Science.gov

Sample records for science exaggerated claims

  1. Exaggerated Claims for Interactive Stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thue, David; Bulitko, Vadim; Spetch, Marcia; Webb, Michael

    As advertising becomes more crucial to video games' success, developers risk promoting their products beyond the features that they can actually include. For features of interactive storytelling, the effects of making such exaggerations are not well known, as reports from industry have been anecdotal at best. In this paper, we explore the effects of making exaggerated claims for interactive stories, in the context of the theory of advertising. Results from a human user study show that female players find linear and branching stories to be significantly less enjoyable when they are advertised with exaggerated claims.

  2. Positive Psychology in Cancer Care: Bad Science, Exaggerated Claims, and Unproven Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Tennen, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Background Claims of positive psychology about people with cancer enjoy great popularity because they seem to offer scientific confirmation of strongly held cultural beliefs and values. Purpose Our goal is to examine critically four widely accepted claims in the positive psychology literature regarding adaptational outcomes among individuals living with cancer. Methods We examine: (1) the role of positive factors, such as a “fighting spirit” in extending the life of persons with cancer; (2) effects of interventions cultivating positive psychological states on immune functioning and cancer progression and mortality; and evidence concerning (3) benefit finding and (4) post-traumatic growth following serious illness such as cancer and other highly threatening experiences. Results Claims about these areas of research routinely made in the positive psychology literature do not fit with available evidence. We note in particular the incoherence of claims about the adaptational value of benefit finding and post-traumatic growth among cancer patients, and the implausibility of claims that interventions that enhance benefit finding improve the prognosis of cancer patients by strengthening the immune system. Conclusion We urge positive psychologists to rededicate themselves to a positive psychology based on scientific evidence rather than wishful thinking. PMID:20146038

  3. Exaggerated Claims About Earthquake Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, Alan L.; Ebel, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The perennial promise of successful earthquake prediction captures the imagination of a public hungry for certainty in an uncertain world. Yet, given the lack of any reliable method of predicting earthquakes [e.g., Geller, 1997; Kagan and Jackson, 1996; Evans, 1997], seismologists regularly have to explain news stories of a supposedly successful earthquake prediction when it is far from clear just how successful that prediction actually was. When journalists and public relations offices report the latest `great discovery' regarding the prediction of earthquakes, seismologists are left with the much less glamorous task of explaining to the public the gap between the claimed success and the sober reality that there is no scientifically proven method of predicting earthquakes.

  4. The association between exaggeration in health related science news and academic press releases: retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Boivin, Jacky; Williams, Andy; Venetis, Christos A; Davies, Aimée; Ogden, Jack; Whelan, Leanne; Hughes, Bethan; Dalton, Bethan; Boy, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the source (press releases or news) of distortions, exaggerations, or changes to the main conclusions drawn from research that could potentially influence a reader’s health related behaviour. Design Retrospective quantitative content analysis. Setting Journal articles, press releases, and related news, with accompanying simulations. Sample Press releases (n=462) on biomedical and health related science issued by 20 leading UK universities in 2011, alongside their associated peer reviewed research papers and news stories (n=668). Main outcome measures Advice to readers to change behaviour, causal statements drawn from correlational research, and inference to humans from animal research that went beyond those in the associated peer reviewed papers. Results 40% (95% confidence interval 33% to 46%) of the press releases contained exaggerated advice, 33% (26% to 40%) contained exaggerated causal claims, and 36% (28% to 46%) contained exaggerated inference to humans from animal research. When press releases contained such exaggeration, 58% (95% confidence interval 48% to 68%), 81% (70% to 93%), and 86% (77% to 95%) of news stories, respectively, contained similar exaggeration, compared with exaggeration rates of 17% (10% to 24%), 18% (9% to 27%), and 10% (0% to 19%) in news when the press releases were not exaggerated. Odds ratios for each category of analysis were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 3.5 to 12), 20 (7.6 to 51), and 56 (15 to 211). At the same time, there was little evidence that exaggeration in press releases increased the uptake of news. Conclusions Exaggeration in news is strongly associated with exaggeration in press releases. Improving the accuracy of academic press releases could represent a key opportunity for reducing misleading health related news. PMID:25498121

  5. Exaggerated Claims About Success Rate of Earthquake Predictions: "Amazing Success" or "Remarkably Unremarkable"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, A. L.; Ebel, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    On October 1, 2004, NASA announced on its web site, "Earthquake Forecast Program Has Amazing Success Rate." This announcement claimed that the Rundle-Tiampo earthquake forecast method has accurately predicted the locations of 15 of California's 16 largest earthquakes this decade. Since words like "amazing" carry a lot of meaning to consumers of scientific information, claims of "amazing success" should be limited only to cases where the success is truly amazing. We evaluated the statistical likelihood of the reported success rate of the Rundle-Tiampo prediction method by applying a cellular seismology approach to investigate whether proximity to past earthquakes is a sufficient hypothesis to yield the same level of success as the Rundle-Tiampo method. To delineate where to expect future earthquakes, we used the epicenters of the ANSS earthquake catalog for California from 1932 through 1999 with magnitude≥4.0 ("before" earthquakes). We then tested how many of the 15 events that are shown on the NASA web page ("after" earthquakes) occurred near the "before" earthquake epicenters. We found that with only a 4 km radius around each "before" earthquake epicenter, we successfully forecast the locations of 13/15 (87%) of the "after" earthquakes, and with a 7 km radius we successfully forecast 14/15 (93%) of the earthquakes. The zones created by filling in a 7 km radius around the "before" epicenters cover 18% of the study area. The scorecard maps on the JPL "QuakeSim" web site show an 11 km margin of error for the epicenters of the forecast earthquakes. With an 11 km radius around the past epicenters (covering 31% of the map area), we catch 14/15 of the "after" earthquakes. We conclude that the success rate referred to in the NASA announcement is perhaps better characterized as "remarkably unremarkable", rather than "amazing." The 14/15 success rate for the earthquakes listed on the NASA scorecard is not a rigorous test of the Rundle-Tiampo method, since it appears that

  6. Global Warming: Claims, Science, and Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Laurence I.

    2007-04-01

    Widespread (and seemingly dominant) claims about the dire consequences of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) have been propagated by both scientists and politicians and have been prominently featured by much of the mass media. This talk will examine some of those claims --- such as those made in the popular pro-AGW film, An Inconvenient Truth^1 --- from the perspectives of science^2 and scientific methodology^3. Some of the issues considered will be: What are the major ``greenhouse gases''? To what extent is global warming a result of human influences through an increase of ``greenhouse gases''? Is an increase in (1) global temperature and (2) carbon dioxide bad/good? What are some meanings that can be given to the term ``consensus'' in science? What are the estimated financial and other costs of governments implementing the Kyoto accords? Links to readings and videos will be given at the conclusion of the talk. ^1Gore, Al, An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It -- (Rodale Press, May, 2006). ^2Marlo Lewis, ``A Skeptic's Guide to An Inconvenient Truth'' http://www.cei.org/pages/aitresponse-book.cfm ^3Aaron Wildavsky, But Is It True? A Citizen's Guide to Environmental Health and Safety Issues (Harvard University Press, 1995), Intro. and Chap. 11. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C1.6

  7. Critical Appraisal of Health Claims: Science Teachers' Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordheim, Lena; Pettersen, Kjell Sverre; Flottorp, Signe; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Critical appraisal skills are necessary to navigate the numerous contradictory and pseudo-scientific claims in the popular media. Health and science education in schools is essential for promoting these skills in students. The purpose of this paper is to explore lower secondary school science teachers' perceptions and reported practices…

  8. Constructing and Reconstructing Scientific Ignorance: Ignorance Claims in Science and Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocking, S. Holly; Holstein, Lisa W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes distinctions between ignorance and knowledge and examines scientists' use of ignorance claims in the construction of science and in science for public policy based on an interdisciplinary approach. Ignorance claims in journalism are also examined, including journalists' coverage of the claims of formal scientific discourse and of public…

  9. Towards exaggerated emphysema stereotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Sørensen, L.; Lauze, F.; Igel, C.; Loog, M.; Feragen, A.; de Bruijne, M.; Nielsen, M.

    2012-03-01

    Classification is widely used in the context of medical image analysis and in order to illustrate the mechanism of a classifier, we introduce the notion of an exaggerated image stereotype based on training data and trained classifier. The stereotype of some image class of interest should emphasize/exaggerate the characteristic patterns in an image class and visualize the information the employed classifier relies on. This is useful for gaining insight into the classification and serves for comparison with the biological models of disease. In this work, we build exaggerated image stereotypes by optimizing an objective function which consists of a discriminative term based on the classification accuracy, and a generative term based on the class distributions. A gradient descent method based on iterated conditional modes (ICM) is employed for optimization. We use this idea with Fisher's linear discriminant rule and assume a multivariate normal distribution for samples within a class. The proposed framework is applied to computed tomography (CT) images of lung tissue with emphysema. The synthesized stereotypes illustrate the exaggerated patterns of lung tissue with emphysema, which is underpinned by three different quantitative evaluation methods.

  10. Names and Claims: Is It Science or Spin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interdisciplinary unit on consumer product testing. Introduces students to term bias in predictions and investigates the claims in advertisements with research to make a decision on products. (YDS)

  11. Exaggerated trait growth in insects.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Laura; Gotoh, Hiroki; Brent, Colin S; Dworkin, Ian; Emlen, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size the surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles (Lucanidae), the claspers of praying mantids (Mantidae), the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Caelifera), and the giant heads of soldier ants (Formicidae) and termites (Isoptera). Developmentally, disproportionate growth can arise through trait-specific modifications to the activity of at least four pathways: the sex determination pathway, the appendage patterning pathway, the insulin/IGF signaling pathway, and the juvenile hormone/ecdysteroid pathway. Although most exaggerated traits have not been studied mechanistically, it is already apparent that distinct developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of the different types of exaggerated traits. We suggest this reflects the nature of selection in each instance, revealing an exciting link between mechanism, form, and function. We use this information to make explicit predictions for the types of regulatory pathways likely to underlie each type of exaggerated trait. PMID:25341090

  12. Exaggerated trait growth in insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal structures occasionally attain extreme proportions, eclipsing in size other, surrounding body parts. We review insect examples of exaggerated traits, such as the mandibles of stag beetles, the claspers of praying mantises, the elongated hindlimbs of grasshoppers, and the giant heads of soldie...

  13. Science kitsch and pop science: A reconnaissance.

    PubMed

    Kaeser, Eduard

    2013-07-01

    Science kitsch? The combination of these two words rings like an oxymoron. Science - as the common saying has it - exposes, discovers, tells the truth; kitsch conceals, covers, lies. I think, this "shadow" of science deserves a specific scrutiny, not only because it reflects the altered place and role of science in contemporary "knowledge" society but also because it pinpoints the task of relocating science in the "multicultural" context of postmodernism, with its different epistemic claims. The genre of science kitsch may help to regain credit by working as a probe to detect false pretensions, explanatory exuberance and exaggerations in science. PMID:23833170

  14. Values in Science: Making Sense of Biology Doctoral Students' Critical Examination of a Deterministic Claim in a Media Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raveendran, Aswathy; Chunawala, Sugra

    2015-01-01

    Several educators have emphasized that students need to understand science as a human endeavor that is not value free. In the exploratory study reported here, we investigated how doctoral students of biology understand the intersection of values and science in the context of genetic determinism. Deterministic research claims have been critiqued…

  15. Decision-making and evaluation of science causal claims: Effects of goals on uses of evidence and explanatory mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jacqueline Yin Sang

    2015-10-01

    Evidence and explanatory mechanism are central to scientific practices. Using such information could also inform decisions about issues in which science can play some role, from policy issues like climate change to personal issues like vaccination. While research suggests that people tend to focus on non-science considerations when making science-related decisions, there is also evidence that people can reason very productively with evidence and mechanism. This study examines how the goals participants pursue when reading a science report influences how they attend to information about causal mechanism and evidence. Two hundred and seventeen high school students were asked either to evaluate the truth of a scientific claim, to make a personal decision based on the claim, or to make a social policy decision based on the claim using an online task-based survey. All three groups of participants attended to evidence and mechanism, but participants with different goals requested different types of information and were influenced by evidence and mechanism for different reasons. The findings suggest that goals influence how participants use evidence and mechanism.

  16. Is Knowledge of Science Associated with Higher Skepticism of Pseudoscientific Claims?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Pigliucci, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    The study conducted addresses issues associated with the relationships among science factual knowledge, conceptual understanding of science, and belief in pseudoscience by means of a 30-question survey. The survey consists of three types of questions asked of students enrolled in a science major and compares the responses to these obtained by…

  17. Supporting Grade 5-8 Students in Constructing Explanations in Science: The Claim, Evidence, and Reasoning Framework for Talk and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Katherine L.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    By providing a variety of strategies, scenarios, examples of student writing, classroom video clips from across all science content areas, rubrics, and guidelines for designing assessment items, "Supporting Grade 5-8 Students in Constructing Explanations in Science: The Claim, Evidence, and Reasoning Framework for Talk and Writing" provides…

  18. Hyperbilirubinemia exaggerates endotoxin-induced hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Pakai, Eszter; Garami, Andras; Nucci, Tatiane B; Ivanov, Andrei I; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is accompanied by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by either fever or hypothermia (or both). To study aseptic systemic inflammation, it is often induced in rats by the intravenous administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knowing that bilirubin is a potent ROS scavenger, we compared responses to LPS between normobilirubinemic Gunn rats (heterozygous, asymptomatic; J/+) and hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats (homozygous, jaundiced; J/J) to establish whether ROS mediate fever and hypothermia in aseptic systemic inflammation. These two genotypes correspond to undisturbed versus drastically suppressed (by bilirubin) tissue accumulation of ROS, respectively. A low dose of LPS (10 μg/kg) caused a typical triphasic fever in both genotypes, without any intergenotype differences. A high dose of LPS (1,000 μg/kg) caused a complex response consisting of early hypothermia followed by late fever. The hypothermic response was markedly exaggerated, whereas the subsequent fever response was strongly attenuated in J/J rats, as compared to J/+ rats. J/J rats also tended to respond to 1,000 μg/kg with blunted surges in plasma levels of all hepatic enzymes studied (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase), thus suggesting an attenuation of hepatic damage. We propose that the reported exaggeration of LPS-induced hypothermia in J/J rats occurs via direct inhibition of nonshivering thermogenesis by bilirubin and possibly via a direct vasodilatatory action of bilirubin in the skin. This hypothermia-exaggerating effect might be responsible, at least in part, for the observed tendency of J/J rats to be protected from LPS-induced hepatic damage. The attenuation of the fever response to 1,000 μg/kg could be due to either direct actions of bilirubin on thermoeffectors or the ROS-scavenging action of bilirubin. However, the experiments with 10 μg/kg strongly suggest that ROS signaling is

  19. Hyperbilirubinemia exaggerates endotoxin-induced hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Pakai, Eszter; Garami, Andras; Nucci, Tatiane B; Ivanov, Andrei I; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is accompanied by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and by either fever or hypothermia (or both). To study aseptic systemic inflammation, it is often induced in rats by the intravenous administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knowing that bilirubin is a potent ROS scavenger, we compared responses to LPS between normobilirubinemic Gunn rats (heterozygous, asymptomatic; J/+) and hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats (homozygous, jaundiced; J/J) to establish whether ROS mediate fever and hypothermia in aseptic systemic inflammation. These two genotypes correspond to undisturbed versus drastically suppressed (by bilirubin) tissue accumulation of ROS, respectively. A low dose of LPS (10 μg/kg) caused a typical triphasic fever in both genotypes, without any intergenotype differences. A high dose of LPS (1,000 μg/kg) caused a complex response consisting of early hypothermia followed by late fever. The hypothermic response was markedly exaggerated, whereas the subsequent fever response was strongly attenuated in J/J rats, as compared to J/+ rats. J/J rats also tended to respond to 1,000 μg/kg with blunted surges in plasma levels of all hepatic enzymes studied (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase), thus suggesting an attenuation of hepatic damage. We propose that the reported exaggeration of LPS-induced hypothermia in J/J rats occurs via direct inhibition of nonshivering thermogenesis by bilirubin and possibly via a direct vasodilatatory action of bilirubin in the skin. This hypothermia-exaggerating effect might be responsible, at least in part, for the observed tendency of J/J rats to be protected from LPS-induced hepatic damage. The attenuation of the fever response to 1,000 μg/kg could be due to either direct actions of bilirubin on thermoeffectors or the ROS-scavenging action of bilirubin. However, the experiments with 10 μg/kg strongly suggest that ROS signaling is not

  20. Are Sciences Essential and Humanities Elective? Disentangling Competing Claims for Humanities' Research Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmos-Peñuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul; Castro-Martínez, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy discourse suggests that arts and humanities research is seen as being less useful to society than other disciplines, notably in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. The paper explores how this assumption's construction has been built and whether it is based upon an unfair prejudice: we argue for a prima facie case…

  1. Clio's Claim: The Role of Historical Research in Library and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiflett, Orvin Lee

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of history as a major research methodology in library and information science highlights the current status and nature of library history; rhetoric and history; historical significance of local history and larger perspectives; primary and secondary information sources; library biography; and publishing library history. Thirty-four…

  2. Cancer prevention strategies greatly exaggerate risks

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, B.N. ); Gold, L.S. )

    1991-01-07

    This paper reports on the attempt to prevent cancer by regulating low levels of synthetic chemicals by risk assessment. Testing chemicals for carcinogenicity at near-toxic doses in rodents does not provide enough information to predict the excess numbers of human cancers that might occur at low-dose exposures. In addition, this cancer prevention strategy is enormously costly, is counterproductive because it diverts resources from much more important risks, and, in the case of synthetic pesticides, makes fruits and vegetables more expensive, thus serving to decrease consumption of foods that help prevent cancer. The regulatory process doesn't take into account that: The world of natural chemicals makes up the vast bulk of chemicals humans are exposed to. The toxicology of synthetic and natural toxins is not fundamentally different. About half the natural chemicals tested chronically in rats and mice at the maximum tolerated dose are carcinogens. Testing at the maximum tolerated dose frequently can cause chronic cell killing and consequent cell replacement (a risk factor for cancer that can be limited to high doses), and ignoring this greatly exaggerates risks. An extrapolation from high to low doses should be based on an understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

  3. THE HANDICAP PROCESS FAVORS EXAGGERATED, RATHER THAN REDUCED, SEXUAL ORNAMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are traits that function as secondary sexual ornaments generally exaggerated in size compared to the naturally selected optimum, and not reduced? Because they deviate from the naturally selected optimum, traits that are reduced in size will handicap their bearer, and could thus provide an honest signal of quality to a potential mate. Thus if secondary sexual ornaments evolve via the handicap process, current theory suggests that reduced ornamentation should be as frequent as exaggerated ornamentation, but this is not the case. To try to explain this discrepancy, we analyze a simple model of the handicap process. Our analysis shows that asymmetries in costs of preference or ornament with regard to exaggeration and reduction cannot fully explain the imbalance. Rather, the bias toward exaggeration can be best explained if either the signaling efficacy or the condition dependence of a trait increases with size. Under these circumstances, evolution always leads to more extreme exaggeration than reduction: although the two should occur just as frequently, exaggerated secondary sexual ornaments are likely to be further removed from the naturally selected optimum than reduced ornaments. PMID:24837599

  4. The Much Exaggerated Death of Positivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincheloe, Joe; Tobin, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Approaches to research in the social sciences often embrace schema that are consistent with positivism, even though it is widely held that positivism is discredited and essentially dead. Accordingly, many of the methods used in present day scholarship are supported by the tenets of positivism, and are sources of hegemony. We exhort researchers to…

  5. The much exaggerated death of positivism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincheloe, Joe L.; Tobin, Kenneth

    2009-09-01

    Approaches to research in the social sciences often embrace schema that are consistent with positivism, even though it is widely held that positivism is discredited and essentially dead. Accordingly, many of the methods used in present day scholarship are supported by the tenets of positivism, and are sources of hegemony. We exhort researchers to employ reflexive methods to identify the epistemologies, ontologies and axiologies that are salient in their scholarship and, when necessary, transform practices such that forms of oppression associated with crypto-positivism are identified and extinguished.

  6. CIRRPC Science Panel report No. 6: Use of probability of causation by the veterans administration in the adjudication of claims of injury due to exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    1988-08-01

    The report was prepared in response to a request from the Administrator of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Administration (VA) Coordination (CIRRPC) to provide guidelines to the VA with respect to the questions ``...for what levels of radiation exposure, if any, the radioepidemiological tables can be used credibly in the rule-making we are conducting pursuant to Public Law 98-542`` and ``...whether CIRRPC`s views in this regard vary with the type of cancer involved and whether use of the NIH tables for certain cancers may be more justifiable than for other cancers.`` The report prepared by the Science Subpanel on Radioepidemiological Tables and approved by the CIRRPC Science Panel answers these questions by listing those cancers both considered to be radiogenic in the NIH Report and to be applicable to veterans and by providing, for these cancers, radiation doses that allow the VA to exclude from further consideration those claims having ``no reasonable possibility`` (a VA stated criteria) of merit. The report provides important scientific information which can be used as part of the evidence for evaluating, along with other evidence, claims not eliminated by the screening procedure.

  7. Using a Non-Equivalent Groups Quasi Experimental Design to Reduce Internal Validity Threats to Claims Made by Math and Science K-12 Teacher Recruitment Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moin, Laura

    2009-10-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act national policy established in 2009 calls for ``meaningful data'' that demonstrate educational improvements, including the recruitment of high-quality teachers. The scant data available and the low credibility of many K-12 math/science teacher recruitment program evaluations remain the major barriers for the identification of effective recruitment strategies. Our study presents a methodology to better evaluate the impact of recruitment programs on increasing participants' interest in teaching careers. The research capitalizes on the use of several control groups and presents a non-equivalent groups quasi-experimental evaluation design that produces program effect claims with higher internal validity than claims generated by current program evaluations. With this method that compares responses to a teaching career interest question from undergraduates all along a continuum from just attending an information session to participating (or not) in the recruitment program, we were able to compare the effect of the program in increasing participants' interest in teaching careers versus the evolution of the same interest but in the absence of the program. We were also able to make suggestions for program improvement and further research. While our findings may not apply to other K-12 math/science teacher recruitment programs, we believe that our evaluation methodology does and will contribute to conduct stronger program evaluations. In so doing, our evaluation procedure may inform recruitment program designers and policy makers.

  8. Criteria for substantiating claims.

    PubMed

    Aggett, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Claims are used to support public health advocacy and marketing. Their evidence base is variable. Claims are made on (i) nutrient content, (ii) comparative merits, (iii) health benefits, and (iv) medical benefits. Experience with therapeutic agents has aided the development of recommendations for the substantiation of health claims for foods and food components, with which dietary supplements would be included. An EU Concerted Activity, Functional Food Science in Europe, suggested that such claims should be based on the general outcomes of 'enhanced function' and 'reduced risk of disease'. A further EU Concerted Activity, The Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods, proposed that the evidence base should provide: a characterization of the food or food component to which the claimed effect is attributed; human data, primarily from intervention studies that represent the target populations for the claim; a dose-response relationship: evidence of allowing for confounders including lifestyle, consumption patterns, background diet and food matrix; an appropriate duration for the study; a measure of compliance; and have adequate statistical power to test the hypothesis. When ideal endpoints are not easily accessible for measurement, validated and quality assured markers of the intermediate or final outcomes could be used, as long as their relationship is well characterized. Overall, the totality and coherence of published and unpublished evidence should be considered. Assessments for substantiation need expert judgement, weighting of the strength of the claim, and intelligent use of the criteria applied on an individual basis with respect both to gaps in knowledge and to any need for new knowledge and data. PMID:17913223

  9. The evolution of acoustic size exaggeration in terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Reby, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that some mammals possess adaptations that enable them to produce vocal signals with much lower fundamental frequency (F0) and formant frequency spacing (ΔF) than expected for their size. Although these adaptations are assumed to reflect selection pressures for males to lower frequency components and exaggerate body size in reproductive contexts, this hypothesis has not been tested across a broad range of species. Here we show that male terrestrial mammals produce vocal signals with lower ΔF (but not F0) than expected for their size in mating systems with greater sexual size dimorphism. We also reveal that males produce calls with higher than expected F0 and ΔF in species with increased sperm competition. This investigation confirms that sexual selection favours the use of ΔF as an acoustic size exaggerator and supports the notion of an evolutionary trade-off between pre-copulatory signalling displays and sperm production. PMID:27598835

  10. Feederism: an exaggeration of a normative mate selection preference?

    PubMed

    Terry, Lesley L; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Lalumière, Martin L; Vasey, Paul L

    2012-02-01

    Quinsey and Lalumière (1995) suggested that some, if not most, paraphilias are exaggerated manifestations of more normative and functional mate selection preferences. The present study tested whether Feederism, a fat fetish focused on erotic eating, feeding, and gaining weight, is an exaggeration of a sexual arousal pattern commonly seen in the general population. Thirty participants (15 men and 15 women) recruited from the general population were assessed using penile plethysmography and vaginal photoplethysmography, respectively. None of the participants were self-identified Feeders or Feedees. Participants were shown sexual, neutral, and feeding still images while listening to audio recordings of sexual, neutral, and feeding stories. Participants did not genitally respond to feeding stimuli. However, both men and women subjectively rated feeding stimuli as more sexually arousing than neutral stimuli. We discuss the discordance between physiological and self-reported sexual arousal in the context of sex differences in sexual concordance and implications for future research. PMID:22392517

  11. Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

    2013-11-01

    In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading. PMID:24128969

  12. Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure Response and Future Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Tzemos, Nikolaos; Lim, Pitt O; Mackenzie, Isla S; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise predicts future hypertension. However, there is considerable lack of understanding regarding the mechanism of how this abnormal response is generated, and how it relates to the future establishment of cardiovascular disease. The authors studied 82 healthy male volunteers without cardiovascular risk factors. The participants were categorized into two age-matched groups depending on their exercise systolic BP (ExSBP) rise after 3 minutes of exercise using a submaximal step test: exaggerated ExSBP group (hyper-responders [peak SBP ≥ 180 mm Hg]) and low ExSBP responder group (hypo-responders [peak SBP <180 mm Hg]). Forearm venous occlusion plethysmography and intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine (ACh), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and norepinephrine (NE) were used to assess vascular reactivity. Proximal aortic compliance was assessed with ultrasound, and neurohormonal blood sampling was performed at rest and during peak exercise. The hyper-responder group exhibited a significantly lower increase in forearm blood flow (FBF) with ACh compared with the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF 215% [14] vs 332.3% [28], mean [standard error of the mean]; P<.001), as well as decreased proximal aortic compliance. The vasoconstrictive response to L-NMMA was significantly impaired in the hyper-responder group in comparison to the hypo-responder group (ΔFBF -40.2% [1.6] vs -50.2% [2.6]; P<.05). In contrast, the vascular response to SNP and NE were comparable in both groups. Peak exercise plasma angiotensin II levels were significantly higher in the hyper-responder group (31 [1] vs 23 [2] pg/mL, P=.01). An exaggerated BP response to exercise is related to endothelial dysfunction, decreased proximal aortic compliance, and increased exercise-related neurohormonal activation, the constellation of which may explain future cardiovascular disease. PMID:26235814

  13. Claiming Copernicus.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2005-12-01

    The reputations of scientific heroes shift constantly, modified by politicians as well as by historians. Now that the Scientific Revolution has been reappraised, Nicolas Copernicus is portrayed as a friend of the Catholic Church rather than a scientific martyr. As a German-speaking Pole he has been claimed as a figure of national historical importance by both Germany and Poland, and since the early 20th century has been an important symbol of Polish independence. PMID:16271765

  14. Lip Movement Exaggerations During Infant-Directed Speech

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jordan R.; Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Wilson, Erin M.; Mefferd, Antje S.; Yunusova, Yana

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Although a growing body of literature has indentified the positive effects of visual speech on speech and language learning, oral movements of infant-directed speech (IDS) have rarely been studied. This investigation used 3-dimensional motion capture technology to describe how mothers modify their lip movements when talking to their infants. Method Lip movements were recorded from 25 mothers as they spoke to their infants and other adults. Lip shapes were analyzed for differences across speaking conditions. The maximum fundamental frequency, duration, acoustic intensity, and first and second formant frequency of each vowel also were measured. Results Lip movements were significantly larger during IDS than during adult-directed speech, although the exaggerations were vowel specific. All of the vowels produced during IDS were characterized by an elevated vocal pitch and a slowed speaking rate when compared with vowels produced during adult-directed speech. Conclusion The pattern of lip-shape exaggerations did not provide support for the hypothesis that mothers produce exemplar visual models of vowels during IDS. Future work is required to determine whether the observed increases in vertical lip aperture engender visual and acoustic enhancements that facilitate the early learning of speech. PMID:20699342

  15. Regional Variation Exaggerates Ecological Divergence in Niche Models

    PubMed Central

    Godsoe, William

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the goal of systematics has been to produce classifications that are both strongly supported and biologically meaningful. In recent years several authors have advocated complementing phylogenetic analyses with measures of another form of evolutionary change, ecological divergence. These analyses frequently rely on ecological niche models to determine if species have comparable environmental requirements, but it has heretofore been difficult to test the accuracy of these inferences. To address this problem, I simulate the geographic distributions of allopatric species with identical environmental requirements. I then test whether existing analyses based on geographic distributions will correctly infer that the 2 species' requirements are identical. This work demonstrates that when taxa disperse to different environments, many analyses can erroneously infer changes in environmental requirements, but the severity of the problem depends on the method used. As this could exaggerate the number of ecologically distinct taxa in a clade, I suggest diagnostics to mitigate this problem. PMID:20525637

  16. Neural Coding of Formant-Exaggerated Speech in the Infant Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yang; Koerner, Tess; Miller, Sharon; Grice-Patil, Zach; Svec, Adam; Akbari, David; Tusler, Liz; Carney, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Speech scientists have long proposed that formant exaggeration in infant-directed speech plays an important role in language acquisition. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech in 6-12-month-old infants. Two synthetic /i/ vowels were presented in alternating blocks to test the effects of…

  17. Evidence for an Exaggerated Postprandial Lipemia in Chronic Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Mark S; deGroot, Joris; Martinez-Arizala, Alberto; Mendez, Armando J

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objective: Excessive delay in triglyceride (TG) metabolism after ingestion of dietary fat represents a significant cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this study was to compare the postprandial lipemic responses of individuals with paraplegia with those of healthy nondisabled individuals. Methods: The ability of 3 recreationally active individuals with paraplegia having normal fasting TG (mean = 103 mg/dL) to metabolize TG after ingestion of a high-fat test meal was compared with a previously published cohort of 21 recreationally active individuals without paraplegia (TG mean = 86 mg/dL) who underwent identical testing. The subjects with paraplegia had venous blood taken under fasting conditions, and then ingested a milkshake containing premium ice cream blended with heavy whipping cream (~92% of calories from fat). Additional blood samples were obtained at 2, 4, and 6 hours after ingestion. The area under the curve (AUC) for TG clearance for both subject groups was measured with an area planimeter. Results: TG uptake for both groups was almost identical for the first 2 hours after ingestion. At 4 and 6 hours after ingestion, the TG levels were 50 and 35 mg/dL higher, respectively, in subjects with paraplegia than in nondisabled subjects. When corrected for small baseline differences in TG concentrations (16 mg/dL), the AUC was 46.5% greater for the group with paraplegia than in the nondisabled group. A near mirror association across time was observed between postprandial serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and TG levels in subjects with paraplegia. Conclusion: This case series finds an exaggerated postprandial lipemia (PPL) in persons with paraplegia with normal fasting TGs. This finding is the first evidence, in a small population, of an unreported potential CVD risk in persons with paraplegia. PMID:16396382

  18. Endocrine Control of Exaggerated Trait Growth in Rhinoceros Beetles.

    PubMed

    Zinna, R; Gotoh, H; Brent, C S; Dolezal, A; Kraus, A; Niimi, T; Emlen, D; Lavine, L C

    2016-08-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator frequently involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetles. The jaw morphology of stag beetles is sexually-dimorphic and condition-dependent; males have larger jaws than females and those developing under optimum conditions are larger in overall body size and have disproportionately larger jaws than males raised under poor conditions. We have previously shown that large males have higher JH titers than small males during development, and ectopic application of fenoxycarb (JH analog) to small males can induce mandibular growth similar to that of larger males. What remains unknown is whether JH regulates condition-dependent trait growth in other insects with extreme sexually selected structures. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that JH mediates the condition-dependent expression of the elaborate horns of the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. The sexually dimorphic head horn of this beetle is sensitive to nutritional state during larval development. Like stag beetles, male rhinoceros beetles receiving copious food produce disproportionately large horns for their body size compared with males under restricted diets. We show that JH titers are correlated with body size during the late feeding and early prepupal periods, but this correlation disappears by the late prepupal period, the period of maximum horn growth. While ectopic application of fenoxycarb during the third larval instar significantly delayed pupation, it had no effect on adult horn size relative to body size. Fenoxycarb application to late prepupae also had at most a marginal effect on relative horn size. We discuss our results in context of other endocrine signals of condition-dependent trait exaggeration and suggest that different beetle lineages may have co-opted different physiological signaling mechanisms to

  19. Internet Survey of Nutrition Claim Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camire, Mary E.; Dougherty, Michael P.

    2005-01-01

    Consumer interest in healthy foods has spurred approval of several health claims for foods and dietary supplements. Although undergraduate and graduate food science curricula address food laws and regulations, nutrition claims may not be fully addressed. We posted a survey on the Internet for 2 mo for food industry professionals and others…

  20. Sustainability: Measure it before you claim it

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability: Measure it before You Claim itSubhas K. SikdarAssociate Director for ScienceNational Risk Management Research LaboratoryU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyCincinnati, OH 45268Sikdar.subhas@epa.govABSTRACTSustainability is claimed too often without a rational veri...

  1. Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated?

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jay R.; Ratamess, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes. Key Points For many years the scientific and medical communities depicted a lack of efficacy and serious adverse effects from anabolic steroid use. Clinical case studies continue to link anabolic steroid administration with myocardial infarct, suicide, and cancer, evidence to support a cause

  2. Exaggerating psychopathology produces residual effects that are resistant to corrective feedback: an experimental demonstration.

    PubMed

    Merckelbach, Harald; Dandachi-FitzGerald, Brechje; van Mulken, Peter; Ponds, Rudolf; Niesten, Elly

    2015-01-01

    We explored the effects of feedback on symptom reporting. Two experimental groups (n=15 each) were given a scenario with the option to exaggerate symptoms. Compared with a control condition (n=15), both groups scored significantly higher on the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology. Next, one group was confronted in a sympathetic way about their symptom validity test failure, whereas the other group was confronted in a neutral manner. Both groups subsequently completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). BSI scores of both feedback groups remained significantly higher than those of control participants. Participants who had been provided with sympathetic feedback or neutral feedback did not differ in their BSI scores. Even participants who indicated during the exit interview that they had given up symptom exaggeration attained significantly higher BSI scores than those of controls, indicating that exaggeration has residual effects that are resistant to corrective feedback. We discuss cognitive dissonance as a model for understanding the residual effects of symptom exaggeration. PMID:25529587

  3. Measures of Symptom Exaggeration for Mental Health Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Shanil; Bance, Sheena; Mulla, Sohail M; Montoya, Luis; Malachowski, Cindy; Kamal El Din, Mostafa; Busse, Jason W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction .- Measures that help detect exaggeration of symptoms can be valuable for informing more accurate diagnoses and aid in treatment and case management. We completed a systematic review to identify measures that assess symptom exaggeration in mental health disorders. Methods .- Eligible studies assessed exaggeration of symptoms with a psychometrically validated measure in patients presenting with a mental health disorder. We searched MEDLINE and PsycINFO from inception to June 2013 for relevant studies. To determine study eligibility, reviewers screened title and abstracts of identified citations, and reviewed full texts of all potentially eligible citations. Data extractors completed data abstraction of eligible studies. Results .- Of 8435 unique citations, 105 studies consisting of 112 cohorts were eligible, and we identified 36 unique, validated measures assessing exaggeration of symptoms. The most frequently used measures were symptom validity indicators embedded in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) (n=48, 46%), the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) (n=12, 11%), and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (n=11, 10%). Most studies (n=96; 91%) failed to test reliability of their measure of symptom exaggeration. The symptom validity indicators in the MMPI/MMPI-2 and the SIRS both showed moderate to high internal consistency, range 0.47 to 0.85 and 0.48 to 0.95, respectively. Conclusions .- Multiple measures assessing symptom exaggeration have been used in patients with mental health disorders. The symptom validity indicators of the MMPI/MMPI-2 are the most widely used measures to assess symptom exaggeration. Assessment and reporting of reliability is poor across studies; we require further assessment of psychometric properties for existing measures of symptom exaggeration. PMID:27584846

  4. [Comment on "Exaggerated claims about earthquake predictions: Analysis of NASA's method"] Pattern informatics and cellular seismology: A comparison of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, John B.; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Klein, William

    2007-06-01

    The recent article in Eos by Kafka and Ebel [2007] is a criticism of a NASA press release issued on 4 October 2004 describing an earthquake forecast (http://quakesim.jpl.nasa.gov/scorecard.html) based on a pattern informatics (PI) method [Rundle et al., 2002]. This 2002 forecast was a map indicating the probable locations of earthquakes having magnitude m>5.0 that would occur over the period of 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009. Kafka and Ebel [2007] compare the Rundle et al. [2002] forecast to a retrospective analysis using a cellular seismology (CS) method. Here we analyze the performance of the Rundle et al. [2002] forecast using the first 15 of the m>5.0 earthquakes that occurred in the area covered by the forecasts.

  5. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  6. 32 CFR 536.120 - Claims payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable as maritime claims. 536.120 Section 536.120 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.120 Claims payable as maritime claims....

  7. Evaluating a Surprising Claim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    A television advertisement and a website present an interesting question: can rail company CSX "really" move a ton of freight 468 miles on a gallon of fuel, or is the claim preposterous? Let us examine the claim, first by understanding what is meant, looking at their data, and then converting units to examine the claim quantitatively.

  8. Evaluating a Surprising Claim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    2013-11-01

    A television advertisement and a website present an interesting question: can rail company CSX really move a ton of freight 468 miles on a gallon of fuel, or is the claim preposterous? Let us examine the claim, first by understanding what is meant, looking at their data, and then converting units to examine the claim quantitatively.

  9. Phonological theory informs the analysis of intonational exaggeration in Japanese infant-directed speech.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken'ya; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Mazuka, Reiko

    2013-08-01

    To date, the intonation of infant-directed speech (IDS) has been analyzed without reference to its phonological structure. Intonational phonology should, however, inform IDS research, discovering important properties that have previously been overlooked. The present study investigated "intonational exaggeration" in Japanese IDS using the intonational phonological framework. Although intonational exaggeration, which is most often measured by pitch-range expansion, is one of the best-known characteristics of IDS, Japanese has been reported to lack such exaggeration. The present results demonstrated that intonational exaggeration is in fact present and observed most notably at the location of boundary pitch movements, and that the effects of lexical pitch accents in the remainder of the utterances superficially mask the exaggeration. These results not only reveal dynamic aspects of Japanese IDS, but also in turn contribute to the theory of intonational phonology, suggesting that paralinguistic pitch-range modifications most clearly emerge where the intonation system of a language allows maximum flexibility in varying intonational contours. PMID:23927126

  10. Exaggerated male genitalia intensify interspecific reproductive interference by damaging heterospecific female genitalia.

    PubMed

    Kyogoku, D; Sota, T

    2015-06-01

    Male-male competition over fertilization can select for harmful male genital structures that reduce the fitness of their mates, if the structures increase the male's fertilization success. During secondary contact between two allopatrically formed, closely related species, harmful male genitalia may also reduce the fitness of heterospecific females given interspecific copulation. We performed a laboratory experiment to determine whether the extent of genital spine exaggeration in Callosobruchus chinensis males affects the fitness of C. maculatus females by injuring their reproductive organs. We found that males with more exaggerated genital spines were more likely to injure the females via interspecific copulation and that the genital injury translated into fecundity loss. Thus, as predicted, reproductive interference by C. chinensis males on C. maculatus females is mediated by exaggeration of the genital spine, which is the evolutionary consequence of intraspecific male-male competition. Harmful male traits, such as genital spines, might generally affect the extent of interaction between closely related species. PMID:25882439

  11. The Challenges of Producing Evidence-Based Claims: An Exploratory Study of NSF's Math and Science Partnership Community. WCER Working Paper No. 2009-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hora, Matthew T.; Millar, Susan B.; Arrigoni, Jessica; Kretchmar, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Math and Science Partnership (MSP) program's January 2008 Learning Network Conference (LNC). This study focuses on the methodologies used by the MSP community to generate evidence and seeks to understand topics of interest to the 320 LNC participants. The data set for this…

  12. A Critical Analysis of Claims and Their Authenticity in Indian Drug Promotional Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Singh, Navyug Raj; Rai, Jaswant; Kaur, Gobindnoor; Kashyap, Resham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Drug promotional advertisements (DPAs) form a major marketing technique of pharmaceutical companies for promoting their products and disseminating ambiguous drug information which can affect prescribing pattern of physicians. Drug information includes product characteristics, various marketing claims with references in support to increase its credibility and authenticity. Material and Methods. An observational study was carried out on fifty printed drug advertisement brochures which were collected from different OPDs of Guru Nanak Dev Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar, India. These advertisements were analyzed and claims were categorized into true, false, exaggerated, vague, and controversial on criteria as reported by Rohraa et al. (2006). References of DPAs in support of the claims were critically analyzed for their retrievability from web and validity pertaining to claims. Results. Out of 209 claims from 50 advertisements, only 46% were found to be true, 21% false, 16% vague, 7% exaggerated, and 10% controversial in nature. Out of 160 references given in support of claims, 49 (30%) of references were irretrievable. Out of 111 (70%) retrievable references, 92 (83%) references were found valid. Conclusion. Drug information provided in the DPAs was biased, incomplete, unauthentic, and unreliable with references exhibiting questionable credibility. PMID:26556557

  13. A Critical Analysis of Claims and Their Authenticity in Indian Drug Promotional Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Gurpreet Kaur; Singh, Navyug Raj; Rai, Jaswant; Kaur, Gobindnoor; Kashyap, Resham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Drug promotional advertisements (DPAs) form a major marketing technique of pharmaceutical companies for promoting their products and disseminating ambiguous drug information which can affect prescribing pattern of physicians. Drug information includes product characteristics, various marketing claims with references in support to increase its credibility and authenticity. Material and Methods. An observational study was carried out on fifty printed drug advertisement brochures which were collected from different OPDs of Guru Nanak Dev Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar, India. These advertisements were analyzed and claims were categorized into true, false, exaggerated, vague, and controversial on criteria as reported by Rohraa et al. (2006). References of DPAs in support of the claims were critically analyzed for their retrievability from web and validity pertaining to claims. Results. Out of 209 claims from 50 advertisements, only 46% were found to be true, 21% false, 16% vague, 7% exaggerated, and 10% controversial in nature. Out of 160 references given in support of claims, 49 (30%) of references were irretrievable. Out of 111 (70%) retrievable references, 92 (83%) references were found valid. Conclusion. Drug information provided in the DPAs was biased, incomplete, unauthentic, and unreliable with references exhibiting questionable credibility. PMID:26556557

  14. Dirac's Claim and the Chemists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, Ana

    In 1929 Paul A. M. Dirac claimed that ``the underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of ... the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble.'' This sentence of Dirac's is cited frequently by historians and philosophers of chemistry in the context of discussions on the hypothetical reduction of chemistry to physics. But how did chemists themselves react to Dirac's claim? Did they feel threatened by physicists who felt they could do their job better than themselves? Did they feel indifferent, or did they simply not care? Was Dirac's paper often cited by chemists? Why was it cited? In this paper, I provide answers to these questions on the basis of an analysis of citations to Dirac's 1929 paper in the Science Citation Index.

  15. State Your Claim!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thypin, Marilyn; Glasner, Lynne

    A short fictional work for limited English speakers relates a young couple's experience in learning about small claims court through an incident involving damage to the husband's leather jacket. The damage to the jacket occurred when it was left at a dry clearner, but the dry cleaner claims that it sent the jacket to a special cleaner that handles…

  16. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71 Health claims: claims not authorized. Health...

  17. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a... not serve as a basis for any other multiple dependent claim. For fee calculation purposes under §...

  18. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a... not serve as a basis for any other multiple dependent claim. For fee calculation purposes under §...

  19. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a... not serve as a basis for any other multiple dependent claim. For fee calculation purposes under §...

  20. 32 CFR 536.129 - Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. 536.129... Justice § 536.129 Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. Claims cognizable under Article 139, UCMJ, are limited... person to liability under Article 139, the soldier's conduct must be such as would constitute a...

  1. 32 CFR 536.129 - Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. 536.129 Section... § 536.129 Claims cognizable as UCMJ claims. Claims cognizable under Article 139, UCMJ, are limited to... to liability under Article 139, the soldier's conduct must be such as would constitute a violation...

  2. Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.

  3. Surgery for endometriosis-associated infertility: do we exaggerate the magnitude of effect?

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, B.; Turki, R.; Lotfy, H.; Ranganathan, S.; Zahed, H.; Freeman, A.R.; Shilbayeh, Z.; Sassy, M.; Shalaby, M.; Malik, R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Surgery remains the mainstay in the diagnosis and management of endometriosis. The number of surgeries performed for endometriosis worldwide is ever increasing, however do we have evidence for improvement of infertility after the surgery and do we exaggerate the magnitude of effect of surgery when we counsel our patients? The management of patients who failed the surgery could be by repeat surgery or assisted reproduction. What evidence do we have for patients who fail assisted reproduction and what is their best chance for achieving pregnancy? Material and methods: In this study we reviewed the evidence-based practice pertaining to the outcome of surgery assisted infertility associated with endometriosis. Manuscripts published in PubMed and Science Direct as well as the bibliography cited in these articles were reviewed. Patients with peritoneal endometriosis with mild and severe disease were addressed separately. Patients who failed the primary surgery and managed by repeat or assisted reproduction technology were also evaluated. Patients who failed assisted reproduction and managed by surgery were also studied to determine of the best course of action. Results: In patients with minimal and mild pelvic endometriosis, excision or ablation of the peritoneal endometriosis increases the pregnancy rate. In women with severe endometriosis, controlled trials suggested an improvement of pregnancy rate. In women with ovarian endometrioma 4 cm or larger ovarian cystectomy increases the pregnancy rate, decreases the recurrence rate, but is associated with decrease in ovarian reserve. In patients who have failed the primary surgery, assisted reproduction appears to be significantly more effective than repeat surgery. In patients who failed assisted reproduction, the management remains to be extremely controversial. Surgery in expert hands might result in significant improvement in pregnancy rate. Conclusion: In women with minimal and mild endometriosis, surgical

  4. Self-trained perception need not be veridical: striking can exaggerate judgment by wielding and can transfer exaggeration to new stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kelty-Stephen, Damian G; Eddy, Charles L

    2015-08-01

    Previous literature on self-training dynamic touch suggested that haptic judgments of length following wielding might benefit from new information through participants' own striking actions with the same stimuli. However, the conclusion that this self-training tended towards a veridical outcome of zero discrepancy between actual length and judged length was premature. In this replication, we allowed adult participants (n = 15) to strike on each trial and changed the stimuli in mid-experiment to determine whether striking helped participants build more accurate perceptions of length transferrable from one stimulus scale to another. We predicted that, if self-training led to better length judgments, the repeated striking would improve judgments and that, in turn, judgments following the switch of stimuli would show a good transfer of what participants had learned. On the other hand, self-training may simply exaggerate inertial properties of stimuli and may be sensitive to sudden changes in the scale of stimuli. Mixed-effect modeling of discrepancies show that striking only accentuated effects of inertial moment, producing exaggerated length judgments. Correlation between perceived length and actual length increased only for participants who experienced a switch in individual stimuli but not stimulus scale. We discuss the implications of these findings for any theoretical relationship between self-organization and veridicality. PMID:26082152

  5. Science Denial and the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Biology teachers are accustomed to engaging individuals who do not accept biological evolution. Denial of evolution ranges from ignorance of the evidence to outright denial or distortion of data. The list of science denial topics has grown alarmingly over the years to include: HIV as the cause of AIDS, exaggeration of the health and environmental…

  6. The moral stereotypes of liberals and conservatives: exaggeration of differences across the political spectrum.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A; Haidt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the moral stereotypes political liberals and conservatives have of themselves and each other. In reality, liberals endorse the individual-focused moral concerns of compassion and fairness more than conservatives do, and conservatives endorse the group-focused moral concerns of ingroup loyalty, respect for authorities and traditions, and physical/spiritual purity more than liberals do. 2,212 U.S. participants filled out the Moral Foundations Questionnaire with their own answers, or as a typical liberal or conservative would answer. Across the political spectrum, moral stereotypes about "typical" liberals and conservatives correctly reflected the direction of actual differences in foundation endorsement but exaggerated the magnitude of these differences. Contrary to common theories of stereotyping, the moral stereotypes were not simple underestimations of the political outgroup's morality. Both liberals and conservatives exaggerated the ideological extremity of moral concerns for the ingroup as well as the outgroup. Liberals were least accurate about both groups. PMID:23251357

  7. The Moral Stereotypes of Liberals and Conservatives: Exaggeration of Differences across the Political Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the moral stereotypes political liberals and conservatives have of themselves and each other. In reality, liberals endorse the individual-focused moral concerns of compassion and fairness more than conservatives do, and conservatives endorse the group-focused moral concerns of ingroup loyalty, respect for authorities and traditions, and physical/spiritual purity more than liberals do. 2,212 U.S. participants filled out the Moral Foundations Questionnaire with their own answers, or as a typical liberal or conservative would answer. Across the political spectrum, moral stereotypes about “typical” liberals and conservatives correctly reflected the direction of actual differences in foundation endorsement but exaggerated the magnitude of these differences. Contrary to common theories of stereotyping, the moral stereotypes were not simple underestimations of the political outgroup's morality. Both liberals and conservatives exaggerated the ideological extremity of moral concerns for the ingroup as well as the outgroup. Liberals were least accurate about both groups. PMID:23251357

  8. Rapid glutamate release in the mediobasal hypothalamus accompanies feeding and is exaggerated by an obesogenic food

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, Stephan J.; Matsen, Miles E.; Morton, Gregory J.; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Schwartz, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    The mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) plays a central role in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Although the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is implicated in energy balance regulation by the MBH, the hypothesis that feeding elicits local glutamate release remains untested. To test this hypothesis, we employed a glutamate biosensor that measures glutamate concentrations at 1-s intervals in conscious, freely behaving rats. Results indicate that feeding is associated with an increase of MBH glutamate concentration that occurs within 1–2 s of oral contact with a food pellet, and the glutamate response to a palatable high-fat pellet is greatly exaggerated relative to chow. In contrast, glutamate responses were not observed during water ingestion or other observed behaviors. These findings indicate that feeding is associated with rapid release of glutamate in the MBH, that this release is exaggerated with an obesogenic food, and that this response is likely stimulated by orosensory factors. PMID:24199157

  9. Clinically relevant exaggerated pharmacodynamic response to dual antiplatelet therapy detected by Thromboelastogram® Platelet Mapping™

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Kenneth N.

    2016-01-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is the standard of care for primary and secondary prevention strategies in patients with coronary artery disease after stenting. Current guidelines recommend that DAPT be continued for 12 months in patients after receiving drug eluting stents. Approximately 5% of these patients will present within this 12-month period for noncardiac surgery. This case report describes a clinically relevant exaggerated pharmacodynamic response to DAPT detected by preoperative assessment of platelet function. Based on the clinical history and physical exam and subsequent lab results, a general anesthetic was performed rather than a spinal anesthetic and the surgical procedure was changed. An exaggerated pharmacodynamic response to DAPT poses its own set of risks (unexpected uncontrolled bleeding, epidural hematoma following neuraxial block placement) that point-of-care aggregation testing may decrease or mitigate by altering clinical decision making. If the clinical history and physical exam reveal possible platelet dysfunction in patients receiving DAPT, preoperative platelet function testing should be considered. PMID:27006555

  10. The Earliest Case of Extreme Sexual Display with Exaggerated Male Organs by Two Middle Jurassic Mecopterans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Many extant male animals exhibit exaggerated body parts for display, defense or offence in sexual selection, such as male birds of paradise showing off colorful and elegant feathers and male moose and reindeers bearing large structured antlers. For insects, male rhinoceros and stag beetles have huge horn-like structure for fighting and competition and some male Leptopanorpa scorpionflies have very long abdominal terminal segments for sexual display and competition. Fossil records of insects having exaggerated body parts for sexual display are fairly rare. One example is two male holcorpids with elongate abdominal segments from sixth (A6) to eighth (A8) and enlarged male genitalia from Eocene, suggesting evolution of these characters occurred fairly late. Principal Findings We document two mecopterans with exaggerated male body parts from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in northeastern China. Both have extremely extended abdominal segments from A6 to A8 and enlarged genitalia, which might have been used for sexual display and, to less extent, for fighting with other males in the competition for mates. Although Fortiholcorpa paradoxa gen. et sp. nov. and Miriholcorpa forcipata gen. et sp. nov. seem to have affinities with Holcorpidae, we deem both as Family Incertae sedis mainly due to significant differences in branching pattern of Media (M) veins and relative length of A8 for F. paradoxa, and indiscernible preservation of 5-branched M veins in hind wing for M. forcipata. Conclusions/Significance These two new taxa have extended the records of exaggerated male body parts of mecopterans for sexual display and/or selection from the Early Eocene to the late Middle Jurassic. The similar character present in some Leptopanorpa of Panorpidae suggests that the sexual display and/or sexual selection due to extremely elongated male abdominal and sexual organs outweigh the negative impact of bulky body and poor mobility in the evolutionary process

  11. Exaggerated trait allometry, compensation and trade-offs in the New Zealand giraffe weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis).

    PubMed

    Painting, Christina J; Holwell, Gregory I

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection has driven the evolution of exaggerated traits among diverse animal taxa. The production of exaggerated traits can come at a cost to other traits through trade-offs when resources allocated to trait development are limited. Alternatively some traits can be selected for in parallel to support or compensate for the cost of bearing the exaggerated trait. Male giraffe weevils (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis) display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during contests for mates. Here we characterise the scaling relationship between rostrum and body size and show that males have a steep positive allometry, but that the slope is non-linear due to a relative reduction in rostrum length for the largest males, suggesting a limitation in resource allocation or a diminishing requirement for large males to invest increasingly into larger rostra. We also measured testes, wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia size and found no evidence of a trade-off between these traits and rostrum length when comparing phenotypic correlations. However, the relative length of wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia all increased with relative rostrum length suggesting these traits may be under correlational selection. Increased investment in wing and leg length is therefore likely to compensate for the costs of flying with, and wielding the exaggerated rostrum of larger male giraffe weevils. These results provide a first step in identifying the potential for trait compensation and trades-offs, but are phenotypic correlations only and should be interpreted with care in the absence of breeding experiments. PMID:24312425

  12. An exaggerated response of intra-oral pyogenic granuloma during puberty.

    PubMed

    Papageorge, M B; Doku, H C

    1992-01-01

    Intra-oral pyogenic granulomas have been associated with pregnancy. The exaggerated response of these tumors has been related to the hormonal changes occurring during this period. A change in the hormonal balance also occurs during puberty. In this paper, we present two young patients with large pyogenic granulomas and suggest that the hormonal changes play a primary role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. PMID:1525077

  13. Multiple exaggerated weapon morphs: a novel form of male polymorphism in harvestmen

    PubMed Central

    Painting, Christina J.; Probert, Anna F.; Townsend, Daniel J.; Holwell, Gregory I.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics in animals are commonly associated with distinct male phenotypes resulting in polymorphism of sexually selected weapons such as horns and spines. Typically, morphs are divided between small (unarmed) and large (armed) males according to one or more developmental thresholds in association with body size. Here, we describe remarkable weapon trimorphism within a single species, where two exaggerated weapon morphs and a third morph with reduced weaponry are present. Male Pantopsalis cheliferoides harvestmen display exaggerated chelicerae (jaws) which are highly variable in length among individuals. Across the same body size spectrum, however, some males belong to a distinct second exaggerated morph which possesses short, broad chelicerae. Multiple weapon morphs in a single species is a previously unknown phenomenon and our findings have significant implications for understanding weapon diversity and maintenance of polymorphism. Specifically, this species will be a valuable model for testing how weapons diverge by being able to test directly for the circumstances under which a certain weapon type is favoured and how weapon shape relates to performance. PMID:26542456

  14. Heightened Functional Neural Activation to Psychological Stress Covaries With Exaggerated Blood Pressure Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Jennings, J. Richard; Sheu, Lei K.; Derbyshire, Stuart W.G.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who show exaggerated blood pressure reactions to psychological stressors are at increased risk for hypertension, atherosclerosis, and stroke. We tested whether individuals who show exaggerated stressor-induced blood pressure reactivity also show heightened stressor-induced neural activation in brain areas involved in controlling the cardiovascular system. In a functional MRI study, 46 postmenopausal women (mean age: 68.04; SD: 1.35 years) performed a standardized Stroop color-word interference task that served as a stressor to increase blood pressure. Across individuals, a larger task-induced rise in blood pressure covaried with heightened and correlated patterns of activation in brain areas implicated previously in stress-related cardiovascular control: the perigenual and posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, and cerebellum. Entered as a set in hierarchical regression analyses, activation values in these brain areas uniquely predicted the magnitude of task-induced changes in systolic (ΔR2=0.54; P<0.001) and diastolic (ΔR2=0.27; P<0.05) blood pressure after statistical control for task accuracy and subjective reports of task stress. Heightened stressor-induced activation of cingulate, prefrontal, insular, and cerebellar brain areas may represent a functional neural phenotype that characterizes individuals who are prone to show exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity. PMID:17101844

  15. Multiple exaggerated weapon morphs: a novel form of male polymorphism in harvestmen.

    PubMed

    Painting, Christina J; Probert, Anna F; Townsend, Daniel J; Holwell, Gregory I

    2015-01-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics in animals are commonly associated with distinct male phenotypes resulting in polymorphism of sexually selected weapons such as horns and spines. Typically, morphs are divided between small (unarmed) and large (armed) males according to one or more developmental thresholds in association with body size. Here, we describe remarkable weapon trimorphism within a single species, where two exaggerated weapon morphs and a third morph with reduced weaponry are present. Male Pantopsalis cheliferoides harvestmen display exaggerated chelicerae (jaws) which are highly variable in length among individuals. Across the same body size spectrum, however, some males belong to a distinct second exaggerated morph which possesses short, broad chelicerae. Multiple weapon morphs in a single species is a previously unknown phenomenon and our findings have significant implications for understanding weapon diversity and maintenance of polymorphism. Specifically, this species will be a valuable model for testing how weapons diverge by being able to test directly for the circumstances under which a certain weapon type is favoured and how weapon shape relates to performance. PMID:26542456

  16. Perceived azimuth direction is exaggerated: Converging evidence from explicit and implicit measures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Durgin, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that perceived visual direction in the sagittal plane (angular direction in elevation, both upward and downward from eye level) is exaggerated. Foley, Ribeiro-Filho, and Da Silva's (2004) study of perceived size of exocentric ground extent implies that perceived angular direction in azimuth may also be exaggerated. In the present study, we directly examined whether perceived azimuth direction is overestimated. In Experiment 1, numeric estimates of azimuth direction (−48° to 48° relative to straight ahead) were obtained. The results showed a linear exaggeration in perceived azimuth direction with a gain of about 1.26. In Experiment 2, a perceptual extent-matching task served as an implicit measure of perceived azimuth direction. Participants matched an egocentric distance in one direction to a frontal extent in nearly the opposite direction. The angular biases implied by the matching data well replicated Foley et al.'s finding and were also fairly consistent with the azimuth bias function found in Experiment 1, although a slight overall shift was observed between the results of the two experiments. Experiment 3, in which half the observers were tilted sideways while making frontal/depth extent comparisons, suggested that the discrepancy between the results of Experiment 1 and 2 can partially be explained by a retinal horizontal vertical illusion affecting distance estimation tasks. Overall the present study provides converging evidence to suggest that the perception of azimuth direction is overestimated. PMID:26756174

  17. Paternal care and the evolution of exaggerated sexual swellings in primates

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L.

    2012-01-01

    The exaggerated sexual swellings exhibited by females of some primate species have been of interest to evolutionary biologists since the time of Darwin. We summarize existing hypotheses for their function and evolution and categorize these hypotheses within the context of 3 types of variation in sexual swelling size: 1) variation within a single sexual cycle, 2) variation between the sexual cycles of a single female, and 3) differences between females. We then propose the Paternal Care Hypothesis for the function of sexual swellings, which posits that exaggerated sexual swellings function to elicit the right quantity and quality of male care for a female's infant. As others have noted, swellings may allow females to engender paternity confusion, or they may allow females to confer relative paternal certainty on one male. Key to our hypothesis is that both of these scenarios create an incentive for one or more males to provide care. This hypothesis builds on previous hypotheses but differs from them by highlighting the elicitation of paternal care as a key function of swellings. Our hypothesis predicts that true paternal care (in which males accurately differentiate and provide assistance to their own offspring) will be most common in species in which exaggerated swellings accurately signal the probability of conception, and males can monopolize females during the window of highest conception probability. Our hypothesis also predicts that females will experience selection to behave in ways that either augment paternity confusion or enhance paternal certainty depending on their social and demographic contexts. PMID:24771988

  18. 37 CFR 1.75 - Claim(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim(s). 1.75 Section 1.75... GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Specification § 1.75 Claim(s). (a.... (35 U.S.C. 6; 15 U.S.C. 1113, 1126)...

  19. Skeptical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan J.; Barnhart, Carolyn M.; Parejko, Ken S.; Schultz, Forrest S.; Schultz, Steven E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the legitimacy of teaching about astrology, extrasensory perception, UFOs, touch therapy, cloning dinosaurs, or any other unusual claims in the classroom. Suggests that bringing unusual claims to the science classroom is an opportunity to motivate students in the principles of scientific thought. (SAH)

  20. Unfalsifiability of security claims.

    PubMed

    Herley, Cormac

    2016-06-01

    There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for insecurity) are unfalsifiable. This in turn implies an asymmetry in self-correction: Whereas the claim that countermeasures are sufficient is always subject to correction, the claim that they are necessary is not. Thus, the response to new information can only be to ratchet upward: Newly observed or speculated attack capabilities can argue a countermeasure in, but no possible observation argues one out. Further, when justifications are unfalsifiable, deciding the relative importance of defensive measures reduces to a subjective comparison of assumptions. Relying on such claims is the source of two problems: once we go wrong we stay wrong and errors accumulate, and we have no systematic way to rank or prioritize measures. PMID:27217574

  1. SALT: Weaving the Claim Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groza, Tudor; Möller, Knud; Handschuh, Siegfried; Trif, Diana; Decker, Stefan

    In this paper we present a solution for "weaving the claim web", i.e. the creation of knowledge networks via so-called claims stated in scientific publications created with the SALT (Semantically Annotated {mboxLaTeX}) framework. To attain this objective, we provide support for claim identification, evolved the appropriate ontologies and defined a claim citation and reference mechanism. We also describe a prototypical claim search engine, which allows to reference to existing claims and hence, weave the web. Finally, we performed a small-scale evaluation of the authoring framework with a quite promising outcome.

  2. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  3. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Health claims: claims not authorized. 101.71 Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71...

  4. Exaggerated object affordance and absent automatic inhibition in alien hand syndrome

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Jennifer; Sumner, Petroc; Jackson, Stephen R.; Bajaj, Nin; Husain, Masud

    2013-01-01

    Patients with alien hand syndrome (AHS) experience making apparently deliberate and purposeful movements with their hand against their will. However, the mechanisms contributing to these involuntary actions remain poorly understood. Here, we describe two experimental investigations in a patient with corticobasal syndrome (CBS) with alien hand behaviour in her right hand. First, we show that responses with the alien hand are made significantly more quickly to images of objects which afford an action with that hand compared to objects which afford an action with the unaffected hand. This finding suggests that involuntary grasping behaviours in AHS might be due to exaggerated, automatic motor activation evoked by objects which afford actions with that limb. Second, using a backwards masked priming task, we found normal automatic inhibition of primed responses in the patient's unaffected hand, but importantly there was no evidence of such suppression in the alien limb. Taken together, these findings suggest that grasping behaviours in AHS may result from exaggerated object affordance effects, which might potentially arise from disrupted inhibition of automatically evoked responses. PMID:23433243

  5. Clinical categories of exaggerated skin reactions to mosquito bites and their pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Tatsuno, Kazuki; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Shimauchi, Takatoshi; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    Mosquito bites are skin irritating reactions, which usually resolve spontaneously without intensive medical care. However, in certain situations, mosquito bites may form a more vicious reaction, sometimes accompanying fever and systemic symptoms. In such cases, the presence of rare hematological disorders, abnormalities in eosinophils and/or association with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may underlie. Importantly, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB), which is characterized by necrotic skin reactions to mosquito bites with various systemic symptoms, is often observed in association with EBV infection and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Exaggerated skin reaction to mosquito bites is also seen in Wells' syndrome. While strong Th2-skewing immune dysregulation is apparent in the patients, they also show robust CD4(+) T cell proliferation in response to mosquito salivary gland extracts, indicating close association between Wells' syndrome and mosquito bites. Similar skin reaction to mosquito bites is also noticed in certain types of B cell neoplasm, although the role of B cells in this peculiar reaction to mosquito bites is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge of exaggerated reaction toward mosquito bites seen in conjunction with these unique hematological disorders, and examine the scientific studies and observations reported in previous literatures to organize our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this distinct disorder. PMID:27177994

  6. Exaggerated displays do not improve mounting success in male seaweed flies Fucellia tergina (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Memmott, Ruth; Briffa, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Signals of individual quality are assumed to be difficult to exaggerate, either because they are directly linked to underlying traits (indices) or because they are costly to perform (handicaps). In practise advertisement displays may consist of conventional and costly components, for instance where a morphological structure related to body size is used in visual displays. In this case, there is the potential for dishonest displays, due to the population level variance around the relationship between body size and display structures. We examine the use of wing flicking displays that we observed in situ in a strandline dwelling seaweed fly Fucellia tergina, using overall body size and the size of their eyes as underlying indicators of condition. Males displayed far more frequently than females, and were also observed to frequently mount other flies, a behaviour that was rare in females. The rate of display was greater for males that had positive residual values from relationships between wing length and body length. In other words those males with larger than expected wings for their underlying quality displayed more frequently, indicating that these displays are open to exaggeration. Males with larger than expected wings (for the size of their body or eyes), however, mounted less frequently. We suggest that small bodied males are less successful in terms of mounting, but that those small males with relatively large wings may attempt to compensate for this through increased display effort. PMID:26365923

  7. The Academy of Sciences stakes a claim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The establishment of the National Committe for the International Geophysical year is described. Post-war development of the 1950's in the areas of upper atmosphere research reviewed and included: the further development of satellites; sounding rocket research; and the launching of the Sputnik Satellites.

  8. British English infants segment words only with exaggerated infant-directed speech stimuli.

    PubMed

    Floccia, Caroline; Keren-Portnoy, Tamar; DePaolis, Rory; Duffy, Hester; Delle Luche, Claire; Durrant, Samantha; White, Laurence; Goslin, Jeremy; Vihman, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The word segmentation paradigm originally designed by Jusczyk and Aslin (1995) has been widely used to examine how infants from the age of 7.5 months can extract novel words from continuous speech. Here we report a series of 13 studies conducted independently in two British laboratories, showing that British English-learning infants aged 8-10.5 months fail to show evidence of word segmentation when tested in this paradigm. In only one study did we find evidence of word segmentation at 10.5 months, when we used an exaggerated infant-directed speech style. We discuss the impact of variations in infant-directed style within and across languages in the course of language acquisition. PMID:26707426

  9. Exaggerated NT-proBNP production in patients with hematologic malignancies: a case series.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Aileen; Guglin, Maya

    2012-01-01

    ©2011 Wiley Periodicals Inc. Extremely elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in cancer patients is a poorly understood phenomenon. The authors report three cases of patients with hematologic malignancies and serial N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) measurements with values in the range of tens to hundred thousands pg/mL. Through matching NT-proBNP results with clinical, laboratory, echocardiographic and radiologic data, the authors found that these patients demonstrated exaggerated responses to fluid overload. Patients with hematologic malignancies may have higher than expected values of NT-proBNP in response to hypervolemic states. The authors hypothesize that this may be related to possible infiltration of the myocardium by substances produced in the setting of these diseases or due to proteins interfering with the assay.Congest Heart Fail. PMID:23167814

  10. Distinguishing between neuropsychological malingering and exaggerated psychiatric symptoms in a neuropsychological setting.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Swirsky-Sacchetti, Thomas; Chute, Douglas L; Mandel, Steven; Platek, Steven M; Zillmer, Eric A

    2008-05-01

    It is unclear whether symptom validity test (SVT) failure in neuropsychological and psychiatric domains overlaps. Records of 105 patients referred for neuropsychological evaluation, who completed the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Reliable Digit Span (RDS), and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III), were examined. TOMM and RDS scores were uncorrelated with MCMI-III symptom validity indices and factor analysis revealed two distinct factors for neuropsychological and psychiatric SVTs. Only 3.5% of the sample failed SVTs in both domains, 22.6% solely failed the neuropsychological SVT, and 6.1% solely failed the psychiatric SVT. The results support a dissociation between neuropsychological malingering and exaggeration of psychiatric symptoms in a neuropsychological setting. PMID:17853126

  11. The oestrogen pathway underlies the evolution of exaggerated male cranial shapes in Anolis lizards

    PubMed Central

    Sanger, Thomas J.; Seav, Susan M.; Tokita, Masayoshi; Langerhans, R. Brian; Ross, Lela M.; Losos, Jonathan B.; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms vary widely among species. This variation must arise through sex-specific evolutionary modifications to developmental processes. Anolis lizards vary extensively in their expression of cranial dimorphism. Compared with other Anolis species, members of the carolinensis clade have evolved relatively high levels of cranial dimorphism; males of this clade have exceptionally long faces relative to conspecific females. Developmentally, this facial length dimorphism arises through an evolutionarily novel, clade-specific strategy. Our analyses herein reveal that sex-specific regulation of the oestrogen pathway underlies evolution of this exaggerated male phenotype, rather than the androgen or insulin growth factor pathways that have long been considered the primary regulators of male-biased dimorphism among vertebrates. Our results suggest greater intricacy in the genetic mechanisms that underlie sexual dimorphisms than previously appreciated. PMID:24741020

  12. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  13. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  14. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable under the Military Claims Act... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  15. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  16. 32 CFR 536.75 - Claims payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.75 Claims payable under the Military Claims Act. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim...

  17. Cold Exposure Can Induce an Exaggerated Early-Morning Blood Pressure Surge in Young Prehypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo-Chi; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, Cheryl C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Prehypertension is related to a higher risk of cardiovascular events than normotension. Our previous study reported that cold exposure elevates the amplitude of the morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and is associated with a sympathetic increase during the final sleep transition, which might be critical for sleep-related cardiovascular events in normotensives. However, few studies have explored the effects of cold exposure on autonomic function during sleep transitions and changes of autonomic function among prehypertensives. Therefore, we conducted an experiment for testing the effects of cold exposure on changes of autonomic function during sleep and the MBPS among young prehypertensives are more exaggerate than among young normotensives. The study groups consisted of 12 normotensive and 12 prehypertensive male adults with mean ages of 23.67 ± 0.70 and 25.25 ± 0.76 years, respectively. The subjects underwent cold (16°C) and warm (23°C) conditions randomly. The room temperature was maintained at either 23°C or 16°C by central air conditioning and recorded by a heat-sensitive sensor placed on the forehead and extended into the air. BP was measured every 30 minutes by using an autonomic BP monitor. Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, electromyograms, electrocardiograms, and near body temperature were recorded by miniature polysomnography. Under cold exposure, a significantly higher amplitude of MBPS than under the warm condition among normotensives; however, this change was more exaggerated in prehypertensives. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in parasympathetic-related RR and HF during the final sleep transition and a higher early-morning surge in BP and in LF% among prehypertensives, but no such change was found in normotensives. Our study supports that cold exposure might increase the risk of sleep-related cardiovascular events in prehypertensives. PMID:26919177

  18. Cold Exposure Can Induce an Exaggerated Early-Morning Blood Pressure Surge in Young Prehypertensives.

    PubMed

    Hong, Cian-Hui; Kuo, Terry B J; Huang, Bo-Chi; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Kuan-Liang; Chern, Chang-Ming; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2016-01-01

    Prehypertension is related to a higher risk of cardiovascular events than normotension. Our previous study reported that cold exposure elevates the amplitude of the morning blood pressure surge (MBPS) and is associated with a sympathetic increase during the final sleep transition, which might be critical for sleep-related cardiovascular events in normotensives. However, few studies have explored the effects of cold exposure on autonomic function during sleep transitions and changes of autonomic function among prehypertensives. Therefore, we conducted an experiment for testing the effects of cold exposure on changes of autonomic function during sleep and the MBPS among young prehypertensives are more exaggerate than among young normotensives. The study groups consisted of 12 normotensive and 12 prehypertensive male adults with mean ages of 23.67 ± 0.70 and 25.25 ± 0.76 years, respectively. The subjects underwent cold (16°C) and warm (23°C) conditions randomly. The room temperature was maintained at either 23°C or 16°C by central air conditioning and recorded by a heat-sensitive sensor placed on the forehead and extended into the air. BP was measured every 30 minutes by using an autonomic BP monitor. Electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, electromyograms, electrocardiograms, and near body temperature were recorded by miniature polysomnography. Under cold exposure, a significantly higher amplitude of MBPS than under the warm condition among normotensives; however, this change was more exaggerated in prehypertensives. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in parasympathetic-related RR and HF during the final sleep transition and a higher early-morning surge in BP and in LF% among prehypertensives, but no such change was found in normotensives. Our study supports that cold exposure might increase the risk of sleep-related cardiovascular events in prehypertensives. PMID:26919177

  19. Mice lacking the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein exhibit exaggerated hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Morecroft, I; Doyle, B; Nilsen, M; Kolch, W; Mair, K; MacLean, MR

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Increased pulmonary vascular remodelling, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance characterize the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Activation of the Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 is thought to play an important role in PAH and Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), negatively regulates this pathway. This study investigated whether genetic deletion of RKIP (and hence ERK1/2 up-regulation) resulted in a pulmonary hypertensive phenotype in mice and investigated a role for RKIP in mitogen-regulated proliferative responses in lung fibroblasts. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and remodelling were assessed in mice genetically deficient in RKIP (RKIP−/−) after 2 weeks of either normoxia or hypoxia. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry were used to examine phosphorylation of Raf-1, RKIP and ERK1/2 in mouse pulmonary arteries. In vitro, RKIP inhibition of mitogen signalling was analysed in CCL39 hamster lung fibroblasts. KEY RESULTS RKIP−/− mice demonstrated elevated indices of PAH and ERK1/2 phosphorylation compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Hypoxic RKIP−/− mice exhibited exaggerated PAH indices. Hypoxia increased phosphorylation of Raf-1, RKIP and ERK1/2 in WT mouse pulmonary arteries and Raf-1 phosphorylation in RKIP−/− mouse pulmonary arteries. In CCL39 cells, inhibition of RKIP potentiated mitogen-induced proliferation and phosphorylation of RKIP, and Raf-1. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The lack of RKIP protein resulted in a pulmonary hypertensive phenotype, exaggerated in hypoxia. Hypoxia induced phosphorylation of RKIP signalling elements in WT pulmonary arteries. RKIP inhibition potentiated mitogen-induced proliferation in lung fibroblasts. These results provide evidence for the involvement of RKIP in suppressing the development of hypoxia-induced PAH in mice. PMID:21385176

  20. Genotoxicity testing of peptides: Folate deprivation as a marker of exaggerated pharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Guérard, Melanie Zeller, Andreas; Festag, Matthias; Schubert, Christine; Singer, Thomas; Müller, Lutz

    2014-09-15

    The incidence of micronucleated-cells is considered to be a marker of a genotoxic event and can be caused by direct- or indirect-DNA reactive mechanisms. In particular, small increases in the incidence of micronuclei, which are not associated with toxicity in the target tissue or any structurally altering properties of the compound, trigger the suspicion that an indirect mechanism could be at play. In a bone marrow micronucleus test of a synthetic peptide (a dual agonist of the GLP-1 and GIP receptors) that had been integrated into a regulatory 13-week repeat-dose toxicity study in the rat, small increases in the incidence of micronuclei had been observed, together with pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain. Because it is well established that folate plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic integrity and pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain were observed, folate levels were determined from plasma samples initially collected for toxicokinetic analytics. A dose-dependent decrease in plasma folate levels was evident after 4 weeks of treatment at the mid and high dose levels, persisted until the end of the treatment duration of 13-weeks and returned to baseline levels during the recovery period of 4 weeks. Based on these properties, and the fact that the compound tested (peptide) per se is not expected to reach the nucleus and cause DNA damage, the rationale is supported that the elevated incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes is directly linked to the exaggerated pharmacology of the compound resulting in a decreased folate level. - Highlights: • A synthetic peptide has been evaluated for potential genotoxicity • Small increases in an integrated (13-weeks) micronucleus test were observed • Further, animals had a pronounced reductions in food intake and body weight gain • A dose-dependent decrease in plasma folate levels was evident from week 4 onwards • Elevated micronuclei-incidence due to the

  1. Exaggerated sympathoexcitatory reflexes develop with changes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Huber, Domitila A; Schreihofer, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    Obesity leads to altered autonomic reflexes that reduce stability of mean arterial pressure (MAP). Sympathoinhibitory reflexes such as baroreflexes are impaired, but reflexes that raise MAP appear to be augmented. In obese Zucker rats (OZR) sciatic nerve stimulation evokes larger increases in MAP by unknown mechanisms. We sought to determine the autonomic underpinnings of this enhanced somatic pressor reflex and whether other sympathoexcitatory reflexes are augmented. We also determined whether their final common pathway, glutamatergic activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), was enhanced in male OZR compared with lean Zucker rats (LZR). Sciatic nerve stimulation or activation of the nasopharyngeal reflex evoked larger rises in splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) (79% and 45% larger in OZR, respectively; P < 0.05) and MAP in urethane-anesthetized, ventilated, paralyzed adult OZR compared with LZR. After elimination of baroreflex feedback by pharmacological prevention of changes in MAP and heart rate, these two sympathoexcitatory reflexes were still exaggerated in OZR (167% and 69% larger, respectively, P < 0.05). In adult OZR microinjections of glutamate, AMPA, or NMDA into the RVLM produced larger rises in SNA (∼61% larger in OZR, P < 0.05 for each drug) and MAP, but stimulation of axonal fibers in the upper thoracic spinal cord yielded equivalent responses in OZR and LZR. In juvenile OZR and LZR, sympathoexcitatory reflexes and physiological responses to RVLM activation were comparable. These data suggest that the ability of glutamate to activate the RVLM becomes enhanced in adult OZR and may contribute to the development of exaggerated sympathoexcitatory responses independent of impaired baroreflexes. PMID:27280427

  2. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  3. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  4. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  5. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  6. 32 CFR 750.43 - Claims payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims payable. 750.43 Section 750.43 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.43 Claims payable. (a) General. Unless otherwise prescribed, a claim for personal injury, death, or damage or loss of real...

  7. Detecting Symptom Exaggeration in Combat Veterans Using the MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scales: A Mixed Group Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolin, David F.; Steenkamp, Maria M.; Marx, Brian P.; Litz, Brett T.

    2010-01-01

    Although validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) have proven useful in the detection of symptom exaggeration in criterion-group validation (CGV) studies, usually comparing instructed feigners with known patient groups, the…

  8. Juvenile hormone mediates developmental integration between exaggerated traits and supportive traits in the horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yasukazu; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Miyatake, Takahisa; Okada, Kensuke

    2012-07-01

    Sexually selected exaggerated traits are often coupled with modifications in other nontarget traits. In insects with weapons, enlargements of nontarget characters that functionally support the weapon often occur (i.e. supportive traits). The support of sexual traits requires developmental coordination among functionally related multiple traits-an explicit example of morphological integration. The genetic theory predicts that developmental integration among different body modules, for which development is regulated via different sets of genes, is likely to be coordinated by pleiotropic factors. However, the developmental backgrounds of morphological integrations are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the juvenile hormone (JH), as a pleiotropic factor, mediates the integration between exaggerated and supportive traits in an armed beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. During combat, males of this beetle use exaggerated mandibles to lift up their opponents with the supportive traits, that is, the head and prothoracic body parts. Application of methoprene, a JH analog (JHA), during the larval to prepupal period, induced the formation of large mandibles relative to the body sizes in males. Morphometric examination of nontarget traits elucidated an increase in the relative sizes of supportive traits, including the head and prothoracic body parts. In addition, reductions in the hind wing area and elytra length, which correspond to flight and reproductive abilities, were detected. Our findings are consistent with the genetic theory and support the idea that JH is a key pleiotropic factor that coordinates the developmental integration of exaggerated traits and supportive characters, as well as resource allocation trade-offs. PMID:22765207

  9. Exaggerated, Mispredicted, and Misplaced: When "It's the Thought That Counts" in Gift Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yan; Epley, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Gift-giving involves both the objective value of a gift and the symbolic meaning of the exchange. The objective value is sometimes considered of secondary importance as when people claim, "It's the thought that counts." We evaluated when and how mental state inferences count in gift exchanges. Because considering another's thoughts requires…

  10. Mechanism of exaggerated natriuresis in hypertensive man: impaired sodium transport in the loop of henle

    PubMed Central

    Buckalew, Vardaman M.; Puschett, Jules B.; Kintzel, James E.; Goldberg, Martin

    1969-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of saline loading on distal sodium reabsorption in hypertensive man, studies were performed during both water deprivation and water diuresis in eight hypertensive subjects, and the results were compared to data obtained from similar studies in normal subjects. All hypertensive patients exhibited an enhanced excretion of filtered sodium (CNa/CIn) at any level of distal delivery of sodium compared to normal controls. Free water reabsorption (TcH2O) during hypertonic saline loading was quantitatively abnormal in the hypertensives at high levels of osmolar clearance (COsm), and also the curve of TcH2O vs. COsm leveled off above a COsm of 18 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the hypertensive group in contrast to the normal controls in whom TcH2O showed no evidence of achieving an upper limit. Sodium depletion exaggerated the abnormality in TcH2O in hypertensives, and resulted in a positive free water clearance (CH2O) during hydropenia. During hypotonic saline loading in water diuresis, changes in free water clearance per 100 ml of glomerular filtrate (CH2O/CIn) were less at any given increment in urine flow per 100 ml of glomerular filtrate (V/CIn) in the hypertensives compared to normal controls (P < 0.001). This abnormality in CH2O/CIn in the hypertensives in conjunction with the defect in TcH2O observed during hydropenia indicates that sodium reabsorption in the loop of Henle was abnormal at any given rate of distal delivery of sodium in hypertension. Furthermore, these abnormalities in TcH2O and CH2O coincided temporally with the development of the exaggerated natriuresis. Although the distal defect in sodium transport, in large part, accounted for the augmented natriuresis in hypertension, evidence was present also for enhanced rejection of sodium in the proximal tubule during saline loading in the hypertensives. Additional studies utilizing acetazolamide which increases distal delivery of sodium without extracellular fluid volume expansion showed only

  11. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  12. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  13. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  14. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  15. 32 CFR 536.76 - Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Claims not payable under the Military Claims Act. 536.76 Section 536.76 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under the Military Claims Act § 536.76 Claims not payable under the...

  16. Lung cancer screening overdiagnosis: reports of overdiagnosis in screening for lung cancer are grossly exaggerated.

    PubMed

    Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J

    2015-08-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a mortality reduction benefit associated with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer. There has been considerable debate regarding the benefits and harms of LDCT lung cancer screening, including the challenges related to its practical implementation. One of the controversies regards overdiagnosis, which conceptually denotes diagnosing a cancer that, either because of its indolent, low-aggressiveness biologic behavior or because of limited life expectancy, is unlikely to result in significant morbidity during the patient's remainder lifetime. In theory, diagnosing and treating these cancers offer no measurable benefit while incurring costs and risks. Therefore, if a screening test detects a substantial number of overdiagnosed cancers, it is less likely to be effective. It has been argued that LDCT screening for lung cancer results in an unacceptably high rate of overdiagnosis. This article aims to defend the opposite stance. Overdiagnosis does exist and to a certain extent is inherent to any cancer-screening test. Nonetheless, the concept is less dualistic and more nuanced than it has been suggested. Furthermore, the average estimates of overdiagnosis in LDCT lung cancer screening based on the totality of published data are likely much lower than the highest published estimates, if a careful definition of a positive screening test reflecting our current understanding of lung cancer biology is utilized. This article presents evidence on why reports of overdiagnosis in lung cancer screening have been exaggerated. PMID:25772581

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana sku mutant seedlings show exaggerated surface-dependent alteration in root growth vector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, R.; Masson, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    Roots of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in the Wassilewskija (WS) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotypes often grow aslant on vertical agar surfaces. Slanted root growth always occurs to the right of the gravity vector when the root is viewed through the agar surface, and is not observed in the Columbia ecotype. Right-slanted root growth is surface-dependent and does not result directly from directional environmental stimuli or gradients in the plane of skewing. We have isolated two partially dominant mutations in WS (sku1 and sku2) that show an exaggerated right-slanting root-growth phenotype on agar surfaces. The right-slanting root-growth phenotype of wild-type and mutant roots is not the result of diagravitropism or of an alteration in root gravitropism. It is accompanied by a left-handed rotation of the root about its axis within the elongation zone, the rate of which positively correlates with the degree of right-slanted curvature. Our data suggest that the right-slanting root growth phenotype results from an endogenous structural asymmetry that expresses itself by a directional root-tip rotation.

  18. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  19. Mice exposed to dim light at night exaggerate inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Fonken, Laura K; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    The mammalian circadian system regulates many physiological functions including inflammatory responses. Appropriately timed light information is essential for maintaining circadian organization. Over the past ∼120 years, urbanization and the widespread adoption of electric lights have dramatically altered lighting environments. Exposure to light at night (LAN) is pervasive in modern society and disrupts core circadian clock mechanisms. Because microglia are the resident macrophages in the brain and macrophages contain intrinsic circadian clocks, we hypothesized that chronic exposure to LAN would alter microglia cytokine expression and sickness behavior following LPS administration. Exposure to 4 weeks of dim LAN elevated inflammatory responses in mice. Mice exposed to dimly lit, as compared to dark, nights exaggerated changes in body temperature and elevated microglia pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following LPS administration. Furthermore, dLAN mice had a prolonged sickness response following the LPS challenge. Mice exposed to dark or dimly lit nights had comparable sickness behavior directly following the LPS injection; however, dLAN mice showed greater reductions in locomotor activity, increased anorectic behavior, and increased weight loss than mice maintained in dark nights 24h post-LPS injection. Overall, these data suggest that chronic exposure to even very low levels of light pollution may alter inflammatory responses. These results may have important implications for humans and other urban dwelling species that commonly experience nighttime light exposure. PMID:24012645

  20. Model misspecification confounds the estimation of rates and exaggerates their time dependency.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Brent C; Alvarado-Serrano, Diego F; Hickerson, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    While welcoming the comment of Ho et al. (2015), we find little that undermines the strength of our criticism, and it would appear they have misunderstood our central argument. Here we respond with the purpose of reiterating that we are (i) generally critical of much of the evidence presented in support of the time-dependent molecular rate (TDMR) hypothesis and (ii) specifically critical of estimates of μ derived from tip-dated sequences that exaggerate the importance of purifying selection as an explanation for TDMR over extended timescales. In response to assertions put forward by Ho et al. (2015), we use panmictic coalescent simulations of temporal data to explore a fundamental assumption for tip-dated tree shape and associated mutation rate estimates, and the appropriateness and utility of the date randomization test. The results reveal problems for the joint estimation of tree topology, effective population size and μ with tip-dated sequences using BEAST. Given the simulations, BEAST consistently obtains incorrect topological tree structures that are consistent with the substantial overestimation of μ and underestimation of effective population size. Data generated from lower effective population sizes were less likely to fail the date randomization test yet still resulted in substantially upwardly biased estimates of rates, bringing previous estimates of μ from temporally sampled DNA sequences into question. We find that our general criticisms of both the hypothesis of time-dependent molecular evolution and Bayesian methods to estimate μ from temporally sampled DNA sequences are further reinforced. PMID:26769403

  1. DYSAPOPTOSIS OF OSTEOBLASTS AND OSTEOCYTES INCREASES CANCELLOUS BONE FORMATION BUT EXAGGERATES BONE POROSITY WITH AGE

    PubMed Central

    Jilka, Robert L.; O’Brien, Charles A.; Roberson, Paula K.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Weinstein, Robert S.; Manolagas, Stavros C.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal aging is accompanied by decreased cancellous bone mass and increased formation of pores within cortical bone. The latter accounts for a large portion of the increase in non-vertebral fractures after age 65 in humans. We selectively deleted Bak and Bax, two genes essential for apoptosis, in two types of terminally differentiated bone cells: the short-lived osteoblasts that elaborate the bone matrix, and the long-lived osteocytes that are immured within the mineralized matrix and choreograph the regeneration of bone. Attenuation of apoptosis in osteoblasts increased their working lifespan and thereby cancellous bone mass in the femur. In long-lived osteocytes, however, it caused dysfunction with advancing age and greatly magnified intracortical femoral porosity associated with increased production of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and vascular endothelial growth factor. Increasing bone mass by artificial prolongation of the inherent lifespan of short-lived osteoblasts, while exaggerating the adverse effects of aging on long-lived osteocytes, highlights the seminal role of cell age in bone homeostasis. In addition, our findings suggest that distress signals produced by old and/or dysfunctional osteocytes are the culprits of the increased intracortical porosity in old age. PMID:23761243

  2. Justice is not blind: visual attention exaggerates effects of group identification on legal punishment.

    PubMed

    Granot, Yael; Balcetis, Emily; Schneider, Kristin E; Tyler, Tom R

    2014-12-01

    Why do some people demand harsher legal punishments than do others after viewing the same video evidence? We predict that inconsistent patterns of punishment decisions can be reconciled by considering the simultaneous effects of social group identification and visual attention. We tested 2 competing predictions--the attention unites and attention divides hypotheses--to understand whether visual attention exaggerates or eliminates differences in legal decision making as a function of social identification with outgroups. We measured social identification with police (Studies 1a, 1b) or manipulated identification with a novel outgroup (Study 2). Participants watched videos depicting physical altercations in which the targets' culpability was ambiguous. We surreptitiously tracked (Studies 1a, 2) or manipulated (Study 1b) visual attention to outgroup targets. Results support the attention divides hypothesis. Among participants who fixated frequently on outgroup targets, prior identification influenced punishment decisions. This relationship did not emerge among participants who fixated infrequently on the target. Subjective interpretations of and accurate recall for targets' actions mediated the relationship between identification and attention on punishment. We discuss implications for bias in legal decision making and policy. PMID:25222261

  3. Exaggerated Intergroup Bias in Economical Decision Making Games: Differential Effects of Primary and Secondary Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Steven M.; Mitchell, Ian J.; Johnson, Ian; Dawson, Ellen; Beech, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathic personality traits are linked with selfish and non-cooperative responses during economical decision making games. However, the possibility that these responses may vary when responding to members of the in-group and the out-group has not yet been explored. We aimed to examine the effects of primary (selfish, uncaring) and secondary (impulsive, irresponsible) psychopathic personality traits on the responses of non-offending participants to the in-group and the out-group (defined in terms of affiliation to a UK University) across a series of economical decision making games. We asked a total of 60 participants to act as the proposer in both the dictator game and the ultimatum game. We found that across both tasks, those who scored highly for secondary psychopathic traits showed an elevated intergroup bias, making more generous offers toward members of the in-group relative to the out-group. An exaggerated intergroup bias may therefore represent a motivational factor for the antisocial behavior of those with elevated secondary psychopathic traits. PMID:23950898

  4. Exaggerated blood pressure response during the exercise treadmill test as a risk factor for hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lima, S.G.; Albuquerque, M.F.P.M.; Oliveira, J.R.M.; Ayres, C.F.J.; Cunha, J.E.G.; Oliveira, D.F.; Lemos, R.R.; Souza, M.B.R.; Silva, O. Barbosa e

    2013-01-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure response (EBPR) during the exercise treadmill test (ETT) has been considered to be a risk factor for hypertension. The relationship of polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system gene with hypertension has not been established. Our objective was to evaluate whether EBPR during exercise is a clinical marker for hypertension. The study concerned a historical cohort of normotensive individuals. The exposed individuals were those who presented EBPR. At the end of the observation period (41.7 months = 3.5 years), the development of hypertension was analyzed within the two groups. Genetic polymorphisms and blood pressure behavior were assessed as independent variables, together with the classical risk factors for hypertension. The I/D gene polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme and M235T of angiotensinogen were ruled out as risk factors for hypertension. EBPR during ETT is not an independent influence on the chances of developing hypertension. No differences were observed between the hypertensive and normotensive individuals regarding gender (P = 0.655), skin color (P = 0.636), family history of hypertension (P = 0.225), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.285), or hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.734). The risk of developing hypertension increased with increasing body mass index (BMI) and advancing age. The risk factors, which independently influenced the development of hypertension, were age and BMI. EBPR did not constitute an independent risk factor for hypertension and is probably a preclinical phase in the spectrum of normotension and hypertension. PMID:23598646

  5. Arabidopsis thaliana sku mutant seedlings show exaggerated surface-dependent alteration in root growth vector.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, R; Masson, P H

    1996-08-01

    Roots of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in the Wassilewskija (WS) and Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotypes often grow aslant on vertical agar surfaces. Slanted root growth always occurs to the right of the gravity vector when the root is viewed through the agar surface, and is not observed in the Columbia ecotype. Right-slanted root growth is surface-dependent and does not result directly from directional environmental stimuli or gradients in the plane of skewing. We have isolated two partially dominant mutations in WS (sku1 and sku2) that show an exaggerated right-slanting root-growth phenotype on agar surfaces. The right-slanting root-growth phenotype of wild-type and mutant roots is not the result of diagravitropism or of an alteration in root gravitropism. It is accompanied by a left-handed rotation of the root about its axis within the elongation zone, the rate of which positively correlates with the degree of right-slanted curvature. Our data suggest that the right-slanting root growth phenotype results from an endogenous structural asymmetry that expresses itself by a directional root-tip rotation. PMID:8756492

  6. Chronic behavioral stress exaggerates motor deficit and neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, E; Di Meco, A; Merali, S; Praticò, D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressor exposure is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including neurodegeneration. Although the initial events of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) are not known, consistent evidence supports the hypothesis that the disease results from the combined effect of genetic and environmental risk factors. Among them, behavioral stress has been shown to cause damage and neuronal loss in different areas of the brain, however, its effect on the dopaminergic system and PD pathogenesis remains to be characterized. The C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic restraint/isolation (RI) stress and were then treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), whereas the control mice were treated only with MPTP and the effect on the PD-like phenotype was evaluated. The mice that underwent RI before the administration of MPTP manifested an exaggerated motor deficit and impairment in the acquisition of motor skills, which were associated with a greater loss of neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase and astrocytes activation. By showing that RI influences the onset and progression of the PD-like phenotype, our study underlines the novel pathogenetic role that chronic behavioral stressor has in the disease process by triggering neuroinflammation and degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic system. PMID:26859816

  7. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  8. Claims about women's use of non-fatal force in intimate relationships: a contextual review of Canadian research.

    PubMed

    Dragiewicz, Molly; Dekeseredy, Walter S

    2012-09-01

    Claims that violence is gender-neutral are increasingly becoming "common sense" in Canada. Antifeminist groups assert that the high rates of woman abuse uncovered by major Canadian national surveys conducted in the early 1990s are greatly exaggerated and that women are as violent as men. The production of degendered rhetoric about "intimate partner violence" contributes to claims that women's and men's violence is symmetrical and mutual. This article critically evaluates common claims about Canadian women's use of nonlethal force in heterosexual intimate relationships in the context of the political struggle over the hegemonic frame for violence and abuse. The extant Canadian research documenting significant sex differences in violence and abuse against adult intimate partners is reviewed. PMID:22996627

  9. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  10. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  11. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  12. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  13. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  14. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  15. 22 CFR 304.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Claims investigation. 304.6 Section 304.6 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.6 Claims investigation. (a) When a claim has been filed with the Peace Corps, the General Counsel will...

  16. 32 CFR 536.15 - Claims policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Compromise. DA policy seeks to compromise claims in a manner that represents a fair and equitable result to both the claimant and the United States. This policy does not extend to frivolous claims or claims... on all Army claims personnel. (g) Communication. All claims personnel are authorized to...

  17. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  18. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  19. Are Claims of Global Warming Being Suppressed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Thomas J.

    2006-02-01

    Over the last few years, I have heard many rumors that climate science relevant to the global warming discussion is being suppressed by the Bush Administration. One cannot do much about third-hand information. However, on 29 January, the New York Times published a front page article on NASA efforts to suppress statements about global warming by James Hansen, director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. A claim by one government scientist, though, no matter how distinguished, still requires examples from other scientists before a general conclusion can be drawn about the overall scope of the problem. But if the charges are more widespread, then some government scientists might be reluctant to make such claims, because they might feel that their positions were jeopardized. Therefore, an alternate way may be needed to determine the scope of the issue, while still safeguarding government workers from possible retaliation. -On 30 January, Rep. Sherwood Boehlert (R-N.Y.), chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, wrote a letter to NASA Administrator Michael Griffin addressing many of the concerns Crowley has raised. Boehlert wrote,``It ought to go without saying that government scientists must be free to describe their scientific conclusions and the implications of those conclusions to their fellow scientists, policymakers and the general public.'' He continued,``Good science cannot long persist in an atmosphere of intimidation. Political figures ought to be reviewing their public statements to make sure they are consistent with the best available science; scientists should not be reviewing their statements to make sure they are consistent with the current political orthodoxy.'' I commend Rep. Boehlert for his quick and clear statement of the importance of unfettered communication of science. -FRED SPILHAUS, Editor

  20. [Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Mitsuru

    2013-03-01

    The Ibaraki Medical Association established the Committee for Alternative Dispute Resolution called the Neutral Medical Claim Management Committee in 2006. Among 64 claims presented to the committee, 29 were settled through mediation or consultation. Patients were generally satisfied that their claims were considered fairly by the committee and that they were able to talk directly with healthcare professionals. However, some did not consider the committee to be completely neutral. The healthcare professionals involved rated the committee highly because they felt that the processes were neutral and no emotional aspects were involved. PMID:23617190

  1. Wild bees preferentially visit Rudbeckia flower heads with exaggerated ultraviolet absorbing floral guides

    PubMed Central

    Horth, Lisa; Campbell, Laura; Bray, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report on the results of an experimental study that assessed the visitation frequency of wild bees to conspecific flowers with different sized floral guides. UV absorbent floral guides are ubiquitous in Angiosperms, yet surprisingly little is known about conspecific variation in these guides and very few studies have evaluated pollinator response to UV guide manipulation. This is true despite our rich understanding about learning and color preferences in bees. Historical dogma indicates that flower color serves as an important long-range visual signal allowing pollinators to detect the flowers, while floral guides function as close-range signals that direct pollinators to a reward. We initiated the work presented here by first assessing the population level variation in UV absorbent floral guides for conspecific flowers. We assessed two species, Rudbeckia hirta and R. fulgida. We then used several petal cut-and-paste experiments to test whether UV floral guides can also function to attract visitors. We manipulated floral guide size and evaluated visitation frequency. In all experiments, pollinator visitation rates were clearly associated with floral guide size. Diminished floral guides recruited relatively few insect visitors. Exaggerated floral guides recruited more visitors than smaller or average sized guides. Thus, UV floral guides play an important role in pollinator recruitment and in determining the relative attractiveness of conspecific flower heads. Consideration of floral guides is therefore important when evaluating the overall conspicuousness of flower heads relative to background coloration. This work raises the issue of whether floral guides serve as honest indicators of reward, since guide size varies in nature for conspecific flowers at the same developmental stage and since preferences for larger guides were found. To our knowledge, these are the first cut-and-paste experiments conducted to examine whether UV absorbent floral

  2. Wild bees preferentially visit Rudbeckia flower heads with exaggerated ultraviolet absorbing floral guides.

    PubMed

    Horth, Lisa; Campbell, Laura; Bray, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report on the results of an experimental study that assessed the visitation frequency of wild bees to conspecific flowers with different sized floral guides. UV absorbent floral guides are ubiquitous in Angiosperms, yet surprisingly little is known about conspecific variation in these guides and very few studies have evaluated pollinator response to UV guide manipulation. This is true despite our rich understanding about learning and color preferences in bees. Historical dogma indicates that flower color serves as an important long-range visual signal allowing pollinators to detect the flowers, while floral guides function as close-range signals that direct pollinators to a reward. We initiated the work presented here by first assessing the population level variation in UV absorbent floral guides for conspecific flowers. We assessed two species, Rudbeckia hirta and R. fulgida. We then used several petal cut-and-paste experiments to test whether UV floral guides can also function to attract visitors. We manipulated floral guide size and evaluated visitation frequency. In all experiments, pollinator visitation rates were clearly associated with floral guide size. Diminished floral guides recruited relatively few insect visitors. Exaggerated floral guides recruited more visitors than smaller or average sized guides. Thus, UV floral guides play an important role in pollinator recruitment and in determining the relative attractiveness of conspecific flower heads. Consideration of floral guides is therefore important when evaluating the overall conspicuousness of flower heads relative to background coloration. This work raises the issue of whether floral guides serve as honest indicators of reward, since guide size varies in nature for conspecific flowers at the same developmental stage and since preferences for larger guides were found. To our knowledge, these are the first cut-and-paste experiments conducted to examine whether UV absorbent floral guides affect

  3. Exaggerated allometric structures in relation to demographic and ecological parameters in Lucanus cervus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae).

    PubMed

    Romiti, Federico; Tini, Massimiliano; Redolfi De Zan, Lara; Chiari, Stefano; Zauli, Agnese; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M

    2015-10-01

    Enlarged weapons and ornamental traits under sexual selection often show a positive allometric relationship with the overall body size. The present study explores the allometry of mandibles and their supporting structure, the head, in males of the European stag beetle, Lucanus cervus. This species shows a remarkable dimorphism in mandible shape and size that are used by males in intraspecific combats. Stag beetles were captured, measured, weighed, and released in the framework of a capture-mark-recapture study. The relationship of mandible length (ML) and head width in respect to the overall body size was described by a segmented regression model. A linear relationship was detected between ML and head width. The scaling relationships for both ML and head width identified the same switchpoint, highlighting the advantages of using combined results of weapons and their supporting structures in such analysis. These results led to a more consistent distinction of males in two morphologies: minor and major. The survival probability of individuals was dependent on the morphological class and was higher for minor males than for major. Elytron length and body mass of the individuals did not show any significant variation during the season. Differences in predatory pressure were detected between morphs by the collection and analysis of body fragments due to the predatory activity of corvids. Morphological differences and shift in demographic and ecological parameters between the two classes suggested that selection continues to favor intrasexual dimorphism in this species throughout a trade-off mechanism between costs and benefits of carrying exaggerated traits. PMID:26220669

  4. Abnormal Calcium Handling and Exaggerated Cardiac Dysfunction in Mice with Defective Vitamin D Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Sangita; Bae, Soochan; Ke, Qingen; Lee, Ji Yoo; Singh, Sylvia S.; St-Arnaud, René; del Monte, Federica; Kang, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Altered vitamin D signaling is associated with cardiac dysfunction, but the pathogenic mechanism is not clearly understood. We examine the mechanism and the role of vitamin D signaling in the development of cardiac dysfunction. Methods and Results We analyzed 1α-hydroxylase (1α-OHase) knockout (1α-OHase−/−) mice, which lack 1α-OH enzymes that convert the inactive form to hormonally active form of vitamin D. 1α-OHase−/− mice showed modest cardiac hypertrophy at baseline. Induction of pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) demonstrated exaggerated cardiac dysfunction in 1α-OHase−/− mice compared to their WT littermates with a significant increase in fibrosis and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Analysis of calcium (Ca2+) transient demonstrated profound Ca2+ handling abnormalities in 1α-OHase−/− mouse cardiomyocytes (CMs), and treatment with paricalcitol (PC), an activated vitamin D3 analog, significantly attenuated defective Ca2+ handling in 1α-OHase−/− CMs. We further delineated the effect of vitamin D deficiency condition to TAC by first correcting the vitamin D deficiency in 1α-OHase−/− mice, followed then by either a daily maintenance dose of vitamin D or vehicle (to achieve vitamin D deficiency) at the time of sham or TAC. In mice treated with vitamin D, there was a significant attenuation of TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, inflammatory markers, Ca2+ handling abnormalities and cardiac function compared to the vehicle treated animals. Conclusions Our results provide insight into the mechanism of cardiac dysfunction, which is associated with severely defective Ca2+ handling and defective vitamin D signaling in 1α-OHase−/− mice. PMID:25268137

  5. Depressive and elative mood inductions as a function of exaggerated versus contradictory facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Riccelli, P T; Antila, C E; Dale, J A; Klions, H L

    1989-04-01

    Two studies concerned the relation between facial expression cognitive induction of mood and perception of mood in women undergraduates. In Exp. 1, 20 subjects were randomly assigned to a group who were instructed in exaggerated facial expressions (Demand Group) and 20 subjects were randomly assigned to a group who were not instructed (Nondemand Group). All subjects completed a modified Velten (1968) elation- and depression-induction sequence. Ratings of depression on the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist increased during the depression condition and decreased during the elation condition. Subjects made more facial expressions in the Demand Group than the Nondemand Group from electromyogram measures of the zygomatic and corrugator muscles and from corresponding action unit measures from visual scoring using the Facial Action Scoring System. Subjects who were instructed in the Demand Group rated their depression as more severe during the depression slides than the other group. No such effect was noted during the elation condition. In Exp. 2, 16 women were randomly assigned to a group who were instructed in facial expressions contradictory to those expected on the depression and elation tasks (Contradictory Expression Group). Another 16 women were randomly assigned to a group who were given no instructions about facial expressions (Nondemand Group). All subjects completed the depression- and elation-induction sequence mentioned in Exp. 1. No differences were reported between groups on the ratings of depression (MAACL) for the depression-induction or for the elation-induction but both groups rated depression higher after the depression condition and lower after the elation condition. Electromyographic and facial action scores verified that subjects in the Contradictory Expression Group were making the requested contradictory facial expressions during the mood-induction sequences. It was concluded that the primary influence on emotion came from the cognitive mood

  6. Supernatural Explanations: Science or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the advice of supposedly authoritative sources, the a priori exclusion of supernatural explanations or claims from scientific scrutiny is not appropriate. This paper shows how supernatural hypotheses or claims should be treated by science and, in the process, differentiates scientific and non-scientific hypotheses or claims.…

  7. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any communication... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was...

  8. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any communication... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was...

  9. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any communication... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was...

  10. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any communication... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was...

  11. 38 CFR 3.155 - Informal claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.155 Informal claims. (a) Any communication... organization, an attorney, or agent may not be accepted as an informal claim if a power of attorney was...

  12. Clinical utility of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory validity scales to screen for symptom exaggeration following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; Lippa, Sara M; French, Louis M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of three recently developed validity scales (Validity-10, NIM5, and LOW6) designed to screen for symptom exaggeration using the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Participants were 272 U.S. military service members who sustained a mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) and who were evaluated by the neuropsychology service at Walter Reed Army Medical Center within 199 weeks post injury. Participants were divided into two groups based on the Negative Impression Management scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory: (a) those who failed symptom validity testing (SVT-fail; n = 27) and (b) those who passed symptom validity testing (SVT-pass; n = 245). Participants in the SVT-fail group had significantly higher scores (p<.001) on the Validity-10, NIM5, LOW6, NSI total, and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) clinical scales (range: d = 0.76 to 2.34). Similarly high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive (NPP) values were found when using all three validity scales to differentiate SVT-fail versus SVT-pass groups. However, the Validity-10 scale consistently had the highest overall values. The optimal cutoff score for the Validity-10 scale to identify possible symptom exaggeration was ≥19 (sensitivity = .59, specificity = .89, PPP = .74, NPP = .80). For the majority of people, these findings provide support for the use of the Validity-10 scale as a screening tool for possible symptom exaggeration. When scores on the Validity-10 exceed the cutoff score, it is recommended that (a) researchers and clinicians do not interpret responses on the NSI, and (b) clinicians follow up with a more detailed evaluation, using well-validated symptom validity measures (e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form, MMPI-2-RF, validity scales), to seek confirmatory evidence to support an hypothesis of symptom exaggeration

  13. 32 CFR 757.14 - Claims asserted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims asserted. 757.14 Section 757.14 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS AFFIRMATIVE CLAIMS REGULATIONS Medical Care Recovery Act (MCRA) Claims and Claims Asserted Pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 1095 § 757.14 Claims asserted. (a) General. The DoN asserts...

  14. Utility of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory Validity-10 index to detect symptom exaggeration: An analogue simulation study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Karen A; Lange, Rael T; Edmed, Shannon L

    2016-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) has been recommended by the interagency Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Outcome Workgroup as an outcome measure for TBI research. A new symptom exaggeration index-the NSI Validity-10-can be calculated from its items, but its utility has not been evaluated in a malingering simulation study. Data from a prior analogue study were reanalyzed to examine the NSI Validity-10 test properties. The data were from a sample of 85 Australian undergraduate students. A battery of measures was completed under 1 of 3 experimental conditions: control (i.e., honest responding, n = 24), feign postconcussional disorder (PCD; n = 29), and feign posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 32). Participants who feigned PTSD or PCD had significantly higher scores on the NSI Validity-10 compared with controls. There were minimal differences between the 2 feigning groups. Using the combined data from the feigning groups and assuming a 35% symptom exaggeration base rate, the optimal NSI Validity-10 cutoff score was ≥10. This cutoff score identified "probable exaggeration" (sensitivity = .75, specificity = 1.0, positive predictive power = 1.0, negative predictive power = .88). Diagnostic efficiency statistics for 25% and 45% base rates were also generated. The cutoff score identified in this study is lower than previously reported. Its properties are promising, but its usage requires careful consideration. PMID:26943718

  15. Mitochondrial Gene Expression Profiles and Metabolic Pathways in the Amygdala Associated with Exaggerated Fear in an Animal Model of PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Li, Xin; Smerin, Stanley E.; Zhang, Lei; Jia, Min; Xing, Guoqiang; Su, Yan A.; Wen, Jillian; Benedek, David; Ursano, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic mechanisms underlying the development of exaggerated fear in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are not well defined. In the present study, alteration in the expression of genes associated with mitochondrial function in the amygdala of an animal model of PTSD was determined. Amygdala tissue samples were excised from 10 non-stressed control rats and 10 stressed rats, 14 days post-stress treatment. Total RNA was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and gene expression levels were determined using a cDNA microarray. During the development of the exaggerated fear associated with PTSD, 48 genes were found to be significantly upregulated and 37 were significantly downregulated in the amygdala complex based on stringent criteria (p < 0.01). Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed up- or downregulation in the amygdala complex of four signaling networks – one associated with inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, one with immune mediators and metabolism, one with transcriptional factors, and one with chromatin remodeling. Thus, informatics of a neuronal gene array allowed us to determine the expression profile of mitochondrial genes in the amygdala complex of an animal model of PTSD. The result is a further understanding of the metabolic and neuronal signaling mechanisms associated with delayed and exaggerated fear. PMID:25295026

  16. Savory's unsubstantiated claims should not be confused with multipaddock grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sole objective of our critique of Mr. Savory’s TED video published in Rangelands1 was to “fact check” a portion of the extraordinary claims that he had made relative to science based information. It is incumbent upon a professional discipline to evaluate the relevant evidence and potential viabi...

  17. The Genetics Panel of the NAS BEAR I Committee (1956): epistolary evidence suggests self-interest may have prompted an exaggeration of radiation risks that led to the adoption of the LNT cancer risk assessment model.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2014-09-01

    This paper extends a series of historical papers which demonstrated that the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model for cancer risk assessment was founded on ideological-based scientific deceptions by key radiation genetics leaders. Based on an assessment of recently uncovered personal correspondence, it is shown that some members of the United States (US) National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Biological Effects of Atomic Radiation I (BEAR I) Genetics Panel were motivated by self-interest to exaggerate risks to promote their science and personal/professional agenda. Such activities have profound implications for public policy and may have had a significant impact on the adoption of the LNT model for cancer risk assessment. PMID:24993953

  18. Nine Galileo Views in Exaggerated Color of Main-Belt Asteroid Ida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This set of color images of asteroid 243 Ida was taken by the imaging system on the Galileo spacecraft as it approached and raced past the asteroid on August 28, 1993. These images were taken through the 4100-angstrom (violet), 7560-angstrom (infrared) and 9680- angstrom (infrared) filters and have been processed to show Ida in exaggerated color to bring out subtle color contrasts caused by small variations in composition and surface microtexture of the asteroid's soil. In natural color Ida appears gray with slight overtones of red or brown. Stark shadows portray Ida's irregular shape, which changes its silhouetted outline when seen from different angles. More subtle shadings reveal surface topography (such as craters) and differences in the physical state and composition of the soil ('regolith'). Note in particular the color differences associated with the rims and floors of certain impact craters, which may have excavated to layers of slightly differing composition or may have ingested material from impactors of different compositions. Analysis of the images show that Ida is 58 kilometers long and 23 kilometers wide (36 x 14 miles). Ida is the first asteroid discovered to have a natural satellite, Dactyl (not shown here). Ida and Dactyl are heavily cratered by impacts with smaller asteroids and comets, including some of the same populations of small objects that bombard Earth. These data, combined with reflectance spectra from Galileo's near-infrared mapping spectrometer, may allow scientists to determine whether Ida is a relatively unaltered primitive object made of material condensed from the primordial Solar Nebula at the origin of the Solar System or whether it has been altered by strong heating--evidence interpreted so far suggests that Ida is a piece of a larger object that has been severely heated. Whereas heating and melting of large planets is well understood, the cause of heating of small asteroids is more enigmatic--it may have involved exotic

  19. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Erin E; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M; Trehub, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    PVI. Together, these findings suggest that language-based rhythmic structures are evident in children's songs, and that listeners expect exaggerated language-based rhythms in children's songs. The implications of these findings for enculturation processes and for the acquisition of music and language are discussed. PMID:27445907

  20. Mesangial cell hillocks. Nodular foci of exaggerated growth of cells and matrix in prolonged culture.

    PubMed Central

    Sterzel, R. B.; Lovett, D. H.; Foellmer, H. G.; Perfetto, M.; Biemesderfer, D.; Kashgarian, M.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the capability of glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) to produce extracellular matrix, the authors studied MCs in culture by light and electron microscopy as well as immunocytochemistry. MCs were obtained from isolated rat glomeruli and maintained up to 12 weeks in medium containing 20% fetal calf serum. MC outgrowth of primary culture and of up to three subcultures showed characteristic organization consisting of bands of elongated or stellate intertwined cells. After confluency at 10-16 days, MCs continued to grow in irregular multilayers. MCs produced extracellular matrix material within 2-4 days after plating, and large amounts of matrix accumulated with time. By 2-3 weeks, foci of exaggerated MC proliferation, matrix secretion, and necrotic cell debris formed nodular protrusions, which gradually produced large hillocks. Immunocytochemical studies of MC outgrowths were performed on culture plates or on sectioned material with the use of specific rabbit polyclonal antibodies to isolated matrix proteins and FITC-conjugated, affinity-purified second antibodies. Within 3 days of culture, MCs elaborated fibronectin and collagen Types I, III, IV, and V. With time, strands of matrix, notably in the central mass of hillocks, stained extensively for these constituents. Staining for laminin was less pronounced. Smooth muscle cell myosin was regularly found on distinct intracellular fibrils and in the extracellular material of hillocks. Electron microscopy revealed the hillocks to be composed of elongated cells on the surface and stellate cells intermingled with matrix and necrotic cell debris in the core. The results show that proliferating MCs can be maintained in homogeneous culture for a prolonged time period. MCs produce large amounts of the extracellular matrix proteins (Type IV and V collagen, fibronectin, laminin), which are found in normal glomeruli. Cultured MCs also produce interstitial collagen Types I and III. MC hillocks show the nodular accumulation

  1. 6-Gingerol alleviates exaggerated vasoconstriction in diabetic rat aorta through direct vasodilation and nitric oxide generation.

    PubMed

    Ghareib, Salah A; El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Azhar, Ahmad; Watson, Malcolm L; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of action of 6-gingerol on alterations of vascular reactivity in the isolated aorta from diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups, control and diabetics. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg kg(-1)), and the rats were left for 10 weeks to develop vascular complications. The effect of in vitro incubation with 6-gingerol (0.3-3 μM) on the vasoconstrictor response of the isolated diabetic aortae to phenylephrine and the vasodilator response to acetylcholine was examined. Effect of 6-gingerol was also examined on aortae incubated with methylglyoxal as an advanced glycation end product (AGE). To investigate the mechanism of action of 6-gingerol, the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (100 μM), guanylate cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (5 μM), calcium-activated potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (10 mM), and cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 μM) were added 30 minutes before assessing the direct vasorelaxant effect of 6-gingerol. Moreover, in vitro effects of 6-gingerol on NO release and the effect of 6-gingerol on AGE production were examined. Results showed that incubation of aortae with 6-gingerol (0.3-10 μM) alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction of diabetic aortae to phenylephrine in a concentration-dependent manner with no significant effect on the impaired relaxatory response to acetylcholine. Similar results were seen in the aortae exposed to methylglyoxal. In addition, 6-gingerol induced a direct vasodilation effect that was significantly inhibited by Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and methylene blue. Furthermore, 6-gingerol stimulated aortic NO generation but had no effect on AGE formation. In conclusion, 6-gingerol ameliorates enhanced vascular contraction in diabetic aortae, which may be partially

  2. Functional Correlates of Exaggerated Oscillatory Activity in Basal Ganglia Output in Hemiparkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brazhnik, Elena; Novikov, Nikolay; McCoy, Alex J.; Cruz, Ana V.; Walters, Judith R.

    2014-01-01

    Exaggerated beta range (13–30 Hz) synchronized activity is observed in the basal ganglia of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients during implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes and is thought to contribute to the motor symptoms of this disorder. To explore the translational potential of similar activity observed in a rat model of PD, local field potentials (LFP) and spiking activity in basal ganglia output were characterized in rats with unilateral dopamine cell lesion during a range of behaviors. A circular treadmill was used to assess activity during walking; hemiparkinsonian rats could maintain a steady gait when oriented ipsiversive to the lesioned hemisphere, but were less effective at walking when oriented contraversive to lesion. Dramatic increases in substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) LFP oscillatory activity and spike-LFP synchronization were observed within the beta/low gamma range (12–40 Hz) in the lesioned hemisphere, relative to the non-lesioned hemisphere, with the dominant frequency of spike-LFP entrainment and LFP power varying with behavioral state. At 3 weeks post-lesion, the mean dominant entrainment frequency during ipsiversive treadmill walking and grooming was 34 Hz. Other behaviors were associated with lower mean entrainment frequencies: 27–28 Hz during alert non-walking and REM, 17 Hz during rest and 21 Hz during urethane anesthesia with sensory stimulation. SNpr spike-LFP entrainment frequency was stable during individual treadmill walking epochs, but increased gradually over weeks post-lesion. In contrast, SNpr LFP power in the 25–40 Hz range was greatest at the initiation of each walking epoch, and decreased during walking to stabilize by 6 min at 49% of initial values. Power was further modulated in conjunction with the 1.5 s stepping rhythm. Administration of L-dopa improved contraversive treadmill walking in correlation with a reduction in SNpr 25–40 Hz LFP power and spike synchronization in the dopamine cell

  3. Dissociated vertical deviation: an exaggerated normal eye movement used to damp cyclovertical latent nystagmus.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, D L; Cheeseman, E W; Ellis, F J; Straumann, D; Zee, D S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) has eluded explanation for more than a century. The purpose of this study has been to elucidate the etiology and mechanism of DVD. METHODS: Eye movement recordings of six young adults with DVD were made with dual-coil scleral search coils under various conditions of fixation, illumination, and head tilt. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements were recorded for both eyes simultaneously. Analyses of the simultaneous vertical and torsional movements occurring during the DVD response were used to separate and identify the component vergence and version eye movements involved. RESULTS: Typically, both horizontal and cyclovertical latent nystagmus developed upon occlusion of either eye. A cycloversion then occurred, with the fixing eye intorting and tending to depress, the covered eye extorting and elevating. Simultaneously, upward versions occurred for the maintenance of fixation, consisting variously of saccades and smooth eye movements, leading to further elevation of the eye behind the cover. The cyclovertical component of the latent nystagmus became partially damped as the DVD developed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with an early-onset defect of binocular function, the occlusion of one eye, or even concentration on fixing with one eye, produces unbalanced input to the vestibular system. This results in latent nystagmus, sometimes seen only with magnification. The cyclovertical component of the latent nystagmus, when present, is similar to normal vestibular nystagmus induced by dynamic head tilting about an oblique axis. Such vestibular nystagmus characteristically produces a hyperdeviation of the eyes. In the case of cyclovertical latent nystagmus, the analogous hyperdeviation will persist unless corrected by a vertical vergence. A normal, oblique-muscle-mediated, cycloversion/vertical vergence is called into play. This occurs in the proper direction to correct the hyperdeviation, but it occurs in an exaggerated

  4. Exaggeration of Language-Specific Rhythms in English and French Children's Songs

    PubMed Central

    Hannon, Erin E.; Lévêque, Yohana; Nave, Karli M.; Trehub, Sandra E.

    2016-01-01

    PVI. Together, these findings suggest that language-based rhythmic structures are evident in children's songs, and that listeners expect exaggerated language-based rhythms in children's songs. The implications of these findings for enculturation processes and for the acquisition of music and language are discussed. PMID:27445907

  5. 22 CFR 33.8 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claim procedures. 33.8 Section 33.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE ACT GUARANTY FUND PROCEDURES UNDER SECTION 7 § 33.8 Claim procedures. (a) Where and when to apply. Claims must be submitted to the Office Director, Office of...

  6. 22 CFR 33.8 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claim procedures. 33.8 Section 33.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY FISHERMEN'S PROTECTIVE ACT GUARANTY FUND PROCEDURES UNDER SECTION 7 § 33.8 Claim procedures. (a) Where and when to apply. Claims must be submitted to the Office Director, Office of...

  7. 29 CFR 15.24 - Unallowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unallowable claims. 15.24 Section 15.24 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED STATUTES Claims Under... books, is not compensable. Loss of a thesis, or other similar item, is compensable only to the extent...

  8. 28 CFR 8.10 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 8.10 Claims. (a) Filing. In order to contest the forfeiture of seized property in federal court, any...) Availability of claim forms. The claim need not be made in any particular form. However, each seizing agency conducting forfeitures under the regulations in this part must make claim forms generally available...

  9. 24 CFR 17.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claims investigation. 17.6 Section 17.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures §...

  10. 24 CFR 17.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims investigation. 17.6 Section 17.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures §...

  11. 24 CFR 17.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Claims investigation. 17.6 Section 17.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures §...

  12. 24 CFR 17.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Claims investigation. 17.6 Section 17.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures §...

  13. 24 CFR 17.6 - Claims investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claims investigation. 17.6 Section 17.6 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures §...

  14. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claim defined. 504.1 Section 504.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF THE UNITED STATES... 1948, AS AMENDED FILING OF CLAIMS AND PROCEDURES THEREFOR § 504.1 Claim defined. (a) This subchapter...

  15. 45 CFR 504.1 - Claim defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claim defined. 504.1 Section 504.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF THE UNITED STATES... 1948, AS AMENDED FILING OF CLAIMS AND PROCEDURES THEREFOR § 504.1 Claim defined. (a) This subchapter...

  16. 21 CFR 101.71 - Health claims: claims not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 101.71 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements for Health Claims § 101.71 Health... dietary supplements of vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar substances: (a) Dietary fiber...

  17. 32 CFR 536.103 - Statutory authority for claims cognizable under international claims agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... international claims agreements. 536.103 Section 536.103 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued... International Agreements § 536.103 Statutory authority for claims cognizable under international claims... International Agreements Claims Act) as amended, for claims arising overseas under international agreements....

  18. Meal Counting and Claiming Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual contains information about the selection and implementation of a meal counting and claiming system for the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program (BSP). Federal reimbursement is provided for each meal that meets program requirements and is served to an eligible student. Part 1 explains the six elements of…

  19. Alaska Native Land Claims. [Textbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Written for students at the secondary level, this textbook on Alaska Native land claims includes nine chapters, eight appendices, photographs, maps, graphs, bibliography, and an index. Chapters are titled as follows: (1) Earliest Times (Alaska's first settlers, eighteenth century territories, and other claimants); (2) American Indians and Their…

  20. Dietary Zinc Deficiency Exaggerates Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice: Involvement of Intrahepatic and Extrahepatic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xinguo; Song, Zhenyuan; McClain, Craig J.; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that alcoholics have a lower dietary zinc intake compared to health controls. The present study was undertaken to determine the interaction between dietary zinc deficiency and ethanol consumption in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. C57BL/6N mice were subjected to 8-week feeding of 4 experimental liquid diets: (1) zinc adequate diet, (2) zinc adequate diet plus ethanol, (3) zinc deficient diet, and (4) zinc deficient diet plus ethanol. Ethanol exposure with adequate dietary zinc resulted in liver damage as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase level and increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Dietary zinc deficiency alone increased hepatic lipid contents, but did not induce hepatic inflammation. Dietary zinc deficiency showed synergistic effects on ethanol-induced liver damage. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol effects on hepatic genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. Dietary zinc deficiency worsened ethanol-induced imbalance between hepatic pro-oxidant and antioxidant enzymes and hepatic expression of cell death receptors. Dietary zinc deficiency exaggerated ethanol-induced reduction of plasma leptin, although it did not affect ethanol-induced reduction of white adipose tissue mass. Dietary zinc deficiency also deteriorated ethanol-induced gut permeability increase and plasma endotoxin elevation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that dietary zinc deficiency is a risk factor in alcoholic liver disease, and multiple intrahepatic and extrahepatic factors may mediate the detrimental effects of zinc deficiency. PMID:24155903

  1. High-fat diets exaggerate endocrine and metabolic phenotypes in a rat model of DHEA-induced PCOS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haolin; Yi, Ming; Zhang, Yan; Jin, Hongyan; Zhang, Wenxin; Yang, Jingjing; Yan, Liying; Li, Rong; Zhao, Yue; Qiao, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder with unclear etiology and unsatisfactory management. Effects of diets on the phenotype of PCOS were not fully understood. In the present study, we applied 45 and 60% high-fat diets (HFDs) on a rat model of PCOS induced by postnatal DHEA injection. We found that both DHEA and DHEA+HFDs rats exhibited reproductive abnormalities, including hyperandrogenism, irregular cycles and polycystic ovaries. The addition of HFDs, especially 60% HFDs, exaggerated morphological changes of ovaries and a number of metabolic changes, including increased body weight and body fat content, impaired glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. Results from qPCR showed that DHEA-induced increased expression of hypothalamic androgen receptor and LH receptor were reversed by the addition of 60% HFDs. In contrast, the ovarian expression of LH receptor and insulin receptor mRNA was upregulated only with the addition of 60% HFDs. These findings indicated that DHEA and DHEA+HFDs might influence PCOS phenotypes through distinct mechanisms: DHEA affects the normal function of hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis through LH, whereas the addition of HFDs exaggerated endocrine and metabolic dysfunction through ovarian responses to insulin-related mechanisms. We concluded that the addition of HFDs yielded distinct phenotypes of DHEA-induced PCOS and could be used for studies on both reproductive and metabolic features of the syndrome. PMID:26814210

  2. Exaggerated neurobiological sensitivity to threat as a mechanism linking anxiety with increased risk for diseases of aging

    PubMed Central

    O’Donovan, Aoife; Slavich, George M; Epel, Elissa S.; Neylan, Thomas C

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders increase risk for the early development of several diseases of aging. Elevated inflammation, a common risk factor across diseases of aging, may play a key role in the relationship between anxiety and physical disease. However, the neurobiological mechanisms linking anxiety with elevated inflammation remain unclear. In this review, we present a neurobiological model of the mechanisms by which anxiety promotes inflammation. Specifically we propose that exaggerated neurobiological sensitivity to threat in anxious individuals may lead to sustained threat perception, which is accompanied by prolonged activation of threat-related neural circuitry and threat-responsive biological systems including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and inflammatory response. Over time, this pattern of responding can promote chronic inflammation through structural and functional brain changes, altered sensitivity of immune cell receptors, dysregulation of the HPA axis and ANS, and accelerated cellular aging. Chronic inflammation, in turn, increases risk for diseases of aging. Exaggerated neurobiological sensitivity to threat may thus be a treatment target for reducing disease risk in anxious individuals. PMID:23127296

  3. New methodology in biomedical science: methodological errors in classical science.

    PubMed

    Skurvydas, Albertas

    2005-01-01

    The following methodological errors are observed in biomedical sciences: paradigmatic ones; those of exaggerated search for certainty; science dehumanisation; deterministic and linearity; those of making conclusions; errors of reductionism or quality decomposition as well as exaggerated enlargement; errors connected with discarding odd; unexpected or awkward facts; those of exaggerated mathematization; isolation of science; the error of "common sense"; Ceteris Paribus law's ("other things being equal" laws) error; "youth" and common sense; inflexibility of criteria of the truth; errors of restricting the sources of truth and ways of searching for truth; the error connected with wisdom gained post factum; the errors of wrong interpretation of research mission; "laziness" to repeat the experiment as well as the errors of coordination of errors. One of the basic aims for the present-day scholars of biomedicine is, therefore, mastering the new non-linear, holistic, complex way of thinking that will, undoubtedly, enable one to make less errors doing research. The aim of "scientific travelling" will be achieved with greater probability if the "travelling" itself is performed with great probability. PMID:15687745

  4. 76 FR 35086 - Proposed Information Collection (Fully Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims-Applications for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension, and/or Accrued Benefits)) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans... Developed Claim (Fully Developed Claims--Applications for Compensation, Pension, DIC, Death Pension,...

  5. Amending the National Practitioner Data Bank reporting requirements: are small claims predictive of large claims?

    PubMed

    Rolph, J E; Pekelney, D; McGuigan, K

    1993-01-01

    This study addresses whether a physician incurring small malpractice claims is predictive of large claims. This is one consideration behind reevaluating whether all claims that result in an indemnity payment should continue to be reported to the National Practitioner Data Bank, or whether claims with payments below some "floor" should be excluded. Using a claims database from 3,098 physicians for 1977-1986, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses show that an individual having a small claim (under $30,000) is indicative of a propensity to incur large claims. This finding is robust to the cutpoint between large and small claims. PMID:8288406

  6. Automated claim and payment verification.

    PubMed

    Segal, Mark J; Morris, Susan; Rubin, James M O

    2002-01-01

    Since the start of managed care, there has been steady deterioration in the ability of physicians, hospitals, payors, and patients to understand reimbursement and the contracts and payment policies that drive it. This lack of transparency has generated administrative costs, confusion, and mistrust. It is therefore essential that physicians, hospitals, and payors have rapid access to accurate information on contractual payment terms. This article summarizes problems with contract-based reimbursement and needed responses by medical practices. It describes an innovative, Internet-based claims and payment verification service, Phynance, which automatically verifies the accuracy of all claims and payments by payor, contract and line item. This service enables practices to know and apply the one, true, contractually obligated allowable. The article details implementation costs and processes and anticipated return on investment. The resulting transparency improves business processes throughout health care, increasing efficiency and lowering costs for physicians, hospitals, payors, employers--and patients. PMID:12122814

  7. 32 CFR 750.64 - Claim procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Not Cognizable Under Any Other Provision of Law § 750.64 Claim procedures. (a) The general provisions... notification of a nonscope claim incident accompanied by a demand for money damages in a sum certain. (c)...

  8. The Good News About American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapointe, Archie E.

    1984-01-01

    Examining recent claims that American schools inadequately prepare students in science and mathematics, the author argues that such claims are exaggerated and misleading and may lead to undesirable tradeoffs in the areas of curriculum, school finance, and social opportunity. (JBM)

  9. 5 CFR 177.103 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 177... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 177.103 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim... assert a claim under the applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss totally compensated by an...

  10. Evidence, exaggeration, and error in historical accounts of chaparral wildfires in California.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Brett R; Minnich, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    For more than half a century, ecologists and historians have been integrating the contemporary study of ecosystems with data gathered from historical sources to evaluate change over broad temporal and spatial scales. This approach is especially useful where ecosystems were altered before formal study as a result of natural resources management, land development, environmental pollution, and climate change. Yet, in many places, historical documents do not provide precise information, and pre-historical evidence is unavailable or has ambiguous interpretation. There are similar challenges in evaluating how the fire regime of chaparral in California has changed as a result of fire suppression management initiated at the beginning of the 20th century. Although the firestorm of October 2003 was the largest officially recorded in California (approximately 300,000 ha), historical accounts of pre-suppression wildfires have been cited as evidence that such a scale of burning was not unprecedented, suggesting the fire regime and patch mosaic in chaparral have not substantially changed. We find that the data do not support pre-suppression megafires, and that the impression of large historical wildfires is a result of imprecision and inaccuracy in the original reports, as well as a parlance that is beset with hyperbole. We underscore themes of importance for critically analyzing historical documents to evaluate ecological change. A putative 100 mile long by 10 mile wide (160 x 16 km) wildfire reported in 1889 was reconstructed to an area of chaparral approximately 40 times smaller by linking local accounts to property tax records, voter registration rolls, claimed insurance, and place names mapped with a geographical information system (GIS) which includes data from historical vegetation surveys. We also show that historical sources cited as evidence of other large chaparral wildfires are either demonstrably inaccurate or provide anecdotal information that is immaterial in the

  11. Exaggerated haemodynamic and neural responses to involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration in normotensive obese versus lean women.

    PubMed

    Dipla, Konstantina; Kousoula, Dimitra; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure response to voluntary exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We examined whether involuntary contractions elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of blood pressure in normotensive obese versus lean women. What is the main finding and its importance? During involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration, there were augmented blood pressure and spontaneous baroreflex responses in obese compared with lean women. This finding is suggestive of an overactive mechanoreflex in the exercise-induced hypertensive response in obesity. Passive contractions did not elicit differential heart rate responses in obese compared with lean women, implying other mechanisms for the blunted heart rate response reported during voluntary exercise in obesity. In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether involuntary mechanical oscillations, induced by whole-body vibration (WBV), elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of BP in obese versus lean women. Twenty-two normotensive, premenopausal women (12 lean and 10 obese) randomly underwent a passive WBV (25 Hz) and a control protocol (similar posture without WVB). Beat-by-beat BP, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, parasympathetic output (evaluated by heart rate variability) and spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity (sBRS) were assessed. We found that during WBV, obese women exhibited an augmented systolic BP response compared with lean women that was correlated with body fat percentage (r = 0.77; P < 0.05). The exaggerated BP rise was driven mainly by the greater increase in cardiac output index in obese versus lean women, associated with a greater stroke volume index in obese women

  12. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in Nevada: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in Nevada as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill, and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate Bureau of Land Management (BLM) State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the MCRS database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  13. Digital mining claim density map for federal lands in New Mexico: 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyndman, Paul C.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a digital map generated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide digital spatial mining claim density information for federal lands in New Mexico as of March 1997. Mining claim data is earth science information deemed to be relevant to the assessment of historic, current, and future ecological, economic, and social systems. There is no paper map included in this Open-File report. In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), all unpatented mining claims, mill, and tunnel sites must be recorded at the appropriate BLM State office. BLM maintains a cumulative computer listing of mining claims in the MCRS database with locations given by meridian, township, range, and section. A mining claim is considered closed when the claim is relinquished or a formal BLM decision declaring the mining claim null and void has been issued and the appeal period has expired. All other mining claims filed with BLM are considered to be open and actively held. The digital map (figure 1.) with the mining claim density database available in this report are suitable for geographic information system (GIS)-based regional assessments at a scale of 1:100,000 or smaller.

  14. 40 CFR 13.3 - Interagency claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interagency claims. 13.3 Section 13.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.3 Interagency claims. This regulation does not apply to debts owed EPA by other Federal agencies. Such debts will be resolved by...

  15. 32 CFR 1602.24 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim. 1602.24 Section 1602.24 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.24 Claim. A claim is a request for postponement of induction or classification into a class other than 1-A....

  16. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in PCT Art. 6 and PCT Rules 6, 9, 10 and 11 and shall be adhered to. The number of the claims shall...

  17. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Claims. 1037.3 Section 1037.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the...

  18. 32 CFR 536.2 - Claims authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... implementing the Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 CFR part 14. (C) An appendix to 28 CFR part 14 sets forth certain...). (3) Affirmative claims (32 CFR part 537). (i) The Federal Claims Collection Act (FCCA), 31 U.S.C... by a Fifth Amendment “taking.” (2) Maritime authority statutes, Public Vessels Act (PVA), 46...

  19. 32 CFR 536.2 - Claims authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... implementing the Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 CFR Part 14. (C) An appendix to 28 CFR Part 14 sets forth certain...). (3) Affirmative claims (32 CFR Part 537). (i) The Federal Claims Collection Act (FCCA), 31 U.S.C... by a Fifth Amendment “taking.” (2) Maritime authority statutes, Public Vessels Act (PVA), 46...

  20. 32 CFR 536.2 - Claims authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... implementing the Federal Tort Claims Act, 28 CFR Part 14. (C) An appendix to 28 CFR Part 14 sets forth certain...). (3) Affirmative claims (32 CFR Part 537). (i) The Federal Claims Collection Act (FCCA), 31 U.S.C... by a Fifth Amendment “taking.” (2) Maritime authority statutes, Public Vessels Act (PVA), 46...

  1. 42 CFR 401.607 - Claims collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims collection. 401.607 Section 401.607 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Claims Collection and Compromise § 401.607 Claims collection. (a) General policy. CMS recovers amounts...

  2. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  3. 24 CFR 17.67 - Claims files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claims files. 17.67 Section 17.67... files. Each claims collection officer is responsible for obtaining current credit data about each person against whom a claim is pending in his office. The file shall be kept reasonably up to date by...

  4. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  5. 28 CFR 345.66 - Claims limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims limitation. 345.66 Section 345.66 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.66 Claims limitation. Claims relating to...

  6. 28 CFR 345.66 - Claims limitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims limitation. 345.66 Section 345.66 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.66 Claims limitation. Claims relating to...

  7. Diagnosing an Employment Civil Rights Claim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Nicholas D.

    1980-01-01

    An approach is developed to evaluating an employment civil rights claim, on the theory that proper diagnosis will facilitate a more appropriate defensive strategy. The statutory basis for the claims, substance of the complaint, parties defendant, pretext, feasible alternatives, and reasonable accommodation are discussed as claim criteria. (MSE)

  8. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  9. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  10. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false False claims. 356.3 Section 356.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31...

  11. 12 CFR 650.40 - Creditor claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditor claims. 650.40 Section 650.40 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION... or in part any creditor's claim or claim of security, preference, or priority that is not proved...

  12. 12 CFR 627.2740 - Creditors' claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Creditors' claims. 627.2740 Section 627.2740 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM TITLE IV CONSERVATORS, RECEIVERS, AND... receiver may disallow in whole or in part any creditor's claim or claim of security, preference,...

  13. 38 CFR 21.31 - Informal claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informal claim. 21.31...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Claims § 21.31 Informal claim. Any communication or action indicating an intent to apply...

  14. 36 CFR 530.1 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Department of Justice in 28 CFR part 14. Information on specific claims procedures can be obtained as follows... 530.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLAIMS AGAINST THE SMITHSONIAN... WOODROW WILSON INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR SCHOLARS § 530.1 Tort claims. The Smithsonian Institution...

  15. 36 CFR 530.1 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Department of Justice in 28 CFR part 14. Information on specific claims procedures can be obtained as follows....1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLAIMS AGAINST THE SMITHSONIAN... WOODROW WILSON INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR SCHOLARS § 530.1 Tort claims. The Smithsonian Institution...

  16. 36 CFR 530.1 - Tort claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Department of Justice in 28 CFR part 14. Information on specific claims procedures can be obtained as follows... 530.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION CLAIMS AGAINST THE SMITHSONIAN... WOODROW WILSON INTERNATIONAL CENTER FOR SCHOLARS § 530.1 Tort claims. The Smithsonian Institution...

  17. 28 CFR 104.5 - Foreign claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign claims. 104.5 Section 104.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND General; Eligibility § 104.5 Foreign claims. In the case of claims brought by or on behalf of foreign citizens,...

  18. 28 CFR 104.5 - Foreign claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign claims. 104.5 Section 104.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND General; Eligibility § 104.5 Foreign claims. In the case of claims brought by or on behalf of foreign citizens,...

  19. 28 CFR 104.5 - Foreign claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign claims. 104.5 Section 104.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 General; Eligibility § 104.5 Foreign claims. In the case of claims brought by or on behalf of...

  20. 28 CFR 104.5 - Foreign claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foreign claims. 104.5 Section 104.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND General; Eligibility § 104.5 Foreign claims. In the case of claims brought by or on behalf of foreign citizens,...

  1. 28 CFR 104.5 - Foreign claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign claims. 104.5 Section 104.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 General; Eligibility § 104.5 Foreign claims. In the case of claims brought by or on behalf of...

  2. 76 FR 3156 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... within mining claim recordations AA-32360, AA-32362, AA-32363, AA-32364, and AA-32365; Sec. 10, those lands formerly within mining claim recordation AA- 32365. Containing approximately 155 acres. T. 27 N., R. 47 W., Sec. 34, those lands formerly within mining claim recordations AA-32360, AA-32361, and...

  3. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  4. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  5. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  6. 37 CFR 1.436 - The claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The claims. 1.436 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES International Processing Provisions The International Application § 1.436 The claims. The requirements as to the content and format of claims are set forth in...

  7. 27 CFR 72.32 - Interest claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest claimed. 72.32 Section 72.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.32 Interest claimed. Any person claiming an interest in...

  8. 26 CFR 403.36 - Interest claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interest claimed. 403.36 Section 403.36... ADMINISTRATION DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.36 Interest claimed. Any person claiming an interest in property seized by an officer of the Internal Revenue...

  9. [Health and nutrition claims made on food: what future?].

    PubMed

    Laplace, Jean-Paul

    2006-11-01

    The number of foods bearing health and nutrition claims is growing in line with consumers' expectations. This market offers attractive prospects of profit for industry and commerce. The question is whether such foods really have health effects, and whether the general population or specific groups really benefit from their use. Specific regulations are needed to define the conditions of validation, communication and follow-up of such claims. The European Community's internal market is currently governed by a fragmented set of regulations and enforcement systems. Member states' national regulations differ in substance and application. For these reasons, the European Commission is seeking to create and adopt a common regulation. The following article considers the main stakes relating to consumers' health expectations, public health, and industrial and commercial interests, together with the origins of the concept of "functional foods". In contrast to the 'product based' approach in other cultures (Japan, North America, etc.), Europe has chosen a 'science based' approach focusing on physiological functions. In particular, Europe funded the FUFOSE program (Functional Food Science in Europe) coordinated by ILSI (International Life Science Institute). The bases of true functional food science are considered--how to identify beneficial interactions between food components and specific body functions, and to understand the underlying mechanisms in order to construct hypotheses for testing on volunteers. A methodology based on biological markers has been developed Europe then funded the PASSCLAIM program (Process for the assessment of scientific support for claims on foods) aimed at identifying relationships between a functional effect (normal or enhanced function) and a health benefit or a reduced risk of disease. Selected aspects of these 10-year programs illustrate the scientific bases for a European regulation of nutrition claims and so-called health claims (improved

  10. Causation in the sciences: an inferentialist account.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Julian

    2012-12-01

    I present an alternative account of causation in the biomedical and social sciences according to which the meaning of causal claims is given by their inferential relations to other claims. Specifically, I will argue that causal claims are (typically) inferentially related to certain evidential claims as well as claims about explanation, prediction, intervention and responsibility. I explain in some detail what it means for a claim to be inferentially related to another and finally derive some implication of the proposed account for the epistemology, semantics and metaphysics of causation. PMID:22883394

  11. Optimizing claims payment for successful risk management.

    PubMed

    Frates, Janice; Ginty, Mary Jo; Baker, Linda

    2002-05-01

    Disputed claims and delayed payments are among the principal sources of provider and vendor dissatisfaction with managed care payment systems. Timely and accurate claims-payment systems are essential to ensure provider and vendor satisfaction, fiscal stability, and regulatory compliance. A focused analysis of conditions contributing to late payment of claims can disclose problems in provider, vendor, or payer operational and billing procedures, contracting processes, information systems, or human resources management. Resolution of these conditions equips claims-processing staff with tools to resolve problem claims promptly, thereby lowering costs. PMID:12013642

  12. Exaggerated sexual swellings and male mate choice in primates: testing the reliable indicator hypothesis in the Amboseli baboons

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm of competitive males vying to influence female mate choice has been repeatedly upheld, but, increasingly, studies also report competitive females and choosy males. One female trait that is commonly proposed to influence male mate choice is the exaggerated sexual swelling displayed by females of many Old World primate species. The reliable indicator hypothesis posits that females use the exaggerated swellings to compete for access to mates, and that the swellings advertise variation in female fitness. We tested the two main predictions of this hypothesis in a wild population of baboons (Papio cynocephalus). First, we examined the effect of swelling size on the probability of mate-guarding (‘consortship’) by the highest-ranking male and the behavior of those males that trailed consorshipts (‘follower males’). Second, we asked whether a female’s swelling size predicted several fitness measures. We found that high-ranking males do not prefer females with larger swellings (when controlling for cycle number and conception) and that females with larger swellings did not have higher reproductive success. Our study—the only complete test of the reliable indicator hypothesis in a primate population—rejects the idea that female baboons compete for mates by advertising heritable fitness differences. Furthermore, we found unambiguous evidence that males biased their mating decisions in favor of females who had experienced more sexual cycles since their most recent pregnancy. Thus, rather than tracking the potential differences in fitness between females, male baboons appear to track and target the potential for a given reproductive opportunity to result in fertilization. PMID:26752790

  13. Tetrahydrobiopterin ameliorates the exaggerated exercise pressor response in patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ann M; Liao, Peizhou; Millson, Erin C; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Park, Jeanie

    2016-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have an exaggerated increase in blood pressure (BP) during rhythmic handgrip exercise (RHG 20%) and static handgrip exercise (SHG 30%). Nitric oxide levels increase during exercise and help prevent excessive hypertension by both increasing vasodilation and reducing sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Therefore, we hypothesized that tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase, would ameliorate the exaggerated exercise pressor response in CKD patients. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, we tested the effects of 12 wk of sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4; n = 18) versus placebo (n = 14) treatement on BP and muscle SNA (MSNA) responses during RHG 20% and SHG 30% in CKD patients. The 6R-BH4-treated group had a significantly lower systolic BP (+6 ± 1 vs. +13 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.002) and mean arterial pressure response (+5 ± 1 vs. +10 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.020) during RHG 20% and a significantly lower systolic BP response (+19 ± 3 vs. +28 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.043) during SHG 30%. Under baseline conditions, there was no significant difference in MSNA responses between the groups; however, when the BP response during exercise was equalized between the groups using nitroprusside, the 6R-BH4-treated group had a significantly lower MSNA response during RHG 20% (6R-BH4 vs. placebo, +12 ± 1 vs. +21 ± 2 bursts/min, P = 0.004) but not during SHG 30%. These findings suggest that 6R-BH4 ameliorates the augmented BP response during RHG 20% and SHG 30% in CKD patients. A reduction in reflex activation of SNA may contribute to the decreased exercise pressor response during RHG 20% but not during SHG 30% in CKD patients. PMID:26962106

  14. 32 CFR 751.10 - Form of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Claims Against the United States § 751.10 Form of claim. The claim should be submitted on DD Form 1842 (Claim for Personal Property) accompanied by DD Form 1844 (List of Property). If DD Forms 1842 and 1844...

  15. 32 CFR 751.10 - Form of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Claims Against the United States § 751.10 Form of claim. The claim should be submitted on DD Form 1842 (Claim for Personal Property) accompanied by DD Form 1844 (List of Property). If DD Forms 1842 and 1844...

  16. 32 CFR 751.10 - Form of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Claims Against the United States § 751.10 Form of claim. The claim should be submitted on DD Form 1842 (Claim for Personal Property) accompanied by DD Form 1844 (List of Property). If DD Forms 1842 and 1844...

  17. Scientific Claims versus Scientific Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, John

    1991-01-01

    Provides activities that help students to understand the importance of the scientific method. The activities include the science of fusion and cold fusion; a group activity that analyzes and interprets the events surrounding cold fusion; and an application research project concerning a current science issue. (ZWH)

  18. 37 CFR 360.15 - Separate claims required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separate claims required. 360... Claims § 360.15 Separate claims required. If a party intends to file claims for both cable compulsory... must file separate claims with the Copyright Royalty Board. Any single claim which purports to file...

  19. 32 CFR 751.7 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims not payable. 751.7 Section 751.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PERSONNEL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Claims Against the United States § 751.7 Claims not payable. (a) Losses in unassigned quarters in the United States. Claims for property damaged...

  20. 32 CFR 751.7 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims not payable. 751.7 Section 751.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PERSONNEL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Claims Against the United States § 751.7 Claims not payable. (a) Losses in unassigned quarters in the United States. Claims for property damaged...

  1. 32 CFR 751.7 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims not payable. 751.7 Section 751.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS PERSONNEL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Claims Against the United States § 751.7 Claims not payable. (a) Losses in unassigned quarters in the United States. Claims for property damaged...

  2. 40 CFR 10.3 - Administrative claims; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claims; who may file. 10... CLAIMS UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 10.3 Administrative claims; who may file. (a) A claim... by any other person legally entitled to assert such a claim under applicable State law. (d) A...

  3. 42 CFR 424.32 - Basic requirements for all claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... meanings: (i) Claim means a transaction defined at 45 CFR 162.1101(a). (ii) Electronic claim means a claim... electronic claim. (iii) Direct data entry is defined at 45 CFR 162.103. (iv) Electronic media is defined at 45 CFR 160.103. (v) Initial Medicare claim means a claim submitted to Medicare for payment under...

  4. 45 CFR 504.4 - Place of filing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Place of filing claims. 504.4 Section 504.4 Public... WAR CLAIMS ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED FILING OF CLAIMS AND PROCEDURES THEREFOR § 504.4 Place of filing claims. Claims must be mailed or delivered in person to the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission, 600...

  5. 42 CFR 424.32 - Basic requirements for all claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... meanings: (i) Claim means a transaction defined at 45 CFR 162.1101(a). (ii) Electronic claim means a claim... electronic claim. (iii) Direct data entry is defined at 45 CFR 162.103. (iv) Electronic media is defined at 45 CFR 160.103. (v) Initial Medicare claim means a claim submitted to Medicare for payment under...

  6. 28 CFR 801.3 - Processing the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TORT CLAIMS ACT PROCEDURE § 801.3 Processing the claim. (a) Will CSOSA/PSA contact you about your claim... acknowledgement indicating the filing date (that is, the date CSOSA/PSA received your claim) and the assigned claim number. Refer to the claim number in any further correspondence you may have with CSOSA/PSA on...

  7. 28 CFR 801.3 - Processing the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TORT CLAIMS ACT PROCEDURE § 801.3 Processing the claim. (a) Will CSOSA/PSA contact you about your claim... acknowledgement indicating the filing date (that is, the date CSOSA/PSA received your claim) and the assigned claim number. Refer to the claim number in any further correspondence you may have with CSOSA/PSA on...

  8. 28 CFR 801.3 - Processing the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TORT CLAIMS ACT PROCEDURE § 801.3 Processing the claim. (a) Will CSOSA/PSA contact you about your claim... acknowledgement indicating the filing date (that is, the date CSOSA/PSA received your claim) and the assigned claim number. Refer to the claim number in any further correspondence you may have with CSOSA/PSA on...

  9. 28 CFR 801.3 - Processing the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TORT CLAIMS ACT PROCEDURE § 801.3 Processing the claim. (a) Will CSOSA/PSA contact you about your claim... acknowledgement indicating the filing date (that is, the date CSOSA/PSA received your claim) and the assigned claim number. Refer to the claim number in any further correspondence you may have with CSOSA/PSA on...

  10. 28 CFR 801.3 - Processing the claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TORT CLAIMS ACT PROCEDURE § 801.3 Processing the claim. (a) Will CSOSA/PSA contact you about your claim... acknowledgement indicating the filing date (that is, the date CSOSA/PSA received your claim) and the assigned claim number. Refer to the claim number in any further correspondence you may have with CSOSA/PSA on...

  11. 12 CFR 380.35 - Determination of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... before the claims bar date if such claim is proved to the satisfaction of the receiver. Except as... satisfaction of the receiver. (b) Disallowance of claims filed after the claims bar date. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, any claim filed after the claims bar date shall be disallowed, and...

  12. 12 CFR 380.35 - Determination of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... before the claims bar date if such claim is proved to the satisfaction of the receiver. Except as... satisfaction of the receiver. (b) Disallowance of claims filed after the claims bar date. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, any claim filed after the claims bar date shall be disallowed, and...

  13. "Science" Rejects Postmodernism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2002-01-01

    The National Research Council report, "Scientific Research in Education," claims to present an inclusive view of sciences in responding to federal attempts to legislate educational research. This article asserts that it narrowly defines science as positivism and methodology as quantitative, rejecting postmodernism and omitting other theories. Uses…

  14. Comment: "Science" Rejects Postmodernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2002-01-01

    The National Research Council report "Scientific Research in Education" claims to present an inclusive view of science as it responds to federal government attempts to legislate educational research. This author argues, however, that the report in fact narrowly defines "science" as positivism and "methodology" as quantitative. These definitions…

  15. Science Notebook Essentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klentschy, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The science notebook is more than a record of data that students collect, facts students learn, and procedures students conduct. It is also a record of students' questions, predictions, claims linked to evidence, conclusions, and reflections--all structured by an investigation leading to an understanding of "big ideas" (not factoids) in science. A…

  16. Health Insurance Claim Review Using Information Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong-Sik; Speedie, Stuart M.; Yoon, Hojung; Lee, Jiseon

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)'s payment request (PARE) system that plays the role of the gateway for all health insurance claims submitted to HIRA, and the claim review support (CRS) system that supports the work of claim review experts in South Korea. Methods This study describes the two systems' information technology (IT) infrastructures, their roles, and quantitative analysis of their work performance. It also reports the impact of these systems on claims processing by analyzing the health insurance claim data submitted to HIRA from April 1 to June 30, 2011. Results The PARE system returned to healthcare providers 2.7% of all inpatient claims (97,930) and 0.1% of all outpatient claims (317,007) as un-reviewable claims. The return rate was the highest for the hospital group as 0.49% and the lowest rate was found in clinic group. The CRS system's detection rate of the claims with multiple errors in inpatient and outpatient areas was 23.1% and 2.9%, respectively. The highest rate of error detection occurred at guideline check-up stages in both inpatient and outpatient groups. Conclusions The study found that HIRA's two IT systems had a critical role in reducing heavy administrative workloads through automatic data processing. Although the return rate of the problematic claims to providers and the error detection rate by two systems was low, the actual count of the returned claims was large. The role of IT will become increasingly important in reducing the workload of health insurance claims review. PMID:23115745

  17. 27 CFR 22.125 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Claims. 22.125 Section 22.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Losses § 22.125 Claims. (a) Claims for allowances of losses of tax-free or...

  18. 27 CFR 22.125 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Claims. 22.125 Section 22.125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Losses § 22.125 Claims. (a) Claims for allowances of losses of tax-free or...

  19. The Justification of Music-Structural Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huovinen, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    The article addresses the justification of music-structural claims, that is, any statements that assign a structure to a musical passage or a work. It is suggested that a theorist T is justified in making such a claim to the extent that (i) T is able to specify a rule that takes a given musical passage as its input and produces the claim as its…

  20. [Health claims for medical foods].

    PubMed

    Katan, Martijn B

    2013-01-01

    Souvenaid (Nutricia, Zoetermeer, the Netherlands) is a medical food for the dietary management of early Alzheimer's disease. The mix of nutrients in this drink is suggested to have a beneficial effect on cognitive function; such implicit health claims for medical foods are not checked by government agencies. Souvenaid has been investigated in three clinical trials. The first trial showed that Souvenaid produced a significant improvement in delayed verbal recall, but not in other psychological tests. The second and largest trial showed no effect on any outcome. The third trial showed no significant effect at 12 or 24 weeks, but a significant difference in the 24-week time course of the composite memory score. None of these outcomes was clearly specified as a primary outcome at trial registration. In conclusion, there is no convincing proof that Souvenaid benefits cognitive function. Better scrutiny of the efficacy of medical foods is warranted. PMID:23759182

  1. Consumer perceptions of nutrition and health claims.

    PubMed

    van Trijp, Hans C M; van der Lans, Ivo A

    2007-05-01

    The number of food products containing extra or reduced levels of specific ingredients (e.g. extra calcium) that bring particular health benefits (e.g. stronger bones) is still increasing. Nutrition- and health-related (NH) claims promoting these ingredient levels and their health benefit differ in terms of the (legal) strength with which the claim is brought forward and the specific wording of the claim, both of which may differ between countries. Using a large-scale cross-national internet-based survey in Italy (n=1566), Germany (n=1620), UK (n=1560) and US (n=1621), the purpose of the study described here is to investigate consumer perceptions of NH food product claims, across different countries. NH claims are systematically varied as a function of six health benefits (cardiovascular disease, stress, infections, fatigue, overweight and concentration) and five claim types (content, structure-function, product, disease-risk reduction and marketing claim). The general results indicate that consumer perceptions differ substantially by country and benefit being claimed but much less by the claim type. Implications of these findings are being discussed. PMID:17157958

  2. 32 CFR 536.115 - Claims procedures for claims arising overseas under international agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... otherwise allowed under the FCA or MCA. For example, receiving state claims offices in Germany require that....S. involvement. If the filing period is about to expire for claims arising in Germany, have...

  3. Monocyte Subpopulations from Pre-Eclamptic Patients Are Abnormally Skewed and Exhibit Exaggerated Responses to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14lowCD16+ monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14highCD16+ and CD14lowCD16+ monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease. PMID:22848746

  4. Monocyte subpopulations from pre-eclamptic patients are abnormally skewed and exhibit exaggerated responses to Toll-like receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Al-ofi, Ebtisam; Coffelt, Seth B; Anumba, Dilly O

    2012-01-01

    The leading cause of pregnancy-associated mortality and morbidity is pre-eclampsia (PE). Although information regarding the etiology of this disease is scant, its pathophysiology is characterized by abnormal placentation, endothelial dysfunction as well as an exaggerated inflammatory response. Clinical evidence also indicates that the abundance of many immune cells at the feto-maternal interface and in the circulation of PE patients is abnormal, when compared with normal pregnant (NP) controls. In addition, the phenotype and function of some of these cells is altered. To further characterize the systemic effects of PE on circulating cells, we analyzed monocytic subpopulations in NP and PE patients by flow cytometry. We found that non-classical CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes are significantly increased in women with PE and they display irregular expression of several chemokine receptors and antigen presentation molecules. The most striking phenotypic difference among the cell surface molecules was the marked upregulation of TLR4 expression, where both CD14(high)CD16(+) and CD14(low)CD16(+) monocytes demonstrated higher levels than their NP counterparts. Stimulation of PE monocytes with TLR ligands resulted in profound secretion of various cytokines in comparison with NP controls. These data suggest that PE monocytes are hyper-responsive to TLR ligands and this may contribute to exacerbation of the disease. PMID:22848746

  5. An initial investigation of the orbitofrontal cortex hyperactivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: exaggerated representations of anticipated aversive events?

    PubMed

    Ursu, Stefan; Carter, Cameron S

    2009-08-01

    Orbitofrontal cortical (OFC) dysfunction has been repeatedly involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder, but the precise significance of this abnormality is still unclear. Current neurocognitive models propose that specific areas of the OFC contribute to behavioral regulation by representing the anticipated affective value of future events. This leads to the hypothesis that these OFC areas are hyperactive in patients, reflecting ruminative preoccupation with future aversive events. In experimental situations, such hyperactivity should be triggered by negative affect in response to high likelihood of events such as the conflict between simultaneously active incompatible responses, which can potentially lead to poor task performance. We tested this hypothesis by examining fMRI indices of brain activity of 15 OCD patients and 15 matched controls. Subjects were scanned while performing a cognitive task which involved responding to cues and subsequent probes, and some of the probes elicited response conflict. Relative to controls, the lateral OFC of patients was specifically hyperactive to cues associated with high proportion of subsequent high-conflict probes. The level of OFC hyperactivity correlated directly with the severity of anxiety symptoms. These results support the hypothesis that OCD is characterized by exaggerated OFC representations of anticipated aversive events. PMID:19467363

  6. Insights into the Development and Evolution of Exaggerated Traits Using De Novo Transcriptomes of Two Species of Horned Scarab Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ian A.; Vera, J. Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H.; Emlen, Douglas J.; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as “horns”. These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits. PMID:24586317

  7. Standard claims and appeals forms. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-09-25

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its adjudication regulations and the appeals regulations and rules of practice of the Board of Veterans' Appeals (Board) to require that all claims governed by VA's adjudication regulations be filed on standard forms prescribed by the Secretary, regardless of the type of claim or posture in which the claim arises. This rulemaking also eliminates the constructive receipt of VA reports of hospitalization or examination and other medical records as informal claims for increase or to reopen while retaining the retroactive effective date assignment for awards for claims for increase which are filed on a standard form within 1 year of such hospitalization, examination, or treatment. This final rule also implements the concept of an intent to file a claim for benefits, which operates similarly to the current informal claim process, but requires that the submission establishing a claimant's effective date of benefits must be received in one of three specified formats. Finally, these amendments will provide that VA will accept an expression of dissatisfaction or disagreement with an adjudicative determination by the agency of original jurisdiction(AOJ) as a Notice of Disagreement (NOD) only if it is submitted on a standardized form provided by VA for the purpose of appealing the decision, in cases where such a form is provided. Although a standardized NOD form will only initially be provided in connection with decisions on compensation claims, VA may require a standard NOD form for any type of claim for VA benefits if, in the future, it develops and provides a standardized NOD form for a particular benefit. The purpose of these amendments is to improve the quality and timeliness of the processing of veterans' claims for benefits by standardizing the claims and appeals processes through the use of forms. PMID:25255502

  8. 32 CFR 536.121 - Claims not payable as maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the United States, are contrary to public policy, or are otherwise contrary to the basic intent of the... inhabitants of unfriendly foreign countries or by individuals considered to be unfriendly to the United States... ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.121 Claims not payable as maritime...

  9. 47 CFR 1.1120 - Error claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Error claims. 1.1120 Section 1.1120... Procedures for Payment § 1.1120 Error claims. (a) Applicants who wish to challenge a staff determination of...., Washington, DC 20554 or e-mailed to ARINQUIRIES@fcc.gov. (b) Actions taken by Financial Operations staff...

  10. 47 CFR 1.1120 - Error claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Error claims. 1.1120 Section 1.1120... Procedures for Payment § 1.1120 Error claims. (a) Applicants who wish to challenge a staff determination of...., Washington, DC 20554 or e-mailed to ARINQUIRIES@fcc.gov. (b) Actions taken by Financial Operations staff...

  11. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the loss for which the carrier will pay there will be deducted from the gross amount of the ascertained actual loss one-fourth of 1 percent of the established loading weight to...

  12. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the loss for which the carrier will pay there will be deducted from the gross amount of the ascertained actual loss one-fourth of 1 percent of the established loading weight to...

  13. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the loss for which the carrier will pay there will be deducted from the gross amount of the ascertained actual loss one-fourth of 1 percent of the established loading weight to...

  14. 49 CFR 1037.3 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.3 Claims. (a) In computing the amount of the loss for which the carrier will pay there will be deducted from the gross amount of the ascertained actual loss one-fourth of 1 percent of the established loading weight to...

  15. 12 CFR 650.40 - Creditor claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Creditor claims. 650.40 Section 650.40 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION GENERAL PROVISIONS § 650.40 Creditor claims. (a) Upon appointment, the receiver shall promptly publish...

  16. 12 CFR 650.40 - Creditor claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Creditor claims. 650.40 Section 650.40 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION GENERAL PROVISIONS § 650.40 Creditor claims. (a) Upon appointment, the receiver shall promptly publish...

  17. 12 CFR 650.40 - Creditor claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Creditor claims. 650.40 Section 650.40 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION GENERAL PROVISIONS § 650.40 Creditor claims. (a) Upon appointment, the receiver shall promptly publish a notice to creditors to present their...

  18. 12 CFR 627.2740 - Creditors' claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Creditors' claims. 627.2740 Section 627.2740 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM TITLE IV CONSERVATORS, RECEIVERS, AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2740 Creditors' claims. (a) The receiver shall publish promptly a notice to creditors...

  19. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service with the Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent... the other provisions of this subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident... authorized places. Claims may be allowable for damage to, or loss of, property arising from fire,...

  20. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Special claims. 211.205 Section 211.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer wishing to make...

  1. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special claims. 211.205 Section 211.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer...

  2. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special claims. 211.205 Section 211.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer...

  3. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special claims. 211.205 Section 211.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer...

  4. 40 CFR 211.205 - Special claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special claims. 211.205 Section 211.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.205 Special claims. (a) Any manufacturer...

  5. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  6. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.19 Savings claims. (a) If you say or imply in your ads, labels, or other promotional materials that insulation can cut fuel bills or fuel use, you must have a reasonable basis for the claim. For example, if you say that insulation can “slash” or “lower” fuel bills, or that insulation...

  7. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  8. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.19 Savings claims. (a) If you say or imply in your ads, labels, or other promotional materials that insulation can cut fuel bills or fuel use, you must have a reasonable basis for the claim. For example, if you say that insulation can “slash” or “lower” fuel bills, or that insulation...

  9. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.19 Savings claims. (a) If you say or imply in your ads, labels, or other promotional materials that insulation can cut fuel bills or fuel use, you must have a reasonable basis for the claim. For example, if you say that insulation can “slash” or “lower” fuel bills, or that insulation...

  10. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.19 Savings claims. (a) If you say or imply in your ads, labels, or other promotional materials that insulation can cut fuel bills or fuel use, you must have a reasonable basis for the claim. For example, if you say that insulation can “slash” or “lower” fuel bills, or that insulation...

  11. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  12. 16 CFR 460.19 - Savings claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.19 Savings claims. (a) If you say or imply in your ads, labels, or other promotional materials that insulation can cut fuel bills or fuel use, you must have a reasonable basis for the claim. For example, if you say that insulation can “slash” or “lower” fuel bills, or that insulation...

  13. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  14. 16 CFR 460.22 - Tax claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tax claims. 460.22 Section 460.22 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.22 Tax claims. Do not say or imply that your product qualifies for a tax benefit unless it is true....

  15. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  16. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  17. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  18. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allowable claims. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL...

  19. 44 CFR 11.76 - Claims procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims procedures. 11.76 Section 11.76 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... Applicants shall file claims in writing with the Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management...

  20. 27 CFR 22.125 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Losses § 22.125 Claims. (a) Claims for allowances of losses of tax-free or recovered alcohol shall be filed, on Form 2635 (5620.8), within 30 days...

  1. 27 CFR 22.125 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Losses § 22.125 Claims. (a) Claims for allowances of losses of tax-free or recovered alcohol shall be filed, on Form 2635 (5620.8), within 30 days...

  2. 27 CFR 22.125 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....125 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF TAX-FREE ALCOHOL Losses § 22.125 Claims. (a) Claims for allowances of losses of tax-free or recovered alcohol shall be filed, on Form 2635 (5620.8), within 30 days...

  3. 40 CFR 716.55 - Confidentiality claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Confidentiality claims. 716.55 Section 716.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.55 Confidentiality claims. (a)(1) Section 14(b) of TSCA provides that EPA may...

  4. 44 CFR 11.76 - Claims procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claims procedures. 11.76 Section 11.76 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... Applicants shall file claims in writing with the Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management...

  5. 44 CFR 11.76 - Claims procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Claims procedures. 11.76 Section 11.76 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... Applicants shall file claims in writing with the Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management...

  6. 44 CFR 11.76 - Claims procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Claims procedures. 11.76 Section 11.76 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... Applicants shall file claims in writing with the Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management...

  7. 44 CFR 11.76 - Claims procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Claims procedures. 11.76 Section 11.76 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF.... Applicants shall file claims in writing with the Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management...

  8. 5 CFR 180.107 - Claims procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims procedure. 180.107 Section 180.107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY... General Counsel, Office of Personnel Management, 1900 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20415. Claims shall...

  9. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.19 Claims. (a) Member's responsibility. Members receiving... identified in § 732.20. A complete claim includes: (1) NAVMED 6320/10, Statement of Civilian...

  10. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.19 Claims. (a) Member's responsibility. Members receiving... identified in § 732.20. A complete claim includes: (1) NAVMED 6320/10, Statement of Civilian...

  11. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.19 Claims. (a) Member's responsibility. Members receiving... identified in § 732.20. A complete claim includes: (1) NAVMED 6320/10, Statement of Civilian...

  12. 32 CFR 732.19 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL NONNAVAL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.19 Claims. (a) Member's responsibility. Members receiving... identified in § 732.20. A complete claim includes: (1) NAVMED 6320/10, Statement of Civilian...

  13. 7 CFR 247.30 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Claims. 247.30 Section 247.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.30 Claims. (a) What happens if a State or local agency misuses program funds? If...

  14. 7 CFR 247.30 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims. 247.30 Section 247.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.30 Claims. (a) What happens if a State or local agency misuses program funds? If...

  15. 32 CFR 279.4 - Claims process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims process. 279.4 Section 279.4 National... RETROACTIVE STOP LOSS SPECIAL PAY COMPENSATION § 279.4 Claims process. (a) The last day for submission of... members may not be knowledgeable of the process and will require additional assistance after filing...

  16. 49 CFR 22.69 - Claim process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Claim process. 22.69 Section 22.69 Transportation... Claim process. After reasonable efforts have been exhausted to collect on a delinquent debt, the... payment from the borrower, in accordance with the guarantee agreement....

  17. Governance and Aboriginal Claims in Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzetto, Don

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on problems of organization and governance that may follow settlement of Canadian aboriginal land claims. Compares financial problems, cultural issues such as subsistence lifestyles, and intergovernmental relations following the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and Western Arctic (Inuvialuit)…

  18. 49 CFR 22.69 - Claim process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claim process. 22.69 Section 22.69 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.69 Claim process. After reasonable efforts have been exhausted to collect on a delinquent debt,...

  19. 49 CFR 22.69 - Claim process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Claim process. 22.69 Section 22.69 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.69 Claim process. After reasonable efforts have been exhausted to collect on a delinquent debt,...

  20. 32 CFR 279.4 - Claims process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims process. 279.4 Section 279.4 National... RETROACTIVE STOP LOSS SPECIAL PAY COMPENSATION § 279.4 Claims process. (a) The last day for submission of... members may not be knowledgeable of the process and will require additional assistance after filing...

  1. 32 CFR 279.4 - Claims process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims process. 279.4 Section 279.4 National... RETROACTIVE STOP LOSS SPECIAL PAY COMPENSATION § 279.4 Claims process. (a) The last day for submission of... members may not be knowledgeable of the process and will require additional assistance after filing...

  2. 32 CFR 279.4 - Claims process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims process. 279.4 Section 279.4 National... RETROACTIVE STOP LOSS SPECIAL PAY COMPENSATION § 279.4 Claims process. (a) The last day for submission of... members may not be knowledgeable of the process and will require additional assistance after filing...

  3. 29 CFR 15.22 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Department and: (l) The damage or loss was not caused wholly or partly by the negligent or wrongful act or... subpart, any claim for damage to, or loss, of personal property incident to service with the Department... excluded: (1) Property or damage in quarters or other authorized places. Claims may be allowable for...

  4. 37 CFR 1.164 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Plant Patents § 1.164 Claim. The claim shall be in formal terms to the new and distinct variety of the specified plant as described...

  5. 37 CFR 1.164 - Claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Plant Patents § 1.164 Claim. The claim shall be in formal terms to the new and distinct variety of the specified plant as described...

  6. Moral Minimalism in American Indian Land Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Burke A.

    2005-01-01

    This is an essay about Indian claims for the return of historically stolen lands, written from the perspective of a "Western" academic moral philosopher. I want to try to outline points of agreement and disagreement between Indian and Western moral conceptions and to seek common ground on which land claims can be more clearly evaluated and…

  7. 32 CFR 842.119 - Nonassertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) Claims should not be asserted without HQ USAF/JACC's approval against: (1) Government contractors... of the contract, an investigation into the claim is sent to HQ USAF/JACC by the base SJA. The file... the investigation are sent to HQ USAF/JACC along with the base SJA's recommendations...

  8. 32 CFR 842.119 - Nonassertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (b) Claims should not be asserted without HQ USAF/JACC's approval against: (1) Government contractors... of the contract, an investigation into the claim is sent to HQ USAF/JACC by the base SJA. The file... the investigation are sent to HQ USAF/JACC along with the base SJA's recommendations...

  9. 32 CFR 842.119 - Nonassertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (b) Claims should not be asserted without HQ USAF/JACC's approval against: (1) Government contractors... of the contract, an investigation into the claim is sent to HQ USAF/JACC by the base SJA. The file... the investigation are sent to HQ USAF/JACC along with the base SJA's recommendations...

  10. 32 CFR 842.119 - Nonassertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (b) Claims should not be asserted without HQ USAF/JACC's approval against: (1) Government contractors... of the contract, an investigation into the claim is sent to HQ USAF/JACC by the base SJA. The file... the investigation are sent to HQ USAF/JACC along with the base SJA's recommendations...

  11. 32 CFR 842.119 - Nonassertable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (b) Claims should not be asserted without HQ USAF/JACC's approval against: (1) Government contractors... of the contract, an investigation into the claim is sent to HQ USAF/JACC by the base SJA. The file... the investigation are sent to HQ USAF/JACC along with the base SJA's recommendations...

  12. 45 CFR 34.4 - Allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CLAIMS FILED UNDER THE MILITARY PERSONNEL AND... the claimant to save human life or government property. (4) Property used for the benefit of the government. Claims may be allowed for damage to, or loss of, property used for the benefit of the...

  13. 36 CFR 222.62 - Ownership claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.62 Ownership claims. (a) Any person claiming ownership under State branding and estray laws of branded or unbranded horses or burros within a wild horse or burro territory or range on the National Forest System where such animals are...

  14. 36 CFR 222.22 - Ownership claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.22 Ownership claims. (a) Any person claiming ownership under State branding and estray laws of branded or unbranded horses or burros within a wild horse or burro territory or range on the National Forest System where such animals are...

  15. 36 CFR 222.62 - Ownership claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.62 Ownership claims. (a) Any person claiming ownership under State branding and estray laws of branded or unbranded horses or burros within a wild horse or burro territory or range on the National Forest System where such animals are...

  16. 36 CFR 222.22 - Ownership claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.22 Ownership claims. (a) Any person claiming ownership under State branding and estray laws of branded or unbranded horses or burros within a wild horse or burro territory or range on the National Forest System where such animals are...

  17. 36 CFR 222.22 - Ownership claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.22 Ownership claims. (a) Any person claiming ownership under State branding and estray laws of branded or unbranded horses or burros within a wild horse or burro territory or range on the National Forest System where such animals are...

  18. 7 CFR 247.30 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims. 247.30 Section 247.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.30 Claims. (a) What happens if a State or local agency misuses program funds? If...

  19. 29 CFR 15.200 - What is a claim under the MPCECA and who may file such a claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is a claim under the MPCECA and who may file such a claim? 15.200 Section 15.200 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND RELATED CLAIMS STATUTES Claims Under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claims Act of 1964 § 15.200 What is...

  20. 'Holding' and 'endorsing' claims in the course of scientific activities.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Hugh

    2015-10-01

    My principal aims are to show that holding, adopting and endorsing (definitions of which I provide) are distinct cognitive attitudes that may be taken towards claims at different moments of scientific activities, and that none of them are reducible to acceptance (as defined by Jonathan Cohen); to explore in detail the differences between holding and accepting, using the controversies about GMOs to provide illustrations; and to draw some implications pertinent to democratic decision-making concerning public policies about science and technology, and to the responsibilities that scientists thereby incur. PMID:26386534

  1. Can Science Test Supernatural Worldviews?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Yonatan I.

    2009-06-01

    Several prominent scientists, philosophers, and scientific institutions have argued that science cannot test supernatural worldviews on the grounds that (1) science presupposes a naturalistic worldview (Naturalism) or that (2) claims involving supernatural phenomena are inherently beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The present paper argues that these assumptions are questionable and that indeed science can test supernatural claims. While scientific evidence may ultimately support a naturalistic worldview, science does not presuppose Naturalism as an a priori commitment, and supernatural claims are amenable to scientific evaluation. This conclusion challenges the rationale behind a recent judicial ruling in the United States concerning the teaching of “Intelligent Design” in public schools as an alternative to evolution and the official statements of two major scientific institutions that exert a substantial influence on science educational policies in the United States. Given that science does have implications concerning the probable truth of supernatural worldviews, claims should not be excluded a priori from science education simply because they might be characterized as supernatural, paranormal, or religious. Rather, claims should be excluded from science education when the evidence does not support them, regardless of whether they are designated as ‘natural’ or ‘supernatural’.

  2. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  3. 24 CFR 200.162 - Certificates of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Claims for Losses § 200.162 Certificates of claim. The certificate of claim issued to the mortgagee at... its investment in a particular property any excess over and above such investment is available for payment on the certificate of claim. Certificates of claim bear interest at the rate of 3 percent...

  4. 46 CFR 204.4 - Time limitations on claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time limitations on claims. 204.4 Section 204.4 Shipping... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.4 Time limitations on claims. (a) A claim... real or personal property. When a claim is received in any office, mail unit, or other...

  5. 46 CFR 204.4 - Time limitations on claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time limitations on claims. 204.4 Section 204.4 Shipping... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.4 Time limitations on claims. (a) A claim... real or personal property. When a claim is received in any office, mail unit, or other...

  6. 40 CFR 14.13 - Items fraudulently claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Items fraudulently claimed. 14.13... CLAIMS § 14.13 Items fraudulently claimed. Where the EPA Claims Officer determines that an employee has... may, at his discretion, deny the entire amount claimed for the item. Further, where the EPA...

  7. 40 CFR 14.13 - Items fraudulently claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Items fraudulently claimed. 14.13... CLAIMS § 14.13 Items fraudulently claimed. Where the EPA Claims Officer determines that an employee has... may, at his discretion, deny the entire amount claimed for the item. Further, where the EPA...

  8. 40 CFR 14.13 - Items fraudulently claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Items fraudulently claimed. 14.13... CLAIMS § 14.13 Items fraudulently claimed. Where the EPA Claims Officer determines that an employee has... may, at his discretion, deny the entire amount claimed for the item. Further, where the EPA...

  9. 40 CFR 14.13 - Items fraudulently claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Items fraudulently claimed. 14.13... CLAIMS § 14.13 Items fraudulently claimed. Where the EPA Claims Officer determines that an employee has... may, at his discretion, deny the entire amount claimed for the item. Further, where the EPA...

  10. 40 CFR 14.13 - Items fraudulently claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Items fraudulently claimed. 14.13... CLAIMS § 14.13 Items fraudulently claimed. Where the EPA Claims Officer determines that an employee has... may, at his discretion, deny the entire amount claimed for the item. Further, where the EPA...

  11. 22 CFR 304.12 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Action on approved claim. 304.12 Section 304.12 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.12 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a claim approved under this subpart is contingent on...

  12. 22 CFR 304.12 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Action on approved claim. 304.12 Section 304.12 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.12 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a claim approved under this subpart is contingent on...

  13. 22 CFR 304.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Administrative claim; who may file. 304.3 Section 304.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may...

  14. 22 CFR 304.10 - Review of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Review of claim. 304.10 Section 304.10 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.10 Review of claim. (a) Upon receipt of the claim file from the head of the office concerned, the General...

  15. 22 CFR 304.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 304.3 Section 304.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may...

  16. 22 CFR 304.10 - Review of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Review of claim. 304.10 Section 304.10 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.10 Review of claim. (a) Upon receipt of the claim file from the head of the office concerned, the General...

  17. 22 CFR 304.12 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Action on approved claim. 304.12 Section 304.12 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.12 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a claim approved under this subpart is contingent on...

  18. 22 CFR 304.10 - Review of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Review of claim. 304.10 Section 304.10 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.10 Review of claim. (a) Upon receipt of the claim file from the head of the office concerned, the General...

  19. 22 CFR 304.12 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action on approved claim. 304.12 Section 304.12 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.12 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a claim approved under this subpart is contingent on...

  20. 22 CFR 304.10 - Review of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Review of claim. 304.10 Section 304.10 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.10 Review of claim. (a) Upon receipt of the claim file from the head of the office concerned, the General...

  1. 22 CFR 304.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Administrative claim; who may file. 304.3 Section 304.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may...

  2. 24 CFR 17.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 17.3 Section 17.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Claims Against Government Under Federal Tort Claims Act Procedures § 17.3 Administrative claim; who may...

  3. 34 CFR 35.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 35.3 Section 35.3... § 35.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be... assert such a claim under applicable state law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an...

  4. 44 CFR 11.12 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 11.12 Section 11.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Administrative Claims Under Federal Tort Claims Act § 11.12 Administrative claim; who may file. (a)...

  5. 10 CFR 1014.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 1014.3 Section 1014.3... § 1014.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be... to assert such a claim under the applicable State law. (d) A claim for a loss that was...

  6. 40 CFR 1620.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may file... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a..., or by any other person legally entitled to assert a claim under the applicable State law,...

  7. 14 CFR 15.5 - Administrative claim, who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim, who may file. 15.5... claim, who may file. (a) A claim for injury to, or loss of, property may be presented by the owner of... assert such a claim under applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an...

  8. 13 CFR 114.103 - Who may file a claim?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may file a claim? 114.103 Section 114.103 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT AND REPRESENTATION AND INDEMNIFICATION OF SBA EMPLOYEES Administrative Tort Claims § 114.103 Who may file a claim? (a)...

  9. 45 CFR 35.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 35.3 Section... AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or... person legally entitled to assert such a claim under applicable state law. (d) A claim for loss...

  10. 31 CFR 535.441 - Settlement Agreement regarding small claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, approving and giving effect to the Settlement Agreement in Claims...”), constitutes a determination by the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal of all claims encompassed therein within... Stat. 437, applicable to en bloc settlements of claims of U.S. nationals against Iran. (b) Pursuant...

  11. 31 CFR 535.441 - Settlement Agreement regarding small claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, approving and giving effect to the Settlement Agreement in Claims...”), constitutes a determination by the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal of all claims encompassed therein within... Stat. 437, applicable to en bloc settlements of claims of U.S. nationals against Iran. (b) Pursuant...

  12. 40 CFR 1620.10 - Action on approved claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Action on approved claim. 1620.10 Section 1620.10 Protection of Environment CHEMICAL SAFETY AND HAZARD INVESTIGATION BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS ARISING UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 1620.10 Action on approved claim. (a) Payment of a claim approved under this part is contingent...

  13. 32 CFR 536.106 - Definitions for international agreements claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions for international agreements claims... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.106 Definitions for international agreements claims. (a) Force and civilian component of...

  14. 32 CFR 536.106 - Definitions for international agreements claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Definitions for international agreements claims... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.106 Definitions for international agreements claims. (a) Force and civilian component of...

  15. 32 CFR 536.106 - Definitions for international agreements claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Definitions for international agreements claims... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.106 Definitions for international agreements claims. (a) Force and civilian component of...

  16. 32 CFR 536.106 - Definitions for international agreements claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions for international agreements claims... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.106 Definitions for international agreements claims. (a) Force and civilian component of...

  17. 32 CFR 536.106 - Definitions for international agreements claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Definitions for international agreements claims... CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Claims Cognizable Under International Agreements § 536.106 Definitions for international agreements claims. (a) Force and civilian component of...

  18. 32 CFR 750.13 - Claims: Single service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CLAIMS REGULATIONS General Provisions for Claims § 750.13 Claims: Single service responsibility. (a) The Department of Defense has assigned single-service responsibility for processing claims in foreign countries... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims: Single service responsibility....

  19. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  20. 32 CFR 537.19 - Demands arising from maritime claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Demands arising from maritime claims. 537.19 Section 537.19 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.19 Demands arising from maritime claims. (a) It is essential that Army claims personnel...

  1. 40 CFR 14.8 - Investigation of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation of claims. 14.8 Section 14.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL EMPLOYEE PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 14.8 Investigation of claims. The EPA Claims Officer investigates claims filed under this...

  2. 32 CFR 842.12 - HQ USAF claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false HQ USAF claims responsibility. 842.12 Section... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Functions and Responsibilities § 842.12 HQ USAF claims responsibility. (a) TJAG, through the Claims and Tort Litigation Staff (HQ USAF/JACC): (1) Establishes claims and...

  3. 32 CFR 842.12 - HQ USAF claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false HQ USAF claims responsibility. 842.12 Section... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Functions and Responsibilities § 842.12 HQ USAF claims responsibility. (a) TJAG, through the Claims and Tort Litigation Staff (HQ USAF/JACC): (1) Establishes claims and...

  4. 32 CFR 842.12 - HQ USAF claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false HQ USAF claims responsibility. 842.12 Section... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Functions and Responsibilities § 842.12 HQ USAF claims responsibility. (a) TJAG, through the Claims and Tort Litigation Staff (HQ USAF/JACC): (1) Establishes claims and...

  5. 32 CFR 842.12 - HQ USAF claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false HQ USAF claims responsibility. 842.12 Section... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Functions and Responsibilities § 842.12 HQ USAF claims responsibility. (a) TJAG, through the Claims and Tort Litigation Staff (HQ USAF/JACC): (1) Establishes claims and...

  6. 32 CFR 842.12 - HQ USAF claims responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false HQ USAF claims responsibility. 842.12 Section... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Functions and Responsibilities § 842.12 HQ USAF claims responsibility. (a) TJAG, through the Claims and Tort Litigation Staff (HQ USAF/JACC): (1) Establishes claims and...

  7. 32 CFR 842.129 - Settlement of claims against NAFIs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Settlement of claims against NAFIs. 842.129 Section 842.129 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Nonappropriated Fund Claims § 842.129 Settlement of claims against NAFIs. (a) This subpart does not establish...

  8. Applying the ethoexperimental approach to neurodevelopmental syndrome research reveals exaggerated defensive behavior in Mecp2 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Brandon L.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) associated with de novo mutations of the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Mecp2 functions as a transcription factor that regulating the expression of hundreds of genes. Identification of the role of Mecp2 in specific neurodevelopmental symptoms remains an important research aim. We previously demonstrated that male mice possessing a truncation mutation in Mecp2 are hyper-social. We predicted that reduced fear or anxiety might underlie this enhanced affiliation. In order to probe risk assessment and anxiety-like behavior, we compared Mecp2 truncation mutants to their wild-type littermates in the elevated plus maze and elevated zero maze. Additionally, subjects were administered the mouse defense test battery to evaluate unconditioned fear- and panic-like behavior to a graded set of threat scenarios and a predator stimulus. Mutant mice showed no significant changes in anxiety-like behavior. Yet, they displayed hyper-reactive escape and defensive behaviors to an animate predatory threat stimulus. Notably, mutant mice engaged in exaggerated active defense responding to threat stimuli at nearly all phases of the fear battery. These results reveal abnormalities in emotion regulation in Mecp2 mutants particularly in response to ecologically relevant threats. This hyper-responsivity suggests that transcriptional targets of Mecp2 are critical to emotion regulation. Moreover, we suggest that detailed analysis of defensive behavior and aggression with ethologically relevant tasks provides an avenue to interrogate gene-behavior mechanisms neurodevelopmental and other psychiatric conditions. PMID:26066729

  9. Aerobic Exercise Attenuates an Exaggerated Exercise Blood Pressure Response in Normotensive Young Adult African-American Men

    PubMed Central

    BOND, VERNON; STEPHENS, QUIONA; ADAMS, RICHARD G.; VACCARO, PAUL; DEMEERSMAN, RONALD; WILLIAMS, DEBORAH; OBISESAN, THOMAS O.; FRANKS, B. DON; OKE, LUE M.; COLEMAN, BERNELL; BLAKELY, RAYMOND; MILLIS, RICHARD M.

    2011-01-01

    An exaggerated exercise blood pressure response (EEBPR) may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. We hypothesized that aerobic exercise training can decrease EEBPR and the risk for hypertension by decreasing arterial resistance. We studied the effects of aerobic training on the submaximal exercise blood pressure (BP) of eight normotensive young adult African-American men with an EEBPR. Subjects were trained on a stationary bicycle at an intensity of 70% peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 30 min, three times per week, for 8 weeks. BP, heart rate, cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) were measured at rest and during submaximal exercise at a work intensity of 50% VO2peak. Significance of the training effects were evaluated by comparing the pre- and post-training measures (t-test, p < 0.05). A 15% post-training increase in VO2peak (34.6 ± 1.4 to 40 ± 1.4 ml/kg/min) and a 9.5 ml post-training increase in mean resting stroke volume were found. A 16.2 mmHg decrement in mean systolic BP, an 11.5 mmHg decrement in mean diastolic BP, a 120 dyne/s/cm5 decrement in TPR and a 1.2 l/min increase in CO were detected during the post-training submaximal exercise tests. These results suggest that reductions in TPR may attenuate the EEBPR of normotensive African-American males following an 8-week training regimen of stationary bicycling at 70% VO2peak. Aerobic exercise training may, therefore, reduce the risk of hypertension in normotensive African-American males by the mechanism of a reduction in TPR. Because of the limited number of subjects, the results of this study should be interpreted cautiously pending confirmation by a larger controlled trial. PMID:12361191

  10. High Fat Diet Feeding Exaggerates Perfluorooctanoic Acid-Induced Liver Injury in Mice via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaobing; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Li, Qiong; Zhong, Wei; Qiao, Peter; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei; Zhou, Zhanxiang

    2013-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is closely linked to a variety of health issues including fatty liver. Exposure to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a synthetic perfluorinated carboxylic acid, also causes liver injury. The present study investigated the possible interactions between high fat diet and PFOA in induction of liver injury. Mice were pair-fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or low fat control with or without PFOA administration at 5 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Exposure to PFOA alone caused elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels and increased liver weight along with reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass. HFD alone did not cause liver damage, but exaggerated PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity as indicated by higher plasma ALT and AST levels, and more severe pathological changes including hepatocyte hypertrophy, lipid droplet accumulation and necrosis as well as inflammatory cell infiltration. These additive effects of HFD on PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity correlated with metabolic disturbance in liver and blood as well as up-regulation of hepatic proinflammatory cytokine genes. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that both serum and hepatic metabolite profiles of PFOA, HFD, or HFD-PFOA group were clearly differentiated from that of controls. PFOA affected more hepatic metabolites than HFD, but HFD showed positive interaction with PFOA on fatty acid metabolites including long chain fatty acids and acylcarnitines. Taken together, dietary high fat potentiates PFOA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and necrotic cell death by disturbing hepatic metabolism and inducing inflammation. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that HFD increases the risk of PFOA in induction of hepatotoxicity. PMID:23626681

  11. Science packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  12. Health claims on foods in Canada.

    PubMed

    L'abbé, Mary R; Dumais, Lydia; Chao, Eunice; Junkins, Beth

    2008-06-01

    Interest in the health effects of foods by both industry and consumers has put a spotlight on the role of health claims on foods in Canada. The current regulatory framework governing the use of different health claims on foods in Canada is described and compared with international approaches. Similarities were observed in how risk-reduction claims for serious diseases are managed in the United States, European Union and proposed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand, including the need for premarket authorization and the requirement for a high level of certainty based on the totality of evidence in substantiating this type of claim. However, approaches to permitting function claims other than those for the well-established functions of known nutrients are divergent among the jurisdictions compared. Canada also differs from other jurisdictions in not establishing core nutritional criteria for foods carrying disease risk-reduction claims. A brief overview of the status in Canada of a number of disease risk-reduction claims that have been approved in the United States, based on significant scientific agreement under the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act or through authoritative statements under the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act, is also provided. PMID:18492861

  13. Preinduction activities: a closed malpractice claims perspective.

    PubMed

    Moody, M L; Kremer, M J

    2001-12-01

    The American Association of Nurse Anesthetists Foundation conducts an ongoing study of closed malpractice claims that involve nurse anesthetists. A team of 8 CRNA researchers has to date investigated 223 closed claim files from the St Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company. Research findings have demonstrated that failure to provide appropriate anesthesia care relative to the Scope and Standards for Nurse Anesthesia Practice was significantly associated with adverse anesthetic outcomes. Claims that involved inadequate preinduction activities (n = 22) were analyzed in the context of their compliance with published standards of care. The largest group of claims in this analysis (59%) involved damaging respiratory events, 28% entailed damaging cardiovascular events, and the principal issue in 13% of these claims involved failure to seek available information such as laboratory studies on the medical record. The most prevalent occurrence with damaging respiratory events was undocumented airway assessment in 27% of the claims. In 55% of these claims, the medical history was not completely documented. The surgical procedure categories were general surgical (32%), obstetrical (27%), otolaryngogical (23%), orthopedic (14%), and gynecologic (5%). The involved standards of care are reviewed, and recommendations are made regarding consistent completion of preinduction activities. PMID:11837148

  14. Science and Society Colloquium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  15. Science and Society Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-10

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  16. Astrocytes Are Primed by Chronic Neurodegeneration to Produce Exaggerated Chemokine and Cell Infiltration Responses to Acute Stimulation with the Cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Edel; Griffin, Éadaoin W.

    2015-01-01

    Microgliosis and astrogliosis are standard pathological features of neurodegenerative disease. Microglia are primed by chronic neurodegeneration such that toll-like receptor agonists, such as LPS, drive exaggerated cytokine responses on this background. However, sterile inflammatory insults are more common than direct CNS infection in the degenerating brain and these insults drive robust IL-1β and TNF-α responses. It is unclear whether these pro-inflammatory cytokines can directly induce exaggerated responses in the degenerating brain. We hypothesized that glial cells in the hippocampus of animals with chronic neurodegenerative disease (ME7 prion disease) would display exaggerated responses to central cytokine challenges. TNF-α or IL-1β were administered intrahippocampally to ME7-inoculated mice and normal brain homogenate-injected (NBH) controls. Both IL-1β and TNF-α produced much more robust IL-1β synthesis in ME7 than in NBH animals and this occurred exclusively in microglia. However, there was strong nuclear localization of the NFκB subunit p65 in the astrocyte population, associated with marked astrocytic synthesis of the chemokines CXCL1 and CCL2 in response to both cytokine challenges in ME7 animals. Conversely, very limited expression of these chemokines was apparent in NBH animals similarly challenged. Thus, astrocytes are primed in the degenerating brain to produce exaggerated chemokine responses to acute stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, this results in markedly increased neutrophil, T-cell, and monocyte infiltration in the diseased brain. These data have significant implications for acute sterile inflammatory insults such as stroke and traumatic brain injury occurring on a background of aging or neurodegeneration. PMID:26041910

  17. Values in Science: An Educational Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allchin, Douglas

    1999-01-01

    Argues that epistemic and cultural values guide scientific progress and that the social structure of science is strengthened by a diversity of values. Claims that science exports values to the larger culture. Reasons that science teachers who understand the multifaceted relationship between science and values can more effectively guide students in…

  18. Does the Truth Matter in Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Is science in the truth business, discovering ever more about an independent and largely unobservable world? Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn, two of the most important figures in science studies in the 20th century, gave accounts of science that are in some tension with the truth view. Their central claims about science are considered here, along with…

  19. 32 CFR 842.110 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (h) Claims arising from a private rather than a government transaction. (i) Claims for patent or... claimant or the claimant's agent. (t) Claims for reimbursement of medical, hospital, or burial...

  20. 32 CFR 842.110 - Claims not payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (h) Claims arising from a private rather than a government transaction. (i) Claims for patent or... claimant or the claimant's agent. (t) Claims for reimbursement of medical, hospital, or burial...

  1. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio... claim to digital audio recording devices and media royalty payments....

  2. 9 CFR 51.30 - Claims for indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.30 Claims for indemnity. (a) Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis must be made using an indemnity claim form...

  3. 9 CFR 51.30 - Claims for indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.30 Claims for indemnity. (a) Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis must be made using an indemnity claim form...

  4. 9 CFR 51.30 - Claims for indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.30 Claims for indemnity. (a) Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis must be made using an indemnity claim form...

  5. Religious Beliefs: A Hidden Variable in the Performance of Science Teachers in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Nasser

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the challenges of teaching science in a culture where science and religion sometimes appear to be or are set at odds with each other. Apparent conflicts between scholarly claims and religious claims are not limited to science, however--they occur in almost every subject. Many topics included in science education are…

  6. Manufacturer moves to settle Norplant claims.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    This article is about the decision made by Wyeth-Ayerst to settle lawsuit claims filed by more than 36,000 American women concerning the use of the Norplant contraceptive implant system. The settlement, estimated at $50 million, would end 5 years of litigation involving Norplant. The plaintiff's lawyers claimed that the company downplayed such side effects as irregular menstrual bleeding, nausea, headaches, and depression. Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories and parent company American Home Products Corp. have denied any wrongdoing and claimed that the side effects were described in the product label. The agreement to settle the Norplant claims were described as purely a business decision by Wyeth-Ayerst North America president Joseph Mahady. PMID:12295328

  7. 27 CFR 70.413 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... rendered unmerchantable by fire, casualty, or act of God. If the claim is allowed, a check for the amount... of God; (4) Denatured spirits lost or destroyed in bond, or lost on the premises of a...

  8. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies, recommends, or otherwise favors your product unless it is true. Do not say or imply that your...

  9. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies, recommends, or otherwise favors your product unless it is true. Do not say or imply that your...

  10. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies, recommends, or otherwise favors your product unless it is true. Do not say or imply that your...

  11. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies, recommends, or otherwise favors your product unless it is true. Do not say or imply that your...

  12. 16 CFR 460.21 - Government claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSULATION § 460.21 Government claims. Do not say or imply that a government agency uses, certifies, recommends, or otherwise favors your product unless it is true. Do not say or imply that your...

  13. FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA Warns About Stem Cell Claims Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... blood-forming system. back to top Regulation of Stem Cells FDA regulates stem cells in the U.S. to ...

  14. 20 CFR 410.705 - Duplicate claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shown, the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs shall proceed under DOL's regulations at 20 CFR part...-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black...

  15. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements for weight loss. These sites are a marketing ploy created to sell acai berry supplements.  Tainted ... on health claims? Get Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  16. 27 CFR 70.413 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rendered unmerchantable by fire, casualty, or act of God. If the claim is allowed, a check for the amount... of God; (4) Denatured spirits lost or destroyed in bond, or lost on the premises of a...

  17. 20 CFR 410.705 - Duplicate claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shown, the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs shall proceed under DOL's regulations at 20 CFR part...-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Rules for the Review of Denied and Pending Claims Under the Black...

  18. 38 CFR 14.665 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... years after it accrues except that if the claim accrues in time of war or in time of armed conflict in which any Armed Force of the United States is engaged or if such war or armed conflict intervenes...

  19. Health-benefit claims for probiotic products.

    PubMed

    Heimbach, James T

    2008-02-01

    Manufacturers wish to communicate the benefits of probiotics in advertising and labeling with lawful and adequately substantiated claims. Regulatory and substantiation requirements differ for products intended to cure, treat, prevent, or mitigate a disease; to reduce a healthy individual's risk of developing a disease; or to affect the structure or function of the body. Food labeling is regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration, and advertising is regulated by the Federal Trade Commission; the standards and methods used by these agencies differ. Food manufacturers must design their claims regarding the benefits of probiotics with the regulatory environment in mind and must develop their research plans to provide evidence that satisfies the agencies' substantiation requirements. This article offers an overview of the applicable laws and regulations, what they mandate regarding legitimate claims, and the issues regarding the design of research to substantiate such claims. PMID:18181716

  20. 44 CFR 62.20 - Claims appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... wind policies and any claim information submitted to the other companies; Waiver, Letter of Map... decisions; architectural plans and drawings; death certificates; a copy of the will; divorce decree,...

  1. 44 CFR 62.20 - Claims appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... wind policies and any claim information submitted to the other companies; Waiver, Letter of Map... decisions; architectural plans and drawings; death certificates; a copy of the will; divorce decree,...

  2. 27 CFR 70.413 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rendered unmerchantable by fire, casualty, or act of God. If the claim is allowed, a check for the amount... of God; (4) Denatured spirits lost or destroyed in bond, or lost on the premises of a...

  3. Context Based Inferences in Research Methodology: The Role of Culture in Justifying Knowledge Claims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin W.; Mason, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on work in epistemology and the philosophy of science, this paper seeks to provide very general reasons for why a comparative perspective needs to be applied to the inferential procedures of research methodologies where these concern the issue of justifying knowledge claims. In particular, the paper explores the role of culture on a number…

  4. "Anti-smoking data are exaggerated" versus "the data are clear and indisputable": examining letters to the editor about tobacco.

    PubMed

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine K; Israel, Kendre; Schell, Sarah; Mohr, Anneke

    2012-01-01

    Media advocacy plays a unique role in tobacco control policy development. Letters to the editor in particular are an interesting form of media advocacy because they reflect community sentiment regarding the policy agenda and provide insight into the public debate. The authors used ethnographic context analysis to examine the techniques used by writers of 262 tobacco-related letters to the editor published in 61 newspapers across Missouri over a 2-year period when tobacco tax and smoke-free indoor air initiatives were occurring across the state. The authors found that pro-tobacco control letter writers often used didactic strategies, citing numbers and reports, to convey information and presented their training or experience as a health professional (e.g., M.D., Ph.D.) to add legitimacy to their arguments. Anti-tobacco control letter writers, in contrast, used narrative strategies to support their stance, claimed authority as a smoker or small business owner to legitimize their claims by relating to the audience, and used collectivity to capture the attention of policymakers. These results present the importance of strategic media advocacy in tobacco control. Tobacco control advocates should increase their use of narrative strategies and collectivity in order to better connect with the public and policymakers. PMID:22376195

  5. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers. PMID:24915414

  6. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    PubMed

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed. PMID:24364816

  7. PlanHab: hypoxia exaggerates the bed-rest-induced reduction in peak oxygen uptake during upright cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Kölegård, Roger; Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2016-08-01

    The study examined the effects of hypoxia and horizontal bed rest, separately and in combination, on peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2 peak) during upright cycle ergometry. Ten male lowlanders underwent three 21-day confinement periods in a counterbalanced order: 1) normoxic bed rest [NBR; partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2 ) = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg]; 2) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg), and 3) hypoxic ambulation (HAMB; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg). Before and after each confinement, subjects performed two incremental-load trials to exhaustion, while inspiring either room air (AIR), or a hypoxic gas (HYPO; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg). Changes in regional oxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle and the frontal cerebral cortex were monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy. Cardiac output (CO) was recorded using a bioimpedance method. The AIR V̇o2 peak was decreased by both HBR (∼13.5%; P ≤ 0.001) and NBR (∼8.6%; P ≤ 0.001), with greater drop after HBR (P = 0.01). The HYPO V̇o2 peak was also reduced by HBR (-9.7%; P ≤ 0.001) and NBR (-6.1%; P ≤ 0.001). Peak CO was lower after both bed-rest interventions, and especially after HBR (HBR: ∼13%, NBR: ∼7%; P ≤ 0.05). Exercise-induced alterations in muscle and cerebral oxygenation were blunted in a similar manner after both bed-rest confinements. No changes were observed in HAMB. Hence, the bed-rest-induced decrease in V̇o2 peak was exaggerated by hypoxia, most likely due to a reduction in convective O2 transport, as indicated by the lower peak values of CO. PMID:27342877

  8. A Scientist's Guide to Science Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, J.

    2012-12-01

    Why are so many scientifically uncontroversial topics, from evolution and the age of the earth to climate change and vaccines, so contentious in society? The American public respects science and scientists, yet seems remarkably unaware of - or resistant to accepting - what scientists have learned about the world around us. This resistance holds back science education and undermines public policy discussions. Scientists and science communicators often react to science denial as if it were a question of scientific knowledge, and respond by trying to correct false scientific claims. Many independent lines of evidence show that science denial is not primarily about science. People reject scientific claims which seem to conflict with their personal identity - often because they believe that accepting those claims would threaten some deeply-valued cultural, political, or religious affiliation. Only by identifying, addressing, and defusing the underlying political and cultural concerns can educators, scientists, and science communicators undo the harm done by science denial.

  9. Development of an Instrument to Assess Student Knowledge Necessary to Critically Evaluate Scientific Claims in the Popular Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strimaitis, Anna M.; Schellinger, Jennifer; Jones, Anthony; Grooms, Jonathon; Sampson, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Students need to learn how to engage in several scientific practices in order to be considered proficient in science. Many of these practices are needed to evaluate scientific claims made in the popular media. Yet, there are few instruments available that science educators can use to assess whether students can apply what they know about…

  10. Science and religion: implications for science educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2010-03-01

    A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western thinking has traditionally postulated the existence and comprehensibility of a world that is external to and independent of human consciousness. This has led to a conception of truth, truth as correspondence, in which our knowledge corresponds to the facts in this external world. Staver rejects such a conception, preferring the conception of truth as coherence in which the links are between and among independent knowledge claims themselves rather than between a knowledge claim and reality. Staver then proposes constructivism as a vehicle potentially capable of resolving the tension between religion and science. My contention is that the resolution between science and religion that Staver proposes comes at too great a cost—both to science and to religion. Instead I defend a different version of constructivism where humans are seen as capable of generating models of reality that do provide richer and more meaningful understandings of reality, over time and with respect both to science and to religion. I argue that scientific knowledge is a subset of religious knowledge and explore the implications of this for science education in general and when teaching about evolution in particular.

  11. Making sense scientific claims in advertising. A study of scientifically aware consumers.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Rachel E; Tseëlon, Efrat; Weitkamp, Emma L C

    2008-04-01

    Evidence that science is becoming increasingly embedded in culture comes from the proliferation of discourses of ethical consumption, sustainability, and environmental awareness. Al Gore's recent award, along with UN's Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the Nobel peace prize-- provided a recent high profile linking of consumption and science. It is not clear to what extent the public at large engages in evaluating the scientific merits of the arguments about the link between human consumption and global environmental catastrophes. But on a local scale, we are routinely required to evaluate, scientific and pseudoscientific claims in advertising. Since advertising is used to sell products, the discourse of scientifically framed claims is being used to persuade consumers of the benefits of these products. In the case of functional foods and cosmetics, such statements are deployed to promote the health benefits and effectiveness of their products. This exploratory study examines the views of British consumers about the scientific and pseudoscientific claims made in advertisements for foods, with particular reference to functional foods, and cosmetics. The participants in the study all worked in scientific environments, though they were not all scientists. The study found that scientific arguments that were congruent with existing health knowledge tended to be accepted while pseudoscientific knowledge was regarded skeptically and concerns were raised over the accuracy and believability of the pseudoscientific claims. It appears that scientific awareness may play a part in consumers' ability to critically examine scientifically and pseudoscientifically based advertising claims. PMID:19391378

  12. Applying Gadamer's Concept of Disposition to Science and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borda, Emily J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, I recall previous arguments for a hermeneutic approach to science and claim that such an approach necessitates attention to the development of dispositions. I undertake an analysis of Hans-Georg Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics to identify and describe dispositions relevant to a hermeneutic approach to science. I then apply…

  13. Errors in Science and Their Treatment in Teaching Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the real origin and nature of scientific errors against claims of science critics, by examining a number of examples from the history of electricity and optics. This analysis leads to a conclusion that errors are a natural and unavoidable part of scientific process. If made available to students, through their science teachers,…

  14. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  15. Can Science Test Supernatural Worldviews?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Yonatan I.

    2009-01-01

    Several prominent scientists, philosophers, and scientific institutions have argued that science cannot test supernatural worldviews on the grounds that (1) science presupposes a naturalistic worldview (Naturalism) or that (2) claims involving supernatural phenomena are inherently beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The present paper…

  16. Interrelationship of MMPI-2 validity scales in personal injury claims.

    PubMed

    Fox, D D; Gerson, A; Lees-Haley, P R

    1995-01-01

    A sample of MMPI-2s of worker's compensation and personal injury cases (N = 289) was gathered to examine the relationship of various indicators of exaggeration. Intercorrelations of the F, F-K, the MMPI Dissimulation Scale-revised (Ds-r), total of obvious minus subtle scales (O-S), Fake Bad Scale (FBS), VRIN, and TRIN were computed and the relative sensitivity of each score calculated using various cut-offs. Factor analysis suggests that malingering may take the form of inconsistent responding as well as symptom exaggeration. Patients evaluated at the request of plaintiff attorneys showed a seemingly greater degree of symptom exaggeration and inconsistent responding than did those referred by defense counsel. PMID:7782474

  17. Controversial Science and the Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordon, James

    2012-03-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  18. Controversial Science and the Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordon, James

    2012-02-01

    The possibility that the OPERA collaboration has detected superluminal neutrinos was among the most controversial topics in physics news in decades, and one of the most widely covered stories in all of science in 2011. Word of the research initially reached journalists and the public prior to publication in peer-reviewed journals. Understandably, many physicists are concerned that the significance of controversial science may be exaggerated or distorted when news organizations report on science at such an early stage. I will offer an overview of the ways the story was promoted by the media relations personnel, and outline the rationales that motivate media relations efforts along with the associated benefits and drawbacks that can result. Finally, I will examine the accuracy and completeness of the superluminal neutrino news stories that ultimately were made available to the general public.

  19. 40 CFR 14.11 - Principal types of allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... claim is allowable, the EPA Claims Officer may consider such factors as: The employee's use of the item... furniture maintained by EPA; or (4) The item was stolen even though the employee took reasonable precautions to protect the item from theft. (d) Claims for loss or damage to household items. (1) Claims...

  20. 40 CFR 14.11 - Principal types of allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Principal types of allowable claims. 14.11 Section 14.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL EMPLOYEE PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 14.11 Principal types of allowable claims. (a) General. A claim under this part is allowed for tangible personal property of...

  1. 40 CFR 14.11 - Principal types of allowable claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... claim is allowable, the EPA Claims Officer may consider such factors as: The employee's use of the item... furniture maintained by EPA; or (4) The item was stolen even though the employee took reasonable precautions to protect the item from theft. (d) Claims for loss or damage to household items. (1) Claims...

  2. 34 CFR 35.6 - Final denial of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final denial of claim. 35.6 Section 35.6 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.6 Final denial of claim. (a) Final denial of an administrative claim shall be in writing and sent to...

  3. 34 CFR 35.7 - Payment of approved claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of approved claims. 35.7 Section 35.7 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.7 Payment of approved claims. (a) Upon allowance of his claim, claimant or his duly authorized agent...

  4. 34 CFR 35.5 - Investigation of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investigation of claims. 35.5 Section 35.5 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.5 Investigation of claims. When a claim is received, the Department will make such investigation as may...

  5. 78 FR 18365 - Commencement of Iraq Claims Adjudication Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Foreign Claims Settlement Commission Commencement of Iraq Claims Adjudication Program AGENCY: Foreign... certain category of claims of United States nationals against the Government of Iraq, as defined below... of America and the Government of the Republic of Iraq,'' dated September 2, 2010 (``Claims...

  6. 32 CFR 536.31 - Opening claim files.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Opening claim files. 536.31 Section 536.31... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.31 Opening claim files. A claim file will be opened when: (a) Information that requires investigation under § 536.23 is received....

  7. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  8. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  9. 43 CFR 3741.1 - Validation of certain mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Validation of certain mining claims. 3741... DEVELOPMENT Claims, Locations and Patents § 3741.1 Validation of certain mining claims. The Act in section 1(a... intervening rights acquired under the laws of the United States, any mining claim located under the...

  10. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  11. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  12. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  13. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  14. 43 CFR 3833.20 - Amending mining claims and sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amending mining claims and sites. 3833.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) RECORDING MINING CLAIMS AND SITES Amending Mining Claims and Sites § 3833.20 Amending mining claims and sites....

  15. 43 CFR 3832.20 - Lode and placer mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lode and placer mining claims. 3832.20... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LOCATING MINING CLAIMS OR SITES Types of Mining Claims § 3832.20 Lode and placer mining claims....

  16. 43 CFR 3741.1 - Validation of certain mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Validation of certain mining claims. 3741... DEVELOPMENT Claims, Locations and Patents § 3741.1 Validation of certain mining claims. The Act in section 1(a... intervening rights acquired under the laws of the United States, any mining claim located under the...

  17. 43 CFR 3741.1 - Validation of certain mining claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Validation of certain mining claims. 3741... DEVELOPMENT Claims, Locations and Patents § 3741.1 Validation of certain mining claims. The Act in section 1(a... intervening rights acquired under the laws of the United States, any mining claim located under the...

  18. 42 CFR 431.972 - Claims sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Estimating Improper Payments in Medicaid and CHIP § 431.972 Claims sampling procedures. (a) Claims universe. (1) The PERM claims universe includes payments that were originally paid (paid claims) and for which... must establish controls to ensure FFS and managed care universes are accurate and complete,...

  19. 42 CFR 431.972 - Claims sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Estimating Improper Payments in Medicaid and CHIP § 431.972 Claims sampling procedures. (a) Claims universe. (1) The PERM claims universe includes payments that were originally paid (paid claims) and for which... must establish controls to ensure FFS and managed care universes are accurate and complete,...

  20. 42 CFR 431.972 - Claims sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Estimating Improper Payments in Medicaid and CHIP § 431.972 Claims sampling procedures. (a) Claims universe. (1) The PERM claims universe includes payments that were originally paid (paid claims) and for which... must establish controls to ensure FFS and managed care universes are accurate and complete,...

  1. 5 CFR 178.102 - Procedures for submitting claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for submitting claims. 178.102... for submitting claims. (a) Content of claims. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a claim shall be submitted by the claimant in writing and must be signed by the claimant or by...

  2. 38 CFR 21.6015 - Claims and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims and elections. 21... Recipients General § 21.6015 Claims and elections. (a) Claims by veterans under age 45 for whom participation... make this election, the veteran must file a claim, in a form prescribed by VA, for services under...

  3. 38 CFR 21.6015 - Claims and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims and elections. 21... Recipients General § 21.6015 Claims and elections. (a) Claims by veterans under age 45 for whom participation... make this election, the veteran must file a claim, in a form prescribed by VA, for services under...

  4. 38 CFR 21.6015 - Claims and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims and elections. 21... Recipients General § 21.6015 Claims and elections. (a) Claims by veterans under age 45 for whom participation... make this election, the veteran must file a claim, in a form prescribed by VA, for services under...

  5. 7 CFR 273.18 - Claims against households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR 271.2. (2) This claim is a Federal debt subject to this and other regulations governing Federal... claims processing and results in claims collections similar to recent national rates of collection. If... frames and procedures for tracking claim referrals through date of discovery to date of establishment;...

  6. 7 CFR 273.18 - Claims against households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR 271.2. (2) This claim is a Federal debt subject to this and other regulations governing Federal... claims processing and results in claims collections similar to recent national rates of collection. If... frames and procedures for tracking claim referrals through date of discovery to date of establishment;...

  7. 7 CFR 273.18 - Claims against households.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR 271.2. (2) This claim is a Federal debt subject to this and other regulations governing Federal... claims processing and results in claims collections similar to recent national rates of collection. If... frames and procedures for tracking claim referrals through date of discovery to date of establishment;...

  8. 19 CFR 191.51 - Completion of drawback claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Completion of drawback claims. 191.51 Section 191.51 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Completion of Drawback Claims § 191.51 Completion of drawback claims. (a) General—(1) Complete claim....

  9. 22 CFR 304.11 - Final denial of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Final denial of claim. 304.11 Section 304.11 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.11 Final denial of claim. The General Counsel will send notification of the final denial of...

  10. 22 CFR 304.11 - Final denial of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Final denial of claim. 304.11 Section 304.11 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.11 Final denial of claim. The General Counsel will send notification of the final denial of...

  11. 22 CFR 304.11 - Final denial of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Final denial of claim. 304.11 Section 304.11 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.11 Final denial of claim. The General Counsel will send notification of the final denial of...

  12. 22 CFR 304.11 - Final denial of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final denial of claim. 304.11 Section 304.11 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS CLAIMS AGAINST GOVERNMENT UNDER FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT Procedures § 304.11 Final denial of claim. The General Counsel will send notification of the final denial of...

  13. 46 CFR 204.8 - Where to file claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where to file claims. 204.8 Section 204.8 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION POLICY, PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE CLAIMS AGAINST THE MARITIME ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS ACT § 204.8 Where to file claims. Claimants must...

  14. 22 CFR 511.5 - Who may file claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Who may file claim. 511.5 Section 511.5 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL TORT CLAIMS PROCEDURE § 511.5 Who may file claim. (a) Claims for loss or damage of property may be filed by the owner of the property, or his/her...

  15. 22 CFR 304.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Administrative claim; who may file. 304.3... Procedures § 304.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be... State law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an insurer with the rights of a subrogee may...

  16. 12 CFR 793.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 793.3... Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be presented by the owner... applicable State law. (d) A claim for loss wholly compensated by an insurer with the rights of a subrogee...

  17. 32 CFR 842.61 - Who may file a claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who may file a claim. 842.61 Section 842.61... ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.61 Who may file a claim. (a) Owners of the property... entitled to do so under applicable local law, for an individual's death. (d) Authorized agents...

  18. 39 CFR 912.6 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 912.6 Section... Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to or loss of property may be presented by the owner... any other person legally entitled to assert such a claim in accordance with applicable State law....

  19. 32 CFR 752.3 - Claims against the Navy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims against the Navy. 752.3 Section 752.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS ADMIRALTY CLAIMS § 752.3 Claims against the Navy. (a) Settlement authority. 10 U.S.C. 7622 provides settlement authority...

  20. 32 CFR 752.3 - Claims against the Navy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims against the Navy. 752.3 Section 752.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS ADMIRALTY CLAIMS § 752.3 Claims against the Navy. (a) Settlement authority. 10 U.S.C. 7622 provides settlement authority...

  1. 32 CFR 752.3 - Claims against the Navy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Claims against the Navy. 752.3 Section 752.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS ADMIRALTY CLAIMS § 752.3 Claims against the Navy. (a) Settlement authority. 10 U.S.C. 7622 provides settlement authority...

  2. 32 CFR 752.3 - Claims against the Navy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims against the Navy. 752.3 Section 752.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS ADMIRALTY CLAIMS § 752.3 Claims against the Navy. (a) Settlement authority. 10 U.S.C. 7622 provides settlement authority...

  3. 32 CFR 752.3 - Claims against the Navy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims against the Navy. 752.3 Section 752.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS ADMIRALTY CLAIMS § 752.3 Claims against the Navy. (a) Settlement authority. 10 U.S.C. 7622 provides settlement authority...

  4. 32 CFR 536.19 - Disaster claims planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disaster claims planning. 536.19 Section 536.19... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES The Army Claims System § 536.19 Disaster claims planning. All ACOs will prepare... requirements related to disaster claims planning....

  5. 47 CFR 64.1 - Traffic damage claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Traffic damage claims. 64.1 Section 64.1... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Traffic Damage Claims § 64.1 Traffic damage claims. (a) Each carrier... files for each damage claim of a traffic nature filed with the carrier, showing the name, address,...

  6. 47 CFR 64.1 - Traffic damage claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Traffic damage claims. 64.1 Section 64.1... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Traffic Damage Claims § 64.1 Traffic damage claims. (a) Each carrier... files for each damage claim of a traffic nature filed with the carrier, showing the name, address,...

  7. 47 CFR 64.1 - Traffic damage claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Traffic damage claims. 64.1 Section 64.1... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Traffic Damage Claims § 64.1 Traffic damage claims. (a) Each carrier... files for each damage claim of a traffic nature filed with the carrier, showing the name, address,...

  8. 47 CFR 64.1 - Traffic damage claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Traffic damage claims. 64.1 Section 64.1... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Traffic Damage Claims § 64.1 Traffic damage claims. (a) Each carrier... files for each damage claim of a traffic nature filed with the carrier, showing the name, address,...

  9. 47 CFR 64.1 - Traffic damage claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Traffic damage claims. 64.1 Section 64.1... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Traffic Damage Claims § 64.1 Traffic damage claims. (a) Each carrier... files for each damage claim of a traffic nature filed with the carrier, showing the name, address,...

  10. 45 CFR 35.3 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.3 Administrative claim; who may file. (a) A claim for injury to...

  11. 45 CFR 35.6 - Final denial of claim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final denial of claim. 35.6 Section 35.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.6 Final denial of claim. (a) Final denial of an administrative claim shall be in writing...

  12. 45 CFR 35.7 - Payment of approved claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment of approved claims. 35.7 Section 35.7 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TORT CLAIMS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT Procedures § 35.7 Payment of approved claims. (a) Upon allowance of his claim, claimant or...

  13. 37 CFR 7.12 - Claim of color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claim of color. 7.12 Section... § 7.12 Claim of color. (a) If color is claimed as a feature of the mark in the basic application and/or registration, the international application must include a statement that color is claimed as...

  14. 37 CFR 7.12 - Claim of color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claim of color. 7.12 Section... § 7.12 Claim of color. (a) If color is claimed as a feature of the mark in the basic application and/or registration, the international application must include a statement that color is claimed as...

  15. 38 CFR 14.617 - Disposition of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Foreign Countries § 14.617 Disposition of claims. (a) Disposition of claims arising in Philippines. All claims arising under 38 U.S.C. 515(b) in the Philippines, including a complete investigation report and a... other than the Philippines. When a claim is received in an American Embassy or Consulate, the Embassy...

  16. 9 CFR 51.30 - Claims for indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.30 Claims for indemnity. (a) Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis must be made using an indemnity claim form furnished... on the farm pending disposal and for all trucking fees. (b) Claims for indemnity for registered...

  17. 9 CFR 51.30 - Claims for indemnity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.30 Claims for indemnity. (a) Claims for indemnity for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed because of brucellosis must be made using an indemnity claim form furnished... on the farm pending disposal and for all trucking fees. (b) Claims for indemnity for registered...

  18. 42 CFR 431.972 - Claims sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Estimating Improper Payments in Medicaid and CHIP § 431.972 Claims sampling procedures. (a) Claims universe. (1) The PERM claims universe includes payments that were originally paid (paid claims) and for which... must establish controls to ensure FFS and managed care universes are accurate and complete,...

  19. 37 CFR 360.25 - Copies of claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Copies of claims. 360.25 Section 360.25 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS SUBMISSION OF ROYALTY CLAIMS FILING OF CLAIMS TO ROYALTY FEES COLLECTED UNDER COMPULSORY LICENSE Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media Royalty Claims...

  20. 5 CFR 180.105 - Claims not allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims not allowed. 180.105 Section 180.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 180.105 Claims not allowed. (a) A claim is not allowable if: (1) The damage...