reef island resources  

SciTech Connect

The salinity, depth, quantity, and reliability of fresh groundwater resources on coral reef islands and coastlines are environmentally important parameters. Groundwater influences or controls the terrestrial flora, salinity, and nutrient levels in the near-shore benthic environment, the rate and nature of sediment diagenesis, and the density of human habitation. Data from a number of Indo-Pacific reef islands suggest that freshwater inventory is a function of rainfall and island dimensions. A numerical model (SUTRA) has been used to simulate the responses of atoll island groundwater to changes in recharge (precipitation), sea level, and loss of island area due to flooding. The model has been calibrated for Enjebi Island, Enewetak Atoll, where a moderately permeable, water-table aquifer overlies a high-permeability formation. Total freshwater inventory is a monotonic but nonlinear function of recharge. If recharge and island area are constant, rising sea level increases the inventory of fresh water by increasing the useful volume of the aquifer above the high-permeability zone. Flooding of land area reduces the total freshwater inventory approximately in proportion to the loss of recharge area. The most significant results of the model simulation, however, are the findings that the inventory of low-salinity water (and by extrapolation, potable water) is disproportionately sensitive to changes in recharge, island dimensions, or recharge. Island freshwater resources may therefore be unexpectedly vulnerable to climate change.

Oberdorfer, J.A.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1988-06-27

405

Aerosol indirect effect on biogeochemical cycles and climate.  

PubMed

The net effect of anthropogenic aerosols on climate is usually considered the sum of the direct radiative effect of anthropogenic aerosols, plus the indirect effect of these aerosols through aerosol-cloud interactions. However, an additional impact of aerosols on a longer time scale is their indirect effect on climate through biogeochemical feedbacks, largely due to changes in the atmospheric concentration of CO(2). Aerosols can affect land and ocean biogeochemical cycles by physical forcing or by adding nutrients and pollutants to ecosystems. The net biogeochemical effect of aerosols is estimated to be equivalent to a radiative forcing of -0.5 ± 0.4 watts per square meter, which suggests that reaching lower carbon targets will be even costlier than previously estimated. PMID:22076375

Mahowald, Natalie

2011-11-11

406

Potential Effects of Amazon Deforestation on Tropical Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the results of a study in which climate modeling was used to examine the effects of deforestation in the Amazon basin. The study concluded that changes in land surface properties (loss of forest cover) cause changes in the mean surface wind stress in the tropical Pacific, which in turn results in increased variability of El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events.

407

Effects of climate on chemical_ weathering in watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climatic effects on chemical weathering are evaluated by correlating variations On solute concentrations and fluxes with temperature, precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET) for a worldwide distribution of sixty-eight watersheds underlain by granitoid rock types. Stream solute concentrations are strongly correlated with proportional ET loss, and evaporative concentration makes stream solute concentrations an inappropriate surrogate for chemical weathering. Chemical fluxes are

Art F. White; Alex E. Blum

1995-01-01

408

An annotated bibliography on the greenhouse effect and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on climate change from an enhanced greenhouse effect is large and growing rapidly. The problems considered are increasingly inter-disciplinary. For these reasons many workers will find useful pointers to the literature in the fields interacting with, but outside of, their own. We present here an annotated bibliography on issues relating to changes in the concentrations of Earth's greenhouse

Mark David Handel; James S. Risbey

1992-01-01

409

Effects of pre-industrial human activities on climate.  

PubMed

Pre-industrial human activities which changed the atmospheric greenhouse gas or aerosol loading, or which modified the properties of the earth's surface, such as albedo, roughness, or vegetation cover, had the potential to modify the regional or even global climate. The primary activities which could have produced these effects were deforestation, burning, and agriculture. These activities were not independent, and often occurred together. Deforestation could have produced warming or cooling at the surface, and different effects on different scales, depending on the fate of the biomass removed and the new use of the land. Burning is much less now than it was in the past in some regions, which would have produced warming as the burning decreased. This may be a partial explanation for the Little Ice Age. While a thorough survey of such pre-industrial human activities is called for, current information indicates that regional climatic effects were large in some regions, such as western North America, and hemispheric or global effects were possible. Once these pre-industrial human climatic forcing factors are better quantified, existing numerical models of the climate can be used to examine the impacts on regional and global scales. PMID:7953464

Robock, A; Graf, H F

1994-09-01

410

A Study of Support Services in Schools and Their Relationship with School Effectiveness in American Public Schools: Findings from the School and Staffing Survey (Sass) 2007-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study inquires into support services in schools and their relationship to school effectiveness by using data from the National Center for Education Statistics 2007-2008 School and Staffing Survey (SASS). Students' ability to learn is impacted by their physical and mental health. It is more difficult to measure the influence of…

Gibbs, Diane J.

2012-01-01

411

Perceived motivational climate and intrinsic motivation in school physical education classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that dispositional achievement goal orientations have important effects on motivation, affect and behaviour\\u000a in sport and physical activity. However, rather less is known about the relationship between perceived ethos, or climate,\\u000a of physical education (P.E.) classes and subsequent motivation. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the\\u000a psychometric properties of an inventory assessing P.E. class

Marios Goudas; Stuart Biddle

1994-01-01

412

Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India.  

PubMed

In recent decades, there has been a tendency toward increased summer floods in south China, increased drought in north China, and moderate cooling in China and India while most of the world has been warming. We used a global climate model to investigate possible aerosol contributions to these trends. We found precipitation and temperature changes in the model that were comparable to those observed if the aerosols included a large proportion of absorbing black carbon ("soot"), similar to observed amounts. Absorbing aerosols heat the air, alter regional atmospheric stability and vertical motions, and affect the large-scale circulation and hydrologic cycle with significant regional climate effects. PMID:12351786

Menon, Surabi; Hansen, James; Nazarenko, Larissa; Luo, Yunfeng

2002-09-27

413

Research on the climatic effects of nuclear winter: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) has undertaken a series of research efforts to develop and implement improvements to the Community Climate Model (CCM) needed to make the model more applicable to studies of the climatic effects of nuclear war. The development of the model improvements has reached a stage where implementation may proceed, and several of the developed routines are being incorporated into the next approved version of the CCM (CCM1). Formal documentation is being completed describing the specific model improvements that have been successfully implemented. This final report includes the series of annual proposals and progress reports that have guided the project.

Dickinson, R.E.

1986-12-03

414

Greenhouse Effect/Climate Change/Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The terms greenhouse effect, climate change, and global warming are often used interchangeably, yet they really refer to three separate and distinct processes. This activity examines all three and assesses whether Earth's atmosphere is getting warmer. Students will read two articles from the journal of Science that discuss the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and investigate the bias of both groups of authors. This activity requires the use of two articles from the July 20, 2001 issue of the journal Science.

Chris Fox

415

The Effect of School Quality on Black-White Health Differences: Evidence From Segregated Southern Schools  

PubMed Central

This study assesses the effect of black-white differences in school quality on black-white differences in health in later life resulting from the racial convergence in school quality for cohorts born between 1910 and 1950 in southern states with segregated schools. Using data from the 1984 through 2007 National Health Interview Surveys linked to race-specific data on school quality, we find that reductions in the black-white gap in school quality led to modest reductions in the black-white gap in disability. PMID:23839102

Frisvold, David; Golberstein, Ezra

2013-01-01

416

Climate change effects on soil microarthropod abundance and community structure  

SciTech Connect

Long-term ecosystem responses to climate change strongly depend on how the soil subsystem and its inhabitants respond to these perturbations. Using open-top chambers, we studied the response of soil microarthropods to single and combined effects of ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}], ambient and elevated temperatures and changes in precipitation in constructed old-fields in Tennessee, USA. Microarthropods were assessed five years after treatments were initiated and samples were collected in both November and June. Across treatments, mites and collembola were the most dominant microarthropod groups collected. We did not detect any treatment effects on microarthropod abundance. In November, but not in June, microarthropod richness, however, was affected by the climate change treatments. In November, total microarthropod richness was lower in dry than in wet treatments, and in ambient temperature treatments, richness was higher under elevated [CO{sub 2}] than under ambient [CO{sub 2}]. Differential responses of individual taxa to the climate change treatments resulted in shifts in community composition. In general, the precipitation and warming treatments explained most of the variation in community composition. Across treatments, we found that collembola abundance and richness were positively related to soil moisture content, and that negative relationships between collembola abundance and richness and soil temperature could be explained by temperature-related shifts in soil moisture content. Our data demonstrate how simultaneously acting climate change factors can affect the structure of soil microarthropod communities in old-field ecosystems. Overall, changes in soil moisture content, either as direct effect of changes in precipitation or as indirect effect of warming or elevated [CO{sub 2}], had a larger impact on microarthropod communities than did the direct effects of the warming and elevated [CO{sub 2}] treatments. Moisture-induced shifts in soil microarthropod abundance and community composition may have important impacts on ecosystem functions, such as decomposition, under future climatic change.

Kardol, Paul [ORNL; Reynolds, W. Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2011-01-01

417

The effect of task structure, perceived motivational climate and goal orientations on students' task involvement and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effect of task structure, perceived motivational climate, and goal orientations on students' task involvement and anxiety in the physical education lesson. Two hundred thirty-nine junior high school students participated in a physical education lesson comprised of four task-involving tasks and in a physical education lesson consisting of three ego-involving tasks. After the completion of each task

Athanasios Papaioannou; Olga Kouli

1999-01-01

418

Effects of climate on chemical weathering in watersheds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Climatic effects on chemical weathering are evaluated by correlating variations in solute concentrations and fluxes with temperature, precipitation, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET) for a worldwide distribution of sixty-eight watersheds underlain by granitoid rock types. Stream solute concentrations are strongly correlated with proportional ET loss, and evaporative concentration makes stream solute concentrations an inapprorpiate surrogate for chemical weathering. Chemical fluxes are unaffected by ET, and SiO2 and Na weathering fluxes exhibit systematic increases with precipitation, runoff, and temperature. However, warm and wet watersheds produce anomalously rapid weathering rates. A proposed model that provides an improved prediction of weathering rates over climatic extremes is the product of linear precipitation and Arrhenius temperature functions. The resulting apparent activation energies based on SiO2 and Na fluxes are 59.4 and 62.5 kJ.mol-1, respectively. The coupling between temperature and precipitation emphasizes the importance of tropical regions in global silicate weathering fluxes, and suggests it is not representative to use continental averages for temperature and precipitation in the weathering rate functions of global carbon cycling and climatic change models. Fluxes of K, Ca, and Mg exhibit no climatic correlation, implying that other processes, such as ion exchange, nutrient cycling, and variations in lithology, obscure any climatic signal. -from Authors

White, A.F.; Blum, A.E.

1995-01-01

419

Climatic effects of air pollutants over china: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropospheric ozone (O3) and aerosols are major air pollutants in the atmosphere. They have also made significant contributions to radiative forcing of climate since preindustrial times. With its rapid economic development, concentrations of air pollutants are relatively high in China; hence, quantifying the role of air pollutants in China in regional climate change is especially important. This review summarizes existing knowledge with regard to impacts of air pollutants on climate change in China and defines critical gaps needed to reduce the associated uncertainties. Measured monthly, seasonal, and annual mean surface-layer concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China are compiled in this work, with the aim to show the magnitude of concentrations of O3 and aerosols over China and to provide datasets for evaluation of model results in future studies. Ground-based and satellite measurements of O3 column burden and aerosol optical properties, as well as model estimates of radiative forcing by tropospheric O3 and aerosols are summarized. We also review regional and global modeling studies that have investigated climate change driven by tropospheric O3 and/or aerosols in China; the predicted sign and magnitude of the responses in temperature and precipitation to O3/aerosol forcings are presented. Based on this review, key priorities for future research on the climatic effects of air pollutants in China are highlighted.

Liao, Hong; Chang, Wenyuan; Yang, Yang

2015-01-01

420

Simulation of landscape disturbances and the effect of climatic change  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to understand how changes in climate may affect the structure of landscapes that are subject to periodic disturbances. A general model useful for examining the linkage between climatic change and landscape change has been developed. The model makes use of synoptic climatic data, a geographical information system (GRASS), field data on the location of disturbance patches, simulation code written in the SIMSCRIPT language, and a set of landscape structure analysis programs written specifically for this research project. A simplified version of the model, lacking the climatic driver, has been used to analyze how changes in disturbance regimes (in this case settlement and fire suppression) affect landscape change. Landscape change lagged in its response to changes in the disturbance regime, but the lags differed depending upon the character of the change and the particular measure considered. The model will now be modified for use in a specific setting to analyze the effects of changes in climate on the structure of flood-disturbed patches along the Animas River, Colorado.

Baker, W.L.

1993-01-29

421

Demonstration of the greenhouse effect for elementary school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The school where I work is part of the "Step by step towards the sustainable development school" project. Project activities are partly directed towards the popularization of science. As a physics teacher, I have had the opportunity to engage in designing interactive workshops, aiming to introduce younger students to simple experiments which illustrate different natural phenomena, and also in organization, preparation and implementation of school and city science festival (in 2012 and 2013). Numerous displays, workshops and experiments served to introduce a large number of visitors to different topics in the area of science and technology. One of the subjects of forthcoming science festival, planned for May of 2014, is the climate change. To that effect, eight grade students will hold a demonstration and explanation of the greenhouse effect. Although the terms greenhouse effect and global warming are widely used in media, most of the elementary school students in Serbia have poor understanding of the underlying scientific concepts. The experiment with analysis and discussion will first be implemented in one eight-grade class (14 years of age). After that, a group of students from this class will present their newly-acquired knowledge to their peers and younger students at the science fair. Activity objectives: • Explain how atmosphere affects the surface temperature of Earth • Conduct an experiment to demonstrate the greenhouse effect • Analyze the consequences of climate changes Experiment description: Take two empty, transparent containers and add a layer of garden soil. Use cardboard or similar material to make housings for the thermometers. Hang them in the containers, so that they don't touch the soil. Cover one container with a glass panel, and leave the other one open. Place identical incandescent light bulbs at the same distance above each container. Turn the light bulbs on. The students should mark the thermometer readings every 2 minutes, for 20 minutes in total. Turn the light bulbs off and continue the measurements in the same way. Use the acquired data to plot a graph of temperature against time for both containers. Analyze and discuss the results. Although the experiment itself is simple, conducting it and subsequently analyzing the results contributes to numerous goals listed in the official physics curriculum, such as: development of functional literacy; understanding of phenomena, processes and natural relationships based on physical laws; development of active learning through research; understanding of methods behind experiments and importance of measurements; development of ability to apply knowledge of physics; understanding of interconnections between physics and ecology and increasing awareness of the need to protect, restore and improve the environment. Physics classes are an appropriate place to conduct this experiment, because it builds on knowledge of heat transfer methods, with the potential to gain new insights into the properties of electromagnetic spectrum, and is highly correlated to other disciplines, most notably with chemistry, mathematics and ecology.

Radovanovic, Jelena

2014-05-01

422

School Violence Prevention: Climate and Moral Perspectives of Sixth through Eighth Grade Students Attending a Southern California Catholic School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for U.S. teachers to better understand School Violence Prevention is growing. Evidence suggests however, that 10 years and 10 billion dollars after the Columbine High School massacre, our public schools are not safer (www.community-matters.org). There has been an "after the fact" approach to the problem of school violence. After an…

Gomez, Diane Diaz

2010-01-01

423

CLIMATE  

EPA Science Inventory

In this chapter, the general patterns and causes of climate over the western United States are described. ore detailed climatic descriptions are then presented for the five regions of the western nited States discussed later in this volume: Northwestern Washington (Chapter 8); th...

424

Does the School Composition Effect Matter? Evidence from Belgian Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even if the literature on the effects of pupil composition has been extensive, no clear consensus has been reached concerning the significance and magnitude of this effect. The first objective of this article is to estimate the magnitude of the school composition effect in primary schools (6th grade) in French-speaking Belgium. Different…

Dumay, Xavier; Dupriez, Vincent

2008-01-01

425

Effective Engagement of Hostile Audiences on Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2010 and 2011, I gave invited presentations of mainstream climate science to large conferences dismissive of climate change organized by the HEartland Institute. In this presentation I review some of the common objections raised by such audiences and outline effective strategies to rebut them in public venues or the media. Respectful engagement on a human level is much more effective than appeals from authority, scientific consensus, or numerical models. Starting from a base of agreement on basic facts helps establish a basis of trust, which is then nurtured through personal anecdotes and humor. The basic science of climate change is presented in a non-confrontational way with frequent use of examples from everyday life to explain physical principles. Although a hard core of hostile individuals may not be swayed by such an approach, my experience was that this type of engagement can be very effective with ordinary people. I strongly encourage more climate scientists to work with public audiences and the media.

Denning, A.

2011-12-01

426

Climatic effects of atmospheric water vapor distribution through volcanic eruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic eruptions play an important role in changing the water vapor distribution of the atmosphere. In comparison with the emission of carbon dioxide released during the consumption of fossil fuel, water vapor's role in climate change has been grossly underestimated. Studies made of modern volcanic eruptions, including satellite images and meteorological records, have revealed climatic effects in different parts of the globe through the migration of volcanic clouds, depending mainly on their timing, location, Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) and composition. The climatic effects of volcanic eruptions include: (1) Reduction in solar heating because of the particulates discharged. (2) Interference with the 'normal' atmospheric circulation and/or oceanic circulation. (3) The ash particles and aerosols provide condensation nuclei for water. (4) The transfer from the troposphere into the stratosphere of water vapor which act as a greenhouse gas more important than carbon dioxide. (5) Variability in regional rainfall including the occurrence of droughts, floods, landslides salinization and crop failures. (6) Anomalous regional wind and rain storms. (7) Acid rain. Selected volcanic eruptions will be used as examples to illustrate the different climatic effects.

Yim, W. W.

2011-12-01

427

The Effect of School Based Intervention Processes on Secondary School Graduation Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this research is in the area of academic interventions and their effect on graduation rates in secondary schools in Missouri. In light of the regulations within the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and its accountability requirements for schools, this study is important and timely in order to provide valuable examples of effective

Yocom, Ben H.

2012-01-01

428

The relationship between constructivist supervisory practices, school climate, and student proficiency in reading, mathematics, and science: Evidence from NELS:88  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to improve instruction and student learning, school reform efforts have become prevalent. School reformers have examined many aspects of the school experience, including learning theories such as behaviorism and constructivism, the changing roles of teachers and supervisors, and even the concept of the school itself. The theoretical framework for this study centered around constructivist learning theory. The study itself focused on the application of constructivist learning theory to the supervisory process. The study examined five areas of interest: (a) teachers' perceptions of constructivist supervisory behavior; (b) teachers' perceptions of efficacy and control in the classroom; (c) teachers' perceptions of school climate; (d) teachers' perceptions of job satisfaction, and (e) the influences of each of the aforementioned on student proficiency in mathematics, reading, and science. Data for the study was drawn from the first follow-up survey of the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS: 88). NELS: 88 investigated a wide variety of factors that influence the educational process. The first follow-up focuses on environmental factors that affect teachers and students. Variables were selected from the NELS:88 data set that represented the areas to be examined. Factor analysis and correlational analysis were applied to ensure that the variables were measuring distinct constructs and to determine ways they could be grouped for analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine relationships among the individual and composite variables, controlling for student and teacher demographic factors. The results of the study suggest that varying relationships do exist between constructivist supervisory practices and the constructs measuring school climate and job satisfaction. The results also suggest that varying relationships exist between each of these factors and student proficiency in mathematics, reading, and science. Specifically, school climate, job satisfaction, and student proficiency were influenced by constructivist supervisory practices that included teachers' freedom to experiment with teaching and teachers' control over texts and materials.

Molnar, John Alexander

429

Interannual variability of regional climate and its change due to the greenhouse effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interannual variability of regional climate was investigated on a seasonal basis. Observations and two global climate model (GCM) simulations were intercompared to identify model biases and climate change signals due to the enhanced greenhouse effect. Observed record length varies from 40 to 100 years, while the model output comes from two 100-year equilibrium climate simulations corresponding to atmospheric greenhouse gas

Xin-Zhong Liang; Wei-Chyung Wang; Michael P. Dudek

1995-01-01

430

Interactive Effects of Nitrogen and Climate Change on Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biodiversity has been described as the diversity of life on earth within species, between species and in ecosystems. Biodiversity contributes to regulating ecosystem services like climate, flood, disease, and water quality regulation. Biodiversity also supports and sustains ecosystem services that provide material goods like food, fiber, fuel, timber and water, and to non-material benefits like educational, recreational, spiritual, and aesthetic ecosystem services. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment estimated that the rate of biodiversity loss due to human activity in the last 50 years has been more rapid than at any other time in human history, and that many of the drivers of biodiversity loss are increasing. The strongest drivers of biodiversity loss include habitat loss, overexploitation, invasive species, climate change, and pollution, including pollution from reactive nitrogen. Of these stressors, climate change and reactive nitrogen from anthropogenic activities are causing some of the most rapid changes. Climate change is causing warming trends that result in consistent patterns of poleward and elevational range shifts of flora and fauna, causing changes in biodiversity. Warming has also resulted in changes in phenology, particularly the earlier onset of spring events, migration, and lengthening of the growing season, disrupting predator-prey and plant-pollinator interactions. In addition to warming, elevated carbon dioxide by itself can affect biodiversity by influencing plant growth, soil water, tissue stoichiometry, and trophic interactions. Nitrogen enrichment also impacts ecosystems and biodiversity in a variety of ways. Nitrogen enhances plant growth, but has been shown to favor invasive, fast-growing species over native species adapted to low nitrogen conditions. Although there have been a limited number of empirical studies on climate change and nitrogen interactions, inferences can be drawn from observed responses to each stressor by itself. For example, in certain arid ecosystems of southern California, elevated nitrogen has promoted invasions of annual non-native grasses. At the same time, a period of above-normal precipitation years has exacerbated the grass invasions. Increased grass cover has altered the hydrologic cycle of these areas and increased fire risk, ultimately leading to conversion of the ecosystem from diverse shrublands to less diverse grasslands. In addition to empirical studies, modeling can be used to simulate climate change and nitrogen interactions. The ForSAFE-VEG model, for example, has been used to examine climate change and nitrogen interactions in Rocky Mountain alpine vegetation communities. Results from both empirical studies and modeling indicate that nitrogen and climate change interact to drive losses in biodiversity greater than those caused by either stressor alone. Reducing inputs of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen may be an effective mitigation strategy for protecting biodiversity in the face of climate change.

Porter, E. M.; Bowman, W. D.; Clark, C. M.; Compton, J. E.; Pardo, L. H.; Soong, J.

2011-12-01

431

Effects of interannual climate variability on tropical tree cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic warming is substantially intensifying the global water cycle and is projected to increase rainfall variability. Using satellite data, we show that higher climatic variability is associated with reduced tree cover in the wet tropics globally. In contrast, interannual variability in rainfall can have neutral or even positive effects on tree cover in the dry tropics. In South America, tree cover in dry lands is higher in areas with high year-to-year variability in rainfall. This is consistent with evidence from case studies suggesting that in these areas rare wet episodes are essential for opening windows of opportunity where massive tree recruitment can overwhelm disturbance effects, allowing the establishment of extensive woodlands. In Australia, wet extremes have similar effects, but the net effect of rainfall variability is overwhelmed by negative effects of extreme dry years. In Africa, effects of rainfall variability are neutral for dry lands. It is most likely that differences in herbivore communities and fire regimes contribute to regulating tree expansion during wet extremes. Our results illustrate that increasing climatic variability may affect ecosystem services in contrasting, and sometimes surprising, ways. Expansion of dry tropical tree cover during extreme wet events may decrease grassland productivity but enhance carbon sequestration, soil nutrient retention and biodiversity.

Holmgren, Milena; Hirota, Marina; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten

2013-08-01

432

Climate variation and its effects on our land and water : Part A, Earth science in climate research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To better coordinate information being generated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a workshop was convened near Denver, Colo., on December 7-9, 1976, to exchange ideas about research that is oriented toward climate, climate variation, and the effects of climate on the Nation 's land and water resources. This is the first circular of a three-part report resulting from that workshop. Hydrologic records provide information to the earth scientist about the responses of ground water, surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface water, and glaciers to climatic change; geologic sequences provide evidence of earth-surface responses to climatic change; biological records yield information about the effects of climatic change on the Earth 's biota; archeological records tell us where and how man was able to live under changing climatic conditions; and historical records allow the specific effects of short-term changes in climate to be accurately documented. The interrelation between present and past geologic environments, various methods of study , and the span of time over which the results can be applied are shown in a table. (Woodard-USGS)

Smith, George I., (Edited By)

1978-01-01

433

The Effects of Principal's Leadership Style on Support for Innovation: Evidence from Korean Vocational High School Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A climate of innovation and principal leadership in schools are regarded as significant factors in successfully implementing school change or innovation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the school climate supportive of innovation and the principal's leadership has rarely been addressed to determine whether schools successfully perform their…

Park, Joo-Ho

2012-01-01

434

Examining classroom influences on student perceptions of school climate: the role of classroom management and exclusionary discipline strategies.  

PubMed

There is growing emphasis on the use of positive behavior supports rather than exclusionary discipline strategies to promote a positive classroom environment. Yet, there has been limited research examining the association between these two different approaches to classroom management and students' perceptions of school climate. Data from 1902 students within 93 classrooms that were nested within 37 elementary schools were examined using multilevel structural equation modeling procedures to investigate the association between two different classroom management strategies (i.e., exclusionary discipline strategies and the use of positive behavior supports) and student ratings of school climate (i.e., fairness, order and discipline, student-teacher relationship, and academic motivation). The analyses indicated that greater use of exclusionary discipline strategies was associated with lower order and discipline scores, whereas greater use of classroom-based positive behavior supports was associated with higher scores on order and discipline, fairness, and student-teacher relationship. These findings suggest that pre-service training and professional development activities should promote teachers' use of positive behavior support strategies and encourage reduced reliance on exclusionary discipline strategies in order to enhance the school climate and conditions for learning. PMID:24060062

Mitchell, Mary M; Bradshaw, Catherine P

2013-10-01

435

Effects of School Design on Student Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare student achievement with three school design classifications: movement and circulation, day lighting, and views. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 71 schools, measures of these three school designs, taken with a ten-point Likert scale, are compared to students' outcomes defined by six…

Tanner, C. Kenneth

2009-01-01

436

Current and Future Effects of Climate Change on Montane Amphibians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Breeding phenology of amphibians in inextricably linked to weather, and change in the timing of breeding resulting from climate change may have consequences for the fitness of individuals and may affect persistence of amphibian populations. Amphibians in some north temperate locations have been observed to breed earlier in recent years in response to warmer spring temperatures, but this is not a universal phenomenon. In mountain populations, phenology is influenced by snow deposition as much as temperature. A trend towards earlier breeding, associated with increasing El Niño frequency, may be occurring in the Cascade Mountains in Oregon, but only at lower elevations. There is no evidence for changes in the dates of breeding activity by amphibians in the Rocky Mountains. Too few amphibian species have been studied, and those for which data exist have been studied for too brief a span of years to allow general conclusions about the effects of climate change. However, regardless of whether climate change has contributed to current amphibian declines, changes in temperature and the extent and duration of snow cover predicted for the next century will have increasingly severe consequences for the persistence of some species. Additional observations from amphibian populations, and spatial and temporal modeling of climate variables are needed to generate predictions of past and future breeding phenology, and the effects on amphibian population dynamics.

Corn, S.

2002-05-01

437

The effects of atmospheric cloud radiative forcing on climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to isolate the effects of atmospheric cloud radiative forcing (ACRF) on climate, the general circulation of an ocean-covered earth called 'Seaworld' was simulated using the Colorado State University GCM. Most current climate models, however, do not include an interactive ocean. The key simplifications in 'Seaworld' are the fixed boundary temperature with no land points, the lack of mountains and the zonal uniformity of the boundary conditions. Two 90-day 'perpetual July' simulations were performed and analyzed the last sixty days of each. The first run included all the model's physical parameterizations, while the second omitted the effects of clouds in both the solar and terrestrial radiation parameterizations. Fixed and identical boundary temperatures were set for the two runs, and resulted in differences revealing the direct and indirect effects of the ACRF on the large-scale circulation and the parameterized hydrologic processes.

Randall, David A.

1989-01-01

438

The greenhouse effect and climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

On any planet with an atmosphere, the surface is warmed not only by the Sun directly but also by downward-propagating infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere. On the Earth, this phenomenon, known as the greenhouse effect, keeps the mean surface temperature some 33 K warmer than it would otherwise be and is therefore essential to life. The radiative processes which

F. W. Taylor

1991-01-01

439

The greenhouse effect and climate change revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

On any planet with an atmosphere, the surface is warmed not only by the Sun directly but also by downward-propagating infrared radiation emitted by the atmosphere. On the Earth, this phenomenon, known as the greenhouse effect, keeps the mean surface temperature some 33 K warmer than it would otherwise be and is therefore essential to life. The radiative processes which

F. W. Taylor

2002-01-01

440

Greenhouse effect due to chlorofluorocarbons - Climatic implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.

Ramanathan, V.

1975-01-01

441

Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global Warming and Environmental Attitude Using Climate Change Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that…

Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Bin Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir

2015-01-01

442

Effectiveness of school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools of Saraburi Province, Thailand.  

PubMed

This research was designed to test the effectiveness of a school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools; a program that aimed to improve student behavior in terms of knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity prevention, and their food consumption behavior. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest time series study was conducted. By 2-stage stratified sampling selection 180 students from 6 schools were assigned to the intervention group and 195 students from 6 schools to the control group at Saraburi Province, Thailand in 2006- 2007. In addition, thirty-one participants being school administrators, teachers, parents, and community members from six schools formed the social network initiating the intervention. The schoolchildren in the intervention group improved their eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity preventive behavior. The six schools of the intervention group changed school policies and school activities aiming to reduce the proportion of obesity among their student. No such activities could be observed in the control group. These findings suggest that the School-Social Network of Childhood Obesity Prevention program is an effective means to prevent childhood obesity. PMID:19842420

Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Pradipasen, Mandhana; Miner, Kathleen R; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh

2009-07-01

443

Studies towards assessing the effects of aviation on climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from aviation are an important component in the overall concerns about the effects of human activities on climate. Aviation emissions modify the chemical and physical properties of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) in various ways. Aircraft emit gases and particles that can either directly or indirectly affect climate and air quality, including: carbon dioxide (CO2); nitrogen oxides (NOx) that can increase ozone (O3) production and increase the destruction of methane (CH4); water vapor that under certain atmospheric conditions can lead to contrail formation; and soot and other particles that along with contrails can affect the amount and characteristics of cirrus clouds. Soot and sulfate particles can also change the cloudiness by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. Due to the high growth in air traffic that is projected to continue, it is important to understand the effects of aviation on air quality and climate. Based on then existing analyses of the emissions and their effects, the aviation contribution in changing the radiative forcing on the climate system was about 5% of the total human-related emissions (relative to 1750) in 2005 (Lee et al., 2009). This contribution is a result of various effects, especially the direct effects of CO2, NOx-induced effects, aerosol direct and indirect effects, and increased cloudiness from contrail formation and aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei. One of the main challenges of the aviation scientific community has been to increase the level of scientific understanding of these effects, especially with respect to those most uncertain (i.e. NOx effects, contrail-cirrus and aerosol effects). Another challenge has been to develop a simple climate model (SCM) that has the level of sophistication necessary to accurately assess aviation induced climate effects while being easy to use by policy makers for use in policy considerations. The main objectives in this study were: (1) to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of simple climate models for evaluating aviation policy options and tradeoffs, and (2) to increase the scientific understanding of aviation NOx-induced effects on climate. With regard to the first goal, enhancing the evaluation of SCMs, the carbon cycle and energy balance treatments in several widely used simplified climate models were evaluated. The findings from this study resulted in modifications to the carbon cycle and energy balance model components of the APMT model that is used extensively by FAA in aviation policy analyses. With regard to the second goal, 3 lines of research were pursued to increase the scientific understanding of aviation NOx-induced effects on climate. First, aviation NOx-induced effects were quantified using three-dimensional (3-D) climate-chemistry models and further, an intercomparison of NOx-induced effects in 3-D climate-chemistry models was performed. The NOx-induced forcings obtained in 3-D simulations were further used to update the parameterization of these effects in SCMs. Second, two additional NOx-induced effects (i.e., reduction in long-term O3 concentrations and lower stratospheric water vapor (SWV)) that have not been fully accounted for in previous studies were quantified based on parameterizing the results obtained in the 3-D simulations. Results indicate that the inclusion of long-term O3 and SWV RFs decreases the net aviation-induced RFs by about 21 to 31% for different range of scenarios studied. Finally, the representation of aviation NOx-induced effects in SCMs were evaluated and improved. The parameterization was improved based on the results of the 3-D simulations and by including the lifetime of the perturbed species and their emissions history into RF calculations. This resulted in 10 to 36% higher aviation NOx-induced net forcing than the net forcings that were reported in the literature, previously. Third, a set of experiments were performed to directly calculate the aviation NOx-induced changes in CH4 that were otherwise calculated through a simple parameterization, and also to

Khodayari, Arezoo

444

Statistical tests conducted with school environment data: The effect of teachers being clustered in schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the effect of clustering on statistical tests conducted with school environment data. Because most\\u000a school environment studies involve the collection of data from teachers nested within schools, the hierarchical nature to\\u000a these data cannot be ignored. In particular, this article considers the influence of intraschool correlations on tests of\\u000a statistical significance conducted with the individual teacher as

Jeffrey P. Dorman

2009-01-01

445

Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools  

PubMed Central

Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

2012-01-01

446

Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.  

PubMed

Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

2013-04-01

447

Assessment of US, Indian and Chinese Middle School Students' Outlook on the Greenhouse Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When you think of the greenhouse effect and climate change what images and concepts come to mind? Answers to these questions are important to educators and policy makers as they wrestle with the issue of educating and conveying these concepts in class rooms and to the general public. The greenhouse effect (GHE) sustains life on the earth through regulating the temperatures on the planet. Well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide absorb outgoing (long wave) radiation from the Earth's surface while allowing passage without absorption of the incoming solar (shortwave) radiation. Increasing the GHG concentration in the atmosphere increases the absorption of long wavelength radiation thereby increasing global temperatures that result in changes in the atmospheric states consistently over multiple decades.The concept of the greenhouse effect is critical to the discussions underway pertaining to climate change and the controls on greenhouse emissions being proposed in different forums. This study sought to (1) investigate students' conceptions about the greenhouse effect, global warming and climate change; (2) determine if there are differences between perceptions for students in US, India and China (Asia)- where there are known differences in the political and scientific approaches; and (3) determine if there any differences, contextual or otherwise, in the way the greenhouse effect is taught in these countries. This study was conducted in select schools in the Midwest US, India and China that volunteered to work with this project. -For US, data from 51 secondary students from three different schools were analyzed, for India the number was 71 from 3 schools, while for China the number is over 100 (and being analyzed) from different classes within a school. Study Hypotheses: 1.Middle school students have a good scientific understanding of greenhouse gases. 2.The U.S and Asian students have the same outlook. Teachers were asked to administer a survey in which the students were asked to draw what the term "greenhouse effect" means to them. The drawings made by the US students were studied and analyzed by Shepardson et al. (2011). Illustrations by the sample of students from India and China were studied and analyzed in this study. Conclusions were drawn based on comparing and contrasting these two sets of drawings (from US, India, and China). Results from this analysis will be presented and discussed with examples of the different drawings that the students drew and the resulting conclusions. Overall, our study suggests there may be some common misconceptions for middle school students when dealing with this topic, and there may also be regional issues that need to be considered in developing effective curricula.

Niyogi, D.; Ganesh, N.; Singh, D.; Liu, X.; Shepardson, D. P.; Roychoudhury, A.; Hirsch, A.; Halversen, C.

2012-12-01

448

Jump In! An Investigation of School Physical Activity Climate, and a Pilot Study Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Novel Tool to Increase Activity during Learning.  

PubMed

Physical activity (PA) benefits children's physical and mental health and enhances academic performance. However, in many nations, PA time in school is decreasing under competing pressures for time during the school day. The present paper argues that PA should not be reduced or seen as incompatible with academic learning. Instead, the authors contend that it is critical to develop tools that incorporate PA into content learning during the school day. To facilitate the development of such tools, the authors conducted 6 focus group discussions with 12 primary school teachers and administrators to better understand the school climate around PA as well as school readiness to embrace PA tools that can be used during academic content learning. In addition, a pilot test of a new health promotion tool, the Jump In! educational response mat, was conducted with 21 second-grade students from one classroom in Northern Colorado in 2013. The results of both studies demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of incorporating PA into classroom learning, and suggested that tools like Jump In! may be effective at overcoming many of the PA barriers at schools. Teachers and administrators valued PA, believed that students were not getting enough PA, and were receptive to the idea of incorporating PA into classroom learning. Students who used Jump In! mats during a math lesson reported more interest in the class material and rated themselves as more alert during the lesson, compared to students who did not use the response mats. In addition, incorporating PA into the lesson did not impair performance on a quiz that assessed learning of the math content. Jump In! mats were successfully integrated into the lesson plan and were well-received by teachers and students. Together, the results of these studies suggest that, given the right tools, incorporating more PA into classroom learning may be beneficial and well-received by students, teachers, and administrators. PMID:24904919

Graham, Dan J; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; O'Donnell, Maeve B

2014-01-01

449

Jump In! An Investigation of School Physical Activity Climate, and a Pilot Study Assessing the Acceptability and Feasibility of a Novel Tool to Increase Activity during Learning  

PubMed Central

Physical activity (PA) benefits children’s physical and mental health and enhances academic performance. However, in many nations, PA time in school is decreasing under competing pressures for time during the school day. The present paper argues that PA should not be reduced or seen as incompatible with academic learning. Instead, the authors contend that it is critical to develop tools that incorporate PA into content learning during the school day. To facilitate the development of such tools, the authors conducted 6 focus group discussions with 12 primary school teachers and administrators to better understand the school climate around PA as well as school readiness to embrace PA tools that can be used during academic content learning. In addition, a pilot test of a new health promotion tool, the Jump In! educational response mat, was conducted with 21 second-grade students from one classroom in Northern Colorado in 2013. The results of both studies demonstrated acceptability and feasibility of incorporating PA into classroom learning, and suggested that tools like Jump In! may be effective at overcoming many of the PA barriers at schools. Teachers and administrators valued PA, believed that students were not getting enough PA, and were receptive to the idea of incorporating PA into classroom learning. Students who used Jump In! mats during a math lesson reported more interest in the class material and rated themselves as more alert during the lesson, compared to students who did not use the response mats. In addition, incorporating PA into the lesson did not impair performance on a quiz that assessed learning of the math content. Jump In! mats were successfully integrated into the lesson plan and were well-received by teachers and students. Together, the results of these studies suggest that, given the right tools, incorporating more PA into classroom learning may be beneficial and well-received by students, teachers, and administrators. PMID:24904919

Graham, Dan J.; Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.; O’Donnell, Maeve B.

2014-01-01

450

Climate implications of including albedo effects in terrestrial carbon policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proposed strategies for managing terrestrial carbon in order to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, such as financial incentives for afforestation, soil carbon sequestration, or biofuel production, largely ignore the direct effects of land use change on climate via biophysical processes that alter surface energy and water budgets. Subsequent influences on temperature, hydrology, and atmospheric circulation at regional and global scales could potentially help or hinder climate stabilization efforts. Because these policies often rely on payments or credits expressed in units of CO2-equivalents, accounting for biophysical effects would require a metric for comparing the strength of biophysical climate perturbation from land use change to that of emitting CO2. One such candidate metric that has been suggested in the literature on land use impacts is radiative forcing, which underlies the global warming potential metric used to compare the climate effects of various greenhouse gases with one another. Expressing land use change in units of radiative forcing is possible because albedo change results in a net top-of-atmosphere radiative flux change. However, this approach has also been critiqued on theoretical grounds because not all climatic changes associated with land use change are principally radiative in nature, e.g. changes in hydrology or the vertical distribution of heat within the atmosphere, and because the spatial scale of land use change forcing differs from that of well-mixed greenhouse gases. To explore the potential magnitude of this discrepancy in the context of plausible scenarios of future land use change, we conduct three simulations with the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) utilizing a slab ocean model. Each simulation examines the effect of a stepwise change in forcing relative to a pre-industrial control simulation: 1) widespread conversion of forest land to crops resulting in approximately 1 W/m2 global-mean radiative forcing from albedo change, 2) an increase in CO2 concentrations that exactly balances the forcing from land use change at the global level, and 3) a simulation combining the first two effects, resulting in net zero global-mean forcing as would occur in an idealized carbon cap-and-trade scheme that accounts for the albedo effect of land use change. The pattern of land use change that we examine is derived from an integrated assessment model that accounts for population, demographic, technological, and policy changes over the 21st century. We find significant differences in the pattern of climate change associated with each of these forcing scenarios, demonstrating the non-additivity of radiative forcing from land-use change and greenhouse gases in the context of a hypothetical scenario of future land use change. These results have implications for the development of land use and climate policies.

Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Torn, M. S.; Calvin, K. V.

2012-12-01

451

Measuring School Effectiveness in Memphis--Year 2. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New Leaders for New Schools, a nonprofit organization committed to training school principals, heads the Effective Practices Incentive Community (EPIC), an initiative that offers financial awards to effective educators. New Leaders and its partner organizations have received from the U.S. Department of Education tens of millions of dollars in…

Potamites, Liz; Chaplin, Duncan; Isenberg, Eric; Booker, Kevin

2009-01-01

452

The Effects of Home Environment on School Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employs a unique longitudinal data base to examine the effects of home environment characteristics on the school performance of black, inner city children from low income families. In particular, it estimates the effects on three measures of school performance; (1) vocabulary test scores, (2) reading test scores, and (3) attendance, of…

Maynard, Rebecca A.

453

Recent School Effectiveness Counter-critiques: Problems and Possibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines recent responses of several school effectiveness researchers to concerns of their critics. Examines complexity of debate over school effectiveness research (SER), value of pragmatism, impact of social class, significance of methodological problems, value of current attempts to theorize SER, relationship of SER to educational politics and…

Thrupp, Martin

2001-01-01

454

High School Rugby Players' Perception of Coaching Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were firstly to determine the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness and secondly, determine the difference between big and small schools of the players' perceptions of their respective coaches' coaching effectiveness. Four hundred and seventy six players from 22 schools were asked to fill…

Broodryk, Retief; van den Berg, Pieter Hendrick

2011-01-01

455

Overview of different aspects of climate change effects on soils.  

SciTech Connect

Climate change [i.e., high atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations (?400 ppm); increasing air temperatures (2-4°C or greater); significant and/or abrupt changes in daily, seasonal, and inter-annual temperature; changes in the wet/dry cycles; intensive rainfall and/or heavy storms; extended periods of drought; extreme frost; heat waves and increased fire frequency] is and will significantly affect soil properties and fertility, water resources, food quantity and quality, and environmental quality. Biotic processes that consume atmospheric CO2 and create organic carbon (C) that is either reprocessed to CO2 or stored in soils, are the subject of active current investigations with great concern over the influence of climate change. In addition, abiotic C cycling and its influence on the inorganic C pool in soils is a fundamental global process in which acidic atmospheric CO2 participates in the weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals, ultimately delivering bicarbonate and Ca2+ or other cations that precipitate in the form of carbonates in soils or are transported to the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Soil responses to climate change will be complex, and there are many uncertainties and unresolved issues. The objective of the review is to initiate and further stimulate a discussion about some important and challenging aspects of climate-change effects on soils, such as accelerated weathering of soil minerals and resulting C and elemental fluxes in and out of soils, soil/geo-engineering methods used to increase C sequestration in soils, soil organic matter (SOM) protection, transformation and mineralization, and SOM temperature sensitivity. This review reports recent discoveries and identifies key research needs required to understand the effects of climate change on soils.

Qafoku, Nikolla

2014-08-01

456

Differential School Effects among Low, Middle, and High Social Class Composition Schools: A Multiple Group, Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study uses large-scale survey data and a multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve model to examine differential school effects between low, middle, and high social class composition public schools. The results show that the effects of school inputs and school practices on learning differ across the 3 subpopulations. Moreover, student…

Palardy, Gregory J.

2008-01-01

457

School Based Management and Effective Schools: A Perfect Match for Bottom-Up Reform. An ACCESS Printout.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on school-based management approaches to educational reform, including effective schools research, is presented. Included are an introductory section on school-based improvement and its link to effective schools, by Anne T. Henderson; descriptive summaries of 53 references; a list of organizations to contact for further information; and a…

National Committee for Citizens in Education, Columbia, MD. ACCESS, The Information Clearinghouse about Public Schools.

458

Effects of climate change on landslide hazard in Europe (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides represent a major threat to human life, property and constructed facilities, infrastructure and natural environment in most mountainous and hilly regions of the world. As a consequence of climatic changes and potential global warming, an increase of landslide activity is expected in some parts of the world in the future. This will be due to increased extreme rainfall events, changes of hydrological cycles, meteorological events followed by sea storms causing coastal erosion and melting of snow and of frozen soils in the high mountains. During the past century, Europe experienced many fatalities and significant economic losses due to landslides. Since in many parts of Europe landslides are the most serious natural hazard, several recent European research projects are looking into the effects of climate change on the risk associated with landslides. Examples are the recently initiated SafeLand project, which looks into this problem across the continent, and GeoExtreme, which focused on Norway. The ongoing project SafeLand (www.safeland-fp7.eu) is a large, integrating project financed by the European Commission. It involves close to 30 organizations from 13 countries in Europe, and it looks into the effects of global change (mainly changes in demography and climate change) on the pattern of landslide risk in Europe. The SafeLand objectives are to (1) provide policy-makers, public administrators, researchers, scientists, educators and other stakeholders with improved harmonized framework and methodology for the assessment and quantification of landslide risk in Europe's regions; (2) evaluate the changes in risk pattern caused by climate change, human activity and policy changes; and (3) provide guidelines for choosing the most appropriate risk management strategies, including risk mitigation and prevention measures. To assess the changes in the landslide risk pattern in Norway over the next 50 years, the four-year integrated research project GeoExtreme (www.geoextreme.no) was executed. Different modules of the project established the database of landslide and avalanche events in Norway, investigated the coupling between climatic parameters and the occurrence of avalanches and landslides, developed regional, down-scaled climate scenarios for the next 50 years, and simulated a picture of possible future geohazards risk in Norway. The socioeconomic implications of geohazards in Norway, both in the past, and under the predicted future climate scenarios were also studied in the project. The latter study considered the costs related to damage by natural disasters and mitigation measures, ability to learn by experience, changes in preparedness, and impact of policy decisions. The main conclusion of the GeoExtreme project was that in a country with large climatic variation like Norway, the effects of climate change on the geohazard situation will vary significantly from location to location. Over a short time interval of 50 years, the largest increase in the direct socio-economic costs will most likely be in the transport sector. However, better adaptation to the present climate and geohazard problems would also require large investments, and this would in fact be the most important step in preparing for the expected changes during the next 50 years.

Nadim, F.; Solheim, A.

2009-12-01

459

Effects of climatic change on the Thornthwaite moisture index  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Thornthwaite moisture index is a useful indicator of the supply of water (precipitation) in an area relative to the demand for water under prevailing climatic conditions (potential evapotranspiration). This study examines the effects of changes in climate (temperature and precipitation) on the Thornthwaite moisture index in the conterminous United States. Estimates of changes in mean annual temperature and precipitation for doubled-atmospheric CO2 conditions derived from three general circulation models (GCMs) are used to study the response of the moisture index under steady-state doubled-CO2 conditions. Results indicate that temperature and precipitation changes under doubled-CO2 conditions generally will cause the Thornthwaite moisture index to decrease, implying a drier climate for most of the United States. The pattern of expected decrease is consistent among the three GCMs, although the amount of decrease depends on which GCM climatic-change scenario is used. Results also suggest that changes in the moisture index are related mainly to changes in the mean annual potential evapotranspiration as a result of changes in the mean annual temperature, rather than to changes in the mean annual precipitation.

McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.; Hay, Lauren E.; Ayers, Mark A.

1990-01-01

460

Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography  

SciTech Connect

Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.

Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.

1994-05-01

461

Global Climate Change: The Effects of Global Warming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students conduct an experiment to learn about CO2 levels found in four different gases. Through this experiment and a set of multimedia resources, they will learn how atmospheric levels of CO2 relate to climate change and global warming, explore the effects of global warming on the environment (as indicated by the changes in Earth's glacial ice), and consider human contributions to global warming, particularly from the use of automobiles.

2005-01-01

462

Uniform Effects?: Schools Cite Benefits of Student Uniforms, but Researchers See Little Evidence of Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the effectiveness of school uniform policies. At Stephen Decatur Middle School, it is the school's policy that all students wear the standard school attire consisting of khaki pants with polo shirts in white, burgundy, or navy blue. Some of the shirts also sport an embroidered Decatur eagle, an optional embellishment.…

Viadero, Debra

2005-01-01

463

Identifying Highly Effective Urban Schools: Comparing Two Measures of School Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an empirical comparison of two measures of school success -- a value-added assessment system and the federally-mandated system of adequate yearly progress (AYP) -- to identify highly effective urban schools in the USA and to explore the predictive relationship between evidence-based decision-making…

Wang, Aubrey H.; Walters, Alyssa M.; Thum, Y. M.

2013-01-01

464

Investigating the Effectiveness of SW-PBIS on School's Accountability at Both Elementary and Middle Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Due to the lack of effectiveness of the punitive school approach toward challenging behaviors (Luiselli, Putnam, Handler, & Feinberg, 2005; Reynolds, Skiba, Graham, Sheras, Conoley, & Garcia-Vazquez, 2006), public schools have searched for an innovative approach to better serve students who are at risk for academic failure and dropout/expulsion. A…

Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Hong, Saahoon

2011-01-01

465

The Effect of an Active Transport to School Intervention at a Suburban Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Many children do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. One strategy that may enhance PA is to increase active transport to school (ATS) rates. Purpose: To assess the effects of an ATS intervention. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare ATS and vehicle traffic rates at a school that participated in a statewide…

Bungum, Timothy J.; Clark, Sheila; Aguilar, Brenda

2014-01-01

466

The Effects of School Lunch Participation, Socioeconomic and Psychological Variables on Food Consumption of School Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimates were made of the effects of school lunch participation and various socioeconomic, anthropometric, and psychological variables on the consumption of 20 food items by 8- to 12-year-old children. The study sample consisted of 845 school children in the State of Washington, stratified by ethnic group and by poverty level so that it contained…

Price, David W.; Price, Dorothy Z.

467

Achievement Effects of Five Comprehensive School Reform Designs Implemented in Los Angeles Unified School District. Dissertation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Achievement effects as measured by the Stanford Achievement Test 9 were estimated for students in grades 1-11 that participated in America's Choice, Co-nect, Different Ways of Knowing, Success for All (SFA), and Urban Learning Centers comprehensive school reform (CSR) designs implemented in Los Angeles Unified School District between 1999 and…

Mason, Bryce

2005-01-01

468

Research on School Effects in Urban Schools. Number 95-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper characterizes the school effects literature that has been conducted over the past 25 years with a focus on urban elementary and secondary schools. The features of the research studies reviewed are explored, including dependent and independent variables employed, sources of data, research methods used, and the number and direction of…

Wang, Margaret C.; And Others

469

The Black Charter School Effect: Black Students in American Charter Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature analysis examines the experiences of Black students in public charter schools in the United States by analyzing the current literature and enrollment data in this domain. Through the investigation of multiple empirical studies that examine the effects of charter schools on the academic achievement and enrollment trends of Black…

Almond, Monica R.

2012-01-01

470

Effects of Participation in after-School Programs for Middle School Students: A Randomized Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the effects of attending an after-school program (ASP) on a range of outcomes for middle school youths. The program operated for 9 hr per week for 30 weeks and included attendance monitoring and reinforcement, academic assistance, a prevention curriculum, and recreational programming. Participants were 447 students randomly…

Gottfredson, Denise; Cross, Amanda Brown; Wilson, Denise; Rorie, Melissa; Connell, Nadine

2010-01-01

471

Using Multilevel Analysis To Assess School Effectiveness: A Study of Dutch Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Separate but related developments in the new generation of school effectiveness research are discussed. The first part of the report presents a short historical overview that traces the change from a largely individualistic research approach to one that is more holistic. Whether schools make a difference is explored, and, if so, what makes them…

Kreft, Ita G. G.

472

Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Effectiveness in Alabama Public High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For several decades, researchers have searched for school-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on school effectiveness. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…

Cooper, J. Darrell

2010-01-01

473

Effect of climate change on outdoor thermal comfort in humid climates  

PubMed Central

Background Galicia, in northwest Spain, experiences warm summers and winters. However, the higher relative humidity that prevails the whole year through and the location of the summer hot points are related to real weather heat stroke in the hottest season. However, Planet Global Heating was recently analyzed for the climate in Galicia. Climate change was found to be able to trigger effects that involve a new situation with new potential regions of risk. In this paper, 50 weather stations were selected to sample the weather conditions in this humid region, over the last 10 years. From these results, new regions with a potential for heat stroke risk in the next 20 years were identified using the humidex index. Results Results reveal that during the last 10 years, the winter season presents more comfortable conditions, whereas the summer season presents the highest humidex value. Further, the higher relative humidity throughout the whole year reveals that the humidex index clearly depends upon the outdoor temperature. Conclusions Global Planet Heating shows a definite effect on the outdoor comfort conditions reaching unbearable degrees in the really hottest zones. Therefore, this effect will clearly influence tourism and risk prevention strategies in these areas. PMID:24517127

2014-01-01

474

Well-being, school climate, and the social identity process: a latent growth model study of bullying perpetration and peer victimization.  

PubMed

The present study concerns longitudinal research on bullying perpetration and peer victimization. A focus is on school factors of school climate (academic support, group support) and school identification (connectedness or belonging), which are conceptualized as related but distinct constructs. Analysis of change on these factors as well as individual well-being across time contributes to understanding bullying behavior. Latent growth modeling was employed to examine the predictors of anxiety, depression, 2 school climate factors and school identification in understanding change in physical and verbal bullying behavior. The sample included 492 Australian school students (means age 15 years, 53.5% male) in Grades 7 to 10 who completed measures over 3 years. Academic support and group support were the strongest predictors of change in bullying and victimization. Positive change in school identification also predicted a decrease in bullying behavior over time. An increase in depression or anxiety across time predicted an increase in rates of both bullying and victimization over time. Future research should continue to examine the complex relationship between individual-psychological and social-psychological variables in impacting on incidence of school-based bullying. On a practical note, school-based intervention programs may benefit from an approach that aims to target the school climate, social identity with the school, and promote individual psychological well-being. PMID:24933217

Turner, Isobel; Reynolds, Katherine J; Lee, Eunro; Subasic, Emina; Bromhead, David

2014-09-01

475

Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.  

PubMed

The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potenti