Science.gov

Sample records for school climate effects

  1. School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; And Others

    Chapter 8 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter defines school climate and suggests ways to improve the learning environment at the school building level. School climate is defined as the feeling an individual gets from experiences within a school system. More specifically, climate is the composite of norms, expectations, and…

  2. Improving School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Edgar A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    School climate improvements rely either on changes in the school's culture or changes in perceptions of the climate held by the school's employees and clients. To maintain and develop a culture that is supportive of school effectiveness, it is important to monitor the influence of the school's climate on student outcomes. The National Association…

  3. Measuring School Climate: Using Existing Data Tools on Climate and Effectiveness to Inform School Organizational Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Rachel E.; Bettencourt, Amie; Connolly, Faith

    2014-01-01

    Despite--or perhaps due to--the lack of consensus on its definition, there is abundant interest in and research on school climate. Researchers have determined that improving school climate is one way to increase academic achievement, school safety, school completion, teacher retention, healthy social interactions, and student well-being (Cohen,…

  4. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PMID:25089333

  5. Parsonian Influence and the Effect of School Climate and Bureaucracy on the Perceived Effectiveness in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVey, Deidre

    2009-01-01

    School climate is a significant way to predict school achievement as a positive correlation to students' standardized test scores and also teachers' perceptions of bureaucratic effectiveness and empowerment (Hoy, Tarter & Kottkamp, 1991; Sweetland & Hoy, 2000). Enabling bureaucracies are positively related to teacher empowering; however, hindering…

  6. Assessing School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan; Pickeral, Terry; McCloskey, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Compelling empirical research shows that a positive and sustained school climate promotes students' academic achievement and healthy development. Not surprisingly, a positive school climate also promotes teacher retention, which itself enhances student success. Yet the knowledge of the effects of school climate on learning has not been translated…

  7. Urban Youth and Schooling: The Effect of School Climate on Student Disengagement and Dropout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellerin, Lisa A.

    This study investigated the effects of schools' academic and disciplinary climates on student disengagement and dropping out, noting whether these effects varied by race/ethnic group. Data came from the High School Effectiveness Study (HSES), which allows contextual analysis of urban youth in their high schools, and the Common Core of Data, from…

  8. The Relationship between Effective Communication of High School Principal and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halawah, Ibtesam

    2005-01-01

    Effective communication is one critical characteristics of effective and successful school principal. Research on effective schools and instructional leadership emphasizes the impact of principal leadership on creating safe and secure learning environment and positive nurturing school climate. This paper was designed to study the relationship…

  9. The Moderating Effects of School Climate on Bullying Prevention Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research…

  10. The Critical Role of School Climate in Effective Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Swearer, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown a negative association between positive school climate and bullying behavior. This article reviews research on school climate and bullying behavior and proposes that an unhealthy and unsupportive school climate (e.g., negative relationship between teachers and students, positive attitudes towards bullying) provides a social…

  11. School Climate, Family Structure, and Academic Achievement: A Study of Moderation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Voight, Adam; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Eklund, Katie

    2015-01-01

    School climate has been lauded for its relationship to a host of desirable academic, behavioral, and social-emotional outcomes for youth. The present study tested the hypothesis that school climate counteracts youths' home-school risk by examining the moderating effects of students' school climate perceptions on the relationship between family…

  12. The Effects of School Culture and Climate on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNeil, Angus J.; Prater, Doris L.; Busch, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether Exemplary, Recognized and Acceptable schools differ in their school climates, as measured by the 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory. Significant differences were found on all 10 dimensions of the Organizational Health Inventory, with Exemplary schools out-performing Acceptable…

  13. The Effects of School Climate Change on Student Success in a Fifth and Sixth Grade School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kim M.

    2011-01-01

    The significance of the study was to examine intentional strategies to improve school climate relative to student school success as measured by academic achievement, attendance, and student behavior. It was important to understand how student school success was affected by factors related to school climate improvement such as leadership and change…

  14. Climate Change Schools Project...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinzey, Krista

    2010-01-01

    This article features the award-winning Climate Change Schools Project which aims to: (1) help schools to embed climate change throughout the national curriculum; and (2) showcase schools as "beacons" for climate change teaching, learning, and positive action in their local communities. Operating since 2007, the Climate Change Schools Project…

  15. The Impact of Effective Scheduling on the Climate and Culture in a Large Comprehensive High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Scheduling in any school or organization plays a vital role in the effectiveness that stakeholders' needs are met. The administration at a large comprehensive high school in the Charlotte Mecklenburg School District realized that in order for their school to meet the changing needs of its student body, it had to build a culture and climate that…

  16. Principals' Response to Change in Schools and Its Effect on School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Steve; Johnson, Shirley; Robles-Piña, Rebecca; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the researchers examined principal behaviors related with change in school climate. That is, the manner in which principals managed change within their schools and the impact of these change behaviors on the school climate was investigated. Through use of the Leadership Profile (Johnson, 2003) and the Organizational Health Inventory…

  17. Public School Uniforms: Effect on Perceptions of Gang Presence, School Climate, and Student Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Kathleen Kiley; Stafford, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relationship between public school uniforms and student self-worth and student and staff perceptions of gang presence and school climate. Surveys of middle school students and teachers indicated that although students' perceptions did not vary across uniform policy, teachers from schools with uniform policies perceived lower levels of…

  18. The Effects of School Administration Self-Efficacy on School Climate and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if there are significant relationships between the efficacies of the school principal, the climate of the school, and student achievement. Five schools within a small rural school district participated in this study. The principals completed the Principal Sense of Efficacy Scale, while the teachers at the…

  19. Academic Optimism and Organizational Climate: An Elementary School Effectiveness Test of Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Jonathan Bart

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of two climate constructs in academic optimism and organizational climate as each relates to school effectiveness. Academic optimism is an academic environment comprised of three dimensions: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust (Hoy, Tarter, & Hoy, 2006). The Organizational Climate Index…

  20. The Effects of Teacher Perceptions of Administrative Support, School Climate, and Academic Success in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lakishia N.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher turnover refers to major changes in teachers' assignments from one school year to the next. Past research has given an overview of several factors of teacher turnover. These factors include the school environment, teacher collaborative efforts, administrative support, school climate, location, salary, classroom management, academic…

  1. School Climate and the Effectiveness of Teacher Appraisal in Hong Kong Self-Managing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo, Kim Wan

    In Hong Kong there has been a move toward greater self-management in schools. The government has supported the School Management Initiatives scheme and has stated that the management system calls for teacher appraisal as one of its internal quality assurance mechanisms. This study examined the relationship between dimensions of school climate and…

  2. School Climate and School Effectiveness: Summary of Teacher, Student and Parent Attitudes in One Rural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloy, Robert W.; Seldin, Clement A.

    1983-01-01

    A four-year project compared how teachers, students, and parents perceived the climate of the secondary schools in Greenfield, Massachusetts, through responses to eight value statements about the purposes of school. Data suggested students felt more positive than parents or teachers about the school's ability to prepare them for later life. (NEC)

  3. Making a Change: The Effects of the Leadership Role on School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepper, Kaye; Thomas, Lisa Hamilton

    2002-01-01

    This autoethnography provides insights into the experiences of a first-year elementary school principal that led to a change in leadership style from an authoritarian style to a transformational leader. Discusses changes in the school to a more positive climate that had a more positive effect on learning and working environments. (Author/LRW)

  4. School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te

    2009-01-01

    The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of…

  5. Middle School Climate, Faculty Trust, and Effectiveness: A Path Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, C. John; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a study that analyzed relationships among supportive principal behavior, faculty collegiality, faculty trust, and effectiveness. Data from 2,777 middle school teachers indicated that supportive principals, not teacher behavior, promoted trust in the principal. Teacher collegiality, not principal behavior, fostered trust among colleagues.…

  6. Improvement of School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra Sands Unified School District, Ridgecrest, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: As a part of its School Improvement Program, James Monroe Junior High School planned to improve its school climate. Since the physical school environment was devoid of landscaping and did not provide places for student socialization, all interested groups (PTSA, student council, students, staff, and…

  7. Relation of peer effects and school climate to substance use among Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ryabov, Igor

    2015-07-01

    Using a nationally representative, longitudinal sample of Asian American late adolescents/young adults (ages 18-26), this article investigates the link between peer effects, school climate, on the one hand, and substance use, which includes tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit mood altering substance. The sample (N = 1585) is drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Waves I and III). The study is set to empirically test premises of generational, social capital and stage-environment fit theories. The exploratory variables include individual-level (immigrant generation status, ethnic origin, co-ethnic and co-generational peers - peers from the same immigrant generation) as well as school-level measures (average school socio-economic status and school climate). Multilevel modeling (logistic and negative binomial regression) was used to estimate substance use. Results indicate that preference for co-generational friends is inversely associated with frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use and preference for co-ethnic peers is inversely associated with other illicit drug use. We also find that school climate is a strong and negative predictor of frequency of cannabis and other illicit drug use as well as of heavy episodic drinking. In terms of policy, these findings suggest that Asian American students should benefit from co-ethnic and co-generational peer networks in schools and, above all, from improving school climate. PMID:25996088

  8. The Black Box Revelation: In Search of Conceptual Clarity regarding Climate and Culture in School Effectiveness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houtte, Mieke; Van Maele, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1970s, school effectiveness research has looked for process-variables filling the black box between mainly structural school features and cognitive outcomes in students. Two concepts came to the fore: school climate and school culture. Both concepts are currently used interchangeably, although it is open to debate whether both are…

  9. The Effect of Community Involvement through PENCIL Partners on School Climate and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that community partnerships could have on school climate and, ultimately, student achievement. Specifically, community partnerships that were formed through the PENCIL (Public Education Needs Community Involvement and Leadership) Foundation in Nashville, Tennessee were researched to determine…

  10. Student Leadership Distribution: Effects of a Student-Led Leadership Program on School Climate and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Jeff; Yager, Stuart; Yager, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the understandings educators developed from two schools concerning how distributed leadership involving a select group of students affected the climate and community of their schools. Findings suggest that student-led leadership roles within the school community have an impact on creating a positive school-wide climate; a…

  11. The Relationship between School Climate, Trust, Enabling Structures, and Perceived School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayerson, Deborah R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of Deborah R. Mayerson was to assess the relative impact of climate, trust, and bureaucratic structure upon teachers' perceptions of organizational effectiveness. An existing data set compiled by Nancy Casella (2006) for her dissertation was analyzed. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of a random sample of 220 public school…

  12. Functions of parental involvement and effects of school climate on bullying behaviors among South Korean middle school students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Song, Juyoung

    2012-08-01

    This study uses an ecological systems theory to understand bullying behavior. Emphasis is given to overcome limitations found in the literature, such as very little empirical research on functions of parental involvement and the impacts of school climate on bullying as an outcome variable. Two functions of parental involvement investigated are (a) bridging the negative experiences within the family with bullying behaviors at schools, and (b) influencing school climate. Bullying behaviors were measured by a modified Korean version of Olweus' bully/victim questionnaire (reliability range: .78-.84) from 1,238 randomly selected Korean middle school students in 2007. Findings from structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses showed that (a) individual traits are one of the most important influence on bullying, (b) negative experiences in the family do not have direct influence on bullying behaviors at school, (c) parental involvement influences school climate, and (d) positive school climate was negatively related to bullying behaviors. PMID:22328649

  13. Effects of Public Money on Social Climates in Private Schools: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A.

    Preliminary results of two surveys of parents, students, and teachers in Catholic elementary schools in British Columbia indicate that public funding for private schools could cause deterioration in the schools' social climates. Data were collected both before and after British Columbia instituted its program of public aid to private schools in…

  14. Educating At-Risk Urban African American Children: The Effects of School Climate on Motivation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenzel, L. Mickey; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the mediating effects of student intrinsic motivation and teacher ratings of student academic engagement on the relation between school climate perceptions and student academic performance among 282 urban African American middle school students. Results provided support for the hypothesized model and suggest the…

  15. Educators' Perceptions of the Effects of School Uniforms on School Climate in a Selected Metropolitan Disciplinary Alternative Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chime, Emmanuel Onoh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine educators' perceptions regarding the effects of school uniforms on school climate in a selected metropolitan disciplinary alternative education program. More specifically, this study investigated the influence of the variables group status, gender, ethnicity, age and years of experience on the…

  16. School Climate and Teacher Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Larry Don

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between school climate and teacher commitment. The study focused on elementary schools in Northeast Alabama. Thirty-four elementary schools consisting of 522 teachers took part in the study. The teachers completed two survey instruments: the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment…

  17. Measuring the Degree of Success in Improving School Climate in Schools with New Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Douglas; And Others

    A new principal frequently has a great impact on the school climate. This paper presents findings of a study that examined the degree of change in school climate in three schools with new principals. The Effective Schools Climate Inventory (O'Neal 1990) was administered to staff members in one elementary, one middle, and one high school at the…

  18. Handbook for Conducting School Climate Improvement Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Eugene; And Others

    This book discusses practical ways to improve a school's climate by increasing both productivity and satisfaction concurrently. Chapter 1, "Defining School Climate," identifies the overarching goals of school climate improvement, the basic human needs that school climate must address, the factors that make up a school's climate and determine its…

  19. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Effects on Pennsylvania High School Achievement, Discipline, and Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jon David

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and administrators are faced with managing the behaviors of students while preparing for the high stakes testing associated with the No Child Left Behind Act. One program that has demonstrated positive results at the elementary and middle school level is the school-wide positive behavior support model (SWPBS). Limited research is…

  20. Effect of School Decentralization and School Climate on Student Mathematics Performance: The Case of Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Esther Sui Chu

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Government of Hong Kong has instituted a policy of school decentralization aimed at devolving authority to all stakeholders, including the representatives of School Sponsoring Bodies, principals, teachers, parents, and community members. This study examines the relative contribution of two dimensions of school…

  1. LGB and questioning students in schools: the moderating effects of homophobic bullying and school climate on negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L; Koenig, Brian

    2009-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam, J School Health 62(7):352-357, 1992). This study examined how school contextual factors such as homophobic victimization and school climate influence negative outcomes in LGB and questioning middle school students. Participants were 7,376 7th and 8th grade students from a large Midwestern county (50.7% Female, 72.7% White, 7.7% Biracial, 6.9% Black, 5.2% Asian, 3.7% Hispanic, and 2.2% reported "other"). LGB and sexually questioning youth were more likely to report high levels of bullying, homophobic victimization, and various negative outcomes than heterosexual youth. Students who were questioning their sexual orientation reported the most bullying, the most homophobic victimization, the most drug use, the most feelings of depression and suicidality, and more truancy than either heterosexual or LGB students. A positive school climate and a lack of homophobic victimization moderated the differences among sexual orientation status and outcomes. Results indicate that schools have the ability to lessen negative outcomes for LGB and sexually questioning students through creating positive climates and reducing homophobic teasing. PMID:19636741

  2. Preparing Middle School Teachers to Use Science Models Effectively when Teaching about Weather and Climate Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarker, M. B.; Stanier, C. O.; Forbes, C.; Park, S.

    2012-12-01

    According to the National Science Education Standards (NSES), teachers are encouraged to use science models in the classroom as a way to aid in the understanding of the nature of the scientific process. This is of particular importance to the atmospheric science community because climate and weather models are very important when it comes to understanding current and future behaviors of our atmosphere. Although familiar with weather forecasts on television and the Internet, most people do not understand the process of using computer models to generate weather and climate forecasts. As a result, the public often misunderstands claims scientists make about their daily weather as well as the state of climate change. Therefore, it makes sense that recent research in science education indicates that scientific models and modeling should be a topic covered in K-12 classrooms as part of a comprehensive science curriculum. The purpose of this research study is to describe how three middle school teachers use science models to teach about topics in climate and weather, as well as the challenges they face incorporating models effectively into the classroom. Participants in this study took part in a week long professional development designed to orient them towards appropriate use of science models for a unit on weather, climate, and energy concepts. The course design was based on empirically tested features of effective professional development for science teachers and was aimed at teaching content to the teachers while simultaneously orienting them towards effective use of science models in the classroom in a way that both aids in learning about the content knowledge as well as how models are used in scientific inquiry. Results indicate that teachers perceive models to be physical representations that can be used as evidence to convince students that the teacher's conception of the concept is correct. Additionally, teachers tended to use them as ways to explain an idea to

  3. Functions of Parental Involvement and Effects of School Climate on Bullying Behaviors among South Korean Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Song, Juyoung

    2012-01-01

    This study uses an ecological systems theory to understand bullying behavior. Emphasis is given to overcome limitations found in the literature, such as very little empirical research on functions of parental involvement and the impacts of school climate on bullying as an outcome variable. Two functions of parental involvement investigated are (a)…

  4. Creating School Climates that Prevent School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Reece L.; Skiba, Russell

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on several approaches for schools to use of improve school climate, in part to prevent violence or at least to improve student behavioral conflicts, including: parent and community involvement, character education, violence-prevention and conflict-resolution curricula, peer mediation, and bullying prevention. (Contains…

  5. Gauging the System: Trends in School Climate Measurement and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Meagan; Katz, Kristin; Renshaw, Tyler L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers and educators are giving increasing scrutiny to systems-level constructs that contribute to safe, supportive, and effective schools, including school climate. School climate is a multifaceted construct that is commonly conceptualized as school community members' subjective experiences of the structural and contextual elements of a…

  6. Perceptions of School Climate as a Function of Bullying Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Singleton, Demian; Schnurr, Britton; Collen, Mary Helen

    2014-01-01

    From a social-ecological perspective, bullying exists within the larger context of school climate. In this study, 2,240 middle and high school students participated in a districtwide effort to assess the prevalence and effects of bullying and cyberbullying, as well as perceptions of school climate. Students reported positive school climate…

  7. Improving School Climate: Leadership Techniques for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Edgar A.

    Based on the assumption that a positive environment is an important component of a well-run school, this monograph offers techniques to school principals for evaluating and improving school climate. Topics covered include assessing school climate, planning for climate development, providing leadership for climate improvement, improving classroom…

  8. A Safe School Climate: A Systemic Approach and the School Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Thomas J.; Seem, Susan R.

    2004-01-01

    The climate of the school is central to the educational mission of a school (Anderson, 1998; Sherman et al., 1997; Jenkins, 1997; Lockwood, 1997). Anderson surveyed recent school safety research and found that altering a school's internal climate can have a significant positive effect on the feeling of safety in the school community. Gottfredson…

  9. The Effects of Motivational Climate Interventions on Psychobiosocial States in High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio; Vitali, Francesca; Filho, Edson; Robazza, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of task- and ego-involving climate manipulations on students' climate perception and psychobiosocial (PBS) states in a physical education setting. Method: Two subsamples of female students (N = 108, 14-15 years of age) participated in 12 lessons on either a task-or an ego-involving…

  10. Effects of a Flexible Approach to High School Physics on Classroom Social Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ste-Marie, Louis

    A study of effects of teaching Project Physics (PP) on classroom social climates was made among a national random sample of classes. The population, divided into the experimental and control groups, included all classes with the same course, either PP or other physics courses, taught over a period from 1967 to 1970. Classroom climates were…

  11. School Effectiveness and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, I. I.; Oakley, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    Fiedler's contingency theory relates school effectiveness to a combination of principals' leadership style and situational favorability for the principal. Data from teacher questionnaires on school climate and effectiveness and measures of principal's leadership in 176 Canadian elementary schools did not support Fiedler's model. Contains 54…

  12. Educator Effectiveness Series: Assessing School Climate. Q&A with Jonathan Cohen, Ph.D. REL Mid-Atlantic Webinar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The REL Mid-Atlantic Webinar discussed the elements in a positive school climate and shared different methods for assessing school data, including the Comprehensive School Climate Inventory. The Q&A presented in this document address the questions participants had for Dr. Cohen following the webinar. The webinar recording and PowerPoint…

  13. Using School Climate Assessments: An Approach to Collaborative School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Gordon A., Jr.; Coladarci, Theodore

    While studies of school climate abound, conceptual frameworks have been ambiguous, and parent perceptions of climate are seldom considered. This paper describes a school improvement model employed in four rural Maine school districts in which (1) a school climate assessment is designed collaboratively with school staff; (2) the assessment is…

  14. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed. PMID:27423431

  15. The Effect of a Zoo-Based Experiential Academic Science Program on High School Students' Math and Science Achievement and Perceptions of School Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkerrin, Elizabeth A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 11th-grade and 12th-grade zoo-based academic high school experiential science program compared to a same school-district school-based academic high school experiential science program on students' pretest and posttest science, math, and reading achievement, and student perceptions of program relevance, rigor, and relationships. Science coursework delivery site served as the study's independent variable for the two naturally formed groups representing students (n = 18) who completed a zoo-based experiential academic high school science program and students (n = 18) who completed a school-based experiential academic high school science program. Students in the first group, a zoo-based experiential academic high school science program, completed real world, hands-on projects at the zoo while students in the second group, those students who completed a school-based experiential academic high school science program, completed real world, simulated projects in the classroom. These groups comprised the two research arms of the study. Both groups of students were selected from the same school district. The study's two dependent variables were achievement and school climate. Achievement was analyzed using norm-referenced 11th-grade pretest PLAN and 12th-grade posttest ACT test composite scores. Null hypotheses were rejected in the direction of improved test scores for both science program groups---students who completed the zoo-based experiential academic high school science program (p < .001) and students who completed the school-based experiential academic high school science program (p < .001). The posttest-posttest ACT test composite score comparison was not statistically different ( p = .93) indicating program equipoise for students enrolled in both science programs. No overall weighted grade point average score improvement was observed for students in either science group, however, null hypotheses were

  16. Assessing School and Classroom Climate. A Consumer's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arter, Judith A.

    School and classroom climate is often cited in effective schools research as being important for student achievement. This consumer guide is intended to help educators evaluate their own educational climate by providing reviews and descriptions of the major tests and surveys used to assess climate. Section 2 presents reasons for examining school…

  17. Massachusetts Educational Assessment Program. School Climate Handbook 1976-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston.

    School climate is defined as feelings and opinions about various aspects of a school with respect to 13 variables in the three domains of personal relationships, personal development, and effective organization. This handbook describes the application of a school climate questionnaire in a series of nine steps, as follows: (1) take the initiative;…

  18. School Climate as a Predictor of Incivility and Bullying among Public School Employees: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Joshua E.; Powell, Anna L.; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    We surveyed public school educators on the workplace incivility and workplace bullying they experienced and obtained their ratings of the organizational climate of the school. We used multilevel modeling to determine the effects of individual-level and school-level predictors. Ratings of school climate were significantly related to incivility and…

  19. The "Basics" Relative to School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallich, Lynn R.

    School climate is defined as the norms, beliefs, and attitudes reflected in institutional patterns and practices that enhance or impede student achievement. Research findings support the notion that school learning climate is an important factor in determining academic outcomes. School climate is largely dependent on the leadership of the…

  20. Five Climate Control Techniques for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Maurice J.

    1963-01-01

    There are many reasons for air-conditioning schools and among them are--(1) the improvement of learning and teaching efficiency, (2) effective use of the educational plant for a greater part of the year, and (3) more efficient use of space through compact building design. Five climate control techniques are cited as providing optimum…

  1. A Multilevel Analysis of Student Perceptions of School Climate: The Effect of Social and Academic Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.; Corkin, Danya Marie

    2011-01-01

    This multilevel study examines the extent to which individual- and school-level variables are predictive of three aspects of students' perceived school climate (order, safety, and discipline; fairness and clarity of school rules; and teacher-student relationship) by using a nationally representative sample. A wide range of social and academic risk…

  2. Academic self-efficacy mediates the effects of school psychological climate on academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovač, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth- and tenth- grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement. The results of a bootstrapping technique used to analyze relationships between the constructs indicated that school-goal orientations and organizational citizenship predicted academic self-efficacy. Furthermore, school-goal orientation, organizational citizenship, and academic self-efficacy explained 46% of the variance in academic achievement. Mediation analyses revealed that academic self-efficacy mediated the effects of perceived task goal structure, perceived ability structure, civic virtue, and sportsmanship on adolescents' academic achievements. The results are discussed in reference to current scholarship, including theories underlying our hypothesis. Practical implications and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:24708286

  3. Youth Victimization: School Climate or Deviant Lifestyles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaykowski, Heather; Gunter, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Despite much focus on school violence, there has been little research that explores the relationship between offending and victimization in various school climates. School climate theory suggests that the school's social system, culture, milieu, and ecological structure affect student outcomes including academic performance, delinquency, and more…

  4. School Climate: Historical Review, Instrument Development, and School Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Koopman, Tommy M.; Patton, Jon M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    This study's purpose is to examine the existing school climate literature in an attempt to constitute its definition from a historical context and to create a valid and reliable student-reported school climate instrument. Five historically common school climate domains and five measurement tools were identified, combined, and previewed by the…

  5. Academic Self-Efficacy Mediates the Effects of School Psychological Climate on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Høigaard, Rune; Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth-and tenth-grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic…

  6. Teacher Safety and Authoritative School Climate in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Anne; Cornell, Dewey; Fan, Xitao

    2012-01-01

    Most research on school climate focuses on student well-being, with less attention on the safety of school faculty. The current study examined the relationship between an authoritative school climate (characterized by high levels of student support and disciplinary structure) and both teacher reports of victimization and school records of threats…

  7. A Psychometric Evaluation of a Revised School Climate Teacher Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Ding, Cody; Berkowitz, Marvin W.; Bier, Melinda C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of school climate has been an important topic for education and it has been studied extensively over the past several decades. One of the challenges in such a research effort is to develop instruments that effectively and efficiently measure the construct. Literature has documented a number of school climate instruments, most of which…

  8. Creating a Positive School Climate at the Junior High Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Vincent F.

    One of the seven correlates of an effective school, as identified by the Effective Schools Research, is a positive school climate: a positive attitude on the part of the entire staff and student body exhibited through overt behavior that creates a warm, orderly learning environment. Development of such an environment depends upon: (1) strong…

  9. Measuring School Climate: Questions and Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bruce L.; McGrail, Janet

    School climate is an elusive but powerful concept that has captured the attention of both researchers and practitioners, but choosing an instrument to assess climate can be very complicated. This monograph accordingly discusses four basic issues that should be considered prior to selecting an instrument to measure school climate: purpose, choice…

  10. Authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high school dropout rates. Analyses controlled for school demographics of school enrollment size, percentage of low-income students, percentage of minority students, and urbanicity. Consistent with authoritative school climate theory, moderation analyses found that when students perceive their teachers as supportive, high academic expectations are associated with lower dropout rates. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641957

  11. School Climate Improvement: Leadership and Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Eugene R.

    Subtitled "Five Case Studies and Three Snapshots," this book illustrates what occurs in measurable terms when participants in the schooling process work cooperatively to improve school climate. In addition, the activities that are described reflect how to achieve the climate objectives of the schooling process--satisfaction and productivity. The…

  12. Inequalities in School Climate in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Sonia; Cohen, Alison K.; Huang, Kevin; Hanson, Thomas L.; Austin, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: School climate, or the physical and social conditions of the learning environment, has implications for academic achievement. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors examine how school climate varies by school-level characteristics in California using administrative data and the California School…

  13. Youth victimization: school climate or deviant lifestyles?

    PubMed

    Zaykowski, Heather; Gunter, Whitney

    2012-02-01

    Despite much focus on school violence, there has been little research that explores the relationship between offending and victimization in various school climates. School climate theory suggests that the school's social system, culture, milieu, and ecological structure affect student outcomes including academic performance, delinquency, and more recently, victimization. Hierarchical analysis of data from 5,037 11th-grade students in 33 schools found that offending behavior was the strongest predictor for both minor and more serious forms of victimization. School climate, specifically the social cohesion of schools, reduced serious violent victimization risk. However, school climate did not affect the relationship between offending and victimization, and was not substantially modified when characteristics of the school environment were considered. PMID:21987507

  14. Authoritative School Climate and High School Dropout Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Yuane; Konold, Timothy R.; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the association between school-wide measures of an authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates in a statewide sample of 315 high schools. Regression models at the school level of analysis used teacher and student measures of disciplinary structure, student support, and academic expectations to predict overall high…

  15. Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, A.

    2012-08-01

    Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education is a project to establish a network of practicing high school teachers actively teaching climate change in their courses. The key aim of the project is creation of professional learning communities (PLCs) of teachers who meet mainly through teleconferences or webinar meetings to share best practices, strengthen knowledge, share resources, and promote effective teaching strategies. This is a NASA-funded project that incorporates analysis of NASA Earth observation data by students in classrooms. The project is exploring techniques to achieve the most effective teleconference meetings and workshops. This promotes not only teaching about minimizing environmental impacts of human activity, but minimizes environmental impacts of professional development - practicing what we preach. This poster summarizes project progress to date in this first year of a 3-year grant project. A number of PLCs are established and have ongoing meetings. There are openings for addition PLC Leaders to join and form PLCs in their regions.

  16. Assessing School Climate in Prevention Program Planning, Development, and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Gary D.

    This paper describes the presentations made at a symposium of behavioral scientists conducting research on school disorder and delinquency prevention. The application of a climate assessment battery in organizational development and the evaluation of disciplinary programs in schools is described. The "Effective Schools Battery" (ESB) produces…

  17. An Analysis of Bullying among Students within Schools: Estimating the Effects of Individual Normative Beliefs, Self-Esteem, and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gendron, Brian P.; Williams, Kirk R.; Guerra, Nancy G.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations among self-esteem, approving normative beliefs about bullying, school climate, and bullying perpetration using a large, longitudinal sample of children from elementary, middle, and high school. Self-report surveys were collected at two points in time over the course of 1 year from 7,299 ethnically diverse…

  18. Developing a Positive School Climate. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

    2009-01-01

    School leaders are often placed on the "hot seat" when negative images of the school, its staff, or its students appear in the local media. Such reports can strongly affect a school's public and image and, in turn, impact the climate both in the community and within the school itself. Sometimes these perceptions are not based on fact; however,…

  19. Principals' Leadership Behaviors in Gang-Impacted High Schools and Their Effects on Pupil Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Audrey J.

    Although viable leadership models for schools with differing social contexts are in great demand, empirical studies of high school principals have not produced consistent results. This paper summarizes part of a larger project designed to identify leadership behaviors of principals in "gang-impacted" and other secondary schools. The research was…

  20. A Large Scale Study of the Assessment of the Social Environment of Middle and Secondary Schools: The Validity and Utility of Teachers' Ratings of School Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and Safety Problems for Understanding School Effects and School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert D.; Seitsinger, Anne; Burns, Amy; Bolton, Natalie

    2008-01-01

    Due to changes in state and federal policies, as well as logistical and fiscal limitations, researchers must increasingly rely on teachers' reports of school climate dimensions in order to investigate the developmental impact of these dimensions, and to evaluate efforts to enhance the impact of school environments on the development of young…

  1. The Effect of Improved School Climate over Time on Fifth-Grade Students' Achievement Assessment Scores and Teacher Administered Grade Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of improved school climate, as teachers' beliefs changed from negative to positive over time, on students' reading, math, and writing assessment scores and teacher administered grade scores in reading, math, and writing. Overall, findings indicate that lose, maintain, or improve…

  2. School Climate and Students' Early Mathematics Learning: Another Search for Contextual Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodovski, Katerina; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Walsh, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K)--a large, nationally representative sample of US elementary school students, we employed multilevel analysis to answer the following research questions: (a) Does students' mathematics achievement growth in grades K-3 vary among schools? (b) To what extent does…

  3. The Effect of a Zoo-Based Experiential Academic Science Program on High School Students' Math and Science Achievement and Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulkerrin, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an 11th-grade and 12th-grade zoo-based academic high school experiential science program compared to a same school-district school-based academic high school experiential science program on students' pretest and posttest science, math, and reading achievement, and student perceptions of…

  4. Relationships between bullying, school climate, and student risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jennifer; Cornell, Dewey; Konold, Timothy

    2012-09-01

    This study examined whether characteristics of a positive school climate were associated with lower student risk behavior in a sample of 3,687 high school students who completed the School Climate Bullying Survey and questions about risk behavior from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Confirmatory factor analyses established fit for 20 items with three hypothesized school climate scales measuring (1) prevalence of bullying and teasing; (2) aggressive attitudes; and (3) student willingness to seek help. Structural equation modeling established the relationship of these measures with student reports of risk behavior. Multigroup analyses identified differential effects across gender and race. A positive school climate could be an important protective factor in preventing student risk behavior. PMID:22889138

  5. Empathy and Effortful Control Effects on Early Adolescents' Aggression: When Do Students' Perceptions of Their School Climate Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batanova, Milena; Loukas, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Guided by the social emotional learning framework, this study examined whether early adolescents' social awareness (empathic concern, perspective taking) and self-management (effortful control) would uniquely contribute to early adolescents' subsequent forms of aggression, and whether perceptions of their school climate (friction, cohesion,…

  6. LGB and Questioning Students in Schools: The Moderating Effects of Homophobic Bullying and School Climate on Negative Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkett, Michelle; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students (LGB) and those questioning their sexual orientation are often at great risk for negative outcomes like depression, suicidality, drug use, and school difficulties (Elliot and Kilpatrick, How to Stop Bullying, A KIDSCAPE Guide to Training, 1994; Mufoz-Plaza et al., High Sch J 85:52-63, 2002; Treadway and Yoakam,…

  7. Climate Change: Creating an Integrated Framework for Improving School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report from the Alliance finds that schools that struggle most with providing a positive school climate more often disproportionately serve students of color and low-income students. It also confirms that students of color and students from low-income families are less likely to have access to rigorous course work and experienced teachers,…

  8. Toward a Knowledge Base for School Climate in Cyprus's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashiardis, Georgia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to explore and analyze secondary school students' (8th grade) perceptions about school climate in three areas, namely: the physical environment of the school, the social environment and the learning environment Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire, which was designed and pilot-tested around the…

  9. The Impact of School Climate on School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, J. Eric; Garner, Mary

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide insight into an elementary school whose climate issues appear to plague and impact it's performance as measured by it's Annually Yearly Progress (AYP). The Northwest Georgia elementary school is located in a rural school system approximately 50 miles northwest of Atlanta, Georgia. A review of the…

  10. A brief measure of adolescent perceptions of school climate.

    PubMed

    White, Nick; La Salle, Tamika; Ashby, Jeffrey S; Meyers, Joel

    2014-09-01

    Student perceptions of school climate represent the ways students feel about the school environment. These include perceptions regarding safety, teaching and learning, and relationships within the school. It has been found that student perceptions of school climate are positively correlated with academic achievement (Brookover et al., 1978), and negatively correlated with risky behaviors (Bandyopadhyay, Cornell, & Konold, 2009; Bayar & Ucanok, 2012; Wang, Berry, & Swearer, 2013). The Georgia Brief School Climate Inventory (GaBSCI) is a measure of student perceptions of school climate. The brevity of the 9-item instrument makes it ideal as a general measure that can be used to monitor student perceptions of school climate. The survey was anonymously administered to 130,968 sixth- and eighth-grade students in the state of Georgia. Cronbach's alpha for the scale was 0.71. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses verified the scale's structure. Student perceptions of climate from the GaBSCI varied based on race/ethnicity, gender, and grade. Additional support for the construct validity of the GaBSCI was obtained based on its relationships with several behaviors related to bullying, and the moderating effects of grade and gender on these relationships. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25089335

  11. Self-Regulatory Climate: A Positive Attribute of Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Ware, Jordan K.; Miskell, Ryan C.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the development of a positive framework for effective public schools in 2 ways. First, it advances the construct self-regulatory climate as consisting of 3 generative school norms--collective faculty trust in students, collective student trust in teachers, and student-perceived academic emphasis. The authors argue these…

  12. Schools of the Pacific rainfall climate experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postawko, S. E.; Morrissey, M. L.; Taylor, G. J.; Mouginis-Mark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The SPaRCE program is a cooperative rainfall climate field project involving high school and college level students and teachers from various Pacific island and atoll nations. The goals of the SPaRCE program are: (1) to foster interest and increase understanding among Pacific-area students and teachers of climate and climate change; (2) to educate the students and teachers as to the importance of rainfall in the Pacific area to climate studies; (3) to provide the students and teachers an opportunity of making a major contribution to the global climate research effort by collecting and analyzing Pacific rainfall data; and (4) to incorporate collected rainfall observations into a comprehensive Pacific daily rainfall data base to be used for climate research purposes. Schools participating in SPaRCE have received standard raingauges with which to measure rainfall at their sites. Students learned to site and use their raingauges by viewing a video produced at the University of Oklahoma. Four more videos will be produced which will include information on Earth's atmosphere, global climate and climate change, regional climate and implications of climate change, and how to analyze and use the rainfall data they are collecting. The videos are accompanied by workbooks which summarize the main points of each video, and contain concrete learning activities to help the student better understand climate and climate change. Following each video, interactive sessions are held with the students using the PEACESAT (Pan-Pacific Education And Communication Experiments by Satellite) satellite radio communication system.

  13. School climate, peer victimization, and academic achievement: results from a multi-informant study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E; Haltigan, J D; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-09-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling, with school climate as a contextual variable. Boys and girls reported no differences in victimization by their peers, although boys had lower GPAs than girls. Peer victimization was related to lower GPA and to a poorer perception of school climate (individual-level), which was also associated with lower GPA. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that peer victimization was again negatively associated with GPA, and that lower school-level climate was associated with lower GPA. Although no moderating effects of school-level school climate or sex were observed, the relation between peer victimization and GPA remained significant after taking into account (a) school-level climate scores, (b) individual variability in school-climate scores, and (c) several covariates--ethnicity, absenteeism, household income, parental education, percentage of minority students, type of school, and bullying perpetration. These findings underscore the importance of a positive school climate for academic success and viewing school climate as a fundamental collective school outcome. Results also speak to the importance of viewing peer victimization as being harmfully linked to students' academic performance. PMID:25198617

  14. Management and Research Perspectives on the CFK School Climate Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; Nussbaum, Claire

    This document investigates the widely used school climate assessment instrument, the CFK Ltd. School Climate Profile. Part A (General School Climate Factors) was administered by school to a junior high campus (n=257) and a high school campus (n=906) in a major metropolitan area in the Southwestern United States to gather data for administrative…

  15. School Climate: Research, Policy, Practice, and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jonathan; McCabe, Libby; Michelli, Nicholas M.; Pickeral, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Educators have written about and studied school climate for 100 years. School climate refers to the quality and character of school life. School climate is based on patterns of people's experiences of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational…

  16. Discipline Options: Establishing a Positive School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs-Richardson, Rita; Meisgeier, Charles H.

    This book describes how schools can promote positive and orderly climates that ensure learning. The text is divided into two parts. Part 1 looks at general concerns and provides a survey of discipline problems that public schools face and how the public views these problems. It discusses regularities, responsibility, and reinforcement--the three…

  17. Reducing School Violence: School-Based Curricular Programs and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines two different, but interrelated approaches to reduce school violence: school-based curricular programs and efforts to change school climate. The state of the research for each is reviewed and the relationship between them is explored.

  18. The Principal's Role in Setting School Climate (for School Improvement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gene E.

    Given that principals play a role in setting school climate, this paper focuses on how this actually happens. First, the paper explores different criteria and variables as possible frameworks for defining the term "climate." This task is complicated by problems in identifying consensus findings due to weak variable definitions and lack of…

  19. Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Lifelines project aims to establish a network of practicing high school teachers actively using climate change curricula by creating professional learning communities (PLCs) of teachers who, through remote meetings and workshops, maintain ongoing communication and sharing of best practices among colleagues to strengthen knowledge and promote effective teaching strategies. The project explores techniques to achieve the most effective teleconferencing meetings and workshops. This promotes not only teaching about minimizing environmental impacts of human activity, but minimizes environmental impacts of professional development — practicing what we preach. To date, Lifelines PLCs have set up websites and e-mail lists for sharing information. Teleconferences and webinars have been held using services such as Skype, ReadyTalk, and Wiggio. Many of the meetings have been recorded and archived for the benefit of members who could not attend in real-time.

  20. Teachers' Perspectives on School Climate at a Low-Performing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Paul Kit

    2012-01-01

    A number of research studies have indicated that issues with school climate may be a source of the low academic and social success of students in the public school system. A poor school climate is often associated with low-performing schools; a positive school climate can increase student achievement and other indicators of school success such as…

  1. Peer Victimization and Authoritative School Climate: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Dewey; Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    School climate is widely recognized as an important influence on peer victimization in schools. The purpose of this study is to examine how authoritative school climate theory provides a framework for conceptualizing 2 key features of school climate--disciplinary structure and student support--that are associated with 3 measures of peer…

  2. The Impact of Integrative Planned Change Strategies on School Climate Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blust, Ross S.; Dumaresq, Richard R.

    To test the effectiveness of an organizational development strategy to improve educational environments, data were gathered on the process and outcomes of a project for school climate improvement and school renewal. Data from two urban schools--a junior high school and a middle school--were drawn from interviews with participants, figures on…

  3. Effects of "Safe School" Programs and Policies on the Social Climate for Sexual-Minority Youth: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Whitney W.; Fedewa, Alicia L.; Gonzalez, Kirsten A.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are a vulnerable population--a status that can be attributed to a hostile social climate at school. Intervention strategies, such as educational policies, programs, and a supportive environment, improve the social climate for LGBT students in secondary schools and…

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of Principals' Motivating Language and Public School Climates in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the overall climate in a school can encourage or deter learning. One significant factor promoting a positive climate is the use of motivational language by school leaders. This article presents empirical evidence of teachers' perceptions of motivational language used by school principals and the effects of this language on…

  5. Australian Secondary School Students' Understanding of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated 438 Year 10 students (15 and 16 years old) from Western Australian schools, on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and climate change, and the sources of their information. Results showed that most students have an understanding of how the greenhouse effect works, however, many students merge the processes of the…

  6. School Climate and Racial Awareness: An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouknight, Tamisha Marie

    2009-01-01

    School climate, or a student's feelings of connection to his or her school community, has been positively associated with student's academic achievement, school success, self-esteem and the educator-student relationship. An important aspect of students' of color perceptions of school climate is the ability to talk with school staff about personal…

  7. Volcanic effects on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions which inject large amounts of sulfur-rich gas into the stratosphere produce dust veils which last years and cool the earth's surface. At the same time, these dust veils absorb enough solar radiation to warm the stratosphere. Since these temperature changes at the earth's surface and in the stratosphere are both in the opposite direction of hypothesized effects from greenhouse gases, they act to delay and mask the detection of greenhouse effects on the climate system. Tantalizing recent research results have suggested regional effects of volcanic eruptions, including effects on El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In addition, a large portion of the global climate change of the past 100 years may be due to the effects of volcanoes, but a definite answer is not yet clear. While effects of several years were demonstrated with both data studies and numerical models, long-term effects, while found in climate model calculations, await confirmation with more realistic models. Extremely large explosive prehistoric eruptions may have produced severe weather and climate effects, sometimes called a 'volcanic winter'. Complete understanding of the above effects of volcanoes is hampered by inadequacies of data sets on volcanic dust veils and on climate change. Space observations can play an increasingly important role in an observing program in the future. The effects of volcanoes are not adequately separated from ENSO events, and climate modeling of the effects of volcanoes is in its infancy. Specific suggestions are made for future work to improve the knowledge of this important component of the climate system.

  8. Effects of Single Gender Classrooms and Coeducational Classrooms on Student Achievement and School Climate for Middle School Students in a Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Nickalous A.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared student achievement and student attitudes for students in single-gender classrooms and students in coeducational classrooms in the seventh grade. The study utilized the TCAP reading and math tests and the Renaissance reading and math formative assessments for the measures on student achievement. The school district's climate…

  9. Improving School Climate to Reduce Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Bullying harms kids in nearly every way imaginable. It disrupts their learning; it causes them to suffer anxiety and depression; and it undermines their feelings of safety and connection to school. New understandings of bullying are based on relationships and connect directly to the growing appreciation of the role of the social climate within…

  10. Transformational Leadership Related to School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarley, Troy A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between teacher perceptions of the degree to which a principal displays the factors of transformational leadership (idealized attributes, idealized behaviors, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulations, and individual considerations) and the perceived school climate (supportive principal behavior,…

  11. Effectively Rebutting Climate Misinformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, J.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science faces one of the best funded misinformation campaigns in history. The challenge for climate communicators is that misinformation is extremely difficult to dislodge, even after people understand that it's incorrect. Understanding how the human brain processes information is crucial to successful rebuttal. To avoid the danger of reinforcing misinformation (known as the 'backfire effect'), emphasis should be on positive facts, not the myth. Another key to dislodging myths is replacing them with an alternate narrative. In order to provide a narrative about arguments that misrepresent climate science, a broader understanding of how these arguments mislead is required. Movements that deny a scientific consensus have 5 characteristics in common and these also apply to climate denial. The arguments against the scientific consensus involve conspiracy theories, fake experts, cherry picking, logical fallacies and misrepresentation or impossible expectations. Learning to identify these rhetorical techniques is an important tool in the climate communication toolbox. I discuss examples of misrepresentations of climate science and the rhetorical techniques employed. I demonstrate how to respond to these arguments by explaining the facts of climate science while in the process, providing an alternate narrative.

  12. Bullying and School Climate: Associations and Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biernbaum, Mark A.; Lotyczewski, Bohdan S.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is an international public health problem that school climate could help prevent or promote. The present paper contains an analysis of an anonymous school climate survey, completed by 9554 students, in grades 5-12 (response rate 87%). Links in the literature between school climate and bullying lack specificity. We examined associations…

  13. Assessing Climate Misconceptions of Middle School Learners and Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahagian, D. L.; Anastasio, D. J.; Bodzin, A.; Cirucci, L.; Bressler, D.; Dempsey, C.; Peffer, T.

    2012-12-01

    Middle School students and their teachers are among the many populations in the U.S. with misconceptions regarding the science or even reality of climate change. Teaching climate change science in schools is of paramount importance since all school-age children will eventually assume responsibility for the management and policy-making decisions of our planet. The recently published Framework for K-12 Science Education (National Research Council, 2012) emphasizes the importance of students understanding global climate change and its impacts on society. A preliminary assessment of over a thousand urban middles school students found the following from pretests prior to a climate literacy curriculum: - Do not understand that climate occurs on a time scale of decades (most think it is weeks or months) -Do not know the main atmospheric contributors to global warming -Do not understand the role of greenhouse gases as major contributors to increasing Earth's surface temperature -Do not understand the role of water vapor to trap heat and add to the greenhouse effect -Cannot identify some of the human activities that increase the amount of CO2 -Cannot identify sources of carbon emissions produced by US citizens -Cannot describe human activities that are causing the long-term increase of carbon -dioxide levels over the last 100 years -Cannot describe carbon reduction strategies that are feasible for lowering the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere To address the lack of a well-designed middle school science climate change curriculum that can be used to help teachers promote the teaching and learning of important climate change concepts, we developed a 20-day Environmental Literacy and Inquiry (ELI): Climate Change curriculum in partnership with a local school district. Comprehension increased significantly from pre- to post-test after enactment of the ELI curriculum in the classrooms. This work is part of an ongoing systemic curriculum reform initiative to promote (1

  14. Understanding the Association Between School Climate and Future Orientation.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Pas, Elise; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2016-08-01

    Promoting students' future orientation is inherently a goal of the educational system. Recently, it has received more explicit attention given the increased focus on career readiness. This study aimed to examine the association between school climate and adolescents' report of future orientation using data from youth (N = 27,698; 49.4 % female) across 58 high schools. Three-level hierarchical linear models indicated that perceptions of available emotional and service supports, rules and consequences, and parent engagement were positively related to adolescents' future orientation. Additionally, the school-level average future orientation was significantly related to individuals' future orientation, indicating a potential influence of contextual effects on this construct. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions targeting school climate may hold promise for promoting future orientation. PMID:26104381

  15. What Greek Secondary School Students Believe about Climate Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Athanasiadis, Ilias; Gavrilakis, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what Greek secondary school students (grades 8 and 11) believe about the greenhouse effect and climate change. A total of 626 students completed a closed-form questionnaire consisting of statements regarding the causes, impacts and solutions for this global environmental issue. The possible influence of…

  16. Impact of Experience Corps® Participation on School Climate

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Jeanine M.; Ramsey, Christine M.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Xue, Qian-Li; Huang, Jin; Romani, William A.; McGill, Sylvia; Seeman, Teresa E.; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Barron, Jeremy; Tan, Erwin; Gruenewald, Tara L.; Diibor, Ike; Fried, Linda P.; Rebok, George W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of the Experience Corps® (EC) program on school climate within Baltimore City public elementary schools. In this program, teams of older adult volunteers were placed in high intensity (>15 hours per week), meaningful roles in public elementary schools, to improve the educational outcomes of children as well as the health and well-being of volunteers. During the first year of EC participation, school climate was perceived more favorably among staff and students in EC schools as compared to those in comparison schools. However, with a few notable exceptions, perceived school climate did not differ for staff or students in intervention and comparison schools during the second year of exposure to the EC program. These findings suggest that perceptions of school climate may be altered by introducing a new program into elementary schools; however, research examining how perceptions of school climate are impacted over a longer period is warranted. PMID:25708453

  17. The Trajectories of Adolescents' Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems during the Middle School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents' perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, and peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations…

  18. A Brief Measure of Adolescent Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Nick; La Salle, Tamika; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Meyers, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Student perceptions of school climate represent the ways students feel about the school environment. These include perceptions regarding safety, teaching and learning, and relationships within the school. It has been found that student perceptions of school climate are positively correlated with academic achievement (Brookover et al., 1978), and…

  19. Testing the Causal Links between School Climate, School Violence, and School Academic Performance: A Cross-Lagged Panel Autoregressive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbenishty, Rami; Astor, Ron Avi; Roziner, Ilan; Wrabel, Stephani L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the causal link between school climate, school violence, and a school's general academic performance over time using a school-level, cross-lagged panel autoregressive modeling design. We hypothesized that reductions in school violence and climate improvement would lead to schools' overall improved academic performance.…

  20. An Evaluation of Instructional Coaching at Selected High Schools in North Louisiana and Its Effect on Student Achievement, Organizational Climate, and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high schools in north Louisiana to determine if the presence or absence of instructional coaches influenced student achievement, organizational climate, and/or teacher efficacy in any significant manner. The 11 high schools in north Louisiana utilizing instructional coaches were matched to 11 high schools…

  1. Examination of Principals' Perceptions on School Climate in Metropolitan Nashville Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Constance L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the school climate of the Metropolitan Nashville Public Elementary Schools through the lenses of the principals. Principals' perceptions of their school climates was studied using independent variables of principal gender, years of experience as principal, tenure at present school, enrollment size of school,…

  2. Advocating for Safe Schools, Positive School Climate, and Comprehensive Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Katherine C.; Vaillancourt, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The tragedy at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, CT (USA) has brought the conversation about how to reduce violence, make schools safer, improve school climate, and increase access to mental health services to the forefront of the national conversation. Advocating for comprehensive initiatives to address school safety, school climate, and…

  3. Identity Development and School Climate: The Role of the School Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia C.; Karvonen, Meagan; Perez, Theresa R.; Abrams, Lyndon P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined aspects of school climate pertaining to issues of diversity at 2 elementary schools, conducting focus groups with students, school personnel, and parents. Findings indicated that degree of parental involvement and interaction regarding issues of diversity affect the school climate. Recommendations for school counselors are…

  4. An Evaluation of Factors that Impact Positive School Climate for School Psychologists in a Time of Conflicting Educational Mandates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Melody J.; Crank, Joe N.

    2010-01-01

    Educators including school psychologists must negotiate the differing demands of legal mandates and recent educational initiatives that impact their practice and school climate in order to maintain positive effects for students and other school personnel. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act,…

  5. The Impact of an Economically Disadvantaged Student Population on School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Null, Curtis F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student poverty levels, defined by the number of students identified as economically disadvantaged by qualifying for free and reduced lunch and school climate. The literature review examined school climate and culture, effects of student socioeconomic (SES) status on education,…

  6. Improving School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John, Ed.; Mortimore, Peter, Ed.

    School effectiveness is an issue that has preoccupied researchers and policymakers for 3 decades. To study how ineffective schools become effective and what constitutes an effective school, the Improving School Effectiveness Project was carried out in Scotland from 1995 to 1997. This project forms the basis of discussion in this book, which has 11…

  7. CEC's Policy on Safe and Positive School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) recognizes the important impact a safe and positive school climate has on the personal development and academic achievement of all students. Research has shown that schools implementing supportive and positive school climate strategies are more successful in creating environments conducive to learning. As…

  8. Perceived school climate across the transition from elementary to middle school.

    PubMed

    Madjar, Nir; Cohen-Malayev, Maya

    2016-06-01

    The implications of the transition from elementary to middle school are of major concern for educators and researchers worldwide. Previous studies have yielded ambiguous findings; some have indicated negative outcomes of school transition, whereas others have demonstrated null or even positive effects. The aim of the current research was to explore the impact of school transition on students' perceived educational climate while distinguishing between transition effects and age-related effects by comparing students who transitioned to middle schools at the end of the sixth grade versus those who did not. The research included 2 complementary studies. Study 1 was based on a large-scale national survey in Israel (N = 71,739) that compared students from fifth to eighth grades using a cross-sectional design, in which the students completed a survey once in the middle of the school year. Study 2 followed a sample of 415 students across 2 years including 4 waves of survey completion, at the beginning and the end of 2 consecutive school years, during which 55% of the students experienced a transition and 45% remained in elementary school. In both studies, the students completed self-report surveys assessing the perceived school climate. Both multilevel and nonlinear growth-curve analyses consistently indicated that the students who transitioned reported positive perceptions of the school climate before the transition that declined more quickly and become equal to or lower than those of the nontransitioning students. Teachers should apply practices that enhance students' sense of support, specifically following school transitions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26479852

  9. How School Climate Influences Teachers’ Emotional Exhaustion: The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiuping; Yao, Meilin; Zong, Xiaoli; Li, Yulan; Li, Xiying; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guanyu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers’ emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p–12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers’ use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China. PMID:26457713

  10. How School Climate Influences Teachers' Emotional Exhaustion: The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiuping; Yao, Meilin; Zong, Xiaoli; Li, Yulan; Li, Xiying; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guanyu

    2015-10-01

    Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers' emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p-12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers' perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers' perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers' use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China. PMID:26457713

  11. School Reviews: Pursuing Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesse, Ken

    1984-01-01

    The school review program includes evaluation of the principal's performance, observation of all teachers and programs, school climate analysis, parental preferences and suggestions, and recommendations and planning reports. Recommendations fall into three categories: maintenance, consideration, and problem areas. The program is used in the Red…

  12. School Social Capital and School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, Kwok-Kuen

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that school social capital is crucial for school effectiveness, but it has been disregarded in the traditional school administrative theory. Therefore, this article tries to illustrate the significance of school social capital to school effectiveness. School social capital is defined as the social resources embedded in internal…

  13. The Talent Development Middle School. Creating a Motivational Climate Conducive to Talent Development in Middle Schools: Implementation and Effects of Student Team Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Plank, Stephen B.

    Central East Middle School in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), an urban school with about 45% Hispanic enrollment, and the Center for Research on the Education of Children Placed at Risk are working together to implement a Talent Development Middle School model of schooling. Part of this effort includes use of the Student Team Reading (STR) Program,…

  14. Our Children, Our Schools: Seeking Solutions for Improving the Climate in Urban Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Ronald A.; Harrington, Sonja Y.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative study the researchers examined perceptions regarding school climate of parents with children who attend urban schools, based on several dimensions: quality of the instructional program, support for learning, school climate/environment for learning, parent/school relationships, and resource management. Of the 150 administered…

  15. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Tropical Island Climates

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    Design guidelines outline high performance principles for the new or retrofit design of K-12 schools in tropical island climates. By incorporating energy improvements into construction or renovation plans, schools can reduce energy consumption and costs.

  16. The Trajectories of Adolescents’ Perceptions of School Climate, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Behavioral Problems During the Middle School Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined trajectories of change in adolescents’ perceptions of four dimensions of school climate (academic support, behavior management, teacher social support, peer social support) and the effects of such trajectories on adolescent problem behaviors. We also tested whether school climate moderated the associations between deviant peer affiliation and adolescent problem behaviors. The 1,030 participating adolescents from 8 schools were followed from 6th through 8th grades (54% female; 76% European American). Findings indicated that all the dimensions of school climate declined and behavioral problems and deviant peer affiliation increased. Declines in each of the dimensions were associated with increases in behavioral problems. The prediction of problem behavior from peer affiliation was moderated by adolescents’ perceptions of school climate. PMID:22822296

  17. A Simple Climate Model Program for High School Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dommenget, D.

    2012-04-01

    The future climate change projections of the IPCC AR4 are based on GCM simulations, which give a distinct global warming pattern, with an arctic winter amplification, an equilibrium land sea contrast and an inter-hemispheric warming gradient. While these simulations are the most important tool of the IPCC predictions, the conceptual understanding of these predicted structures of climate change are very difficult to reach if only based on these highly complex GCM simulations and they are not accessible for ordinary people. In this study presented here we will introduce a very simple gridded globally resolved energy balance model based on strongly simplified physical processes, which is capable of simulating the main characteristics of global warming. The model shall give a bridge between the 1-dimensional energy balance models and the fully coupled 4-dimensional complex GCMs. It runs on standard PC computers computing globally resolved climate simulation with 2yrs per second or 100,000yrs per day. The program can compute typical global warming scenarios in a few minutes on a standard PC. The computer code is only 730 line long with very simple formulations that high school students should be able to understand. The simple model's climate sensitivity and the spatial structure of the warming pattern is within the uncertainties of the IPCC AR4 models simulations. It is capable of simulating the arctic winter amplification, the equilibrium land sea contrast and the inter-hemispheric warming gradient with good agreement to the IPCC AR4 models in amplitude and structure. The program can be used to do sensitivity studies in which students can change something (e.g. reduce the solar radiation, take away the clouds or make snow black) and see how it effects the climate or the climate response to changes in greenhouse gases. This program is available for every one and could be the basis for high school education. Partners for a high school project are wanted!

  18. Students' perceptions of school climate in the U.S. and China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C; Huang, Xishan

    2013-03-01

    Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States. Differences in school climate between the two countries were examined in this study. The sample consisted of 10,400 American and 3,435 Chinese students across three grade levels (elementary, middle, and high school) in 85 American and 22 Chinese schools. Factor structure and measurement invariance across countries were first established for the Modified-Delaware School Climate Survey-Student. Differences in latent means were then tested. Across all three grade levels Chinese students scored significantly higher than American students on all four subscales (Teacher-Student Relations, Student-Student Relations, School Liking, and Fairness of School Rules). Effects sizes tended to be smallest in elementary schools and largest in middle schools. Significant differences between American and Chinese students exist in their perceptions of school climate. It is likely that those differences can be attributed to cultural differences in respect of authority, academic and social values, self-regulation and peer-regulation of behaviors, and teachers' classroom management. PMID:23506022

  19. Measurement and structural relations of an authoritative school climate model: A multi-level latent variable investigation.

    PubMed

    Konold, Timothy R; Cornell, Dewey

    2015-12-01

    This study tested a conceptual model of school climate in which two key elements of an authoritative school, structure and support variables, are associated with student engagement in school and lower levels of peer aggression. Multilevel multivariate structural modeling was conducted in a statewide sample of 48,027 students in 323 public high schools who completed the Authoritative School Climate Survey. As hypothesized, two measures of structure (Disciplinary Structure and Academic Expectations) and two measures of support (Respect for Students and Willingness to Seek Help) were associated with higher student engagement (Affective Engagement and Cognitive Engagement) and lower peer aggression (Prevalence of Teasing and Bullying) on both student and school levels of analysis, controlling for the effects of school demographics (school size, percentage of minority students, and percentage of low income students). These results support the extension of authoritative school climate model to high school and guide further research on the conditions for a positive school climate. PMID:26563598

  20. Teachers as Builders of Respectful School Climates: Implications for Adolescent Drug Use Norms and Depressive Symptoms in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria D.; Romer, Daniel; Selman, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Positive school climates have been found to have favorable effects on adolescent health risk behaviors and mental health outcomes. However, the mechanisms by which teacher behavior may promote such effects in high schools have not been extensively studied. Based on social control theory and a social developmental-contextual model, it was predicted…

  1. The Physical Activity Climate in Minnesota Middle and High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, Anne; Lytle, Leslie; Pasch, Keryn; Farbakhsh, Kian; Moe, Stacey; Sirard, John Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Background This article describes policies, practices, and facilities that form the physical activity climate in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota metro area middle and high schools and examines how the physical activity climate varies by school characteristics, including public/private, school location and grade level. Methods Surveys examining school physical activity practices, policies and environment were administered to principals and physical education department heads from 115 middle and high schools participating in the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer-Identifying Determinants of Eating and Activity (TREC-IDEA) study. Results While some supportive practices were highly prevalent in the schools studied (such as prohibiting substitution of other classes for physical education); other practices were less common (such as providing opportunity for intramural (noncompetitive) sports). Public schools vs. private schools and schools with a larger school enrollment were more likely to have a school climate supportive of physical activity. Conclusions Although schools reported elements of positive physical activity climates, discrepancies exist by school characteristics. Of note, public schools were more than twice as likely as private schools to have supportive physical activity environments. Establishing more consistent physical activity expectations and funding at the state and national level is necessary to increase regular school physical activity. PMID:21088313

  2. Organizational Climate in Catholic Schools: The Development of a Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, A. Ross; McTaggart, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty teachers in Catholic schools who had previously taught in public schools perceived eight common components of organizational climate in schools: staff relationships, goal orientation, religious dimension, student behavior, principal's leadership style, parent interaction, number of students and work conditions. Catholic schools rated…

  3. An Empirical Examination of IRT Information for School Climate Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mo, Lun; Yang, Fang; Hu, Xiangen

    2011-01-01

    School climate surveys are widely applied in school districts across the nation to collect information about teacher efficacy, principal leadership, school safety, students' activities, and so forth. They enable school administrators to understand and address many issues on campus when used in conjunction with other student and staff data.…

  4. Trace gas effects on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.; Callis, L. B., Jr.; Cess, R. D.; Hansen, J. E.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Kuhn, W. R.; Lacis, A.; Luther, F. M.; Mahlman, J. D.; Reck, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The two primary objectives are to describe the new scientific challenges posed by the trace gas-climate problem and to summarize current strategies, and to make an assessment of the trace gas effects on troposphere-stratosphere temperature trends. Numerous reports on CO2-climate problems are examined with respect to climate modeling issues. The role of the oceans in governing the transient climate response to time varying CO2 concentrations is discussed.

  5. Effective Schools Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Daniel U.; Lezotte, Lawrence W.

    Research studies that have focused on identifying the characteristics or correlates of elementary and secondary schools that are unusually effective are reviewed, concentrating on the "effective schools" movement. Research on effective schools supports the conclusion that they rank high on certain characteristics frequently referred to as…

  6. A New Framework for School Climate: Exploring Predictive Capability of School Climate Attributes and Impact on School Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Amy Vermaelen

    2012-01-01

    Much emphasis is being placed on the use of school performance scores as a means of indicating effective schools. Schools are being held accountable for not only teaching the curriculum, but also affording the student a quality education that encompasses the skills and knowledge needed to be successful. Although many schools have a similar…

  7. Measuring School Climate: An Overview of Measurement Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Diane; Recchia, Sophie; Steffgen, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Background: School climate is a heterogeneous concept with a multitude of standardised and validated instruments available to measure it. Purpose: This overview of measurement scales aims to provide researchers with short summaries of some of the self-report instruments in existence, especially in relation to the link between school climate and…

  8. Build a Positive Climate and Watch Your School Weather Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscemi, Mike; Keister, Sue

    1993-01-01

    Examines ways in which a parent can measure and help to create a school environment that projects a positive climate in which a child can learn and grow. Suggestions are offered for setting up a school climate committee and for operating such a committee. (GLR)

  9. Correlational Analysis of Servant Leadership and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Glenda Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method research study was to determine the extent that servant leadership was correlated with perceptions of school climate to identify whether there was a relationship between principals' and teachers' perceived practice of servant leadership and of school climate. The study employed a mixed-method approach by first…

  10. Critical Climate: Relations among Sexual Harassment, Climate, and Outcomes for High School Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, Alayne J.; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Perry, Leigh Ann

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among peer-to-peer sexual harassment, school climate, adult-to-student harassment, and outcomes (psychological and physical well-being; school withdrawal and safety) for high school girls (n = 310) and boys (n = 259) recruited from seven public high schools in a Midwestern state. More frequent, severe peer…

  11. School District Climate Improvement: A Challenge to the School Superintendent. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaheen, Thomas A.; Pedrick, W. Roberts

    School district climate improvement is a challenging responsibility, and the options for the task spread across a wide range. This paper describes some options and tells how to begin exercising them. A first step is gaining a new understanding of school district climate and its components. Part I describes climate in practical terms and offers a…

  12. Effective Schools Require Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

  13. Developing a Regionally-Based "Next Generation" High School Climate Science Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M.; Clark, J.; Getty, S. R.; Marks, J.; Hungate, B. A.; Kaufman, D. S.; Coles, R.; Haden, C.; Cooley, N.

    2012-12-01

    Colorado Plateau Carbon Connections is a regionally relevant, culturally responsive, technology-rich high school climate science curriculum for the Colorado Plateau/Four Corners region. Funded by an NSF Climate Change Education Partnership grant, the 10-lesson curriculum supplement is the result of collaboration between Northern Arizona University climate scientists, social scientists and educators and the NASA-funded Biological Sciences Curriculum Study Carbon Connections project. The curriculum includes disciplinary core ideas in Earth Science from A Framework for K-12 Science Education. It integrates cross-cutting relationships and science and engineering practices. Students are introduced to regional and global effects of climate change, and build their understanding of climate science using simulations and climate models. The models are based on authentic data and allow students to explore the roles of carbon dioxide, volcanic forcing, El Niño effects, solar variability, and anthropogenic inputs to the climate system. Students also negate climate misconceptions using climate science, and analyze personal connections to the climate system. They examine their own carbon footprints and propose regionally based solutions for mitigating the effects of climate change. The curriculum was field tested in Spring 2012 with 384 students and ten teachers in seven schools. The evaluation shows strong student engagement and increased knowledge of climate science and solutions. This curriculum also serves as a model for integrating regional issues into climate science education.

  14. Authoritative School Climate, Aggression toward Teachers, and Teacher Distress in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Juliette K.; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-01-01

    Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less…

  15. Improving the Climate in Rural Schools through an Individualized Staff Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Kathleen R.; Trueblood, Cecil R.

    School climate is defined, four instruments used to assess various dimensions of school climate are described, and implications of a school climate profile for developing an individualized staff development program in a rural school setting are discussed. Developed from the professional literature, the definition of school climate includes the…

  16. Nevada's Climate Change High School Science Fair Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, P.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this 3 year project funded by NSF (GEO 1035049) is to increase the climate change science content knowledge and teaching effectiveness of in-service high school science teachers and increase the numbers of quality of high school geoscience projects competing in Nevada's three regional Intel ISEF (International Science & Engineering Fair) affiliated science fairs. In year 1 of the project participants consisted of six female and three male high school teachers from across Nevada. Eight of the participants were white and one was Asian. Five participants taught in Clark County, two taught in Owyhee, one taught in Elko and one taught in Spring Creek. Over 20% of the projects were noted (by the teachers) as being submitted by underrepresented students; however, this information is not reliable as most students did not provide this data themselves. Pre-and post- content tests were given. Teachers improved from an average of eight missed on the pre-test to an average of only four items missed on the post-test. Participants were also asked to evaluate their own teaching efficacy. In general, participants had a strong science efficacy. The item on which there was the most discrepancy among participants was on #10, the one stating that "The low achievement of some students cannot generally be blamed on their teachers." Most teachers completed an end of year program evaluation. All but one of the participants felt that the pace of the workshop was comfortable. All participants who used faculty mentors in helping their students rated their faculty mentors very highly. All participants rated the program content very highly in terms of clarity, organization, relevance, helpfulness and usefulness. All participants gave the program a very high rating overall and stated they would likely use the information to mentor future students and in instruction in future classes. The science fairs are the culmination of the program. Teachers were required to have at least one

  17. Examining the Relationship between Teacher Leadership and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilinc, Ali Çagatay

    2014-01-01

    Teacher leadership has recently become the centre of educational research on improving educational practices. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between primary school teachers' perceptions of school climate and teacher leadership. The study sample consisted of 259 primary school teachers who participated in an…

  18. Taking a Strengths-Based Focus Improves School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Tschannen-Moran, Bob

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn whether focusing on strengths through appreciative inquiry would be related to measurable changes in school climate and trust within a small urban school district. The district studied was a beleaguered, underperforming school district in the Midwest Rust Belt. Through an appreciative inquiry initiative, the…

  19. Heteronormativity, School Climates, and Perceived Safety for Gender Nonconforming Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Students' perceptions of their school climates are associated with psychosocial and academic adjustment. The present study examined the role of school strategies to promote safety in predicting students' perceptions of safety for gender nonconforming peers among 1415 students in 28 high schools. Using multilevel modeling techniques, we examined…

  20. Local Communities and Schools Tackling Sustainability and Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Rick; Chodkiewicz, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Local communities and their schools remain key sites for actions tackling issues of sustainability and climate change. A government-funded environmental education initiative, the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative (AuSSI), working together with state based Sustainable Schools Programs (SSP), has the ability to support the development of…

  1. The Influence of Classroom Disciplinary Climate of Schools on Reading Achievement: A Cross-Country Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Bo; Van Damme, Jan; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Yang, Xiangdong; Gielen, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in research and practice in the effect of classroom disciplinary climate of schools on academic achievement, little is known about the generalizability of this effect over countries. Using hierarchical linear analyses, the present study reveals that a better classroom disciplinary climate in a school is significantly…

  2. Alpbach Summer School 2010 - proposed missions to understand climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejci, D.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Kern, K.; Romano, P.; Topham, R.; Weitnauer, C.

    2011-12-01

    The theme of the Alpbach Summer School 2010 was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change". At present, climate change studies face many uncertainties that need to be solved and quantified. The unprecedented effects and consequences of climate change on our planet are causing serious concerns amongst the scientific community, that witnesses the transformations our environment is suffering. In order to reduce them, Earth Observation from space is a really interesting and affordable alternative. A group of sixty young science and engineering students both undergraduate and graduate, dealt with the task of designing space missions aiming to better understand climate change. The participants were split into four teams which were encouraged to design innovative new missions, that could potentially help to increase our understanding on climate change by introducing new observation parameters, methods and technology. They were also encouraged to focus on different approaches so no scientific case was duplicated. The resulting proposals comprised a wide range of climate change topics: AVALON (Atmospheric water Vapour from an Active Limb-sounding Observing Network) a mission using a novel active limb-sounding instrument to measure water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere; ERICC (Evolution and Radiative Impact of Contrail Cirrus) the first space mission dedicated to the study of contrails and their impact on climate change; VESTA a mission designed to derive data on CO2 emissions from biomass burning in the tropics and DROP (Dual Retrieval of Precipitation) a mission to improve the understanding of regional and global water cycles. This presentation will provide an introduction towards the four missions designed with the goal of contributing towards better understanding climate change and its causes. The scientific cases will be presented, as well as the engineering designs needed to meet these scientific requirements on a preliminary level

  3. Impact of Function, Experience, and Training of School District Police on School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the impact that function, experience, and training of Independent School District School Resource Officers (ISD SROs) have on school climate. The participants were ISD SROs (n = 172) and teachers (n = 162) located in middle and high schools in Texas. Method: The Role of Law…

  4. The Principal as the School's Climate Leader: A New Role for the Principalship. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert S.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the principal's role in developing an improved or humane school environment for learning. It explores the thesis that the principal can be an effective and dynamic climate leader for change, but that he works within a participative process that involves all those who are part of the school environment and some who are not.…

  5. The Study of Factor Structure and Reliability of an Abbreviated School Climate Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Liu, Ying; Berkowitz, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The concept of school climate has been an important variable in research on quality of school life and student learning. One of the challenges in such a research effort is to develop instruments that could effectively and efficiently measure the construct. The purpose of the current study was to examine the factor structure and reliability of an…

  6. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  7. School Climate, Sense of Efficacy and Israeli Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion of Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisel, Amatzia; Dror, Orit

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the effects of school organizational and educational climate, and a teacher's sense of efficacy, on general education teachers' attitudes toward inclusion of students with special needs. The sample included 139 teachers from 17 elementary schools in the Northern District of Israel. The results of Pearson correlation and…

  8. The Meriden School Climate Survey-Student Version: Preliminary Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Larson, Alvin; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    School climate has been linked with myriad positive student outcomes and the measurement of school climate is widely advocated at the national and state level. However, districts have little guidance about how to define and measure school climate. This study examines the psychometric properties of a district-developed school climate measure that…

  9. Undergraduate Students As Effective Climate Change Communicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.; Mullendore, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) have partnered with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences through the Climate Change Communication: Engineer, Environmental science, and Education (C3E3) project. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students participated in the second summer internship funded by the project. The program is in its third year. More than 75 students participated in a guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. The students went through training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of webcasts on investigating the aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Three Colleges were involved in the program: Engineering, Education, and Science.

  10. Measuring School Climate in High Schools: A Focus on Safety, Engagement, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2014-01-01

    Background: School climate has been linked to multiple student behavioral, academic, health, and social-emotional outcomes. The US Department of Education (USDOE) developed a 3-factor model of school climate comprised of safety, engagement, and environment. This article examines the factor structure and measurement invariance of the USDOE model.…

  11. School Culture, Climate and Ethos: Interchangeable or Distinctive Concepts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Derek; Coleman, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The terms school culture, climate and ethos appear to be used interchangeably. Within the context of differing national environments there is, however, a tendency to use climate when objective data is under consideration, ethos when more subjective descriptors are involved, and culture when these two are brought together as an integrative force in…

  12. Climatic effects on planning behavior.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Kostakos, Vassilis; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    What mechanism links climate change and social change? Palaeoanthropological analysis of human remains suggests that abrupt climate change is linked to societal restructuring, but it has been challenging to reliably identify the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship. Here we identify one potential mechanism that can link climate to behavior change, and underpins many of the reported findings on social restructuring. Specifically, we show that daily weather is linked to human planning behavior, and this effect is moderated by climate. Our results demonstrate that as weather gets colder, humans increase their planning in cold regions and decrease planning in warm regions. Since planning has previously been linked to group efficiency, cooperation, and societal organization, our work suggests planning is one mechanism that can link climate change to societal restructuring. PMID:25993567

  13. Climatic Effects on Planning Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Kostakos, Vassilis; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    What mechanism links climate change and social change? Palaeoanthropological analysis of human remains suggests that abrupt climate change is linked to societal restructuring, but it has been challenging to reliably identify the exact mechanisms underlying this relationship. Here we identify one potential mechanism that can link climate to behavior change, and underpins many of the reported findings on social restructuring. Specifically, we show that daily weather is linked to human planning behavior, and this effect is moderated by climate. Our results demonstrate that as weather gets colder, humans increase their planning in cold regions and decrease planning in warm regions. Since planning has previously been linked to group efficiency, cooperation, and societal organization, our work suggests planning is one mechanism that can link climate change to societal restructuring. PMID:25993567

  14. Principal Leadership Style, Personality Type, and School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Dawn T.

    1995-01-01

    Relationships among principal leadership style, personality type, and school climate were studied in urban and rural contexts using responses from 34 principals and 166 teachers in three similar school districts. No relationship was found between personality type and leadership style, and no urban/rural differences were found for these variables…

  15. School Climate and Psychosomatic Health: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the importance of aspects of the school climate for adolescents' psychosomatic health using multilevel modelling. Analyses were based on 18,571 ninth-grade students distributed over 1,026 classes and 284 schools in the greater Stockholm area in 2004 and 2006. Both individual- and contextual-level associations between aspects of…

  16. School Climate & Discipline. California Children's Report Card, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The elements of school climate include the safety and overall well-being of students, as well as students' sense of connectedness and schools' discipline practices and physical environments. In 2012, 48% of suspensions in California were due to "willful defiance," an overly broad and subjective category defined as "disrupting school…

  17. The Impact of Visual Impairment on Perceived School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schade, Benjamin; Larwin, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation examines whether visual impairment has an impact on a student's perception of the school climate. Using a large national sample of high school students, perceptions were examined for students with vision impairment relative to students with no visual impairments. Three factors were examined: self-reported level of…

  18. The Relationship of Principal Conflict Management Style and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Miriam Miley

    2013-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods design, this study examined conflict management styles of elementary school principals in South Carolina and the relationship of conflict management style and school climate. The Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II, Form B, which identifies five styles of managing conflict, was used to determine principal conflict…

  19. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls' physical activity in middle school girls. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers' and boys' behaviors,…

  20. The Ethical Climate of Public Schooling under New Public Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Neil; Freakley, Mark; Parry, Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Today's competitive climate is pressuring public school educators to improve schools in an environment dominated by parent and consumer choice. This article draws on two studies involving Australian principals that illustrate difficult ethical situations. Most participants found the values of marketing and economic rationalism to be inconsistent…

  1. Working Together: Collaborative School Leadership Fosters a Climate of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ginger Kelley

    2005-01-01

    In Montessori schools, the best way to strengthen the climate of success by the administrators is called "transformational leadership". Leadership theorist James McGregor Burns identifies transformational leadership as a mutual belief and value system, and a commitment between a principal and teachers to focus on what works best for their school.…

  2. The Relationship of the Principal's Soft Skills to School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    School Climate has been identified by a large body of literature as having a direct relationship on student achievement (Johnson, & Stevens, 2000; Kezar & Eckel, 2007; West, 1985), and) and numerous other components used to determine the success and safety of both students and teachers in schools (Finnan, Schnepel, & Anderson, 2003;…

  3. Adolescent Perception of Family Climate and Adaptation to Residential Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Prechter, Eti

    1989-01-01

    Changes in adolescents' perceptions of the family as they adapt to residential schooling were studied for 51 residential and 57 nonresidential tenth graders in a school in Israel. No differences in the perception of family climate were found between the groups, suggesting no change with the individual's act of leaving. (SLD)

  4. The Relationship between Transformational School Leadership and Ethical Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagnak, Mesut

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between transformational school leadership and ethical climate. The participants were 764 teachers in 50 elementary schools in Nigde during the 2008/2009 academic year. Two distinct instruments were used in this study. The Principal Leadership Style Inventory developed by Leithwood and Jantzi (1991)…

  5. School Effectiveness: Profile of School Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jack; And Others

    Based on Larry Hutchins' analysis of the school effectiveness literature, the Profile of School Excellence (PRO-S/E) is a diagnostic tool keyed to 11 instructional and organizational variables which are positively related to effective/excellent schools and which are alterable. The variables are: needs basis; objectives; expectations; roles and…

  6. Scale Development for Perceived School Climate for Girls’ Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Sallis, James F.; Elder, John P.; Dowda, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To test an original scale assessing perceived school climate for girls’ physical activity in middle school girls. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Results CFA retained 5 of 14 original items. A model with 2 correlated factors, perceptions about teachers’ and boys’ behaviors, respectively, fit the data well in both sixth and eighth graders. SEM detected a positive, significant direct association of the teacher factor, but not the boy factor, with girls’ self-reported physical activity. Conclusions School climate for girls’ physical activity is a measurable construct, and preliminary evidence suggests a relationship with physical activity. PMID:15899688

  7. DCPS Effective Schools Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    DCPS is committed to providing "all" students with the caliber of education they deserve. The goal of the DCPS Effective Schools Framework is to ensure that every child, in every classroom, has access to a high-quality and engaging standards-based instructional program, and that all school supports are aligned to support teaching and learning. The…

  8. Minnesota School Effectiveness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    This packet is designed to assist educational leaders in presenting current research-based information on the characteristics of effective schools to their school staff. The packet is divided into five sections, each including a sample presentation script, transparency models, and worksheets for promoting group discussion. The first section is an…

  9. A DIGEST OF CLIMATE CONTROLLED AND NON-CLIMATE CONTROLLED SCHOOLS--AN EVALUATIVE STUDY CONDUCTED IN PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURTIS, H.A.; STUART, FRED

    A COMPARISON WAS MADE OF ONE CLIMATE CONTROLLED SCHOOL WITH ONE OR MORE NON-CLIMATE CONTROLLED SCHOOLS OF SIMILAR SIZE WITH RESPECT TO FACTORS OF COST AND OUTCOMES, IN THE PINELLAS COUNTY, FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. EACH OF THE FOUR SCHOOLS STUDIED HAD THE FOLLOWING SIMILARITIES--LOCATION, COST OF CONSTRUCTION, OCCUPANCY RATE, AND OPERATING…

  10. Measuring Inviting School Climate: A Case Study of a Public Primary School in an Urban Low Socioeconomic Setting in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okaya, Tom Mboya; Horne, Marj; Lamig, Madeleine; Smith, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R) (Smith, 2005b, 2013) based on Invitational Theory and Practice (Purkey & Novak, 2008) to examine the school climate of a public primary school in a low urban socio-economic setting in Kenya. School climate was defined as the perceptions of primary school teachers and pupils…

  11. Middle School Students' Understandings About Anthropogenic Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009; Golden & Francis, 2013), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which

  12. The Impact of Setting and Size on a School's Culture and Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulach, Cletus R.; Williams, Ronnie

    This research investigated the impact of school setting and size on the culture and climate of a school. Twenty-five schools and 1,163 teachers were involved in the study. There was a significant negative correlation between school size and the school's culture and climate. Other findings were that elementary schools had more positive climates…

  13. Safe Schools Facilities Planner. Improving School Climate and Order through Facilities Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Researchers, consulting professionals, and advocating agencies agree that school facility design is one essential component to a safe and successful school. This document addresses design-related concepts that can positively affect school climate and order. It describes and provides facility planning guidelines for crime prevention through…

  14. A Case Study of School Climate Improvement at an Urban Junior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieberg, H. Jerome

    This paper uses the Organized Universe as a framework for describing a successful four-year program to improve the school climate at a junior high school in Houston. The program began in the Summer of 1978 and was part of a larger Teacher Corps project that included four urban inner city schools. The organizers of the project used a management…

  15. Effective Schools and Classrooms: A Research-Based Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David A.; And Others

    A model for improving school and classroom effectiveness must pay attention to: (1) leadership; (2) school climate; (3) supervision; (4) teacher behaviors; (5) student behaviors; and (6) student achievement. Chapter 1 of this book on effective schools and classrooms introduces these important issues and describes a model incorporating these…

  16. Promoting an equitable and supportive school climate in high schools: the role of school organizational health and staff burnout.

    PubMed

    Bottiani, Jessika H; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Mendelson, Tamar

    2014-12-01

    In response to persistent racial disparities in academic and behavioral outcomes between Black and White students, equitable school climate has drawn attention as a potential target for school reform. This study examined differences in Black and White students' experiences of school climate and explored whether indicators of school organizational health and staff burnout moderated differences in students' school experiences by race. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling with a sample of 18,397 Black students (n=6228) and White students (n=12,169) and 2391 school staff in 53 schools, we found a consistent pattern of racial inequalities, such that Black students reported less positive experiences than White students across three indicators of school climate (caring γ=-0.08, p<.001; equity γ=-0.05, p=.007; and engagement γ=-0.05, p<.001). In addition, we found significant, positive associations between aggregated staff-report of school organizational health and student-reported school climate (e.g., staff affiliation and student-perceived equity, γ=0.07, p<.001). Surprisingly, a number of school organizational health indicators were more strongly associated with positive perceptions of school climate among White students than Black students, translating into greater racial disparities in perceived school climate at schools with greater organizational health (e.g., supportive leadership by race on student-perceived engagement, γ=-0.03, p=.042). We also found negative associations between staff-reported burnout and students' experience of equity, such that the racial gap was smaller in schools with high ratings of burnout (γ=0.04, p=.002). These findings have implications for educators and education researchers interested in promoting school social contexts that equitably support student engagement and success. PMID:25432272

  17. Evaluation of the Alliance for Climate Education's national high school edutainment program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappe, M.; Flora, J.; Saphir, M.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Alliance for Climate Education educates high school students on the science of climate change and inspires them to create effective solutions. Since 2009, ACE has reached over 1.6 million students nationwide with its multi media assembly presentation. In this paper, we evaluate the climate science knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, behavior and communication impact of the ACE Assembly program in a random sample of 49 schools (from population of 779) and a panel of 1,241 high school students. Pre and post assembly surveys composed of questions from the Global Warming Six Americas segmentation and intervention specific questions were administered in classrooms. We demonstrate that exposure to climate science in an engaging edutainment format changes youths' beliefs, involvement, and behavior positively and moves them to more climate science literate audience segments. The net impact of scaled and engaging programs for youth could be a population shift in climate science literacy and positive engagement in the issue of climate change. In addition, such programs can empower youth for deeper engagement in school programs, personal action, political and consumer advocacy.

  18. Schoolwide Social-Behavioral Climate, Student Problem Behavior, and Related Administrative Decisions: Empirical Patterns from 1,510 Schools Nationwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Scott A.; Irvin, Larry K.; Horner, Robert H.; May, Seth L.; Emeldi, Monica; Tobin, Tary J.; Sugai, George

    2010-01-01

    Office discipline referral (ODR) data provide useful information about problem behavior and consequence patterns, social-behavioral climates, and effects of social-behavioral interventions in schools. The authors report patterns of ODRs and subsequent administrative decisions from 1,510 schools nationwide that used the School-Wide Information…

  19. The Assessment of School Climate: Review and Appraisal of Published Student-Report Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramelow, Daniela; Currie, Dorothy; Felder-Puig, Rosemarie

    2015-01-01

    School climate measurement is a long-standing topic in educational research. This review article provides an overview and appraisal of school climate measures published between 2003 and 2013 in scientific journals. A search for published school climate instruments for secondary school students was made in three databases. Twelve articles meeting…

  20. Student Perceptions of School Climate as Predictors of Office Discipline Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Larson, Alvin; Sugai, George; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that school climate influences students' academic, social, and behavioral outcomes. Therefore, improving school climate provides a promising avenue for preventing academic, social, and behavioral difficulties. Research has examined school-level measurement of school climate, but few studies have examined student-level responses…

  1. Tracking Middle Grades Climate Data to Inform School Change. REL West Research Digest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory West, 2015

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that positive school climate is a key lever for students' academic and social development and success. This research digest shows how an alliance of California schools and districts, school climate experts, and state education agency personnel have teamed up to use school climate data to drive a continuous cycle of…

  2. Multilevel Factor Structure and Concurrent Validity of the Teacher Version of the Authoritative School Climate Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Cornell, Dewey G.; Konold, Timothy; Meyer, Joseph P.; Lacey, Anna; Nekvasil, Erin K.; Heilbrun, Anna; Shukla, Kathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: School climate is well recognized as an important influence on student behavior and adjustment to school, but there is a need for theory-guided measures that make use of teacher perspectives. Authoritative school climate theory hypothesizes that a positive school climate is characterized by high levels of disciplinary structure and…

  3. The Effect of a Case-Based Reasoning Instructional Model on Korean High School Students' Awareness in Climate Change Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Hyoungbum; Chae, Dong-hyun; Kim, Eunjeong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the case-based reasoning instructional model on learning about climate change unit. Results suggest that students showed interest because it allowed them to find the solution to the problem and solve the problem for themselves by analogy from other cases such as crossword puzzles in an…

  4. School Size and Staff Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Noel; Telfer, Ross

    1978-01-01

    While research has been unable to demonstrate a positive relationship between smaller schools and advantages such as openness of climate or participative decision-making, it is notable that no research evidence discloses a negative correlation. (Author)

  5. Student Background, School Climate, School Disorder, and Student Achievement: An Empirical Study of New York City's Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Greg; Weikart, Lynne A.

    2008-01-01

    This study develops and tests a school disorder and student achievement model based upon the school climate framework. The model was fitted to 212 New York City middle schools using the Structural Equations Modeling Analysis method. The analysis shows that the model fits the data well based upon test statistics and goodness of fit indices. The…

  6. Does Leadership Matter?: The Relationship of School Leadership to a Safe School Climate, Bullying, and Fighting in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine if there is a relationship between transformational principal leadership style, a safe school climate, and school safety (specifically, the number of reported fights and reported bullying incidents) in Broward County, Florida's middle schools. This study also investigated if a relationship…

  7. Climate Control. Secondary School Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPlantis, Ernest P.

    This course guide is oriented toward developing skills in air conditioning and refrigeration installation and service. Although primarily designed as a 2-year program for high school students at the junior and senior levels, it is equally acceptable for the post high school student as an occupational training program, or as a refresher course for…

  8. Bureaucratic Structure, Organizational Processes, and Three Dimensions of School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that schools with more participative processes and less structure have higher levels of perceived organizational effectiveness, teacher job satisfaction, and student achievement than schools with less participative climates and more structure. A sample of 114 school units and 1,632 teachers…

  9. The Relationship between Perceptions of School Climate and Student Achievement in Schools That Use Jostens' Renaissance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Amy Yarborough

    2012-01-01

    Each school has unique attributes and a personality that gives the school a distinct climate. Psychological qualities that schools possess might include trust, collaboration, cooperation, teaching attributes, expectations, community involvement, and engagement (Rhodes, Camic, Milburn, & Lowe, 2009). Given information regarding school climate,…

  10. Playing Fair: The Contribution of High-Functioning Recess to Overall School Climate in Low-Income Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Rebecca A.; Westrich, Lisa; Stokes-Guinan, Katie; McLaughlin, Milbrey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recess is a part of the elementary school day with strong implications for school climate. Positive school climate has been linked to a host of favorable student outcomes, from attendance to achievement. We examine 6 low-income elementary schools' experiences implementing a recess-based program designed to provide safe, healthy,…

  11. Authoritative school climate, aggression toward teachers, and teacher distress in middle school.

    PubMed

    Berg, Juliette K; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-03-01

    Aggression toward teachers is linked to burnout and disengagement from teaching, but a positive school climate may reduce aggression and associated teacher distress. Using authoritative school climate theory, the study examined whether schools with high disciplinary structure and student support were associated with less aggression and less distress. The sample of 9,134 teachers in 389 middle schools came from the Virginia Secondary School Climate Survey, a statewide survey administered to all public schools with 7th and 8th grade enrollment. The majority of teachers (75%) were female. More than half (53%) reported that they had more than 10 years of teaching experience; 23% reported 6 to 10 years; 24% reported 1 to 5 years. Students reported on the degree to which their schools were structured and supportive. Teachers reported on their experiences of aggression by students, their level of distress, and their feelings of safety. Staff-related infractions computed from Department of Education records were also used. Multilevel modeling revealed that teachers in authoritative schools experienced less aggression and felt safer and less distressed. Lower aggression by students mediated the association between more authoritative schools and lower distress such that more structured and supportive schools had greater teacher safety and, in turn, less distress. The findings support the idea that more structured and supportive schools relate to greater safety for teachers and, in turn, less distress. Research limitations and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:26524423

  12. Effective Strategies for School Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blauvelt, Peter D.

    This handbook offers administrators specific advice on developing the skills, knowledge, and techniques needed for coping with problems of school crime and violence. The guide begins by advising administrators that having security information available at all times helps determine the climate of the school. Instructions are given for preparing…

  13. Organizational Effectiveness of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil

    1982-01-01

    Because organizational effectiveness of schools is difficult to define, a model is needed to explain the complexities of the concept. Two models offer some promise. One is the goal model, which defines effectiveness as the degree to which organizations meet or surpass their goals (either official or operational). The other is the system resource…

  14. School climate and delinquency among Chinese adolescents: analyses of effortful control as a moderator and deviant peer affiliation as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    School climate is the quality and character of school life and reflects the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and the organizational structure of a school. There is substantial literature documenting the negative association between positive school climate and adolescent delinquency, but little is known about the moderating and mediating mechanisms underlying this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine whether the direct and indirect pathways between school climate and adolescent delinquency would be moderated by effortful control. A sample of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (M age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school climate, effortful control, deviant peer affiliation, and delinquency. After gender, age, geographical area, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates, the results revealed that school climate was significantly associated with adolescent delinquent behavior. This direct association was moderated by effortful control, such that the negative relationship between positive school climate and delinquency was only significant among adolescents low in effortful control. Moreover, the indirect association between school climate and delinquency via deviant peer affiliation was also moderated by effortful control. Specifically, the moderating effect of effortful control was not only manifested in the relationship between school climate and deviant peer affiliation, but also in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and delinquency. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms through which positive school climate might reduce delinquent behavior and have important implications for prevention efforts aimed at diminishing adolescent delinquency. PMID:24962709

  15. Exploring the Relationships among Race, Class, Gender, and Middle School Students' Perceptions of School Racial Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Natasha D.; Aber, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    Although school climate has been thought to be especially important for racial minority and poor students (Booker, 2006; Haynes, Emmons, & Ben-Avie, 1997), little research has explored the significance of racial climate for these students. Furthermore, research in the area has tended to treat race, socioeconomic class, and gender separately,…

  16. Profiles of Student Perceptions of School Climate: Relations with Risk Behaviors and Academic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kathan; Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2016-06-01

    School climate has been linked to a variety of positive student outcomes, but there may be important within-school differences among students in their experiences of school climate. This study examined within-school heterogeneity among 47,631 high school student ratings of their school climate through multilevel latent class modeling. Student profiles across 323 schools were generated on the basis of multiple indicators of school climate: disciplinary structure, academic expectations, student willingness to seek help, respect for students, affective and cognitive engagement, prevalence of teasing and bullying, general victimization, bullying victimization, and bullying perpetration. Analyses identified four meaningfully different student profile types that were labeled positive climate, medium climate-low bullying, medium climate-high bullying, and negative climate. Contrasts among these profile types on external criteria revealed meaningful differences for race, grade-level, parent education level, educational aspirations, and frequency of risk behaviors. PMID:27216025

  17. Schools Learning from Other Schools: Co-operation in a Climate of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudduck, Jean; Berry, Mary; Brown, Nick; Frost, David

    2000-01-01

    Describes how several schools participated in a school improvement project that helped them learn from each other in a competitive climate, noting issues influencing teachers' readiness to collaborate. It proved important to identify issues engaging with fundamental aspects of teaching and learning that were powerful enough to involve other…

  18. Best Practices: Creating an LGBT-Inclusive School Climate. A Teaching Tolerance Guide for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Poverty Law Center (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    Schools are places of learning and also miniature societies. The climate of a school has a direct impact on both how well students learn and how well they interact with their peers. Teachers and administrators work hard to make their classrooms welcoming places where each student feels included. But despite these efforts, students who are--or who…

  19. Relationships among Servant Leadership, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Climate in Alabama High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between servant leadership of the principal with Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and school climate. Servant leadership, a leadership behavior that emphasizes personal growth of followers, has a useful research history in business but limited exposure in public schools. Organizational Citizenship…

  20. School Climate, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Cixin; Atwal, Kavita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined a multidimensional, developmental, and transactional model for depressive symptoms among Asian American adolescents using longitudinal data from 1,664 Asian American adolescents in the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). Specifically, the relationships among school climate, acculturation, perceived…

  1. School Climate Factors Relating to Teacher Burnout: A Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Jessica L.; Alvarez, Heather K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated components of school climate (i.e. parent/community relations, administration, student behavioral values) and assessed their influence on the core burnout dimensions of Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and feelings of low Personal Accomplishment. The study weighed the relative contributions of demographic…

  2. Transforming School Climate and Learning: Beyond Bullying and Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preble, Bill; Gordon, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Most educators agree that children learn better in an honoring and respectful culture. They also know that top-down imposed change rarely sticks. In "Transforming School Climate and Learning", Bill Preble and Rick Gordon show how to accomplish lasting results by engaging both teachers and students in the five-step SafeMeasures[TM] process, a…

  3. A Cultural-Ecological Model of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Salle, Tamika P.; Meyers, Joel; Varjas, Kristen; Roach, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    School climate has been established as an important construct to measure because of its connections to student psychological, social, and academic outcomes (Anderson, 1982; Koth, Bradshaw, & Leaf, 2008; Kuperminc, Leadbeater, Emmons, & Blatt, 1997). Prior research has also established relationships between student perceptions of school…

  4. Measurement of Perceived School Climate for Active Travel in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Motl, Robert W.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the development of an original scale that measures perceived school climate for active travel in fourth- and fifth-grade girls and boys. Methods: The data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to provide evidence of factorial validity, factorial invariance, and construct validity. Results: The CFA supported…

  5. Positive School Climate: What It Looks Like and How It Happens. Nurturing Positive School Climate for Student Learning and Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tami Kopischke; Connolly, Faith; Pryseski, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    The term "school climate" has been around for more than a hundred years to explore the idea of school environmental or contextual factors that might have an impact on student learning and academic success. During the past three decades there has been growing research to support the importance of a positive school climate in promoting…

  6. The Development and Validation of the Elementary School Ethical Climate Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, Kay A.; Schulte, Laura E.

    2007-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate an instrument that measures the ethical climate of elementary schools. To create the Elementary School Ethical Climate Index (ESECI), we adapted the ethical climate index for middle and high schools. The ESECI assesses student and teacher interactions and relationships through the application…

  7. Parent, Student, and Teacher Perceptions of School Climate at Suburban High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Cory J.

    2009-01-01

    School climate has a major impact on the school setting. In order to manage climate, it is essential to assess and understand the perceptions of teachers, students, and parents. This study identified the differences between teachers, students, and parents relative to their perceptions concerning school climate at Suburban High. The instrument…

  8. A Safer Place? LGBT Educators, School Climate, and Implications for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffany E.; Smith, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Over an 8-year span, two survey studies were conducted to analyze LGBT -teachers' perceptions of their school climate and the impact of school leaders on that climate. This article presents nonparametric, descriptive, and qualitative results of the National Survey of Educators' Perceptions of School Climate 2011 compared with survey results from…

  9. Improving School Climate. The Best of ERIC on Educational Management, Number 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    In this annotated bibliography of 12 publications on school climate are 3 entries that suggest specific ways to improve the school climate and 1 that outlines leadership techniques for principals. Ways to assess school climate are covered by a review of assessment instruments, a discussion of the measurement issues, a description of major…

  10. ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE IN A PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEINHOFF, CARL R.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DESCRIBE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT OF AN URBAN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM USING THE MURRAY NEEDS-PRESS MODEL. A BROAD MEASURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRESS WAS ADAPTED FROM AN EXISTING MODEL AND USED TO--(1) DESCRIBE THE ENVIRONMENTAL PRESS PERCEIVED BY TEACHERS, (2) FACTOR ANALYZE THESE DATA, (3) DESCRIBE THE PERSONALITY (NEEDS)…

  11. School Effectiveness and the Disadvantaged Schools Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Murphy, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    The Disadvantaged Schools Program (DSP) has been an important and integral part of education for many Australian students for over a decade. After reviewing eight school effectiveness variables, this paper argues that adding a new emphasis on academic success and cognitive skills will enhance the DSP program. Includes 3 tables and 20 references.…

  12. QSL: A Social System's Intervention To Improve Elementary School/Classroom Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelkun, Ruth F.; And Others

    The drive for improved school and classroom climate, for increased teacher and student involvement in decision-making, and for more positive teacher and student expectations are becoming prime areas for joint educational and behavioral science efforts. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a year-long classroom social competence training…

  13. Validity of Office Discipline Referral Measures as Indices of School-Wide Behavioral Status and Effects of School-Wide Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Larry K.; Tobin, Tary J.; Sprague, Jeffrey R.; Sugai, George; Vincent, Claudia G.

    2004-01-01

    Office discipline referrals (ODRs) are widely used by school personnel to evaluate student behavior and the behavioral climate of schools. In this article, the authors report the results of a review of the relevant literature to evaluate the validity of ODR data as indices of school-wide behavioral climate, the effects of school-wide behavioral…

  14. Middle School Improvement and Reform: Development and Validation of a School-Level Assessment of Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and School Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Stephen; Felner, Robert; Shim, Minsuk; Seitsinger, Anne; Dumas, Thaddeus

    2003-01-01

    Examines the structure of perceived school climate and the relationship of climate dimensions to adaptation of students who attend middle-grade-level schools. The climate scales exhibited a stable dimensional structure, high levels of internal consistency, and moderate levels of stability. Ratings of multiple climate dimensions were associated…

  15. The Graduate School of Climate Sciences, University of Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Graduate School of Climate Sciences, University of Bern, offers a specialised M.Sc. and a Ph.D. study programme in climate sciences. The graduate school has a highly interdisciplinary profile involving not only natural sciences, but also humanities/history, economics and law. The ten participating institutes with a total of 45 academics provide expertise in long-term climate variability, climate modelling, climate reconstruction, predictability of the future climate and extreme events, the impact of climate change on ecosystems and climate risks for society and economy. The graduate school is fully compliant with the Bologna Accords and collaborates closely with the sister institution C2SM at ETH Zurich by, e.g., jointly organised lectures. There are currently 23 master and 37 doctoral students in the programme. These originate from the University of Bern (28 %), from other Swiss universities (30 %) and from foreign universities (42 %). Comprehensive information about the Graduate School of Climate Sciences is available at http://www.climatestudies.unibe.ch . The M.Sc. in Climate Sciences programme (120 ECTS credits) is designed to attract students from all disciplines in natural sciences and offers them a tailor-made curriculum to reach their career aspirations. The students make their own course selection according to their profile envisaged (specialised versus broad education) and ideally already guided by a job perspective. Selecting the courses and the topic of the master thesis they specialise in one of five fields: climate and earth system science; atmospheric science; economics; economic, social and environmental history; statistics. Several courses are organised jointly with public authorities and the private industry, e.g. from experts working in the insurance business, in weather forecasting or in environmental pollution control. This provides the students hands-on experience and contacts to future employers. The master thesis (60 ECTS) involves the

  16. Western Australian High School Students' Understandings about the Socioscientific Issue of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Vaille

    2015-05-01

    Climate change is one of the most significant science issues facing humanity; yet, teaching students about climate change is challenging: not only is it multidisciplinary, but also it is contentious and debated in political, social and media forums. Students need to be equipped with an understanding of climate change science to be able to participate in this discourse. The purpose of this study was to examine Western Australian high school students' understanding of climate change and the greenhouse effect, in order to identify their alternative conceptions about climate change science and provide a baseline for more effective teaching. A questionnaire designed to elicit students' understanding and alternative conceptions was completed by 438 Year 10 students (14-15 years old). A further 20 students were interviewed. Results showed that students know different features of both climate change and the greenhouse effect, however not necessarily all of them and the relationships between. Five categories of alternative conceptions were identified. The categories were (1) the greenhouse effect and the ozone layer; (2) types of greenhouse gases; (3) types of radiation; (4) weather and climate and (5) air pollution. These findings provide science educators a basis upon which to develop strategies and curriculum resources to improve their students' understanding and decision-making skills about the socioscientific issue, climate change.

  17. Recognizing Community Voice and a Youth-Led School-Community Partnership in the School Climate Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ice, Megan; Thapa, Amrit; Cohen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of school improvement research suggests that engaging all members of the school community, including community members and leaders, provides an essential foundation to successful school improvement efforts. School climate surveys to date tend to recognize student, parent/guardian, and school personnel voice but not the voice of…

  18. Seeking the Sense of Community: A Comparison of Two Elementary Schools' Ethical Climates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, Kay A.; Schulte, Laura E.

    2009-01-01

    School climate is created through the combined culture of the adults and students within a school--both the culture they share as an organization and the diverse cultures they bring from home. This study compared the school climate of two elementary schools, one urban and one suburban, by measuring 179 fourth and fifth grade students' and 65…

  19. School Climate and Bullying Victimization: A Latent Class Growth Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Prykanowski, Debra A.; Larson, Alvin

    2014-01-01

    Researchers investigating school-level approaches for bullying prevention are beginning to discuss and target school climate as a construct that (a) may predict prevalence and (b) be an avenue for school-wide intervention efforts (i.e., increasing positive school climate). Although promising, research has not fully examined and established the…

  20. Relationships between School Climate and Adolescent Students' Self-Reports of Ethnic and Moral Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jill M.; Ala'i, Kate G.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports research into associations between students' perceptions of the school climate and self-reports of ethnic and moral identity in high schools in Western Australia. An instrument was developed to assess students' perceptions of their school climate (as a means of monitoring and guiding schools as they are challenged to become…

  1. School Climate, Peer Victimization, and Academic Achievement: Results from a Multi-Informant Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Weijun; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L.; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Smith, David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Haltigan, J. D.; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    School-level school climate was examined in relation to self-reported peer victimization and teacher-rated academic achievement (grade point average; GPA). Participants included a sample of 1,023 fifth-grade children nested within 50 schools. Associations between peer victimization, school climate, and GPA were examined using multilevel modeling,…

  2. A Climate for Self-Efficacy: The Relationship between School Climate and Teacher Efficacy for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosford, Susan; O'Sullivan, Siobhán

    2016-01-01

    Teacher efficacy represents a key construct in exploring successful implementation of inclusive policy. Teachers' impression of school climate is shown to relate to teacher efficacy; however, few studies pay due deference to its context/specific conceptualisation, with a particular lacuna in research noted in an Irish mainstream primary school…

  3. The Impact of Principal Perception on Student Academic Climate and Achievement in High School: How Does It Measure Up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urick, Angela; Bowers, Alex J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the independent direct effects of student and principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement in high school. To date, few studies have considered the influence of principal perceptions of academic climate on student achievement. In the present study, we test a set of two-level hierarchical…

  4. School Climate Factors in Selected Full-Service and Traditional Elementary Schools in a Southeastern City: Contrasts and Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwill, William L.; Parks, Alicia L.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory comparison of traditional and full-service schools' climates is an initial step in determining their differences. The authors established whether selected full-service and traditional elementary schools differ on five school climate factors indicating the student and teacher body composition, the students' socioeconomic status,…

  5. Relationships among School Climate, School Safety, and Student Achievement and Well-Being: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsyuruba, Benjamin; Klinger, Don A.; Hussain, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    School climate, safety and well-being of students are important antecedents of academic achievement. However, school members do not necessarily experience school climate in the same way; rather, their subjective perceptions of the environment and personal characteristics influence individual outcomes and behaviours. Therefore, a closer look at the…

  6. State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscatelli, Jennifer; Lee, Chiqueena

    2011-01-01

    The National School Climate Center (NSCC) completed a 50-state policy scan on state school climate and anti-bullying policies to better understand the current state policy infrastructure supporting the development of positive school climates. This policy brief examines the current status of school climate and anti-bullying policies in each state,…

  7. School Processes Mediate School Compositional Effects: Model Specification and Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hongqiang; Van Damme, Jan; Gielen, Sarah; Van Den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    School composition effects have been consistently verified, but few studies ever attempted to study how school composition affects school achievement. Based on prior research findings, we employed multilevel mediation modeling to examine whether school processes mediate the effect of school composition upon school outcomes based on the data of 28…

  8. School Effectiveness and Principal Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredericks, Janet; Brown, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Measuring the school administrator's productivity based on the existence of effective school characteristics can be misguided. There are no magic bullets or answers to linking effective schools to leadership productivity, but the "smoke and mirrors" assessment approach is easier to achieve than seeking the real truth. No single assessment…

  9. Hiring Effective Secondary School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlothlin, Jason M.; Miller, Lynne Guillot

    2008-01-01

    Today's effective school counselors are integral in education reform, school leadership, and student achievement. It is typically the responsibility of building principals to hire effective school counselors. This article builds on previous literature and provides principals with questions to ask and information to gather that may be helpful in…

  10. Schools, climate change and health promotion: a vital alliance.

    PubMed

    Boon, Helen; Brown, Lawrence; Clark, Brenton; Pagliano, Paul; Tsey, Komla; Usher, Kim

    2011-12-01

    Through an ongoing project, we have been reviewing the literature addressing school planning for climate change related ecological disruptions and disasters, particularly for the special needs of children with disabilities. We have also examined related state education department policies from across Australia. Our preliminary results suggest scant attention has been paid either by researchers or educational policy makers to the needs of children with disabilities and their caregivers in response to climate change induced disaster scenarios. Here, we advocate for better preparedness among institutions serving children with disabilities to support their health in the context of climate change, and describe how health promotion principles can be brought to bear on this issue. PMID:22518924

  11. How school can teach civic engagement besides civic education: The role of democratic school climate.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Sharkey, Jill; Mayworm, Ashley; Scacchi, Luca; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    Civic engagement, defined as involvement in community life, is influenced by reciprocal relationships between individuals and contexts and is a key factor that contributes to positive youth development. The present study evaluates a theoretical model linking perceived democratic school climate with adolescent civic engagement (operationalized as civic responsibility and intentions for future participation), taking into account the mediating role of civic discussions and perceived fairness at school. Participants were 403 adolescents (47.9 % male) ranging in age from 11 to 15 years old (mean age = 13.6). Path analysis results partially validated the proposed theoretical model. Higher levels of democratic school climate were associated with higher levels of adolescent civic responsibility; the association was fully mediated by civic discussions and perceived fairness at school. Adolescents' civic responsibility, then, was positively associated with a stronger intention to participate in the civic domain in the future. PMID:25172202

  12. A cluster randomised controlled trial of the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module in Australian secondary schools: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ecstasy is a public health problem and is associated with a range of social costs and harms. In recent years, there has been growing concern about the availability and misuse of new and emerging drugs designed to mimic the effects of illicit drugs, including ecstasy. This, coupled with the fact that the age of use and the risk factors for using ecstasy and emerging drugs are similar, provides a compelling argument to implement prevention for these substances simultaneously. The proposed study will evaluate whether a universal Internet-based prevention program, known as the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module, can address and prevent the use of ecstasy and emerging drugs among adolescents. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial will be conducted among Year 10 students (aged 15–16 years) from 12 secondary schools in Sydney, Australia. Schools will be randomly assigned to either the Climate Schools intervention group or the control group. All students will complete a self-report questionnaire at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-, 12- and 24-months post-baseline. The primary outcome measures will include ecstasy and emerging drug-related knowledge, intentions to use these substances in the future, and the patterns of use of ecstasy and emerging drugs. A range of secondary outcomes will also be assessed, including beliefs and attitudes about ecstasy and emerging drugs, peer pressure resistance, other substance use and mental health outcomes. Discussion To our knowledge, this will be the first evaluation of an Internet-based program designed to specifically target ecstasy and NED use among adolescents. If deemed effective, the Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module will provide schools with an interactive and novel prevention program for ecstasy and emerging drugs that can be readily implemented by teachers. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials

  13. Social Context Effects on School Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Murphy, Joseph

    In this two-part paper, an attempt is made to examine the relationship between social contexts and effective schools and specifically to contribute to the development of a conceptual model for understanding how social contexts influence the operation of effective schools and student learning. In the first part, school effects research is drawn…

  14. A Factorial and Rasch Analysis of the Charles F. Kettering Ltd. School Climate Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; And Others

    A popular instrument purported to measure psychological dimensions of school climate--the Charles F. Kettering Ltd. School Climate Profile (CFK)--was analyzed psychometrically. Factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of the CFK scale, Part A, General Climate Factors, which contains 8 subscales each with 5 items (a total of 40…

  15. School Climate and Planned Educational Change: A Review and Critique of the Literature. Working Paper 279.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasten, Katherine Lewellan

    This paper examines the concept of school climate as a key factor in the success of planned change in elementary schools. Beginning with a general review of the literature on organizational climate and using as its basis three major reviews that appeared in the mid-1970s, the paper defines climate, examines variables that have been used as part of…

  16. Organizational Climate, Faculty Trust: Predicting Student Bullying--An Elementary School Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Tenna

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem among students. Research linking school climate and trust as to bullying is minimal. This study examined elements of school climate and trust in relation to bullying and protection using Hoy and Smith's (2004) climate study and Smith and Birney's (2005) trust study. Trust was found to be the significant…

  17. High School Teachers and Students Knowledge and Views about Climate Change, a Nice NASA Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleicher, R. E.; Lambert, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    One factor for some Americans being confused about climate change is their lack of understanding its underlying science concepts (Somerville & Hassol, 2011). In spite of this, climate change has been under-emphasized in school curricula (Bardsley & Bardsley, 2007). This is an important challenge for science educators, especially given the increasing public awareness of climate change impacts in their everyday lives (NCADAC, 2013).One way to address this challenge is to involve teachers in professional learning projects with the expectation that their enhanced content and pedagogical knowledge about climate change will transfer into more effective instruction resulting in increased student learning. For teacher educators, this translates into providing vibrant professional learning activities that energize and engage science teachers to develop interesting lessons that stimulate their students to learn important science concepts and develop positive attitudes to science. This study examined content knowledge and views about climate change of 33 high school science teachers and their1050 students who participated in lessons developed in a NASA-funded professional learning project. The teachers participated in a seven-day climate change summer institute and received in-classroom follow-up support throughout the school year. Teacher data sources included a background survey (undergraduate majors, number of years teaching science), science teaching self-efficacy (STEBI-A) scores, Climate Science Inventory of Knowledge (CSIK), and Six-America's Views on Climate Change. Student data included journal entries, and pre-post measures using the CSIK and Six-Americas instruments. T-tests and ANOVA showed that both students and their teachers increased in climate science knowledge. Teachers' views about climate change were more aligned to climate scientists' views. Teachers also increased in their science teaching self-efficacy and those with higher self-efficacy demonstrated

  18. Climate Change: Implementing School Discipline Practices That Create a Positive School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardichon, Jessica; Roc, Martens

    2013-01-01

    Middle and high school students subjected to harsh school discipline policies and practices such as suspensions and expulsions are more likely to disengage from the classroom and course work, and increases their chances of dropping out, according to this new report from the Alliance for Excellent Education. The report recommends implementing…

  19. Students' Perceptions of School Climate in the U.S. and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chunyan; Bear, George G.; Chen, Fang Fang; Zhang, Wei; Blank, Jessica C.; Huang, Xishan

    2013-01-01

    Although the construct of student climate has been studied extensively in the United States, we know little about how school climate is perceived in other countries. With large class sizes yet higher academic achievement and less disruptive and aggressive student behaviors, schools in China present a contrast to many schools in the United States.…

  20. A Multilevel View of Predictors of Children's Perceptions of School Interpersonal Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Juliette K.; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given to the role of a positive school interpersonal climate in children's school functioning and social-emotional development. Children's perceptions are commonly used to measure the interpersonal school climate, but the individual and contextual characteristics that contribute to variation in children's perceptions…

  1. Transformational Leadership Related to School Climate: A Multi-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarley, Troy A.; Peters, Michelle L.; Decman, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Across the nation, quality leadership and positive school climate are critical to the success of every principal, student, and school. As a result, this study examined the relationship between teacher perceptions of the degree to which a principal displays the factors of transformational leadership and the perceived school climate. A purposeful…

  2. Examining the Impact of School Climate on Student Achievement: A Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Kendall H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the changes in principal-teacher relationships and school climate over time as witnessed by staff members in elementary level "Turn Around Schools" in Indiana and how these relationships impacted student achievement. School climate and subsequent principal-teacher relationships…

  3. Middle School Student Perceptions of School Climate: Examining Protective Functions on Subsequent Adjustment Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loukas, Alexandra; Murphy, Jonna L.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the roles of student perceptions of four aspects of school climate (friction, cohesion, competition among students, and satisfaction with classes) as moderators of the relations between effortful control and subsequent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Participants were 488 10-to-14-year old students involved in…

  4. Strengthening Assessments of School Climate: Lessons from the NYC School Survey. Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori; McCormick, Meghan; Kemple, James J.

    2013-01-01

    More and more cities and states are using surveys to collect information about school climate from students, teachers and parents. These surveys have the potential to shed light on critical aspects of the learning environment, and they are being incorporated into a growing number of public and privately funded education initiatives. The US…

  5. The Direct and Moderating Role of School Interpersonal Climate on Children's Academic Outcomes in the Context of Whole-School, Social-Emotional Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Juliette K.; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    A positive school climate is characterized by a supportive, orderly, and fair interpersonal climate. Children's perceptions of interpersonal climate and school safety are associated with several academic and behavioral adjustment outcomes. The current study has two goals: (1) to better understand the contribution of school interpersonal climate to…

  6. In the Face of Anti-LGBQ Behaviour: Saskatchewan High School Students' Perceptions of School Climate and Consequential Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Melanie A.; Jewell, Lisa; McCutcheon, Jessica; Cochrane, Donald B.

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, there is a dearth of research on school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) students. Using social networking, 60 students from high schools in Saskatchewan participated in a climate survey. Results indicated that anti-LGBQ speech was widespread, as were other forms of harassment. The more victimization that was…

  7. Taking Action on Climate Change--Inside and Outside Our Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philippe, Denise; Kool, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Without experience, students struggle to understand climate change. Uses the school environment as a starting point to explain the causes of climate change and involves students in activities concerning indoor and outdoor environments. (YDS)

  8. The Relationship between Students' Perception of Being Safe in School, Principals' Perception of School Climate and Science Achievement in TIMSS 2007: A Comparison between Urban and Rural Public School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulifa, Khalid; Kaaouachi, Abdelali

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns the assessment of the effects of Index of Principals' Perception of School Climate (PPSC), intimidation of students and gender in Moroccan public schools on student performance in science. The study focused on fourth grade students who participated in the TIMSS 2007. The objective of this study is to answer the following…

  9. The relation between bullying and subclinical psychotic experiences and the influence of the bully climate of school classes.

    PubMed

    Horrevorts, Esther M B; Monshouwer, Karin; Wigman, Johanna T W; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to examine the association between the bully climate of school classes and the prevalence of subclinical psychotic experiences among students who are involved in bullying (either as bully or as victim). Data were derived from the Dutch health behavior in school-aged children survey of 2005, a nationally representative cross-sectional study with a total of 5,509 adolescents between the age of 12 and 16. The data were analyzed using a multilevel regression analysis. The study revealed that both bullying and being bullied in school classes was associated with an increased level of subclinical psychotic experiences. The bully climate of a school class moderates this effect, i.e., the higher risk for bully-victims on subclinical psychotic experiences was less strong in classes with a higher percentage of classmates involved in bullying. Thus, bully climate has to be taken into account when studying the psychological experiences associated with being bullied. PMID:24519668

  10. The Development of the Organizational Climate Index for High Schools: Its Measure and Relationship to Faculty Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Smith, Page A.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    2003-01-01

    A parsimonious measure of organizational climate of high schools is developed and tested in this research. The Organizational Climate Index (OCI) captures open and healthy dimensions of high school climates at the student, teacher, principal, and community levels. Next the relationship between the climate of schools and faculty trust is examined…

  11. Individual and Contextual Effects of School Adjustment on Adolescent Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Linda R.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Harkabus, Lindsey C.; Chapin, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a student’s own school adjustment as well as the contextual level of school adjustment (the normative level of school adjustment among students in a school) on student's self-reported use of alcohol. Using a dataset of 43,465 male and female 8th grade students from 349 schools across the contiguous United States who participated in a national study of substance use in rural communities between 1996 and 2000, multilevel latent covariate models were utilized to disentangle the individual-level and contextual effects of three school adjustment variables (i.e., school bonding, behavior at school, and friend’s school bonding) on alcohol use. All three school adjustment factors were significant predictors of alcohol use both within and between schools. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a strong contextual effect; students who attended schools where the overall level of school adjustment was higher reported lower levels of alcohol use even after taking their own school adjustment into account. The results demonstrate the importance of both a student’s own level of school adjustment and the normative level of school adjustment among students in the school on an adolescent’s use of alcohol. Differences in school adjustment across schools were quite strongly related to an adolescent's own alcohol use, indicating that school adjustment is an important aspect of school climate. Initiatives aimed at improving school climate may have beneficial effects on students’ alcohol use. PMID:19242802

  12. Reciprocal associations between interpersonal and values dimensions of school climate and peer victimization in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Leadbeater, Bonnie; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Smith, David; Bowen, François

    2015-01-01

    We examine longitudinal relations among children's and parents' reports of peer victimization and their perceptions of school climate dimensions reflecting school interpersonal relationships (relationships among children and their teachers and peers, and of parents and principals) and values (fairness and equity of access to resources). Children were in Grades 3 and 4 at Time 1 (Mage = 9.32, SDage = .74; 49% boys). Bidirectional influences of school climate and reports of peer victimization were investigated in path models across grade (Time 1 to Time 2) and within a grade (Time 2 to Time 3). Child and parent reports of school climate dimensions showed considerable stability. Hypothesized reciprocal relationships between each of the school climate dimensions and peer victimization were significant. Child-reported frequency of parent involvement in school activities was associated with lower levels of peer victimization within a school year. Parent perceptions of involvement in school activities and the schools' connection with the community were unrelated to the children's reports of peer victimization. Children's negative cognitions or "worldviews" coupled with peer victimization may fuel problems with school connectedness, safety, and help seeking. Findings shed light on possible pathways for reducing peer victimization by leveraging specific aspects of the social climate within schools. PMID:24617984

  13. Profiles of School Anxiety: Differences in Social Climate and Peer Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Ingles, Candido J.; Trianes, Maria V.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: School anxiety is often defined as a set of symptoms grouped into cognitive, psychophysiological and motor responses emitted by an individual in school situations that can be perceived as threatening and/or dangerous. School anxiety may be influenced--among other relevant school variables - by the perception of social climate and the…

  14. Child Centred Approach to Climate Change and Health Adaptation through Schools in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomised Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2015-01-01

    Background Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change. People are getting educated at different levels on how to deal with potential impacts. One such educational mode was the preparation of a school manual, for high school students on climate change and health protection endorsed by the National Curriculum and Textbook Board, which is based on a 2008 World Health Organization manual. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of the manual in increasing the knowledge level of the school children about climate change and health adaptation. Methods This cluster randomized intervention trial involved 60 schools throughout Bangladesh, with 3293 secondary school students participating. School upazilas (sub-districts) were randomised into intervention and control groups, and two schools from each upazila were randomly selected. All year seven students from both groups of schools sat for a pre-test of 30 short questions of binary response. A total of 1515 students from 30 intervention schools received the intervention through classroom training based on the school manual and 1778 students of the 30 control schools did not get the manual but a leaflet on climate change and health issues. Six months later, a post-intervention test of the same questionnaire used in the pre-test was performed at both intervention and control schools. The pre and post test scores were analysed along with the demographic data by using random effects model. Results None of the various school level and student level variables were significantly different between the control and intervention group. However, the intervention group had a 17.42% (95% CI: 14.45 to 20.38, P = <0.001) higher score in the post-test after adjusting for pre-test score and other covariates in a multi-level linear regression model. Conclusions These results suggest that school-based intervention for climate change and health adaptation is effective for increasing the knowledge level

  15. School Staff Perceptions of Changes in "School Climate." December 1979-December 1980. Teacher Corps Program '79. The University of Toledo/Springfield Local Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo Univ., OH. Coll. of Education.

    A report is given on perceived improvements in overall school climate resulting from staff development activities initiated in response to a needs assessment survey distributed in December 1979 to the staffs of three elementary schools, one junior high school, and two senior high schools in Springfield, Ohio. Information is given on: (1) priority…

  16. Implementation and Assessment of a School Staff Development Model for Changing School Climate and Teacher Stress. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.; Inglis, Joan D.

    A Teachers Corps staff development project involved the collaboration of a school district, the community, and a college of education in a variety of activities designed to improve school climate and to reduce teacher stress. Descriptions are given of the needs assessments conducted among school staff, students, and community members from the…

  17. Changing the School Climate Is the First Step to Reform in Many Schools with Federal Improvement Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    School Improvement Grants (SIGs) financed through the economic stimulus package are intended to spur dramatic change in persistently low-performing schools. Many state and local officials charged with implementing SIGs view the creation of a safe, orderly, collegial, and productive school climate as an essential step in raising student…

  18. The Perception of School Climate in Two Secondary Schools during the Implementation of a Peer Support Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Soledad Andres; Gaymard, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The problem of school violence has been studied in the last decades from different perspectives, especially focused on bullying conflicts. Whole school approaches have been recommended by many experts in the field. The aim of the present study is to assess climate changes in two secondary schools that implement a peer support…

  19. A Descriptive Study of the Relationship between School Climate Dynamics and Levels of Student Achievement in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ramsey Louis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to design school profiles of two elementary schools in order to investigate the potential relationship between school climate dynamics and levels of student achievement. The research design for this study included a mixed method approach of quantitative and qualitative techniques. These techniques included…

  20. Instructional Leadership and Schools Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy

    With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.

  1. Climate Change and Agriculture: Effects and Adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document is a synthesis of science literature on the effects of climate change on agriculture and issues associated with agricultural adaptation to climate change. Information is presented on how long-term changes in air temperatures, precipitation, and atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide wi...

  2. Differences in Assessments of Organizational School Climate between Teachers and Adminsitrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duff, Brandy Kinlaw

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the organizational school climate perceptions of teachers and principals and to ascertain the extent to which their perceptions differed. This causal comparative study used the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire for Elementary Schools (OCDQ-RE) as the survey instrument for data…

  3. Psychometric Support for an Abbreviated Version of the California School Climate and Safety Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebelez, Jennica L.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The California School Climate and Safety Survey-Short Form (CSCSS-SF) was developed as a streamlined version (54 items) of the original CSCSS (102 items) for school safety teams to gather information regarding student perceptions of campus climate, safety, and experience of victimization. Using a longitudinal dataset, this study implemented…

  4. School Climate of Educational Institutions: Design and Validation of a Diagnostic Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    School climate is recognized as a relevant factor for the improvement of educative processes, favoring the administrative processes and optimum school performance. The present article is the result of a quantitative research model which had the objective of psychometrically designing and validating a scale to diagnose the organizational climate of…

  5. Assessing School Climate: Validation of a Brief Measure of the Perceptions of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.; Yang, Chunyan; Pasipanodya, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a parent school climate survey of high practical utility, grounded in theory, and supported by evidence of the reliability of its scores and validity of the inferences for their use. The Delaware School Climate Survey-Home is comprised of seven factors: Teacher-Student Relations, Student-Student Relations,…

  6. An Analysis of the Relation between Secondary School Organizational Climate and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaofu, Pan; Qiwen, Qin

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates and analyzes the relation between the secondary school organizational climate and teacher job satisfaction using a self-designed school organizational climate scale based on studies in China and abroad. The findings show that except for interpersonal factors there are significant correlations between the various factors of…

  7. Students' Perceptions of School Climate as Determinants of Wellbeing, Resilience and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.; Fozdar, Farida; Ala'i, Kate; Earnest, Jaya; Afari, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relations between school climate variables and students' feeling of wellbeing, life satisfaction, ethnic identity, moral identity and resilience. Furthermore, the study also examined the interrelationships between these five outcome variables. Six aspects of the school climate were measured: teacher support, peer…

  8. The Influence of Effortful Control and Empathy on Perception of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorza, Juan P.; Marino, Julián; Mesas, Alberto Acosta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive power of effortful control (EC) and empathy for perception of school climate. Self-report measures of EC, dispositional empathy, and perception of school climate were obtained for 398 students (204 females) aged 12 to 13. Sociometric status was peer-evaluated, and academic achievement was…

  9. Spanish Secondary School Students' Notions on the Causes and Consequences of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punter, Pilar; Ochando-Pardo, Montserrat; Garcia, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part of an extensive study of secondary school students' preconceived ideas about climate change. Here, we undertake a survey in the province of Valencia (Spain) to ascertain secondary school students' notions of the causes and consequences of climate change. Results show, among other things, that students clearly relate the misuse…

  10. School Climate and Student Absenteeism and Internalizing and Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendron, Marisa; Kearney, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether school climate variables were directly and inversely related to absenteeism severity and key symptoms of psychopathology among youths specifically referred for problematic attendance (N = 398). Adolescents in our sample completed the School Climate Survey Revised Edition, which measured sharing of resources, order and…

  11. School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception in Traditional and Cyberbullying Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Yusuf; Ucanok, Zehra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in perceptions of school social climate and peers in terms of bullying status, and to investigate the psychometric properties of the School Social Climate and Generalized Peer Perception Scales. The students participated from six different cities in Turkey were in…

  12. School Climate: A Review of the Construct, Measurement, and Impact on Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    The construct of school climate has received attention as a way to enhance student achievement and reduce problem behaviors. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the existing literature on school climate and to bring to light the strengths, weakness, and gaps in the ways researchers have approached the construct. The central information in…

  13. Predicting Teacher Commitment: The Impact of School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether school climate and social-emotional learning impact teacher commitment. The sample included 664 public schoolteachers from British Columbia and Ontario in Canada. Participants completed an online questionnaire about teacher commitment, school climate, and social-emotional learning. Binary logistic…

  14. Validity of the Secondary School Improvement Program Effective Schools Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apenahier, Leonard; And Others

    The validity of the Secondary School Improvement Program Effective Schools Survey (SSIPESS) was studied, which is based on the Santa Clara County School Effectiveness Program. The SSIPESS, designed for the secondary school level, is an 85-item survey designed for teachers; and it varies from a three- to five-point scale, with eight underlying…

  15. Climate targets and cost-effective climate stabilization pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, H.

    2015-08-01

    Climate economics has developed two main tools to derive an economically adequate response to the climate problem. Cost benefit analysis weighs in any available information on mitigation costs and benefits and thereby derives an "optimal" global mean temperature. Quite the contrary, cost effectiveness analysis allows deriving costs of potential policy targets and the corresponding cost- minimizing investment paths. The article highlights pros and cons of both approaches and then focusses on the implications of a policy that strives at limiting global warming to 2 °C compared to pre-industrial values. The related mitigation costs and changes in the energy sector are summarized according to the IPCC report of 2014. The article then points to conceptual difficulties when internalizing uncertainty in these types of analyses and suggests pragmatic solutions. Key statements on mitigation economics remain valid under uncertainty when being given the adequate interpretation. Furthermore, the expected economic value of perfect climate information is found to be on the order of hundreds of billions of Euro per year if a 2°-policy were requested. Finally, the prospects of climate policy are sketched.

  16. Neighborhood crime and school climate as predictors of elementary school academic quality: a cross-lagged panel analysis.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Roy, Amanda L; Sirkman, Gabriel M

    2013-09-01

    Past research has found negative relationships between neighborhood structural disadvantage and students' academic outcomes. Comparatively little work has evaluated the associations between characteristics of neighborhoods and schools themselves. This study explored the longitudinal, reciprocal relationships between neighborhood crime and school-level academic achievement within 500 urban schools. Results revealed that higher neighborhood crime (and particularly violent crime) predicted decreases in school academic achievement across time. School climate emerged as one possible mechanism within this relationship, with higher neighborhood crime predicting decreases in socioemotional learning and safety, but not academic rigor. All three dimensions of school climate were predictive of changes in academic achievement. Although this research supports a primarily unidirectional hypothesis of neighborhoods' impacts on embedded settings, additional work is needed to understand these relationships using additional conceptualizations of neighborhood climate. PMID:23764745

  17. Training for Effective School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawelti, Gordon

    Forces of societal change have placed new demands on school administrators for skills to manage schools. The result has been an increasing realization of the need for improved university preparation programs and for more effective Human Resource Development (HRD) for practicing administrators. A growing body of research shows a very positive…

  18. Cultural Diversity Climate and Psychological Adjustment at School-Equality and Inclusion Versus Cultural Pluralism.

    PubMed

    Schachner, Maja K; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J R; Eckstein, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural pluralism. Longitudinal multilevel analyses based on 386 early adolescent immigrant students (Mage  = 10.49 years) in 44 ethnically heterogeneous classrooms in Germany revealed that the manifestations of both types of policies promote psychological school adjustment (i.e., better well-being and fewer psychological and behavioral problems) at the individual level. However, they differ in their effects on acculturation orientations. At the classroom level, equality and inclusion promote assimilation. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:27091829

  19. The social construction of communication climate: An analysis of at-risk students in alternative high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Tasha Jean

    1998-12-01

    Alternative high schools affect more potential high school dropouts than any other school or program and are designed to meet the needs of students who have had difficulty in conventional schools. This study examines the communication climate and constructions of caring in an alternative school for at-risk students by using a qualitative analysis grounded in the theoretical perspective of social constructionism. Observations and interviews were conducted over a six month time period. The first two chapters provide a review of literature and a detailed account of the methods used to conduct the study. Chapter Three describes the socially constructed nature of the school and the participants and the dialectical tensions of communication climate revealed from the analysis. The six dialectical tensions of communication climate are: (1) freedom/restraint, (2) disengagement/engagement, (3) personal communication/impersonal communication, (4) disconfirmation/confirmation, (5) equality/inequality, and (6) ambiguity/clarity. Although the school climate is comprised of each of these tensions, the data suggest that the interaction within the majority of classes created some common characteristics of the general communication climate at the school and can be characterized as one of freedom, disengagement, personal communication, disconfirmation, equality, and ambiguity. Chapter Four describes how caring was constructed and communicated. Although some students perceived some teachers as caring about students and about student learning, half of the students interviewed thought they were not learning or not learning much. Finally, Chapter Five provides a summary of the findings and a discussion of the results. The results of this study contribute to an understanding of the social construction of communication climate and caring in general, and within an alternative school for at-risk students, in specific. The results contribute to the understanding of the complexity of the

  20. The Development and Validation of the Ethical Climate Index for Graduate and Professional School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulte, Laura E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Development and validation of the Ethical Climate Index, designed to measure perceived ethical climate of an institution's graduate and professional school programs, is described. The instrument was found to be valid and reliable, and variability was found in student perceptions of ethical climate across major academic areas. Research needs are…

  1. Examining the Relationship Between School Climate and Peer Victimization Among Students in Military-Connected Public Schools.

    PubMed

    De Pedro, Kris Tunac; Astor, Ron Avi; Gilreath, Tamika; Benbenishty, Rami; Berkowitz, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    In the Iraq and Afghanistan war context, studies have found that military-connected youth- youth with parents and/or siblings serving in the military-have higher rates of school victimization than their nonmilitary-connected peers. A positive school climate-where students perceive high levels of school connectedness, caring relationships and high expectations from adults, and meaningful participation-is associated with lower rates of victimization in secondary public schools. Based on a survey of 7th, 9th, and 11th grade students (N =14,493) enrolled in 6 military-connected school districts (districts that have a significant proportion of military-connected students), this study explores victimization rates and the role of school climate, deployment, and school transitions in the victimization of military-connected students and their civilian peers. The findings indicate that deployment and school transitions were significant predictors of physical violence and nonphysical victimization. In addition, multiple school climate factors were significantly associated with physical violence and nonphysical victimization. The authors conclude with a discussion of future directions for research on school climate, victimization, and military-connected youth. PMID:27301659

  2. Multilevel multitrait-multimethod latent analysis of structurally different and interchangeable raters of school climate.

    PubMed

    Konold, Timothy; Cornell, Dewey

    2015-09-01

    Informant-based systems of assessment are common platforms for measuring a variety of educational and psychological constructs where the use of multiple informants is considered best practice. In many instances, structurally different informant types (e.g., students and teachers) are solicited on the basis of their unique roles with the target of measurement. The use of multiple informants provides an opportunity to evaluate the degree to which the obtained ratings are influenced by the trait of focus and extraneous sources that can be attributed to the rater. Data from a multilevel multitrait-multimethod design in which students (N = 35,565) and teachers (N = 9,112), from 340 middle schools, responded to items measuring 3 dimensions of school climate were evaluated through a multilevel correlated trait-correlated method latent variable model. Results indicated that ratings of school climate obtained by students and teachers demonstrated high levels of convergent validity, and that school-level ratings obtained by students and teachers were equitable in the assessment of teasing and bullying. Student ratings of support and structure yielded somewhat stronger evidence of convergent validity than ratings obtained by teachers as revealed by their respective trait factor loadings. This was explained in part by the higher levels of common method effects that were observed for teachers. PMID:25751606

  3. Assessing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers knowledge base about global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Roehrig, G. H.; Karahan, E.; Liu, S.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is a crucial environmental issue that is challenging all Americans. With an effective collaboration between researchers, scientists and teachers, conceptual frameworks and methods can be developed for creating climate change content for classroom implementation. In this paper, we describe how teachers' conceptualize and understand global climate change. The information generated by this study can further be used to develop theme based, structured curricula to enhance teachers' understanding of the phenomenon of global climate change. Recent national documents concerning science education have focused on an Earth System approach and concentrate on the fundamental concepts and big ideas in earth science and climate change (e.g., The Earth Science Literacy Initiative (ESLI) (National Science Foundation (NSF), 2009) and Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009)). Unfortunately, research related to teachers' earth science content knowledge has not focused on an earth systems approach rather researchers have examined teachers' misconceptions about isolated earth science concepts, such as moon phases and plate tectonics. While such research implies teachers' lack of knowledge and awareness of earth as a system, it does not provide direct information about teachers' earth system knowledge. Similarly, research on teachers' and students' knowledge of climate change has focused on isolated topics, such as the greenhouse effect and global warming. Our study focused on eliciting secondary school science teachers' understanding of global climate change using a multifaceted and integrated approach. We do so in the context of a 3-year teacher professional development program where the climate science content provided to the teachers was aligned with essential principles of climate science (EPCS-National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), 2009). Our study was guided

  4. Creating Effective Dialogue Around Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiehl, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Communicating climate change to people from diverse sectors of society has proven to be difficult in the United States. It is widely recognized that difficulties arise from a number of sources, including: basic science understanding, the psychologically affect laden content surrounding climate change, and the diversity of value systems that exist in our society. I explore ways of working with the affect that arises around climate change and describe specific methods to work with the resistance often encountered when communicating this important issue. The techniques I describe are rooted in psychology and group process and provide means for creating more effective narratives to break through the barriers to communicating climate change science. Examples are given from personal experiences in presenting climate change to diverse groups.

  5. Perceived School Climate across the Transition from Elementary to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nir; Cohen-Malayev, Maya

    2016-01-01

    The implications of the transition from elementary to middle school are of major concern for educators and researchers worldwide. Previous studies have yielded ambiguous findings; some have indicated negative outcomes of school transition, whereas others have demonstrated null or even positive effects. The aim of the current research was to…

  6. The Contribution of Student Perceptions of School Climate to Understanding the Disproportionate Punishment of African American Students in a Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Erica L. M.; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of student perceptions of school climate to racial differences in school discipline. Four hundred middle school students completed a school climate survey. Compared to Caucasian students, African-American students were referred to the office for discipline three times as frequently and received five times…

  7. OVERVIEW OF CLIMATE INFORMATION NEEDS FOR ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric scientists engaged in climate change research require a basic understanding of how ecological effects models incorporate climate. This report provides an overview of existing ecological models that might be used to model climate change effects on vegetation. ome agric...

  8. School Community Relations and Resources in Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, George J.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses resources available to schools operating as open and closed systems. Examines school/community relations and school effectiveness, schools as resource machines, and resources offered by teachers and parents. Stresses that broad concepts of community, good communication, and citizen involvement can utilize resources at high levels of…

  9. Examining reciprocal influences among family climate, school attachment, and academic self-regulation: Implications for school success.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengya; Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2016-06-01

    Guided by family systems and ecological theories, this study examined the multicontextual implications of family, school, and individual domains for adolescents' school success. The first goal of this study was to examine reciprocal influences among family climate, school attachment, and academic self-regulation (ASR) during the middle school years. The second goal was to test the relative impact of each of these domains on adolescents' school adjustment and academic achievement after the transition to high school. We applied a cross-lag structural equation modeling approach to longitudinal data from 979 students in the 6th grade and their families, followed over 5 measurement occasions, from 6th through 9th grade. Controlling for family income, parent education, and adolescent gender, the results revealed reciprocal relationships between the family climate and school attachment over time; both of these factors were related to increases in ASR over time. In turn, ASR was a robust predictor of academic success, with unique associations with school adjustment and academic achievement. Family climate and school adjustment had modest to marginal associations with school adjustment, and no association with academic achievement. Applications of these findings for family school interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26376426

  10. Influence of School Climate on Students' Achievement and Teachers' Productivity for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeogun, A. A.; Olisaemeka, Blessing U.

    2011-01-01

    The study covers ten secondary schools in Lagos State of Nigeria. The purpose is to ascertain the relationship between school climate and student achievements and teachers' productivity for sustainable development. A total sample of 150 respondents was taken. Ten principals, seven teachers and seven students were randomly picked per school. This…

  11. Coordinating Social-Emotional and Character Development (SECD) Initiatives Improves School Climate and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; DeFini, Jennifer; Bergmann, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Many schools attempt to implement multiple programs to promote positive young adolescent development; however, these programs are often fragmented and lack coordination. The authors describe an initiative designed to help schools coordinate their social-emotional and character development (SECD) efforts to improve school climate and help students…

  12. Early Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors, Conflict Resolution Strategies, and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria; Selman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon an ethnically and socio-economically diverse sample of 323 7th grade students from twelve urban schools within one school district, this mixed method study examined early adolescents' self-reported health risk behaviors as related to their conflict resolution strategies and their school's conflict resolution climate. Survey data…

  13. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students' Perspectives on Bullying and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Mary T.; Day, Stefanie J.; Galvan, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Student perspectives reflect school climate. The study examined perspectives among deaf and hard of hearing students in residential and large day schools regarding bullying, and compared these perspectives with those of a national database of hearing students. The participants were 812 deaf and hard of hearing students in 11 U.S. schools. Data…

  14. Positive School Climate Is Associated with Lower Body Mass Index Percentile among Urban Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M.; McCaslin, Catherine; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are an important environmental context in children's lives and are part of the complex web of factors that contribute to childhood obesity. Increasingly, attention has been placed on the importance of school climate (connectedness, academic standards, engagement, and student autonomy) as 1 domain of school environment…

  15. Examining the Impact of Leadership Style and School Climate on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate whether or not leadership style and school climate are significant predictors of student achievement. The target population consisted of elementary and high school teachers from Virginia public schools who had taught under the leadership of their respective current principals for at least 4…

  16. Leaner, More Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Randall

    2012-01-01

    School districts across North America are facing a crushing dilemma: invest millions of dollars to maintain outdated, educationally ineffective buildings or seek funding for expensive renovations, additions, and new construction to meet the evolving needs of today's learners. Compounding the issue is deferred facility maintenance. Educational…

  17. Effective School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after President Kennedy noted the connection, The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) stated in its publication "Leadership Matters: Building Leadership Capacity" that "Leadership promotes learning." The SREB publication explores three strategies that it has found are used by leaders in schools that are increasing student…

  18. Elementary School Principal Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Ray

    A review of research linking elementary principal "antecedents" (defined as traits), behaviors, school conditions, and student outcomes furnishes few supportable generalizations. The studies relating principal antecedents with behavior and principal antecedents with organizational variables reveals that the trait theory of leadership has fared…

  19. The Effects of a Professional Development School Program on Student Achievement as Measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills, Teacher Perceptions of School Climate, and Pre-Service Teacher Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creasy, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Professional Development Schools are innovations in which universities are joined with schools. Commonly teacher candidates are immersed in one setting. Early PDS research tended to focus on one aspect of a program. Those aspects of PDS studies were typically student achievement, the professional development of faculty, or teacher candidate…

  20. Teaching climate change: Pressures and practice in the middle school science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crayne, Jennifer A.

    What are middle school science teachers teaching their students about climate change? And why? This qualitative study examined the experience of middle school science teachers from western Oregon, finding that while participating teachers accept the science of climate change and express concern about it, many teachers are reluctant to make the topic a priority in their classrooms. When they do include the subject, teachers frequently address "both sides." They also report that students have persistent doubts and misconceptions about climate change. What accounts for these trends? I argue that the way teachers address climate change is a result of complex interactions between structural pressures, emotional pressures, and cultural pressures. I conclude that, in order to promote the inclusion of sound climate science instruction in public schools, advocates of climate change education need to address challenges at all these levels: structural, emotional, and cultural.

  1. Teachers' Views of Their School Climate and Its Relationship with Teacher Self-Efficacy and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jill M.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study, in part, was to confirm the factor structure of the School-Level Environment Questionnaire, which assesses six school climate factors that can be considered important for improving schools. The study also tested a research model of the relationships between the school climate, teachers' self-efficacy and job…

  2. The Appropriateness of a California Student and Staff Survey for Measuring Middle School Climate. REL 2014-039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Thomas; Voight, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of states and school districts use school climate assessments in progress reporting systems and are interested in incorporating these assessments into accountability systems. This analysis of response data from middle school students and teachers on the California School Climate, Health, and Learning Survey examines the…

  3. Principals' Perceptions of Superintendents' Leadership Practices and Its Impact on School Climate in Selected South Florida Public School District Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This research study sought to determine the leadership practices of area superintendents in selected South Florida public school district areas based on principals' perceptions and assess school climate impact using descriptive and inferential approaches. Methodology: The "Leadership Practices Inventory" ("LPI") 360 Online was used…

  4. A School-University Research Partnership to Identify Disengaged Students: A Descriptive Case Analysis of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biag, Manuelito D.; Sanchez, Monika A.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Much of the literature on school-university research partnerships has focused on collaborations that address curriculum, instruction, and leadership. Less scholarly attention has been paid to how practitioners and academics work together to improve school climate. Purpose: We seek to deepen understanding of how educators and…

  5. The 2011 National School Climate Survey: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth in Our Nation's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosciw, Joseph G.; Greytak, Emily A.; Bartkiewicz, Mark J.; Boesen, Madelyn J.; Palmer, Neal A.

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) identified the need for national data on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students and launched the first National School Climate Survey (NSCS). At the time, the school experiences of LGBT youth were under-documented and nearly absent from national…

  6. Eighth-Grade Students' Perceptions of School Climate Based on School Diversity, Ethnicity, Educational Category, Socioeconomic Status, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…

  7. Mitigating Disadvantage: Effects of Small-Scale Schooling on Student Achievement in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Gary; Howley, Craig

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of data from the 1989 Alaska Statewide Student Testing Program for grades four, six, and eight shows that, given similar school resources, school climate, and student academic background, the negative effect of a disadvantaged background on student achievement was significantly less in small than in medium or large schools. (KS)

  8. Accelerated School Programmes: Assessing Their Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaziel, Haim

    2001-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of Accelerated School Programs (ASPs) on the basis of a study of four comprehensive schools in Israel. Assesses the influence of ASPs upon internal school processes, such as school goals, structures, and cultures, as perceived by school staff. Determines the project's impact on staff and parents' attitudes, and examines…

  9. School climate and bullying victimization: a latent class growth model analysis.

    PubMed

    Gage, Nicholas A; Prykanowski, Debra A; Larson, Alvin

    2014-09-01

    Researchers investigating school-level approaches for bullying prevention are beginning to discuss and target school climate as a construct that (a) may predict prevalence and (b) be an avenue for school-wide intervention efforts (i.e., increasing positive school climate). Although promising, research has not fully examined and established the social-ecological link between school climate factors and bullying/peer aggression. To address this gap, we examined the association between school climate factors and bullying victimization for 4,742 students in Grades 3-12 across 3 school years in a large, very diverse urban school district using latent class growth modeling. Across 3 different models (elementary, secondary, and transition to middle school), a 3-class model was identified, which included students at high-risk for bullying victimization. Results indicated that, for all students, respect for diversity and student differences (e.g., racial diversity) predicted within-class decreases in reports of bullying. High-risk elementary students reported that adult support in school was a significant predictor of within-class reduction of bullying, and high-risk secondary students report peer support as a significant predictor of within-class reduction of bullying. PMID:24933216

  10. Effective Schools: Mirror or Mirage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Tommy M.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies and analyzes characteristics which are frequently mentioned as contributing to effective schools. Among the characteristics are that they improve the effectiveness and efficiency of students' work by organizing material and/or instruction, increase the amount of work students perform per unit of time, reduce distractions, and encourage…

  11. Measuring the Effects of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattie, John

    1992-01-01

    A simple statistical model to measure the effects of innovation and schooling is proposed. Synthesis of 134 meta-analyses revealed that educational innovations can be expected to change average achievement by 0.4 standards deviations and affective outcomes by 0.2 standard deviations. Innovation and feedback appear to enhance effects;…

  12. Beyond Standardized Test Scores: An Examination of Leadership and Climate as Leading Indicators of Future Success in the Transformation of Turnaround Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Judy Jackson; Sanders, Eugene T. W.

    2013-01-01

    Districts throughout the nation are engaged in comprehensive transformation to "turn around" low performing schools. Standardized test scores are used to gauge student achievement; however, academic gains may lag behind leading indicators such as improved school climate and effective leadership. This study examines 16 underperforming…

  13. Mental health effects of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender

    2015-01-01

    We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change. PMID:26023264

  14. Bringing Global Climate Change Education to Alabama Middle School and High School Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Mitra, C.; Percival, E.; Thomas, A.; Lucy, T.; Hickman, E.; Cox, J.; Chaudhury, S. R.; Rodger, C.

    2013-12-01

    A NASA-funded Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program has been launched in Alabama to improve high school and middle school education in climate change science. The overarching goal is to generate a better informed public that understands the consequences of climate change and can contribute to sound decision making on related issues. Inquiry based NICE modules have been incorporated into the existing course of study for 9-12 grade biology, chemistry, and physics classes. In addition, new modules in three major content areas (earth and space science, physical science, and biological science) have been introduced to selected 6-8 grade science teachers in the summer of 2013. The NICE modules employ five E's of the learning cycle: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend and Evaluate. Modules learning activities include field data collection, laboratory measurements, and data visualization and interpretation. Teachers are trained in the use of these modules for their classroom through unique partnership with Alabama Science in Motion (ASIM) and the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI). Certified AMSTI teachers attend summer professional development workshops taught by ASIM and AMSTI specialists to learn to use NICE modules. During the school year, the specialists in turn deliver the needed equipment to conduct NICE classroom exercises and serve as an in-classroom resource for teachers and their students. Scientists are partnered with learning and teaching specialists and lead teachers to implement and test efficacy of instructional materials, models, and NASA data used in classroom. The assessment by professional evaluators after the development of the modules and the training of teachers indicates that the modules are complete, clear, and user-friendly. The overall teacher satisfaction from the teacher training was 4.88/5.00. After completing the module teacher training, the teachers reported a strong agreement that the content developed in the NICE

  15. Teachers' Perception of School Climate in Independent Jewish Day Schools in Relation to Change and Transition of Leadership Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafo, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between turnover of school leadership personnel and school climate as perceived by teachers. The study focused on Jewish day schools in the United States in different cities and states. Fifty Jewish day schools (ranging from preschool age to high school) participated in the study with 200 teachers from these…

  16. Using transformational change to improve organizational culture and climate in a school of nursing.

    PubMed

    Springer, Pamela J; Clark, Cynthia M; Strohfus, Pamela; Belcheir, Marcia

    2012-02-01

    A positive organizational culture and climate is closely associated with an affirming workplace and job satisfaction. Especially during a time of faculty shortages, academic leaders need to be cognizant of the culture and climate in schools of nursing. The culture of an organization affects employees, systems, and processes, and if the culture becomes problematic, transformational leadership is essential to create change. The purpose of this article is to describe an 8-year journey to change the culture and climate of a school of nursing from one of dissatisfaction and distrust to one of high employee satisfaction and trust. Kotter's model for transformational change was used to frame a longitudinal study using the Cultural and Climate Assessment Scale to transform the organizational culture and climate of a school of nursing. PMID:22201273

  17. Context Matters for Social-Emotional Learning: Examining Variation in Program Impact by Dimensions of School Climate.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Meghan P; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin E; McClowry, Sandee G

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines whether three dimensions of school climate-leadership, accountability, and safety/respect-moderated the impacts of the INSIGHTS program on students' social-emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes. Twenty-two urban schools and N = 435 low-income racial/ethnic minority students were enrolled in the study and received intervention services across the course of 2 years, in both kindergarten and first grade. Intervention effects on math and reading achievement were larger for students enrolled in schools with lower overall levels of leadership, accountability, and safety/respect at baseline. Program impacts on disruptive behaviors were greater in schools with lower levels of accountability at baseline; impacts on sustained attention were greater in schools with lower levels of safety/respect at baseline. Implications for Social-Emotional Learning program implementation, replication, and scale-up are discussed. PMID:26099299

  18. Combining Knowledge and Beliefs in High School Climate Science Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.

    2012-12-01

    Teachers face a seemingly insurmountable task when asked to address the science of climate change with the general public. This topic is unique because of its complexity, political implications and urgency for action. Developing tools that teachers need to address the National Science Standards begin with comprehensive professional development. After one year's implementation of our program (after participation in UCAR's NASA-funded Research Experiences for Teachers Institute), we are beginning to see evidence that with intentional delivery and preparation of climate science curriculum it is possible to combine knowledge and beliefs in order to nurture a desire for action. Teachers need to acquire an appreciation and understanding for the level of connectedness between disciplines used to study climate and repeatedly present the scientific process as a way of gathering evidence to arrive at factual conclusions. This emphasis on scientific process is important in dealing with the difference between personal beliefs and knowledge. In students' everyday lives their beliefs often matter much more to them than scientific facts. Today's media frequently gives opinions as much clout as verifiable data. Therefore, science teachers need to become anthropologists in order to navigate between cultures, traditions, economic realities and foundational beliefs to effect a change in attitude. Climate change affects us all whether we like it or not, and the challenge is finding a personal connection for each student that supports their journey instead of polarizing each other into the "believers" and "non-believers". It is important to listen to those whose worldview is not best explained by science in order to address the problem with the least resistance. At the end of a program that implemented techniques described above the student's overwhelming response was not: "climate change is a hoax" but instead "ok, I get it, NOW WHAT?" This is the million-dollar question that we

  19. Effective Schools: Annotated Bibliography. More Effective Schools/Teaching Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencerport Central Schools, NY.

    This annotated bibliography, which includes publishers' addresses and prices, provides an overview of the research on effective schools, the implications of this research, and implementation efforts. Titles of four videotapes, two cassette tapes, and seven books are included. Also listed are the names of charter members of the editorial board of…

  20. ASK Florida; a climate change education professional development program for middle school teachers in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    A series of professional development workshops covering the fundamentals of climate change have been developed and facilitated for two groups of middle school science teachers in three Florida counties. The NASA-supported joint venture between Florida State University's Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) and the University of South Florida's (USF's) Coalition for Science Literacy, ASK Florida, focuses on expanding and deepening teachers' content knowledge of a wide range of climate change topics, connecting local and regional changes to the global picture, and supporting classroom implementation and effective teaching practices. Education experts from USF, climate scientists from COAPS, and Hillsborough county teachers and science coaches coordinated and developed the workshop content, which is based on Florida's Next Generation Sunshine State Standards in science, science curriculum guides for 6th grade, and teacher interest. Several scientists have facilitated activities during the workshop, including professors in meteorology and climatology, research scientists in the field, a NOAA program manager, the state climatologists for Florida, and others. Having these climate scientists present during the workshop provides teachers an opportunity to interact directly with the scientists and gain insight into the climatology field. Additionally, we host an open-forum discussion panel during which teachers can ask the experts about any topics of interest. Activities are designed to enhance the scientific skill level of the teachers. Introductory activities reinforce teachers' abilities to distinguish facts from opinions and to evaluate sources. Other activities provide hands-on experience using actual scientific data from NASA and other agencies. For example, teachers analyze precipitation data to create distributions of Florida rainfall, examine sea level trends at various locations, identify Atlantic hurricane frequencies during the phases of ENSO

  1. School Uniform Policies: Students' Views of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  2. Barriers to Incorporating Climate Change Science into High School and Community College Energy Course Offerings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, C.

    2013-05-01

    In reviewing studies evaluating trends in greenhouse gasses, weather, climate and/or ecosystems, it becomes apparent that climate change is a reality. It has also become evident that the energy sector accounts for most of the greenhouse gas emissions with worldwide emissions of carbon dioxide increasing by 31 percent from 1990 to 2005, higher than in the previous thousands of years. While energy courses and topics are presented in high school and community college classes the topic of Climate Change Science is not always a part of the conversation. During the summer of 2011 and 2012, research undergraduates conducted interviews with a total of 39 national community college and 8 high school instructors who participated in a two week Sustainable Energy Education Training (SEET) workshop. Interview questions addressed the barriers and opportunities to the incorporation of climate change as a dimension of an energy/renewable energy curriculum. Barriers found included: there is not enough instruction time to include it; some school administrators including community members do not recognize climate change issues; quality information about climate change geared to students is difficult to find; and, most climate change information is too scientific for most audiences. A Solution to some barriers included dialogue on sustainability as a common ground in recognizing environmental changes/concerns among educators, administrators and community members. Sustainability discussions are already supported in school business courses as well as in technical education. In conclusion, we cannot expect climate change to dissipate without humans making more informed energy and environmental choices. With global population growth producing greater emissions resulting in increased climate change, we must include the topic of climate change to students in high school and community college classrooms, preparing our next generation of leaders and workforce to be equipped to find solutions

  3. Effective Schools: Do Elementary Prescriptions Fit Secondary Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, William A.; Herriott, Robert E.

    Most of the recent research identifying organizational characteristics that seem to make schools unusually effective has been conducted at the elementary level and may not be applicable to secondary schools. Research currently underway suggests that the basic organizational structures of elementary and secondary schools dictate two different…

  4. Implementing Change in Secondary Schools Using Effective Schools Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamburg, Jerry D.; Andrews, Richard L.

    This paper describes research based on the Effective Schools Project, a collaborative project between the University of Washington and the Seattle School District. The research was undertaken to determine the amount of change that took place in two rural high schools over two years and to analyze the factors that contributed to those changes based…

  5. Health Effects of Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... For example, existing investments in research on air pollution and respiratory disease; characteristics of vector range; and effects of acute and chronic exposure to agricultural chemicals are yielding important research advances that may ...

  6. The Relationship of Bureaucratic Structure to School Climate: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…

  7. Energy Design Guidelines for High Performance Schools: Hot and Dry Climates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

    This guide contains recommendations for designing high performance, energy efficient schools located in hot and dry climates. A high performance checklist for designers is included along with several case studies of projects that successfully demonstrated high performance design solutions for hot and dry climates. The guide's 10 sections…

  8. Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools Located along the Thai-Cambodian Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitratporn, Poonsook; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to measure the Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools located along the Thai-Cambodian borders. The study intended to measure the relationship between the two underlying variables quality of work life and organizational climate. Simple random sample of 384 respondents were administrators and teachers…

  9. Students' Academic Climate Perception of the School of Business of a Mexican University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdés-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodríguez, Javier Arturo; Sánchez-Franco, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses student perception of the academic climate of the School of Business in a private university in Tijuana, México. With the participation of 257 students out of 348 enrolled in five academic programs, the survey results show that students perceive that the criteria that make up the academic climate occur "Always" in…

  10. In Russia: Warm Schools in a Cold Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kay

    1996-01-01

    Since 1993, groups of Connecticut high school students have had the opportunity to explore Russia firsthand, thanks to a program called "Linking Schools Through Language and Technology." Although Russia is an unstable society, schools visited by New Haven youngsters were cozy, child-centered beacons of continuity and tradition. Schools had a…

  11. Effects of climate change on croplands

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk will describe likely changes in temperature and precipitation expected in the northwestern US with global climate change, and their potential impacts on Oregon croplands. The focus will be on the effects of temperature and carbon dioxide on crop productivity, weed cont...

  12. School Principals as Effective Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, William L.

    1985-01-01

    A study of elementary and secondary principals revealed that effective principals all demonstrated five essential qualities of leadership--they had clear visions of desirable futures for their schools, translated those visions into specific goals, established supportive environments for improvement, monitored progress, and intervened effectively…

  13. Serious Doubts about School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the model of school effectiveness (SE) currently dominant in research, policy and practice in England (although the concerns it raises are international). It shows, principally through consideration of initial and propagated error, that SE results cannot be relied upon. By considering the residual difference between the…

  14. Effective School Management. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everard, K.B.; Morris, Geoffrey; Wilson, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to help teachers with senior management responsibilities, and the schools and colleges that they work in, to become more effective. It is a book by practitioners for practitioners. They authors believe their book is unique, because there are so few people who have had enough management responsibility and training…

  15. Climatic and landscape controls on effective discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, S.; Frascati, A.; Marani, M.; Schirmer, M.; Botter, G.

    2015-10-01

    The effective discharge constitutes a key concept in river science and engineering. Notwithstanding many years of studies, a full understanding of the effective discharge determinants is still challenged by the variety of values identified for different river catchments. The present paper relates the observed diversity of effective discharge to the underlying heterogeneity of flow regimes. An analytic framework is proposed, which links the effective ratio (i.e., the ratio between effective discharge and mean streamflow) to the empirical exponent of the sediment rating curve and to the streamflow variability, resulting from climatic and landscape drivers. The analytic formulation predicts patterns of effective ratio versus streamflow variability observed in a set of catchments of the continental United States and helps in disentangling the major climatic and landscape drivers of sediment transport in rivers. The findings highlight larger effective ratios of erratic hydrologic regimes (characterized by high flow variability) compared to those exhibited by persistent regimes, which are attributable to intrinsically different streamflow dynamics. The framework provides support for the estimate of effective discharge in rivers belonging to diverse climatic areas.

  16. Climatic Effects of Regional Nuclear War

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Luke D.

    2011-01-01

    We use a modern climate model and new estimates of smoke generated by fires in contemporary cities to calculate the response of the climate system to a regional nuclear war between emerging third world nuclear powers using 100 Hiroshima-size bombs (less than 0.03% of the explosive yield of the current global nuclear arsenal) on cities in the subtropics. We find significant cooling and reductions of precipitation lasting years, which would impact the global food supply. The climate changes are large and longlasting because the fuel loadings in modern cities are quite high and the subtropical solar insolation heats the resulting smoke cloud and lofts it into the high stratosphere, where removal mechanisms are slow. While the climate changes are less dramatic than found in previous "nuclear winter" simulations of a massive nuclear exchange between the superpowers, because less smoke is emitted, the changes seem to be more persistent because of improvements in representing aerosol processes and microphysical/dynamical interactions, including radiative heating effects, in newer global climate system models. The assumptions and calculations that go into these conclusions will be described.

  17. Effects of climate changes on skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Balato, Nicola; Megna, Matteo; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Napolitano, Maddalena; Patruno, Cataldo

    2014-02-01

    Global climate is changing at an extraordinary rate. Climate change (CC) can be caused by several factors including variations in solar radiation, oceanic processes, and also human activities. The degree of this change and its impact on ecological, social, and economical systems have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing CC as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Moreover, studies based on observations and predictive models show how CC could affect human health. On the other hand, only a few studies focus on how this change may affect human skin. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, it is not surprising that cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. The current review focuses on the effects of CC on skin diseases showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence, clinical pattern and natural course of some dermatoses. PMID:24404995

  18. Effective Climate Communication with Difficult Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  19. Nations, School Districts, and Schools: Are There Schooling Effects Anywhere?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidwell, Charles E.

    By recounting findings from three studies, it is shown that the ecological approach to education has the potential of promoting understanding of relationships between society, schooling, and life opportunities. The ecological approach means that one must attempt to see whether and how the organization of schools, school districts, or national…

  20. The Structure and Climate of Size: Small Scale Schooling in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeChasseur, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    This study explores mechanisms involved in small scale schooling and student engagement. Specifically, this study questions the validity of arguments for small scale schooling reforms that confound the promised effects of small scale schooling "structures" (such as smaller enrollments, schools-within-schools, and smaller class sizes) with the…

  1. Effects of nontropical forest cover on climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.; Chou, M.-D.; Arking, A.

    1984-01-01

    The albedo of a forest with snow on the ground is much less than that of snow-covered low vegetation such as tundra. As a result, simulation of the Northern Hemisphere climate, when fully forested south of a suitably chosen taiga/tundra boundary (ecocline), produces a hemispheric surface air temperature 1.9 K higher than that of an earth devoid of trees. Using variations of the solar constant to force climate changes in the GLAS Multi-Layer Energy Balance Model, the role of snow-albedo feedback in increasing the climate sensitivity to external perturbations is reexamined. The effect of snow-albedo feedback is found to be significantly reduced when a low albedo is used for snow over taiga, south of the fixed latitude of the ecocline. If the ecocline shifts to maintain equilibrium with the new climate - which is presumed to occur in a prolonged perturbation when time is sufficient for trees to grow or die and fall - the feedback is stronger than for a fixed ecocline, especially at high latitudes. However, this snow/vegetation-albedo feedback is still essentially weaker than the snow-albedo feedback in the forest-free case. The loss of forest to agriculture and other land-use would put the present climate further away from that associated with the fully forested earth south of the ecocline and closer to the forest-free case. Thus, the decrease in nontropical forest cover since prehistoric times has probably affected the climate by reducing the temperatures and by increasing the sensitivity to perturbations, with both effects more pronounced at high latitudes.

  2. The Relationship between School's Organizational Climate and Teacher's Job Satisfaction: Malaysian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghavifekr, Simin; Pillai, Nova Sheila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between school organizational climate and teachers' job satisfaction. A quantitative survey method was applied, and three broadly hypothesized relationships were tested with a sample of 245 teachers from six government secondary schools in district of Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia. The…

  3. Guiding Principles: A Resource Guide for Improving School Climate and Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Developing positive school climates and improving school discipline policies and practices are critical steps to raising academic achievement and supporting student success. However, there is no single formula for doing so. Rather, the growing body of research and best practices in the field should inform locally developed approaches to improving…

  4. Cultural Diversity Climate and Psychological Adjustment at School-Equality and Inclusion versus Cultural Pluralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Maja K.; Noack, Peter; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Eckstein, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The present study is concerned with cultural diversity climate at school and how it relates to acculturation orientations and psychological school adjustment of early adolescent immigrants. Specifically, the distinct role of two types of diversity policy is investigated, namely (a) fostering equality and inclusion and (b) acknowledging cultural…

  5. Evaluation of Authentic Science Projects on Climate Change in Secondary Schools: A Focus on Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Elma; Goedhart, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study examines secondary-school students' opinions on participating in authentic science projects which are part of an international EU project on climate change research in seven countries. Partnerships between schools and research institutes result in student projects, in which students work with and learn from…

  6. The Relationship of Principal Leadership Behaviors with School Climate, Teacher Job Satisfaction, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Maurice Demond

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how leadership behaviors of principals relate to school climate, teachers' job satisfaction, and student achievement. The relationship of leadership to student achievement was measured by the school levels based on the administration of the 2006-2007 Mississippi Curriculum Test (MCT). Leadership and…

  7. Reconceptualizing the Debate on School Climate and Students' Academic Motivation and Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Michele; Algina, James

    Theory on parenting styles was used as a theoretical framework to examine the relationship of aspects of school climate to the mathematics achievement, academic engagement, and locus of control orientation of eighth graders. Student and school data were drawn from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988 for 19,435 students and 997…

  8. High School Social Climate and Antisocial Behavior: A 10 Year Longitudinal and Multilevel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…

  9. "I Don't Want Your Nasty Pot of Gold": Urban School Climate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Charles M.

    Few of the current major efforts to improve urban schools adequately appreciate the extent to which the problematic social climate of urban schools can undermine the implementation of even very good ideas. As a result, programs often come and go with little lasting impact. This paper uses ethnographic fieldwork to illustrate the ways dysfunctional…

  10. A Study of the Perceived Relationships between the Leadership Style of Elementary Administrators and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferree, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    As national and state demands continue to mandate school improvement, leaders in schools have continued to seek answers from leadership theory and research to improve and sustain the culture and climate that has been created in order for diverse populations to meet academic excellence. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship…

  11. Climate Profile and OCBs of Teachers in Public and Private Schools of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Pooja; Rastogi, Renu

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to assess the significant differences in the climate profile and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) of teachers working in public and private schools of India. Design/methodology/approach: The sample comprised of 100 teachers, out of which 50 teachers were from public school and 50 teachers were from private…

  12. Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Im, Piljae

    2009-01-01

    A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the…

  13. Perceived Motivational Climates and Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Norwegian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stornes, Tor; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems (EBP: symptoms of depression, lack of on-task-orientation and disruptive behaviour), among 1171 Norwegian 8th grade secondary school students from 65 school classes. Statistical analyses showed significant…

  14. Playgrounds and Prejudice: Elementary School Climate in the United States. A Survey of Students and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Students' school education consists of not only what they are explicitly taught in the classroom, but also what they implicitly learn through the language, attitudes and actions of other students and teachers. When these attitudes, remarks and actions are unsupportive or hostile, they create a school climate that can negatively impact students'…

  15. Perceptions of School and Family Climates and Experiences of Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Taiariol, Jennifer; Yoon, Jina

    2010-01-01

    The role of family and school-level variables on relational aggression and relational victimization was investigated among 158 fourth- and fifth-grade children. Family cohesion, maternal and paternal responsiveness, and school climate were hypothesized to be significant predictors of relational aggression and relational victimization. The results…

  16. High School Students' Metaphors towards "Climate" Concept According to Gender Variable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Mucahit

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to determine the metaphors of high school students towards "climate" concept according to gender variable. A total of 108 students in two high schools in Karabuk City participated in the research in 2009-2010 academic years. The data of the research were gathered from the students' completing the expressions: "climate…

  17. Does Leadership Matter? Examining the Relationship among Transformational Leadership, School Climate, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Nancy; Grigsby, Bettye; Peters, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between transformational leadership, school climate, and student mathematics and reading achievement. Survey data were collected from a purposeful sample of elementary school principals and a convenience sample of his or her respective teachers located in a small suburban…

  18. Children's well-being at schools: Impact of climatic conditions and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Salthammer, Tunga; Uhde, Erik; Schripp, Tobias; Schieweck, Alexandra; Morawska, Lidia; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; He, Congrong; Buonanno, Giorgio; Querol, Xavier; Viana, Mar; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-09-01

    Human civilization is currently facing two particular challenges: population growth with a strong trend towards urbanization and climate change. The latter is now no longer seriously questioned. The primary concern is to limit anthropogenic climate change and to adapt our societies to its effects. Schools are a key part of the structure of our societies. If future generations are to take control of the manifold global problems, we have to offer our children the best possible infrastructure for their education: not only in terms of the didactic concepts, but also with regard to the climatic conditions in the school environment. Between the ages of 6 and 19, children spend up to 8h a day in classrooms. The conditions are, however, often inacceptable and regardless of the geographic situation, all the current studies report similar problems: classrooms being too small for the high number of school children, poor ventilation concepts, considerable outdoor air pollution and strong sources of indoor air pollution. There have been discussions about a beneficial and healthy air quality in classrooms for many years now and in recent years extensive studies have been carried out worldwide. The problems have been clearly outlined on a scientific level and there are prudent and feasible concepts to improve the situation. The growing number of publications also highlights the importance of this subject. High carbon dioxide concentrations in classrooms, which indicate poor ventilation conditions, and the increasing particle matter in urban outdoor air have, in particular, been identified as primary causes of poor indoor air quality in schools. Despite this, the conditions in most schools continue to be in need of improvement. There are many reasons for this. In some cases, the local administrative bodies do not have the budgets required to address such concerns, in other cases regulations and laws stand in contradiction to the demands for better indoor air quality, and sometimes

  19. The Relationships between Teachers' Perceptions of Principal Leadership and Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulleyn, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    This research considered relationships among teachers' perceptions of principal leadership and teachers' perceptions of school climate by using the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) survey and the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (Revised) for Middle Schools (OCDQ-RM) survey. Teachers from six middle schools in the…

  20. Validation of a Brief Measure of Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate: Relations to Student Achievement and Suspensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.; Yang, Chunyan; Pell, Megan; Gaskins, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Based on theory and research on learning environments, the Delaware School Climate Survey-Teacher/Staff (DSCS-T/S) was developed to provide schools with a brief, psychometrically sound measure of teachers' perceptions of school climate. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 5,781 teachers, support staff,…

  1. Perceived School Climate and Chinese Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Role of Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Dongping; Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Background: School factors play important roles in adolescent suicide. However, little is known about how school climate is associated with adolescent suicide. This study examined the relationship between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and whether these relations were explained by adolescent sleep…

  2. Dimensions of School and Classroom Climate: A Comparison of Teacher, Student and Parent Attitudes in One Massachusetts Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloy, Robert W.; Seldin, Clement A.

    A comparison is presented of how teachers, students, and parents perceive the climate of the secondary schools in Greenfield, Massachusetts, as measured by responses to eight selected value statements about the purposes of the school. Agreement among teachers, students, and parents indicates a school climate of collaboration, while disagreement…

  3. Psychometric Support of the School Climate Measure in a Large, Diverse Sample of Adolescents: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M.; Huebner, E. Scott; Ajamie, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Methods: Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships,…

  4. The Perceived School Climate in Invitational Schools in Hong Kong: Using the Chinese Version of the Inviting School Survey-Revised (ISS-R)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Carmen K. M.; Yuen, Mantak

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of the Chinese translation of the revised Inviting School Survey (ISS-R; Smith, 2005; Smith & Bernard, 2004) to measure the invitational climate of seven invitational secondary schools in Hong Kong. The five subscales of Chinese version of ISS-R were found to be valid and reliable in a sample of 706 Grade 11…

  5. Cost-Effective School Nurse Practitioner Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobolewski, Susan D.

    1981-01-01

    A broader utilization of school nurse practitioners by school districts represents a cost-effective approach in meeting educational goals. School nurse practitioners provide extended nursing services to high risk children, assist in coordinating health services between the school and the child's parents, participate in classroom presentations on…

  6. Magnets Adjust to New Climate of School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Once considered a way to help integrate racially divided districts, magnet schools today have been forced to evolve, given increasing pressure to provide more public school choices and legal barriers against using race to determine school enrollment. In a post-desegregation era, many large districts like Chicago, Los Angeles, and Baltimore County…

  7. Prejudice in Schools: Promotion of an Inclusive Culture and Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessel, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    Public schools represent the pluralism of American society. Unfortunately, many children experience their public school environment as unwelcoming or even violent. Prejudicial attitudes contribute to problematic intergroup relations in public school settings. Furthermore, teachers are often unprepared to work with the diversity of class,…

  8. Improving Middle School Climate through Teacher-Centered Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Jean E.; Camic, Paul M.; Milburn, Michael; Lowe, Sarah R.

    2009-01-01

    A collaborative school-based intervention aimed at modifying relationships among administrators and teachers was implemented in three middle and junior high schools. Across the intervention schools, teachers were active collaborators in identifying problems and then articulating and implementing customized interventions to redress those problems.…

  9. The Violence Continuum: Creating a Safe School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manvell, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    We expect schools to be a safe haven, but after more than a decade of targeted school violence prevention laws and safety plans, students are still marginalized and bullied to the point of despondence, retaliation, and even suicide. This thoughtful exploration of what makes a school a safe place is based on the understanding that violence is a…

  10. Creating the Total Quality Effective School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lezotte, Lawrence W.

    This book shows how Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) theory for organizational management can be integrated with the effective-schools literature. Part 1 compares the 14 principles of TQM with the tenets of effective-schools research. The second part develops a blueprint for creating the total quality effective school. The conceptual…

  11. Development of Theories of School-Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerens, Jaap; Stoel, Wouter G. R.

    Concepts from organizational theory are used to interpret and review major findings of school effectiveness research to develop a broader perspective for understanding school effectiveness. Results of school-effectiveness research in the Netherlands are compared with those from research in the United States and England. A more-or-less established…

  12. Leadership Effects: School Principals and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelli, Michael; Green, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We identify the effect of individual high school principals on graduation rates and English exam scores using an administrative data set of grade 12 students in BC Canada. Many principals were rotated across schools by districts, permitting isolation of the effect of principals from the effect of schools. We estimate the variance of the…

  13. NASA/JPL CLIMATE DAY: Middle and High School Students Get the Facts about Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Annie; Callery, Susan; Srinivasan, Margaret

    2013-04-01

    In 2007, NASA Headquarters requested that Earth Science outreach teams brainstorm new education and public outreach activities that would focus on the topic of global climate change. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Annie Richardson, outreach lead for the Ocean Surface Topography missions came up with the idea of a "Climate Day", capitalizing on the popular Earth Day name and events held annually throughout the world. JPL Climate Day would be an education and public outreach event whose objectives are to provide the latest scientific facts about global climate change - including the role the ocean plays in it, the contributions that NASA/JPL satellites and scientists make to the body of knowledge on the topic, and what we as individuals can do to promote global sustainability. The primary goal is that participants get this information in a fun and exciting environment, and walk away feeling empowered and capable of confidently engaging in the global climate debate. In March 2008, JPL and its partners held the first Climate Day event. 950 students from seven school districts heard from five scientists; visited exhibits, and participated in hands-on-activities. Pleased with the outcome, we organized JPL Climate Day 2010 at the Pasadena Convention Center in Pasadena, California, reaching more than 1700 students, teachers, and members of the general public over two days. Taking note of this successful model, NASA funded a multi-center, NASA Climate Day proposal in 2010 to expand Climate Day nation-wide. The NASA Climate Day proposal is a three-pronged project consisting of a cadre of Earth Ambassadors selected from among NASA-affiliated informal educators; a "Climate Day Kit" consisting of climate-related electronic resources available to the Earth Ambassadors; and NASA Climate Day events to be held in Earth Ambassador communities across the United States. NASA/JPL continues to host the original Climate Day event and in 2012 held its 4th event, at the Pasadena

  14. School Climate in Urban Elementary Schools: Its Role in Predicting Low-Income Children's Transition from Early Educational RCT to Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Amy E.; Raver, C. Cybele; Jones, Stephanie M.; Zhai, Fuhua; Pess, Rachel A.

    2011-01-01

    Past research on school-level factors that predict children's development has focused largely on associations between a limited number of characteristics, such as school size and school resources, and children's academic achievement. Few studies take a more comprehensive look at the measurement of school climate or examine its relationship to…

  15. Effects of School Lighting on Physical Development and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Warren E.

    1995-01-01

    This study collected data on the physical development, attendance, and school performance effects of four types of school lighting on elementary students over a two-year period. Results indicated that regular exposure to the lights had important nonvisual effects on students. Full-spectrum fluorescent lamps with ultraviolet supplements were found…

  16. Uncertainty in deforestation's effects on Amazonian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-12-01

    Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest is expected to cause the temperature in the region to rise and rainfall patterns to shift. Exactly how and how much the regional climate will change in the face of rampant deforestation, however, is a matter of considerable ongoing investigation. With their research, Lorenz and Pitman add a new piece to the puzzle by showing that the strength of land-atmosphere coupling in a given model influences how it represents deforestation's effects.

  17. [Potentially beneficial effects of climate changes].

    PubMed

    Hitz, Mette Friberg; Jensen, Jens Erik Beck

    2009-10-26

    Climate changes have many unbeneficial effects on human health, but may also have beneficial effects. An increased mean temperature reduces the incidence of death due to hypothermia and cardiovascular disease and may increase exercise frequency. As the ozone layer decreases, the synthesis of vitamin D in the organism will also increase. An increased level of plasma vitamin D has beneficial effects on bone- and muscle health, seems to reduce cancer incidence and mortality and reduces the prevalence of autoimmune- and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19857402

  18. e-Leadership of School Principals: Increasing School Effectiveness by a School Data Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Ina; Presser, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, school management systems have become an important tool for effective e-leadership and data-based decision making. School management systems emphasize information flow and e-communication between teachers, students and parents. This study examines e-leadership by secondary-school principals through the Mashov school management…

  19. Teaching about Climate Change: Cool Schools Tackle Global Warming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Tim, Ed.; Littlejohn, Gail, Ed.

    Within the last couple of decades, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased significantly due to human activities. Today climate change is an important issue for humankind. This book provides a starting point for educators to teach about climate change, although there are obstacles caused by the industrialized…

  20. Organizational Dimensions of Climate and the Impact on School Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Randy J.; Harris, Lonnie G.

    1998-01-01

    Examines selected factors associated with classroom climate (satisfaction, friction, competition, difficulty, cohesiveness) as perceived by fourth-grade students and explores the relationship between those factors and student academic achievement in the areas of reading, math, and language. Findings indicate that climate plays a relatively minor…

  1. The Effectiveness of the Geospatial Curriculum Approach on Urban Middle-Level Students' Climate Change Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Climate change science is a challenging topic for student learning. This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial curriculum approach to promote climate change science understandings in an urban school district with eighth-grade students and investigated whether teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students'…

  2. A Climate for Academic Success: How School Climate Distinguishes Schools That Are Beating the Achievement Odds. Full Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Adam; Austin, Gregory; Hanson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This report, written by WestEd's Adam Voight, Gregory Austin, and Thomas Hanson, describes a study that examines what makes successful schools different from other schools. Rather than define success in absolute terms, this study's definition is based on whether or not a school is performing better than predicted given the characteristics of the…

  3. A Climate for Academic Success: How School Climate Distinguishes Schools That Are Beating the Achievement Odds. Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voight, Adam; Austin, Gregory; Hanson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This report, written by WestEd's Adam Voight, Gregory Austin, and Thomas Hanson, describes a study that examines what makes successful schools different from other schools. Rather than define success in absolute terms, this study's definition is based on whether or not a school is performing better than predicted given the characteristics of the…

  4. Assessing Students' Views of School Climate: Developing and Validating the What's Happening in This School? (WHITS) Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Jill; Ala'I, Kate

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a six-scale survey to assess school climate in terms of students' perceptions of the degree to which they feel welcome and connected, together with a scale to assess students' perceptions of bullying. The development of each survey involved a multi-stage approach, including: 1) an extensive…

  5. A Tobit Regression Analysis of the Covariation between Middle School Students' Perceived School Climate and Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Selman, Robert L.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses an ecological framework to examine how adolescents' perceptions of school climate in 6th grade covary with the probability and frequency of their engagement in problem behaviors in 7th and 8th grades. Tobit analysis was used to address the issue of having a highly skewed outcome variable with many zeros and yet account for…

  6. Assessing effects of variation in global climate data sets on spatial predictions from climate envelope models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romanach, Stephanie; Watling, James I.; Fletcher, Robert J., Jr.; Speroterra, Carolina; Bucklin, David N.; Brandt, Laura A.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Escribano, Yesenia; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change poses new challenges for natural resource managers. Predictive modeling of species–environment relationships using climate envelope models can enhance our understanding of climate change effects on biodiversity, assist in assessment of invasion risk by exotic organisms, and inform life-history understanding of individual species. While increasing interest has focused on the role of uncertainty in future conditions on model predictions, models also may be sensitive to the initial conditions on which they are trained. Although climate envelope models are usually trained using data on contemporary climate, we lack systematic comparisons of model performance and predictions across alternative climate data sets available for model training. Here, we seek to fill that gap by comparing variability in predictions between two contemporary climate data sets to variability in spatial predictions among three alternative projections of future climate. Overall, correlations between monthly temperature and precipitation variables were very high for both contemporary and future data. Model performance varied across algorithms, but not between two alternative contemporary climate data sets. Spatial predictions varied more among alternative general-circulation models describing future climate conditions than between contemporary climate data sets. However, we did find that climate envelope models with low Cohen's kappa scores made more discrepant spatial predictions between climate data sets for the contemporary period than did models with high Cohen's kappa scores. We suggest conservation planners evaluate multiple performance metrics and be aware of the importance of differences in initial conditions for spatial predictions from climate envelope models.

  7. Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early period is followed by gas to particle conversion, on a time scale of 1-2 months, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid-water droplets. Coagulation and droplet growth result in the "volcanic stratospheric aerosol layer" which is related to the predominant direct climatic effect of large eruptions, the cooling of the troposphere by backscattering of solar visible radiation to space with a recovery time scale of 1-2 years. In this paper we will discuss some of the less-known "indirect" effects of the volcanic stratospheric aerosol on climate. We label them indirect as they act on climate through intermediary atmospheric constituents. The intermediaries in the volcanic indirect climatic effect are generally atmospheric greenhouse gases or other atmospheric gases and conditions which affect greenhouse gases. For example, cooling of the troposphere following major eruptions reduces the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide related to respiration by the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, redirection of part of the direct solar beam into diffuse radiation by the volcanic stratospheric aerosol stimulates plant photosynthesis, further reducing the carbon dioxide growth rate. The growth rate of the second-most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane, is also affected by volcanic emissions. Volcanic stratospheric aerosol particles provide surface area which catalyzes heterogeneous chemical reactions thus stimulating removal of stratospheric ozone, also a greenhouse gas. Although major droughts usually related to ENSO events have opposite effects on carbon

  8. Preliminary Development of the Brief-California School Climate Survey: Dimensionality and Measurement Invariance across Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; O'Malley, Meagan D.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    A brief 15-item version of the California School Climate Scale (Brief-CSCS) is presented to fill a need for a measure that could be used for periodic monitoring of school personnel's general perception of the climate of their school campus. From a sample of 81,261 California school personnel, random subsamples of 2,400 teachers and 2,400…

  9. Implementing Strategies for a School Effectiveness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtwengler, Willis J.

    Thirteen of 14 secondary schools increased their educational effectiveness by participating in a long-term, 12-step change process with two significant features: several measures were applied to develop a picture of each school's effectiveness, and student involvement in the process was considered essential. Schools were categorized by…

  10. Exploring the Competitive Effects of Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Dick M., II; Medina, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Central to the debate over school choice has been the question of how public schools respond to market-based competition. Many choice advocates suggest that competition can spur public schools to become more effective and efficient, but the evidence regarding the effect of competition from charters is comparably sparse and mixed. This article…

  11. Differences among Teachers' Perceptions of School Climate: Does Support for the Local Teacher Union Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Although some school improvement literature has suggested that schools will improve when unions are removed from the school system, unions have rarely been isolated in the research. This study involved a mixed method case study approach to explore whether support of the local teacher union affected perceptions of school climate, as measured by the…

  12. Assessment of High-school Students Engaged in the EarthLabs Climate Modules using the Climate Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K.; Dunlap, C.; Bardar, E. W.; Youngman, E.

    2015-12-01

    Instructors must have on hand appropriate assessments that align with their teaching and learning goals in order to provide evidence of student learning. We have worked with curriculum developers and scientists to develop the Climate Concept Inventory (CCI), which meets goals of the EarthLabs Climate on-line curriculum. The developed concept inventory includes 19 content-driven multiple choice questions, six affective-based multiple choice questions, one confidence question, three open-ended questions, and eight demographic questions. Our analysis of the instrument applies item response theory and uses item characteristic curves. We have assessed over 500 students in nearly twenty high school classrooms in Mississippi and Texas that have engaged in the implementation of the EarthLabs curriculum and completed the CCI. Results indicate that students had pre-post gains on 9 out of 10 of the content-based multiple choice questions with positive gains in answer choice selection ranging from 1.72% to 42%. Students significantly reported increased confidence with 15% more students reporting that they were either very or fairly confident with their answers. Of the six affective questions posed, 5 out of 6 showed significant shifts towards gains in knowledge, awareness, and information about Earth's climate system. The research has resulted in a robust and validated climate concept inventory for use with advanced high school students, where we have been able to apply its use within the EarthLabs project.

  13. Effects of Feedback on Achievement Goals and Perceived Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan-Ilker, Gökçe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effects of teacher's positive and negative feedback on high school students' perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in a physical education setting. Forty seven ninth grade students participated in the study. The design was a 2 x 2 between subjects factorial crossing feedback…

  14. Measuring School Climate for Gauging Principal Performance: A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Publicly Accessible Measures. A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Menon, Roshni; Gangi, Tracy; Condon, Christopher; Hornung, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This policy brief provides principal evaluation system designers information about the technical soundness and cost (i.e., time requirements) of publicly available school climate surveys. The authors focus on the technical soundness of school climate surveys because they believe that using validated and reliable surveys as an outcomes measure can…

  15. Questioning the Centipede: Sources of Climate in a Magnet School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Mary Haywood

    This paper reports on a study of a desegregated Individually Guided Education (IGE) middle school which drew volunteers from throughout a large, midwestern city. Findings are based on participant observation and interviews by the author. The author concludes that the school failed to incorporate all the features of IGE, which calls for alterations…

  16. School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

  17. Bully Proofing: What One District Learned about Improving School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Leonard G.; Keyes, Barbara J.; Longhurst, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Collaborating with school officials, a group of concerned parents implemented a bully-proofing program throughout their school district. After two years, the results are encouraging; it was received with enthusiasm at the elementary level. Further study will be needed to determine how these principles might be applied at the secondary level. (MKA)

  18. School Vouchers in a Climate of Political Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Lenford C.; King, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Legal scrutiny of school voucher policies initially focused on the establishment clause concerning with allocating public dollars to schools sponsored by religious organizations. In recent years, advocates asserted that the exclusion of faith-based organizations from voucher plans that permit expenditures in secular private organizations violates…

  19. Corporate Discourses in School: Adapting to the Prevailing Economic Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Pamela J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines adaptations made by one high school when the surrounding city shifted from a textile mill-driven manufacturing economy to a post-industrial service economy. Using data from an extended field study, the paper examines how school discourses emerged from three related sources (a corporate sponsor, competition for good students, and preparing…

  20. Climate Effects of Global Land Cover Change

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbard, S G; Caldeira, K; Bala, G; Phillips, T; Wickett, M

    2005-08-24

    There are two competing effects of global land cover change on climate: an albedo effect which leads to heating when changing from grass/croplands to forest, and an evapotranspiration effect which tends to produce cooling. It is not clear which effect would dominate in a global land cover change scenario. We have performed coupled land/ocean/atmosphere simulations of global land cover change using the NCAR CAM3 atmospheric general circulation model. We find that replacement of current vegetation by trees on a global basis would lead to a global annual mean warming of 1.6 C, nearly 75% of the warming produced under a doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, while global replacement by grasslands would result in a cooling of 0.4 C. These results suggest that more research is necessary before forest carbon storage should be deployed as a mitigation strategy for global warming. In particular, high latitude forests probably have a net warming effect on the Earth's climate.

  1. Leadership for Safe and Inclusive Schools: An Examination of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Educators' Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Effective school leaders work to assist students and staff alike in feeling safe within the school environment. Educators need to feel safe in order to successfully carry out their professional responsibilities. Historically and presently, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) educators have felt unsafe in school settings, even though…

  2. California Turnaround Schools: An Analysis of School Improvement Grant Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Khalil N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of School Improvement Grants (SIGs) in the state of California (CA) in increasing student achievement using the turnaround implementation model. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) included educational priorities focused on fixing America's lowest achieving schools.…

  3. The Effective Schools Formula Still Needs Changing: A Reply to Brookover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Lawrence C.

    1988-01-01

    Challenges Wilbur Brookover's response to the author's article "It's Time We Changed the Effective Schools Formula" appearing in the November 1987 issue of "Kappan." The author's Pennsylvania studies show that certain variables such as classroom climate, emphasis on basic skills, and time-on-task were inconsequential in predicting a school's…

  4. Equitable Measurement of School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce R,

    2004-01-01

    This article examines a value-added model to rate schools, taking into account varying characteristics of students entering the schools, including poverty, race, mobility, and stability. The model uses regression to separate the influence of demographics that are outside the school's control from those under school control. This value-added model…

  5. Airborne viable fungi in school environments in different climatic regions - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.

  6. Classroom climate and science-related attitudes of junior high school students in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bao-Shan; Crawley, Frank E., III

    Differences in classroom climate and science related attitudes were investigated among junior high school science classes and students in Taiwan. The sample consisted of 1,269 students enrolled in 40 science classes distributed equally among ten junior high schools, five metropolitan and five rural. Classes were further classified according to sex (21 boys and 19 girls classes) and ability (19 high and 21 low ability classes). Using the Learning Environment Inventory (Anderson, Walberg, & Fraser, 1982) to measure climate, science classes in metropolitan schools, more than rural, were found to be characterized by Speed, Friction, Favoritism, Difficulty, Cliqueness, and Competitiveness. No differences were found in the classroom climates of classes in which students were grouped according to sex or ability. Using the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1981), students in science classes in metropolitan schools, in contrast to rural, expressed more positive attitudes toward the Social Implications of Science, Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, and Attitude to Scientific Inquiry. Boys more than girls recorded high scores on Leisure Interest in Science and Career Interest in Science. High ability students were found to have higher scores on Attitude to Scientific Inquiry than did low ability students. When examining the relationship between the 15 subscale scores of the LEI and the seven subscale scores of the TOSRA for the 40 classes, only 9 out of 105 correlations proved to be significant. Most differences in climate, attitude, and their interactions were attributed to school location rather than to student characteristics.

  7. On the Use of Windcatchers in Schools: Climate Change, Occupancy Patterns, and Adaptation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mumovic, D.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced naturally ventilated systems based on integration of basic natural ventilation strategies such as cross-ventilation and stack effect have been considered to be a key element of sustainable design. In this respect, there is a pressing need to explore the potential of such systems to achieve the recommended occupant comfort targets throughout their lifetime without relying on mechanical means. This study focuses on use of a windcatcher system in typical classrooms which are usually characterized by high and intermittent internal heat gains. The aims of this paper are 3-fold. First, to describe a series of field measurements that investigated the ventilation rates, indoor air quality, and thermal comfort in a newly constructed school located at an urban site in London. Secondly, to investigate the effect of changing climate and occupancy patterns on thermal comfort in selected classrooms, while taking into account adaptive potential of this specific ventilation strategy. Thirdly, to assess performance of the ventilation system using the newly introduced performance-based ventilation standards for school buildings. The results suggest that satisfactory occupant comfort levels could be achieved until the 2050s by a combination of advanced ventilation control settings and informed occupant behavior. PMID:27110216

  8. Designing Effective School Improvement Strategies. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Across the country, educators in schools that have not met their targets for improved student learning are considering next steps. As a first step, a school improvement plan that is grounded in data and based on a comprehensive needs assessment can provide a framework for effecting change for a school's programming, student support systems, and…

  9. The Effective Schools Model: Learning to Listen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, William J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses using the effective schools model to create better communication between concerned parents and school officials, noting school personnel must listen to parents' thoughts. Teachers know how to involve students in learning processes; and they must apply that concept to relationships with parents, thus providing a new perspective in…

  10. Effective Leadership Makes Schools Truly Inclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeskey, James; Waldron, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    There's been much commitment and extensive legislation intended to make schools inclusive for all students but not much real progress in improving student outcomes. The authors review and assess several schools that have succeeded at making schools inclusive and effective for all students, including those with disabilities and draw some inferences…

  11. The climatic effects of nuclear war

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Pollack, J. B.; Sagan, C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various US-USSR nuclear-exchange scenarios on global climate are investigated by means of computer simulations, summarizing the results of Turco et al. (1983) and follow-up studies using 3D global-circulation models. A nuclear-scenario model is used to determine the amounts of dust, smoke, radioactivity, and pyrotoxins generated by a particular type of nuclear exchange (such as a general 5,000-Mt exchange, a 1,000-Mt limited exchange, a 5,000-Mt hard-target counterforce attack, and a 100-Mt attack on cities only): a particle-microphysics model predicts the evolution of the dust and smoke particles; and a radiative-convective climate model estimates the effects of the dust and smoke clouds on the global radiation budget. The findings are presented in graphs, diagrams, and a table. Thick clouds blocking most sunlight over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes for weeks or months and producing ground-temperature reductions of 20-40 C, disruption of global circulation patterns, and rapid spread of clouds to the Southern Hemisphere are among the 'nuclear-winter' effects predicted for the 5,000-Mt baseline case. The catastrophic consequences for plant, animal, and human populations are considered, and the revision of superpower nuclear strategies is urged.

  12. The Influences of Leadership Style and School Climate to Faculty Psychological Contracts: A Case of S University in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

    2006-01-01

    This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school…

  13. The Cultural Climate of the Arts in Schools: Beyond the Color Wheel and the Bust of Beethoven Using Ethnographic Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Robin Ruth

    The document discusses a study to describe, analyze, and interpret the cultural climate of an elementary school in Texas which has a special fine arts program. Cultural climate is defined as the atmosphere that surrounds an arts program as defined by comments and actions of school administrators, art teachers, classroom teachers, students,…

  14. Tapping into the Power of School Climate to Prevent Bullying: One Application of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; Judkins, Maryann

    2014-01-01

    Preventing bullying requires a comprehensive approach that includes a focus on school climate. We review the climate features shown to reduce bullying, then illustrate how School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) applies these principles in practice. SWPBIS, grounded in multiple theories--behaviorism, social learning…

  15. Perceptions of MBA Students towards Learning Climate for Managerial Knowledge: A Study of Business School in Lahore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raza, Ahmad; Murad, Hasan; Kayani, Ashraf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore different cultural dimensions of the learning climate at a business school located at Lahore, Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reports the result of an empirical study of the learning climate for managerial knowledge at a business school, located in Lahore, Pakistan. A sample of 150…

  16. To What Extent Is Behaviour a Problem in English Schools? Exploring the Scale and Prevalence of Deficits in Classroom Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydn, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The working atmosphere in the classroom is an important variable in the process of education in schools, with several studies suggesting that classroom climate is an important influence on pupil attainment. There are wide differences in the extent to which classroom climate is considered to be a problem in English schools. Some…

  17. The evolution of climate. [climatic effects of polar wandering and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donn, W. L.; Shaw, D.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation is made of the climatic effects of polar wandering plus continental drift in order to determine wether this mechanism alone could explain the deterioration of climate that occurred from the warmth of Mesozoic time to the ice age conditions of the late Cenozoic. By way of procedure, to investigate the effect of the changing geography of the past on climate Adem's thermodynamic model was selected. The application of the model is discussed and preliminary results are given.

  18. School Climate Factors Contributing to Student and Faculty Perceptions of Safety in Select Arizona Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Kris; Ford, Lysbeth; Hernandaz, Diley

    2011-01-01

    Background: To ensure that schools are safe places where students can learn, researchers and educators must understand student and faculty safety concerns. This study examines student and teacher perceptions of school safety. Methods: Twenty-two focus groups with students and faculty were conducted in 11 secondary schools. Schools were selected…

  19. Making Schools Safe and Inclusive: Gay-Straight Alliances and School Climate in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Julian; Bellini, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) have become widespread in Ontario schools and, starting in 2012, all schools are required to permit students to form GSAs. While American research suggests that GSAs have a positive impact on school safety and inclusion, there is little research on the impact of GSAs in Canadian schools. This study, based on a survey…

  20. Conceptual Change regarding middle school students' experience with Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, B. W.; Lutz, B.

    2011-12-01

    Given the complexity of the science involving climate change (IPCC, 2007), its lack of curricular focus within US K-12 schooling (Golden, 2009), and the difficulty in effecting conceptual change in science (Vosniadou, 2007), we sought to research middle school students' conceptions about climate change, in addition to how those conceptions changed during and as a result of a deliberately designed global climate change (GCC) unit. In a sixth grade classroom, a unit was designed which incorporated Argumentation-Driven Inquiry (Sampson & Grooms, 2010). That is, students were assigned to groups and asked to make sense of standard GCC data such as paleoclimate data from ice cores, direct temperature measurement, and Keeling curves, in addition to learning about the greenhouse effect in a modeling lesson (Hocking, et al, 1993). The students were then challenged, in groups, to create, on whiteboards, explanations and defend these explanations to and with their peers. They did two iterations of this argumentation. The first iteration focused on the simple identification of climate change patterns. The second focused on developing causal explanations for those patterns. After two rounds of such argumentation, the students were then asked to write (individually) a "final" argument which accounted for the given data. Interview and written data were analyzed prior to the given unit, during it, and after it, in order to capture complicated nuance that might escape detection by simpler research means such as surveys. Several findings emerged which promised to be of interest to climate change educators. The first is that many students tended to "know" many "facts" about climate change, but were unable to connect these disparate facts in any meaningful ways. A second finding is that while no students changed their entire belief systems, even after a robust unit which would seemingly challenge such, each student engaged did indeed modify the manner in which they discussed the

  1. Improving School Climate and Student Behavior: A New Paradigm for Indiana Schools. Education Policy Brief. Volume 5, Number 9, Fall 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, Sandy; Stowe, Kimberlee J.; Cole, Cassandra M.; Robinson, James

    2007-01-01

    Successful discipline, improved school climates, and behavioral competence are integrally related to improving academic outcomes. This policy brief presents common discipline practices in schools and discuss current discipline data from Indiana. In addition, the report examines school-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS), an alternative approach…

  2. The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Middle School Students: Findings from the 2007 National School Climate Survey. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) conducted the fifth National School Climate Survey (NSCS), a biennial survey of LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) secondary school students. The NSCS examines the experiences of LGBT youth in U.S. middle and high schools, documenting bias and behaviors that make schools…

  3. Professional Learning Communities: Do Leadership Practices Impact Implementation and Sustainability and What Is the Relationship between a School's PLC and a School's Climate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Theresa

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that a theoretical framework known as a professional learning community can make a positive difference in schools. This mixed-method study examines teacher perceptions of school leadership and climate in two rural elementary schools in South Carolina. Using interviews, focus group sessions and a survey, the researcher answers…

  4. The GLSEN 2001 National School Climate Survey: The School-Related Experiences of Our Nation's Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosciw, Joseph G.; Cullen, M. K.

    This paper presents data from the 2001 National School Climate Survey on school-related experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students. LGBT students described experiences of homophobic remarks; verbal, physical, and sexual harassment; and comfort within their schools. They described experiences with racial and sexual…

  5. Exploring the School Climate--Student Achievement Connection: Making Sense of Why the First Precedes the Second

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Albert; Shindler, John

    2016-01-01

    Many educators view school climate and student achievement as separate considerations. For some, the idea of promoting a high quality climate can seem like a luxury in the face of the current high stakes assessment climate in which student achievement gains are the paramount consideration. However, the results of this study suggest that climate…

  6. The Role of School Climate in School Violence: A Validity Study of a Web-Based School Violence Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurford, David P.; Lindskog, Rick; Cole, AmyKay; Jackson, Robyn; Thomasson, Sara; Wade, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    The "School Violence Survey" (SVS) was developed as an instrument to investigate students' perceptions of school environment, their experiences and interactions within diverse social groups, and their views on school violence issues including bullying. A total of 806 students across four Midwest high schools and middle schools completed the paper…

  7. Effect of global climate on termites population. Effect of termites population on global climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapunov, Valentin

    2010-05-01

    The global climate is under control of factors having both earth and space origin. Global warming took place from XVII century till 1997. Then global cold snap began. This dynamics had effect on global distribution of some animals including termites. Direct human effect on climate is not significant. At the same time man plays role of trigger switching on significant biosphere processes controlling climate. The transformation of marginal lands, development of industry and building, stimulated increase of termite niche and population. Termite role in green house gases production increases too. It may have regular effect on world climate. The dry wood is substrate for metabolism of termites living under symbiosis with bacteria Hypermastigina (Flagellata). The use of dry wood by humanity increased from 18 *108 ton in XVIII to 9*109 to the middle of XX century. Then use of wood decreased because of a new technology development. Hence termite population is controlled by microevolution depending on dry wood and climate dynamics. Producing by them green house gases had reciprocal effect on world climate. It is possible to describe and predict dynamic of termite population using methods of mathematical ecology and analogs with other well studied insects (Colorado potatoes beetle, Chrisomelid beetle Zygogramma and so on). Reclamation of new ecological niche for such insects as termites needs 70 - 75 years. That is delay of population dynamics in relation to dynamics of dry wood production. General principles of population growth were described by G.Gause (1934) and some authors of the end of XX century. This works and analogs with other insects suggest model of termite distribution during XXI century. The extremum of population and its green house gases production would be gotten during 8 - 10 years. Then the number of specimens and sum biological mass would be stabilized and decreased. Termite gas production is not priority for climate regulation, but it has importance as

  8. Considering Students' Out-of-School Lives and Values in Designing Learning Environments for Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, E.; Tsurusaki, B.

    2012-12-01

    What are the implications of social controversy for the teaching and learning of climate change science? How do the political dimensions of this controversy affect learners' attitudes towards and reasoning about climate change and climate science? Case studies from a pilot enactment of an ecological impacts of climate change curriculum explore these questions by describing how five high school students' understandings of climate change science developed at the intersection of political and scientific values, attitudes, and ways of knowing. Case studies combine qualitative, ethnographic methods including interviews and classroom video observations with quantitative pre/post-assessments of student conceptual understandings and weekly surveys of student engagement. Data indicate that students had initial perceptions of climate change informed by the media and their families—both supporting and rejecting the scientific consensus—that influenced how they engaged with the scientific evidence. While students who were initially antagonistic to anthropogenic climate change did develop conceptual understandings of the scientific evidence for human-influences on climate change, this work was challenging and at times frustrating for them. These case studies demonstrate the wide range of initial attitudes and understandings that students bring to the study of climate change. They also demonstrate that it is possible to make significant shifts in students' understandings of climate change science, even in students who were initially resistant to the idea of anthropogenic climate change. Finally, multiple case studies discuss ways that the learning that occurred in the classroom crossed out of the classroom into the students' homes and family talk. This work highlights how learners' pathways are shaped not only by their developing understanding of the scientific evidence but also by the political and social influences that learners navigate across the contexts of their lives

  9. Development of a Climate Concept Inventory and Assessment of High-school Students Engaged in the EarthLabs Climate Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeal, K.; Libarkin, J. C.; Ledley, T. S.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Haddad, N.; Ellins, K. K.; Bardar, E.; Dunlap, C.; Youngman, E.

    2013-12-01

    The development of climate change education materials and curriculum is necessary to support educators in implementing easily accessible, reliable and accurate information for the classroom. Developers must design materials that are effective at reaching their learning goals. They also must use appropriate assessments that align with these goals and the content being taught in order to provide evidence of efficacy. EarthLabs consists of three on-line climate modules: Climate and the Cryosphere, Climate and the Biosphere, and Climate and the Carbon Cycle, where students engage in hands-on, visualization, and inquiry activities in each ~3 week module in their classroom. The project includes curriculum development, teacher professional development, research on student learning, and project evaluation components. In this presentation, we emphasize the research on student learning conducted in the classroom. We have worked with curriculum developers and scientists to develop a climate concept inventory which meets curriculum goals and is scientifically valid. We have completed the first phase of the climate concept inventory and assessed over 230 students in nine high school classrooms in Mississippi and Texas pre- and post-implementation of EarthLabs. The developed concept inventory included 10 content-driven multiple choice questions, six affective-based multiple choice questions, one confidence question, six open-ended questions, and eight demographic questions. Results indicate that students had gains on 9 out of the 10 of the content based multiple choice questions with positive gains in answer choice selection ranging from 1.72% to 42%. In regard to the confidence question, students significantly reported increased confidence with 15% more student reporting that they were either very or fairly confident with their answers. Of the six affective questions posed, 5 of 6 showed significant shifts towards gains in knowledge, awareness, and information about Earth

  10. Middle School Students' Conceptual Change in Global Climate Change: Using Argumentation to Foster Knowledge Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Barry W.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined middle school student conceptions about global climate change (GCC) and the change these conceptions undergo during an argument driven instructional unit. The theoretical framework invoked for this study is the "framework theory" of conceptual change (Vosniadou, 2007a). This theory posits that students do not simply correct…

  11. New Opportunities for Principal Leadership: Shaping School Climates for Enhanced Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Improved professional development for teachers and principals is central to our national educational agenda. Principals struggle with the challenge of how to build school climates that improve practice in an era of heightened accountability and increasingly complex adaptive challenges. Purpose/Objective/Research Questions/Focus…

  12. The Charles F. Kettering Ltd. School Climate Instrument: A Psychometric Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Factor analysis was performed on the Charles F. Kettering (CFK) scale (a measure of school climate). The multivariate analysis of responses by 1,163 students, teachers, and administrators indicated that new subscales should be designed to improve overall scale validity. (TJH)

  13. Creating Climate Change Awareness in South African Schools through Practical Chemistry Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunassee, Suthananda N.; Young, Ryan M.; Sewry, Joyce D.; Harrison, Timothy G.; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements for the National Curriculum Statement for both Life sciences and Physical sciences and the importance of community engagement in Higher Education in South Africa, this paper described the use of the lecture-demonstration "A Pollutant's Tale" to create climate change awareness amongst school learners.…

  14. Principals' Performance in Promoting Learning Climate in Ebonyi State Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egwu, Sarah Oben

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine principals' performance in promoting learning climate in Ebonyi State secondary schools. A sample of 630 teachers completed a 12-item questionnaire designed for the study. Out of 630 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 606 copies representing about 96.2% return rate were properly completed and returned.…

  15. A Multilevel Perspective on the Climate of Bullying: Discrepancies among Students, School Staff, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Pas, Elise T.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2011-01-01

    Although many bullying prevention programs aim to involve multiple partners, few studies have examined perceptual differences regarding peer victimization and the broader bullying climate among students, staff, and parents. The present study utilized multilevel data from 11,674 students, 960 parents, and 1,027 staff at 44 schools to examine the…

  16. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence of Principals and the Overall Organizational Climate of Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juma, Dalal Sabri

    2013-01-01

    In this study the researcher examined the influence between a principal's self-perceived emotional intelligence and the overall organizational climate of one public elementary school as perceived by the principal's followers. These followers included teaching and non-teaching staff. It was not known how self-perceived emotional…

  17. The Principalship: Essential Core Competencies for Instructional Leadership and Its Impact on School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Dorrell J.; Cozzens, Jeffry A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate teachers' perceptions of principals' leadership behaviors influencing the schools' climate according to Green's (2010) ideologies of the 13 core competencies within the four dimensions of principal leadership. Data from the "Leadership Behavior Inventory" (Green, 2014) suggest 314…

  18. School Climate and Social-Emotional Learning: Predicting Teacher Stress, Job Satisfaction, and Teaching Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Shapka, Jennifer D.; Perry, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether and how teachers' perceptions of social-emotional learning and climate in their schools influenced three outcome variables--teachers' sense of stress, teaching efficacy, and job satisfaction--and to examine the interrelationships among the three outcome variables. Along with sense of job…

  19. The Development of the Classroom Social Climate during the First Months of the School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainhard, M. Tim; Brekelmans, Mieke; den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo

    2011-01-01

    In this study the mean stability of classroom social climates during the first months of the school year and the deviation of individual classrooms (N = 48) and students (N = 1208) from this general trend were investigated by taping students' interpersonal perceptions of their teachers. Multilevel growth modeling was used to identify the average…

  20. Academic Achievement in Effective Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque, Marc; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of achievement in mathematics in elementary schools in New Brunswick (Canada). Data Collection: Both teachers and school leaders (N = 111) completed a questionnaire on their practices and on school functioning. Findings: Multiple regression analyses revealed that the students'…

  1. Estimating Contrail Climate Effects from Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Duda, David P.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Bedka, Sarah T.; Boeke, Robyn; Khlopenkov, Konstantin; Chee, Thad; Bedka, Kristopher T.

    2011-01-01

    An automated contrail detection algorithm (CDA) is developed to exploit six of the infrared channels on the 1-km MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites. The CDA is refined and balanced using visual error analysis. It is applied to MODIS data taken by Terra and Aqua over the United States during 2006 and 2008. The results are consistent with flight track data, but differ markedly from earlier analyses. Contrail coverage is a factor of 4 less than other retrievals and the retrieved contrail optical depths and radiative forcing are smaller by approx.30%. The discrepancies appear to be due to the inability to detect wider, older contrails that comprise a significant amount of the contrail coverage. An example of applying the algorithm to MODIS data over the entire Northern Hemisphere is also presented. Overestimates of contrail coverage are apparent in some tropical regions. Methods for improving the algorithm are discussed and are to be implemented before analyzing large amounts of Northern Hemisphere data. The results should be valuable for guiding and validating climate models seeking to account for aviation effects on climate.

  2. A Climate of Trust: A Visit to Two Swedish Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordgren, R. D.

    This paper describes a Florida educator's visit to two Swedish schools for students aged 16 to 19. The educator spent 2 days visiting Duveholmsskolan in Katrineholm (about 70 miles west of Stockholm) and 3 days visiting Wargentinsskolan in Ostersund (situated 350 miles north of Stockholm and about 200 miles south of the Arctic Circle) observing…

  3. Classroom Climate and Motivated Behaviour in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Angelika; Hamilton, Richard J.; Hattie, John

    2004-01-01

    For some children, school failure is attributed to a lack in motivation. This article reports a study of motivation from an ecological perspective, considering the individual in interaction with the meaningful environment. Unlike much of the motivational literature that measures motivation in terms of constructs that are assessed largely via…

  4. School Climate for Gay and Lesbian Students and Staff Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John D.

    1994-01-01

    In high schools, a conspiracy of silence shrouds the sexual orientation issue. Although the social atmosphere is vaguely supportive, fear and the realities of life cause most gays and lesbians to keep their sexual identities hidden. Homophobia can be addressed through staff development, support staff and services, inclusion of homosexual issues in…

  5. Evaluating Changes in Climate Literacy among Middle and High School Students who Participate in Climate Change Education Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWaters, J.; Powers, S.; Dhaniyala, S.; Small, M.

    2012-12-01

    Middle school (MS) and high school (HS) teachers have developed and taught instructional modules that were created through their participation in Clarkson University's NASA-funded Project-Based Global Climate Change Education project. A quantitative survey was developed to help evaluate the project's impact on students' climate literacy, which includes content knowledge as well as affective and behavioral attributes. Content objectives were guided primarily by the 2009 document, Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The survey was developed according to established psychometric principles and methodologies in the sociological and educational sciences which involved developing and evaluating a pool of survey items, adapted primarily from existing climate surveys and questionnaires; preparing, administering, and evaluating two rounds of pilot tests; and preparing a final instrument with revisions informed by both pilot assessments. The resulting survey contains three separate subscales: cognitive, affective, and behavioral, with five self-efficacy items embedded within the affective subscale. Cognitive items use a multiple choice format with one correct response; non-cognitive items use a 5-point Likert-type scale with options generally ranging from "strongly agree" to "strongly disagree" (affective), or "almost always" to "hardly ever" (behavioral). Three versions of the survey were developed and administered using an on-line Zoomerang™ platform to college students/adults; HS students; and MS students, respectively. Instrument validity was supported by using items drawn from existing surveys, by reviewing/applying prior research in climate literacy, and through comparative age-group analysis. The internal consistency reliability of each subscale, as measured by Cronbach's alpha, ranges from 0.78-0.86 (cognitive), 0.87-0.89 (affective) and 0.84-0.85 (behavioral), all satisfying generally accepted criteria for internal reliability of

  6. Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: Advancing the Science of Climate Change in the Public Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, D. A.; Thomas, C. W.; Smith, J. S.; Wood, E. J.; Filippelli, G. M.

    2007-12-01

    The importance of K-12 educational programs and resources that seek to share the science of climate change has recently come into focus. During the fall 2006 AGU meeting, we presented the conceptual framework used to guide both the curriculum and year-one programs of Students as Mentors and Owners of Geoscience and Environmental Education: The Global Warming Road Show. Currently this dynamic, three-phase, tiered mentoring program selects and empowers a diverse population of 11th and 12th grade students from a large urban high school in the Midwest to teach a curriculum on climate change to 7th graders from a local feeder school. In December 2007 we will complete year-one of the program and will present an overview of 1) students' conceptual representations of climate change, 2) the most recent curriculum and programs, and 3) the ongoing program evaluation. We will synthesize these three areas and reflect on how to improve upon year-two of both the curriculum and the program. During various stages of the program, students have constructed concept maps, written in journals, created lesson plans, and participated in focus group interviews. These materials are being analyzed to provide a brief overview of high school students' initial conceptualizations of climate change. During the intensive 2007 summer workshop, these 11th and 12th grade students were supported by university scientists and science educators, secondary science teachers, and museum educators as they attempted to better understand climate change and as they reflected on how to effectively teach this topic to 7th graders. During the fall semester of 2007, the workshop graduates are scheduled to teach 25 to 30 7th graders a five week climate unit. The program will culminate with the 11th and 12th grade student-mentors working with the 7th graders to create a "Road Show," which will be presented to other 7th and 8th graders within the same school district. To ensure that this program is current, a team of

  7. Mo' Money, Mo' Problems? High-Achieving Black High School Students' Experiences with Resources, Racial Climate, and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter; Griffin, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    A multi-site case study analyzed the college preparatory processes of nine African American high achievers attending a well-resourced, suburban high school and eight academically successful African Americans attending a low-resourced urban school. Students at both schools experienced barriers, that is, racial climate and a lack of resources, that…

  8. Effects of Comprehensive School Reform on Student Achievement and School Change: A Longitudinal Multi-Site Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterbinsky, Allan; Ross, Steven M.; Redfield, Doris

    2006-01-01

    The longitudinal impacts on school change and student achievement of implementing varied Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) models was investigated in 12 elementary schools in diverse geographic locations. Each school was individually matched and compared to a demographically similar control school on measures of school climate, teacher…

  9. The International Baccalaureate Diploma Program's Impacting High School Culture and Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, George

    2013-01-01

    School reformers are often searching for a program that will have a positive and far-reaching effect on a school campus. Researchers and writers have described the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program (IB DP) as a largely positive influence on a school campus, providing a rigorous and standards-based curriculum to IB DP students. However,…

  10. Hostile School Climates: Explaining Differential Risk of Student Exposure to Disruptive Learning Environments in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras, Christy

    2008-01-01

    Using data from a national sample of 10,061 African American, Hispanic, and White 10th graders, in 659 U.S. high schools, this study examines whether students in certain school contexts may be more likely to experience hostility in school that is detrimental to the overall learning environment. The results from the hierarchical linear models…

  11. Facilitators to Promoting Health in Schools: Is School Health Climate the Key?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucarelli, Jennifer F.; Alaimo, Katherine; Mang, Ellen; Martin, Caroline; Miles, Richard; Bailey, Deborah; Kelleher, Deanne K.; Drzal, Nicholas B.; Liu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools can promote healthy eating in adolescents. This study used a qualitative approach to examine barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in schools. Methods: Case studies were conducted with 8 low-income Michigan middle schools. Interviews were conducted with 1 administrator, the food service director, and 1 member of the…

  12. Predicting climate effects on Pacific sardine

    PubMed Central

    Deyle, Ethan R.; Fogarty, Michael; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Kaufman, Les; MacCall, Alec D.; Munch, Stephan B.; Perretti, Charles T.; Ye, Hao; Sugihara, George

    2013-01-01

    For many marine species and habitats, climate change and overfishing present a double threat. To manage marine resources effectively, it is necessary to adapt management to changes in the physical environment. Simple relationships between environmental conditions and fish abundance have long been used in both fisheries and fishery management. In many cases, however, physical, biological, and human variables feed back on each other. For these systems, associations between variables can change as the system evolves in time. This can obscure relationships between population dynamics and environmental variability, undermining our ability to forecast changes in populations tied to physical processes. Here we present a methodology for identifying physical forcing variables based on nonlinear forecasting and show how the method provides a predictive understanding of the influence of physical forcing on Pacific sardine. PMID:23536299

  13. Predicting climate effects on Pacific sardine.

    PubMed

    Deyle, Ethan R; Fogarty, Michael; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Kaufman, Les; MacCall, Alec D; Munch, Stephan B; Perretti, Charles T; Ye, Hao; Sugihara, George

    2013-04-16

    For many marine species and habitats, climate change and overfishing present a double threat. To manage marine resources effectively, it is necessary to adapt management to changes in the physical environment. Simple relationships between environmental conditions and fish abundance have long been used in both fisheries and fishery management. In many cases, however, physical, biological, and human variables feed back on each other. For these systems, associations between variables can change as the system evolves in time. This can obscure relationships between population dynamics and environmental variability, undermining our ability to forecast changes in populations tied to physical processes. Here we present a methodology for identifying physical forcing variables based on nonlinear forecasting and show how the method provides a predictive understanding of the influence of physical forcing on Pacific sardine. PMID:23536299

  14. Excellence in Schooling: Effective Styles for Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, William D. H.

    School principals are an important factor in the improvement of American schools. Key findings of two studies show that principals are the most significant people in the educational change process. Outlined are seven important steps involved in the process of instructional improvement that will take place only if committed and knowledgeable…

  15. The Effectiveness of the Geospatial Curriculum Approach on Urban Middle-Level Students' Climate Change Understandings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong

    2014-08-01

    Climate change science is a challenging topic for student learning. This quantitative study examined the effectiveness of a geospatial curriculum approach to promote climate change science understandings in an urban school district with eighth-grade students and investigated whether teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students' climate change knowledge achievement. The participants included 12 science teachers and 956 eighth-grade students. Data included a pre- and posttest climate change assessment measures for both teachers and students and a teacher measure of Geospatial Science-Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Paired-sample t tests revealed statistically significant gains from pretest to posttest on their climate change knowledge ( p < .001; effect sizes being large on multiple-choice items and medium on the open-ended response assessment). Both ordinary least squares (OLS) multiple regression and 2-level hierarchical linear modeling found that students' initial climate change knowledge and gender were significant predictors for students' posttest scores, p < .05. Students' pretest scores were the strongest significant predictor of the posttest scores, p < .001. Neither the teachers' climate change knowledge nor their Geospatial Science-Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge had significant association with the students' posttest scores. Teaching years was a significant predictor for students' posttest scores in OLS regression ( p < .001). The findings provide support that a geospatial curriculum approach is an effective science curriculum approach for learners in urban middle-level education.

  16. Climatic effects of surface albedo geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter J.; Ridgwell, Andy; Lunt, Daniel J.

    2011-12-01

    Various surface albedo modification geoengineering schemes such as those involving desert, urban, or agricultural areas have been proposed as potential strategies for helping counteract the warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions. However, such schemes tend to be inherently limited in their potential and would create a much more heterogeneous radiative forcing than propositions for space-based "reflectors" and enhanced stratospheric aerosol concentrations. Here we present results of a series of atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (GCM) simulations to compare three surface albedo geoengineering proposals: urban, cropland, and desert albedo enhancement. We find that the cooling effect of surface albedo modification is strongly seasonal and mostly confined to the areas of application. For urban and cropland geoengineering, the global effects are minor but, because of being colocated with areas of human activity, they may provide some regional benefits. Global desert geoengineering, which is associated with significant global-scale changes in circulation and the hydrological cycle, causes a smaller reduction in global precipitation per degree of cooling than sunshade geoengineering, 1.1% K-1 and 2.0% K-1 respectively, but a far greater reduction in the precipitation over land, 3.9% K-1 compared with 1.0% K-1. Desert geoengineering also causes large regional-scale changes in precipitation with a large reduction in the intensity of the Indian and African monsoons in particular. None of the schemes studied reverse the climate changes associated with a doubling of CO2, with desert geoengineering profoundly altering the climate and with urban and cropland geoengineering providing only some regional amelioration at most.

  17. Game Based Learning as a Means to Teach Climate Literacy in a High School Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, M. K.; Tedesco, L.; Katz, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    As part of RPI's GK-12 graduate fellowship program (which involves graduate STEM fellows in K-12 education) a climate change board game activity was developed and implemented at inner city Troy High School in Troy, New York. The goal was to engage and teach two classes of the Earth Science General Repeat (GR) tenth grade students about climate change through a game-based leaning module. Students placed in the GR course had previously failed Earth Science, and had never passed a general science class in high school. In the past, these students have responded positively to hands-on activities. Therefore, an interactive board game activity was created to teach students about climate, explore how humans impact our environment, and address the future of climate change. The students are presented with a draft version of the game, created by the graduate fellow, and are asked to redesign the game for their peers in the other GR class. The students' version of the game is required to include certain aspects of the original game, for example, the climate change Trivia and Roadblock cards, but the design, addition of rules and overall layout are left to the students. The game-based learning technique allows the students to learn through a storyline, compete against each other, and challenge themselves to perfect their learning and understanding of climate change. The climate change board game activity also incorporates our cascade learning model, in which the graduate fellow designs the activity, works with a high school teacher, and implements the game with high school students. In addition, the activity emphasizes peer-to-peer learning, allowing each classroom to design the game for a different group of students. This allows the students to take leadership and gives them a sense of accomplishment with the completed board game. The nature of a board game also creates a dynamic competitive atmosphere, in which the students want to learn and understand the material to succeed

  18. Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Effective School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George; Hii, Amy

    2012-01-01

    There has been limited research on how teachers, parents and students perceive effective school leadership in practice. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study of key stakeholders' perceptions of effective school leadership. Key stakeholders were identified as teachers, students and parents. Data were…

  19. Age versus Schooling Effects on Intelligence Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Cohen, Nora

    1989-01-01

    A study of effects of age and schooling in grades five and six on raw scores from a variety of general ability tests found that schooling: (1) is the major factor underlying the increase of intelligence test scores as a function of age; and (2) has a larger effect on verbal than nonverbal tests. (RH)

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON WEATHER-RELATED MORBIDITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential effects of climate change and climate variability on weather-related morbidity are assessed. Heat-related and cold-related morbidity in children are analyzed. The impact of inclement weather on accidental injuries is evaluated. The relationship of violent crime to w...

  1. America's Climate Choices: Informing an Effective Response to Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverman, D. M.; McConnell, M. C.; Raven, P.

    2010-12-01

    At the request of Congress, the National Academy of Sciences convened a series of coordinated activities to provide advice on actions and strategies that the nation can take to respond to climate change. As part of this suite of activities, this study examines information needs and recommends ways the federal government can better inform responses by enhancing climate change and greenhouse gas information and reporting systems and by improving climate communication and education. Demand for better information to support climate-related decisions has grown rapidly as people, organizations, and governments have moved ahead with plans and actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. To meet this demand, good information systems and services are needed. Without such systems, decision makers cannot evaluate whether particular policies and actions are achieving their goals or should be modified. Although the many non-federal efforts to reduce emissions and/or adapt to future climate changes carry considerable potential to reduce risks related to climate change, there is currently no comprehensive way to assess the effectiveness of those efforts. In addition, the diverse climate change responses to date have resulted in a patchwork of regional, state, and local policies that has prompted many state and business leaders to call for the development of a more predictable and coherent policy environment at the federal level. This report demonstrates that the nation lacks comprehensive, robust, and credible information and reporting systems to inform climate choices and evaluate their effectiveness. This report also argues that decision makers can benefit from a systematic and iterative framework for responding to climate change, in which decisions and policies can be revised in light of new information and experience and that improved information and reporting systems allow for ongoing evaluation of responses to climate risks. The

  2. Enabling the use of climate model data in the Dutch climate effect community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; Plieger, Maarten

    2010-05-01

    Within the climate effect community the usage of climate model data is emerging. Where mostly climate time series and weather generators were used, there is a shift to incorporate climate model data into climate effect models. The use of climate model data within the climate effect models is difficult, due to missing metadata, resolution and projection issues, data formats and availability of the parameters of interest. Often the climate effect modelers are not aware of available climate model data or are not aware of how they can use it. Together with seven other partners (CERFACS, CNR-IPSL, SMHI, INHGA, CMCC, WUR, MF-CNRM), KNMI is involved in the FP7 IS ENES (http://www.enes.org) project work package 10/JRA5 ‘Bridging Climate Research Data and the Needs of the Impact Community. The aims of this work package are to enhance the use of Climate Research Data and to enhance the interaction with climate effect/impact communities. Phase one is to define use cases together with the Dutch climate effect community, which describe the intended use of climate model data in climate effect models. We defined four use cases: 1) FEWS hydrological Framework (Deltares) 2) METAPHOR, a plants and species dispersion model (Wageningen University) 3) Natuurplanner, an Ecological model suite (Wageningen University) 4) Land use models (Free University/JRC). Also the other partners in JRA5 have defined use cases, which are representative for the climate effect and impact communities in their country. Goal is to find commonalities between all defined use cases. The common functionality will be implemented as e-tools and incorporated in the IS-ENES data portal. Common issues relate to e.g., need for high resolution: downscaling from GCM to local scale (also involves interpolation); parameter selection; finding extremes; averaging methods. At the conference we will describe the FEWS case in more detail: Delft FEWS is an open shell system (in development since 1995) for performing

  3. Effective Schooling in Rural Africa Report 2: Key Issues Concerning School Effectiveness and Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Lesley

    This report presents an overview of the literature on school/teacher effectiveness and improvement, with a focus on implications for developing countries. Sections 1-2 discuss the trend toward site-based management, which has increased pressures on individual schools and their staff; eight key domains of school effectiveness; and the need to…

  4. School Discipline: Problems Effecting Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzman, Andrew J.; Wiley, David B.

    1987-01-01

    Failure to solve school discipline problems is attributed to four factors: school district priorities, unclear problem dimensions, inadequate teacher training, and flaws in teacher/ administrator applied psychology. Psychological approaches that provide systems to control student behavior are described, including biophysical, interactionist, and…

  5. Effects of Climate Change on Salmonella Infections

    PubMed Central

    Akil, Luma; Reddy, Remata S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Climate change and global warming have been reported to increase spread of foodborne pathogens. To understand these effects on Salmonella infections, modeling approaches such as regression analysis and neural network (NN) were used. Methods: Monthly data for Salmonella outbreaks in Mississippi (MS), Tennessee (TN), and Alabama (AL) were analyzed from 2002 to 2011 using analysis of variance and time series analysis. Meteorological data were collected and the correlation with salmonellosis was examined using regression analysis and NN. Results: A seasonal trend in Salmonella infections was observed (p<0.001). Strong positive correlation was found between high temperature and Salmonella infections in MS and for the combined states (MS, TN, AL) models (R2=0.554; R2=0.415, respectively). NN models showed a strong effect of rise in temperature on the Salmonella outbreaks. In this study, an increase of 1°F was shown to result in four cases increase of Salmonella in MS. However, no correlation between monthly average precipitation rate and Salmonella infections was observed. Conclusion: There is consistent evidence that gastrointestinal infection with bacterial pathogens is positively correlated with ambient temperature, as warmer temperatures enable more rapid replication. Warming trends in the United States and specifically in the southern states may increase rates of Salmonella infections. PMID:25496072

  6. Using TIMSS 2007 data to examine STEM school effectiveness in an international context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanco, Gabrielle

    Because results from TIMSS 2007 showed a gap in mathematics and science achievement between students in the United States and those in the top-performing countries, TIMSS 2007 data were used to investigate how school effectiveness factors known to be strongly associated with higher STEM achievement operated in the United States compared to Chinese Taipei, the Czech Republic, Singapore, and Slovenia. In each of the five countries, multilevel modeling was used to examine STEM achievement in relation to 11 school effectiveness factors associated with school resources, fidelity of curriculum implementation, and school climate, controlling for student home resources. A secondary purpose of this dissertation research was to help the TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center prepare for multilevel modeling planned for the TIMSS and PIRLS 2011 data. Findings from this research showed that across the five countries, there were differences in how important school effectiveness factors operated. Teacher preparation, teaching the curriculum, and using instructional strategies involving reasoning and inquiry all were important school characteristics related to STEM achievement in some countries. A school environment conducive to learning emerged as being strongly associated with high STEM achievement in three of the countries, including the United States. Both absence of discipline and attendance problems as well as a school climate supportive of academic success were important predictors of student STEM achievement. This dissertation research also showed the potential of using TIMSS data as a basis for conducting school effectiveness analyses across different country contexts.

  7. Subtropical stratocumulus and its effect on climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Peter M.

    Despite widespread recognition of the importance of subtropical stratocumulus clouds to the planetary energy budget, the strength and even the sign of stratocumulus response to increased levels of greenhouse gases is still unknown. In this study, we attempt to address some of the causes for this uncertainty. One challenge to assessing stratocumulus response to warming is that stratocumulus behavior is determined both by small-scale local processes and by the large-scale circulation. We present a new method which sidesteps this range-of-scales difficulty by explicitly resolving fine-scale detail in the stratocumulus region while implicitly including the effects of the large-scale circulation. The results of this model suggest that stratocumulus feedback acts to cool the planet. Another reason why stratocumulus response to climate change is uncertain is that processes in the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer are not well understood or parameterized due to a dearth in measurements of key quantities. We improve this situation by deriving estimates of the diurnal cycle of entrainment from shipboard measurements taken during the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001 cruise. Comparison between these observations and values derived from several existing entrainment parameterizations is better than expected, suggesting that entrainment should be relatively well captured by models. The EPIC data is also used to construct a diurnal cycle of buoyancy flux profiles under the assumption of well-mixed conditions. These profiles, in conjunction with a comparison of the difference between cloudbase and lifting condensation level, suggest that drizzle is acting during EPIC to limit early-morning turbulent mixing. We also perform a more in-depth comparison between a large-eddy simulation (LES) and the EPIC data. The LES was found to reproduce many features of the EPIC observations. In particular, budgets of boundary-layer moisture and energy, the diurnal cycle of

  8. Middle and High School Students' Conceptions of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofferding, Laura; Kloser, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Both scientists and policy-makers emphasize the importance of education for influencing pro-environmental behavior and minimizing the effects of climate change on biological and physical systems. Education has the potential to impact students' system knowledge--their understanding of the variables that affect the climate system--and action…

  9. Urban Middle Schools Become Safer, More Effective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools in the Middle, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Through the Safe Schools project, initiated by the Education Development Center, Inc., and funded by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, two urban middle schools in the northeast became safer, more effective places of learning over three-year period. This article describes the process. (MLH)

  10. Core Competencies for Training Effective School Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhouse, Katie Lynn Sutton

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and validate a set of core competencies of effective school-based consultants for preservice school psychology consultation training. With recent changes in service delivery models, psychologists are challenged to engage in more indirect, preventative practices (Reschly, 2008). Consultation emerges as…

  11. Analysis and Effects of School Busing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Thomas E.

    1977-01-01

    This article focuses on the use of compulsory busing to achieve school integration. The effects of busing on Black self-concept, academic achievement, student teacher relationships, resegregation of Black students by tracking in integrated schools, and community attitudes are examined. (Author/MC)

  12. EXPANSION OF THE MORE EFFECTIVE SCHOOL PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOX, DAVID J.

    THIS SHORT-TERM EVALUATION OF THE MORE EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS (MES) PROGRAM IN 21 NEW YORK CITY PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ASSESSED THE MES INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM AND ITS IMPACT ON THE STUDENTS. DATA WERE GATHERED FROM (1) OBSERVATIONAL VISITS TO CLASSROOMS BY TWO-MEMBER TEAMS OF EDUCATORS AND SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, (2) STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS WITH…

  13. A Comprehensive Plan for School Effectiveness. Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

    This document outlines a comprehensive plan developed by the Minnesota State Department of Education for improving school effectiveness throughout the state. The first four sections of the paper present prefatory material, including a general introduction, current comparative statistics on Minnesota schools, need statements (state legislation…

  14. Effective Inclusive Schools: Designing Successful Schoolwide Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehir, Thomas; Katzman, Lauren I.

    2012-01-01

    This book presents lessons learned from in-depth case studies of some of our most effective inclusive public schools. The authors conclusively demonstrate that schools can educate students with mild and severe disabilities in general education classrooms by providing special education services that link to and bolster general education…

  15. Effect of Family Structure on School Readiness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Telia Y.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of living in dual parent or single parent families on the school readiness of preschool children. The subjects were 40 prekindergarten children attending a program for at-risk children in a suburban school district. The results of an annual preschool screening test were utilized to determine…

  16. Trust-Effectiveness Patterns in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Patrick B.; Barnes, Laura L. B.; Adams, Curt M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the consequences of relational trust, especially parent measured trust, for desirable school outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Using a US Midwestern state sample of 79 schools, parent and teacher trust data are used to derive a trust-effectiveness typology. Trust was conceptualized as one party's willingness to be…

  17. Early Agriculture: Land Clearance and Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2003 AGU Emiliani Lecture, I proposed the 'early anthropogenic hypothesis' --the idea that major anthropogenic effects on greenhouse gases and climate occurred thousands of years before the industrial era. In the decade since then, several dozen published papers have argued its pros and cons. In the 2013 Tyndall History of Global Change Lecture I will update where matters now stand. I will show figures from the 2003 Climate Change paper that laid out the initial hypothesis, and then update subsequent evidence from ice-core drilling, archeology, and land-use histories. The primary claims in the 2003 hypothesis were these: (1) the CH4 rise since 5000 years ago is anthropogenic; (2) the CO2 rise since 7000 years ago is also anthropogenic; (3) the amount of carbon emitted from preindustrial deforestation was roughly twice the amount released during the industrial era; (4) global temperature would have been cooler by about 0.8oC by the start of the industrial era if agricultural CO2 and CH4 emissions had not occurred; (5) early anthropogenic warming prevented the inception of new ice sheets at high northern latitudes; and (6) pandemics and other population catastrophes during the last 2000 years caused CO2 decreases lasting decades to centuries. The new evidence shows that these claims have held up well. The late-Holocene CO2 and CH4 rises are anomalous compared to average gas trends during previous interglaciations of the last 800,000 years. Land-use models based on historical data simulate pre-industrial CO2 carbon releases more than twice the industrial amounts. Archeological estimates of CH4 emissions from expanding rice irrigation account for much of the late Holocene CH4 rise, even without including livestock emissions or biomass burning. Model simulations show that the large pre-industrial greenhouse-gas emissions indicated by these historical and archeological estimates would have warmed global climate by more than 1oC and prevented northern glacial

  18. Identifying Effective Strategies for Climate Change Education: The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) Partnership Audiences and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.; Feldman, A.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Gilbes, F.; Stone, D.; Plank, L.; Reynolds, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Many past educational initiatives focused on global climate change have foundered on public skepticism and disbelief. Some key reasons for these past failures can be drawn directly from recognized best practices in STEM education - specifically, the necessity to help learners connect new knowledge with their own experiences and perspectives, and the need to create linkages with issues or concerns that are both important for and relevant to the audiences to be educated. The Coastal Areas Climate Change Education (CACCE) partnership has sought to follow these tenets as guiding principles in identifying critical audiences and developing new strategies for educating the public living in the low-lying coastal areas of Florida and the Caribbean on the realities, risks, and adaptation and mitigation strategies for dealing with the regional impacts of global climate change. CACCE is currently focused on three key learner audiences: a) The formal education spectrum, targeting K-12 curricula through middle school marine science courses, and student and educator audiences through coursework and participatory research strategies engaging participants in a range of climate-related investigations. b) Informal science educators and outlets, in particular aquaria and nature centers, as an avenue toward K-12 teacher professional development as well as for public education. c) Regional planning, regulatory and business professionals focused on the built environment along the coasts, many of whom require continuing education to maintain licensing and/or other professional certifications. Our current activities are focused on bringing together an effective set of educational, public- and private-sector partners to target the varied needs of these audiences in Florida and the U.S. Caribbean, and tailoring an educational plan aimed at these stakeholder audiences that starts with the regionally and topically relevant impacts of climate change, and strategies for effective adaptation and

  19. A Resource Aid Packet on School Engagement, Disengagement, Learning Supports, & School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Most policy makers and administrators know that by itself good instruction delivered by highly qualified teachers is not enough to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed at school. Schools continue to suffer from high dropout rates of students and staff, an achievement gap that resists closure, a high incidence of schools…

  20. Wellbeing at School: Building a Safe and Caring School Climate That Deters Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Sally; Barwick, Helena

    2011-01-01

    This booklet is a summary of an extensive review of research and other literature undertaken to guide the development of the Wellbeing@School website self-review process, survey tools and content. This website is being developed by the New Zealand Council for Educational Research (NZCER). The "Wellbeing@School" website is one component of the…