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Sample records for sciences wroclaw poland

  1. Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1) carriers among urban breeding facilities in Wroclaw (Poland).

    PubMed

    Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Bierowiec, Karolina; Bania, Jacek; Kiełbowicz, Maciej; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1) carriers among closed, one-cat breeding facilities in the urban environment of Wrocław city between 2011-2013 was investigated. A probe-based real-time PCR was used to detect FHV 1 DNA in conjunctival swab extracts. Of the 67 breeding cats investigated 14 animals (20.9%) were confirmed to contain FHV 1 specific DNA. The herpesvirus DNA was detected in eight cats from the group expressing clinical signs of FHV 1 infection (n = 28) and in six clinically healthy animals (n = 39). The percentage of positive carriers ranged from 12 to 44%, depending on the frequency of sampling. The total prevalence in cats at the optimal age for reproduction (2 to 7 years) was 20%. One-cat breeding facilities of purebred cats in Wrocław (Poland) constitute a significant reservoir of FHV 1 and the number of monitoring repeats may influences the success of FHV 1 detection. PMID:24881276

  2. Electromagnetic compatibility 1984; Proceedings of the Seventh International Wroclaw Symposium, Wroclaw, Poland, June 26-28, 1984. Parts 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, D. J.; Moron, W.; Struzak, R. G.

    The topics discussed are related to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and the International Union of Radio Science, dynamic compatibility in channels with state identification subsystems, EM environment, measurements, spectrum management, EMC active line models, EMC and biology, radio wave propagation, EMC and wire communications, statistical concepts, lightning and EMC, EMC of radio systems, EM fields and related problems, electromagnetic interference (EMI) sources, immunity, antennas,modelling techniques, and EMC and radio amateur service. Aspects of mobile radio communication are explored, taking into account cellular public radio services using pseudonoise signals, the capacity of the cellular mobile radio service using pseudonoise signals and frequency modulation, the effectiveness of cellular structures of the mobile communication systems, and the determination of the receiving and interfering zone in moble radio communications with the aid of the computer. Attention is given to differences regarding the biological effects of simple and combined electromagnetic fields.

  3. ESO Science Outreach Network in Poland during 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czart, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    ESON Poland works since 2010. One of the main tasks of the ESO Science Outreach Network (ESON) is translation of various materials at ESO website, as well as contacts with journalists. We support also science festivals, conferences, contests, exhibitions, astronomy camps and workshops and other educational and outreach activities. During 2011-2013 we supported events like ESO Astronomy Camp 2013, ESO Industry Days in Warsaw, Warsaw Science Festival, Torun Festival of Science and Art, international astronomy olympiad held in Poland and many others. Among big tasks there was also translation of over 60 ESOcast movies.

  4. ERASMUS Partners in Conversation: Psychology at the University of Wroclaw and University of Wales Institute, Cardiff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggs, Daniel A.; Mercer, Jenny M.; Durniat, Kasia

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer an account of a free-ranging discussion highlighting common features of psychology provision and that considers the differences between two departments and two distinct programmes. The discussion took place between ERASMUS partners during a Teacher Exchange visit to the University of Wroclaw, Poland, in March…

  5. The new approach to science and technology in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Karczewski, W.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, the entire field of science and technology in Poland was divided into three sectors: the Academy of Sciences, the universities and other academic institutions, and the research and development institutes. The level of collaboration among these sectors was low, and the system of financing science and technology was centralized, bureaucratic, and inefficient. The present Science Bill,' which came into force in January, 1991, has three important new features: autonomy, scientific merit, and openness. The coordination of government policy in this field has been entrusted to the KBN (State Committee for Scientific Research). Members of the Committee and its two commissions - one each for basic and applied research - are elected by the scientific community in direct two-stage elections. This new approach to the management of scientific research organization and financing should result in better utilization of budgetary resources allocated for science in Poland.

  6. Development of optical sciences in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2013-10-01

    Research and technical communities for optics, photonics and optoelectronics is grouped in this country in several organizations and institutions. These are: Photonics Society of Poland (PSP), Polish Committee of Optoelectronics of SEP, Photonics Section of KEiT PAN, Laser Club at WAT, and Optics Section of PTF. Each of these communities keeps slightly different specificity. PSP publishes a quarterly journal Photonics Letters of Poland, stimulates international cooperation, and organizes conferences during Industrial Fairs on Innovativeness. PKOpto SEP organizes didactic diploma competitions in optoelectronics. KEiT PAN takes patronage over national conferences in laser technology, optical fiber technology and communications, and photonics applications. SO-PTF has recently taken a decision to organize a cyclic event "Polish Optical Conference". The third edition of this conference PKO'2013 was held in Sandomierz on 30.06-04.07.2013. The conference scientific and technical topics include: quantum and nonlinear optics, photon physics, optic and technology of lasers and other sources of coherent radiation, optoelectronics, optical integrated circuits, optical fibers, medical optics, instrumental optics, optical spectroscopy, optical metrology, new optical materials, applications of optics, teaching in optics. This paper reviews chosen works presented during the III Polish Optical Conference (PKO'2013), representing the research efforts at different national institutions.

  7. J. Mikulicz-Radecki, K. H. Bauer, and W. Bross. Three great surgeons, three different epochs, one clinic in Wroclaw.

    PubMed

    Kustrzycki, Wojciech Anatol

    2013-09-01

    The city of Wroclaw (Breslau) lies where the cultural and economic influences of the eastern, southern, and western Europe meet. Over a thousand years of history it changed the state affiliation several times. Since 1945, similarly as seven centuries ago, it lies within the borders of Poland. The historical complex of hospital buildings constructed at the end of the 19th century for the medical faculty remained almost untouched, despite catastrophic war destructions in the whole city. The building of surgical clinic witnessed epoch-making events in the discipline of surgery performed by the three great personalities. Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (1850-1905), the first head of the department, world famous physician and scientist, created in Wroclaw a modern surgical center. From among his numerous achievements the most important seems to be the performance of the world's first safe thoracotomy in the low-pressure chamber (1904). Karl Heinrich Bauer (1890-1979) was the next great personality, who had been leading the surgical department since 1933. Genetics, transplantology, traumatology and oncology were the main points of his interest. Because of political reasons he had to leave Wroclaw. He continued his surgical and scientific career in Heidelberg. Wiktor Bross (1903-1994) came to the ruined city directly after the World War II. As an experienced general and thoracic surgeon he created a new surgical school. First in Poland open heart surgery (1958) and renal transplantation (1966) were performed by him and his team in the same building, where Mikulicz-Radecki and Bauer worked in the past. The memory of all three great surgeons has been honored by placing their sculptures among the prominent Wroclaw citizens in the city hall. PMID:23212163

  8. Unconventional forms of popularization of science - festivals 'Science on Stage" in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Aneta

    2010-05-01

    could enter the show rooms and had an opportunity to try their hand at carrying out experiments prepared for them beforehand. All presentations were evaluated by a jury consisting of research workers of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Warsaw University, University of Silesia and members of the Polish Physical Society. Within each category three best presentations were selected, and their authors then represented Poland at the international festival. From many years the chairman of the National Organizing Committee of the festival has been professor Wojciech Nawrocik, the winner of the prestigious competition "Propagator of Science", organized by Polish Press Agency and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. Each festival was inaugurated with a performance prepared by the youngest participants of the festival - kindergarten children, who are outside of the competition. The theme of the last one was: "Preschoolers also are waiting for the Higgs particle!". Next edition of "Science on Stage 4" festival will be held on 24-25 September 2010, also at the Department of Physics at the University of Poznań. Its aim is to show the contribution of physics, other natural and technical sciences in solving energy problems of the world and Poland, and also finding new solutions in power engineering, which will meet a rapidly rising demand for clean and cheap energy.

  9. Cases with manifestation of chemodectoma diagnosed in dogs in Department of Internal Diseases with Horses, Dogs and Cats Clinic, Veterinary Medicine Faculty, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the period of 3 years, 9 tumours of chemodectoma were supravitally diagnosed and histopathologically verified in dogs. In this period 15 351 dogs were admitted to the Clinic of Dogs and Cats and 2 145 dogs were examined in the cardiological outpatient clinic for dogs. This tumour is located in a typical place - at the base of the heart. Most frequently the tumour manifested in older boxers. Only in one case such a tumour was diagnosed in another breed of dogs. The tumours ranged in size between 3 and 16 cm in diameter. The principal sign accompanying tumours of cardiac base involved dyspnoea but in 3 cases the tumours yielded no clinical signs. All the diagnoses were additionally verified using immunohistochemical examination. We used antibodies to chromogranin A (clone DAK-A3 1:100), synaptophysin (clone SY38 1:20) and neuron-specific enolase (clone BBS/NC/VI-H14 1:150). An immunohistochemical examination is vital for the diagnosis since it allows to differentiate histologically distinct types of neoplasia which may locate in the same site and may manifest a similar histological pattern. PMID:20492718

  10. THE SCIENCE OF SCIENCE (NAUKOZNAWSTWO) IN POLAND: THE CHANGING THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES AND POLITICAL CONTEXTS--A HISTORICAL SKETCH FROM THE 1910S TO 1993.

    PubMed

    Kokowski, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The article sketches the history of naukoznawstwo (literally meaning the science connoisseurship or the science of science or science studies) in Poland from the 1910s to the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. It outlines the changing research perspectives of this interdisciplinary field of knowledge in Poland against a background of changing political conditions caused by the reconfigurations of the political order. The first part of the article concerns the period from the 1910s, when Poland was occupied by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, through the regaining of independence by Poland in 1918, the reconstruction of the state in 1918-1939; the second part--World War II; the third part--the period from the initial period of Soviet dominance (1944-1954) in Poland and simultaneously the beginnings of the Cold War (1947-1954), the period 1955-1956 (when the Polish state was liberated from Sovietization), through the different political crises in October 1956, March 1968, December 1970, and June 1976, to the emergence of the Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity in September 1980, the end of the Cold War (1991), and the recovery of full political independence in 1993. The article outlines the fundamental achievements of prominent Polish scholars (among others K. Twardowski, M. Ossowska, S. Ossowski, T. Kotarbiński, K. Ajdukiewicz, S. Michalski, F. Znaniecki, B. Suchodolski, L. Fleck, M. Choynowski, Z. Modzelewski, S. Amsterdamski), politicians (among others B. Bierut, E. Krasowska), politicians and scholars (H. Jabłoński, S. Kulczyński), as well as committees (among others the Academic Section of the Józef Mianowski Fund, The Science of Science Committee of the Polish Academy of Sciences), schools of thought (among others the Lvov-Warsaw School of Philosophy), and academic units (among others the Science of Science Seminar in Kraków, the Department for the History of Science and Technology of the Polish

  11. Spatial distribution of flood risk and quality of spatial management: case study in Odra Valley, Poland.

    PubMed

    Rucinska, Dorota

    2015-02-01

    This article presents methodological solutions aimed at presenting the spatial distribution of flood risk and quality of spatial management (land use), indicating both those areas used reasonably and those requiring modification. The purpose was to identify key risk areas and risk-free areas from the point of view of human security and activity on the floodplains, based on the examples of the vicinities of Wroclaw and Raciborz in the Odra Valley, Poland. Due to recent climate change, Poland has suffered the effects of severe flooding (e.g., 1997, 2001, 2010). The analyses conducted were motivated by the European Parliament and Council's recently implemented Directive 2007/60/WE, as well as by the demand for studies for local spatial planning. The analysis indicates that reasonably developed areas do not account for the majority of those studied, making up 36% of the Wroclaw area and 15% of the Raciborz area. PMID:25385027

  12. Observations on hearing preservation in patients with hybrid-L electrode implanted at Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szyfter, Witold; Wróbel, Maciej; Karlik, Michał; Borucki, Lukasz; Stieler, Maciej; Gibasiewicz, Renata; Gawęcki, Wojciech; Sekula, Alicja

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the paper is to evaluate the hearing preservation rate in patients with high frequency hearing loss, treated with Cochlear Nucleus Freedom Hybrid-L implant in the Otolaryngology Department, Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poland. Study was designed as the retrospective analysis. Twenty-one patients were operated and implanted with Nucleus Freedom Hybrid-L implant. Pure tone thresholds were recorded prior to the surgery and at the time of speech processor switch-on. Patients were subdivided into two groups with respect to their PTA thresholds: group A-classic indications and group B-extended indications. Average PTA for three frequencies (250, 500, 1,000 Hz) were calculated for each patient pre- and postoperatively. In the group of 21 implanted patients in 17 cases we have observed preservation of hearing (12 patients from group A, 5 patients from group B) with a mean value of 13.1 dB. In 4 out of 21 patients deafness on the implanted ear was noted. Our results clearly indicate that with standard procedure hearing preservation can be obtained in majority of patients. Hearing preservation was not achieved in 19 %, but owing to design of the electrode of the Cochlear Nucleus Hybrid-L that enables to work as CI platform alone, in patients who lost their hearing after surgery re-implantations were not required. This proves that EAS is a safe and reliable method to help patients with specific type of hearing loss. PMID:23223855

  13. Application of the Deformation Information System for automated analysis and mapping of mining terrain deformations - case study from SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowski, Jan; Grzempowski, Piotr; Milczarek, Wojciech; Nowacka, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring, mapping and modelling of mining induced terrain deformations are important tasks for quantifying and minimising threats that arise from underground extraction of useful minerals and affect surface infrastructure, human safety, the environment and security of the mining operation itself. The number of methods and techniques used for monitoring and analysis of mining terrain deformations is wide and expanding with the progress in geographical information technologies. These include for example: terrestrial geodetic measurements, Global Navigation Satellite Systems, remote sensing, GIS based modelling and spatial statistics, finite element method modelling, geological modelling, empirical modelling using e.g. the Knothe theory, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic calculations and other. The presentation shows the results of numerical modelling and mapping of mining terrain deformations for two cases of underground mining sites in SW Poland, hard coal one (abandoned) and copper ore (active) using the functionalities of the Deformation Information System (DIS) (Blachowski et al, 2014 @ http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2014/EGU2014-7949.pdf). The functionalities of the spatial data modelling module of DIS have been presented and its applications in modelling, mapping and visualising mining terrain deformations based on processing of measurement data (geodetic and GNSS) for these two cases have been characterised and compared. These include, self-developed and implemented in DIS, automation procedures for calculating mining terrain subsidence with different interpolation techniques, calculation of other mining deformation parameters (i.e. tilt, horizontal displacement, horizontal strain and curvature), as well as mapping mining terrain categories based on classification of the values of these parameters as used in Poland. Acknowledgments. This work has been financed from the National Science Centre Project "Development of a numerical method of

  14. NRT Atmospheric Water Vapour Retrieval on the Area of Poland at IGG WUELS AC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplon, Jan; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Sierny, Jan; Hadas, Tomasz; Rohm, Witold; Wilgan, Karina; Ryczywolski, Marcin; Oruba, Artur; Kroszczynski, Krzysztof

    2013-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are designed for positioning, navigation and amongst other possible applications it can also be used to derive information about the state of the atmosphere. Continuous observations from GNSS receivers provide an excellent tool for studying the neutral atmosphere, currently in near real-time. The Near Real-Time (NRT) neutral atmosphere and water vapour distribution models are currently obtained with high resolution from Ground Base Augmentation Systems (GBAS), where reference stations are equipped with GNSS and meteorological sensors. The Poland territory is covered by dense network of GNSS stations in the frame of GBAS system called ASG-EUPOS (www.asgeupos.pl). This system was established in year 2008 by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography in the frame of the EUPOS project (www.eupos.org) for providing positioning services. The GNSS data are available from 130 reference stations located in Poland and neighbour countries. The ground meteorological observations in the area of Poland and neighbour countries are available from ASG-EUPOS stations included in EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations, airports meteorological stations (METAR messages stations), and stations managed by national Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (SYNOP messages stations). Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (IGG) of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences had created permanent NRT service of ZTD (Zenith Total Delay) estimation for the area of Poland from GPS observations called IGGHZG. The first part of the paper presents the methodology of NRT GNSS data processing for ASG-EUPOS stations for ZTD estimation and its comparison to the results coming from EPN ACs and Military University of Technology in Warsaw AC (MUT AC). Second part covers the procedure of IWV (atmospheric Integrated Water Vapour content) estimation at IGG from IGGHZG product and ZHD (Zenith Hydrostatic Delay) derived from Saastamoinen formula (1972

  15. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part II. Science, research, development, higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  16. Physical activity among working age residents of Wroclaw in the light of their educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Puciato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This article attempts to define the relationship between physical activity and educational attainment of working-age adults from Wroclaw. [Subjects and Methods] The study surveyed 2,174 participants aged 18–64 years, 984 men and 1,190 women. To evaluate their physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. [Results] Most of the participants performed low-intensity levels of physical activity. Men were characterized by generally higher physical activity than women, but the difference was not significant. The level of educational attainment differentiated physical activity only in women with secondary or higher education, who performed significantly more physical activities than those with primary and vocational education. [Conclusion] Further research in this subject area should be performed. It should be continuous and consider other methods and techniques. PMID:27065518

  17. The negative health consequences of unemployment: the case of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kozieł, Sławomir; Lopuszańska, Monika; Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna

    2010-07-01

    In the 1990s Poland began to make a transition to a free-market economy: a transition accompanied by a variety of negative socio-economic developments, most notably a rise in unemployment. The aim of this study is to shed light on the relationship between occupational status (including unemployment) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), by examining the experience of 542 men and 572 women between the ages of 40 and 50 of the town of Wroclaw in 2006. The Framingham Risk Score (FRS), which uses certain health and life-style parameters to predict the risk of major coronary problems over a 10-year period, was calculated, and the effect of occupational status on the FRS was assessed. The results showed that the FRS varied according to sex and to occupational status, with the highest FRS rating among unemployed men. Thus governmental policies to counter the adverse effects of unemployment should be developed to remedy the problem. PMID:20627735

  18. On the Issue of a Philosophy in Polish Library Information Science. A Summary of Interviews with Some Leading Scholars. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitecki, Joseph Z.

    This document is based on transcripts of recorded informal interviews with: (1) selected senior professors in the library schools at Warsaw, Krakow, and Wroclaw (Poland); (2) the director and a member of the Books and Readers Institute of the National Polish Libraries; and (3) a group of Polish librarians and students in the field. The report…

  19. Rural Sociology in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeski, Boguslaw, Ed.

    Included in this book on rural sociology in Poland are: (1) "Rural Sociology in Poland" (an article detailing the reflections and studies of rural life and agriculture before the discipline of rural sociology was acknowledged); (2) "Half A Century of Rural Sociology in Poland" (an article describing the "golden age" of Polish sociology in the…

  20. Science-Economy-Technology Concordance Matrix for Development and Implementation of Regional Smart Specializations in the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Smoliński, Adam; Bondaruk, Jan; Pichlak, Magdalena; Trząski, Leszek; Uszok, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The regional smart specializations include the innovative activities within a common science-economy-technology sector, which open the opportunities to gain a competitive advantage. The original procedure of science-economy-technology concordance matrix development on an example of smart specializations of the Silesian Voivodeship was presented in the paper. The procedure developed includes recognition of the research and economic components of the regional smart specialization and the connection between the economic components of the regional specialization and the technological innovation through the international patent classification. It also comprises recognition of key enabling technologies (KETs) and high technologies (of high R&D intensity) other than KET in the economic and technological dimensions of innovation as well as the high R&D intensity services in the economic dimension of innovation. The in-depth expert analyses with the application of the Delphi method were also taken into account. The methodological approach developed and the visualization method applied are both of cognitive and practical importance since they contribute significantly to the creation of efficient development policies, to the enhancement and facilitation of cross-sectoral cooperation, and to the focusing on the fields of key importance in terms of the competitive advantage of a region. PMID:26697528

  1. Science-Economy-Technology Concordance Matrix for Development and Implementation of Regional Smart Specializations in the Silesian Voivodeship, Poland.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Bondaruk, Jan; Pichlak, Magdalena; Trząski, Leszek; Uszok, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The regional smart specializations include the innovative activities within a common science-economy-technology sector, which open the opportunities to gain a competitive advantage. The original procedure of science-economy-technology concordance matrix development on an example of smart specializations of the Silesian Voivodeship was presented in the paper. The procedure developed includes recognition of the research and economic components of the regional smart specialization and the connection between the economic components of the regional specialization and the technological innovation through the international patent classification. It also comprises recognition of key enabling technologies (KETs) and high technologies (of high R&D intensity) other than KET in the economic and technological dimensions of innovation as well as the high R&D intensity services in the economic dimension of innovation. The in-depth expert analyses with the application of the Delphi method were also taken into account. The methodological approach developed and the visualization method applied are both of cognitive and practical importance since they contribute significantly to the creation of efficient development policies, to the enhancement and facilitation of cross-sectoral cooperation, and to the focusing on the fields of key importance in terms of the competitive advantage of a region. PMID:26697528

  2. Aging in Poland.

    PubMed

    Leszko, Magdalena; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmila; Trempala, Janusz

    2015-10-01

    With 38 million residents, Poland has the eighth-largest population in Europe. A successful transition from communism to democracy, which began in 1989, has brought several significant changes to the country's economic development, demographic structure, quality of life, and public policies. As in the other European countries, Poland has been facing a rapid increase in the number of older adults. Currently, the population 65 and above is growing more rapidly than the total population and this discrepancy will have important consequences for the country's economy. As the population ages, there will be increased demands to improve Poland's health care and retirement systems. This article aims to provide a brief overview of the demographic trends in Poland as well a look at the country's major institutions of gerontology research. The article also describes key public policies concerning aging and how these may affect the well-being of Poland's older adults. PMID:26315315

  3. Gunshot wounds (resulting from execution) of exhumed victims of the communist regime in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Łukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Kawecki, Jerzy; Jurek, Tomasz

    2014-07-01

    This study presents the results of the analysis of the remains of 23 executed male individuals aged between 21 and 63 years, recovered from Osobowicki Cemetery in Wroclaw (Poland), field 83B, in 2012. In 1948 and 1949, prisoners sentenced to death by firing squad--most of them associated with the post-war anti-communist underground independence movement in Poland--were buried there. The aim of the study was to analyse fatal wounds and the method of execution, and to compare the results to data from archival documents. The results were also compared with studies concerning executions during a later period, i.e. 1949-1954. The research on the method of execution during this period of history carried out during the exhumations in Osobowicki Cemetery was the first conducted on such a scale in Poland. Forensic analysis revealed a wide variety of gunshot wounds inflicted during executions, revealing both gunshots to the head, especially single shots to the back of the head, and cases corresponding to the use of a firing squad, probably equipped with machine guns. The results of the research indicate that capital punishment by shooting was carried out in ways both similar to those the specified in the regulations and completely different. PMID:24767546

  4. Astronomy in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarna, M.; Stępień, K.

    2015-09-01

    Polish post-war astronomy was built virtually from nothing. Currently, about 250 astronomers are employed in seven academic institutes and a few smaller units across Poland. Broad areas of astrophysics are covered and the level of astronomical research in Poland is higher than the world average. Joining ESO has created an atmosphere that is conducive to further improvements in the quality of Polish research, and it marks an important step towards the full integration of Polish astronomers into the international scientific community.

  5. Poland: Children's Fiction in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Povsic, Frances F.

    1980-01-01

    Lists and annotates children's books that present Polish folklore and legends, biographies of famous Polish people, personal accounts of life in Poland, and stories about Polish Americans and people living in Poland. (ET)

  6. Pharmaceutical Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmanowa, Miroslawa; Borke, Mitchell L.

    1978-01-01

    The content and organization of Poland's system of pharmaceutical education is described. Tables are presented of the subjects of the basic studies curriculum and the following areas of specialization: applied pharmacy, pharmaceutical analysis, clinical analysis, drug technology, herbal pharmacy, and bioanalysis and environmental studies. (SW)

  7. Income Affluence in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzezinski, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of income affluence (richness) in Poland during 1998-2007. Using household survey data, the paper estimates several statistical indices of income affluence including income share of the top percentiles, population share of individuals receiving incomes higher than the richness line, and measures that take into…

  8. The 100th anniversary of the birth of N E Alekseevskii (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 23 May 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of RAS Corresponding Member N E Alekseevskii took place on 23 May 2012 at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS. The following reports were put on the session agenda as posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Kopaev Yu V (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "About N E Alekseevskii" (2) Brandt N B (Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "My teacher Nikolai Evgen'evich Alekseevskii"; (3) Peschansky V G (B I Verkin Physical-Technical Institute of Low Temperatures of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine) "Galvanomagnetic effects in layered conductors"; (4) Krasnoperov E P (The National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "First steps of technical superconductivity in the USSR"; (5) Nizhankovsky V I (International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Wroclaw, Poland), Tsebro V I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "History of creation and growth of the International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures".Papers written on the basis of oral presentations 2 - 5 are printed below. • The best years of my life, N B Brandt Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 192-198 • Galvanomagnetic phenomena in layered conductors, V G Peschansky Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 198-201 • At the origins of applied superconductivity, E P Krasnoperov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 202-204 • International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures: how it was set up and how it evolved, V I Nizhankovskii, V I Tsebro Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 2, Pages 204-210

  9. Poland's syndrome revisited.

    PubMed

    Fokin, Alexander A; Robicsek, Francis

    2002-12-01

    Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by unilateral chest wall hypoplasia and ipsilateral hand abnormalities. Literary data suggest its sporadic nature. The prevailing theory of its cause is hypoplasia of the subclavian artery or its branches, which may lead to a range of developmental changes. The incidence of Poland's syndrome varies between groups (male versus female patients, congenital versus familial cases, and so on) and ranges from 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 100,000 live births. Cases of Poland's syndrome associated with leukemia, carcinoma of the hypoplastic breast, and other conditions, confirm the relationship between developmental defects and tumors, and require oncologic awareness. Various manifestations, age, and gender require different surgical approaches. Our experience, which includes 27 patients (15 male, 12 female), 20 of whom (12 male, 8 female) underwent operation, suggests that the repair should be done in two stages in children and in a single stage in adults. Reconstruction and/or stabilization of the aplastic ribs may be achieved using bone grafts or prosthetic mesh. Muscle flaps and breast implants may be used to correct muscle deficiency and breast hypoplasia and to help achieve a complete cosmetic repair. PMID:12643435

  10. [Social aspect of clinical research in Poland].

    PubMed

    Masełbas, Wojciech; Czarkowski, Marek

    2007-12-01

    Each year more than 400 new clinical studies are registered in Poland. They gather above 50.000 of study participants. Social opinion on clinical trials is an important factor. The paper presents the review of actual opinions on clinical research in Poland. It provides the description of standards of protection of study participants, benefits and risks related to the participation in clinical research and the role of media in creating and influencing of the social perception of clinical trials. Results of conducted questionnaire studies imply that Poles correctly identify and assess the risk of participation in clinical experiments. The primary reason for the participation seams to be the possibility to help other patients, contribution to the progress of science and standards of medical care and potential benefits for other sufferers. The need of testing the safety and efficacy of the new medication in man is generally well recognized. At the same time a substantial part of the society is concerned with the possible corruption of investigators and unethical behaviour of sponsors. The social perception of clinical research in Poland is in majority of analyzed parameters not substantially different from opinions in other member states of EU. However, the medical society should be more active in influencing and changing some negative impressions. PMID:18432135

  11. Signing of ESO-Poland Accession Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    An agreement was signed by Professor Lena Kolarska-Bobińska, the Polish Minister of Science and Higher Education, and the ESO Director General Tim de Zeeuw in Warsaw on 28 October 2014 that will lead to the country joining ESO. The signing of the agreement followed its unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 8 October 2014. Poland will be welcomed as a new Member State, following subsequent ratification of the accession agreement by the Polish Parliament. Tim de Zeeuw’s speech at this ceremony is reproduced below.

  12. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  13. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  14. Microbeam X-ray analysis in Poland - past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusinski, J.

    2010-02-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of electron beam X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) in Poland. Since the introduction by Prof. Bojarski of EMPA over 45 years ago, tremendous advances in methodologies and in instrumentation have been made in order to improve the precision of quantitative compositional analysis, spatial resolution and analytical sensitivity. This was possible due to the activity of Applied Crystallography Committee at the Polish Academy of Sciences, as well as the groups of researches working in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (Gliwice), the Technical University of Warsaw, the Silesian Technical University (Katowice), the AGH-University of Sciences and Technology (Krakow), and the Institute of Materials Science and Metallurgy Polish Academy of Sciences (Krakow). Based on the research examples realized by these teams, conferences, seminars and congresses organized, as well as books and academic textbooks issued, the evolution of electron beam X-ray microanalysis in Poland is demonstrated.

  15. Shaping drug policy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Sempruch, Kasia

    2016-05-01

    Poland, a post-socialist democracy with a high interest in successful integration with the European Union and a strong catholic tradition, currently has some of the most restrictive anti-drug laws in Europe. Structural violence towards drug users has intensified as a result of decades of shifting drug policies and, surprisingly, the more recent process of political and economic liberalization. This commentary considers the contextual and historical dynamics of drug policy-making in Poland. It traces transitions in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. This case study draws on an analysis of interviews with key actors and participant observations in combination with documents and archival records. This paper follows the changes in Poland's drug control policy, throughout Poland's history as a soviet satellite state, under martial law, and in the democracy that it is today. Factors contributing to the enactment of restrictive drug laws have occurred in a highly politicized context during a series of dramatic political transitions. Current drug policies are woefully inadequate for treating those in need of drug treatment and care as well as for preventing HIV and other harms linked to drug injecting. PMID:27140431

  16. Poland health system review.

    PubMed

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  17. FOREWORD: Proceedings of the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiński, Piotr; Górecki, Krzysztof; Bogdanowicz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings are a collection of the selected articles presented at the 39th International Microelectronics and Packaging IMAPS Poland Conference, held in Gdansk, Poland on September 20-23, 2015 (IMAPS Poland 2015). The conference has been held under the scientific patronage of the International Microelectronics and Packaging Society Poland Chapter and the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunication, Polish Academy of Science and jointly hosted by the Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunication and Informatics (GUT) and the Gdynia Maritime University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (GMU). The IMAPS Poland conference series aims to advance interdisciplinary scientific information exchange and the discussion of the science and technology of advanced electronics. The IMAPS Poland 2015 conference took place in the heart of Gdansk, two minutes walking distance from the beach. The surroundings and location of the venue guaranteed excellent working and leisure conditions. The three-day conference highlighted invited talks by outstanding scientists working in important areas of electronics and electronic material science. The eight sessions covered areas in the fields of electronics packaging, interconnects on PCB, Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC), MEMS devices, transducers, sensors and modelling of electronic devices. The conference was attended by 99 participants from 11 countries. The conference schedule included 18 invited presentations and 78 poster presentations.

  18. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2015-06-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19(th) century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I. PMID:26336508

  19. The origins of electrocardiography in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The progress of science and technology in the 19th century enabled better understanding of the electrical activity that occurs during a heartbeat. However, it was only the construction and introduction of the galvanometer that cleared the way for appropriate experimental and clinical studies. Marey, Waller, Wenckebach, Einthoven, and Pardee are just examples of the world's pioneers of electrocardiography. Polish researchers, including Cybulski, Eiger, Rzętkowski, Surzycki, and Latkowski, also contributed to the development of this area of study. The following article is a review aiming to reconstruct the origins of electrocardiography in Poland, both as a measurement method used in experiments and as a diagnostic tool in clinical studies conducted in the years preceding the outbreak of World War I. PMID:26336508

  20. FOREWORD: 7th Symposium on Vacuum-based Science and Technology (SVBST2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbiński, W.

    2014-11-01

    These are the proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Vacuum based Science and Technology organized in Kołobrzeg (PL) on November 19-21, 2013 by the Institute of Technology and Education, Koszalin University of Technology and the Clausius Tower Society under auspices of the Polish Vacuum Society (PTP) and the German Vacuum Society (DVG) and in collaboration with the BalticNet PlasmaTec and the Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC). It was accompanied by the 12-th Annual Meeting of the German Vacuum Society. The mission of the Symposium is to provide a forum for presentation and exchange of expertise and research results in the field of vacuum and plasma science. After already six successful meetings organized alternately in Poland and Germany our goal is to continue and foster cooperation within the vacuum and plasma science community. This year, the Rudolf-Jaeckel Prize, awarded by the DVG for outstanding achievements in the field of vacuum based sciences, was presented to Dr Ute Bergner, president of the VACOM Vakuum Komponenten & Messtechnik GmbH and a member of our community. The full-day course organized in the framework of the Educational Program by the Society of Vacuum Coaters (SVC) and entitled: An Introduction to Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) Processes was held on November 18, 2013 as a satellite event of the Symposium. The instructor was Prof. Ismat Shah from Delaware University (US). The Clausius Session, already traditionally organized during the Symposium was addressed this year to young generation. We invited our young colleagues to attend a series of educational lectures reporting on achievements in graphene science, scanning probe microscopy and plasma science. Lectures were given by: Prof. Jacek Baranowski from the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology in Warsaw, Prof. Teodor Gotszalk from the Wroclaw University of Technology and Prof. Holger Kersten from the Christian Albrechts University in Kiel. The Symposium was accompanied by an industry

  1. Poland's Transition in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leven, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    Prior to Poland's transition from central planning to a market system, which began in 1990, schools of business were non-existent in that country. Instead, university level instruction on economics during the socialist period was closely tied to ideological priorities, and limited to imparting skills suitable for planned economy. All universities…

  2. Air protection strategy in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Blaszczyk, B.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality is one of the basic factors determining the environmental quality and influencing the life conditions of people. There is a shortage of proper quality air in many regions of Poland. In consequence, and due to unhindered transport, air pollution is the direct cause of losses in the national economy (reduction of crops, losses in forestry, corrosion of buildings and constructions, worsening of people`s health). Poland is believed to be one of the most contaminated European countries. The reason for this, primarily, is the pollution concomitant with energy-generating fuel combustion; in our case it means the use of solid fuels: hard coal and lignite. This monocultural economy of energy generation is accompanied by low efficiency of energy use (high rates of energy loss from buildings, heat transmission pipelines, energy-consuming industrial processes). This inefficiency results in the unnecessary production of energy and pollution. Among other reasons, this results from the fact that in the past Poland did not sign any international agreements concerning the reduction of the emission of pollution. The activities aimes at air protection in Poland are conducted based on the Environmental Formation and Protection Act in effect since 1980 (with many further amendments) and the The Ecological Policy of the state (1991). The goals of the Polish air pollution reduction program for the period 1994-2000 are presented.

  3. Dew chemistry near a motorway in SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, G.; Sobik, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Błaś, M.

    2010-07-01

    The main goal of this project is to show the influence of a large linear source of air pollution on dew formation and chemistry. Dew sampling was performed during the growing season of 2009 at 3 sites near Wroclaw in SW Poland in the vicinity of A4 motorway which connects southern part of Poland with Germany and other EU countries. The road crosses in this part a rural landscape from WSW to ENE direction. The traffic is notoriously heavy, even at night, and lorries constitute about one third of vehicles. Two of the sampling sites were set in a distance of 30 meters from the motorway edge on the opposite sides (SE and NW) of the road to monitor dew efficiency and chemistry depending on wind direction. The third one was set 1.25 km to the NNW of the former pair to represent background rural conditions beyond the road influence. All three sites and the motorway are surrounded by vast arable grounds with intense agriculture activity. Three insulated plane radiative condensers, each 1 m2 in area, inclined at 15°, were installed at measurement sites. Two series of measurements were performed: the first in April lasted twenty days including several days without sampling, the second in September was continuous and lasted eleven days. Altogether there were nineteen dew or hoar frost sampling days, nine in April and ten in September. Basic meteorological data were gathered three times daily. Water yield of three condensers was compared to meteorological data and between each other. The research findings show that the most favorable weather conditions corresponding to high amounts of dew or hoar frost were characterized by synoptic scale warm air advection, high relative humidity, moderate wind speed i.e. 2-3 m/s and radiative weather. The samples from condenser located in calm air site usually had less volume than the other in windy place. The motorway heat source imposed a strong impact on efficiency of dew. The condenser on the leeward site of the road was characterized

  4. Poland: An energy and environmental overview

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Bhatti, N.; Buehring, W.A.; Streets, D.G. ); Balandynowicz, H.W. . Inst. Podstawowych Problemow Techniki)

    1990-10-01

    Poland's reliance on coal as its primary source of energy imposes heavy environmental costs on its economy and population. Specifically, many of Poland's air and water pollution problems can be traced to the high energy intensity of Polish industrial production. This overview presents environment and energy information for Poland. Topics discussed include: energy resources, production and use; energy production, trade and use; environmental quality and impacts; and control strategies. 109 refs., 25 figs., 40 tabs.

  5. New moldavites from SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, Łukasz

    2016-03-01

    Four newly discovered moldavites from the East and West Gozdnica pits, SW Poland, are characterized. All specimens, including other four, reported earlier, are from Upper Miocene fluvial sediments of the Gozdnica Formation. Their weight varies between 0.529 and 1.196 g. The moldavites are bottle green in colour and have bubbles and inclusions of lechatelierite. Low degree of corrosion suggests short river transport, apparently eastward from Lusatia.

  6. The greatest fireballs over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żołądek, Przemysław; Wiśniewski, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    A brief description of some most interesting fireballs observed by the Polish Fireball Network is given. All these meteors appeared over Poland in the years 2010-2012. The presented fireballs include a great Perseid fireball over Poznań photographed during the 2010 Perseids maximum, the "Ciechanów" fireball, and the "Myszyniec" Orionid fireball which is exceptional due to its extreme beginning height.

  7. Herbal treatment of the urinary system diseases based on 16(th) and 17(th) century herbals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-02-01

    The medicinal use of herbs is a principal achievement of human ingenuity. The most renowned doctors of antiquity: Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder and Galen mentioned herbs in their works. The first printed herbal was published in Mainz in 1485. Outstanding scientists e.g. Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, Leonard Fuchs and Andreo Mattiola published herbals in the 16th century. Polish doctors also contributed to the development of herbal treatment. The first work: Of Herbs and their Potency by Stefan Falimirz, published in 1534, triggered other publications in the 16th century, the age of herbals. In 1542, Hieronymus Spiczynski published a herbal: Of Local and Overseas Herbs and their Potency. Then, in 1568, Marcin Siennik published his: Herbal, which is the Description of Local and Overseas Herbs, their Potency and Application. In 1595, Marcin of Urzedow published: The Polish Herbal, the Books of Herbs. Completed in mid-16th century, it was only published 22 years after his death. The last work discussed is Herbal Known in Latin as published in 1613 by Simon Syrenius a graduate of Ingolstadt and Padua universities and lecturer at the Academy of Krakow. The work was Europes most complete elaboration on herbal treatment. The herbs described in the herbals worked as diuretics, demulcents, analgesics, relaxants and preventives of kidney stones. Published in Polish, they are still to be found in Poland. All the works presented herein are held by the Library of the Seminary of Wloclawek, and the Ossolinski National Institute in Wroclaw. PMID:26913886

  8. New international automatic telegraphic communications of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-10-01

    Direct telegraphic communications have started between Poland and Canada via the CANTAT-2 undersea transatlantic cable. This cable connects Great Britain (Widemouth) and Canada (Beaver Harbour). Twenty-two telegraph lines were established between Canada and Poland for telex and telegram communication.

  9. Poland: Changing the Whole System at Once

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handke, Miroslaw

    2015-01-01

    Polish education reforms begun in 1999 have helped dramatically raise that nation's performance on international examinations. Broad goals set by Poland's education ministry included improving the overall education level of Polish citizens, equity, and implementing national standards with local autonomy. As part of the new reforms, Poland required…

  10. Agroforestry Systems In Poland A Preliminary Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to use state-of-the-art knowledge to depict the foundations and prospects for agroforestry systems in Poland to develop, in line with political, legal, historical and environmental conditions pertaining in the country. The main legal provisions concerning the presence of trees in agriculture are presented prior to a first-ever defining of key traditional agroforestry systems in Poland.

  11. Social and legal determinants for the marketing of GM products in Poland.

    PubMed

    Twardowski, Tomasz; Małyska, Aleksandra

    2012-02-15

    The development of biotechnology is influenced by many factors unique for a specific region. In Poland the lack of legislative solutions (to facilitate the promotion of the inventions) and the public resistance against certain sectors of biotechnology are significant factors limiting any further development. Although, science and technology are the front runners in any innovation, the significance of social and legal aspects is difficult to overestimate. In our opinion those factors are interconnected and crucial for marketing of innovative products, therefore, we indicate and explain the most important issues restraining the implementation of innovative biotechnology in the context of national specificity in Poland. PMID:22210291

  12. [Malaria in Poland in 2009].

    PubMed

    Stepiń, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    In Poland in 2009 were reported 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the EU case definition for the purposes of routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, including 1 case of recrudescence, 86% from Africa. In 18 cases P falciparum etiology was confirmed and in 2--P vivax, in 1--P ovale and 1 P malariae. Most cases occurred in the age group 21-40 years, there were 21 cases in males and 1 in female. Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related visits (14 cases) and tourism (6 cases), one person who visited the family and in one case unknown reason for travel. Three persons used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 5 cases. Clinical course was severe in 7 cases of P falciparum malaria and medium-severe in one case. In 2009, there were no malaria deaths in Poland. Education on the prevention of malaria and pretravel health advising is still greatly needed. PMID:21913479

  13. [Malaria in Poland in 2007].

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    In Poland in 2007 there were 11 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition reported through the routine surveillance system. All of them were imported, 82% from Africa, including 2 cases of relapse. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed in 7 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and P. vivax- in one case. The majority of cases were in the age group 35-45 (8 cases) and were males (10 cases). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries were work-related (5 cases) and tourism or family visits (4 cases). Approximately half of the cases for whom the information was available used malaria chemoprophylaxis during their travel. Clinical course was severe in one case of P. falciparum malaria and the person died of the disease. The decreasing trend in malaria incidence in Poland is likely related to incomplete reporting as tourist and professional travel to endemic areas has not decreased and there is no indication of wider use ofchemoprophylaxis. PMID:19799261

  14. [Thoughts on demographic optimization in contemporary Poland].

    PubMed

    Oledzki, M

    1980-01-01

    This article presents the viewpoint of the Polish school of social policy of the Institute of Social Economy concerning the problem of optimization of demographic structures and processes in contemporary Poland. This school was created under the leadership of the outstanding sociologist Ludwik Krzywicki (1859-1941). The reasoning concerns, first of all, the scientific premises of the choice of criteria of demographic optimization examined and then there is a critical assessment of modern simplified approaches to the definition of optimum population. It also shows actual possibilities of demographic optimization and the complexity of analytical categories of socioeconomic processes which determine the development of the population in specific time and space. In conclusion, the theory of demographic optimization is regarded as a task too ambitious and perhaps even utopian in view of the assumptions needed for its satisfactory realization. This conclusion confirms the thesis contained in the handbook of demography by J.Z. Holzer published in 1970. The author considers, however, that the search for a theory of demographic optimization is still a task which mobilizes social sciences to an integration centered on demography and social policy. (author's) PMID:12338379

  15. [JEAN EMMANUEL GILIBERT AND FRENCH SCIENTISTS IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA IN 1770-1780].

    PubMed

    Beauvois, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The author is trying to remind us of great role of French culture and French people in spreading the ideas of Enlightenment in Poland. Common use of French language in high societies in 18th century and excellent knowledge of books from Paris created favourite conditions for contacts of Poland with France. The best evidence of common culture of Enlightenment was the Commission of National Education (KEN) and the deep social changes. The direct contacts of French thinkers, writers and scientists with Poland also caused the changes of horizons of aristocracy and gentry. We will remind the main animators of this movement followed A. Jobert. J.E. Gilibert takes a very important place among the animators of Enlightenment. Author intends to present the phases of knowing him, generally mentioning the main conclusions of many research on Gilibert. At the same time author leaves to next speakers a detailed analyze of Gilbert's contribution to the development of Polish science. PMID:26445742

  16. Occupational diseases in Poland, 2001.

    PubMed

    Pepłońska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila

    2002-01-01

    The Central Register of Occupational Diseases keeps the records of all reported and certified occupational diseases in Poland. In this paper the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland in 2001 is discussed on the basis of the data provided by the Register. The changes in the incidence pattern over the recent 30 years are also shown. In 2001, 6,007 cases of occupational diseases were registered, with the incidence rate of 63.2 per 100,000 employees. The highest incidence rates were noted for seven categories of diseases: the vocal organ diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, pneumoconioses, contagious and invasive diseases, dermatoses, chronic diseases of bronchi, and vibration syndrome. Altogether these diseases covered 5,239 cases (87.2% of all registered cases). Mining and quarrying, agriculture, hunting and forestry, education, health and social works were the economy activities with the highest incidence of occupational diseases. The majority of occupational diseases (93.9%) have developed after a long-term (over 10 years) exposure to particular harmful factors. As much as 58.5% of cases were recorded in males. The predominant occupational diseases in males were occupational hearing lesions, while in females chronic vocal organ diseases, most common in teachers, were most frequently recognized. In Poland, the diseases of the vocal organ poses a serious problem from the medical and socio-economic points of view. These pathologies show the highest dynamics of the incidence among all registered occupational diseases. Over the last five years the vocal organ diseases have moved upwards to the top in the ranking, both with respect to the number of cases and the incidence rate. Since 1998, the incidence of occupational diseases has been continuously showing a downward tendency. Four categories of occupational diseases have accounted mostly for this decline: noise-induced hearing loss, chronic diseases of vocal organ, contagious and invasive diseases, and

  17. [Malaria in Poland in 2008].

    PubMed

    Stepień, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    There were 22 malaria cases confirmed according to the European Union cases definition registered in Poland in 2008. All of them were imported, 13 cases (59%) from Africa, 3 from Asia, 5 from Oceania and 1 from South America. Invasion with Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed in 14 cases, P. vivax in 4 cases, mixed invasion in 2 cases and in 2 cases species of Plasmodium was undetermined. There were 13 cases in males and 9 in females. Age at onset ranged from 23 to 58 years and majority of cases were in the age group 25-40. Common reason for travel to endemic countries were tourism (11 cases) and work-related visits (7 cases). Clinical course was severe in 6 cases of P. falciparum malaria and 1 person died because of the disease. Nine cases used chemoprophylaxis during their travel but only one of them appropriately, relevant information was missing in 6 cases. PMID:20731236

  18. [Malaria in Poland in 2006].

    PubMed

    Rosińska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    There were 19 cases of malaria meeting European Union case definition for confirmed case registered in Poland in 2006. All of them were imported, including 1 case of relapse: 17 from Africa, 1 from Asia and 1 from Oceania. Species of Plasmodium was determined for 12 cases (68%): P. falciparum in 12 cases and P. vivax in one. There were 15 cases in males and 4 in females. Age at onset ranged from 17 to 59 years and a considerable number of cases occurred in persons 50 years old or older (5.26%). Common reasons for travel to endemic countries included tourism or family visits (10 cases) and professional or missionary travel (5 cases). Only four cases used chemoprophylaxis and the relevant information was missing in 4 cases. In two cases of malaria caused by Pl. falciparum the clinical course was severe and one of them died. PMID:18807482

  19. Trees Outside Forest In Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajączkowski, Jacek; Zajączkowski, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Increasing environmental threats to agricultural production and the stability of ecosystems have been observed on the Polish lowlands since the 1970s. Several hundred million trees and shrubs have been planted on farmland, mostly along roads and with the involvement of public agencies, with a view to timber being produced, and soil erosion and the water deficit mitigated. On the basis of over 50 years of practical observations and scientific experiments, recommendations have been drawn up as regards the structural and spatial features of new tree planting outside forests that maximize environmental, production-related and social benefits. This paper gives a brief description of the history of the active establishment of woody vegetation across agricultural landscapes in Poland, along with best practices elaborated for this at several scientific centres.

  20. Uncooled infrared photodetectors in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Jozef; Piotrowski, Adam

    2005-09-01

    The history and present status of the middle and long wavelength Hg1xCdxTe infrared detectors in Poland are reviewed. Research and development efforts in Poland were concentrated mostly on uncooled market niche. Technology of the infrared photodetectors has been developed by several research groups. The devices are based on mercury-based variable band gap semiconductor alloys. Modified isothermal vapor phase epitaxy (ISOVPE) has been used for many years for research and commercial fabrication of photoconductive, photoelectromagnetic and other devices. Bulk growth and liquid phase epitaxy was also used. At present, the fabrication of IR devices relies on low temperature epitaxial technique, namely metalorganic vapor phase deposition (MOCVD), frequently in combination with the ISOVPE. Photoconductive and photoelectromagnetic detectors are still in production. The devices are gradually replaced with photovoltaic devices which offer inherent advantages of no electric or magnetic bias, no heat load and no flicker noise. Potentially, the PV devices could offer high performance and very fast response. Actually, the uncooled long wavelength devices of conventional design suffer from two issues; namely low quantum efficiency and very low junction resistance. It makes them useless for practical applications. The problems have been solved with advanced 3D band gap engineered architecture, multiple cell heterojunction devices connected in series, monolithic integration of the detectors with microoptics and other improvements. Present fabrication program includes devices which are optimized for operation at any wavelength within a wide spectral range 1-15 μm and 200-300 K temperature range. Special solutions have been applied to improve speed of response. Some devices show picoseconds range response time. The devices have found numerous civilian and military applications.

  1. Poland: facing the hidden costs of development

    SciTech Connect

    Kabala, S.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Polish People's Republic is the eleventh-ranked industrial nation in the world. The by-product of this achievement is some of the worst water, air, and soil pollution in the world. Poland has miles of river water that is unfit for any use and the air pollution in most of the major cities far exceeds any permissible limits. This paper discussed Poland's major ecological problems and its government's desire to deal with these problems.

  2. Practical Development of Modern Mass Media Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Practical development of modern mass media education in Poland. The paper analyzes the main ways of practical development of modern media education (1992-2012 years) in Poland: basic technologies, main events, etc.

  3. Health care reforms in Poland.

    PubMed

    Baginska, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the shape of the recently reformed health care system in Poland. Until December 31,1998 everyone had access to free health care and the medical institutions were financed by the State. Since January 1, 1999, under the provisions of the Universal Health Insurance Act, hospitals became independent from the State budget and gained more financial resources for their activities. 17 regional health insurance funds contract for medical services with hospitals and individual practices. Most services provided to the insured are paid by the funds that receive premiums, but some are still financed from the State budget. The revised legislation on Medical Care Establishments intended to create a better management of health care institutions and administrative control over the quality of care. The system has been severely criticised: it is too bureaucratic, there are too many insurance funds, patients have experienced problems with access to health care, particularly to special treatment or to treatment available outside the area of the health insurance fund to which the patient belongs. The new Minister for Health suggested that the 17 funds should be replaced by 5 "health funds" that would finance health care and be closely connected to the local government answerable for their activities. This paper will deal with the scope of health care packages, the conditions of provision of health services, obligations of health care providers, patient rights, and the quality of health care. PMID:15685913

  4. Joseph F. Poland (1908-1991)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. Ivan

    On June 4, 1991, AGU Fellow Joseph Fairfield Poland died in a Sacramento, Calif., hospital at the age of 83 after a long fight with Parkinson's Disease. A recognized expert on land subsidence and a retiree from the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division, his death occurred only 2 weeks after the end of the 4th International Symposium on Land Subsidence, held in Houston, Tex. Frequently known as “Mr. Land Subsidence,” it was appropriate that the proceedings of that symposium had been dedicated to him.Born in Boston, Poland earned a bachelor's degree in geology from Harvard University in 1929. He was resident geologist for Tropical Oil Company in Colombia from 1929 to 1931. After returning to the United States, Poland earned his master's degree in geology from Stanford University in 1935, taught groundwater hydrology, and consulted on groundwater and geophysical problems in the West and Southwest.

  5. Optical fiber technology in Poland: four decades of development 1975-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Dorosz, Jan; Wójcik, Waldemar; Mergo, Paweł; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    The paper is a subjective yet critical authors' description of arbitrarily chosen series of events associated with the development of optical fibre technology (OFT) in Poland. There are reminding pioneering research activities in the second half of the seventies in Optical Fibre Technological Centres in Lublin (UMCS), in Warsaw (in ONPMP), which were joined soon after by Białystok (Polytechnics and Glass Works). There are mentioned with friendliness the key persons of that period, and in particular the pioneers of OFT in Poland, which are not with us anymore. There is emphasized the role of the first national symposia on "Optical Fibres and Their Applications", which played an integration role for the newly established research community of OFT and photonics. Omitting the complex history of the development of OFT in Poland during the intermediate years, we bravely jump to today, a day which would have not existed now, if the pioneering period had not been so rich in research results. The authors would like to show in particular these research, scientific and logistic activities, which despite difficult conditions of science development in Poland, when looked at from some distance in time and space, seemed to be then well ahead of their time.

  6. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and Analysis" (Patricia…

  7. Education in Poland. Bulletin, 1922, No. 41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Teresa

    1923-01-01

    Poland, reconstituted as a result of the war, comprises the territory formerly divided among the great powers of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Prussia. Its area extends over 149,140 square miles and its population, according to the census of September 30, 1921, is estimated at 27,160,163, of which two-thirds are Poles. The remainder comprises…

  8. English-Language Writing Instruction in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    Second language writing scholars have undertaken descriptions of English-language writing instruction in a variety of international settings, describing the role of various contextual factors in shaping English-language writing instruction. This article describes English-language writing instruction at various levels in Poland, noting how it is…

  9. The Unnatural Approach: Language Learning in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muchisky, Dennis

    The instructional settings and teacher-learner relationships observed in English-as-a-second-language classes at the secondary and university levels in Poland by an American senior Fulbright lecturer are characterized by very formal instruction with heavy emphasis on pronunciation and grammar exercises, large classes with little opportunity for…

  10. Curricular Models of CLIL Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czura, Anna; Papaja, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual education in Poland gained in popularity after the political changes in 1989 when Polish society started noticing the importance of foreign language learning. With the emergence of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) in the 1990s, which in the Polish context is still termed as "bilingual education", foreign languages other…

  11. Transformation of Doctoral Training in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasniewski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the developments in doctoral training in Poland. The reasons for a rapid growth in the number of PhD students (by a factor of twelve from 1990 to 2005) are explained and the associated problems and challenges are presented. The author will then demonstrate how these challenges have been dealt with in the Faculty of…

  12. Monographs on the Rural Community in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wierzbicki, Zbigniew T.

    Documenting the development of monographs on the rural community in Poland, this paper discusses: (1) development of monographic community studies from the beginning of the 19th century to the contemporary period (ethnographic, socioeconomic, socio-historical, economic, historical-sociological, and sociological monographs); (2) the present state…

  13. Species diversity of Trichoderma in Poland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen species of Trichoderma were identified from among 118 strains originating from different regions and ecological niches in Poland. This low number indicates low species diversity of Trichoderma in this Central European region. Using the ITS1-ITS2 regions, 64 strains were positively identified...

  14. Building Civic Education for Democracy in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Richard C., Ed.; Strzemieczny, Jacek, Ed.

    This book provides a reflective analysis of the effort since 1991 of a group of Polish and U.S. educators to develop civic education programs for schools and teachers in Poland. The book contains 13 chapters and three appendices. Chapters include: (1) "Principles of Democracy for the Education of Citizens in Former Communist Countries of Central…

  15. Attitudes to Environmental Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobierska, Hanna; Tarabula-Fiertak, Marta; Grodzinska-Jurczak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses attitudes to the natural environment of Polish secondary school pupils from four selected regions of Poland. These were defined as knowledge regarding the environment and actions for the benefit of the natural environment as these result from the fundamentals of the environmental education curriculum track. Other results of the…

  16. Poland. A Selection of Teaching Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedom House, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document is a collection of supplemental classroom materials on Poland to be photocopied for use in secondary schools in conjunction with the Education for Democracy's Classroom-To-Classroom project. The materials offer an historical framework for considering current events, as well as some insight into the events, ideas, issues, and…

  17. Employment Opportunities in Poland's Changing Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialecki, Ireneusz; Domanski, Henryk

    1995-01-01

    Dramatic changes in Poland's economy since adoption of a free market and parliamentary democracy in 1989 are chronicled, and resulting changes in the occupation structure, vocational and higher education, earnings, and unemployment are examined. The experiences of other Western countries suggest that a strategy of flexibility and adaptation in…

  18. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-03-01

    The burgeoning private sector is perhaps the most tangible of the changes in education which followed the upheavals of 1989/90 in Central and Eastern Europe. This article sets out to analyse the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratisation and educational development. The authors argue that the euphoria of the period immediately following the overthrow of one-party communism encouraged unrealistic expectations of educational reform. Their analysis of private sector schooling in Poland suggests that its development has occurred in a haphazard fashion, reflecting the uncertainties of a society undergoing a painful process of transition. Symptomatic of this has been the failure to establish a clear regulatory framework for the private sector - an omission which has undermined the credibility of private schools. Nevertheless, the authors argue that the development of private sector schooling in Poland has brought diversity and a degree of innovation to a system previously almost devoid of either. There is now an urgent need for the evaluation and dissemination of private sector initiatives, which can serve as examples for future educational decision-making in Poland.

  19. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratization and educational development. Suggests that its development has been haphazard, reflecting the uncertainties of a society in transition. Urges the need for evaluation and dissemination of private-sector initiatives to serve as…

  20. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  1. Assessment of wind energy potential in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna; Mazur, Andrzej

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the presentation is to show the suitability of using numerical model wind speed forecasts for the wind power industry applications in Poland. In accordance with the guidelines of the European Union, the consumption of wind energy in Poland is rapidly increasing. According to the report of Energy Regulatory Office from 30 March 2013, the installed capacity of wind power in Poland was 2807MW from 765 wind power stations. Wind energy is strongly dependent on the meteorological conditions. Based on the climatological wind speed data, potential energy zones within the area of Poland have been developed (H. Lorenc). They are the first criterion for assessing the location of the wind farm. However, for exact monitoring of a given wind farm location the prognostic data from numerical model forecasts are necessary. For the practical interpretation and further post-processing, the verification of the model data is very important. Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) runs an operational model COSMO (Consortium for Small-scale Modelling, version 4.8) using two nested domains at horizontal resolutions of 7 km and 2.8 km. The model produces 36 hour and 78 hour forecasts from 00 UTC, for 2.8 km and 7 km domain resolutions respectively. Numerical forecasts were compared with the observation of 60 SYNOP and 3 TEMP stations in Poland, using VERSUS2 (Unified System Verification Survey 2) and R package. For every zone the set of statistical indices (ME, MAE, RMSE) was calculated. Forecast errors for aerological profiles are shown for Polish TEMP stations at Wrocław, Legionowo and Łeba. The current studies are connected with a topic of the COST ES1002 WIRE-Weather Intelligence for Renewable Energies.

  2. Poland, Albania place acreage on auction block

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    Poland and Albania, respectively the first and last European countries to emerge from Communist rule, have unveiled bidding rounds for oil and gas projects. This paper reports that the goal is to encourage foreign investment in exploration and development. Poland's ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry, Warsaw, announced the schedule for its first bidding round for coalbed methane exploration licenses. Site is the Upper Silesian coal basin. Oil and gas companies were invited to submit proposals by Oct. 1 to develop what the ministry says is one of the world's most commercially viable coalbed methane resource. Five data packages are available covering 11 blocks. Packages cost $20,000 each or in combinations as much as $70,000 for all five. They include geological data, maps, gas transmission infrastructure details, drilling data, and results of coalbed methane studies. A bid is eligible only if the bidder has bought the relevant data package.

  3. Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krzyścin, J W; Narbutt, J; Lesiak, A; Jarosławski, J; Sobolewski, P S; Rajewska-Więch, B; Szkop, A; Wink, J; Czerwińska, A

    2014-11-01

    Statistical analysis of the daily course of exposures to TL-01 tube radiation for 93 psoriatic patients from the Medical University of Łódź during 20-day phototherapy shows that the dose of 1 J/cm(2) represents a unit of single exposure necessary for psoriasis healing. This value is converted to the antipsoriatic effective dose of 317.9 J/m(2) using the TL-01 lamp irradiance spectrum and the antipsoriatic action spectrum. It is proposed that the daily exposure of 317.9 J/m(2) serves as the standard antipsoriatic dose (SAPD) providing a link between the cabinet and the out-door exposures and it could be used for planning heliotherapy in Poland. A model is proposed to calculate ambient antipsoriatic doses for 3 h exposures around the local noon (9 am-12 am GMT) based on satellite measurements of ozone and cloud characteristics. The model constants are determined by a comparison with pertaining antipsoriatic doses measured by the Brewer spectrophotometer in central Poland. It is found that 3 h exposures to solar radiation in the period 15 May-15 September provides the mean (2005-2013) doses in the range 2.7-3.1 SAPD over Poland. Thus, heliotherapy could be treated as an alternative to the cabinet phototherapy for almost 4 months. It seems that the most effective site for antipsoriatic heliotherapy is the south/east part of Poland (the Bieszczady Mountains). The heliotherapy could be carried out in existing national health centers equipped with the standard easy-to-use biometers for on-line monitoring of UV level and controlling duration of sunbathing to avoid erythema risks. It is even possible to control the antipsoriatic heliotherapy by a patient himself, using low-cost hand-held instruments measuring UV index. PMID:25116946

  4. The medical physics specialization system in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bulski, Wojciech; Kukołowicz, Paweł; Skrzyński, Witold

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the situation of the profession of medical physicists in Poland. The official recognition of the profession of medical physicist in Polish legislation was in 2002. In recent years, more and more Universities which have Physics Faculties introduce a medical physics specialty. At present, there are about 15 Universities which offer such programmes. These Universities are able to graduate about 150 medical physicists per year. In 2002, the Ministry of Health introduced a programme of postgraduate specialization in medical physics along the same rules employed in the specialization of physicians in various branches of medicine. Five institutions, mostly large oncology centres, were selected as teaching institutions, based on their experience, the quality of the medical physics professionals, staffing levels, equipment availability, lecture halls, etc. The first cycle of the specialization programme started in 2006, and the first candidates completed their training at the end of 2008, and passed their official state exams in May 2009. As of January 2016, there are 196 specialized medical physicists in Poland. Another about 120 medical physicists are undergoing specialization. The system of training of medical physics professionals in Poland is well established. The principles of postgraduate training and specialization are well defined and the curriculum of the training is very demanding. The programme of specialization was revised in 2011 and is in accordance with EC and EFOMP recommendations. PMID:27378393

  5. Polish Hip Hop as a Form of Multiliteracies and Situated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to examine Hip Hop in Poland through the lens of multiliteracies and situated learning. This analysis is concerned with the transmission of Hip Hop to and within Wroclaw, Poland, and its acculturation and assimilation in Wroclaw, Poland. Further, this study seeks to illustrate how professional Polish Hip…

  6. Vaccination against hepatitis viruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Slusarczyk, J

    2001-03-21

    At present, two etiologic varieties of viral hepatitis (VH) can be directly vaccine-preventable: VH type A and VH type B. In addition, VH type D can be prevented indirectly through vaccination against VH-B. The first commercially available vaccine against VH-B appeared in 1981 and was human plasma-derived. After several years, it has generally been replaced by a recombinant type of vaccines. The obvious benefits of vaccination against VH-B prompted its introduction into the national immunization program in Poland in 1989. At that time, vaccination was offered free of charge to high-risk groups: newborns of HBsAg-carrier mothers, health-care workers, students: at medical schools, nursing schools, medical technology schools, and caretakers at institutions for mentally retarded persons. However, similarly to the experiences of other countries, observations in Poland indicated that such a targeted strategy fails to induce major epidemiological changes. In 1989 and in 1993, the incidence of VH-B per 100000 was 40.3 and 34.6, respectively. In addition, during these years, the incidence of V-B per 100000 children aged 0-4 years was 20.0 and 38.4, respectively. It has been decided that vaccination against VH-B will be obligatory for all newborns beginning from 1993. Due to financial constraints, it has been introduced in three phases, and since 1996, all newborns in Poland have been vaccinated. Already in 1993, three additional risk groups have been offered vaccination: patients with chronic diseases, patients awaiting planned surgery, and persons coming into close contact with acute VH-B or chronically HBV-infected individuals. In 1999, the incidence of VH-B per 100000 was 9.1/100000, and it may be assumed that vaccination helped to decrease the incidence of VH-B in Poland. The country experience with vaccination against VH-A is still limited. At present, it is recommended for children and adolescents and people dealing with food distribution, as well as for several other

  7. Creativity and School Grades: A Case from Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralewski, Jacek; Karwowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the relationship between the creative abilities and the school grades of high school students in Poland. Almost six hundred (N = 589) students from 34 high schools from all over Poland participated in the study. Their creative abilities were measured by using the Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production…

  8. Legislative Aspects of Rehabilitation Services for the Disabled in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulek, A., Ed.

    The main task of rehabilitation in Poland is the maximum integration of the disabled into ordinary life. Developmental trends in recent years have focused on rehabilitation services for the chronically ill. The document provides information on the organization of rehabilitation services in Poland and discusses specific problems of rehabilitation…

  9. Care and Education of Orphaned Children in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna

    2004-01-01

    Poland is going through tremendous changes in its educational and health-care systems. These changes may bring reforms in the care of orphaned children, because the new politics and economy are forcing educators to look for new solutions and forms of care. There are many problems with the care of orphan children in Poland in both Children's Homes…

  10. Educational Research in Poland after the Second World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupisiewicz, Czeslaw

    The development of an effective educational system in Poland in the postwar years was based solidly on educational research. This study identifies the major research agencies operating in Poland and spells out their basic missions, then explains how educational research is organized systematically through government planning. The impact of this…

  11. Cultural Policy in Poland. Studies and Documents on Cultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balicki, Stanislaw Witold; And Others

    A survey of cultural policy in Poland, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series showing how cultural policies are planned and implemented in member states. The dual traditions of the ready assimilation of European elements into Polish culture and Poland's determination to maintain a national identity throughout 123 years of partition are presented…

  12. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues. PMID:21531026

  13. Bovine neonatal pancytopenia in calves in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, J M; Polak, M P; Marszałek, A; Nowak, K; Frackowiak, H; Olechnowicz, J

    2012-01-01

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP), a newly emerged syndrome of discussed etiology in calves, has been diagnosed since 2006. Here we describe first cases of BNP in Poland. Between September 2008 and April 2011, 62 cases of BNP were diagnosed in dairy calves. Bleeding skin lesions were mostly pronounced in summer and early autumn. Severe thrombocytopenia was observed in all sick animals. All calves came from herds vaccinated against BVDV infection with PregSure BVD vaccine (Pfizer). Substitution of colostrum from dams of BNP positive calves with colostrum from dams from herds free of BNP was the only effective measure to avoid new cases in affected herds. PMID:23214380

  14. 210Po bioaccumulation by mushrooms from Poland.

    PubMed

    Skwarzec, B; Jakusik, A

    2003-10-01

    The paper presents results on 210Po activity concentration measured in mushroom samples collected in northern Poland (Białogard and Elblag areas). Among 20 species of wild mushrooms, King Bolete (Boletus edulis), accumulated 210Po in the highest degree. Therefore this species of higher mushrooms is an excellent bioindicator for 210Po radioactivity in the land environment. Finally, the effective dose of polonium emission was calculated for a consumer of King Bolete. Wild mushroom consumption contributed up to 37 microSv to the effective dose in an individual consuming about 5 kg (fresh weight) of heavily contaminated Boletus edulis species per year. PMID:14587851

  15. Poland petroleum refinery sludge lagoon demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, D.J.

    2000-05-05

    The US Department of Energy and the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Area have been working together to develop mutually beneficial, cost-effective environmental remediation technologies such as the demonstration of bioremediation techniques for the clean up of acidic petroleum sludge impacted soils at an oil refinery in southern Poland. After an expedited site characterization, treatability study, and a risk assessment study, a remediation strategy was devised. The waste material was composed primarily of high molecular weight paraffinic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A biopile design which employed a combination of passive and active aeration in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant application as used to increase the biodegradation of the contaminants of concern.

  16. Human exposure to pollutants in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Wesolowski, J.J.; Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E. )

    1992-07-01

    Serious environmental problems caused by decades of mismanagement of Poland's natural resources have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media--air, water, food, and soil--have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Some environmental problems are so severe that the sources of pollution and the mitigation techniques needed are obvious, requiring no further research, but rather common sense, monies, and determination to implement the necessary controls and mitigation procedures. This paper will not address these obvious cases. Rather it will address that spectrum of environmental problems which requires a better understanding of public health risk in order to develop effective risk management strategies. Because these problems are numerous and monies limited, policy makers will need to set priorities both for research projects and control options. Using environmental concentration data presently available from Poland (especially for air), the paper will estimate human exposures, will point out research and monitoring needs, and hopefully, will lend credence to the concept that environmental policies and risk reduction strategies will be most effective if the Total Human Exposure Concept is used as the guiding scientific principle in risk assessment and management programs.

  17. [Does Poland need a population policy?].

    PubMed

    Holzer, J Z

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to present some important issues relative to population policy, and to prove the need for such a policy in Poland. A population policy is defined as a combination of direct and indirect actions by the state to influence the growth of the population, as well as its distribution and structure. As in most European countries, an average Polish household has 2 children, a smallpercentage of families have 3 children, and many households have no children, or only 1 child. Therefore, a probirth policy is recommended to maintain the birth rate at 2.10-2.20. However, within such a policy, a family should be free to make its own plans for reproduction. Contraceptives must be available and abortion should be permitted. Given the unsaturated market and permanent shortage of essential goods, a Polish population policy can only be considered from the perspective of a general socioeconomic policy. To pursue the goals of an efficient population policy, an acceptable standard of living should be achieved. Strategically, population policy in Poland should be aimed at creating an optimal structure that would correspond to the stable and, at some point, stationary population model. An evolutionary transition to a stable (or stationary) model should take place over 2 or 3 generations. Such structural changes should go hand-in-hand with permanent improvements in the health, welfare, and cultural life of the population. PMID:12314830

  18. Date-rape drugs scene in Poland.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Kała, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Since the beginnings of twenty-first century in Poland increasing number of reports about the drug-facilitated sexual assaults have been observed. Many drugs have been identified as so-called "date-rape drugs", because of their pharmacological properties, especially inducing amnesia. These drugs are used for the purpose of "drugging" unsuspected victims and than raping them. In a typical scenario, the perpetrator surreptitiously adds "date-rape drug" to the alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage of an unsuspecting person, who is subsequently sexually assaulted while under the influence of this substance. Many victims do not report the incident until several days after the event or even do not report it at all. They report the incident so late after the events because they often have problems with remember the course of incident. It causes that victim is not reliable witness for justice. Detection of "date-rape drugs" in biological fluids is unequivocal evidence of perpetration. Analysis of biological fluids collected from victims of rapes for presence of drugs was rare in Poland up to now. The aim of this study is to show the use of "date-rape drugs" in Poland. Materials for this study were from the routine casework elaborated at the Institute of Forensic Research in Kraków. APCI-LC-MS methods were applied for screening of biological fluids (blood and/or urine) for amphetamine and its 6 analogues, for 12 substances from benzodiazepine group and for quantification of the detected drugs. HPLC-DAD was used as a screening method for wide range of medicinal drugs, and NCI-GC-MS methods for determination of ketamine and tetrahydrocannabinols (delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 9THC) and its metabolite (11-nor-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THCCOOH). In 2000-2004, the biological fluids taken from 33 persons, both sexually assaulted or perpetrators were analysed. In 2000 and 2002 not any case of this type was registered, in 2001 only two cases were recorded. After 2003

  19. Research of medical gases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research of medical gases is well established in Poland and has been marked with the foundation of several professional societies. Numerous academic centers including those dealing with hyperbaric and diving medicine conduct studies of medical gases, in vast majority supported with intramural funds. In general, Polish research of medical gases is very much clinical in nature, covering new applications and safety of medical gases in medicine; on the other hand there are several academic centers pursuing preclinical studies, and elaborating basic theories of gas physiology and mathematical modeling of gas exchange. What dominates is research dealing with oxygen and ozone as well as studies of anesthetic gases and their applications. Finally, several research directions involving noble gas, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide for cell protection, only begin to gain recognition of basic scientists and clinicians. However, further developments require more monetary spending on research and clinical testing as well as formation of new collective bodies for coordinating efforts in this matter. PMID:23916016

  20. The church's heavy hand in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Following the defeat of communism, Poland has witnessed an erosion in the separation between state and church, as the Roman Catholic church has begun using its immense political power to press for social legislation -- one that includes a ban on abortion and contraception. The Catholic church has already succeeded in obtaining government support of religious education (in fact, it has become the only instruction available), and in tightening divorce laws. Most of the church initiatives affect women disproportionately. As a solution for the country's unemployment, bishops suggested taking jobs from women and giving them to men. Moreover, the church's most vehement campaign has centered on family planning and abortion. Bishops have begun a campaign designed to eventually ban contraception and abortion. Despite the fact that 60% of all Poles approve of the law permitting abortion, the church successfully lobbied the Ministry of Health to impose measures requiring a woman seeking an abortion to obtain the approval of 2 gynecologists, her family doctor, and a church approved psychologist. At least 3 women have already died from self-induced abortions following the enactment of the regulations. The church has also succeeded in getting the government to stop subsidizing birth control pills. with consent from Pope John Paul II, Catholic pharmacists in Poland have refused to sell contraceptives. These measures ignore the well-known fact that contraception is the best, least coercive way to reduce the number of abortions. It appears, however, that the bishops' heavy hand has led to a decline in public support for the church. PMID:12178848

  1. The large superpredators' teeth from Middle Triassic of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surmik, Dawid; Brachaniec, Tomasz

    2013-09-01

    An unusual large teeth, finding from time to time in marine sediments of Muschelkalk, Silesia, Poland indicate the superpredators occurrence. According to size and morphological features the teeth are similar to archosaurs or giant marine reptiles.

  2. Dilemma of Democracy and Adult Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratman-Liwerska, Izabela

    1993-01-01

    Political changes in Poland are affecting the educational sector. There is a need for regulation in adult education, and the polycentric model is shifting government responsibility for education from financial support to political and moral oversight. (SK)

  3. Genetic background of clinical homogeneity of phenylketonuria in Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Jaruzelska, J; Matuszak, R; Lyonnet, S; Rey, F; Rey, J; Filipowicz, J; Borski, K; Munnich, A

    1993-01-01

    In order to elucidate the clinical homogeneity and severity of the hyperphenylalaninaemias in Poland, a total of 71 children with typical phenylketonuria (PKU) originating from western and northern Poland were screened for 13 mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Eighty percent of all PKU alleles tested were found to carry an identified mutation. One mutation, namely the R408W mutation, accounted for more than 63% of mutant PAH alleles in Poland, the other 27% being accounted for by six mutations: IVS12nt1 (5%), IVSnt546 (5%), Y414C (4%), R252W (1.5%), R261Q (< 1%), and G272ter (< 1%). The predominance of the R408W mutation resulted in a high rate of homozygotes (35.2%) and compound heterozygotes for this mutation in children from western and northern Poland. The frequency and deleterious nature of this mutation probably accounts for the clinical homogeneity and severity of the hyperphenylalaninaemias in Poland. In addition, the high rate of the R408W mutation and its association with mutant haplotype 2 at the PAH locus in Poland give additional support to the Balto-Slavic origin of this mutant gene. PMID:8097262

  4. Assessment of coeliac disease prevalence in patients with Down syndrome in Poland – a multi-centre study

    PubMed Central

    Soroczyńska-Wrzyszcz, Anetta; Barg, Ewa; Józefczuk, Jan; Korczowski, Bartosz; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, Urszula; Więcek, Sabina; Cukrowska, Bożena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The results of studies assessing whether patients with Down syndrome have increased risk of coeliac disease are contradictory. The prevalence of coeliac disease in patients with Down syndrome is estimated at a wide range between 1% to as much as 18.6%. Aim To assess coeliac disease prevalence in patients with Down syndrome in Poland. Material and methods The study enrolled 301 patients with Down syndrome from six centres in Poland (Wroclaw, Sandomierz, Rzeszow, Grudziadz, Katowice, and Bydgoszcz). We measured the concentration of anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA antibodies and anti-deamidated gliadin peptide IgG antibodies in all patients. Patients with abnormal positive (> 10 U/ml) or inconclusive (7–10 U/ml) result of the serological test were offered endoscopic biopsy of the small intestine in the main centre. Results In 31 (10.3%) patients increased concentrations of the investigated antibodies were found, including 19 (6.3%) patients with increased tTg-IgA concentration, 27 (8.97%) patients with increased concentration of DGP-IgG, and 15 (4.98%) patients with increased concentration of both types of antibodies. Endoscopic biopsy of the small intestine was planned for all 31 patients with abnormal results of at least one antibody test and for 2 patients with inconclusive results. One of them suffered from previously diagnosed and histologically confirmed coeliac disease. Biopsy was not conducted in 9 patients due to contraindications, lack of their consent, or introduction of a gluten-free diet by the parents before the examination. In a group of 23 patients who underwent endoscopic biopsy of the small intestine, in 15 patients the histopathological picture of the small intestinal mucosa was typical for coeliac disease, 2 patients were diagnosed with lesions of grade 1 according to the classification by Marsh-Oberhuber, 1 patient was diagnosed with focal shortening of villi and hypertrophy of the crypts with no intraepithelial lymphocytosis

  5. New data on Jean-Étienne Guettard's journey to Poland in the years 1760-1762

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarkowski, Radosław

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents new information on the journey of the French geologist Jean-Étienne Guettard to Poland in the years 1760-1762. Search in the Archives of the Academy of Sciences in Paris, especially a review of his biographic dossier and collections of documents reports delivered at the meetings of the Academy, made it possible to find rich material (letters, reports, notes from field studies, drafts of lectures and others), a large part of which refers to this journey. This hitherto overlooked material well supplements our knowledge of the journey and casts some new light on the scope and extent and results of geological and meteorological studies carried out by J.-É. Guettard during his stay in Poland. To cite this article: R. Tarkowski, C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  6. [Promotion program for breast feeding in Poland. II. Analysis of the breast feeding situation in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mikiel-Kostyra, K

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of breast-feeding situation in Poland was based on three kinds of nation-wide surveys conducted in 1988: newborn feeding and breast feeding routines in maternity wards epidemiology of breast-feeding and other feeding methods in first six months of infant life KAP study among MCH professionals The major findings of the surveys were: conflicting with lactation maternity wards routines especially: very initiation of breast-feeding, administration of liquids and formulas, rigid feeding schedule, separation of newborns from the mothers too early supplantation of breast-feeding lack of current breast-feeding knowledge among MCH professionals. PMID:8359714

  7. Poland action plan for water and wastewater: Bielsko-biala and Warsaw, Poland. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-09

    The Goczalkowice Reservoir in the Katowice voivodeship in the Upper Silesia area of Poland. It serves as a major source of water for the population of the Upper Selesia region. In 1987 a major shift took place in the ecology of the reservoir. The shift resulted in major algae blooms which caused problems at the water treatment plant. The primary purpose of the study was to more specifically define the water quality problem of the Goczalkowice Reservoir, to determine it causes and to develop a set of recommendations leading to a solution. The report would then become the basis for proposals for financing of one or more projects needed to implement its recommendations.

  8. [Incidence of occupational diseases in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Szymczak, W

    1999-01-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the incidence of occupational diseases in Poland. The analysis was performed on the basis of the information included in 'occupational disease certificates'. All sanitary and epidemiological stations throughout the country are committed to send these certificates to the Central Register of Occupational Medicine in The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lódź. The incidence of occupational diseases during the three recent years (1996-97-98) was the subject of a thorough analysis. In all, 11,318, 11,685 and 12,017 cases of occupational diseases, respectively were registered over those three years. The corresponding rates were 116.0, 116.9 and 117.3, respectively per 100,000 people employed. In 1998, diseases of the voice organ predominated (30.4%) of all occupational diseases) and they were followed by hearing impairment (28.2%), infectious and parasitic diseases (9.9%), pneumoconioses (8.2%), dermatoses (6.4%), vibratory syndrome (2.9%) and poisoning (2.5%). These disease categories constituted over 88% of all occupational diseases registered in that year. Diseases of the voice organ which showed the greatest growth dynamic were mainly diagnosed among teachers. Neither in the United States nor in the member states of the European Union, this pathology is included into the list of occupational diseases. In view of high rates of its incidence in our country it has become one of essential problems of occupational medicine. In Poland, particular attention is paid to infectious and parasitic diseases among which hepatitis occupies the first place (65%), mostly among health service workers. The decrease in hepatitis incidence observed in the 1990s has been due to an intensive vaccination programme in this group of workers. The incidence of occupational hepatitis became rather stable and accounted for 940 cases per year, however the incidence of hepatitic C increased at the same time. Lower rates of incidence of 'classic

  9. [Acrylamide content in potato crisps in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona; Szponar, Lucjan; Chajewska, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    The main source of acrylamide in the diet are thermally processed carbohydrate-rich products, mainly those obtained from potatoes. Acrylamide is a substance with neurotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic properties. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified it as a potential human carcinogen in 1994. The purpose of this study was to assess acrylamide content in 24 samples of crisps randomly collected in Poland in 2004. Acrylamide was determined in the form of brominated derivatives by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The average acrylamide content in the crisp samples examined was 998 mg/kg of the product, ranging from 352 to 3647 microg/kg, depending on the type of the crisps. The factor determining the differences in acrylamide content in the product was also the manufacturer. The average content of acrylamide in the crisps produced by three different manufacturers (manufacturers 1-3) was ca. 600-900 microg/kg, and in the crisps produced by manufacturer 4 was ca. 3 times higher. Moreover, substantial differences were found between the same types of crisps produced by the same manufacturers but originating from different manufacturing batches. The results obtained suggest the effects of various technological processes and raw material types on the level of acrylamide in crisps. PMID:17193744

  10. Environmental factors shaping ungulate abundances in Poland.

    PubMed

    Borowik, Tomasz; Cornulier, Thomas; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    Population densities of large herbivores are determined by the diverse effects of density-dependent and independent environmental factors. In this study, we used the official 1998-2003 inventory data on ungulate numbers from 462 forest districts and 23 national parks across Poland to determine the roles of various environmental factors in shaping country-wide spatial patterns of ungulate abundances. Spatially explicit generalized additive mixed models showed that different sets of environmental variables explained 39 to 50 % of the variation in red deer Cervus elaphus, wild boar Sus scrofa, and roe deer Capreolus capreolus abundances. For all of the studied species, low forest cover and the mean January temperature were the most important factors limiting their numbers. Woodland cover above 40-50 % held the highest densities for these species. Wild boar and roe deer were more numerous in deciduous or mixed woodlands within a matrix of arable land. Furthermore, we found significant positive effects of marshes and water bodies on wild boar abundances. A juxtaposition of obtained results with ongoing environmental changes (global warming, increase in forest cover) may indicate future growth in ungulate distributions and numbers. PMID:24244044

  11. Mercury emission from coal-fired power plants in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glodek, Anna; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding sources of mercury emission in Poland. Due to the large quantities of coal burned at present, as well as taking into account existing reserves, coal remains the main energy source of energy in Poland. The data on coal consumption in Poland in the past, at present and in the future are discussed in the paper. Information on the content of mercury in Polish coals is presented. Coal combustion processes for electricity and heat production are the main source of anthropogenic mercury emission in Poland. It is expected that the current emissions will decrease in the future due to implementation of efficient control measures. These measures for emission reduction are described in the paper. Results of estimated mercury emission from coal-fired power station situated in the Upper Silesia Region, Poland are investigated. A relationship between mercury emission to the air and the mercury content in the consumed coal in power station equipped with the electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is discussed.

  12. Bioethical committees and data protection issues in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ligocka, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    In Poland there are only Regional Bioethical Committees. Unlike most EU countries Poland has no coordinating centre on bioethics for human research. However, the Ministry of Health and Welfare has established a Bioethics Appeals Committee. The functioning of the Bioethical Committees in Poland is regulated in detail by the Regulation of the Ministry of Health and Welfare of 1999. All regulations comply with important guidelines such as: the Helsinki Declaration, The Rules of Good Clinical Practice, EU Directives and legal regulations binding in Poland, mainly the Act of the Medical Doctor Profession and the Dentist Profession, as well as the Act of Pharmaceutical Law. In the framework of the Human Biomonitoring Programme, the application for bioethical evaluation will be submitted to the Bioethical Committee at the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz. The data protection legislation in Poland according to the Act of the Protection of Personal Data of 29th of August 1997 with latest amendments fulfils EU regulations. The Act also contains detailed provisions regarding the duties of the Inspector General for Data Protection. The paper presents data on the activities of the Bureau of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection in 2005, 2006 and 2007. PMID:18541070

  13. Timing of the Late Vistulian (Weichselian) glacial phases in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Leszek

    2012-06-01

    The Lower Vistula Region in northern Poland is a stratotype area for the Vistulian (Weichselian) glaciation and during Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the southernmost extension of the Scandinavian ice sheet occurred in western Poland and in eastern Germany. Reinterpretation of the available geochronological data (radiocarbon, 36Cl and 10Be ages), supplied with new field geological evidence, mostly for the Late Vistulian ice sheet limits and movement directions, was focused in three key regions in Poland. During the late Middle Vistulian there was one or two ice sheet advances in the Lower Vistula region. The Late Vistulian maximum ice sheet limit in Poland was time-transgressive and occurred at 24-19 kyrs BP (generally, the younger to the east). Ice sheet limits during the Leszno Phase occurred at 24 cal/10Be/36Cl kyrs, the Poznań Phase ice sheet limit was dated to 19 10Be/36Cl kyrs and the Pomeranian Phase ice sheet limit about 16-17 10Be/36Cl kyrs. Every Late Vistulian glacial phase in Poland was preceded by an ice sheet retreat.

  14. Passive Seismic Experiment "13 BB Star" in the Margin of the East European Craton, Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, M.; Grad, M.; Wilde-Piórko, M.; Suchcicki, J.; Arant, T.

    2014-12-01

    Passive experiment "13 BB star" is dedicated to study deep structure of the Earth's interior in the marginal zone of the East European Craton in northern Poland. The seismic network consists of 13 broadband stations on the area of c. 120 km in diameter. The network is located in the area well recognized from the point of view velocities of sedimentary cover and crustal structure. Good records obtained since summer 2013, and expected during next 1.5 years long recording campaign, should yield images of detailed structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), „410", "?520", and „660" km discontinuities, as well as mantle-core boundary and inner core. The LAB is investigated recently very effectively, mostly using seismic methods because their deep penetration and relatively good resolution. The nature of LAB is still debated, particularly under "cold" Precambrian shields and platforms. We show examples of local and teleseismic records, array transfer function of "13 BB star" network and preliminary noise analysis. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC- 2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  15. Hydrological relation between two small catchments in central Poland - Zwolenka vs Zagozdzonka rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestorowicz, Anna; Banasik, Kazimierz; Gładecki, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    Hydrological relation between two small catchments in central Poland - Zwolenka vs Zagozdzonka rivers. Key words: long time hydrological data, Nature 2000 network, hydrological relation Since 1992 the European Union is implementing the European Ecological Natura 2000 Network. The main purpose of creation of Natura 2000, is to protect the natural endangered habitats and species of plants and animals across Europe characteristic to 9 regions. In Poland there are only two regions: continental and alpine. Many Nature 2000 areas are in a way connected with water and often covers small not hydrologically investigated catchments and rivers. Since, 2008 the Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environmental Restoration, Warsaw University of Life Sciences has started a hydrological investigation in Zwoleńka river catchment which valley is a protected Nature 2000 area. One of the most important species in this area is a pond turtle which prefer the wet habitats. There is no precise hydrological data for the Zwoleńka river, however, the other Zagożdżonka river catchment which border on Zwoleńka is investigated since 1963. The main purpose of this investigation is the find the relation between this two river catchment: protected Nature 2000 with no data and carefully investigated Zagożdżonka, with long time hydrological data set.

  16. 2000 years of human activity in Tuchola Pinewoods (northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Lutyńska, Monika; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    conditions forcing the people to give up their settlement and move. The second time of a significant increase of human activities began in Late Medieval time and lasted to the modern time. Pollen analysis shows the beginning of strong deforestation since XV century with the most intensification during industrial revolution (second part XIX century) where pine trees became the dominant species. Intense clear cutting in the lake's vicinity removed its natural "windshelter" and exposed the lake to longer lasting water column mixing. As a consequence varves nearly disappeared whereas the detrital indicators (e.g. Ti) increased due to an open landscape around the lake. The diatom analysis for the last 2000 years revealed several temporary changes for different species. Strongest fluctuation occurred for the species Stephanodiscus parvus and Cyclotella comensis where the latter show similar occurrences as Tetraedron (Chlorophyta). Recent lake monitoring (including diatom analysis) together with hydrological and meteorological data will help to understand under which conditions different diatom species form. This knowledge will be crucial for the interpretation of past changes. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grant NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  17. Controlling the production and distribution of drugs in communist Poland.

    PubMed

    Łotysz, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Between 1944 and 1989--the period of communist power in Poland--the national pharmaceutical market experienced several dramatic changes. The country was a prodigious importer of drugs following the Second World War, with a large portion of the medicine received being donated by various aid organisations. In the 1960s, Poland became a significant exporter of drugs to the Eastern Bloc countries, but dropped down the list of meaningful producers again after the post-1989 transformation. For four and a half decades the pharmaceutical market in Poland had been a scene of political and ideological struggle. The companies, owned and controlled by the state, were poorly managed, being neither innovative nor competitive. This fact, along with the state's irrational and inconsequent drug policy, caused an almost permanent shortage in drug supplies for patients: ironic for a socialist system in which universal and free health care was a basic principle. PMID:26054214

  18. Chest wall reconstruction with methacrylate prosthesis in Poland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Arango Tomás, Elisabet; Baamonde Laborda, Carlos; Algar Algar, Javier; Salvatierra Velázquez, Angel

    2013-10-01

    Poland syndrome is a rare congenital malformation. This syndrome was described in 1841 by Alfred Poland at Guy's Hospital in London. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the breast and nipple, subcutaneous tissue shortages, lack of the costosternal portion of the pectoralis major muscle and associated alterations of the fingers on the same side. Corrective treatment of the chest and soft tissue abnormalities in Poland syndrome varies according to different authors. We report the case of a 17-year-old adolescent who underwent chest wall reconstruction with a methyl methacrylate prosthesis. This surgical procedure is recommended for large anterior chest wall defects, and it prevents paradoxical movement. Moreover it provides for individual remodeling of the defect depending on the shape of the patient's chest. PMID:23453291

  19. [New sector of employment--a review of data on nanoproduction, research and development in the field of nanotechnology in Poland].

    PubMed

    Popławska, Magdalena; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Bujak-Pietrek, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently one of the fastest developing areas of science, focusing on the design, manufacture and use of nanomaterials. The term "nanomaterial" means any product made of nanometer-size (1-100 nm) structures. Due to the small size and unique properties of the applied nanomaterials there is a growing interest in their aplication in various fields of industry and science. In Poland, there are very few companies that carry on nanotechnology activities. Research institutes, universities and research units of the Polish Academy of Sciences predominate in these activities. PMID:26536974

  20. Very large hail occurrence in Poland from 2007 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilorz, Wojciech

    2015-10-01

    Very large hail is known as a presence of a hailstone greater or equal to 5 cm in diameter. This phenomenon is rare but its significant consequences, not only to agriculture but also to automobiles, households and people outdoor makes it essential thing to examine. Hail appearance is strictly connected with storms frequency and its kind. The most hail-endangered kind of storm is supercell storm. Geographical distribution of hailstorms was compared with geographical distribution of storms in Poland. Similarities were found. The area of the largest number of storms is southeastern Poland. Analyzed European Severe Weather Database (ESWD) data showed that most of very large hail reports occurred in this part of Poland. The probable reason for this situation is the longest period of lasting tropical airmasses in southeastern Poland. Spatial distribution analysis shows also more hail incidents over Upper Silesia, Lesser Poland, Subcarpathia and Świętokrzyskie regions. The information source about hail occurrence was ESWD - open database, where everyone can add report and find reports which meet given search criteria. 69 hailstorms in the period of 2007 - 2015 were examined. They caused 121 very large hail reports. It was found that there is large disproportion in number of hailstorms and hail reports between individual years. Very large hail season in Poland begins in May and ends in September with cumulation in July. Most of hail occurs between 12:00 and 17:00 UTC, but there were some cases of very large (one extremely large) hail at night and early morning hours. However very large hail is a spectacular phenomenon, its local character determines potentially high information loss rate and it is the most significant problem in hail research.

  1. Molecular studies on pig cryptosporidiosis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rzeżutka, A; Kaupke, A; Kozyra, I; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium intestinal parasites have been detected in farmed pigs worldwide. Infections are usually asymptomatic with a low number of oocysts shed in pig feces. This makes the recognition of infection difficult or unsuccessful when microscopic methods are used. The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in pig herds raised in Poland with regard to the occurrence of zoonotic species. In total, 166 pig fecal samples were tested. The examined pigs were aged 1 to 20 weeks. Overall, 39 pig farms were monitored for parasite presence. The detection and identification of Cryptosporidium DNA was performed on the basis of PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified 18 SSU rRNA and COWP gene fragments. Infected animals were housed in 21 (53.8%) of the pig farms monitored. The presence of Cryptosporidum was confirmed in 46 (27.7%) samples of pig feces. Among positive fecal samples, 34 (29.3%) were collected from healthy animals, and 12 (24%) from diarrheic pigs. Most infected animals (42.1%) were 2 to 3 months old. The following parasite species were detected: C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum. Indeed, asymptomatic infections caused by C. scrofarum were observed in the majority of the herds. Mixed infections caused by C. suis and C. scrofarum were not common; however, they were observed in 8.6% of the positive animals. C. parvum DNA was found only in one sample collected from a diarrheic pig. The application of molecular diagnostic tools allowed for detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species in pigs. The sporadic findings of C. parvum are subsequent evidence for the contribution of pigs in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis from animals to humans. PMID:25638969

  2. First detection of bluetongue virus serotype 14 in Poland.

    PubMed

    Orłowska, Anna; Trębas, Paweł; Smreczak, Marcin; Marzec, Anna; Żmudziński, Jan F

    2016-07-01

    Here, we present the first detected cases of bluetongue virus (BTV) in native cattle from Poland. The virus was found in animals located near the Polish-Belarusian and Polish-Lithuanian borders. The positive animals were detected through an official epidemiological surveillance program. A combination of type-specific real-time RT-PCR and phylogenetic tests revealed the presence of BTV serotype 14 (BTV-14). This serotype is highly homologous to the vaccine strain and BTV-14 present in Russia, Lithuania, and Spain (from an animal imported from Lithuania). The most probable route of virus introduction to Poland was transmission through midges. All of the cases were subclinical. PMID:27068167

  3. Alternative policies for the control of air pollution in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.; Cofala, J.; Toman, M.

    1994-01-01

    Like other Central European countries, Poland faces the twin challenges of improving environmental quality while also promoting economic development. The study examines the cost of achieving alternative emission standards and the savings in abatement cost that might be achieved with policies that rely on economic incentives rather than with rigid command and control measures. A central element of the analysis is a dynamic model of least-cost energy supply in Poland that allows examination at a national level of the effects of different pollution standards and policies.

  4. Poland's migration problems: a post-communist legacy.

    PubMed

    Carter, F W

    1995-01-01

    "Poland's geographical location and the fall of communism has turned the country into a significant area for would-be migrants. This has changed the once predominant character of Poland as a ¿sending' migrant country into a ¿sending' and 'receiving' one. The extra burden of additional temporary or permanent migrants from neighboring East and Central European states is, together with the expanding number of asylum seekers, placing further strains on the country's economy. It also has changed the demographic structure of the nation-state as well as the social and economic (trade) structure and traffic patterns." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293076

  5. Over-the-counter medicine and dietary supplement consumption among academic youth in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Godman, Brian; Lipowska, Katarzyna; Mikrut, Karolina; Zuziak, Sandra; Pedzisz, Magdalena; Nowak, Aneta; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines and dietary supplements are increasingly popular in Poland, potentially improving but also potentially posing a threat to public health. The study goal is to characterize and assess behaviors related to use of OTC medicines and dietary supplements among Polish university students. A questionnaire-based survey was performed with students divided into groups (gender, subjects studied, period of studies). The majority of students declared using the products, significantly more females and younger students in their early years. Females tended to be more attentive to product information. Students with a background in biological or medical sciences were also more attentive and less influenced by advertising. The authors present that the differences between the defined groups of students should be utilized in tailored educational activities, aiming to rationalize high consumption of OTC medicines and dietary supplements. Targeting other, especially low-socioeconomic and less-educated, groups should follow. PMID:26886826

  6. On Nations and Children: Rousseau, Poland and European Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The paper is an interpretation of J.-J. Rousseau's book on the government of Poland. The central part of the paper is devoted to complex relations between the notions of nature, nation, childhood, and civic education. Methodologically, the analysis involves interpretation of historical contexts and positions significant in the writing of the book,…

  7. Support and Education of Gifted Students in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limont, Wieslawa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the support and education of gifted students in Poland. The author presents a definition of ability. Rudimentary documents and acts of the Polish Ministry of National Education regarding the education of gifted students are introduced. The systems of general and special education are discussed--including artistic and sports…

  8. EVALUATION OF THE HOBOKEN CONVERTER AT GLOGOW, POLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1975, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency awarded a contract to the Ministry of Smelting Poland for research to minimize emissions of fugitive pollutants from copper smelters and to assist in the control of smelter pollutants. The project objectives were to develop proced...

  9. Educational Responses to Reforms in East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Val D.

    1992-01-01

    In the former East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland, striking educational changes have occurred, including elimination of communist-oriented curricula, textbooks, and instruction; reintroduction of religious studies, resurgence of private and alternative schools, elimination of Russian as a mandatory second language, decentralization of…

  10. Undergraduate Medical Education in Poland: Variations on the Soviet Theme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missett, James R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Poland has centralized academic and administrative control over the medical academies, combined the training of medical students with that of dental and pharmacy students, equalized admission ratios for men and women, and provided relatively generous stipends for its medical students. (Editor/PG)

  11. Vocational Education and Training against Social Exclusion: Poland. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    The problem of social exclusion in Poland was examined along with possible strategies for combating social exclusion through vocational education and training (VET). The examination began with an analysis of the special needs of individuals who have reduced opportunities within the labor market and/or are members of national and ethnic minorities.…

  12. Descendant of daughter Brazilian BCG Moreau substrain in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Brzezińska, Sylwia; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Polak, Maciej; Augustynowicz, Ewa; Lutyńska, Anna

    2012-08-10

    In this study we assessed the genomic stability of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau seed lots used in Poland for BCG vaccine production since 1955 by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). BCG vaccine lots were more closely related the original lot -M. bovis BCG Rio de Janeiro Moreau compared with seeds used before 1980, which is consistent with seed lot distribution recorded in the archives. We confirmed the presence of RD8, RD2, senX3-regX3, RD14, DU2-I, whiB3, trcR, the second copy of IS6110 inserted in the promoter region of phoP, mutation D322G in phoR, ΔRD1, and ΔfadD26-ppsA in M. bovis BCG Moreau used for BCG production in Poland. However, unlike the Rio de Janeiro parent BCG, the BCG Moreau substrain used in Poland does not harbour a deletion in Rv3887c, a region that is involved in the membrane transport protein that is part of the ESX-2 type VII secretion system. Differences in the distribution of BCG Moreau for its subsequent use for manufacturing influenced the microevolution of BCG Moreau used in Brazil and Poland. PMID:22749596

  13. Application of ICT by Students at Selected Universities in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorencowicz, Edmund; Kocira, Slawomir; Uziak, Jacek; Tarasinska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate access and use of computers and internet by students during their studies. The results are based on a survey conducted in 2009-2012 on groups of 320 to 405 students (each year) from two universities in eastern Poland. It was concluded that during the period under study access of students to computers and…

  14. Adult Education in Poland before and after "Solidarity."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bron-Wojciechowska, Agnieszka

    1982-01-01

    The author provides a historical approach to understanding the political, economic, and cultural motives that shaped adult education's philosophy in Poland. Analysis of the pre and post "Solidarity" movement is provided to demonstrate the role of adult education in an ongoing process of learning democratic principles. (SSH)

  15. Facilities of Early Rehabilitation after Stroke in Poland 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opara, Jozef A.; Langhorne, Peter; Larsen, Torben; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to survey the contemporary facilities for early post-stroke rehabilitation in Poland. The main research questions were as follows: what is the availability of inpatient rehabilitation for post-stroke patients in neurological departments and in rehabilitation departments? The growing costs of healthcare are encouraging…

  16. Teacher Training and the Educational System in Poland. Some Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Hakan, Ed.

    This volume contains 12 papers on teacher training in Poland. Many reflect a special collaborative relationship between the Departments of Education at universities in Gdansk and Linkoping. The papers are: "Teacher Training-Between Atomism and Holism" (Joanna Rutkowiak); "Following-Applying-Seeking Inspiration as Possible Varieties of Dialogue…

  17. Gender Relations, Education and Social Change in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Peggy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the following issues in Poland: formal gender equality during state Socialism; public provision of child care; the domestic division of labor; women's educational careers; women's labor market position; gender inequalities in social consciousness; separation between public and private domains; and transition from a society to civil…

  18. Dry spells and droughts in Poland, 1951-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibig, J.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the presentation is to analyze if there are any changes in frequency and/or intensity of dry spells in Poland. In recent years precipitation some changes in seasonality of precipitation in Poland were observed, expressing in higher totals in winter and early spring and lower in summer. Together with shorter period with snow cover resulting in smaller water supply at the beginning of vegetation period from snow cover melting and higher temperatures it can cause a serious water deficit. It can exert significant impact on crops. According to 4th IPCC Report more frequent dry spells are probable to increase even in those place where the overall amount of precipitation is not projected to change significantly. Daily precipitation totals from more than 20 stations in Poland were used to distinguish the dry spells and a few indices of dryness were calculated. The spatial and temporal variability of these indices on the area of Poland was analyzed and synoptic scale drivers for prolonged drought events were identified.

  19. Reinventing a Nation: The Rhetoric of Political Transformation in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornatowski, Cezar M.

    In the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union and the fall of its satellite regimes, Poland, among other nations, has been engaged in a process of wholesale national reinvention. An analysis of this reinvention is instructive for scholars of language because it is largely a rhetorical process. It is aimed at supplying a new set of collectively…

  20. The State of Development of Digital Libraries in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorny, Miroslaw; Catlow, John; Lewandowski, Rafal

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of development of Polish digital libraries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper describes the establishment of the first digital library in Poland, the creation of the Wielkopolska Digital Library and other regional digital libraries. The organisational and technological solutions used…

  1. Organic food consumption in Poland: Motives and barriers.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to investigate selected aspects of organic food consumption in Poland. We conducted a survey in a representative sample of 1000 consumers. Polish consumers are convinced that organic food is more expensive, healthier, more environmentally friendly, more tasty and more authentic than conventional food. They believe its arouses more trust, has a better quality, is subject to more strict controls, and is produced in a more traditional way. According to Polish consumers, the most important characteristics of organic food are healthiness and high quality. The perceived authenticity of organic food depends on its natural taste, product quality, labelling, in particular having a European quality sign, as well as the retailer type and a separate exposition place in the points of purchase (merchandising). The critical barrier to the development of the organic food market in Poland is the high price, followed by an insufficient consumer awareness, low availability of organic products, short expiry dates and low visibility in the shop. The principal motives of organic food selection in Poland include: healthiness, ecological character of the product, food safety considerations, superior taste, and quality assurance. We identified the motives for and barriers to organic food consumption in Poland. PMID:27417333

  2. SOHO Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the SOHO Mission Pre-Launch Science Briefing. The moderator of the conference is Fred Brown, NASA/GSFC Public Affairs, introduces the panel members. Included are Professor Roger Bonnet, Director ESA Science Program, Dr. Wesley Huntress, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Dr. Vicente Domingo, ESA SOHO Project Scientist. Also present are several members from the SOHO Team: Dr. Richard Harrison, Art Poland, and Phillip Scherrer. The discussions include understanding the phenomena of the sun, eruption of gas clouds into the atmosphere, the polishing of the mirrors for the SOHO satellite, artificial intelligence in the telescopes, and the launch and operating costs. The panel members are also seen answering questions from various NASA Centers and Paris.

  3. Hungary and Poland: The Transformation from a Command to a Market Economy, 1989-1998. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 1998 (Hungary/Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Michael

    This paper examines the economic changes that have taken place in recent years in two central European countries, Hungary and Poland. Findings in the paper are based on materials gathered during the summer of 1998 on a Fulbright-Hays seminar visit to Hungary and Poland and from talks with officials and professors in those countries. Observations…

  4. Seismic monitoring of Poland - temporary seismic project - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanowski, J.; Plesiewicz, B.; Wiszniowski, J.; Suchcicki, J.; Tokarz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the project is to develop national database of seismic activity for seismic hazard assessment. Poland is known as a region of very low seismicity, however some earthquakes occur from time to time. The historical catalogue consists of less than one hundred earthquakes in the time span of almost one thousand years. Due to such a low occurrence rate, the study has been focussing on events at magnitudes lower than 2 which are more likely to occur during a few-year-long project. There are 24 mobile seismic stations involved in the project which are deployed in temporary locations close to humans neighbourhood. It causes a high level of noise and disturbances in recorded seismic signal. Moreover, the majority of Polish territory is covered by a thick sediments. It causes the problem of a reliable detection method for small seismic events in noisy data. The majority of algorithms is based on the concept of STA/LTA ratio and is designed for strong teleseismic events registered on many stations. Unfortunately they fail on the problem of weak events in the signal with noise and disturbances. It has been decided to apply Real Time Recurrent Neural Network (RTRN) to detect small natural seismic events from Poland. This method is able to assess relations of seismic signal in frequency domains as well as in time of seismic phases. The RTRN was taught by wide range of seismic signals - regional, teleseismic as well as blasts. The method is routinely used to analyse data from the project. In the firs two years of the project the seismic network was set in southern Poland, where relatively large seismicity in known. Since the mid-2010 the stations have been working in several regions of central and northern Poland where some minor historical earthquakes occurred. Over one hundred seismic events in magnitude range from 0.5 to 2.3 confirms the activity of Podhale region (Tatra Mountains, Carpathians), where an earthquake of magnitude 4.3 occurred in 2004. Initially three

  5. Survival and Competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strains 20 Years after Introduction into Field Locations in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Narożna, Dorota; Pudełko, Krzysztof; Króliczak, Joanna; Golińska, Barbara; Sugawara, Masayuki; Mądrzak, Cezary J.

    2015-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that there are no indigenous strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum forming nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soybean plants in arable field soils in Poland. However, bacteria currently classified within this species are present (together with Bradyrhizobium canariense) as indigenous populations of strains specific for nodulation of legumes in the Genisteae tribe. These rhizobia, infecting legumes such as lupins, are well established in Polish soils. The studies described here were based on soybean nodulation field experiments, established at the Poznań University of Life Sciences Experiment Station in Gorzyń, Poland, and initiated in the spring of 1994. Long-term research was then conducted in order to study the relation between B. japonicum USDA 110 and USDA 123, introduced together into the same location, where no soybean rhizobia were earlier detected, and nodulation and competitive success were followed over time. Here we report the extra-long-term saprophytic survival of B. japonicum strains nodulating soybeans that were introduced as inoculants 20 years earlier and where soybeans were not grown for the next 17 years. The strains remained viable and symbiotically competent, and molecular and immunochemical methods showed that the strains were undistinguishable from the original inoculum strains USDA 110 and USDA 123. We also show that the strains had balanced numbers and their mobility in soil was low. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the extra-long-term persistence of soybean-nodulating strains introduced into Polish soils and the first analyzing the long-term competitive relations of USDA 110 and USDA 123 after the two strains, neither of which was native, were introduced into the environment almost 2 decades ago. PMID:26048934

  6. Lake ecosystem response to late Allerød climatic fluctuation (northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Ott, Florian; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Plessen, Birgit; Apolinarska, Karina; Lutyńska, Monika; Michczyńska, Danuta J.; Wulf, Sabine; Skubała, Piotr; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is a better understanding, how local lake ecosystems responded to climate changes during the late Allerød - Younger Dryas transition. Therefore, we carried out a detailed high-resolution multi-proxy case study on the partly laminated sediments from the Trzechowskie palaeolake, located in the Pomeranian Lakeland, northern Poland (53°52'40"N, 18°12'93"E). We reconstructed the ecosystem response to climatic and environmental changes using biotic proxies (macrofossils, pollen, Cladocera, diatoms) and classical geochemical proxies (δ18O, δ13C, loss-on-ignition, CaCO3 content) in combination with high-resolution µ-XRF element core scanning. The core chronology has been established by biostratigraphy, AMS 14C-dating on plant macro remains, varve counting within the laminated intervals and the Laacher See Tephra (12880 varve yrs BP) as a precise isochrone. Framework of our investigation is a period covering 367 varve years of the late Allerød and the beginning of the Younger Dryas period where varve preservation gradually ceases. The pronounced changes at the late Allerød - Younger Dryas transition is well-reflected in all environmental indicators but with conspicuous leads and lags reflecting complex responses of lake ecosystems to climate variation. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants No. NN 306085037 and NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  7. A new varved late Glacial and Holocene sediment record from Lake Jelonek (North Poland) - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, Mateusz; Filbrandt-Czaja, Anna; Ott, Florian; Słowiński, Michał; Tjallingii, Rik; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Anually laminated (varved) lake deposits are suitable natural archives for reconstructing past climatic and environmental changes at seasonal resolution. A major advantage of such records is that varve counting allows constructing robust and independent chronologies, a key challenge for paleoclimate research. Recently, a new annually laminated sediment record has been obtained from Lake Jelonek, located in the eastern part of the Pomeranian Lakeland in northern Poland (Tuchola Pinewoods). The lake is surrounded by forest and covers an area of 19,9 ha and has a maximum depth of 13,8 m. Three overlapping series of 14,3 m - long sediment records have been cored with an UWITEC 90 mm diameter piston corer from the deepest part of the lake. A continuous master composite profile has been established comprising the entire postglacial lacustrine sediment infill. Preliminary analyses including micro-facies analyses on thin sections from selected intervals as well as X-ray fluorescence element scanning (µ-XRF) reveal that the sediments are to a large part annually laminated. Here we present detailed varve models for different sediment intervals and discuss high-resolution geochemical variation in the entire sediment record. A preliminary age model based on radiocarbon dating and major biostratigraphical boundaries based on pollen data will be presented as well. These data will form the fundament for the planned multi-proxy study for detailed reconstructions of climatic and environmental variability during the late glacial and Holocene in the southern Baltic. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre Poland NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367.

  8. Abrupt climate-triggered lake ecosystem changes recorded in late glacial lake sediments in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowinski, M. M.; Zawiska, I.; Ott, F.; Noryskiewicz, A. M.; Apolinarska, K.; Lutynska, M.; Michczynska, D. J.; Brauer, A.; Wulf, S.; Skubala, P.; Blaszkiewicz, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand how local lake ecosystems responded to abrupt climate changes through applying multi-proxy sediment analyses. Therefore, we carried out a detailed and high-resolution case study on the late glacial sediment from the Trzechowskie palaeolake located in the eastern part of the Pomeranian Lakeland, northern Poland. We reconstructed climate induced environmental changes in the paleolake and its catchment using biotic proxies (macrofossils, pollen, cladocera, diatoms, oribatidae mite) and classical geochemical proxies (δ18O, δ13C, loss-on-ignition, CaCO3 content) in combination with high-resolution μ-XRF element core scanning. The core chronology has been established by means of biostratigraphy, AMS 14C-dating on plant macro remains, varve counting in laminated intervals and tephrochronology. The latter was possible by the discovery of the late Allerød Laacher See Tephra for the first time at such eastern location. Biogenic accumulation in the lake started rather late during the lateglacial interstadial at 13903×170 cal yrs BP. The rapid and pronounced cooling at the beginning of the Younger Dryas had a major impact on the lake and its catchment as clearly reflected by both, biotic and geochemical proxies. The depositional environment of the lake abruptly changed from a varved to massive gytjia. The pronounced warming at the demise of Younger Dryas cooling is well-reflected in all environmental indicators but with conspicuous leads and lags reflecting complex responses of lake ecosystems to climate warming. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland - NN306085037. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association.

  9. Pelagic crinoids (Roveacrinida, Crinoidea) discovered in the Neogene of Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Salamon, Mariusz A.; Ferré, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Until recently, it has been assumed that pelagic crinoids, the roveacrinids (Roveacrinida, Crinoidea), became extinct during the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary event. Recent finds of well-preserved roveacrinidal remains (brachials and radials) in the Danian (Early Paleogene) of Poland showed that they survived into the earliest Cenozoic. This group was thus characterized as a "dead clade walking". Here, we present fossil evidence that these pelagic crinoids survived in Poland until at least the Middle Miocene (Badenian, ca. 14 Myr ago)—more than 50 Myr after their supposed extinction. These Miocene roveacrinids constitute the first documented evidence of Roveacrinida in strata of Neogene age, thus prolonging the stratigraphic range of pelagic crinoids. This find characterizes the order as a "Lazarus taxon" rather than a "dead clade walking" group.

  10. Possible consequences of severe accidents at the Lubiatowo site, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Petra; Philipp, Anne; Hofman, Radek; Gufler, Klaus; Sholly, Steven

    2014-05-01

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is under consideration in Poland. One of the sites under discussion is near Lubiatowo, located on the cost of the Baltic Sea northwest of Gdansk. An assessment of possible environmental consequences is carried out for 88 real meteorological cases with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. Based on literature research, three reactor designs (ABWR, EPR, AP 1000) were identified as being under discussion in Poland. For each of the designs, a set of accident scenarios was evaluated and two source terms per reactor design were selected for analysis. One of the selected source terms was a relatively large release while the second one was a severe accident with an intact containment. Considered endpoints of the calculations are ground contamination with Cs-137 and time-integrated concentrations of I-131 in air as well as committed doses. They are evaluated on a grid of ca. 3 km mesh size covering eastern Central Europe.

  11. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-07-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  12. The Beginnings of Modern Research on Propolis in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kłósek, Małgorzata; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis studies in Poland were initiated by Professor Stan Scheller in the 1960s. It was a team of Polish researchers who developed a method of introducing hydrophobic ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) into aqueous solutions, which enabled the study of their biological properties. The studies performed in Poland showed that EEP possesses antioxidant, radioprotective, and immunostimulating properties. It was possible to demonstrate antibacterial activity of propolis on Gram-positive bacteria, virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and protozoa as well as stimulating activity of aqueous extracts of propolis on proliferation of cells in vitro. Polish investigators showed that propolis stimulates regeneration of tissue, acts as antioxidant and radioprotector, has strong immunostimulative properties, affects animals' life span by extending it, and improves intellectual and life functions of the elderly. PMID:23864903

  13. African Swine Fever Epidemic, Poland, 2014–2015

    PubMed Central

    Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Kozak, Edyta; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Frączyk, Magdalena; Bocian, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, African swine fever (ASF) emerged in February 2014; by August 2015, the virus had been detected in >130 wild boar and in pigs in 3 backyard holdings. We evaluated ASF spread in Poland during these 18 months. Phylogenetic analysis indicated repeated incursions of genetically distinct ASF viruses of genotype II; the number of cases positively correlated wild boar density; and disease spread was very slow. More cases were reported during summer than autumn. The 18-month prevalence of ASF in areas under various animal movement restrictions was 18.6% among wild boar found dead or killed by vehicles and only 0.2% in hunted wild boar. Repeated introductions of the virus into the country, the primary role of wild boar in virus maintenance, and the slow spread of the disease indicate a need for enhanced biosecurity at pig holdings and continuous and intensive surveillance for fast detection of ASF. PMID:27314611

  14. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  15. Porosphaera globularis (Phillips, 1829) (Porifera, Calcarea) in the Campanian (Upper Cretaceous) of extra-Carpathian Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkowska, Agata; Świerczewska-Gładysz, Ewa; Dubicka, Zofia; Olszewska-Nejbert, Danuta

    2015-03-01

    The stratigraphical distribution of Porosphaera globularis, a common calcareous sponge in the Upper Cretaceous (mostly Campanian and Maastrichtian) of Poland was studied. The presented material, both new and from museum collections, comes from the Campanian of the Miechow Synclinorium, in southern Poland, and from the Lower Campanian of Mielnik in the south-eastern part of the Mazury-Podlasie Homocline, in eastern Poland. The significance of the species in extra-regional correlation, its palaeobiogeography and stratigraphical potential is critically reviewed.

  16. Is there a potential danger of "swimmer's itch in Poland?

    PubMed

    Bikowska, Elzbieta

    2003-01-01

    Tests with cercariae of Trichobilharzia szidati (Neuhaus, 1952) and Bilharziella polonica (Kowalewski, 1895) from naturally parasitised host snails from lake Jeziorak in north Poland were carried out on human volunteers under laboratory conditions. Only T. szidati was capable of causing the symptoms of "swimmer's itch". In the experiment with B. polonica no symptoms of dermatitis were observed either after the first or second exposure. PMID:12474045

  17. Emigration preferences and plans among medical students in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Migration and ethical recruitment of health care workers is receiving increased attention worldwide. Europe’s aging population is creating new opportunities for medical doctors for finding employment in other countries, particularly those of a better standard of living. Methods We conducted a survey among 1214 medical students in five out of eleven universities in Poland with medical schools in October 2008. A series of statistical tests was applied to analyse the characteristics of potential migrants. Projections were obtained using statistical analyses: descriptive, multifactorial logistic regression and other statistical methods . Results We can forecast that 26–36% of Polish medical students will emigrate over the next few years; 62% of respondents estimated the likelihood of emigration at 50%. Students in their penultimate year of study declared a stronger desire to migrate than those in the final year. At the same time, many students were optimistic about career opportunities in Poland. Also noted among students were: the decline in interest in leaving among final year students, their moderate elaboration of departure plans, and their generally optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland. Conclusions The majority of Polish students see the emigration as a serious alternative to the continuation of their professional training. This trend can pose a serious threat to the Polish health care system, however the observed decline of the interest in leaving among final year students, the moderate involvement in concrete departure plans and the optimistic views about the opportunities for professional development in Poland suggest that the actual scale of brain drain of young Polish doctors due to emigration will be more limited than previously feared. PMID:22546006

  18. Radiocarbon chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadachowski, Adam; Lipecki, Grzegorz; Wojtal, Piotr

    2010-05-01

    Many fossil mammoth remains from more than 300 localities have been discovered over last 170 years in Poland. First radiocarbon dates of woolly mammoth from Poland were published in the 1960s and the 1970s. These dates must be regarded with caution due to absence of details of the used methods. Recently, about 40 fossil mammoth remains were radiocarbon dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) method in the Poznań Radiocarbon Laboratory. Dates are given as an uncalibrated radiocarbon dates (BP) and as calendar dates (cal. BP). The dates range from ca. 52 ka BP to ca. 13,2 ka BP (> 50,0 - ca. 16,1 cal. ka BP) and can be correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 3 and OIS 2. A new radiocarbon evidence fits into the well known colonization pattern of Mammuthus primigenius in Central Europe and confirms a continuous distribution in the Grudziądz Interstadial (middle Weichselian, OIS 3) and the onset of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). On the other hand, the severe climatic circumstances lasting in conventional radiocarbon dates from ca. 22 ka BP to ca. 17 ka BP probably reduced the number of animals or even cased the withdrawal of woolly mammoth from the area north from the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains for 4-5 millennia. Only one date ca. 20,3 ka BP (ca. 24,2 cal, ka BP) is available from this time-span. Mammuthus primigenius reappeared in southern Poland ca. 14,6 ka BP (ca. 17,9 cal. BP) but soon had disappeared from this region because of marked reduction in open habitats at the beginning of Late Glacial Interglacial warming (Greenland Interstadial I or Bølling and Allerød) The latest available record from Poland is from Dzierżysław: 13,180±60 BP (ca. 15,600±400 cal. BP).

  19. Living conditions of young families in Poland (1991-1992).

    PubMed

    Lisowska, E

    1993-01-01

    "The article presents the results of a survey carried out by [Poland's] Institute of Social Economy in the last quarter of 1991. It included 1,716 women and their families.... The research gathered much information about the functioning of young Polish families at the end of 1991 and at the beginning of 1992; about their material situation as well as their living problems and needs." PMID:12345057

  20. Long regional magnetotelluric profile crossing geotectonic structures of central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefaniuk, M.; Pokorski, J.; Wojdyla, M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction The magnetotelluric survey was made along a regional profile, which runs across Poland from south-west to north-east during 2005-2006 years. The profile crosses major geological structures of Central Poland, including the Variscan Externides and Variscan foredeep, the Transeuropean Suture Zone and the marginal zone of East European Craton. The main objectives of the project include identification of sub-Zechstein sedimentary structures and evaluation of resistivity distribution within the deep crust, especially at the contact of East European Precambrian Craton and Central Europe Paleozoic structures. The length of the profile is about 700 km; 161 deep magnetotelluric sounding sites were made with a medium spacing of about 4 km. Data acquisition and processing The recording of the components of natural electromagnetic field was made with a broad range of frequencies, varying from 0.0003 Hz up to 575 Hz with use of MT-1 system of Electromagnetic Instruments Incorporation. This frequency band allowed obtaining the information about geology ranging from a few dozen meters to approximately 100 km, depending on the vertical distribution of the resistivity inside geological medium. To reduce the electromagnetic noise, magnetic and electric remote reference was applied. A remote reference site was located at a distance of over 100 km of field sites. Processing of the recorded data included the estimation of the components of impedance tensor (Zxx, Zxy, Zyx and Zyy ), with use of robust type procedures. The components of the impedance tensor allowed in a subsequent step for calculation of field curves for two orientations of the measurement system (XY - described further as the TM mode and YX - TE mode) and additional parameters of the medium like skew, strike, pole diagrams etc. Recording of the vertical component of electromagnetic field (Hz) allowed calculation of tipper parameter T. Magnetotelluric soundings interpretation Geophysical interpretation of MT

  1. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  2. Poland becoming a member of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Vol. 2.

    SciTech Connect

    Koritarov, V. K.; Conzelmann, G.; Cirillo, R. R.; Goldberg, S. M.

    2007-03-26

    Within a constrained carbon environment, the risks of future natural gas supply, and the need to move to market-based electricity prices, the study team found: (1) the deployment of new nuclear energy in Poland itself is very competitive in the next decade or two; (2) if such generation could be made available to Poland prior to deployment of its own nuclear generation facilities, Poland would benefit from partnering with its Baltic neighbors to import electricity derived from new nuclear generation facilities sited in Lithuania; and (3) Poland appears to be a good candidate for a partnership in the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) as an emerging nuclear energy country.

  3. Are they fellow countrymen or not? The migration of ethnic Poles from Kazakhstan to Poland.

    PubMed

    Iglicka, K

    1998-01-01

    "This article presents the process of migration of Kazakhs of Polish ancestry from Kazakhstan to Poland which has been taking place since the early 1990s. Poles deported in the past to Kazakhstan were mostly inhabitants of territories which did not belong to Poland; neither were they citizens of Poland. Therefore, the process of adaptation and integration was rather painful. The article points to factors that may simplify and those that may impede integration. The other problem...concerns the piecemeal policy towards Kazakhstan Poles, adopted by the Polish government, which seems risky if not dangerous. The author explains why it may cause a huge wave of illegal immigration to Poland." PMID:12294305

  4. Evaluation of patient exposure in computerised tomogram in Poland.

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, M A

    2002-01-01

    The increasing number of computerised tomography (CT) procedures performed in Poland in recent years has resulted in a growing contribution of these examinations to the whole exposure of the population to ionising radiation from medical sources. (The number of CT examinations in Poland was 170,000 in 1995 and 460,000 in 1999.) An evaluation is presented of doses to patients in CT examinations performed with different types of CT unit. To evaluate the exposure to patients dose linear product (DLP) was measured using a NOMEX dosemeter with a pencil chamber (PTW, Frieburg) and the cylindrical PMMA phantoms 'head' and 'body'. CTDI values were evaluated according to current methodology as described in European Guidelines (EUR 16262). The measurements were performed for seven types of CT unit made by different companies. The CTDI values were also compared to reference levels recommended by IAEA. In conclusion it was found that the value of collective effective dose (2200 man.Sv), has increased in Poland nearly 4 times in comparison to 1995, whereas the number of CT examinations increased nearly 3 times in this period. For most of the 'controlled' CT scanners the values of CTDI in head procedures are near to or higher than the IAEA Reference Level (50 mGy); this can result from the protocols, which are chosen without a dose analysis. PMID:12120672

  5. [HIV and AIDS epidemic in Poland and Europe].

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Paweł; Karwat, Irena Dorota

    2003-01-01

    The epidemics of HIV infection spreads wider and wider. It is estimated that in 2002 about 5 million new cases were registered in the world. In the paper there were analysed information concerning cases of HIV infection and AIDS cases reported in Poland in the years 1985-2002. The epidemic situation of HIV infection and AIDS was compared with the data on the epidemics of the disease in other European countries given in the reports of the World Health Organisation. The number of newly diagnosed cases of HIV infection equaled 7880 in the studied period in Poland. Until the end of the year 2001 there were diagnosed 1153 cases of AIDS and 570 patients died of it. In comparison with other European countries the prevalence of HIV carrier state is low in the Polish population. The main group of HIV infection risk in our country are i.v. drug abusers, and among newly detected carriers the majority are men aged 20-29. Dynamic increase of HIV infected patients in the countries being neighbours of Poland that is Russia, Belarus and Ukraine as well as the rise in importance of the of heterosexual intercourses as a means of spreading of the virus may become a threat to health of the Polish population. PMID:15106468

  6. Temperature in Science Textbooks: Changes and Trends in Cross-National Perspective (1950-2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radtka, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the way the concept of temperature was presented in lower-secondary science textbooks in France, Poland and England at the end of the 1950s and in the 2000s. I draw on history of science, history of education and book history to analyze different treatments of an apparently-similar scientific concept with regard to national…

  7. 2.5D S-wave velocity model of the TESZ area in northern Poland from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde-Piorko, Monika; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Receiver function (RF) locally provides the signature of sharp seismic discontinuities and information about the shear wave (S-wave) velocity distribution beneath the seismic station. The data recorded by "13 BB Star" broadband seismic stations (Grad et al., 2015) and by few PASSEQ broadband seismic stations (Wilde-Piórko et al., 2008) are analysed to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in northern Poland. The TESZ is one of the most prominent suture zones in Europe separating the young Palaeozoic platform from the much older Precambrian East European craton. Compilation of over thirty deep seismic refraction and wide angle reflection profiles, vertical seismic profiling in over one hundred thousand boreholes and magnetic, gravity, magnetotelluric and thermal methods allowed for creation a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model down to 60 km depth in the area of Poland (Grad et al. 2016). On the other hand the receiver function methods give an opportunity for creation the S-wave velocity model. Modified ray-tracing method (Langston, 1977) are used to calculate the response of the structure with dipping interfaces to the incoming plane wave with fixed slowness and back-azimuth. 3D P-wave velocity model are interpolated to 2.5D P-wave velocity model beneath each seismic station and synthetic back-azimuthal sections of receiver function are calculated for different Vp/Vs ratio. Densities are calculated with combined formulas of Berteussen (1977) and Gardner et al. (1974). Next, the synthetic back-azimuthal sections of RF are compared with observed back-azimuthal sections of RF for "13 BB Star" and PASSEQ seismic stations to find the best 2.5D S-wave models down to 60 km depth. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  8. Síndrome de Poland. Presentacíon de un caso. [Poland's syndrome. A case report].

    PubMed

    Fernández González, A L; García Redondo, A; García Castro, A

    1990-01-01

    A case of Poland's syndrome in a 19-year-old male is briefly described. This syndrome is characterized by congenital absence of the pectoralis major and minor muscles as well as homolateral brachysyndactyly. The etiology is unknown. Surgical repair is aimed at constructing a functional hand. Chest deformities usually does not require surgery except in cases of lung herniation or breast hypoplasia. PMID:2096446

  9. Geochemical evolution of lithospheric mantle underlying Intrasudetic Fault (SW Poland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwiek, Mateusz; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-04-01

    The Pilchowice basanite (SW Poland) forms volcanic plug located exactly on Intrasudetic Fault, which is one of the major tectonic lines in northern part of the Bohemian Massif. It originated during the formation of Variscan Orogen and marks the contact between two different crustal domains. The basanite is rhönite-bearing (Ladenberger et al., 2005. Min.Pol-Spec. Pap.) and contains small (<3 cm) xenoliths of clinopyroxene-bearing spinel harzburgites and spinel dunites. Numerous, fine-grained aggregates formed of olivine, clinopyroxene, spinel and glass occur interstitially. A "glassy patch" enclosing subhedral clinopyroxene occurs in one of the xenoliths. The Fo content in olivine forming xenoliths varies from 91.4 down to 83.2%, but the NiO content is always high (0.31-0.45 % wt.). Orthopyroxene has the composition of Al-Cr-Fe enstatite (mg# 0.86- 0.92). It is either LREE-depleted or shows U-shaped REE patterns. Clinopyroxene is Al-Ti-Cr diopside (mg# = 0.80-0.95). Spinel is mainly chromite with wide variation of cr# (0.40-0.80). Clinopyroxene is usually LREE-enriched with convex upward REE pattern. Two other types of REE patterns in clinopyroxene are also present: convex downward (U-shaped) and with constant enrichment in LREE. All the clinopyroxenes show distinct Ti and Zr-Hf negative anomalies. Low Al2O3 content in orthopyroxene suggests that Pilchowice peridotites are restites after extensive (16-35%) partial melting (Faccini et al., 2013, JoP), which is in an opposition to modal content of clinopyroxene (0-4.1 vol.%). This suggests, that clinopyroxene is a "stealth" metasomatic phase (O'Reillly and Griffin, 2013, Springer). As trace element composition of clinopyroxene shows features typical for reaction with alkaline silicate melt (negative inflection at the most incompatible trace elements) and carbonatite (Ti, Zr, Hf anomalies), we suggest that majority of xenoliths were metasomatized by the an agent being a carbonatite-silicate melt or by CO2-bearing

  10. Eugenics--a side effect of progressivism? analysis of the role of scientific and medical elites in the rise and fall of eugenics in pre-war Poland.

    PubMed

    Blach, Olga

    2010-06-01

    The eminent geneticist, Benno Muller-Hill, described eugenics as"explosive mixture between something we might call hard science, that is, human genetics, and the sphere of political action. On the one hand, geneticists needed politicians to implement their ideas. On the other hand, Hitler and the Nazis needed scientists who could say that anti-Semitism has scientific theoretical foundations." For some Polish eugenicists, the Third Reich was not the home of the Nuremberg Laws, but a country that "boldly embarked on racial hygiene." This enthusiastic attitude of Polish intellectual circles towards Nazi eugenic laws was characteristic of the status of pre-war science in Poland, which in many areas, such as anthropology and psychiatry, remained strongly influenced by the paradigm of German science. While the professional and scientific context of the day promoted eugenic and racist ideas within the framework of the academic milieu and the curriculum of the medical and scientific community, eugenicists in Poland tended to refrain from anti-Semitic and racist phraseology. Indeed, the Polish eugenic movement was class- rather than race-orientated. The hybrid language of eugenics, combining social sensitivity with repulsion and contempt for the sick and the weak, illustrated the ambiguous stance of the Polish eugenicists on politics and science in Nazi Germany, for the Third Reich provided the German eugenicists with what had always been an unfulfilled dream to the Polish eugenicists--political power and the ability to implement their ideas. PMID:20977151

  11. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (66 FR 46777... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (72 FR 44830). The Commission is now conducting...

  12. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  13. Representations of Linguistic and Ethnocultural Diversity in Poland's Education Policy, National School Curricula and Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    With its recent entry into the European Union (EU) and the adoption of multiethnic democracy as a national policy, a key challenge for Poland is to transform its education policy and practice in ways that are consistent with multicultural and pluralist values. This paper examines Poland's efforts to address these issues by exploring changes in the…

  14. Future Perfect? Conflict and Agency in Higher Education Reform in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szkudlarek, Tomasz; Stankiewicz, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    The paper is based on an analysis of interviews with individuals engaged in systemic reform of higher education (HE) in Poland. The reform is perceived as controversial: it is supported by the media and claimed to be in line with the expectations of external stakeholders of HE, as well as being congruent with Poland's international…

  15. Life in a Democratic Society: A Primary School Civics Course for Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brzakalik, Krystayna; And Others

    This document summarizes a civics course for primary schools in Poland, grades 6-8. The curriculum was developed as part of the Education for Democratic Citizenship in Poland Project, a cooperative effort of the Polish Ministry of National Education and the Mershon Center, The Ohio State University (United States). The project aims to help schools…

  16. Resurrected Pigs, Dyed Foxes and Beloved Cows: Religious Diversity and Nostalgia for Socialism in Rural Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasieka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my paper is to discuss the phenomenon of nostalgia for socialism in rural Poland. More precisely, I discuss how experiences of rurality and diverse religious beliefs intertwine with nostalgia. Depicting the memories of socialism, shared with me by the inhabitants of a multi-religious rural commune in Southern Poland, I aim to…

  17. Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae) - a new species for Poland.

    PubMed

    Musik, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marcin; Depa, Lukasz; Lukasz Junkiert; Anna Jedynowicz

    2013-01-01

    Single macropterous female of Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 has been found during the faunistic studies in semi-natural plant communities of Oświęcim city in southern Poland. It is the first record of this species in Poland. Trigonocranus emmeae is rarely collected within the wide range of its distribution, mostly due to its hidden life mode. PMID:24039522

  18. Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Cixiidae) – a new species for Poland

    PubMed Central

    Musik, Krzysztof; Walczak, Marcin; Depa, Łukasz; Łukasz Junkiert; Anna Jedynowicz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Single macropterous female of Trigonocranus emmeae Fieber, 1876 has been found during the faunistic studies in semi-natural plant communities of Oświęcim city in southern Poland. It is the first record of this species in Poland. Trigonocranus emmeae is rarely collected within the wide range of its distribution, mostly due to its hidden life mode. PMID:24039522

  19. Analysis of new position and height transformation models in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrasik, Ewa; Ryczywolski, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    In January 2014 Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography, Polish authority for geodesy and cartography, has released transformation models for position and height. The appearance of the models is related to changes in legal acts concerning the introduction of new reference system and frames used in Poland. The transformation models link old reference frames PL-ETRF89-GRS80h (also called EUREF-89) and PL-KRON86-NH with new realizations PL-ETRF2000- GRS80h and PL-EVRS2007-NH. The reference frame for position is expressed in the same reference system ETRS89. In case of height system Poland is currently switching form Kronstadt normal height system to EVRS - European height system referred to the Normaal Amsterdams Peil. The transformation models are based on grids covering territory of Poland with node spacing of 0.01 of degree. Model for transformation between previous and current ETRS89 realizations is based on the results of GNSS calibration campaign conducted between 2008 and 2011, covering over 500 points (permanent reference stations and 1st order ground control points) regularly distributed over interest area. Above transformation model has been analyzed in the context of differences to previous frames realizations and to the approach based on parameter transformation. In the context of implementation of EVRF2007 the new local quasi-geoid model PL-geoid-2011 has been compared to the latest geopotential model, European quasi-geoid models EGG and local quasi-geoid models used so far. In addition the new model has been confronted with undulations based on the existing satellite levelling data, including the results of the fourth leveling campaign.

  20. [Occurrence of tissue Filarioidea in ruminants in Poland].

    PubMed

    Demiaszkiewicz, A W

    1989-01-01

    In the years 1985-1988 in the Białowieza Forest and in the woods in the vicinity of Olsztyn, 130 deer, 136 roe-deer, 52 bisons and 40 cattle were subject to parasitological section. Seven species of tissue nematoda of the superfamily Filarioidea were detected. Onchocerca jakutensis, O. garmsi and Cutifilaria wenki in deer, Dipetalonema rugosicauda in roe-deer, and Onchocerca lienalis and O. gutturosa in bison and cattle are first records of these species in Poland. The bison is a new host for O. lienalis and O. gutturosa, the roe-deer--for O. flexuosa. PMID:2815759

  1. Troglomorphism in the middle Triassic crinoids from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Krzysztof R.; Brachaniec, Tomasz; Salamon, Mariusz A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we document the Middle Triassic marine fauna recovered from the fissure/cave system of Stare Gliny (southern Poland) developed in the Devonian host dolomite. The fossils are mostly represented by in situ preserved and small-sized holdfasts of crinoids (Crinoidea) that are attached to the cave walls. Other fossils found in the cave infills include articulated brittle stars and brachiopods. Our findings constitute the oldest Mesozoic evidence for troglophile crinoids. We suggest that troglomorphism in these echinoderms was likely related to protection against predation, which underscores the magnitude of anti-predatory adaptations to increased predation pressure that occurred during the Early Mesozoic Marine Revolution.

  2. Helminths in migrating and wintering birds recorded in Poland.

    PubMed

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Among 544 species of helminths recorded in birds on the territory of Poland, probably some (17 species of Digenea, 21 Cestoda, 13 Nematoda and 5 Acanthocephala) do not belong to the native fauna. These are helminths obtained in mature stage from birds shortly after their arrival from wintering grounds, or from foreign populations wintering with us, or being in the course of spring or autumn migration through the area of our country. In general, these helminth species have been recorded sporadically in the examined birds. PMID:24930242

  3. [Selenium in selected species of mushrooms from Poland].

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2003-01-01

    The selenium was quantified in the caps, stalks or a whole fruiting bodies of king bolete (Boletus edulis), brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and poison pax (Paxillus involutus) collected at the various regions of Poland in 1998-2001. King bolete, parasol mushroom and fly agaric were a much more abundant in selenium than brown birch scaber stalk or poison pax. Some differences were observed between the selenium content of the particular species collected at different sites as well as depending on anatomical part of the fruiting body. PMID:14755851

  4. Invasive vascular plant species of limnocrenic karst springs in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spałek, Krzysztof

    2015-04-01

    Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in Poland. Among them, the most important for preservation of biodiversity of flora are limnocrenic karst springs. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbance of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearance of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to appear numerous invasive plant species. They are: Acorus calamus, Echinocystis lobata, Elodea canadensis, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Fielworks were conducted in 2010-2014.

  5. Glacially induced stresses in sedimentary rocks of northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    During the Pleistocene large continental ice sheets developed in Scandinavia and North America. Ice-loading caused bending of the lithosphere and outward flow in the mantle. Glacial loading is one of the most prominent tectono-mechanical event in the geological history of northern Poland. The Pomeranian region was subjected several times to a load equivalent of more than 1 km of rocks, which led to severe increase in both vertical and horizontal stresses in the upper crustal rocks. During deglaciation a rapid decrease in vertical stress is observed, which leads to destabilization of the crust - most recent postglacial faults scarps in northern Sweden indicate glacially induced earthquakes of magnitude ~Mw8. The presence of the ice-sheet altered as well the near-surface thermal structure - thermal gradient inversion is still observable in NW Poland. The glacially related processes might have left an important mark in the sedimentary cover of northern Poland, especially with regard to fracture reopening, changes in stress state, and damage development. In the present study, we model lithospheric bending caused by glacial load, but our point of interest lies in the overlying sediments. Typical glacial isostatic studies model the response of (visco-) elastic lithosphere over viscoelastic or viscous asthenosphere subjected to external loads. In our model, we introduce viscoelastic sedimentary layers at the top of this stack and examine the stress relaxation patterns therein. As a case study for our modelling, we used geological profiles from northern Poland, near locality of Wejherowo, which are considered to have unconventional gas potential. The Paleozoic profile of this area is dominated by almost 1 km thick Silurian-Ordovician shale deposits, which are interbedded with thin and strong limestone layers. This sequence is underlain by Cambrian shales and sandstones, and finally at ~3 km depth - Precambrian crystalline rocks. Above the Silurian there are approximately

  6. Drug use and policy in Poland in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Watson, M

    1989-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the recent changes in patterns of drug use in Poland in the light of available data. A much higher incidence of use has been seen in the 1980s, and there are indications that this can be accounted for by increased use among young people from the manual working class. Social deprivation may play a part in the etiology of the 1980s "epidemic," and evidence is put forward in support of this view. Both patterns of use and the policies that have been introduced to deal with them are viewed in terms of the political, economic, and social context of post-Solidarity perestroika. PMID:2787787

  7. Space life sciences: biological research and space radiation. Proceedings of the F1.2, F1.3, F2.2 and F2.6 Symposia of COSPAR Scientific Commission F which were held during the Thirty-third COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Warsaw, Poland, July, 2000.

    PubMed

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Advances in Space Research contains a large number of manuscripts in the discipline of Space Life Sciences including papers from the following sessions of the Warsaw COSPAR Assembly: Gravity-related research with animals--past, present, future; The nervous system: space flight environmental factors effects--present results and new perspectives; Investigating space radiation effects at particle accelerators--biology and physics experiments; Perspectives on radiation risks on long space missions: deterministic and stochastic effects. PMID:12528665

  8. [Is the parasite fauna of Poland well recognized?].

    PubMed

    Pojmańska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna

    2003-01-01

    The studies of parasite fauna have in Poland a long tradition. Generally the helmint fauna of all groups of vertebrates was more or less examined and as much as over 100 species of Monogenea, almost 400 Digenea, over 250 Cestoda, about 500 Nematoda and 32 Acanthocephala have been recorded. The best recognized are the helminths of fish (especially those of Cyprinidae, Esocidae, Percidae and Salmonidae), frogs examined in various regions of Poland, some birds (especially connected with water environment: Anseriformes, Ciconiformes, Podicipediformes), most of insectivores (although examined only in few localities), European bisons, deers, foxes and wild boars (all under permanent monitoring), as well as domestic animals (cattle, horses, sheeps) and pets. Such groups like some amphibians, reptiles, bats, carniwores, some birds (especially Passeriformes, Charadriiformes, falcons and eagles) need further exploration, as some host species were not the subject of parasitological investigation. In some cases it will be rather difficult goal, as most of these animals are under strict preservation, and only dead (naturally or accidentally) specimens can be autopsied. PMID:16888930

  9. Spatial interpolation of biologically effective UV radiation over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walawender, J.; Ustrnul, Z.

    2010-09-01

    The ultraviolet(UV) radiation plays an important role in the Earth-Atmosphere System. It has a positive influence on both human health and natural environment but it may also be very harmful if UV exposure exceeds "safe" limits. For that reason knowledge about spatial distribution of biologically effective UV doses seems to be crucial in minimization or complete elimination of the negative UV effects. The main purpose of this study is to find the most appropriate interpolation method in order to create reliable maps of the biologically effective UV radiation over Poland. As the broadband UV measurement network in Poland is very sparse, erythemaly weighted UV radiation data reconstructed from homogeneous global solar radiation records were used. UV reconstruction model was developed in Centre of Aerology (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management) within COST Action 726 - ‘Long term changes and climatology of UV radiation over Europe'. The model made it possible to reconstruct daily erythemal UV doses for 21 solar radiation measurement stations in the period 1985 - 2008. Mapping methodology included the following processing steps: exploratory spatial data analysis, verification of additional variables, selection and parameterization of interpolation model, accuracy assessment and cartographic visualization. Several different stochastic and deterministic interpolation methods along with various empirical semivariogram models were tested. Multiple regression analysis was performed in order to examine statistical relationship between UV radiation and additional environmental variables such as: elevation, latitude, stratospheric ozone content and cloud cover. The data were integrated, processed and visualized within GIS environment.

  10. An analysis of selected cases of derecho in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiński-Mysław, Daniel; Matuszko, Dorota

    2014-11-01

    The paper analyses six cases of the derecho phenomena, which occurred in Poland between 2007 and 2012. The input data included reports on dangerous meteorological phenomena, SYNOP and METAR reports, MSL pressure maps, upper air maps at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, radar depictions and satellite images, upper air sounding plots and data from a system locating atmospheric discharges. Derechos are caused directly by the activity of mesoscale convective systems linked up with either, in winter, a cold front of a deep low-pressure system, or, in summer, with an area of wind convergence in a warm sector of a cyclone or with an articulated cold front which, moving within a low-pressure embayment, develops a very active secondary depression. It was found that southern and central Poland were the regions most frequently affected by derechos. Mid-level and high-level jet streams, augmented by high thermodynamic instability of air masses, were found to be conducive to the development of derechos.

  11. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. )

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Monthly and seasonally verification of precipitation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.; Linkowska, J.

    2009-04-01

    The national meteorological service of Poland - the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) joined COSMO - The Consortium for Small Scale Modelling on July 2004. In Poland, the COSMO _PL model version 3.5 had run till June 2007. Since July 2007, the model version 4.0 has been running. The model runs in an operational mode at 14-km grid spacing, twice a day (00 UTC, 12 UTC). For scientific research also model with 7-km grid spacing is ran. Monthly and seasonally verification for the 24-hours (06 UTC - 06 UTC) accumulated precipitation is presented in this paper. The precipitation field of COSMO_LM had been verified against rain gauges network (308 points). The verification had been made for every month and all seasons from December 2007 to December 2008. The verification was made for three forecast days for selected thresholds: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 mm. Following indices from contingency table were calculated: FBI (bias), POD (probability of detection), PON (probability of detection of non event), FAR (False alarm rate), TSS (True sill statistic), HSS (Heidke skill score), ETS (Equitable skill score). Also percentile ranks and ROC-relative operating characteristic are presented. The ROC is a graph of the hit rate (Y-axis) against false alarm rate (X-axis) for different decision thresholds.

  14. Monthly and seasonally verification of precipitation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, K.; Linkowska, J.

    2009-04-01

    The national meteorological service of Poland - the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMWM) joined COSMO - The Consortium for Small Scale Modelling on July 2004. In Poland, the COSMO _PL model version 3.5 had run till June 2007. Since July 2007, the model version 4.0 has been running. The model runs in an operational mode at 14-km grid spacing, twice a day (00 UTC, 12 UTC). For scientific research also model with 7-km grid spacing is ran. Monthly and seasonally verification for the 24-hours (06 UTC - 06 UTC) accumulated precipitation is presented in this paper. The precipitation field of COSMO_LM had been verified against rain gauges network (308 points). The verification had been made for every month and all seasons from December 2007 to December 2008. The verification was made for three forecast days for selected thresholds: 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 mm. Following indices from contingency table were calculated: FBI (bias), POD (probability of detection), PON (probability of detection of non event), FAR (False alarm rate), TSS (True sill statistic), HSS (Heidke skill score), ETS (Equitable skill score). Also percentile ranks and ROC-relative operating characteristic are presented. The ROC is a graph of the hit rate (Y-axis) against false alarm rate (X-axis) for different decision thresholds

  15. Epidemiology and prevention of arterial hypertension in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Wyrzykowski, Bogdan; Szczech, Radosław; Wierucki, Lukasz; Naruszewicz, Marek; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Zarzeczna-Baran, Marzena

    2005-12-01

    The authors review the present situation in epidemiology and prevention of arterial hypertension in Poland. In 2002, the NATPOL PLUS survey on representative sample of adults (n=3051, age range 18-93) was conducted. Prevalence of hypertension, diagnosed on basis of three separate visits, was 29%, awareness 67% and efficacy of treatment 12.5%. Thus, in Poland, one-third of 8.6 million hypertensives are unaware of their disease. A comparison with data from other countries should be careful due to the different methods (age range, number of readings and visits) used in the studies. The data, in concert with a decrease in awareness of one's own blood pressure (from 71% in 1994 to 59% in 2002), called for urgent preventive measures. Two large interventions were implemented under the National Programme POLKARD in 2003: the Polish 400 Cities Project aimed to increase detection and knowledge of hypertension and other risk factors among small-town and village communities, and the educational project, A Chance for the Young Heart targeted at children aged 11-14 years and using traditional teaching methods and an interactive Internet website. Also, an educational and marketing programme targeted at public opinion leaders and decision makers (trade unions, local governments, healthcare financing authorities, print media and radio, the Polish Parliament) started in 1999 and is still in process. PMID:16429636

  16. Hepatitis E virus antibody prevalence in wildlife in Poland.

    PubMed

    Larska, M; Krzysiak, M K; Jabłoński, A; Kęsik, J; Bednarski, M; Rola, J

    2015-03-01

    Hepatitis E is an important public health problem mostly in developing but occasionally also in industrialized countries. Domestic and wildlife animals are considered reservoirs of the hepatitis E virus (HEV). Since no information on the prevalence of autochthonous HEV infections in human and animal in Poland is available, the aim of the study was to investigate the HEV seroprevalence of different wildlife species as potential virus reservoirs in the country. No HEV antibodies were found in any of the sera collected from the red deer (Cervus elaphus), European bison (Bison bonasus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), elk (Alces alces), fallow deer (Dama dama), sika deer (Cervus nippon), Tatra chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica) or brown bear (Ursus arctos). HEV-specific antibodies were detected in 44.4% (95% CI 38.3-50.7) serum samples originated only from wild boars. The percentage of seropositive wild boars differed significantly between the provinces and was positively correlated with the wild boar density and rurality of the area. This study showed that HEV circulates among wild boar population in Poland, and this species should be considered as an important reservoir of the virus. PMID:24655475

  17. Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantylej, Wiktoria

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

  18. Medical monitoring of asbestos-exposed workers: experience from Poland.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila; Wilczyńska, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    In Poland, the use of asbestos was banned in 1997 and asbestos plants have been closed since then. Despite their closure, cases of asbestos-related occupational diseases among former asbestos workers are still being recorded in the Central Register of Occupational Diseases. Between 2001 and 2014, there were 2726 asbestos-related illnesses, classified and reported as diseases associated with occupational exposure to asbestos. In 2000, Poland introduced a programme called Amiantus, targeted at former asbestos-processing plant workers. The programme provided periodic medical examinations to workers and free access to medications for treatment of asbestos-related illnesses. Introduction of the programme provided additional data to generate a reliable estimation of the number of asbestos-related occupational diseases, including cancer. The average latency period for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma is about 40 years so there may still be some health impact to former workers necessitating follow-up. We present the Polish experience of implementing a medical examination programme for asbestos-exposed workers and provide a list of activities to consider when planning for such a programme. PMID:27516637

  19. Mortality pattern in men with pneumoconiosis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Starzyński, Z; Marek, K; Kujawska, A; Szymczak, W

    1995-01-01

    Mortality study was carried out on the cohort of 11,224 men with coal workers' pneumoconiosis or silicosis diagnosed during the period 1970-1985. The cohort was selected from the register of occupational diseases and was traced up to the end of 1991. The general male population of Poland was a reference group. The study showed small but significant excess of total mortality (SMR = 115; p < 0.01). The analysis of death causes revealed an elevated mortality from infectious diseases, among which tuberculosis was most prevalent (SMR = 212; p < 0.01) and from pneumoconioses predominant in diseases of the respiratory system, (SMR = 426; p < 0.01) and lung cancer (SMR = 116; p < 0.01). The comparison of the prevalence of smoking in the population under study with that in the reference general male population of Poland indicated that this habit is mostly responsible for the excess of lung cancer deaths. This finding contradicts the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between exposure to dusts containing crystalline silica, pneumoconiosis and lung cancer. PMID:8581329

  20. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznań, Poland.

    PubMed

    Gadher, Suresh Jivan; Marczak, Łukasz; Łuczak, Magdalena; Stobiecki, Maciej; Widlak, Piotr; Kovarova, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Every year since 2007, the Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) has excelled in representing state-of-the-art proteomics in and around Central and Eastern Europe, and linking it to international institutions worldwide. Its mission remains to contribute to all approaches of proteomics including traditional and often-revisited methodologies as well as the latest technological achievements in clinical, quantitative and structural proteomics with a view to systems biology of a variety of processes. The 9th CEEPC was held from June 15th to 18th, 2015, at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań, Poland. The scientific program stimulated exchange of proteomic knowledge whilst the spectacular venue of the conference allowed participants to enjoy the cobblestoned historical city of Poznań. PMID:26558656

  1. Applications of detailed 3D P-wave velocity crustal model in Poland for local, regional and global seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2015-04-01

    The 3D P-wave seismic velocity model was obtained by combining data from multiple studies during past 50 years. Data sources included refraction seismology, reflection seismology, geological boreholes, vertical seismic profiling, magnetotellurics and gravimetry. Use of many data sources allowed creation of detailed 3D P-wave velocity model that reaches to depth of 60 km and includes 6-layers of sediments and 3-layers of the crust. Purpose of this study is to analyze how 3D model influences local (accuracy of location and source time estimation for local events), regional (identification of wide-angle seismic phases) and global (teleseismic tomography) seismic travel times. Additionally we compare results of forward seismic wave propagation with signals observed on short period and broadband stations. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  2. Levels and sources of planar and non-planar PCBs in pine needles across Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Orlikowska, Anna; Jarzyńska, Grażyna; Bochentin, Ilona; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Hanari, Nobuyashi; Horii, Yuichi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Under a small project, one-year-old Scots Pine needles collected from 25 spatially distant sites were examined in monitoring the extent of environmental diffusion and possible sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ambient air, their depositions and uptake by plants in Poland. The congener-specific determination of planar and non-planar chlorobiphenyls was achieved by isotope dilution HRGC-HRMS method after a highly refined extraction on multi-layer column of silica gel and alumina layer and clean-up, and fractionations, followed by Hypercarb-HPLC and PYE-HPLC sub-fractionation steps. Contents of 117 chlorobiphenyls determined in pine needles varied for the 25 sites studied and is between 2.7 and 49 ng/g wet weight. The PCBs pollution and congener-specific composition of pine needles to some degree varied according to the site or region surveyed depending on population density and industrialization. Many of the country-side areas showed lower concentrations between 2.7 and 8.9 ng/g ww. Pine needles in areas close to well populated and industrial regions of Opole, Kutno, Włocławek and Dębica showed the highest PCB pollution with concentrations varying between 30 and 49 ng/g ww. The Kutno site showed the highest pollution and this fact probably can be explained by possible emission from transformer manufactures located at some distance west of the Kutno area. Factor analysis (FA) and depending on the site revealed on relationship of PCBs composition of pine needles both with highly chlorinated PCB constituents of the mixtures such as Chlorofen, Aroclor 1254, Aroclor 1268 and Sovol but also of lower chlorinated PCB constituents of Aroclor 1242, Aroclor 1248, Clophen A40 or Delor 103. Thermal processes were considered a less significant source of PCBs in ambient air over Poland compared to evaporative sources related to technical PCB formulations. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of

  3. Fifteen years of CFCs and SF6 measurements in air of Krakow, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewski, J.; Chmiel, M.; Sliwka, I.

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) in the atmosphere are on the ppt level. CFCs are stable, synthetic, halogenated alkanes and they contribute to ozone depletion by photolytic processes in the stratosphere [1]. CFCs an SF6 also participate in intensification of the greenhouse effect. The production and release of CFCs increased rapidly between the 1970s and 1980s. Then decreased dramatically from the end of the 1980s because of the Montreal Protocol limitations [2]. The measurements of CFCs and SF6 in air are usually conducted at the so-called clean stations, i.e., at places situated outside of the urban areas influence. In Europe such clean station is the Mace Head (Ireland), which is AGAGE participant since 1987 [3]. In central Europe such measurements are carried out in densely populated urban area of Krakow since 1997. Very interesting is diminishing frequency of the seasonal variability of CFCs concentration pollution events after the date of 1.07.2002 when the Montreal Protocol legislations were implemented in Poland (The Journal of Laws No. 52). This suggests that the most observed sources of CFCs have been localized to the territory of Poland (the wind and air mass movements have still the same statistical character in Krakow region, as before legislation implementation) [4]. The work presents a general view of environmental pollution of Krakow air (in the years 1997-2012) by selected halocarbons i.e., freons F-11 (CFCl3), F-12 (CF2Cl2), F-113 (CCl2FCClF2), chloroform (CHCl3), 1,1,1-trichloroetane (CH3CCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and SF6. The authors wish to acknowledge Prof. R. Weiss from Scripts Oceanography Institute (CA, USA) for preparing of the CFC's primary standard (SIO1993) and Dr M. Maiss from Max-Planck Institute (Germany) for SF6 calibration. The work was financed by grant from polish National Science Centre on the basis of Decision No. DEC-2011/01/N/ST10/07621and is also partially supported by

  4. Freshwater oligochaeta in mining subsidence ponds in the Upper Silesia region of southern Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Krodkiewska, M.

    2006-03-15

    I surveyed the benthic oligochaetes in three coal mining subsidence ponds in a heavily industrialized region of Upper Silesia, southern Poland. The fauna present differed in many respects from that living in natural and unpolluted water bodies. Nineteen species (11 Naididae and eight Tubificidae) were found. The two most consistently abundant species in all three ponds were Limnodrilus hoffimeisteri and Tubifex tubifex, both of which are ubiquitous and common in Poland. Polamothrix bavaricus, which is considered a rare species in Poland, was found consistently in the ponds.

  5. The vaccine origin of the 1968 epidemic of type 3 poliomyelitis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Martín, J; Ferguson, G L; Wood, D J; Minor, P D

    2000-12-01

    A clear association was demonstrated between the use of USOL-D-bac type 3 poliovirus live-attenuated vaccine and the 1968 poliomyelitis epidemic in Poland. The epidemic followed small-scale trials with Sabin and USOL-D-bac type 3 vaccine strains carried out in seven countries including Poland. Factors that might have contributed to the genesis and development of the epidemic were the pattern of virus excretion from vaccinees, mutations found in viruses from the epidemic, and the particular vaccination policies in Poland during the previous years. These findings may provide essential insights into the strategies for stopping polio immunisation once wild poliovirus has been eradicated. PMID:11112479

  6. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the

  7. Application Bayesian Model Averaging method for ensemble system for Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzikowski, Jakub; Czerwinska, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the project is to evaluate methods for generating numerical ensemble weather prediction using a meteorological data from The Weather Research & Forecasting Model and calibrating this data by means of Bayesian Model Averaging (WRF BMA) approach. We are constructing height resolution short range ensemble forecasts using meteorological data (temperature) generated by nine WRF's models. WRF models have 35 vertical levels and 2.5 km x 2.5 km horizontal resolution. The main emphasis is that the used ensemble members has a different parameterization of the physical phenomena occurring in the boundary layer. To calibrate an ensemble forecast we use Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) approach. The BMA predictive Probability Density Function (PDF) is a weighted average of predictive PDFs associated with each individual ensemble member, with weights that reflect the member's relative skill. For test we chose a case with heat wave and convective weather conditions in Poland area from 23th July to 1st August 2013. From 23th July to 29th July 2013 temperature oscillated below or above 30 Celsius degree in many meteorology stations and new temperature records were added. During this time the growth of the hospitalized patients with cardiovascular system problems was registered. On 29th July 2013 an advection of moist tropical air masses was recorded in the area of Poland causes strong convection event with mesoscale convection system (MCS). MCS caused local flooding, damage to the transport infrastructure, destroyed buildings, trees and injuries and direct threat of life. Comparison of the meteorological data from ensemble system with the data recorded on 74 weather stations localized in Poland is made. We prepare a set of the model - observations pairs. Then, the obtained data from single ensemble members and median from WRF BMA system are evaluated on the basis of the deterministic statistical error Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE). To evaluation

  8. The changing sexual attitudes of boys in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lew-starowicz, Z

    1990-12-01

    Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexual attitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to

  9. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Poland

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Poland. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  10. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Studies of the Prefabricated Housing Construction Market in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radziszewska-Zielina, Elżbieta; Gleń, Monika

    2014-11-01

    The directions of development of the construction market are not only related to the need to own one's own home but also to increasing functional and economic requirements and conditions of sustainable development. The perception and understanding of prefabrication in housing construction are undoubtedly starting to change. Sustainable construction criteria may constitute a significant turning point and support for the development of new prefabricated housing construction technologies. Entrepreneurs are slowly perceiving an opportunity for the development of prefabrication in the construction market. The implementation and popularisation of ready-made homes will undoubtedly constitute a favourable change in the Polish construction market; however, this will require a modification of habits. This article presents an historical analysis of the development of the prefabricated housing construction market as well as an attempt to answer questions concerning the future of prefabrication in housing construction in Poland based on the conducted studies.

  12. Ivane Tarkhnishvili (Ivan Tarchanoff) and His Links With Poland.

    PubMed

    Widacki, Jan

    2016-01-01

    According to some sources, Professor Ivan Tarchanoff (Ivane Tarkhanishvili) died in Saint Petersburg in 1908. In fact, he died in Poland in his house in Nawojowa Góra, a suburb of Krzeszowice, not far from Kraków. A student and later assistant of Tarchanoff in Saint Petersburg, Napoleon Cybulski, was then professor of physiology at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków and its rector and deputy rector. It is hardly known that Tarchanoff spent the last three years of his life mainly in Galicia, at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. There, near Kraków, he built himself a house and it was in Galicia (in Kraków and Lemberg [Polish Lwów, today Lviv]) that he worked on some of his last papers. The strong link between Tarchanoff and Polish physiology is not sufficiently well known and deserves to be recognized. PMID:26472225

  13. Silver content of wild-grown mushrooms from northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J; Bona, H; Danisiewicz, D

    1994-09-01

    Wild-grown and mostly edible species of higher mushrooms collected in 1989-1992 from the districts of Gdańsk, Elblag and Piła (northern part of Poland) have been investigated with regard to their silver content. In total, 527 samples including 25 mushroom species of six families (Agaricaceae, Boletaceae, Cantharellaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Coprinaceae and Russulaceae) were examined. Among the fungi examined only Agaricus campestris and A. augustus were heavy bioaccumulating species and showed the highest concentrations of 35 mg Ag/kg dry weight (1.1-150) and 2.0-6.9 mg/kg, respectively. Silver concentrations exceeding 1.0 mg/kg dry weight were noted in Boletus aestivalis, Lepista nuda, L. personata, and in some specimens of B. edulis, Leccinum scrabum, L. vulpinum, Cantharellus cibarius and Coprinus comatus. PMID:7975911

  14. The Myszkow porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Eppinger, R.G.; Lason, K.; Slosarz, J.; Podemski, M.

    1994-01-01

    The porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Myszkow, south-central Poland, lies in the Cracow-Silesian orogenic belt, in the vicinity of a Paleozoic boundary between two tectonic plates. The deposit is hosted in a complex that includes early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks intruded in the late Paleozoic by a predominantly granodioritic pluton. This deposit exhibits many features that are typical of porphyry copper deposits associated with calc-alkaline intrusive rocks, including ore- and alteration-mineral suites, zoning of ore and alteration minerals, fluid-inclusion chemistry, tectonic setting, and structural style of veining. Unusual features of the Myszkow deposit include high concentrations of tungsten and the late Paleozoic (Variscan) age. -Authors

  15. Statistical analysis of NWP rainfall data from Poland..

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starosta, Katarzyna; Linkowska, Joanna

    2010-05-01

    A goal of this work is to summarize the latest results of precipitation verification in Poland. In IMGW, COSMO_PL version 4.0 has been running. The model configuration is: 14 km horizontal grid spacing, initial time at 00 UTC and 12 UTC, the forecast range 72 h. The fields from the model had been verified with Polish SYNOP stations. The verification was performed using a new verification tool. For the accumulated precipitation indices FBI, POD, FAR, ETS from contingency table are calculated. In this paper the comparison of monthly and seasonal verification of 6h, 12h, 24h accumulated precipitation in 2009 is presented. Since February 2010 the model with 7 km grid spacing will be running in IMGW. The results of precipitation verification for two different models' resolution will be shown.

  16. Inbreeding rate and genetic structure of cat populations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mucha, S; Wolc, A; Gradowska, A; Szwaczkowski, T

    2011-02-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze effective population size and inbreeding level in populations of cat breeds registered in the Polish Studbook. The Association of Purebred Cat Breeders in Poland provided access to pedigrees of 26725 cats from seven breeds. The most frequent breed was Persian, however increasing tendency in numbers of registered animals from other breeds was recorded in later years. Although the percentage of inbred individuals was increasing over time, mating of close relatives was avoided by most of the breeders, and the average inbreeding coefficient exceeded 5% only for Siberian and Russian breeds. Current analysis suggests that the Polish pedigree cat populations are not threatened by negative effects of inbreeding. PMID:21128045

  17. [Incidence of various types of viral hepatitis in Poland 1988].

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, B; Małolepsza, E; Magdzik, W; Naruszewicz-Lesiuk, D; Nowosławski, A

    1990-01-01

    109 sera from patients in the early phase of acute hepatitis non-B were tested by immunoenzymatic methods for presence of serologic markers of infections with HBV, HAV and CMV. The analysis of the results showed that 14 patients were infected with HBV, 20 with HAV and 2 with CMV. The remaining 73 cases could apparently be attributed to the infection with HCV. It has been estimated that in 1988, 69.5% of hepatitis cases in Poland could have resulted from the infection with HBV, 24%--from the infection with NANB viruses and only, and only 6.5%--from the infection with HAV. These data even if representing a slight overestimate of the incidence of hepatitis due to the parenteral spread of infections agents support the postulate that measures to prevent these infections should be strengthened. PMID:1966117

  18. Overt and covert narcissism in Poland and The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Zondag, Hessel J; Van Halen, Cor; Wojtkowiak, Joanna

    2009-06-01

    This article reports a study of the relation between narcissism as a personality characteristic and the cultural dimension of individualism/collectivism. Participants from a more collectivistic society (Poland; n = 167) were compared with participants from a more individualistic society (The Netherlands; n = 156). Two dimensions of narcissism were distinguished: overt and covert. The cultural tendency for narcissism was measured by comparing average scores on both types of narcissism in both countries, as well as by the meaning that overt and covert narcissism seems to have for psychological well-being. More specifically, the correlations were compared among both types of narcissism and depression and meaning of life. In the Polish sample, the average score on covert narcissism was higher. In the Dutch sample, on the other hand, depression and meaning of life were significantly related to covert narcissism. PMID:19708410

  19. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  20. Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cat - first detection in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Joanna; Karamon, Jacek; Kochanowski, Maciej; Jędryczko, Roman; Cencek, Tomasz

    2015-12-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite of cattle reproductive system, has been recently discovered as a cause of disease in cats in many countries. T. foetus infects and colonizes cat's ileum, caecum, colon and can lead to enteritis. This paper presents the first clinical case of cat intestinal trichomonosis caused by T. foetus in Poland. The material for this study was a smear collected from a 6-month-old male British Shorthair cat. The presence of parasitic protozoan was determined via microscopic examination and confirmed by amplification of T. foetus rDNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In the first PCR reaction, a DNA of Trichomonadidae was identified and in the second PCR, T. foetus was detected. The T. foetus positive products from the second PCR reaction were sequenced. Interpretation of the sequencing results of obtained amplicons by comparing them with the GenBank database proved that the causative agent, in this case, was T. foetus. PMID:26408578

  1. Motherhood after the age of 35 in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Rybińska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Postponing motherhood is a widespread phenomenon across developed countries, however only few studies look into very late motherhood in post-socialist countries using individual level data. In this study, I look at the context of the first childbirth in Poland in the midst of the political transformation of 1989. Employing sequence analysis I reconstructed life trajectories of women who experienced the transition to adulthood during the late 1980's and the early 1990's and have just completed their fertility histories. Individual data from the 2011 GGS-PL and the 2011 FAMWELL Survey were used. Comparing paths of mothers’ lives, I searched for differences in educational, professional and conjugal careers between women who gave birth before the age of 30 and after the age of 35. The results show how various life careers crisscross over the life course leading women to late motherhood. PMID:25641993

  2. How accurate are the weather forecasts for Bierun (southern Poland)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Weather forecast accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to significant development of numerical weather prediction models. Despite the improvements, the forecasts should be verified to control their quality. The evaluation of forecast accuracy can also be an interesting learning activity for students. It joins natural curiosity about everyday weather and scientific process skills: problem solving, database technologies, graph construction and graphical analysis. The examination of the weather forecasts has been taken by a group of 14-year-old students from Bierun (southern Poland). They participate in the GLOBE program to develop inquiry-based investigations of the local environment. For the atmospheric research the automatic weather station is used. The observed data were compared with corresponding forecasts produced by two numerical weather prediction models, i.e. COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) developed by Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, USA; it runs operationally at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling in Warsaw, Poland and COSMO (The Consortium for Small-scale Modelling) used by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. The analysed data included air temperature, precipitation, wind speed, wind chill and sea level pressure. The prediction periods from 0 to 24 hours (Day 1) and from 24 to 48 hours (Day 2) were considered. The verification statistics that are commonly used in meteorology have been applied: mean error, also known as bias, for continuous data and a 2x2 contingency table to get the hit rate and false alarm ratio for a few precipitation thresholds. The results of the aforementioned activity became an interesting basis for discussion. The most important topics are: 1) to what extent can we rely on the weather forecasts? 2) How accurate are the forecasts for two considered time ranges? 3) Which precipitation threshold is the most predictable? 4) Why

  3. A Decade of Invasive Meningococcal Disease Surveillance in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Waśko, Izabela; Kuch, Alicja; Kadłubowski, Marcin; Gołębiewska, Agnieszka; Foryś, Małgorzata; Markowska, Marlena; Ronkiewicz, Patrycja; Wasiak, Katarzyna; Kozińska, Aleksandra; Matynia, Bożena; Hryniewicz, Waleria

    2013-01-01

    Background Neisseria meningitidis is a leading etiologic agent of severe invasive disease. The objective of the study was to characterise invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) epidemiology in Poland during the last decade, based on laboratory confirmed cases. Methods The study encompassed all invasive meningococci collected between 2002 and 2011 in the National Reference Centre for Bacterial Meningitis. The isolates were re-identified and characterised by susceptibility testing, MLST analysis, porA and fetA sequencing. A PCR technique was used for meningococcal identification directly from clinical materials. Results In the period studied, 1936 cases of IMD were confirmed, including 75.6% identified by culture. Seven IMD outbreaks, affecting mostly adolescents, were reported; all were caused by serogroup C meningococci of ST-11. The highest incidence was observed among children under one year of age (15.71/100,000 in 2011). The general case fatality rate in the years 2010–2011 was 10.0%. Meningococci of serogroup B, C, Y and W-135 were responsible for 48.8%, 36.6%, 1.2% and 1.2% of cases, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and 84.2% were susceptible to penicillin. MLST analysis (2009–2011) revealed that among serogroup B isolates the most represented were clonal complexes (CC) ST-32CC, ST-18CC, ST-41/44CC, ST-213CC and ST-269CC, and among serogroup C: ST-103CC, ST-41/44CC and ST-11CC. Conclusions The detection of IMD in Poland has changed over time, but observed increase in the incidence of the disease was mostly attributed to changes in the surveillance system including an expanded case definition and inclusion of data from non-culture diagnostics. PMID:23977184

  4. Invasive enterococcal infections in Poland: the current epidemiological situation.

    PubMed

    Gawryszewska, I; Żabicka, D; Bojarska, K; Malinowska, K; Hryniewicz, W; Sadowy, E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate human invasive isolates of enterococci, obtained through prospective surveillance in Poland. The consecutive enterococcal isolates were collected in 30 hospitals between May 2010 and June 2011, and studied by species identification, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and, for Enterococcus faecium by detection of markers specific for the hospital meroclone, multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Additionally, the genomic difference regions (GDRs) characteristic for lineage 78 were searched by PCR. Among 259 isolates, a nearly equal number of Enterococcus faecalis (n = 140; 54.1 %) and E. faecium (n = 112; 43.2 %) was found. The observed 14-day mortality rate of infected patients reached 18.1 %. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin. High-level aminoglycoside resistance occurred in over 50 % of isolates. Vancomycin resistance mediated by vanA or vanB was detected in 7.1 % of E. faecium; 71.4 % of isolates were multidrug resistant. E. faecium isolates ubiquitously carried molecular markers of hospital-associated meroclone (IS16, esp Efm , intA of ICEEfm1) and multilocus sequence typing showed the domination of representatives of lineages 78 and 17/18 (52.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively). Isolates of lineage 78 were significantly enriched in all the GDRs studied. The recent spread of E. faecium from this lineage contributed to the observed increase of E. faecium in enterococcal invasive infections in hospitals in Poland. PMID:26946510

  5. Atmospheric deposition in coniferous and deciduous tree stands in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalska, Anna; Astel, Aleksander; Boczoń, Andrzej; Polkowska, Żaneta

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the transformation of precipitation in terms of quantity and chemical composition following contact with the crown layer in tree stands with varied species composition, to investigate the effect of four predominant forest-forming species (pine, spruce, beech, and oak) on the amount and composition of precipitation reaching forest soils, and to determine the sources of pollution in atmospheric precipitation in forest areas in Poland. The amount and chemical composition (pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, and chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phosphate, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron aluminum, manganese, zinc, copper, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon contents) of atmospheric (bulk, BP) and throughfall (TF) precipitation were studied from January to December 2010 on twelve forest monitoring plots representative of Polish conditions. The study results provided the basis for the determination of the fluxes of pollutants in the forest areas of Poland and allowed the comparison of such fluxes with values provided in the literature for European forest areas. The transformation of precipitation in the canopy was compared for different tree stands. The fluxes of substances in an open field and under canopy were influenced by the location of the plot, including the regional meteorological conditions (precipitation amounts), vicinity of the sea (effect of marine aerosols), and local level of anthropogenic pollution. Differences between the plots were higher in TF than in BP. The impact of the vegetation cover on the chemical composition of precipitation depended on the region of the country and dominant species in a given tree stand. Coniferous species tended to cause acidification of precipitation, whereas deciduous species increased the pH of TF. Pine and oak stands enriched precipitation with components that leached from the canopy (potassium, manganese, magnesium) to a higher degree than spruce and

  6. Public Perception of Cancer Care in Poland and Austria

    PubMed Central

    Jȩdrzejewski, Mariusz; Thallinger, Christiane; Mrozik, Magda; Kornek, Gabriela; Zielinski, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background. We compared the public perception of cancer care in Poland and Austria. Both countries are members of the European Union (EU) but reflect two extremes in health-related per capita spending. Recently, the EUROCARE-5 study reported on very discrepant cancer outcomes between the two countries. Methods. A one-time survey was conducted to compare the public perception of cancer treatment in Poland and Austria. In total, 3,649 subjects, representing the general population, cancer patients, and cancer patients’ family members, were surveyed. Results. In both countries, cancer was considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care was indicated as the most important issue influencing political election decisions. Polish compared with Austrian cancer patients gave a significantly lower positive assessment of overall cancer treatment efficacy and detection methods. Cancer cure rates estimated by Polish and Austrian citizens were 29% and 44%, respectively. The majority of all citizens interviewed thought that cancer patients should have access to all available registered cancer drugs. However, only 18% of Poles versus 62% of Austrians agreed with the notion that the available cancer treatment in their countries is of a standard comparable to that of other EU countries. Consequently, 24% of Poles and 7% of Austrians identified financial status, age, gender, and residence as factors influencing the availability of cancer treatments. Conclusion. In both countries, cancer is considered the most challenging problem of the health care system, and health care issues may strongly influence decisions for political elections. Vast differences in the two populations’ perceptions of cancer care reflect actual cancer outcomes and the national per capita spending on health-related issues. PMID:25520325

  7. Bibliography of English-Polish Contrastive Studies in Poland (as of August 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieszek, Aleksandra

    This bibliography lists books, articles, papers, theses and dissertations describing English-Polish contrastive studies conducted in Poland. There are 403 works listed in both languages, divided into two groups: General Works and English-Polish Contrastive Studies. (CHK)

  8. History of the development of rocket technology and astronautics in Poland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geisler, W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of rocket technology in Poland is outlined. The history cites 13th century use of war rockets in combating Tartars as well as 20th century studies of the future and reality of space flights.

  9. Ethical Reasoning in a Time of Revolution: A Study of Local Officials in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Debra W; Sprinthall, Norman; Siemienska, Renata

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 485 local officials in Poland showed that both elected and appointed officials strongly preferred principled reasoning for ethical decision making. Gender and attitude toward the change from Communism made a difference in preferred modes of ethical reasoning. (SK)

  10. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  11. Contemporary changes in precipitation extremes in Poland in comparison to changes in other parts of Baltic Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibig, Joanna; Jędruszkiewicz, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the paper is detection and attribution of changes in precipitation extremes in Poland on the ground of similar changes in the rest of Baltic Sea Basin. The indices defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) are computed for a number of stations from Poland and surrounding countries. Among them are: Monthly maximum 1-day precipitation (Rx1day), monthly maximum consecutive 5-day precipitation (Rx5day), pricipitation intensity index(RRw,) annual number of days with daily precipitation ≥ 10mm and ≥ 20mm (R10mm and R20mm), maximum length of dry spell (CDD), maximum length of wet spell (CWD), annual total from days when daily total is equal at least 95 percentile and 99 percentile calculated in reference period 1961-1990 from daily totals equal at leat 1 mm (R95pTOT and R99pTOT). The daily precipitation records from more than hundred stations from the period 1951-2012 were used. The changes in annual values and their variability are analysed. The regions of similar changes are distinguished both for Poland and for the whole Baltic Sea Region. In the second part of the paper the attribution of large scale mechanisms causing detected changes is planned. The set of possible large scale predictors is prepared. Among them are indices of atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the European-North Atlantic Region: the North Atlantic Oscillation index, The Scandinavian index, the East Atlantic index, and the Atlantic Multiannual Oscillation. Additionally the large scale fields of sea level pressure and humidity and temperature from low troposphere are used. The records of indices were taken from NCDC (http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/teledoc). The large scale fields data were taken from NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis. Among the methodologies used to detect the mechanisms of precipitation extreme changes are: correlation analysis, composites and Canonical Correlation Analysis. The work is supported by grant 2012/05/B/ST10/00945 founded by

  12. [In the 100 birth anniversary of the pioneer of stereotactic brain surgery in Poland professor Oskar Liszka. Functional neurosurgery in Poland and in Krakow].

    PubMed

    Stachura, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    This article is the report from the meeting of the Medical Society of Cracow, that has been devoted to the 100 birth anniversary of Oskar Liszka, Assoc. Prof., MD. In the course of the meeting Professor Oskar Liszka's figure has been reminded and his work as a pioneer of stereotactic surgery in Poland has been discussed. In the next two sections, the development of functional neurosurgery in Poland and achievements in this field in the Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology of Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum in Krakow have been presented. PMID:27197434

  13. A two-model hydrologic ensemble prediction of hydrograph: case study from the upper Nysa Klodzka river basin (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Mizinski, Bartlomiej

    2016-04-01

    The HydroProg system has been elaborated in frame of the research project no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 of the National Science Centre of Poland and is steadily producing multimodel ensemble predictions of hydrograph in real time. Although there are six ensemble members available at present, the longest record of predictions and their statistics is available for two data-based models (uni- and multivariate autoregressive models). Thus, we consider 3-hour predictions of water levels, with lead times ranging from 15 to 180 minutes, computed every 15 minutes since August 2013 for the Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland) using the two approaches and their two-model ensemble. Since the launch of the HydroProg system there have been 12 high flow episodes, and the objective of this work is to present the performance of the two-model ensemble in the process of forecasting these events. For a sake of brevity, we limit our investigation to a single gauge located at the Nysa Klodzka river in the town of Klodzko, which is centrally located in the studied basin. We identified certain regular scenarios of how the models perform in predicting the high flows in Klodzko. At the initial phase of the high flow, well before the rising limb of hydrograph, the two-model ensemble is found to provide the most skilful prognoses of water levels. However, while forecasting the rising limb of hydrograph, either the two-model solution or the vector autoregressive model offers the best predictive performance. In addition, it is hypothesized that along with the development of the rising limb phase, the vector autoregression becomes the most skilful approach amongst the scrutinized ones. Our simple two-model exercise confirms that multimodel hydrologic ensemble predictions cannot be treated as universal solutions suitable for forecasting the entire high flow event, but their superior performance may hold only for certain phases of a high flow.

  14. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland.

    PubMed

    Goś, Daria; Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9-11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is "healthy as a fish" meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of "healthy fish" results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords-health and fish-which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program. PMID:27028803

  15. Diatom-based reconstruction of the Lake Czechowskie trophy status in the last 2000 years (Tuchola Forest, Northern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Hübener, Thomas; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Obremska, Milena; Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grant NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  16. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9–11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is “healthy as a fish” meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of “healthy fish” results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords—health and fish—which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program. PMID:27028803

  17. Test of high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model of Poland by back-azimuthal sections of teleseismic receiver function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde-Piorko, Monika; Polkowski, Marcin; Grad, Marek

    2015-04-01

    Geological and seismic structure under area of Poland is well studied by over one hundred thousand boreholes, over thirty deep seismic refraction and wide angle reflection profiles and by vertical seismic profiling, magnetic, gravity, magnetotelluric and thermal methods. Compilation of these studies allowed to create a high-resolution 3D P-wave velocity model down to 60 km depth in the area of Poland (Polkowski et al. 2014). Model also provides details about the geometry of main layers of sediments (Tertiary and Quaternary, Cretaceous, Jurassic, Triassic, Permian, old Paleozoic), consolidated/crystalline crust (upper, middle and lower) and uppermost mantle. This model gives an unique opportunity for calculation synthetic receiver function and compering it with observed receiver function calculated for permanent and temporary seismic stations. Modified ray-tracing method (Langston, 1977) can be used directly to calculate the response of the structure with dipping interfaces to the incoming plane wave with fixed slowness and back-azimuth. So, 3D P-wave velocity model has been interpolated to 2.5D P-wave velocity model beneath each seismic station and back-azimuthal sections of components of receiver function have been calculated. Vp/Vs ratio is assumed to be 1.8, 1.67, 1.73, 1.77 and 1.8 in the sediments, upper/middle/lower consolidated/crystalline crust and uppermost mantle, respectively. Densities were calculated with combined formulas of Berteussen (1977) and Gardner et al. (1974). Additionally, to test a visibility of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary phases at receiver function sections models have been extended to 250 km depth based on P4-mantle model (Wilde-Piórko et al., 2010). National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC-2011/02/A/ST10/00284 and by NCN grant UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/06653.

  18. Dew Formation and Chemistry Near a Motorway in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałek, Grzegorz; Sobik, Mieczysław; Błaś, Marek; Polkowska, Żaneta; Cichała-Kamrowska, Katarzyna

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the influence of traffic intensity on dew formation efficiency and chemistry is presented. The measurements were conducted near the A4 motorway in SW Poland in almost flat land relief with intense agricultural activity. The dew/hoarfrost was collected by means of insulated plain passive radiative condensers at three sites: AN and AS located in the close vicinity of the motorway (30 m) on the opposite sides of the road, and AR, representing rural background conditions beyond the motorway influence. Measurements were conducted in two short campaigns in April and September 2009 with 9 and 10 collection days respectively. The average daily efficiency of dew formation was 0.179 L/m2. Its value for AN, AS and AR was on average 0.170, 0.199 and 0.173 L/m2, respectively. The efficiency of dew formation at measurement sites located on both sides of the road differed by up to about 200% during an individual dew episode. Maximum daily value reached 0.389 L/m2. The average volume-weighted pH was acidic and ranged from 4.29 (AS) to 4.58 (AR). The electric conductivity (EC) at all measurement sites was relatively low reaching on average 55.9 μS/cm for AN, 62.2 μS/cm for AS and 35.8 μS/cm for AR. The average volume-weighted TIC parameter (total ionic content) reached the value of 0.62 meq/L (AN and AS) and 0.38 meq/L (AR). Both EC and TIC values indicated strong influence of the motorway at sites located in its close vicinity (AN and AS). Depending on airflow direction during individual dew collection events, AN or AS sites were situated alternatively on windward or leeward side of the road, which distinctly influenced dew formation and chemistry: the leeward condenser was characterized by smaller water volume, higher EC and higher TIC when compared both with its windward counterpart and the background site. The ionic structure of the collected samples was similar at all measurement sites. The largest share had NO3 - anion (28-32%) and Ca2+ cation (22-25%). Thus

  19. Social attitudes towards floods in Poland - spatial differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biernacki, W.; Działek, J.; Bokwa, A.

    2012-04-01

    Our paper discusses results of research conducted in Southern Poland focusing on social attitudes towards floods - natural hazards frequently observed in Poland. Lately (e.g. 1997, 2001, 2010) several hundred thousand of people suffered from floods occurring in all examined communities. Presented analyses are based on questionnaire survey in which several criteria were used to select places for studies: objective degree of risk, prior experience of extreme events, size of community, strength of social bonds, social capital and quality of life. Nearly 2000 responses (from 9 communities) were gathered from the survey. Our main research questions were following: - are there differences between attitudes in those communities depending on how frequently they have experienced floods? - does settlement size have an impact on social attitudes towards floods, especially on mitigation behaviour? - are urban inhabitants less adapted to floods be upheld and do rural communities show more activity in the face of natural disasters? - what do information and education policies concerning floods look like? Three dimensions of social attitudes towards natural hazards were analyzed: cognitive (knowledge and awareness of local hazards), emotional (feelings towards hazards, like concern and anxiety); and instrumental (actions taken in response to a potential natural disaster). A combination of these three dimensions produces various types of perception and behaviour towards the perceived hazard (Raaijmakers et al., 2008): ignorance when the local population is unaware of a threat and therefore develops no concern and takes no preventive actions; safety when the local population is aware of a threat, but regards its level as either low or acceptable and is therefore not concerned with the threat and makes no preparations for a disaster; risk reduction when a high level of awareness and concern produces the mechanism of reducing the cognitive dissonance and denial of a disaster threat

  20. The Road to the European Union: Macroeconomic Policy Challenges for Hungary and Poland. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Teresita R.

    Prospects for the enlargement of the European Union (EU) became imminent when the EU Commission agreed in 1997 to open formal negotiations with five of the Central and Eastern European countries: (1) the Czech Republic; (2) Hungary; (3) Poland; (4) Slovenia; and (5) Estonia. This research project discusses macroeconomic policy challenges that…

  1. Science in Science Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  2. A Biological Stone from a Medieval Cemetery in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J.; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus. PMID:25275551

  3. Radioactivity of honeys from Poland after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Maria H; Kapała, Jacek; Puścion-Jakubik, Anna; Horembała, Justyna; Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata

    2013-11-01

    Concentration of radioactive isotopes in honey constitutes an important bioindicator of environmental radiation. One hundred six honey samples were collected from hives and from bottled honey provided by beekeepers from north-eastern Poland in 2010, before the Fukushima accident, and during the two-year period directly following this catastrophe (2011-2012). Cesium-137 (Cs-137) and potassium-40 (K-40) were determined in lime, multifloral, buckwheat, honeydew and other kinds of honey samples. The obtained mean concentrations of Cs-137 and K-40 (Bq kg(-1)) in honey samples were: 1.19 and 32.92 in 2010, 0.90 and 31.13 in 2011, 1.31 and 36.06 in 2012, respectively. Significant differences were not observed. Therefore, the studied honey samples collected after the Fukushima accident are found to be safe for humans with levels of Cs-137 and K-40 not posing any threats. However, the total concentration of Cs-137 and K-40 in samples stopped decreasing in 2010-2011 and showed a slight increase in 2012. This relation may suggest the impact of pollution from Fukushima and requires further research in the coming years. PMID:24002443

  4. Genesis of transverse kame trains in eastern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terpiłowski, Sławomir

    2007-01-01

    Transverse kames, forming trains perpendicular to the direction of ice-sheet advance, are rare morphological elements in previously glaciated areas. The genesis of an example from the ice-contact zone of the Wartanian glaciation in eastern Poland is discussed. The transverse kames there form two main, distinctly separated, sub-parallel trains. Their sedimentary successions fill erosional troughs incised in the pre-Wartanian deposits on northern slopes. They consist of thick glaciofluvial sand and glaciofluvial/glaciolacustrine sandy/silty units that are covered with a thin, usually discontinuous, glacial till succession. The genesis of this kame type has been modelled. It is concluded that transverse kames developed in two phases: (1) erosion of the substratum in subglacial channels during initial deglaciation, and (2) glaciofluvial deposition in crevasses during advanced deglaciation (in the form of low-energy fans periodically submerged under stagnant water), followed locally by a cover of flowtills. Both the ablation of the ice and the accumulation of the kame deposits were controlled by the co-occurrence of ice zones either enriched or impoverished with sediment. Zonal enrichment of ice with debris was determined by the development of shear zones over substratum elevations that were inclined up-ice. The formation and subsequent infilling of crevasses both took place in zones of relatively clean ice, so that the resulting kames form a train perpendicular to the direction of ice movement.

  5. Problems of drug abuse and preventive measures in Poland.

    PubMed

    Tobolska-Rydz, H

    1986-01-01

    An increasing abuse of drugs emerged among young people in Poland at the end of the 1960s and the beginning of the 1970s. According to information provided by the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, there are currently 35,000 drug abusers, but the actual number is estimated at approximately 200,000. The abuse of extract from poppy straw and the inhalation of volatile solvents, such as glue and paint remover, are the major drug abuse problems. Addicts prepare a decoction of poppy straw for injection, and morphine and heroin have been clandestinely manufactured in very elementary home-made laboratories. Recently, methamphetamine hydrochloride and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have also been illicitly produced in such home-made laboratories. The increasing drug abuse problem has prompted the authorities to prepare new complementary drug control legislation, the Act on the Prevention of Narcotic Addiction, which was adopted on 31 January 1985. The Act provides for more effective preventive and treatment measures, as well as severe punishment for involvement in illicit drug trafficking. Treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration of drug-dependent persons is provided on a voluntary basis, except for persons convicted of drug-related offences and for persons under 18 years of age, in which case treatment may be compulsory. PMID:3779183

  6. First detection of microsporidia in raised pigeons in Poland.

    PubMed

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Nowosad, Andrzej; Majewska, Anna C

    2013-01-01

    Microsporidia are single-celled intracellular parasites which occur in a number of animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates. Several species of microsporidia can cause disease in humans in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. However, the sources of human infection and the routes of transmission of microsporidia have not yet been fully determined, although more and more researchers are of the opinion that microsporidia in humans is zoonotic. The aim of the presented study was to identify the most common microsporidial species in the droppings of raised and wild pigeons in Poland. A total of 139 collective samples of droppings (33 samples of droppings from feral pigeons and 106 samples from raised pigeons) were examined using conventional staining and molecular techniques. Using chromotrope staining and multiplex FISH techniques, the microsporidial spores were found in 12 (8.6%) of the 139 samples of droppings. The spores of Encephalitozoon hellem were detected in five samples of pigeon droppings (3.6%), spores of E. intestinalis in four samples of droppings (2.9%), while spores of E. cuniculi and E. bieneusi were only detected in two samples (1.4%). Furthermore, a mixed infection of E. bieneusi and E. cuniculi was found in a single sample of droppings (0.7%). The presence of microsporidial spores in droppings collected from raised pigeons indicates a risk of infection to humans, mainly pigeon fanciers. PMID:23540206

  7. Molecular epidemiology of recent HIV-1 infections in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Smoleń-Dzirba, Joanna; Rosińska, Magdalena; Kruszyński, Piotr; Bratosiewicz-Wąsik, Jolanta; Janiec, Janusz; Beniowski, Marek; Bociąga-Jasik, Monika; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Szetela, Bartosz; Porter, Kholoud; Wąsik, Tomasz J

    2012-12-01

    The genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) offers an opportunity to track the development of the epidemic across different populations. Viral pol gene fragments from 55 individuals of Polish origin with recent HIV-1 infection identified in 2008-2010 in four Polish cities were analyzed. Viral sequences were compared with sequences from 100 individuals (reference group) infected before 2004. Viral spread among groups with different HIV transmission categories was compared using a phylogenetic approach. The majority of sequences from individuals with recent infection were subtype B (93%) within which four transmission clusters (18% of samples) were detected. Samples from men infected through sex between men and from persons infected through injecting drugs were broadly separated (P < 0.0001), while samples from individuals infected by heterosexual contacts were dispersed uniformly within phylogenetic tree (P = 0.244) inferred from viral sequences derived from individuals infected recently and the reference group. The percentage of samples from persons infected by heterosexual contacts which clustered with samples from men infected through sex between men was not significantly higher for those with recent infection (47%), compared to the reference group (36%). In conclusion, men infected by sex between men and individuals infected through injecting drugs appear to form separate HIV transmission networks in Poland. The recent spread of HIV-1 among persons infected with subtype B by heterosexual contacts appears to be linked to both these groups. PMID:23080488

  8. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    PubMed Central

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  9. Imported cases of dengue in Poland and their diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pancer, Katarzyna; Szkoda, Marek Tomasz; Gut, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Infections with dengue virus are transmitted by mosquitoes. In tropical areas, it is mainly spread by Aedes aegypti while in countries with lower temperatures by Aedes albopictus. Since 2010, autochthonous cases of dengue are also reported in Europe. There are 4 serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). No correlation between clinical presentation of disease and virus type, however, were determined. Nevertheless, reinfection with different type of DENV may lead to a serious, life-threatening condition. An estimated 100 million persons are infected with dengue virus per year. Of them, approximately a half (mainly children) develop the symptoms of dengue fever (DF), dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) or dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Fatality is high in case of severe dengue. Dengue is a serious condition provided there is a presence of IgG antibodies directed against antigens of particular DENV serotypes, associated with primary infection caused by different serotype or transferred from infected mother to her child. For adequate dengue laboratory diagnosis, it is required to apply a set of various diagnostic methods. Within the family Flaviviridae, cross-reactivity is reported, which may lead to the occurrence of false-positive results. In Poland, differential diagnosis with different Flavivirus species is of special importance as it is an endemic area for tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Thus, data regarding history of patient's immunization against TBE or yellow fever should be also taken into consideration as important in interpretation of results of serological examination. PMID:25848785

  10. Defining HIV Risk and Determining Responsibility in Postsocialist Poland

    PubMed Central

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on 15 months of ethnographic research on HIV prevention programs in Poland, I explore the consequences of the shift from models of HIV prevention that emphasize “risk groups” and AIDS blame, to models that focus on “risky behaviors” and universal risk. The centrality of choice making and individual risk management in these models suggests objective risk assessment free from moralizing arguments. The Polish national prevention strategy shifted to focus on choice making, address all risk groups, and include concrete prevention strategies. This shift created a backlash that resulted in the reassertion of moral arguments about risk and risk groups that positioned those most vulnerable to HIV outside the purview of prevention efforts. AIDS organizations working with marginalized, “morally problematic” populations used the label “at risk” to legitimize claims to resources. They enacted a model of risk reduction in which the relevant actor is the individual buffeted by social forces, and behavior change, and therefore HIV risk reduction, is a long process because of myriad forms of vulnerability clients face. Despite efforts to reconceptualize risk, organizations positioned the individual as the locus of HIV prevention interventions, rather than attempting to address the social context that shapes risk. PMID:20092052

  11. [Bacillus subtilis a legislative health problem in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kozajda, Anna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to discuss the problems related to the classification of B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis bacteria to the 2nd risk group under the 2005 decree of the Ministry of Health on hazardous biological agents (Law Gazette No. 81, item 716 with later amendments). The decree is a Polish implementation of the Directive 2000/54/EC generally consistent with its recommendations, but in the case of certain microorganisms a separate decision has been taken and having in mind the health of workers, changes in the list of hazardous agents existing in Poland have been made. The paper presents in detail the legal situation in this field, as well as current knowledge about the biology of these microorganisms, their use in the biotechnology industry and related production of allergenic proteins, and their effect on the human health. Placement ofB. subtilis and B. thuringiensis in the 2nd risk group resulted in the interpretative difficulties encountered by employers who use products containing these bacteria, institutions involved in such products trade and inspectorates supervising working conditions. Based on the literature review it is suggested to initiate actions leading to the development of hygiene norms for certain enzymes/bioinsecticides present in the air, the more that the tests to assess air concentrations of some of them are available. This solution would permit to remove B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis bacteria from the 2nd risk group without the risk for the care of workers' health. PMID:22774467

  12. Histomonosis - an existing problem in chicken flocks in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dolka, Beata; Żbikowski, Artur; Dolka, Izabella; Szeleszczuk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Histomonosis (histomoniasis, blackhead), beside coccidiosis, belongs to the most important parasitic protozoan diseases in poultry. So far Histomonas meleagridis infections with varied mortality rates have been mainly diagnosed in young turkeys. Recently an increasing number of cases have been reported in chicken flocks in Europe resulting in economic losses. It is thought that this situation is predominantly caused by a complete withdrawal of the effective antihistomonals in the EU. Authors listed the selected outbreaks of histomonosis in 10 chicken flocks originated from different farms of 4 regions in Poland: 8 broiler breeder flocks (at mean age of 33 weeks) and 2 commercial layers flocks (at mean age of 38 weeks). This study reported here naturally occurring case of H.meleagridis infection in commercial broiler breeder (BB) flock line ROSS 308 at the age of 16 weeks. We showed acute form of infection with characteristic necrotic foci in the liver, and ulcerative typhilitis. Beside the liver and caeca, the multiple histomonads, lymphoid tissue depletion and heavy destruction in the bursa of Fabricius were observed. Additionally, the absence of systemic diffuse histomonads and lack of Heterakis gallinarum, caecal worm eggs in faecal samples were noted. PCR technique enabled to detect the presence of H.meleagridis genetic material in the investigated tissue samples. Authors indicate that histomonosis can be considered as re-emerging infectious diseases in chicken flocks of intensive production system. PMID:25976057

  13. Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, T A; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A

    2012-12-01

    Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS. PMID:23118041

  14. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students' education level. The study was conducted in 2013-2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  15. Burden of disease caused by local transport in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Tainio, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Transport is a major source of air pollution, noise, injuries and physical activity in the urban environment. The quantification of the health risks and benefits arising from these factors would provide useful information for the planning of cost-effective mitigation actions. In this study we quantified the burden of disease caused by local transport in the city of Warsaw, Poland. The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated for transport related air pollution (particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), cadmium, lead and nickel), noise, injuries and physical activity. Exposure to these factors was based on local and international data, and the exposure-response functions (ERFs) were based on published reviews and recommendations. The uncertainties were quantified and propagated with the Monte Carlo method. Local transport generated air pollution, noise and injuries were estimated to cause approximately 58,000 DALYs in the study area. From this burden 44% was due to air pollution and 46% due to noise. Transport related physical activity was estimated to cause a health benefit of 17,000 DALYs. Main quantified uncertainties were related to disability weight for the annoyance (due to noise) and to the ERFs for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and walking. The results indicate that the health burden of transport could be mitigated by reducing motorized transport, which causes air pollution and noise, and by encouraging walking and cycling in the study area. PMID:26516622

  16. Development of optical fiber technology in Poland 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Wójcik, Waldemar

    2015-12-01

    The paper is a digest of works presented during the XVIth National Symposium on Optical Fibres and Their Applications. The Symposium is organized since 1976. OFTA 2015 was organized by Optical Fibre Laboratory of the Faculty of Chemistry at University of Maria Curie Skłodowska, and Institute of Electronics and Information Technology of Lublin University of Technology, in Nałęczów on 22-25 September 2015. The meeting has gathered around 120 participants who presented 85 research and technical papers. The Symposium organized every 18 months is a good portrait of optical fibre technology development in Poland at university laboratories, governmental institutes, company R&D laboratories, etc. Topical tracks of the Symposium were: optical and photonic materials, technology of classical, tailored and structural photonic optical fibres, light propagation physics in optical fibres, passive and active optical fibre components, optical fibre sensors, passive and active optical fibre networks, optical fibre amplifiers and lasers, optical fibre network issues: modulation, architectures, economy, etc.

  17. Study of Cloud Water Samples Collected over Northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Polkowska, Ż; Błaś, M; Lech, D; Namieśnik, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives the results of the first studies on the chemistry of cloud water collected during 3 mo (Aug.-Oct. 2010) in the free atmosphere over the area to the south of the Tri-City (Gdansk-Sopot-Gdynia) conurbation on the Gulf of Gdansk, Poland. Taken from cumulus, stratus, and stratocumulus clouds by means of an aircraft-mounted collector, the water samples were analyzed for the following contaminants: anions (chlorides, fluorides, nitrates, sulfates, and phosphates), cations (lithium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, and magnesium), and trace metals. In addition, pH values were measured, and the type and composition of suspended particulate matter was determined. We discuss the relationship between the concentration of inorganic ions and the type of cloud from which water was sampled. The chemistry is also likely related to the circulation pattern and inflow of clean air masses from the Baltic Sea. Moreover, a relationship was found between the composition of the samples examined and the location of pollutant emission sources. PMID:25602567

  18. Phenological changes and reduced seasonal synchrony in western Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Górska-Zajączkowska, Maria; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2011-05-01

    Botanical gardens offer continuity for phenological recording in observers, protocols and plant specimens that may not be achievable from other sources. Here, we examine phenological change and synchrony from one such garden in western Poland. We analysed 66 botanical phenophases and 18 interphase intervals recorded between 1977 and 2007 from the Poznań Botanical Garden. These were examined for trends through time and responsiveness to temperature. Furthermore, we derived measures of synchrony for start of spring and end of autumn events to assess if these had changed over time. All 39 events with a mean date before mid-July demonstrated a significant negative relationship with temperature. Where autumn events were significantly related to temperature, they indicated a positive relationship. Typically, spring events showed an advance over time and autumn events a delay. Interphase intervals tended to lengthen over the study period. The measures of synchrony changed significantly over time suggesting less synchrony among spring events and also among autumn events. In combination, these results suggest increases in growing season length. However, responses to a changing climate were species-specific. Thus, the transitions from winter into spring and from autumn into winter are becoming less clearly defined.

  19. Early Holocene hydrology and environments of the Ner River (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Piotr; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Borówka, Ryszard K.; Okupny, Daniel; Pawłowski, Dominik; Peyron, Odille; Stachowicz-Rybka, Renata; Obremska, Milena; Cywa, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    The Ner River valley (central Poland) underwent substantial transformation during the Weichselian-Holocene transition as a result of fluvial processes and climate changes, resulting in the establishment of its present shape in the Holocene. A multiproxy study based on organic deposits from a palaeochannel fill (Lutomiersk-Koziówki) shows that after the channel was cut off during the late glacial termination, it became a shallow oxbow, fed by local springs. In the Boreal period, the oxbow lake was also fed by precipitation and became a telmatic environment overgrown by rush and swamp vegetation. Finally, it was covered by overbank deposits. The first flooding phase (9900-9600 cal. BP) was followed by the accumulation of overbank sediments (after 9500 cal. BP) and flooding increased after ca. 9300-9000 cal. BP. Pollen data provide information on the regional vegetation context for local and regional changes. In the Atlantic period, an increase in both summer and winter temperatures is inferred from the pollen data, corresponding to an expansion of thermophilous deciduous forests. While in general, flooding phases of the Early Holocene are poorly recognised in Eastern Europe, the Lutomiersk-Koziówki site may be considered as one of the reference points for this phenomenon in the region.

  20. Development of optical fiber technology in Poland: 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorosz, Jan; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the authors, chairs of the 15th Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications OFTA2014, and editors of the conference proceedings summarize the developments of optical fiber technology in Poland (during the period of 2012-2014) on the basis of papers presented there and consecutively published in this volume. The digest covers the periodically presented work results every 18 months during the meetings on optical fibers in Białystok - Lipowy Most (with emphasis on technology and applications) and Lublin - Nałęczow (with emphasis on materials and technologies). The XVth Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications was held in Białystok and Lipowy Most on 29.01-01.02.2014. The first conference from this cycle was organized in Jabłonna in 1976. Conference topics were: optical fiber technology, materials for optoelectronics and photonics, rare earth doped and luminescent materials, metrology of optical fibers, components and optoelectronic circuits, applications of optical fibers, waveguides and optical fiber sensors, and lighting technology. The conference was attended by 120 participants, including international guests, and 90 papers were presented. Conference papers are traditionally published in Proceedings SPIE.

  1. Children's perceptions of the nursing profession in Poland.

    PubMed

    Slusarska, Barbara; Krajewska-Kułak, Elzbieta; Zarzycka, Danuta

    2004-10-01

    The drawing, as a kind of artistic language, used by the child-artist to express his or her thoughts and opinions concerning their environment is an immensely interesting form of cognition for the viewers of such artistic creations. The aim of the study was the analysis of the presentation of the image of the nursing profession created by children and the application of these experiences in vocational education of nurses. The objects of the analysis, were 182 artistic creations of children living in eastern Poland. The detailed analysis of the works was carried out by three independent competent judges who grouped the works according to the accepted indicators of evaluation. The young artists created the image of the nurse that presents a detailed range of professional duties, the quality of the child-nurse relationship and the prognostic vision of the new activities that will be put into practice in the future. The rich content of the drawings was complemented by the high artistic value of the composition. The study material collected should be used not only by nurses participating in care of children, but also in vocational education of nurses for more complete preparation of candidates to perform their future profession. PMID:15465167

  2. Trichinella nativa in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) of Germany and Poland: possible different origins.

    PubMed

    Chmurzyńska, E; Różycki, M; Bilska-Zając, E; Nöckler, K; Mayer-Scholl, A; Pozio, E; Cencek, T; Karamon, J

    2013-11-15

    In Germany and Poland, the high population density of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is considered a public health risk since this wild canid is one of the main reservoirs of Trichinella spp. In 2010 in Poland, a program to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in the red fox population was launched. After two years, Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 44 (2.7%) out of 1634 foxes tested. In Germany in the period 2002-2011, Trichinella spp. larvae were in 27 foxes. The Trichinella species detected were: T. spiralis in 15 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella britovi and one with Trichinella pseudospiralis) and in 9 foxes from Poland; T. britovi in 8 and 32 foxes from Germany and Poland, respectively; and T. pseudospiralis in 1 fox from Germany. The arctic species Trichinella nativa was detected in 3 foxes from Germany (one co-infection with Trichinella spiralis) and in 1 fox from Poland. The detection of T. nativa outside its known distribution area opens new questions on the ability of this Trichinella species to colonize temperate regions. PMID:24011650

  3. Hydroclimatic shifts recorded in peat archive from Rąbień mire (Central Poland) - better understanding of past climate changes using multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Marcisz, Katarzyna; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Obremska, Milena; Pawłowski, Dominik; Okupny, Daniel; Słowińska, Sandra; Borówka, Ryszard; Kittel, Piotr; Forysiak, Jacek; Michczyńska, Danuta J.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    observed in the within the peatland monitoring during the heat wave events in 2015 (Linje mire, Northern Poland). In our opinion, only reconstructions supported by the knowledge of current observations from peatland ecosystems may provide a better interpretation of past climate changes. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants NN 306 27 6735 NN 306 034 040, No 2015/17/B/ST10/03430). This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. We acknowledge support from grant PSPB-013/2010 from Switzerland through the Swiss Contribution to the enlarged European Union.

  4. ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Taking Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Rotblat, J

    2000-08-01

    Joseph Rotblat was born in Warsaw in 1908. He trained in nuclear physics and later specialized in radiation biology. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995, with the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and in the longer run to eliminate such arms." In this essay, he reflects on his experiences and recounts how he has applied his ethical principles to his work as a scientist and educator in Poland, the United Kingdom, and the world. He urges other scientists to apply ethical considerations for the survival of humankind above all others. PMID:17819567

  5. Projects Submitted by Participants of the Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Poland and Hungary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    These curriculum projects were developed by participants of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Poland and Hungary during the summer of 2000. The following 11 projects are in the collection: "A Thematic Multicultural Interactive School Event on Poland and Hungary: Exploration and Learning for 6-to-9-Year-Olds" (Ruth Albert); "Once upon a…

  6. Conceptions of Inclusion and Inclusive Education: A Critical Examination of the Perspectives and Practices of Teachers in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starczewska, Ania; Hodkinson, Alan; Adams, Gill

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale study details the development and execution of a system of inclusive education in 20th and 21st century in Poland. A detailed review of the literature and employment of in-depth semi-structured interviews aimed to establish how inclusion is defined and operationalised in Poland. In addition, the study sought to establish how the…

  7. Giving the Spirit a National Form: From Rousseau's Advice to Poland to Habermas' Advice to the European Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsgaard, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Rousseau's philosophy of education is contained not only in "Emile" (1762), but also in "The Government of Poland" (1772). In each of them he emphasises different aspects of education: How to be a human being? And: How to be a citizen? The main theme investigated by Rousseau in "The Government of Poland", is how a minor nation surrounded by such…

  8. The first record of Molineus patens (Dujardin, 1845) (Nematoda, Molineidae) in the ermine (Mustela erminea L.) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Popiołek, Marcin; Jarnecki, Hubert; Łuczyński, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    A single specimen of the nematode Molineus patens (Dujardin, 1845) was isolated from the intestine of the ermine (Mustela erminea L.) found dead on a road in Lubuskie voivodeship (Western Poland) in July 2008. Since this is the first record of the parasite in the ermine from Poland, description, biometrical data and figures are given. PMID:20209821

  9. 78 FR 59059 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and... Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and Russia that are alleged to be sold in the United States...

  10. Social Structure and Personality during the Transformation of Urban China: A Comparison to Transitional Poland and Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Melvin L.; Wang, Weidong; Yue, Yin

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the relationships of social structure and personality of urban China during "privatization" to those of urban Poland and Ukraine during their transitions from socialism to nascent capitalism. These relationships are similar in pattern and nearly as strong in magnitude for China as for Poland, and stronger than for Ukraine.…

  11. Distribution of Ag in Cu-sulfides in Kupferschiefer deposit, SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozub, Gabriela A.

    2014-05-01

    reports on high Ag content reaching 49 wt.% Ag in bornite and 1.8 wt.% Ag in chalcocite occurring due to Ag substitution in Cu-minerals without modification of their crystallographic structure (Salamon 1979; Banaś et al 2007; Kucha 2007; Piestrzyński 2007, Pieczonka 2011). Acknowledgements. This work was supported by the National Science Centre research grant (No 2011/03/N/ST10/04619). References: Kucha H and Mayer W (2007) Geochemistry. [In:] Piestrzyński A (Ed) Monografia KGHM Polska Miedź SA., pp 197-207 (In Polish) Pieczonka J (2011) Factors controlling distribution of ore minerals within copper deposit, Fore-Sudetic Monocline, SW Poland. 195 pp (In Polish) Piestrzyński A (2007) Ore minerals. [In:] Piestrzyński A (Ed) Monografia KGHM Polska Miedź SA., pp 167-197 (in Polish) Salamon W (1979) Occurrence of the Ag and Mo in the Zechstein sediments of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline. Prace Mineralogiczne, PAN 62, pp 1-52 (In Polish)

  12. Apatite intergrowths in clinopyroxene megacrysts from the Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (SW Poland) basanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    during crystallization of fractionated basanite magma. The deep HFSE anomalies suggest that apatite saturation in silicate systems has effect similar to that of carbonatitic melt unmixing in a silicate-carbonatite systems. Funding. This study was possible thanks to the project NCN 2011/03/B/ST10/06248 of Polish National Centre for Science. References Lipa D., Puziewicz J., Ntaflos T., Matusiak-Małek M. (2014): Clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanite of OstrzycaProboszczowicka in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). Geoscience Notes 2.2: in press.

  13. Persistent pollution of Warta river catchment with chromium: case study from central Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanski, S.; Lukaczynski, I.; Nikiel, G.; Mizera, J.; Dulinski, M.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Szklarczyk, T.; Wachniew, P.; Witczak, S.; Zurek, A.

    2012-04-01

    Upper reaches of the Warta river, the third largest river in Poland, are located in a densely populated and industrialized area, with presence of heavy industry going back to the second half of the XIX century. Industrial activities include iron smelters in towns of Częstochowa and Zawiercie, large chemical plants (Rudniki and Aniolow) producing predominantly chromium compounds, paper and textile industry, as well as large number of small enterprises specialized in metal coatings (nickel and chromium). Until the 1960s all the industrial and municipal effluents in the region were discharged into the Warta river and its tributaries. Solid wastes were dumped on the surface, mostly without appropriate cover and isolation. This resulted in progressive contamination of surface waters and groundwater with heavy metals, mostly chromium. The upper reaches of the Warta river are located on top of upper Jurassic Major Groundwater Basin (MGWB 326 which is one of four most important groundwater reservoirs in Poland. Almost all potable water demands in the area (ca. 340,000 inhabitants, 800 factories and enterprises) are covered by MGWB 326 (50 deep wells with the average extraction rate of 57,000 m3/d). As the MGWB 326 is mostly phreatic, it has been recognized since long time that persistent pollution of the upper catchment of the Warta river with heavy metals may pose serious thread to quality of this important groundwater resource. In this presentation we summarize the work carried out to date, focused on characterization of the extent and understanding of the mechanisms of pollution of surface water, sediments and groundwater in MGWB 326 with chromium. Historical monitoring data of the levels of chromium in the Warta river and its tributaries are presented, supplemented by the results of measurements of Cr loads in Warta over-bank deposits and Cr levels in groundwater production wells in the area. Three conceptual models of spreading of chromium in the catchment of Warta

  14. ‘Other’ Posts in ‘Other’ Places: Poland through a Postcolonial Lens?

    PubMed Central

    Mayblin, Lucy; Piekut, Aneta; Valentine, Gill

    2016-01-01

    Postcolonial theory has tended to focus on those spaces where European colonialism has had a territorial and political history. This is unsurprising, as much of the world is in this sense ‘postcolonial’. But not all of it. This article focuses on Poland, often theorised as peripheral to ‘old Europe’, and explores the application of postcolonial analyses to this ‘other’ place. The article draws upon reflections arising from a study of responses to ethnic diversity in Warsaw, Poland. In doing so we conclude that postcolonialism does indeed offer some important insights into understanding Polish attitudes to other nationalities, and yet more work also needs to be done to make the theoretical bridge. In the case of Poland we propose the ‘triple relation’ be the starting point for such work. PMID:26877557

  15. Weight discrepancy and body appreciation among women in Poland and Britain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Donna; Szpakowska, Ilona; Swami, Viren

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the process of transmigration has detrimental effects on the body image of migrants relative to women in the country of origin. In the present work, we examined the body image of Polish migrants in Britain (n=153), Polish women in Poland (n=153), and a comparison group of British White women (n=110). Participants completed a measure of actual-ideal weight discrepancy and the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS). Contrary to hypotheses, our results showed that Polish women in Poland had significantly higher weight discrepancy than their counterparts in Britain. Further analyses showed that the BAS reduced to two dimensions among Polish participants, with Polish participants in Poland having significantly lower body appreciation than Polish migrants. We suggest that the sociocultural changes that have taken place in Eastern Europe may place women in that region at relatively high risk for developing negative body image. PMID:23972729

  16. The Presence of Stimulant Drugs in Wastewater from Krakow (Poland): A Snapshot.

    PubMed

    Styszko, Katarzyna; Dudarska, Agnieszka; Zuba, Dariusz

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of wastewater from Krakow (Poland) for the presence of controlled and uncontrolled stimulant drugs of abuse was performed. Samples were collected from the Plaszow wastewater treatment plant, Krakow, Poland, and prepared by solid phase extraction. The LC-QTOFMS method was applied for identification and quantification of popular stimulants: MDMA, mephedrone, 4-MEC, MDPV and mCPP. Environmental loads of illicit drugs were calculated; the WWTP discharged loads ranging from 3.6 to 6.7 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of MDMA, 3.6 to 7.1 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of mephedrone and 4.8 to 5.8 mg day(-1) 1000 inhabitants(-1) of 4-MEC. The results confirmed the growing popularity of new psychoactive substances in Poland. PMID:27365137

  17. Demographic and settlement transformations in peripheral regions (based on the example of eastern Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miszczuk, Andrzej; Wesołowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show specific demographic processes and accompanied transformations of settlement structure in eastern Poland at the turn of the 21st cent. Eastern Poland, covering Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Świętokrzyskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeships, acquired the features of peripheral area in terms of communication and socio-economic aspects as a result of long-lasting historical processes. Unfavourable demographic processes can be observed in eastern Poland. They are accompanied by changes in settlement structure. Depopulation has significant social and economic consequences. The process increases social polarization between different regions in the country and between rural and urban areas. Moreover, the outflow of young and most active population to other regions or abroad is an important barrier for economic revival in peripheral regions. Consequently, unfavourable socio-economic structure in these areas is consolidated or even strengthened. This primarily concerns Lubelskie and Podlaskie voivodeships.

  18. The prevalence and abundance of internal parasites in working horses autopsied in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gawor, J J

    1995-05-01

    The digestive tracts of 50 working horses from private farms in Poland were examined. Thirty-seven nematode species, two tapeworm species and one species of botfly were recovered. The most prevalent small strongyle species were Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicocyclus leptostomus and Cylicostephanus minutus. Thirteen cyathostome species showed a site preference in the ventral colon, five in the dorsal colon and three in the caecum. One species, Cylicocyclus triramosus, was new for Poland. Delafondia vulgaris was the most common large strongyle, with 74% prevalence, but low abundance. Parascaris equorum (26%) and Oxyuris equi (36%) were common. Strongyloides westeri (4%), Habronema majus (16%) and Habronema muscae (8%) were less prevalent. Both Habronema species were new for Poland. Tapeworm infection were not prevalent (Anoplocephala magna (4%) and Anoplocephala perfoliata (4%)). Botfly larvae were found in 40% of the horses examined. It was stated that no anthelmintics had been used on the farms. PMID:7676606

  19. Non-market valuation supporting water management: the case study in Czestochowa, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountouris, Y.; Godyn, I.; Sauer, J.

    2014-07-01

    Water resources in Poland continue to be under stress despite systematic efforts to safeguard ground and surface water quality and quantity. Groundwater protection from nitrate pollution of human origin requires the development of sewerage systems. Such investments are often financed from public funds that must be formally appraised. The appraisal should be done by a comparison of benefits and costs of investment measures - not only financial but also environmental and social. A significant challenge is the monetization of the effects on the environment. In this paper we use non-market valuation to examine residents' preferences and estimate their willingness to pay for improving drinking water quality. This paper also contributes to the narrow literature on valuation of benefits of measures for groundwater quality improvement by presenting an application of the choice experiment method in the Czestochowa Region of Poland. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study estimating the value of benefits of the groundwater quality improvement in Poland.

  20. Science and Science Fiction

    ScienceCinema

    Scherrer, Robert [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States

    2009-09-01

    I will explore the similarities and differences between the process of writing science fiction and the process of 'producing' science, specifically theoretical physics. What are the ground rules for introducing unproven new ideas in science fiction, and how do they differ from the corresponding rules in physics? How predictive is science fiction? (For that matter, how predictive is theoretical physics?) I will also contrast the way in which information is presented in science fiction, as opposed to its presentation in scientific papers, and I will examine the relative importance of ideas (as opposed to the importance of the way in which these ideas are presented). Finally, I will discuss whether a background as a research scientist provides any advantage in writing science fiction.

  1. Evaluation of the new gravity control in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sękowski, M.; Dykowski, P.; Krynski, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The new gravity control in Poland is based on absolute gravity measurements. It consists of 28 fundamental stations and 168 base stations. Fundamental stations are located in laboratories; they are to be surveyed in 2014 with the FG5-230 of the Warsaw University of Technology. Base stations are monumented field stations; they were surveyed in 2012 and 2013 with the A10-020 gravimeter. They are the subject of the paper. Besides absolute gravity measurements the vertical gravity gradient was precisely determined at all 168 base stations. Inconsistency of the determined vertical gravity gradients with respect to the normal ones has been presented. 77 base stations are also the stations of the previous gravity (POGK98) established in 90. of 20 century. Differences between newly determined gravity at those stations with those of POGK98 were evaluated. Alongside the establishment of the base stations of the gravity control multiple additional activities were performed to assure and provide the proper gravity reference level. They concerned regular gravity measurements on monthly basis with the A10-020 at three sites in Borowa Gora Geodetic-Geophysical Observatory, calibrations of metrological parameters of the A10-020 gravimeter and scale factor calibrations of LCR gravimeters, participation with the A10-020 in the international (ECAG2011, ICAG2013) and regional comparison campaigns of absolute gravimeters, and local comparisons of the A10-020 with the FG5-230. The summary of the work performed during the establishment of the gravity control is best described by total uncertainty budget for the A10-020 gravimeter determined on each of the 168 gravity stations.

  2. New prospects in Cambrian platform orthoquartzites in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Labecki, J.; Weil, W. ); Schleicher, M.; Kulke, H.; Koester, J. )

    1991-08-01

    Middle Cambrian orthoquartzites produce oil in two small fields northwest of Gdansk, Poland; few developed offshore discoveries exist in the southeastern Baltic Sea. This joint Polish-German study on these poorly porous sandstones is aimed at delineating areas of better reservoir quality development and thus of future prospects. In the Polish part of the East European platform, Cambrian deposits exist in four geologic provinces (Lublin slope, Podiassle depression, Warsaw synclinorium, Baltic syneclise). In these areas, the Cambrian, which in part is more than 500 m thick, has been buried to depths between 300 and approximately 6000 m. The Middle Cambrian orthoquartzitic sandstones represent a shallow-marine sequences with interbedded claystones. Their porosities range form 2 to 8%, and oil production is improved by natural fractures. A major source rock for the oil accumulations is represented by Upper Cambrian black shales (TOC values, 3-13%; thickness approximately 1-10 m in northern onshore Baltic syneclise, up to 50 m in southern Scania, Sweden). The Middle Cambrian shales show low TOC contents (average, 0.3-0.6%) and a thickness of approximately 200 m. Despite their low organic content, they also could have been contributed to the reservoired oil because both black shales show maturities within the oil window and both contain an oil-prone algal kerogen. Therefore, in the northeast Polish oil province the restricted pore volume of the orthoquartzites and not the source rock parameters represents the major limiting factor for larger oil accumulations. Future prospects will be difficult to predict because the occurrence of traps might be much more controlled by diagenesis than by (tectonic) structures.

  3. EGNOS APV-I and HEDGE projects implementation in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellner, A.; Trómiński, P.; Banaszek, K.

    2009-04-01

    The implementation of the EGNOS system to APV-I precision approach operations, according to ICAO requirements in Annex 10. This need many analysis accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability SIS (Signal in Space) to define useful and certification EGNOS like SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System) in aviation, especially in landing. Also, the project will try to exploit the excellent accuracy performances of EGNOS to analyse the implementation of GLS (GNSS Landing System) approaches (Cat I-like approached using SBAS, with a decision height of 200 ft), Chełm Town located near Polish-Ukrainian border is also at the east border of planned EGNOS coverage for ECAC states. In this place there is a navigation center with EGNOS and EUPOS receivers. The starting of the project is close to October 2008. According to current EGNOS programme schedule, the project activities will be done with EGNOS system v2.2, which is the version released for civil aviation certification. Therefore, the project will allow to demonstrate the feasibility of the EGNOS certifiable version for civil applications. Other project that we will present in our article is HEDGE (Helicopters Deploy GNSS in Europe). The project objectives are to achieve the following by the end of the project: - To develop the helicopter SOAP (SBAS Offshore Approach Procedure) procedure (and necessary avionics) and then to successfully demonstrate it to the user community. - To develop helicopter PINS (Point in Space) procedures for mountain rescue and HEMS (Helicopter Emergency Medical Services), and to then successfully demonstrate them to the user community. - To demonstrate EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) APV (approach with vertical guidance) approaches to general aviation in Spain, Poland and Greece. - To develop an integrated navigation/surveillance concept and demonstrate it in Greece.

  4. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system. PMID:26519842

  5. Patient's rights in Poland against the background of new regulations.

    PubMed

    Rabiega-Przylecka, Agnieszka

    2012-03-01

    Patient rights are the specification of general human rights. The rights define the patient position in relation to health institutions or medical professions providing, broadly understood, health services. The protection system of patient rights outlined by international legal and ethical regulations is detailed to specific social, political and economic realities by internal legal systems of individual states. Imperfections of the Polish health care system in relation to achieving adequate protection of patient rights, resulting, inter alia, from the lack of comprehensive regulation of the matter of patient rights, led the legislature to introduce new regulations concerning this aspect to the Polish legal order. The new Act of 6 November 2008 on Patient Rights and the Patient Rights Ombudsman (binding from 5 March 2009) is the first universally binding legal act in the Polish legal system entirely dealing with the matter of patient rights. It regulates the rights of the patient and correlated with them obligations of health care providers (public and non-public) irrespectively of both the legal form providers, as well as the sources of funding of the benefits provided. In particular, the Act states: the patient right to health services, right to obtain information, right to confidentiality of patient-linked information, right to consent to obtain health services, right to respect privacy and dignity of the patients, right to medical records and objecting to the doctor's opinion or decision, right to respect private and family life, right to pastoral care. The new regulations--besides the specification of the catalogue of patient rights--reinforced the institutional protection of patient rights by establishing a new central public administrative body having jurisdiction to protect patient rights--the Patient Rights Ombudsman. Poland, like other European countries, makes an attempt to improve the protection of patient rights. The introduction of the Act entirely

  6. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the

  7. Hard Coal in the Fuel-Mix Of Poland: The Long-Term Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawlik, Lidia; Kaliski, Maciej; Kamiński, Jacek; Sikora, Andrzej P.; Szurlej, Adam

    2016-06-01

    This paper reviews the coal policy of Poland. It analyzes the forecasts of production and consumption of hard coal, the size of exports and imports and its importance for the energy sector on the basis of strategic documents. The main aim of the article is to show the role of hard coal in the fuel - energy balance of Poland until 2050. The adoption of appropriate assumptions for each scenario, including the maximum supply of hard coal from domestic mines, coal price curves, CO2 emission allowances and several calculations performed allowed to obtain certain results on the basis of which the future role of hard coal was determined.

  8. Evaluation of SMOS L2 soil moisture data over the Eastern Poland using ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Jerzy; Łukowski, Mateusz; Słomiński, Jan; Stankiewicz, Krystyna; Usowicz, Bogusław; Lipiec, Jerzy; Marczewski, Wojciech

    2013-04-01

    Validation of SMOS products is vital for their further use in the study of climate and hydrology. Several authors [1,2] have recently evaluated SMOS soil moisture data with an aid of in-situ observations of soil moisture. Collow and Robock have reported a dry bias as compared to in situ observations. Since their results are not much conclusive, they call for further studies using more data. Bircher and co-authors have also noted significant discrepancies between Danish network and SMOS soil moisture. SWEX_POLAND soil moisture network consists of 9 stations located in Eastern Poland. These stations are located on the areas representing variety types of land use: meadows, cultivated fields, wetlands and forests. We have expanded our analysis, as presented in the EGU 2012, using data from all network stations. Similarly as before, we have used three methods in our comparison studies: the Bland-Altman method, concordance correlation coefficient and total deviation index. Using these methods we have confirmed a fair/moderate agreement of SMOS L2 SM data and network observations. Like the other authors we have also noted the significant biases in SMOS soil moisture. However, the general trends in dynamics of soil moisture revealed by SMOS, the SWEX_POLAND network and referred to GLDAS, are in a considerable relevancy. We have shown that the SMOS satellite measurements are reliable, so can be used to detect areas of dry and moist soil. In Poland the trends indicating the growth of agricultural droughts are depicted by SMOS L2 very well, even better than national drought services for the agriculture. It is worth to note that the year 2011 was more variable and drier than the 2010 for Poland. Moreover, SMOS data prove the well-known property of central Poland to be drier than the rest of the country. It is expected that further mitigation of RFI contamination in Poland will be available due to the cooperation of ESA SMOS to the national spectrum control services (UKE

  9. Selected Problems of Applying the Law in Adaptation and Modernization of Buildings in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbel, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    Chosen problems of law implementation in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland. One of the major problems in the contemporary process of building's modernization in Poland is the pluralism of different interpretations of chosen legal terms, existing in the contemporary building code. Incorrect interpretation, results in the incorrect application to the authorities for the proper building permit and as the effect, it causes the lost of time and money. The article tries to identify some of these problems and seeks the solution to solve them, through the evolutionary method of building law creation.

  10. Response of mosses to the heavy metal deposition in Poland--an overview.

    PubMed

    Grodzińska, K; Szarek-Łukaszewska, G

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., a common moss species, were used to indicate relative levels of atmospheric deposition in Poland in the years 1975-1998. Spatial and temporal differences in the heavy metal concentrations in mosses were found. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in the moss samples from the southern, most industrialised part of the country, and the lowest from north-eastern Poland. A significant decrease of heavy metals over 20 years (1975-1998) was found. PMID:11584642

  11. Lidar Measurements of Canadian Forest Fire Smoke Episode Observed in July 2013 over Warsaw, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Heese, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of aerosol optical properties of air-mass advected on 10th July 2013 from Canada above Warsaw, Poland, during the forest fire event that occurred in Quebec at the beginning of July 2013. The observations were conducted with use of the modern version of 8-channel PollyXT lidar capable of measuring at 3β+2α+2δ+VW and interpreted with available information from the MACC model, the CALIPSO and MODIS satellite sensors, the AERONET data products and the data gathered within the Poland-AOD network.

  12. Treatment of defective newborns--a survey of paediatricians in Poland.

    PubMed Central

    Szawarski, Z; Tulczyński, A

    1988-01-01

    We report the results of a survey of the attitudes and practices of paediatricians in Warsaw, Poland, with respect to the treatment of infants born with severe handicaps. The results are compared with a similar survey conducted by Australian researchers (1). In the Polish medical community surveyed, unconditional respect for life is a dominant attitude. Our study has revealed a deeply-entrenched paternalistic attitude among Polish doctors and a strong unwillingness to distinguish between 'ordinary and extraordinary means' of prolonging life, as well as an ambivalent attitude towards legal regulations binding in Poland. PMID:2965245

  13. The Jewish psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, Poland.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2015-03-01

    The T4 euthanasia programme within Nazi Germany has been well researched, but much less is known about the extermination of psychiatric patients in Nazi-occupied territories during the same period. In Poland 20,000 mentally ill patients were deliberately killed during the German occupation. This paper traces the history of one psychiatric hospital, Zofiówka, in Otwock, south-east of Warsaw. The hospital once served the Jewish population of Poland and was the largest, most prestigious neuropsychiatric centre in the country. It is now in ruins and said to be haunted by ghosts. PMID:25698689

  14. Diatoms as paleoecological indicators of environmental change in the Lake Czechowskie catchments ecosystem (Northern Tuchola Pinewoods, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Zawiska, Izabela; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka Maria; Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Słowiński, Michał; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    variation of the species composition. Planktonic diatoms dominate in all studied location, expecially Cyclotella comensis, Punciculata radiosa, Cyclotella praetermissa and Stephanodiscus parvus. The results of our research shows that diatom communities were sensitive to climatic changes, which are well reflected in lake environment conditions. The strongest shifts in species assemblagess were noted at the beginning of the Allerød, the Younger Dryas onset and the transition into the early Holocene. The Late Glacial climate fluctuations caused more abrupt lake environment changes than during the Early Holocene. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute ICLEA (Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis) funded by the Helmholtz Association. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grant NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367). Literature: Bradbury, P., Cumming, B., Laird, K., 2002. A 1500-year record of climatic and environmental change in ElkLake, Minnesota III: measures of past primary productivity. Journal of Paleolimnology 27, 321-340 Wulf S., Ott F., Słowiński M., Noryśkiewicz A. M., Drager N., Martin-Puertas C., Czymzik M., Neugebauer I., Dulski P., Bourne A., Błaszkiewicz M., Brauer A. 2013. Tracing the Laacher See Tephra in the varved sediment record of the Trzechowskie palaeolake in central Northern Poland. Quaternary Science Reviews, s. 129-139.

  15. Science in science fiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Science fiction, from Star Trek to Star Wars, is hugely popular and pupils will surely have encountered good and bad physics there, but do they really notice? Discussing the science implied in books and movies, such as in the use of transporters, can be a good way of getting students interested in physics.

  16. Holocene and Late Glacial varved sediments from Czechowskie Lake (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim; Słowiński, Michał; Dulski, Peter; Plessen, Birgit; Blaszkiewicz, Miroslaw

    2013-04-01

    Annual laminated (varved) sediment records are essential for detailed paleoclimate and environmental reconstructions as they function as a natural memory beyond instrumental datasets. In order to determine Holocene inter-annual and decadal-scale variability we investigated varved Lake Czechowskie (53°52' N/ 18°14' E, 108 m asl.), northern Poland. During two coring campaigns in 2009 and 2012 we recovered several long and short cores with the longest core reaching 14.5 m. Based on correlation with a biostratigraphically and tephrochronologically dated neighboring paleolake sediment record (Trzechowskie mire) the record extends back in to the Late Glacial. Lake Czechowskie is well suited for climate reconstruction as varves are almost entirely well (88 %) or poorly (5%) preserved. Only 7 % of the sediment profile are non-varved. Detailed investigations have been carried out for the last 2000 years of the sediment profile applying micro-facies analyses combined with X-ray fluorescence element scanning (µ-XRF) at 200 µm resolution and carbon and nitrogen analyses (TOC, TC, TN) at five-varveresolution. The chronology has been established by a multiple dating approach with 137Cs (for the last ca. 50 years), AMS 14C on plant macro remains (back to 2800 cal BP) and varve counting. Varve formation and preservation ceases at the beginning of the 20th century whereas the younger sediments are again faintly varved. Micro-facies analyses reveal that the sediment consists of biogenic calcite varves with intercalated diatom rich layers. Three distinct 100 to 200 years long periods of up to threefold thicker varves (approx. 1.4 to 5.0 mm/year) are predominantly caused by an increase in the diatom sub-layers and indicate distinct short-term climatic and environmental fluctuations. Possible reasons for these changes that occurred abruptly with only few years are either changes in lake water circulation or in nutrient supply to the lake. This study is a contribution to the Virtual

  17. Civic Education in Emerging Democracies: Lessons from Post-Communist Poland and Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kerri

    2010-01-01

    The 1999 International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civic Education Study revealed that most countries having recently undergone political and social transformations had lower civic knowledge scores than more stable nations. However, Poland, which instituted policies aimed at educating citizens for democratic…

  18. The New Biology in Poland after the Second World War: Polish Lysenkoism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deJong-Lambert, William

    2009-01-01

    Genetic research was banned in the Polish People's Republic from 1949 to 1956 as a result of the activities of Trofim D. Lysenko, a pseudo-biologist in the Soviet Union. This article examines the impact upon education in biology in Poland, including textbook revision, curriculum reform and revised understandings of the purpose of scientific…

  19. Implementation of the EU Noise Directive in Process of Urban Planning in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiecień, J.; Szopińska, K.

    2013-05-01

    In Poland spatial planning policies are described by a system of planning documents controlled by act of Spatial Planning and Land Development of 27 March 2003. Sustainable development principle and spatial order form is the basis of spatial planning efforts. In the territory of Poland the manner of urban space management is defined by a planning document called Local Land Use Plan (LLUP). In a LLUP some issues are arranged, such as the purpose of a given area, location of public purpose investments, land development conditions. When analysing the development process of Polish cities, an obvious conclusion emerges about the lack of complex studies and researches of the environment concerning the issue of acoustic climate. The procedures of development of an LLUP involve merely a general diagnosis of an environment excluding measured values of pollution, including noise levels. The main aim of this article is to introduce the influence of acoustic climate on the urban space planning in Poland through the implementation of the provisions of Directive 2002/49/WE of the European Parliament and the Council of Europe from 25 June 2002. Moreover, in the stages of an LLUP implementations have been suggested the use of a Strategic Noise Map, being a tool for assisting the process of environmental noise level assessment in Poland.

  20. Equipment and apparatus used in the measurement of atmospheric pollution. ISA report (Poland). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    The report describes the market in Poland for equipment and appliances used for the collection of air pollution samples. It includes statistical data, a market assessment including demand, characteristics and receptivity, best sales prospects, and overviews of competition and market access.

  1. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, People's Republic of China, Poland, Republic of Korea and Ukraine, 66 FR 46777... South Korea: Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order, 72 FR 44830 (August 9, 2007). On July 2, 2012, the... of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 77 FR...

  2. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... electronic filing have been amended. The amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel...

  3. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... both the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (77 FR 39254, July 2... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  4. National Hematopoietic Stem Cells Transplant Registry in Poland: Nationwide Internet Reporting System and Results.

    PubMed

    Łęczycka, A; Dudkiewicz, M; Czerwiński, J; Malanowski, P; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, J; Danielewicz, R

    2016-06-01

    History of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations in Poland begins in early 1980s; the 1st bone marrow allotransplantation was performed in 1983 in the Central Clinical Hospital of the Military Medical Academy in Warsaw. Following years brought the 1st autologous stem cell transplantations. Ten years later, unrelated bone marrow transplantation was performed for the 1st time by the team of the Hematology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation Unit in Katowice. Since then, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation developed to be standard procedure and one of the most important therapies applied in leukemia treatment. The number of allotransplantations in Poland has grown significantly in the past 2 decades, which generated new needs and problems. In 2005, based on a new Transplant Law, a National Transplants Registry was created. Its main role is to collect data (registration of procedures and follow-up data) related to every transplantation case for stem cells and tissues as well as for organs. We present statistics concerning stem cell transplantations performed in Poland, as collected in the National Transplants Registry in the years 2006-2014. There are 18 centers transplanting hematopoietic stem cells in Poland. The total number of hematopoietic stem cell transplantations performed in 2006-2014 was 3,537, with allotransplantations from relatives accounted for 1,491 and from unrelated donors for 2,046. The main indication for allotransplantation in past years was acute leukemia. PMID:27496493

  5. The Role of Urban Green Areas in the Education for Sustainable Development: Focus on Krakow, Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Aleksandra; Orlewicz-Musial, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Four selected green areas in Krakow (Poland) were compared, including: (1) the historical centre of Krakow with the green belt of Planty; (2) Blonia--grassland situated near the city centre; (3) the Park of Aviators, situated between the old part of Krakow and the industrial district of Nowa Huta and (4) the Nowa Huta Meadows. All these areas have…

  6. The Changing Role of Students' Representation in Poland: An Historical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonowicz, Dominik; Pinheiro, Rómulo; Smuzewska, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Student representation in Poland has a relatively short but turbulent history. This article offers an historical appraisal of the development of student representation at the national level in the context of rapid and deep structural changes in Polish higher education. Based on a desktop analysis of official documentation, legislation, ideological…

  7. To Teach the Holocaust in Poland: Understanding Teachers' Motivations to Engage the Painful Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Magdalena H.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the role of teachers in confronting traumatic, hidden wartime histories in communities traumatized by them. The study illuminates patterns based on field observations, emails, and surveys of 60 teachers who participated in a Holocaust teacher preparation program in Poland during the summer of 2010. The teachers surveyed…

  8. Determinants of Higher Education Choices and Student Satisfaction: The Case of Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sojkin, Bogdan; Bartkowiak, Pawel; Skuza, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic changes in tertiary education that were observed in Poland for the last 20 years transformed the Polish educational market and led to the immense expansion of educational institutions. The rapid increase in the number of students that continued until 2006 is however over and Polish universities have begun to compete for their clients.…

  9. Measurements with Reticle Micrometer Performed by a New Double Stars Observing Group from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskupski, Marcin; Banacka, Natalia; Cupryjak, Justyna; Malinowska, Malgorzata; Bujel, Kamil; Koltek, Zdzislaw; Mazur, Jaroslaw; Muskala, Marcin; Plotkowski, Lukasz; Prowans, Barlomiej; Szkaplewicz, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of 19 double stars using a reticle micrometer eyepiece are reported. The observational program was held in spring and summer of 2015 as an extended workshop for a new double stars observing group from Szczecin, Poland. The goal of the program was to learn how to measure position angle and separation using a reticle micrometer eyepiece.

  10. A Profile of an Effective Teacher of English: A Qualitative Study from Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werbinska, Dorota

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a research study aimed at defining the profile of an effective Polish teacher of English. The study, which is qualitative in nature, has been conducted among English language teachers in Poland who are considered excellent in their professional environment. Their kinds of knowledge and their beliefs about the…

  11. Non-Formal Education in Poland and Canada--Compared: A Brief Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this brief note is to compare non-formal education in Poland and Canada in terms of accessibility, and it is motivated by the fact that learning is a lifelong process because of rapid advances in technology. The theoretical framework for this commentary is supplied by the general idea that non-formal learning provides a social…

  12. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  13. Mass Media in Transition in Hungary and Poland. Fulbright Seminars Abroad Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Tim

    These materials were developed by a participant in the Fulbright Summer Seminar to Poland and Hungary. The materials provide information for teaching about comparative media systems. The following information is included: (1) general characteristics of media in Eastern Europe; (2) role of the Catholic Church in media and political life; (3) media…

  14. The unwanted heroes: war invalids in Poland after World War I.

    PubMed

    Magowska, Anita

    2014-04-01

    This article focuses on the unique and hitherto unknown history of disabled ex-servicemen and civilians in interwar Poland. In 1914, thousands of Poles were conscripted into the Austrian, Prussian, and Russian armies and forced to fight against each other. When the war ended and Poland regained independence after more than one hundred years of partition, the fledgling government was unable to provide support for the more than three hundred thousand disabled war victims, not to mention the many civilians left injured or orphaned by the war. The vast majority of these victims were ex-servicemen of foreign armies, and were deprived of any war compensation. Neither the Polish government nor the impoverished society could meet the disabled ex-servicemen's medical and material needs; therefore, these men had to take responsibility for themselves and started cooperatives and war-invalids-owned enterprises. A social collaboration between Poland and America, rare in Europe at that time, was initiated by the Polish community in the United States to help blind ex-servicemen in Poland. PMID:22790322

  15. Diagnosis and Treatment of Children with Reading and Writing Difficulties in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanowicz, Marta

    1989-01-01

    The history of specific difficulties in learning to read and write in Poland and multidisciplinary investigations in the field are discussed. A therapeutic care system including small correction-compensation groups, special grades, wards for dyslexic children, and individual outpatient treatment is currently in place, with research now focusing on…

  16. The Admission and Placement of Students from the Republic of Poland. A Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silny, Josef; And Others

    This volume is designed to be a comprehensive description of the Polish educational system as it existed under the communist regime, and of the radical changes currently taking place, as well as of possible future trends. Chapter 1 describes Poland's history, geography, and population. Chapter 2 describes the background and structure of its…

  17. Project on School Staff Health Promotion in Poland: The First Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woynarowska-Soldan, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the concept, methods of implementation, results and experiences from the first stage of the three-year project on school staff health promotion carried out within the framework of the health-promoting school (HPS) network in Poland. Design/methodology/approach: The project was implemented in 2012 in…

  18. Determinants and Options in the Development of Higher Education in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jozefowicz, Adam; Kluczynski, Jan

    Trends affecting the future development of higher education in Poland are considered. It is projected that the demographic pool of higher education enrollment will in 1995-2000 return to a level roughly comparable with the peak pressures for college entry in the years 1971-75. It is suggested that demographic changes alone can explain but a…

  19. The Impact of Poland's 1990 Bill on Schools of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.

    2006-01-01

    This article is the product of the writer's deliberations about the impact of Poland's 1990 Bill on Schools of Higher Education using an information technology theoretical model consisting of three parts: (1) participation; (2) feedback; and (3) partnership. The main findings of the investigation revealed that: (1) there is wide participation in…

  20. New Tasks for Teachers of English in Poland in Light of Social, Economic, and Political Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenhalt, Ewa

    The weakness of English and other language instruction in Poland is due largely to the political system after World War II. Political and economic change and gradual recognition of the importance of English have recently increased rapidly. Expanded contact with the West calls for immediate qualitative and quantitative changes in English language…

  1. A Health Education Program in Poland from the Perspective of Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopacz, Marek S.

    2008-01-01

    Poland subscribes to an abstinence-only model of reproductive health education called "Education for Life in the Family." The aim of this study was to determine if the perceptions of adolescent mothers could be used to improve delivery of the Polish model of education. This study was conducted using focus group interviews with fourteen adolescent…

  2. Purity and Epidemic Danger in German Occupied Poland during the First World War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Explores the efforts of the German public-health authorities to cleanse occupied areas of formerly Russian Poland of pathogenic hazards during the First World War. The program used sanitary measures and educational programs to encourage a more hygienic lifestyle. Originally sympathetic to the Jewish population, it grew increasingly anti-semitic.…

  3. First case of imported African tick-bite fever in Poland - Case report.

    PubMed

    Tomasiewicz, Krzysztof; Krzowska-Firych, Joanna; Bielec, Dariusz; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report of a case of African tick bite fever (ATBF) imported to Poland from South-Africa. The patient presented with fever of 38.4(o)C, generalized maculopapular rash and single eschar. Diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from eschar biopsies. The patient recovered without any sequelae after 7 days treatment with doxycycline. PMID:26403104

  4. Equity in an Educational Boom: Lessons from the Expansion and Marketisation of Tertiary Schooling in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Rok, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how the probability of enrolment in tertiary schools has evolved for different social groups in Poland during the period of the educational boom. It also analyses how the socio-economic status influences the choices between full-time and part-time studies (the latter being of relatively low quality), and the probability of…

  5. Report on the Vocational Education and Training System in Poland. National Observatory Country Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Observatory of Poland, Warsaw.

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) in Poland has nine chapters. Chapter 1 presents the socioeconomic situation; explains reasons for different rates of development in particular regions; and presents trends in job creation and rise and fall in unemployment. Chapter 2 deals with changes in the VET field in these areas: VET's…

  6. Adult Educators: An Example of the New Approach to Lifelong Learning in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    This article presents reflections arising from a study on adult learning professions in Poland. Changes in the socio-political and legal context created phenomena that have occurred in the adult education systems, mechanisms and approaches. The article focuses on the impact of those processes on a specific professional group--adult educators.…

  7. Yet Another Early-Start Languages Policy in Europe: Poland This Time!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enever, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The recent decision of Poland to introduce a mandatory starting age for early language learning from the very beginning of schooling can be viewed as part of both a global and a specifically European trend. Current statistics indicate that since 1990 approximately 60% of the nation-states of the European Union have reduced mandatory starting ages…

  8. Early Childhood Education and Care in Europe: Tackling Social and Cultural Inequalities. Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branska, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    In Poland centre-based education and care for children from birth to the age of entry into compulsory school education, i.e. 7 years, is provided in creches ("zlobki") for children aged 0-3 years and in nursery schools ("przedszkola") for children from 3 years of age to the age of entry into primary school. Creches are part of the healthcare…

  9. 77 FR 76941 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country-Poland (DFARS Case 2012...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Regulation Supplement: New Qualifying Country--Poland (DFARS Case 2012-D049) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition... country. DATES: Effective Date: December 31, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Amy G. Williams... placed into force on July 19, 2012. The agreement removes discriminatory barriers to procurements...

  10. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). PMID:26404592

  11. Philosophy of Education in Post-Soviet Societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godon, Rafal; Juceviciene, Palmira; Kodelja, Zdenko

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the role of philosophy of education in three post-Soviet societies of Eastern Europe: Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia. The characteristic themes and approaches of philosophical reflection about education in these societies are explored with reference to three periods: the pre-Soviet, Soviet and post-Soviet periods.

  12. The Meaning of Working among Professional Employees in Germany, Poland and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Ardichvili, Alexandre; Borchert, Margret; Rozanski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report the results of an empirical study of the meaning of working, individual level work outcomes, and job and career satisfaction, among professional level employees in business organizations in Russia, Poland, and Germany. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical framework for the study was based on…

  13. Avian Polyomavirus Genome Sequences Recovered from Parrots in Captive Breeding Facilities in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dayaram, Anisha; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrząstek, Klaudia; White, Robyn; Julian, Laurel; van Bysterveldt, Katherine; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (APVs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased Psittacula eupatria, Psittacula krameri, and Melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in Poland. Of these APV-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) and/or parrot hepatitis B virus (PHBV). PMID:26404592

  14. Experiential Learning of History through Youth Journeys to Poland: Israeli Jewish Youth and the Holocaust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romi, Shlomo; Lev, Michal

    2007-01-01

    National history and collective memory and their impact on adolescents' knowledge and attitudes are the topic of this article. A follow-up study, it examines the long-term impact of a journey to historical monuments. Israeli Jewish high-school students have the option of experiential study, visiting cities and death camps in Poland. The first…

  15. The Social Consequences of the Changing Functions of the Rural Family in Post-War Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocik, Lucjan

    Conducted in four villages situated near Tarnow, a large urban and industrial centre, this study examined the process of change in the functioning of the rural family, as set against the transformation of their general living conditions brought about by the socialist industrialization and urbanization in post-war Poland. Issues studied were:…

  16. The Guide with the Tourist Gaze: Jewish Heritage Travel to Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sharon Kangisser

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, travel to Poland for youth and young adults has become increasingly popular, to the extent that it is even seen as a "rite of passage" for members of many Jewish communities. For these groups, the accompanying guides or educators are central to their educational experience. Based on a series of interviews…

  17. From System Expansion to System Contraction: Access to Higher Education in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education in Poland is changing due to the demography of smaller cohorts of potential students. Following a demand-driven educational expansion after the collapse of communism in 1989, the higher education system is now contracting. Such expansion/contraction and growth/decline in European higher education has rarely been…

  18. Job Search Strategies of Recent University Graduates in Poland: Plans and Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piróg, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to highlight plans versus actual actions of university graduates in Poland aimed at finding employment. The paper also empirically verifies the impact of chosen job-seeking strategies on the success or failure of their transition to employment. The study was Polish-wide and included graduates of geography. It…

  19. Matching Supply with Demand: Higher Education and the Labor Market. A Comparison of Kenya and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, R. Rees; And Others

    Conditions in Kenya and Poland concerning the labor market and educational preparation for jobs are discussed, along with public policy. In the decade of the 1980s, both nations reached saturation in the labor market and underwent changes in the demand for university-trained workers. Kenya needed highly trained personnel to replace expatriates…

  20. Composition and origin of coalbed gases in the Lower Silesian basin, southwest Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotarba, M.J.; Rice, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    Coalbed gases in the Lower Silesian Coal Basin (LSCB) of Poland are highly variable in both their molecular and stable isotope compositions. Geochemical indices and stable isotope ratios vary within the following ranges: hydrocarbon (CHC) index CHC = CH4/(C2H6+C3H8) from 1.1 to 5825, wet gas (C2+) index C2+ = (C2H6+ C3H8+ C4H10+ C5H12) / (CH4+ C2H6+ C3H8+ C4H10+ C5H12) 100 (%) from 0.0 to 48.3%, CO2-CH4 (CDMI) index CDMI = CO2/ (CO2+ CH4) 100 (%) from 0.1 to 99.9%, ??13C(CH4) from -66.1 to -24.6%o, ??D(CH4) from -266 to -117%o, ??13C(C2H6) from -27.8 to -22.8%o, and ??13C(CO2) from -26.6 to 16.8%o. Isotopic studies reveal the presence of 3 genetic types of natural gases: thermogenic (CH4, higher gaseous hydrocarbons, and CO2), endogenic CO2, and microbial CH4 and CO2. Thermogenic gases resulted from coalification processes, which were probably completed by Late Carboniferous and Early Permian time. Endogenic CO2 migrated along the deep-seated faults from upper mantle and/or magma chambers. Minor volumes of microbial CH4 and CO2 occur at shallow depths close to the abandoned mine workings. "Late-stage" microbial processes have commenced in the Upper Cretaceous and are probably active at present. However, depth-related isotopic fractionation which has resulted from physical and physicochemical (e.g. diffusion and adsorption/desorption) processes during gas migration cannot be neglected. The strongest rock and gas outbursts occur only in those parts of coal deposits of the LSCB which are dominated by large amounts of endogenic CO2. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Observing high flow with the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: the case study from upper Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar; Slopek, Jacek; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments of the HydroProg system (research project no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 of the National Science Centre of Poland), which aims to issue warnings against floods, are associated with predicting inundation, and hence there is a need for verifying the prognoses of overbank flow extent. The progress in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology causes that UAVs are now easily available and - provided formal flight requirements are fulfilled - can be used for observing numerous features of the natural environment. This intrinsically concerns hydrological applications in which dynamics is a key issue. Hence, in order to observe true extent of water during flood, UAV can be used on demand. However, unanswered is the problem of the minimum size, understood in terms of flooded area, of water increment which is detectable when inferred from the orthophoto image. The present study aims to address the above-mentioned problem by applying the small-sample statistical inference methods to a sample of nine study sites observed during five UAV observational campaigns in the vicinity of the gauge in Gorzuchow, situated along the Scinawka river (SW Poland). Since November 2012 we have carried our regular flights using the swinglet CAM fixed-wing UAV, and the areas adjacent to the gauge itself have been monitored in detail. We produced a series high-resolution orthotphoto images, corresponding to low-, normal- and high-flow situations. We sketched shapes of terrain covered by water on a basis of the detailed analysis of the ortophoto images, and the judgment was supported by our geomorphological knowledge about the channel characteristics. The resulting data were subsequently presented as percentages, and later a logarithm transformation was applied. The assumptions of Student's t-test were found to be fulfilled, and thus we used the t-test and its Bootstrap version to detect significant increments of water, inside or outside the channel. We explicitly identified the

  2. Model Related Estimates of time dependent quantiles of peak flows - case study for selected catchments in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupczewski, Witold G.; Bogdanowich, Ewa; Debele, Sisay

    2016-04-01

    different candidate models. A conservative assessment of the return period under non-stationarity is used as the basis of our actual best knowledge. The methods described are applied to selected catchments in Poland. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the project CHIHE (Climate Change Impact on Hydrological Extremes), carried out in the Institute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences, funded by Norway Grants (contract No. Pol-Nor/196243/80/2013). The climate, water level and flow data were provided by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Poland.

  3. Relationships between individualism-collectivism, gender, and direct or indirect aggression: a study in China, Poland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Gordon; Zhang, Xiaoying; Doroszewicz, Krystyna; Haas, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Direct and indirect aggression were studied in college students from China (women n=122; men n=97), a highly collectivistic culture; the US (women n=137; men n=136), a highly individualistic culture; and Poland (women n=105; men n=119), a culture with intermediate levels of collectivism and individualism. Consistent with a hypothesis derived from national differences in relative levels of collectivism and individualism, both direct and indirect aggression were higher in the US than in Poland and higher in Poland than in China. The theoretical implication of these results and directions for future research were discussed. PMID:18985769

  4. Sounding-derived parameters associated with tornado occurrence in Poland and Universal Tornadic Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taszarek, M.; Kolendowicz, L.

    2013-12-01

    This study is mainly devoted to operational meteorology, to improve tornado forecast in Poland and create a Universal Tornadic Index formula. A study is focusing on climatology of sounding-derived parameters associated with tornadoes in Poland and their potential value for tornado forecasting. The data was collected from soundings made in 10 stations in and around Poland which were closely in time and space connected with tornado occurrence. The main aim of the study was to analyze the thermodynamic and kinematic parameters derived from soundings and formulate an index. The information about tornado incidents was taken from media reports and the European Severe Weather Database for the years 1977-2012. Total of 97 tornado cases were divided according to their strength for significant (F2/F3), weak (F0/F1) and unrated cases, and also according to their environmental surface temperature, for warm (> 18 °C) and cold (< 18 °C) tornadoes. As it turned out, depending on the temperature, tornadoes tended to present different environmental conditions for tornadogenesis. In warm cases, the most important factor was instability while for cold cases it was dynamic wind field. It was also proven that significant tornadoes in Poland occur in conditions accompanied by high moisture content, moderate instability and high wind shear conditions. The results of this study were used to create a Universal Tornadic Index designed to forecast activity in warm and cold, and weak and strong tornadic environments. The quality of this index was tested for the period with increased tornado activity in Poland from 2008 to 2010.

  5. [Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland--the aim and current experiences].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries, where smoking is widely spread and smoking-induced diseases have become a significant health and socio-economic issue. Since 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in cooperation with partner organizations have been working on the implementation of the global control system known as the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS). This system expands the opportunities of individual countries in the area of designing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive anti-tobacco programs. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) has been incorporated into the GTSS system in 2007. The aim of the work is to explain and promote the objectives of GATS and the process of its implementation in Poland based on current experiences of the WHO Country Office for Poland. GATS concentrates on monitoring of tobacco use by adults (aged over 15 years). It is a representative, national survey of households, standardized on a global scale. GATS is supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies as a part of the Bloomberg Global Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Two executive agencies, the M. Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Warsaw and the Warsaw Medical University, have been assigned to implement the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland. The prepatory works for pre-testing and further stages of the survey implementation are currently under the final phase. Data gathered by GATS will enable us to learn more about the use of tobacco by the adult population in Poland. They will also indicate the most effective methods of the tobacco control in our country. PMID:19746887

  6. Examining Ambrosia pollen episodes at Poznań (Poland) using back-trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Skjøth, C. A.; Brandt, J.

    2007-03-01

    The pollen grains of Ambrosia spp. are considered to be important aeroallergens in parts of southern and central Europe. Back-trajectories have been analysed with the aim of finding the likely sources of Ambrosia pollen grains that arrived at Poznań (Poland). Temporal variations in Ambrosia pollen at Poznań from 1995-2005 were examined in order to identify Ambrosia pollen episodes suitable for further investigation using back-trajectory analysis. The trajectories were calculated using the transport model within the Lagrangian air pollution model, ACDEP (Atmospheric Chemistry and Deposition). Analysis identified two separate populations in Ambrosia pollen episodes, those that peaked in the early morning between 4 a.m. and 8 a.m., and those that peaked in the afternoon between 2 p.m. and 6 p.m.. Six Ambrosia pollen episodes between 2001 and 2005 were examined using back-trajectory analysis. The results showed that Ambrosia pollen episodes that peaked in the early morning usually arrived at Poznań from a southerly direction after passing over southern Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, whereas air masses that brought Ambrosia pollen to Poznań during the afternoon arrived from a more easterly direction and predominantly stayed within the borders of Poland. Back-trajectory analysis has shown that there is a possibility that long-range transport brings Ambrosia pollen to Poznań from southern Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. There is also a likelihood that Ambrosia is present in Poland, as shown by the arrival of pollen during the afternoon that originated primarily from within the country.

  7. Influence of the meteorological parameters on CFCs and SF6 concentration in the air of Krakow, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewski, Jarosław; Najman, Joanna; Śliwka, Ireneusz; Bartyzel, Jakub; Rosiek, Janusz

    2013-04-01

    authors wish to acknowledge Prof. R. Weiss from Scripts Oceanography Institute (CA, USA) for preparing of the CFC's primary standard (SIO1993) and Dr M. Maiss from Max-Planck Institute (Germany) for SF6 calibration. Autors also thanks Prof. S. O'Doherty from University of Bristol (England) and Prof K. Rozanski from AGH University of Krakow (Poland) for calibration of the CFC's standard (SIO2005). The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) in the InGOS project under grant agreement n° 284274. The project is financed by the Polish National Science Center on the basis of Decision No. DEC-2011/01/N/ST10/07621. References: [1] Prinn R.G. et al., A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE. J.Geophys.Res. 105(D14), pp 17751 - 17792, 2000; [2] Śliwka I., et al., Long-Term Measurements of CFCs and SF6 Concentration in Air, Polish J. of Environ. Stud. Vol. 19, No. 4, 811-815, 2010;

  8. [Cancer risk in asbestos-cement industry workers in Poland].

    PubMed

    Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Wilczyńska, U; Szymczak, W

    1997-01-01

    A cohort study was carried out in order to evaluate the cancer risk in the asbestos-cement industry workers. The cohort consisted of workers employed in four asbestos-cement plants. One of those plants was established in 1924, the other three in the 1960s and 1970s. Currently only two of these plants continue their production. The plants used mainly chrysotile asbestos as well as crocidolite and amosite. Amphibolite asbestos was used before the mid-nineteen eighties in production of pressure pipes utilising about 15% of the total quantity of asbestos used. The measurements of the asbestos fibre concentration at work-sites have been taken occasionally since the mid 1980s, thus, the determination of a cumulative dose for individual persons in the cohort and the evaluation of the dose-effect relationship were not feasible. It could only be supposed that the concentrations at the preparatory work-site during first years of the plants' operation accounted for several tens fibres/cm3 in the production that employed the dry method. The cohort consisted of workers employed in the plant for at least three months between beginning of the plant during the post-war period, and 1980, that is during the period when amphibolite asbestos was in use. The retrospective observation was completed on 31 December 1991. The analysis of the death risk by causes was based on a standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) calculated using the person-years method. Statistical significance of SMRs was assessed by means of Poisson distribution one-sided test. The general population of Poland was used as the reference population to estimate the death risk. The cohort comprised 4,712 persons (3,563 males and 1,149 females). Of this number 4,500 persons (3,405 males and 1,095 females) were followed. The cohort availability were 95.5%. Male mortality, both total (473 deaths; SMR = 83) and due to malignant neoplasms (108 deaths; SMR = 86) was lower than in the general population. An excess of deaths from

  9. Science teaching scholarship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    Physics research projects undertaken by secondary or high school students are once again being sought for consideration in the annual international competition entitled `First step to the Nobel Prize in physics'. This, the eighth in the series, is being organized by the Institute of Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences for the academic year 1999/2000, and as in previous years the competition is open to all secondary (high) school students regardless of country, type of school, sex, nationality etc. The only conditions are that the school must not be a university college and the participant's age should not exceed 20 years on 31 March 2000 (the deadline for competition entries). There are no restrictions on the subject matter of papers, their level, methods applied etc but they must have a research character and deal with physics topics or topics directly related to physics. Participation in the competition does not need any agreement from the candidate's school or educational authorities: the students must conduct their research in the most appropriate way for them. More than one paper can be submitted by a participant but each paper must have only one author; papers must not exceed 25 typed pages in length. The winners do not receive financial prizes or gifts but instead are invited to undertake a month's research work at the Polish Institute of Physics, with their expenses (except travel) paid for by the competition organizers. Entries should be sent by the competition deadline to Mrs M E Gorzkowska, Secretary of the First Step, Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL 02-668 Warszawa, Poland. All those who receive an award will have their papers published in the competition proceedings. Information on the competition can be found in the pub/competitions subdirectory of the anonymous section of the server ftp.ifpan.edu.pl (see also nobelprizes.com/firstep/).

  10. Comparative International Education: Institutions of Higher Education in Poland and Canadian Universities: A Comparison Using an Information Technology Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Kritsonis, William Allan; Pachocinski, Ryszard; Herrington, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare institutions of higher learning in Poland and universities in Canada using an information technology conceptual framework consisting of three parts: participation, feedback and partnership. (Contains 15 notes.)

  11. Self-reported health in Poland and the United States: a comparative analysis of demographic, family and socioeconomic influences.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Magdalena; Cubbins, Lisa A

    2004-01-01

    This study compares the social determinants of individual health between the United States, a capitalist society, and Poland, a 'post-communist' society. The effects of demographic factors, family characteristics and socioeconomic status on self-reported health are estimated with OLS regression using data from the 1994 American and Polish General Social Surveys. The results show lower self-reported health and more rapid declines in health for people over 60 in Poland than in the United States. Also, in Poland, women report worse health than do men while the opposite is found for the United States. The relationships between education, income and health were stronger in the United States than in Poland. Age, gender and SES may operate differently in the two countries because of a gap in social development (e.g. varying living standards and styles, health care systems and cultural attitudes) between the West and the former Eastern Europe. PMID:15018716

  12. Joint phenotype distribution at the esterase D and complement C3 loci in the Upper Silesia population (Poland).

    PubMed

    Raczek, E; Kabiesz, J

    1995-01-01

    Among 1,239 unrelated adults from Upper Silesia (Poland), a significant association between ESD and C3 phenotypes was found. This is in accordance with the results obtained in an Indian population. PMID:7896302

  13. [Jan Ewangelista Purkynie in medicine, science and the Polish culture].

    PubMed

    Domosławski, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    The author refers to the place of Jan Ewangelista Purkynie (1787-1868) in the world science and the Czech national culture. Numerous discoveries of Purkynie have still bear his name, e.g. fibers of the hearth conduction system. In the years 1823-1850 he worked as professor of the Department of Physiology in Wrocław and he distinguished himself as a scientist of wide horizons and modern ideas, as well as a teacher and protector of his students. The periodical Opera Omnia that has been published in Prague from 1938 (until now 13 volumes have been published) in volume number six, known as the Wroclaw volume, offers to us works of Purkynie's fourteen doctoral students. One of the them was Bogusław Palicki (1813-1868), author of the doctoral thesis entitled De musculari cordic structura. In 1839 the "Rocznik Wydziału Lekarskiego w Uniwersytecie Jagiellońiskim" /Yearbook of the Jagiellonian University Faculty of Medicine/ published a work describing the fibers of the conductions system of the heart which anticipated a similar work in German. Purkynie had numerous contacts with the liberal Krakow, he visited the health resort in Cieplice where he met Wincenty Pol and Kornel Ujejski. His contacts with Poznański had both scientific and literary character. He was also in touch with Warsaw and the Congress Kingdom. There are also traces of his contacts with the Polish emigration in Paris, which had an interdisciplinary character. The scientific ideas of Purkynie have still been a source of inspiration for Czech and Polish scientists which is confirmed by numerous symposiums and congresses dedicated to him. PMID:17644995

  14. Length and terms of occurrence of thermal seasons in Poland - are any changes observed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choryński, Adam; Graczyk, Dariusz; Szwed, Małgorzata

    2014-05-01

    While thinking of seasons, one mostly has in mind astronomical seasons which are very often mentioned by media. These are set using Sun's position above the equator and the tropics. Seasons defined by these manners very frequently do not match with prevailing climatic conditions in Poland. Therefore, especially in scientific research, different ways of setting the beginning and ending of seasons in Poland are employed. Climatic seasons are used very broadly. They divide the year into four parts of almost equal duration. Nevertheless, for Poland, this method is also not fully representative, because it does not take into account regional differentiation of climatic conditions. More objective criteria are used in phenological seasons, where their duration is set by, for example the terms of florescence and maturation of plants. In this research, thermal criterion is applied for setting the duration of seasons - terms of persistent exceedances of characteristic thresholds of mean daily air temperature (5 degrees C for autumn and spring, 0 degrees C for winter and 15 degrees C for summer). The climate of Poland is characterised by large long-term variability of thermal conditions. It results in the possibility of evident differences in the length and terms of seasons beginning and ending between years. The winter season 2012/2013 in Poland was exceptionally long, and very low temperatures occurred during the whole March, even in the first decade of April in some parts of the country. At the same year at the end of April temperatures exceeded 20 degrees C (summer conditions). It resulted in another wide discussion on evident changes of length or even fading of some seasons in the media. Based on meteorological data from 10 Polish meteorological stations, that represent different regions of the country, authors are researching how the length of thermal seasons changed between years 1951 and 2013 in Poland. The length of seasons in three multiannual periods (1951

  15. Archival data on wild food plants used in Poland in 1948

    PubMed Central

    Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2008-01-01

    Background In 1948, Professor Józef Gajek initiated a detailed census of the wild edible plants used in Poland. The questionnaires were collected by correspondents of the Polish Folklore Society in 95 localities throughout Poland. A major part of these archival materials, including a substantial collection of herbarium specimens, had not undergone thorough analysis prior to this study, which presents a quantitative analysis of this archival set of data. Methods Herbarium specimens were identified and a database was created. Results Ninety-eight taxa identified to genus or species level, including 71 botanical species, identified using herbarium specimens, were found. On average only 11 edible plant species per locality were listed, the longest list included 39 species. No correlation between latitude and the number of edible species was found, whereas there was small but significant correlation with the longitude. Fruits were the most frequently collected part of plants. Most plants were primarily collected by women and children. Children both helped parents to collect wild fruits and also ate many species raw, which were not consumed by adults, but had often been eaten in the past. Eighteen of the taxa had not been reported in a recent comprehensive review of edible plants of Poland. Stratiotes aloides, used as a famine vegetable in the Łódź region, has never been reported as edible in any ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion The results undermine the conclusions of a recent comprehensive review of edible plants of Poland, which stated that many more wild edible plants have been collected in the Carpathians than in lowland Poland. However such results were shown to be caused by the substantially larger number of ethnographic studies undertaken in the Carpathians. In fact, large numbers of edible plant species were collected in the mid-20th century in a few regions, particularly along the eastern border, in the Carpathians and in communities originating from

  16. Science Anxiety and Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Jeffrey V.; Greenburg, Sharon L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses origins and nature of science anxiety and describes the Science Anxiety Clinic, outlining techniques used at the clinic. Techniques include science skills training and psychological interventions. Comments on the connection between science anxiety and cognitive processes in science learning. (Author/JN)

  17. Relationships between the depth of cover sand transition to till and the intensity of albeluvic tonguing (case study from S-W Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabala, Cezary; Musztyfaga, Elzbieta; Glina, Bartlomiej; Waroszewski, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    Lithological discontinuous sediments, e.g. periglacial cover sand (late glacial) over till (Odra/Riss 1/Saale-Drenthe glaciation), are common parent material of soils in the southern Poland. The soils have specific water regime - upper part is properly drained, sometimes even excessively, whereas the loamy subsoil is imperfectly drained. Agricultural suitability of these soils depends mainly on the thickness of sandy layer. Clay skins are easily recognizable on the ped surfaces in the top section of loamy layer that, in combination with higher content of clay fraction (illite-smectite mineralogy), allows recognition of diagnostic horizon argic. Commonly, the top section of argic horizon is dissected with albeluvic tongues having sandy infilling. It was found, that the abundance, thickness and depth of tongues are correlated with the texture and thickness of sandy layer rather than with the geographical localization. "Intensity" of tonguing is higher where the overlying layer has a texture of sand, and significantly lower under loamy sand or (coarse) sandy loam. The highest abundance (density) of tongues net was observed where the sand/loam contact was between 40-70 cm below surface. If the loam layer started below the depth of 100 cm, tongues were in general absent. Periglacial origin of the tonguing is believed (sand wedges or and veins). Based on an actual WRB classification (2006) these soils belong mainly to (Stagnic) Cutanic Albeluvisols; however, many soils may fulfill requirements of Planosols (abrupt textural change) or, less often, Stagnosols (stagnic color mosaic both in albic and argic layers) if less abundant tongues are omitted. Albeluvisols and Planosols have never been delineated on the soil maps in Poland. Thus the "lithological" model for distinguishing Albeluvisols (and eventually Planosols) among existing Luvisols would be advantageous at early stage on new map production or for correlation with WRB system. Financed by the National Science Centre

  18. Comparative Analysis of Satellite Measurements Calculation Results Using the Postprocessing Services: Asg-Eupos (Poland), Apps (USA) and CSRS (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, Monika; Kudach, Jakub

    2014-06-01

    The publication has a cognitive research character. It presents a comparative analysis of free Internet services in Poland and abroad, used to adjust the data obtained using satellite measurement techniques. The main aim of this work is to describe and compare free tools for satellite data processing and to examine them for possible use in the surveying works in Poland. Among the many European and global services three of them dedicated to satellite measurements were selected: ASG-EUPOS (Poland), APPS (USA) and CSRS (Canada). The publication contains the results of calculations using these systems. Calculations were based on RINEX files obtained via postprocessing service (ASG-EUPOS network) POZGEO D for 12 reference stations in the South Poland. In order to examine differences in results between the ASG-EUPOS, APPS and CSRS the transformation points coordinate to a single coordinate system ETRF 2000 (in force in Poland) was made. Studies have shown the possibility of the calculation in Poland (in postprocessing mode) using the analyzed applications with global coverage.

  19. Soapy Science. Teaching Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a science and math activity that involves bubbles, shapes, colors, and solid geometry. Students build geometric shapes with soda straws and submerge the shapes in soapy water, allowing them to review basic geometry concepts, test hypotheses, and learn about other concepts such as diffraction, interference colors, and evaporation. (TJQ)

  20. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  1. History of human activity in last 800 years reconstructed from combined archive data and high-resolution analyses of varved lake sediments from Lake Czechowskie, Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowiński, Michał; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Ott, Florian; Obremska, Milena; Kaczmarek, Halina; Theuerkauf, Martin; Wulf, Sabine; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to reconstruct human and landscape development in the Tuchola Pinewoods (Northern Poland) during the last 800 years. We apply an approach that combines historic maps and documents with pollen data. Pollen data were obtained from varved lake sediments at a resolution of 5 years. The chronology of the sediment record is based on varve counting, AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity concentration measurements and tephrochronology (Askja AD 1875). We applied the REVEALS model to translate pollen percentage data into regional plant abundances. The interpretation of the pollen record is furthermore based on pollen accumulation rate data. The pollen record and historic documents show similar trends in vegetation development. During the first phase (AD 1200-1412), the Lake Czechowskie area was still largely forested with Quercus, Carpinus and Pinus forests. Vegetation was more open during the second phase (AD 1412-1776), and reached maximum openness during the third phase (AD 1776-1905). Furthermore, intensified forest management led to a transformation from mixed to pine dominated forests during this period. Since the early 20th century, the forest cover increased again with dominance of the Scots pine in the stand. While pollen and historic data show similar trends, they differ substantially in the degree of openness during the four phases with pollen data commonly suggesting more open conditions. We discuss potential causes for this discrepancy, which include unsuitable parameters settings in REVEALS and unknown changes in forest structure. Using pollen accumulation data as a third proxy record we aim to identify the most probable causes. Finally, we discuss the observed vegetation change in relation the socio-economic development of the area. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis - ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association and National Science Centre, Poland (grant No. 2011/01/B/ST10

  2. Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and ground truth validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and ground truthing measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. Ground truthing measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.

  3. The Welfare of Bears in Zoos: A Case Study of Poland.

    PubMed

    Maślak, Robert; Sergiel, Agnieszka; Bowles, David; Paśko, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The welfare of captive bears became a big issue of concern in Poland when a case of a bear being ill-treated became a high-profile case in the media. This case created a challenge to verify, study, and understand the main problems associated with bear keeping so that zoos could significantly improve the conditions in which they keep bears or ensure they keep bears at the minimum required standards. The results presented here are from 1 of the few countrywide studies of captive bear conditions conducted in all the captive institutions in Poland that keep bears. Thirteen institutions kept bears at the time of the study (2007-2009), including 54 individuals of 5 species. Major welfare problems were identified, and the results have been used to challenge zoos to address the changes required and focus the government's attention on areas that require legislative improvement. PMID:26451618

  4. Intense tornadoes in Poland in the years 2000-2012 and their synoptic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cwik, Paulina

    2015-04-01

    Tornadoes, or high speed rotating columns of air, are some of the most extreme natural processes occurring on Earth. Currently the trend towards more frequent and more severe occurrence of tornadoes appear also in Poland. So far, tornadoes in Poland resulted in very serious damage to infrastructure and led to injury or death many of the people. Forecast of tornados is not a easy task, especially when the phenomenon is local. Must be based on a comprehensive analysis of mesoscale numerical models, atmospheric soundings and radar data. Unfortunately, there are a number of limitations.One of it, is that the mesoscale weather models often do not capture local events, so forecast of the tornados in real time and place can not occur well in advance. The phenomenon of tornadoes must be better understood and become the object of a comprehensive analysis, so that the resulting information can be used both for research purposes as well as educational.

  5. What factors may influence epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Poland and in the world?

    PubMed

    Rowińska-Zakrzewska, Ewa; Korzeniewska-Koseła, Maria; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Szturmowicz, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the review of factors influencing epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Poland and in the world. The groups of increased risk of tuberculosis, and clinical conditions predisposing to activation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) such as HIV, uremia, diabetes mellitus, transplantation of organs, treatment with glucocorticosteroids and with antibodies to TNF and to its receptors, were presented. The higher prevalence and worse prognosis of tuberculosis in elderly people was emphasised. The methods of LTBI recognition, according to recent recommendations, with special consideration to patients in immunosupression, were shown. Methods of treatment to prevent LTBI activation, according to WHO experts, were also presented. All data were discussed in relation to the actual epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Poland. PMID:27238173

  6. Quality management system in radiotherapy in the light of regulations applicable in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The need to establish conditions for safe irradiation was noted in Poland back in 1986 in the Atomic Law, but for over 16 years no regulations regarding this aspect were passed. The radiological incident in Bialystok (Poland) in 2001 undeniably accelerated the implementation of new legal regulations. Nevertheless, in the absence of national guidelines until 2002, most health care institutions resorted to the quality management system (QMS) model proposed by the ISO norm 9001:2000. Eventually, practice proved the theory and the aforementioned model was also implemented into Polish acts of law defining basic requirements for QMS in radiotherapy. The aim of this work is to review current national regulations regarding QMS in radiotherapy, in particular those referring to standard procedures, the establishment of a commission for procedures and performance of external and internal clinical audits in oncological radiotherapy, as well as to present the process of their implementation into the practice of health care institutions. PMID:23788867

  7. Anti-alcohol Posters in Poland, 1945-1989: Diverse Meanings, Uncertain Effects

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof; Dutka, Wojciech; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    We provide a historical study of the anti-alcohol public health poster in Poland between 1948 and 1990. Our case study illuminates public health policies under communism, with the state as the dominant force in health communication. Poland has a distinctive history of poster art, moving from a Stalinist phase of socialist realism to the diverse styles of the later Polish School. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of 213 posters establishes the major themes and differentiates community approaches, which depict the drinker as a social or political deviant, from those emphasizing individual risk. Medical issues were a minor theme, reflecting public policies geared more toward confinement than treatment. However, Polish School artists used metaphor and ambiguity, and references to the contested cultural symbolism of drink, to complicate and subvert the narrow propaganda intent. Thus, although apparently unsuccessful in restraining overall consumption, these posters offer valuable lessons for policymakers on the use of visual media in health campaigns. PMID:20516371

  8. Autologous reconstruction of a complex form of Poland syndrome using 2 abdominal perforator free flaps.

    PubMed

    Masia, Jaume; Pons, Gemma; Loschi, Pietro; Sanchez Porro-Gil, Lidia; Nardulli, Maria Luisa; Olivares, Leyre

    2015-05-01

    Poland syndrome is the most frequent cause of congenital breast aplasia and hypoplasia. Breast and possible chest wall deformities can be treated with several surgical techniques, including implants, and pedicled or free flaps.We describe the case of a young patient with severe Poland syndrome with amastia, athelia, and deformity of the chest wall, and aplasia of 2 ribs. Marked hypoplasia of the ipsilateral latissimus dorsi muscle ruled out a reliable reconstructive option.Two perforator flaps were performed in a single-stage operation. A hemi-deep inferior epigastric perforator flap was harvested to correct the chest deformity, whereas the contralateral superficial inferior epigastric artery flap allowed breast reconstruction.No complications occurred and a subjectively and objectively pleasing cosmetic result was maintained at 3-year follow-up. PMID:24322640

  9. First report of two asymptomatic cases of human infection with Babesia microti (Franca, 1910) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Radkowski, Marek; Pancewicz, Sławomir A; Zajkowska, Joanna; Siński, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Human infection by Babesia microti has been recognized as an emerging zoonosis with important public health implications worldwide. In Europe the reported cases of human babesiosis have been attributed mostly to B. divergens infection, with only sporadic cases of the disease caused by B. microti or B. venatorum. This study, based on molecular methods (PCR, R-T PCR, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis), reveals for the first time in Poland, asymptomatic infection with . microti in immunocompetent healthy individuals working in forest ecosystems. Of the 58 professional foresters examined, two (3.4%) were identified as B. microti-positive by specific PCR. The results of this study also provide strong evidence that in eastern Poland, where tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are endemic, there is a potential risk of acquiring human babesiosis due to zoonotic B. microti parasites commonly found in rodents and I. ricinus ticks. The potential public health importance of this finding is discussed. PMID:25780828

  10. Anti-alcohol posters in Poland, 1945-1989: diverse meanings, uncertain effects.

    PubMed

    Gorsky, Martin; Krajewski-Siuda, Krzysztof; Dutka, Wojciech; Berridge, Virginia

    2010-11-01

    We provide a historical study of the anti-alcohol public health poster in Poland between 1948 and 1990. Our case study illuminates public health policies under communism, with the state as the dominant force in health communication. Poland has a distinctive history of poster art, moving from a Stalinist phase of socialist realism to the diverse styles of the later Polish School. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of 213 posters establishes the major themes and differentiates community approaches, which depict the drinker as a social or political deviant, from those emphasizing individual risk. Medical issues were a minor theme, reflecting public policies geared more toward confinement than treatment. However, Polish School artists used metaphor and ambiguity, and references to the contested cultural symbolism of drink, to complicate and subvert the narrow propaganda intent. Thus, although apparently unsuccessful in restraining overall consumption, these posters offer valuable lessons for policymakers on the use of visual media in health campaigns. PMID:20516371

  11. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic character of Tertiary basalts from southwest Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blusztajn, Jerzy; Hart, Stanley R.

    1989-10-01

    Tertiary basaltic volcanics from southwest Poland which form the eastern part of the Central European Volcanic Province (CEVP) have been studied for Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions. 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.70317 to 0.70369, 143Nd/144Nd ratios range from 0.51285 to 0.51302 and Pb isotopic compositions range from 19.42 to 19.94 for 206Pb/204Pb. These data indicate the influence of three end-member mantle components DMM, HIMU and EM. An analysis of all isotopic results from the CEVP leads to the conclusion that basalts from SW Poland have the most depleted character. We propose a model whereby the depleted source mantle for the CEVP interacted with enriched components (EM). The western part of the CEVP was enriched on a larger scale than the eastern part, probably due to the influence of the Rhine Graben rift.

  12. [Epidemiology of human trichinellosis in Poland--currently and in the past].

    PubMed

    Gołab, Elzbieta; Sadkowska-Todys, Malgorzata

    2006-01-01

    Since the XIX century human trichinellosis has remained an unsolved problem of public healthcare in Poland. This paper describes the past situation and analyses current changes in the epidemiological pattern of trichinellosis in Poland. Epidemiological data from the last 60 years, point out that the number of human cases as well as the number of deaths caused by trichinellosis has decreased significantly. Up to 90s the main source of Trichinella infection for people was pork. Among other implemented control measures, the introduction of the artificial digestion method in the early 80s to detect trichinellosis in pigs resulted in a shift in the sources of Trichinella infection in humans - pork was replaced with wild boar meat. In the years 1990-1995 the number of outbreaks due to pork consumption was 3.5-times higher than in the years 2000-2005. In the early nineties pork was the source of infection causing about 71% of all outbreaks; in 2000-2005 that number has fallen to only 12%. On the other hand wild boar meat was responsible for 23% of the outbreaks in 1990-1995 and as many as 88% of all outbreaks in the years 2000-2005. Moreover the number of persons infected in the outbreaks significantly decreased. The study of wild animals demonstrated that wild boars in Poland are infected not only with T. spiralis but also with Trichinella britovi. These results and EU recommendations indicate a requirement of determining the Trichinella species which cause infections in outbreaks. In the 3 trichinellosis outbreaks in 2005 the infected meat products were examined with molecular tools. T. spiralis species larvae were the etiological agents of infection in all these outbreaks. The current epidemiological situation of trichinellosis in Poland indicates a need of increasing the awareness of risks related to wild boar meat consumption among the general public. Introducing the artificial digestion method as an obligatory method for wild boar meat examination is also necessary

  13. A new discovery of parautochthonous moldavites in southwestern Poland, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, ŁUkasz

    2015-10-01

    Moldavites represent tektites derived from the Ries impact structure (~24 km diameter, ~15 Myr old) in southern Germany. Two new localities with parautochthonous moldavites in southwestern Poland were found. In these localities, fluvial sediments of the so-called Gozdnicka formation host the moldavites. Characteristic tektite features, especially bubbles and inclusions of lechatelierite, are reported. The moldavites' size distribution and their abraded shapes indicate that they were redeposited from the nearby Lusatia substrewn field.

  14. Co-circulation of Soricid- and Talpid-borne Hantaviruses in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Kang, Hae Ji; Markowski, Marcin; Połatyńska, Małgorzata; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Paweł P.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported the discovery of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), in the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens), as well as the detection of Seewis virus (SWSV) in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), in central Poland. In this expanded study of 133 shrews and 69 moles captured during 2010–2013 in central and southeastern Poland, we demonstrate the co-circulation of BOGV in the Eurasian water shrew and SWSV in the Eurasian common shrew, Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus). In addition, we found high prevalence of Nova virus (NVAV) infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea), with evidence of NVAV RNA in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the L segment among the SWSV strains was 0–18.8% and 0–5.4%, respectively. And for the 38 NVAV strains from European moles captured in Huta Dłutowska, the L-segment genetic similarity ranged from 94.1–100% at the nucleotide level and 96.3–100% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analyses showed geographic-specific lineages of SWSV and NVAV in Poland, not unlike that of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing host-specific adaptation. The co-circulation and distribution of BOGV, SWSV and NVAV in Poland parallels findings of multiple hantavirus species coexisting in their respective rodent reservoir species elsewhere in Europe. Also, the detection of SWSV in three syntopic shrew species resembles spill over events observed among some rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:25445646

  15. [Treatment of Poland syndrome thorax deformity with the lipomodeling technique: about ten cases].

    PubMed

    La Marca, S; Delay, E; Toussoun, G; Ho Quoc, C; Sinna, R

    2013-02-01

    The correct management, with the classic techniques, of the thoracic deformity in Poland's syndrome is difficult, with often insatisfactory results. The current surgical treatment involves the use of prothetic material and/or different flaps with their own complications and scares. The experience of our team with fat grafting (we named lipomodeling) in breast reconstruction helped us to propose the correction of the thoracic and mammary deformity by repeated fat transfer sessions. Fat grafting is commonly used in our team since 1998 in various indication of breast surgery. We reviewed retrospectively our ten first cases of thoracic deformity in Poland's syndrome treated with only fat grafting. Patients had repeated procedures until obtaining a satisfactory result. The fat was harvested from the thigh, buttocks, and abdomen. There were young patients with a mean age of 16years old (from 12 to 24). The mean follow-up was 51months. An average of 2.9 procedures (1 to 5) with 255cm(3) of fat injection at each procedure was needed to obtain symetry. Hundred percent of the patients were satisfied. No complication was noted. As reported, the reconstruction of the thoracic deformity and the mammary shape can be obtained by fat grafting. The absence of a flap donor site sequelae and the absence an implant allow this technique to be simple, reproductible, and without great complication. These criteria match well the surgical management of this deformity, which is mainly aesthetic. Moreover, the secondary benefit of liposuction of disgracious steatomery helps the acceptance of the procedure. Therefore in our hands, fat grafting to the breast (lipomodeling) is now our first choice treatment in thoracic Poland syndrome deformity. Given the rarity of this syndrome, we recommend a treatment by an operator who makes the learning curve of lipomodeling, and who often deals with Poland syndrome. PMID:23153632

  16. First report of Trichinella pseudospiralis in Poland, in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Moskwa, Bożena; Goździk, Katarzyna; Bień, Justyna; Borecka, Anna; Gawor, Jakub; Cabaj, Władysław

    2013-06-01

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens. Natural transmission between hosts can only occur through the ingestion of infected meat. To date, two Trichinella species are known to be etiological agents of disease among domestic animals and wildlife in Poland: T. spiralis and T. britovi. In the last decades, since the administration of an oral vaccination against rabies, the red fox population in Poland has increased exponentially. The study area covers the Nowy Targ region: a mountainous area (585-1138 m above the sea) in southern Poland. Of 24 red foxes examined in the study, four were infected with Trichinella isolates: three were identified as T. britovi and one as T. pseudospiralis. The muscle of red foxes infected with T. britovi harboured 2.75, 3.11, 4.4 LPG and with T. pseudospiralis 0.36 LPG. Trichinella larvae were identified at species level by genomic and mitochondrial multiplex PCR, the products of which were sequenced for comparison with other sequences available in GenBank. The sequences obtained from the Polish T. pseudospiralis isolate, deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers JQ809660.1 and JQ809661.1, matched sequences already published in GenBank. Sequence comparison showed a 100% match with the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene of T. pseudospiralis isolate ISS 013, and a 96-95% match with those of T. pseudospiralis isolates ISS 141 and ISS 470. This is the first report of the identification of T. pseudospiralis larvae from red fox in Poland. PMID:23666649

  17. Molecular characterization of echovirus 30 isolates from Poland, 1995-2015.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Krzysztoszek, Arleta; Figas, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Echovirus 30 (E30) is one of the most frequently identified enterovirus and a major cause of meningitis in children and adults. To investigate the genetic variability and relationship of E30 isolated from specimens of aseptic meningitis cases that occurred in Poland over a period of 20 years, sequences of VP1 gene were determined and genetic analysis was performed. From 1995 to 2015, 124 E30 were isolated using RD cells, and 58 isolates were sequenced and characterized by phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 region (793 nt). In general, nucleotide sequence divergence in pairwise comparisons among Polish E30 isolates ranged from 0.0 to 15.0 %. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that E30 circulating in Poland since 1995 belong to two unique groups: Group I, characterized by high divergence (up to 13.1 %), segregated in four subgroups, and showed strong temporal circulation of E30. Group II, detected in Poland in 2013-2014, was closely correlated with two meningitis outbreaks and formed a separate genetically homogeneous group. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains from Poland had the closest genetic relationship with not only the isolates previously identified in Europe (Belarus, France, Germany, Italy, Russia) but also those in other parts of the world (Australia, China). Sequences of outbreak isolates were grouped in group II together with those from Russia and China isolated during 2010-2013. The identification of five distinct viral lineages during 1995-2015 confirmed the high E30 genetic diversity which may be an essential precondition for the emergence of new strains responsible for further potential aseptic meningitis outbreaks. PMID:26957092

  18. Methodology of Estimation of Methane Emissions from Coal Mines in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patyńska, Renata

    2014-03-01

    Based on a literature review concerning methane emissions in Poland, it was stated in 2009 that the National Greenhouse Inventory 2007 [13] was published. It was prepared firstly to meet Poland's obligations resulting from point 3.1 Decision no. 280/2004/WE of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004, concerning a mechanism for monitoring community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol and secondly, for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Kyoto Protocol. The National Greenhouse Inventory states that there are no detailed data concerning methane emissions in collieries in the Polish mining industry. That is why the methane emission in the methane coal mines of Górnośląskie Zagłębie Węglowe - GZW (Upper Silesian Coal Basin - USCB) in Poland was meticulously studied and evaluated. The applied methodology for estimating methane emission from the GZW coal mining system was used for the four basic sources of its emission. Methane emission during the mining and post-mining process. Such an approach resulted from the IPCC guidelines of 2006 [10]. Updating the proposed methods (IPCC2006) of estimating the methane emissions of hard coal mines (active and abandoned ones) in Poland, assumes that the methane emission factor (EF) is calculated based on methane coal mine output and actual values of absolute methane content. The result of verifying the method of estimating methane emission during the mining process for Polish coal mines is the equation of methane emission factor EF.

  19. Trichinella spiralis in road-killed raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland.

    PubMed

    Osten-Sacken, Natalia; Solarczyk, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Trichinellosis is still one of the most important food-borne parasitic zoonoses and is considered as a threat to public health worldwide. The aim of this study was to use genotyping techniques to determine the prevalence of Trichinella species in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland. The infection rate in raccoon dogs was 0.8%. All infections were due to T. spiralis. PMID:27262962

  20. Organization and Development of Bone Marrow Donation and Transplantation in Poland.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, Jagoda; Dudkiewicz, Małgorzata; Czerwiński, Jarosław; Kosmala, Karolina; Łęczycka, Anna; Malanowski, Piotr; Żalikowska-Hołoweńko, Jolanta; Małkowski, Piotr; Danielewicz, Roman

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes bone marrow donation and transplantation in Poland in terms of its history, current state, and information on the quality control system. Based on data gathered from the informatics systems of the Polish Central Unrelated Potential Bone Marrow Donor and Cord Blood Registry and the Polish transplant registries, as well as World Marrow Donor Association statistics, we performed an overview study to collect and compare numbers on hematopoietic stem cells donations and transplantations in Poland in the years 2010-2014. In the last 5 years, the number of registered potential hematopoietic stem cells donors in Poland increased by more than 4 times, from about 146,000 to over 750,000. During the same period, the number of patients qualified to hematopoietic stem cells transplantation from unrelated donor increased from 557 in 2010 to 817 in 2014. We observed a striking change in the percentage of transplantations performed in Polish centers using material collected from national donors--from 24% to 60%. This shift was also evident in the number of search procedures closed with acceptation of Polish donors--from 27% in 2010 to 58% in 2014. Another consequence of Polish registry growth is the increasing number of donations from Polish donors for international patients. Between 2010 and 2014, the percent of donation for non-national patient increased from 33% to 76%, placing Poland in 6th place in the ranking of the HSC "exporters" worldwide. Growth of transplantation rates involves standardization process, which is a natural way of development for national organizations in the field of HSCT because of its international character. PMID:26423563

  1. Assessment of atmospheric mercury emission reduction measures relevant for application in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Hlawiczka, S.; Fudala, J.

    2008-03-15

    Fuel combustion for heat and power generation, together with cement production, were the most significant sources of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission in Poland in 2003, with 57 and 27% of Hg emission, respectively. It was found that in Poland, Hg emission reduction measures need to be focused on the energy generation sector. Sorbent injection upstream of an electrostatic precipitator or fabric filter, mercury oxidation upstream of a wet or dry flue gas desulphurisation installation, together with Hg capture on sorbents, should be considered as priority in Polish conditions. This refers mainly to fuel combustion processes but also to the production of cement. For economic reasons it seems advisable that, apart from activated carbons as sorbents, application of zeolites obtained from power plant fly ash should also be considered. Application of primary methods seems to be very promising in Polish conditions, although they should be considered rather as an additional option apart from sorbent injection as the best option. Switching from coal to liquid and gaseous fuels shows the highest potential for reducing Hg emission. For chlorine production using the mercury cell electrolysis method, strict monitoring of Hg emissions and good housekeeping of Hg releasing processes seems a promising approach, but the main activity should focus on changing mercury-based technologies into membrane cell methods. Emission abatement potential for the atmospheric mercury in Poland has been roughly assessed, showing that in perspective of 2015, the emission could be reduced to about 25% of the anthropogenic atmospheric Hg emission in 2003.

  2. Phylogenetic and geographic analysis of fowl adenovirus field strains isolated from poultry in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta

    2016-01-01

    Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are widely distributed in chickens in Poland and throughout the world. FAdV infections have been reported in the United States, Australia, Europe, and the Mediterranean basin. Detection of FAdVs strains is very important from the epidemiological point of view and for monitoring disease outbreaks and developing strategies for vaccine development. Several molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic studies have been performed, but the results obtained are still limited, because FAdV strains, even of the same serotype, have very diverse characteristics. Some strains are pathogenic and some are nonpathogenic. This report describes the successful isolation of 96 FAdV field strains from chickens in Poland. A PCR assay specific for the L1 loop region of the hexon gene was conducted, and the products were subjected to sequence analysis. The sequences were analysed using BLAST and Geneious 6.0 software and compared to adenovirus field and reference strain sequences from different parts of the world that are accessible in the NCBI GenBank database. The sequences of the adenovirus strains indicated that they belonged to five species, Fowl aviadenovirus A-E, represented by eight serotypes FAdV-1, FAdV-4, FAdV-5, FAdV-7, FAdV-8a, FAdV-8b, and FAdV-2/11 (FAdV-D). The relationships between FAdVs isolated in Poland and isolates from other regions of the world were determined. PMID:26446890

  3. Expansion of Nature Conservation Areas: Problems with Natura 2000 Implementation in Poland?

    PubMed Central

    Cent, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    In spite of widespread support from most member countries’ societies for European Union policy, including support for the sustainable development idea, in many EU countries the levels of acceptance of new environmental protection programmes have been and, in particular in new member states, still are considerably low. The experience of the countries which were the first to implement union directives show that they cannot be effectively applied without widespread public participation. The goal of this study was, using the example of Poland, to assess public acceptance of the expansion of nature conservation in the context of sustainable development principles and to discover whether existing nature governance should be modified when establishing new protected areas. The increase in protected areas in Poland has become a hotbed of numerous conflicts. In spite of the generally favourable attitudes to nature which Polish people generally have, Natura 2000 is perceived as an unnecessary additional conservation tool. Both local authorities and communities residing in the Natura areas think that the programme is a hindrance, rather than a help in the economic development of municipalities or regions, as was initially supposed. This lack of acceptance results from many factors, mainly social, historic and economic. The implications of these findings for current approach to the nature governance in Poland are discussed. PMID:21107836

  4. Frequency of under- and overweight among children and adolescents during the economic transition in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ządzińska, E; Rosset, I; Kozieł, S; Nawarycz, T; Borowska-Strugińska, B; Lorkiewicz, W; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, L; Sitek, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity, using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria, in four cohorts of children and adolescents living in Poland in different economic eras: communist economy (1977/1978), crisis of the 1980s (1987/1988), political and economic transformation (1992/1994) and the free market economy (2002/2004). Analysis was conducted on a database including 10,934 records for children of the age 7-18 years. In Poland, in the last 26 years of economic and political transformations, the epidemic of obesity was not noticed but the growing incidence of children and adolescents with body mass deficit was observed (p<0.0001) (20.2% of girls in 2002/2004 vs. 11.0% in 1977/1978 and 12.1% of boys in 2002/2004 vs. 7.2% in 1977/1978). Lower parental education and a higher number of children in a family resulted in a higher prevalence of underweight (odds ratio [OR] fluctuated from 1.26 to 1.63). The social effects of the political transformation in Poland significantly affected families with low socio-economic status (SES), and especially more eco-sensitive boys. This result is opposite to the trends observed in Western countries and makes an important contribution to the current knowledge of the course of further changes in weight-to-height ratio at a global scale. PMID:22608527

  5. International assistance and health care reform in Poland: barriers to project development and implementation.

    PubMed

    Sabbat, J

    1997-09-01

    The restoration of democracy in Poland initiated a major system transformation including reform of the health sector. The international community were quick to respond to the need for assistance. Polish proposals were supported by international experts and projects were developed together with international development agencies and donors. Donors had no experience of central and eastern Europe, these countries had never been beneficiaries of aid and neither side had experience working together. Progress and absorption of funds was slow. Comparative experience from developing countries was used to analyze the barriers encountered in project development and implementation in Poland. The conditions necessary for implementation were not satisfied. Insufficient attention was paid to the project process. Barriers originate on the side of both donors and recipients and additionally from programme characteristics. The most serious problems experience in Poland were lack of government commitment to health care reform leading to failure to provide counterpart funds and low capacity for absorption of aid. Rent seeking attitudes were important. Donor paternalistic attitudes, complex procedures and lack of innovative approach were also present. Poor coordination was a problem on both sides. Multi-lateral projects were too complex and it was not always possible to integrate project activities with routine ones. External consultants played an excessive role in project development and implementation, absorbing a large portion of funds. The barriers have been operationalised to create a checklist which requires validation elsewhere and may be useful for those working in this field. PMID:10170090

  6. Modelling of the atmospheric dispersion of mercury emitted from the power sector in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyśk, J.; Roustan, Y.; Wyrwa, A.

    2015-07-01

    Poland belongs to the group of EU countries with the highest levels of mercury emissions, with a large portion of these emissions being related to coal combustion. This paper presents a modelling analysis of the impact that the Polish power sector has on the atmospheric concentrations of mercury. A detailed mercury emission inventory is used to analyse the concentration and deposition of mercury. For this study, a chemical scheme devoted to mercury transformations in the atmosphere was implemented into the Polyphemus air quality system. The system was then used to perform simulations for 2008 in two domains i.e. over Europe and over Poland. The impact of various parameters on concentration and wet scavenging of mercury has been analysed. The results of the mercury ambient concentrations and depositions, are presented. Additionally, the contribution of natural and anthropogenic sources to mercury deposition in Poland is shown. The performed works showed that the national sources have low impact to overall deposition, however local contribution in wet deposition of big emitters may reach 50%. Sensitive analysis showed a significant impact of reaction with bromine compound and scavenging coefficient on modelled results of mercury concentration and deposition.

  7. Extensive recombination detected among beak and feather disease virus isolates from breeding facilities in Poland.

    PubMed

    Julian, Laurel; Piasecki, Tomasz; Chrzastek, Klaudia; Walters, Matthew; Muhire, Brejnev; Harkins, Gordon W; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-05-01

    Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) causes the highly contagious, in some cases fatal, psittacine beak and feather disease in parrots. The European continent has no native parrots, yet in the past has been one of the world's biggest importers of wild-caught exotic parrot species. Following the banning of this practice in 2007, the demand for exotic pet parrots has largely been met by established European breeding facilities, which can also supply buyers outside Europe. However, the years of unregulated importation have provided numerous opportunities for BFDV to enter Europe, meaning the likelihood of birds within captive breeding facilities being BFDV positive is high. This study examined the BFDV status of such facilities in Poland, a country previously shown to have BFDV among captive birds. A total of 209 birds from over 50 captive breeding facilities across Poland were tested, and 43 birds from 18 different facilities tested positive for BFDV. The full BFDV genomes from these 43 positive birds were determined, and phylogenetic analysis revealed that these samples harboured a relatively high degree of diversity and that they were highly recombinant. It is evident that there have been multiple introductions of BFDV into Poland over a long period of time, and the close association of different species of birds in the captive environment has probably facilitated the evolution of new BFDV strains through recombination. PMID:23324468

  8. Implementing the Espoo Convention in transboundary EIA between Germany and Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Eike

    2008-08-15

    Poland and Germany have a long common border which leads to the necessity to cooperate and consult each other in the case of large-scale projects or infrastructure measures likely to cause negative transboundary effects on the environment. There are already binding provisions for transboundary EIA. In the area of the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), transboundary EIA is intended to be legally binding for the Member States by the Espoo Convention which was ratified by Germany 8.8.2002 and by Poland 12.6.1997. Due to corresponding directives, the same is applicable in the context of the European Union. In German legislation, this issue is regulated by Art. 8 of the Federal EIA Act in regard to transboundary participation of administration and by Art. 9a in respect of transboundary public participation. However, these EIA regulations on transboundary participation do not surpass a certain detail level, as they have to be applied between Germany and all neighbouring states. Therefore both countries decided to agree on more detailed provisions in particular regarding procedural questions. During the 12th German-Polish Environmental Council, Germany and Poland reached an agreement on 11.4.2006 in Neuhardenberg/Brandenburg an agreement upon the implementation of the Espoo Convention, the so called Neuhardenberg Agreement. This article assesses the agreement under consideration of already existing law and discusses major improvements and problems.

  9. [Activity of sanitary surveillances in Vilnius at the time of the Second Republic of Poland].

    PubMed

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, in March 1922, the city of Vilnius together with the Vilnius Region was incorporated into Poland. Sanitary and health negligence was one of the main problems of the city. The genesis of that situation dates back to the 120-year national bondage, when the city was under the Russian rule. Since 1915 it was occupied by the German invader, and from January to April 1919 it belonged to Soviet Russia. The legacy left by this epoch concerned bad housing conditions, problems with removal of impurities, scarcity of fresh water supply, uneven and dirt roads, which along with other bionegative factors resulted in dissemination of contagious diseases and occurrence of other health risks. In Vilnius of the interwar period, similarly to other big cities in Poland, sanitary surveillances played a significant role in controlling acute contagious diseases, inspecting sanitary conditions of living quarters, service outlets, industrial plants, sites of production and selling food articles, as well as surveillance of food. Municipal doctors supervised the work of sanitary inspectors in each sanitary office. PMID:19899609

  10. Variability of growing degree days in Poland in response to ongoing climate changes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Agnieszka; Sulikowska, Agnieszka; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Czekierda, Danuta

    2016-05-01

    An observed increase in air temperature can lead to significant changes in the phenology of plants and, consequently, changes in agricultural production. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial differentiation of thermal resources in Poland and their variability during a period of changing thermal conditions in Europe. Since the variability of thermal conditions is of paramount importance for perennial crops, the study focused on apple, plum, and cherry orchard regions in Poland. The analysis was conducted for the period of 1951-2010 using air temperature daily data. Thermal resources have been defined using the growing degree days (GDD) index calculated independently for the whole year and during in frost-free season for three air temperature thresholds: 0, 5, and 10 °C, which determine the non-winter period, growing season, and the period of full plant growth, respectively. In addition, due to the high significance for perennials in particular, the incidence and intensity of frost during flowering were calculated. In this study, a detailed analysis of the spatial differentiation of thermal resources was first performed, followed by an evaluation of long-term variability and associated change patterns. The obtained results confirmed an increase in thermal resources in Poland as a consequence of the lengthening of the growing season. However, the frequency and intensity of spring frost, especially during flowering or even during ripening of plants, remain a threat to harvests in both the eastern and western parts of the country.

  11. Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) Group Strains Isolated in Poland (1996-2012) and their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns.

    PubMed

    Obszańska, Katarzyna; Kern-Zdanowicz, Izabella; Kozińska, Aleksandra; Machura, Katarzyna; Stefaniuk, Elzbieta; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Sitkiewicz, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus constellatus form a group of related streptococcal species, namely the Streptococcus Anginosus Group (SAG). The group, previously called "milleri" had been rarely described until 1980/1990 as source of infections. Nowadays SAG bacteria are often described as pathogens causing predominantly purulent infections. The number of infections is highly underestimated, as SAG strains are often classified in the microbiology laboratory as less virulent "viridans streptococci" Epidemiological situation regarding SAG infections in Poland has been unrecognized, therefore we performed a retrospective analysis of strains isolated between 1996 and 2012. Strains suspected of belonging to SAG were re-identified using an automated biochemical approach (Vitek2) and MALDI-TOF MS. We performed first analysis of antibiotic resistance among SAG strains isolated in Poland using automated methods (Vitek2), disk diffusion tests and E-Tests. We also performed PCR detection of resistance determinants in antibiotic resistant strains. Clonal structure of analyzed strains was evaluated with PFGE and MLVF methods. All three species are difficult to distinguish using automated diagnostic methods and the same is true for automated MIC evaluation. Our analysis revealed SAG strains are rarely isolated in Poland, predominantly from purulent infections. All isolates are very diverse on the genomic level as estimated by PFGE and MLVF analyses. All analyzed strains are sensitive to penicillin, a substantial group of strains is resistant to macrolides and the majority of strains are resistant to tetracycline. PMID:27281992

  12. Primary and specialist diabetes care three years after introduction of health care system reform in Poland.

    PubMed

    Mardarowicz, Grazyna; Łopatyński, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    The authors discuss epidemics of diabetes in the world and in Poland. In the Lublin region (eastern Poland), for instance, they found type 2 diabetes (DM 2) in 15.6% of the examined aged over 35 (according to the WHO criteria of 1985). The health care system reform in Poland has made more difficult the access of the diabetic to a specialist that treats this disease. Therefore doctors and nurses of primary health care have become more responsible for diabcare than before. The authors believe that the systematic education of primary health care doctors by specialists so that they can treat patients according to the modern standards of practical diabetology as well as sharing of tasks and responsibilities between primary and specialist diabetologic care, are very important. Primary health care would be in charge of prevention and early diagnosis of DM 2 as well as prevention and early diagnosis of concomitant complications of the disease. Specialists would have consultation on the patients at the moment of diagnosis and then at least once a year. They would also take care of search for and diagnosis of remote diabetes complications. Primary health care doctors would still treat most of diabetics with DM 2; specialist centres doctors would treat most of diabetics with DM type 1, patients with complications and from special risk groups (e.g. women with gestational diabetes). PMID:12898974

  13. Varved sediments from Lake Czechowskie (Poland) reveal gradual increase in Atlantic influence during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim; Słowiński, Michał; Wulf, Sabine; Putyrskaya, Victoria; Plessen, Birgit; Błaszkiewicz, Miroslaw

    2015-04-01

    Detailed micro-facies and geochemical analyses have been carried out for the predominantly varved Holocene sediment record of Lake Czechowskie (north-central Poland). The chronology has been established by a multiple dating approach comprising varve counting, AMS 14C dating, 137Cs activity concentration measurements and tephrochronology. The combination of independent dating techniques revealed well-constrained time scales even in phases lacking annual laminations and allows reliable high-resolution archive synchronization. Quantitative (varve thickness variations) and qualitative (sublayer structure) varve parameters as well as geochemical composition have been obtained to gain a comprehensive view of climatic and environmental evolution during the last 11500 years in northern Poland. Five major sedimentological changes have been identified, encompassing transitions from varved to non-varved sediments (and vice versa) at 10.100 and 7.300 cal a BP, respectively, changes in general varve pattern at 6.500 and 4.200 cal a BP and distinct increase of varve thickness accompanied by increased annual variability since 2.800 cal a BP. These changes reflect large-scale reorganization of the climate system throughout the Holocene with increasing influences of the North Atlantic climate system in Poland. Moreover, the observed changes suggest different thresholds and trigger mechanisms over the investigated time period. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analyses - ICLEA - of the Helmholtz Association, grant number VH-VI-415.

  14. Ancient DNA reveals matrilineal continuity in present-day Poland over the last two millennia.

    PubMed

    Juras, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Kushniarevich, Alena; Malmström, Helena; Raghavan, Maanasa; Kosicki, Jakub Z; Metspalu, Ene; Willerslev, Eske; Piontek, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    While numerous ancient human DNA datasets from across Europe have been published till date, modern-day Poland in particular, remains uninvestigated. Besides application in the reconstruction of continent-wide human history, data from this region would also contribute towards our understanding of the history of the Slavs, whose origin is hypothesized to be in East or Central Europe. Here, we present the first population-scale ancient human DNA study from the region of modern-day Poland by establishing mitochondrial DNA profiles for 23 samples dated to 200 BC - 500 AD (Roman Iron Age) and for 20 samples dated to 1000-1400 AD (Medieval Age). Our results show that mitochondrial DNA sequences from both periods belong to haplogroups that are characteristic of contemporary West Eurasia. Haplotype sharing analysis indicates that majority of the ancient haplotypes are widespread in some modern Europeans, including Poles. Notably, the Roman Iron Age samples share more rare haplotypes with Central and Northeast Europeans, whereas the Medieval Age samples share more rare haplotypes with East-Central and South-East Europeans, primarily Slavic populations. Our data demonstrates genetic continuity of certain matrilineages (H5a1 and N1a1a2) in the area of present-day Poland from at least the Roman Iron Age until present. As such, the maternal gene pool of present-day Poles, Czechs and Slovaks, categorized as Western Slavs, is likely to have descended from inhabitants of East-Central Europe during the Roman Iron Age. PMID:25337992

  15. Global Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Approaches taken by a school science department to implement a global science curriculum using a range of available resources are outlined. Problems with current curriculum approaches, alternatives to an ethnocentric curriculum, advantages of global science, and possible strategies for implementing a global science policy are discussed. (27…

  16. Food Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkman, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents food science experiments designed for high school science classes that aim at getting students excited about science and providing them with real-life applications. Enables students to see the application of chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other basic and applied sciences to the production, processing, preservation, evaluation,…

  17. Science Sacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freudenberg, Kimberlee

    2012-01-01

    With the emphasis placed on standardized testing, science education has been squeezed out. As a physics teacher, the author knows the importance of building children's interest in science early in their school career and of providing practice in basic science skills and inquiry. In order to make more time for science at her sons' elementary…

  18. Science Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Bill

    2005-01-01

    The spaces and structures used for undergraduate science often work against new teaching methods and fail to provide environments that attract the brightest students to science. The undergraduate science building often offers little to inspire the imaginations of young minds. The typical undergraduate science building also tends to work against…

  19. Biopolitical science.

    PubMed

    Arnhart, Larry

    2010-03-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework for biopolitical science as a science of political animals. This science moves through three levels of deep political history: the universal political history of the species, the cultural political history of the group, and the individual political history of animals in the group. To illustrate the particular application of biopolitical science, this essay shows how this science would help us to understand Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863. PMID:20812796

  20. To touch the science through the experiment!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słowik, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    To touch the science through the experiment! Grzegorz P. Slowik, Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora, Poland Our School - Gymnasium No. 2 in Zielona Gora - where pupils' age is 13 -16, has for many years organized a lot of exciting events popularizing science among Zielona Gora children and young people, in particular experimental physics and astronomy. The best known in our town is the regular event on physics, - called the physical Festival of Zielona Gora, of which I am the main initiator and organizer. The Festival is directed to students of the last classes of Zielona Góra primary schools. During the Festivities their shows have also physicists and astronomers, from cooperating with us in popularization of science Zielona Gora University. At the festival the students from our Experimental School Group "Archimedes". Presented their own prepared themselves physical experience. With considerable help of students of Gymnasium No. 2 interested in astronomy, we organize the cyclical event, named "Cosmic Santa Claus," where I share with the students the knowledge gained through my active annual participation in the Space Workshop organized by the Science Centre in Warsaw. We all have fun and learn in a great way and with a smile, we touch real science that reveals its secrets!

  1. Post-socialist forest disturbance in the Carpathian border region of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Hostert, Patrick; Radeloff, Volker C; Perzanowski, Kajetan; Kruhlov, Ivan

    2007-07-01

    Forests provide important ecosystem services, and protected areas around the world are intended to reduce human disturbance on forests. The question is how forest cover is changing in different parts of the world, why some areas are more frequently disturbed, and if protected areas are effective in limiting anthropogenic forest disturbance. The Carpathians are Eastern Europe's largest contiguous forest ecosystem and are a hotspot of biodiversity. Eastern Europe has undergone dramatic changes in political and socioeconomic structures since 1990, when socialistic state economies transitioned toward market economies. However, the effects of the political and economic transition on Carpathian forests remain largely unknown. Our goals were to compare post-socialist forest disturbance and to assess the effectiveness of protected areas in the border triangle of Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine, to better understand the role of broadscale political and socioeconomic factors. Forest disturbances were assessed using the forest disturbance index derived from Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ images from 1978 to 2000. Our results showed increased harvesting in all three countries (up to 1.8 times) in 1988-1994, right after the system change. Forest disturbance rates differed markedly among countries (disturbance rates in Ukraine were 4.5 times higher than in Poland, and those in Slovakia were 4.3 times higher than in Poland), and in Ukraine, harvests tended to occur at higher elevations. Forest fragmentation increased in all three countries but experienced a stronger increase in Slovakia and Ukraine (approximately 5% decrease in core forest) than in Poland. Protected areas were most effective in Poland and in Slovakia, where harvesting rates dropped markedly (by nearly an order of magnitude in Slovakia) after protected areas were designated. In Ukraine, harvesting rates inside and outside protected areas did not differ appreciably, and harvests were widespread immediately before the

  2. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  3. GPR monitoring of rock mass stability in selected post-mining region in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golebiowski, T.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activity conducted over a period of many years may cause significant changes in the geological medium and in effect leads to strong degradation of the surface in mining and post-mining regions. One of the most dangerous effects of mining activity is appearance of sinkholes on the ground surface. These phenomena are related to the changes of initial stress-strain state of the rock mass as a result of mining works and the creation of fractures which migrate from excavations to the ground surface. The paper presents the results of selected GPR surveys carried out in the area of the coal mine "Siersza" in two sites, i.e. in the town of Siersza and in the village of Mloszowa (Upper Silesia, South Poland). The aim of the GPR research was 3D visualisation of fractured zones distribution generated by the mining activity and an attempt to make prediction where sinkholes would appear. In order to realize this aim the measurements were conducted in 4D mode (i.e. time-space analysis), which allowed to observe the fractured zones migration towards the ground surface. In order to obtain 4D information (x-y-z-t) GPR surveys were conducted for several years, along the same parallel profiles, separated by a constant distance equals 2.5m. The terrain measurements were carried out with RAMAC and PROEX GPR systems using 250, 200, 100 and 50 MHz antennae. Because of the limited length of this paper, only selected results from the 200-250 MHz antennae are presented. The results were presented in the form of the distribution of GPR signals energies calculated from Hilbert transform, applying the technique of energy inversion. In the site of Siersza, on the basis of 4D GPR visualisation, regions threatened with the formation of sinkholes were distinguished. A few years after the research, 2 cavities appeared in this site which proved that the interpretation was correct. Another fractured zone in this site was confirmed by a borehole. In the site of Mloszowa the GPR measurements

  4. Regional climate signal modified by local factors - multi core study records (Lake Czechowskie region, N Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiska, Izabela; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Plessen, Birgit; Tjallingii, Rik; Słowiński, Michał; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Lake sediments can be utilized as valuable paleoclimate and environmental archives as they contain information of past changes. Multi-proxy analyses of sedimentary compartments (e.g. pollen, diatoms, Cladocera) reveal those changes. However, to decipher the spatial variability of past climate changes and to define the proxies suited for local and regional scale reconstructions archive comparisons are needed. Here we present a detailed multi-proxy study from four different sediment cores covering the Younger Dryas cold period from the Lake Czechowskie region (N Poland). Three cores are located along a transect in the Lake Czechowskie basin from its deepest point towards a former lake bay close to today's shoreline. The fourth lacustrine sediment core was retrieved from the Trzechowskie paleolake, app. 1 km W from Lake Czechowskie. The dataset comprises information from pollen (AP, NAP, Juniperus, Betula-tree, Pinus silvestris), diatom (planktonic/benthic index, diatom valve concentration, dominant species), Cladocera (planktonic/benthic index, dominant species, number of Cladocera species, total sum of specimens) and geochemical (TOC and CaCO3 content, mineral matter, titanium) analyses. At the beginning of the Younger Dryas the AP pollen share decreased and NAP and Juniperus pollen increased in all studied locations. The mineral matter and titanium record showed higher values in two cores taken from the deepest parts of Lake Czechowskie and the core from Trzechowskie paleolake while in the core located at the marginal part of the lake it was already high in Allerød and it did not change much in Younger Dryas. The Cladocera based indexes: total sum of specimens and number of species decreased at the beginning of YD but on the contrary the Cladocera species composition changes were site-specific. The diatoms valve concentration index significantly lowered in core from the deep location while on the contrary increased in core from paleolake Trzechowskie. Our results

  5. Estimation of the Probable Maximum Flood for a Small Lowland River in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.

    2009-04-01

    The planning, designe and use of hydrotechnical structures often requires the assesment of maximu flood potentials. The most common term applied to this upper limit of flooding is the probable maximum flood (PMF). The PMP/UH (probable maximum precipitation/unit hydrograph) method has been used in the study to predict PMF from a small agricultural lowland river basin of Zagozdzonka (left tributary of Vistula river) in Poland. The river basin, located about 100 km south of Warsaw, with an area - upstream the gauge of Plachty - of 82 km2, has been investigated by Department of Water Engineering and Environmenal Restoration of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW since 1962. Over 40-year flow record was used in previous investigation for predicting T-year flood discharge (Banasik et al., 2003). The objective here was to estimate the PMF using the PMP/UH method and to compare the results with the 100-year flood. A new relation of depth-duration curve of PMP for the local climatic condition has been developed based on Polish maximum observed rainfall data (Ozga-Zielinska & Ozga-Zielinski, 2003). Exponential formula, with the value of exponent of 0.47, i.e. close to the exponent in formula for world PMP and also in the formula of PMP for Great Britain (Wilson, 1993), gives the rainfall depth about 40% lower than the Wilson's one. The effective rainfall (runoff volume) has been estimated from the PMP of various duration using the CN-method (USDA-SCS, 1986). The CN value as well as parameters of the IUH model (Nash, 1957) have been established from the 27 rainfall-runoff events, recorded in the river basin in the period 1980-2004. Varibility of the parameter values with the size of the events will be discussed in the paper. The results of the analyse have shown that the peak discharge of the PMF is 4.5 times larger then 100-year flood, and volume ratio of the respective direct hydrographs caused by rainfall events of critical duration is 4.0. References 1.Banasik K

  6. Estimation of the Probable Maximum Flood for a Small Lowland River in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.

    2009-04-01

    The planning, designe and use of hydrotechnical structures often requires the assesment of maximu flood potentials. The most common term applied to this upper limit of flooding is the probable maximum flood (PMF). The PMP/UH (probable maximum precipitation/unit hydrograph) method has been used in the study to predict PMF from a small agricultural lowland river basin of Zagozdzonka (left tributary of Vistula river) in Poland. The river basin, located about 100 km south of Warsaw, with an area - upstream the gauge of Plachty - of 82 km2, has been investigated by Department of Water Engineering and Environmenal Restoration of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW since 1962. Over 40-year flow record was used in previous investigation for predicting T-year flood discharge (Banasik et al., 2003). The objective here was to estimate the PMF using the PMP/UH method and to compare the results with the 100-year flood. A new relation of depth-duration curve of PMP for the local climatic condition has been developed based on Polish maximum observed rainfall data (Ozga-Zielinska & Ozga-Zielinski, 2003). Exponential formula, with the value of exponent of 0.47, i.e. close to the exponent in formula for world PMP and also in the formula of PMP for Great Britain (Wilson, 1993), gives the rainfall depth about 40% lower than the Wilson's one. The effective rainfall (runoff volume) has been estimated from the PMP of various duration using the CN-method (USDA-SCS, 1986). The CN value as well as parameters of the IUH model (Nash, 1957) have been established from the 27 rainfall-runoff events, recorded in the river basin in the period 1980-2004. Varibility of the parameter values with the size of the events will be discussed in the paper. The results of the analyse have shown that the peak discharge of the PMF is 4.5 times larger then 100-year flood, and volume ratio of the respective direct hydrographs caused by rainfall events of critical duration is 4.0. References 1.Banasik K

  7. Seasonal variability of soil sink for atmospheric hydrogen: a case study from southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartyzel, J.; Pycia, M.; Necki, J. M.; Rozanski, K.

    2009-04-01

    Although hydrogen is rarely mentioned as a greenhouse gas, it is expected that elevated concentrations of this gas in the atmosphere in the coming decades, associated with massive anthropogenic emissions may lead to longer residence time of atmospheric CH4 and associated enhancement of the greenhouse effect. The global average mixing ratio of atmospheric H2 amounts at present to approximately 500 ppb. The sources and sinks of hydrogen are not well quantified. In particular, little is known about the strength and spatial and temporal variability of hydrogen uptake by soils. The EU 6th Framework Project EUROHYDROS is aimed at initialising European monitoring capability for atmospheric hydrogen, including the ability to derive isotope ratios and to use these observations, together with studies on sinks and sources of H2 and modelling work, to improve the understanding of hydrogen budget on the global scale. As a part of EUROHYDROS project, a dedicated study aimed at quantifying seasonal variability of soil sink for atmospheric hydrogen is being conducted in southern Poland. The experimental site is located on the outskirts of Krakow, a large city with numerous anthropogenic sources of H2. To quantify the soil sink for H2, a dedicated equipment has been constructed, based on the inverted cap principle. To quantify the uptake of H2 by soils, a 20-liter chamber made of stainless steel and plexiglas is placed on the soil surface and concentration of hydrogen inside the chamber is measured in regular time intervals in order to quantify the dynamics H2 removal via enzymatic reactions taking place in the upper soil layers. The concentration of hydrogen was measured in samples of air collected under the chamber in specified time intervals. A commercially available instrument (Peak Performer 1, Peak Laboratories, USA) equipped with RGA detector was used for this purpose. The measurements were performed regularly every two weeks. Apart of hydrogen concentrations, also several

  8. Variations on the Lower Silesian (SW Poland) lithospheric mantle - the Grodziec xenoliths case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Ćwiek, Mateusz; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2016-04-01

    The lithospheric mantle underlying the northern margin of Bohemian Massif (Lower Silesia, SW Poland) is in general characterized by presence of two ultramafic lithologies, both of mostly harzburgitic composition. The group A harzburgites are strongly depleted and record variable metasomatic events, which are however always related to reactions with mixed alkaline-carbonatite melts. The group B harzburgites also record reaction with mafic melts, but in this case the reaction resulted in enrichment of the peridotites in Fe ("Fe-metasomatism"). The xenoliths suites from Grodziec (this study), Krzeniów (Matusiak-Małek et al., 2014, JoP) and Wilcza Góra (Matusiak-Małek et al., submitted), all in the Złotoryja volcanic complex, follow the "A" and "B" lithological characteristics. The Grodziec suite contains, however, numerous lherzolitic xenoliths. The group A xenoliths from Grodziec are anhydrous lherzolites, scarcely harzburgites. The Fo content in olivine varies from 90.7 to 91.8%, Mg# in ortho-and clinopyroxene is 0.91-0.92. Al content in orthopyroxene is 0.05-0.14 a pfu (0.70 to 3.44 wt.%), which makes them one of the highest in region. Few lherzolites are characterized by slightly lower Fo content in olivine (89.16-90.10%) and are therefore classified as A- group. The Mg# of pyroxenes in this group varies from 0.89 to 0.90, but orthopyroxene is generally characterized by low Al content (< 0.08 a pfu, corresponding to <2 wt.% in majority of xenoliths). Group B xenoliths are orthopyroxene - free dunites, and wehrlite. Olivine contains from 85.14 to 86.14 % of Fo, the Mg# of clinopyroxene varies from 0.84 to 0.88. Clinopyroxene in all the groups is LREE enriched and has negative Sr, Zf-Hf and Ti anomalies, but the enrichment decreases from group A to B and so are the depths of negative anomalies. Temperatures of major element equilibration of group A and A- pyroxenes are from approximately 1010 to 1100°C with no specific differences between the groups. So high

  9. Sedimentary record of Warta river floods in summer 2010 and winter 2011 nearby Poznan, W Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolasińska, Katarzyna; Szczuciński, Witold; Mitręga, Marta; Rotnicka, Joanna; Jagodziński, Robert; Lorenc, Stanisław

    2013-04-01

    The Warta River valley nearby Poznań (W Poland) represents a meandering lowland river changed during the last 150 years by hydro-engineering works. Floods represent a major natural hazard in the region. However, historical records are not complete - particularly for former rural areas. Thus, sedimentary record may potentially offer additional insights into the flooding history. The big floods in the summer 2010 (the largest during the last 31 years) and winter 2011 offered opportunity to study their sedimentary record. The particular purposes were to identify sedimentary characteristics of summer and winter floods, interpret various phases of particular floods in the record, and assess impact of early post-depositional changes of the flood deposits. The surveys were conducted in six areas just after the floods and were repeated after several months, one and two years. The deposits spatial extent, thickness, surface bedforms and sediment type were assessed in the field. Sediment samples were further investigated for grain size distribution, organic matter content, roundness and sand grains surface features (SEM). The sandy flood deposits mostly build natural levee, side bars (<5 m from the channel bank) or crevasse splays (<40 m). They were up to 10-15 cm thick for the summer and 30-35 cm for the winter flood. The sands were mostly fine grained, well sorted and fine skewed. Their structures were massive with rare cases of climbing ripple lamination and planar cross laminations (only in crevasse splays). Vertical grain size changes in levee deposits revealed pensymmetric and/or reverse grading interpreted as effect of changing velocity during the rising water level. The sand grains were similar to the river channel sands and dominated by polished and sub-rounded quartz grains with preserved dissolution and dulled surface microfeatures. Further from the channel bank (few to few hundreds of meters) only discontinuous up to few mm thick organic rich mud layer was left

  10. The Palaeoproterozoic accretionary crustal growth: implications from new age data on the crystalline basement in Lithuania, NW Belarus and N Poland (the East European Craton)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skridlaite, G.; Bogdanova, S.; Taran, L.; Wiszniewska, J.

    2012-04-01

    widespread c. 1.80-1.76 Ga metamorphism and tholeiitic magmatism related to post-collisional extension constrain the maximum age of the final accretion of the terranes. It is evidenced by numerous 1.80-1.79 Ga gabbro-noritic, dioritic and granitic intrusions in NE Poland and elsewhere in Lithuania and Belarus (Claesson, 2001; Vejelyte, 2011). The later reworking at c. 1.70-1.45 Ga and c. 1.60-1.45 Ga AMCG magmatism affected the already accreted craton. Evolutionary, a 1.90-1.87 Ga continental margin was established in present-day E Lithuania and NW Belarus, while younger volcanic arcs were still forming to the west and south at 1.86-1.84 Ga. They had been subsequently accreted to the c. 1.89 Ga continental margin in the time span of 1.84-1.80 Ga, and a new continental margin emerged. After the youngest c. 1.83-1.80 Ga island arcs were docked, the ocean was closed and the crust was finally cratonized. The younger 1.70-1.45 Ga events were intracratonic reflections of active geological processes further west. This is a contribution to the project "Precambrian rock provinces and active tectonic boundaries across the Baltic Sea and in adjacent areas" of the Visby Programme (the Swedish Institute), Lithuanian Science Council grant MIP-034/2011 and SYNTHESYS project SE-TAF-1535

  11. Infertility in Poland--present status, reasons and prognosis as a reflection of Central and Eastern Europe problems with reproduction.

    PubMed

    Sanocka, Dorota; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2003-03-01

    Poland has been considered a representative country for the population of Central and Eastern Europe as it has genetically homogenous population and reveals profound similarities in economical and historical processes common for all countries of the region. According to our observations there is approximately 20% of infertile couples in Poland (lack of concentration after at least 12 month of unprotected intercourse) and 40-60% of them are infertile because of the male factor. However, studies of infertility in Poland that have been conducted so far need to be verified. The changes connected with the style of life and new tendencies observed during the tedious political changes had considerable influence on childbearing rate in Poland. Additional factors diminishing the fertility rate are: the change of the status of women in a society, raising amount of everyday stress, the high rate (17%) of unemployment and the low average income. Furthermore, in Poland, the diagnostics and treatment (assisted reproductive technology) are entirely financed from the private funds of a patient. Summing up, the problem of childlessness in Central and Eastern Europe is a complex one and very alarming therefore it is necessary to work out and to implement research, preventative and therapeutic programmes strengthened through the international cooperation of specialized centers of excellence. PMID:12640359

  12. Photonics and web engineering in Poland, WILGA 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2009-06-01

    The paper is a digest of work presented during a cyclic Ph.D. student symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering WILGA 2009. Symposium is organized by ISE PW in cooperation with professional organizations IEEE, SPIE, PSP and KEiT PAN. There are presented mainly Ph.D. and M.Sc. theses as well as achievements of young researchers. These papers, presented in such a big number, more than 250 in some years, are in certain sense a good digest of the condition of academic research capabilities in this branch of science and technology. The undertaken research subjects for Ph.D. theses in electronics is determined by the interest and research capacity (financial, laboratory and intellectual) of the young researchers and their tutors. Basically, the condition of academic electronics research depends on financing coming from applications areas. During Wilga 2009 there were organized, and thus the paper debates, the following topical sessions concerning applications of advanced electronics and photonics systems: merging of electronic systems and photonics, Internet engineering, distributed measurement systems, security in information technology, astronomy and cosmic technology, HEP experiments, environment protection, image processing and biometry. The paper contains also more general remarks concerning the workshops organized by and for the Ph.D. students in advanced photonics and electronics systems.

  13. Micro-XRF analysis of silver coins from medieval Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M.; Świt, Paweł; Matosz, Marta; Woźniak, Mateusz; Klisińska-Kopacz, Anna; Bratasz, Łukasz

    2015-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has become a standard method in archaeological science due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature. This technique has extensively been used for the study of numismatic collections since the data derived from it can be correlated with manufacturing processes, provenance of raw materials, and geographical distribution of ancient mints. A group of 71 silver coins of the first Piasts: Boleslaus the Brave (996-1025) and Mieszko II Lambert (1025-1034) belonging to the collections of the National Museum in Krakow have been characterized using micro-XRF spectrometry. This is the most numerous collection of their coins representing nearly 30% of all known coins from these rulers. The research has focused on evaluating the use of this technique as a screening tool for elemental surface characterization of the alloys. Surveyed coins are mainly constituted by Ag, Cu and Pb along with trace levels of Fe, Ni, Zn, Au, Hg, Bi, and Br. Quantitative analyses have revealed Ag contents in the 81.6-97.5% range for all the evaluated coins. This study had the goal of providing information about the elemental composition of these objects, which will serve to enhance the existing knowledge about geographical and chronological diversification of Polish numismatic collections.

  14. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 29 science activities for secondary school science instruction. Topic areas include botany, genetics, biochemistry, anatomy, entomology, molecular structure, spreadsheets, chemistry, mechanics, astronomy, relativity, aeronautics, instrumentation, electrostatics, quantum mechanics, and laboratory interfacing. (CW)

  15. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 27 science activities for secondary school science instruction. Topic areas include microbiology, botany, biochemistry, genetics, safety, earthquakes, problem solving, electricity, heat, solutions, mechanics, quantum mechanics, flame tests, and molecular structure. (CW)

  16. Science Scope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Richard, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an education project launched by the National Academy of Sciences and the Pentagon to turn laid-off aerospace engineers into science teachers at Los Angeles middle schools and high schools. (MKR)

  17. Science Sleuths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Sherril L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a two-day forensic science course that is offered to eighth grade students enrolled in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Magnet Schools. Provides sample student activity sheets for the course. (Author/RT)

  18. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  19. Generation Changes over the Period of 1986-2006 in the Physical Fitness of Boys Aged 7-19 from Eastern Poland at Particular Stages of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saczuk, Jerzy; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Zalech, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the size of secular trends in the physical fitness of boys from eastern Poland taking into consideration stages of education. Material and methods: The physical fitness results of boys aged 7-19 years living in eastern regions of Poland were analyzed: 3188 students were examined in 1986 while in 2006 the research included 10…

  20. Relief-induced soil zones at the Cretaceous sandstone-mudstone contact in the Stolowe Mountains, SW Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabala, Cezary; Waroszewski, Jaroslaw; Jezierski, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    Regolith translocation on mountain slope built of stratified rocks creates mixed or layered covers which may obliterate the actual transitions of rocks. The covers are seldom delineated on geological maps due to their insignificant thickness; however, enough large to influence the soil morphology and ecological functions. A toposequence of six soil sections situated at the contact of Cretaceous sandstone and mudstone was investigated to evaluate the influence of relief-position and morphological processes on slope cover formation, as well as soil and forest habitat arrangement. At least four distinct soil zones were distinguished in the 400 m long catena: (1) Arenosols and sand Regosols zone, on active fluvial cones and blocky covers directly below sandstone cliffs; (2) upper mid-slope zone of Podzols developed from sandstone-derived materials with periglacial features (solifluction) in the subsoil; (3) lower mid-slope and foot-slope zone of Stagnosols and Planosols with prolonged water stagnation over the impermeable subsoil developed from sandstone or mixed sandstone-mudstone regolith; excess of water is also the sign of mudstone bedrock that forces lateral water flow; and (4) toe-slope zone of Cambisols developed from the mudstone regolith. Past and present-day morphological processes have broadened the area mantled by sandstone-derived materials from upper-slope and created transitional materials that enhanced soil variability and multi-step zonality over the presumably sharp contact of sandstone and mudstone bedrocks. Financed in part by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Poland (project number: N N310 435938) and National Science Centre (project OPUS 2012/05/B/NZ9/03389). Lorz, C., Heller, K., Kleber, A. (2011): Stratification of the regolith continuum - a key property for processes and functions of landscapes. Z Geomorphol 55, 3: 277-292. Sauer, D., Felix-Heningsen, P. (2006): Saprolite, soils and sediments in the Rhenish Massif as records of

  1. Dramatic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Precious, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The setting: the science classroom. The characters: you and your students. The scene: Your students acting out scientific discoveries, modeling a frog's life cycle, mimicking the transition from liquid to solid. This is "dramatic science", a teaching approach that uses acting techniques to explore and develop young children's ideas about science.…

  2. Sublime Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girod, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of the shortcomings in most efforts to integrate art and science is that many people have a shallow understanding of art, which inevitably leads to shallow connections between art and science. Coloring drawings of planets, building sculptures of volcanoes, and decorating scientific diagrams are fine activities, but they do not link science and…

  3. Science First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strycker, Jan Adkins

    1995-01-01

    Describes a teacher's efforts to put science first in the classroom. Discusses changing the place of science on the schedule and presents an activity to engage student interest. Concludes that a difference in teacher attitude towards science motivates students to learn. (NB)

  4. Safer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This column provides best safety practices for the science classroom and laboratory. In this month's issue, pregnancy policy in the laboratory is discussed. One can't ignore the fact that student and faculty pregnancies--and the resulting potential hazards in the science laboratory--exist at the high school level. Science teachers need to be…

  5. Science Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan W.; Biehle, James T.; Motz, LaMoine L.; West, Sandra S.

    2009-01-01

    The National Research Council's "National Science Education Standards" call for science education to be "developmentally appropriate, interesting, and relevant to students' lives, emphasize student understanding through inquiry, and be connected with other school subjects." This description captures the three major trends in science education…

  6. The full GHG balance of croplands under seven-year rotation scheme and conventional tillage practices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczak, Radoslaw; Sakowska, Karolina; Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Uzdzicka, Bogna; Strozecki, Marcin; Polmanska, Daria; Chojnicki, Bogdan; Urbaniak, Marek; Augustin, Juergen; Necki, Jarek; Olejnik, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gases fluxes were measured with chambers on the selected plots of the experimental arable station of Poznan University of Life Sciences in Brody (52o26'N, 16o18'E), Poland. This is a long term experiment, where the same crops are cultivated under the same fertilization treatment schemes (eleven combinations) since 1957. At the blocks of the full 7-year rotation, there are cultivated in permanent rotation: winter wheat ->winter rye -> potato ->spring barley -> triticale and alfalfa (till the second year). GHG fluxes have been measured on plots with the same fertilization level (Nmin-90kg, K2O-120 kg/ha, P2O5-60 kg/ha and Ca), which is very close to the average amount of mineral fertilization applied in western Poland. No catch crops were cultivated between the main crops. The soil was classified as Albic Luviosols according to FAO 2006 classification. CO2 fluxes have been measured monthly since March 2011, while N2O and CH4 fluxes since March 2012 (weekly) and measurements were continued till October 2013. CO2 fluxes were measured with dynamic chambers, while N2O and CH4 fluxes were measured with both static and dynamic chambers approaches (using LOSGATOS gas analyser). Carbon net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) have been modelled for the entire period based on the measured fluxes (different management treatments were included in the model), while N2O and CH4 fluxes were linearly interpolated between campaigns. Taking into account the accumulation periods between 15th of October and 14th of October of the next year the cumulated NEE was negative only in case of alfalfa, winter rye and winter wheat, reaching in average -3.5 tCO2-C ha-1 for alfalfa and winter rye fields and around -0.4 tCO2-C ha-1 for winter wheat in seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. While, cumulated NEE for spring crops (potato and spring barley) was positive for the same periods and reached in average 1.1 tCO2-C ha-1 and 2.5 tCO2-C ha-1 for spring barley and

  7. Assessment of Holocene soil erosion rates on the loess plateau in East Poland using sedimentary archives from closed depressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołodyńska-Gawrysiak, Renata; Poesen, Jean; Gawrysiak, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    Closed depressions (CDs) are typical geomorphological features of the European loess belt. They are closed sedimentation basins that enable the estimation of long-term soil erosion rates for different land use environments. This study was conducted in eastern Poland (Nałęczów Plateau). In this region CDs are rather small landforms and the area of 70% of all CDs does not exceed 1500 m2. The study objective was to assess Holocene soil erosion rates in the loess plateau based on a quantitative analysis of colluvial sediments deposited in CDs. Two representative CDs were selected for this study: one CD is located in an old (long-term) forest and the other is situated in a long-term agricultural land. The maximum depth of the CD in the forest, the mean slope gradient and area of the corresponding catchment are 4.9 m, 3.410 and 7568 m² respectively. For the CD in agricultural land these values are 3.2 m, 2.760 and 5156 m² respectively. In both CDs several dozen of drillings and two trenches (2 m long, 1m wide, 2 m deep) were made in the deepest point of the CDs. Mean long-term soil erosion rates were calculated based on the stratigraphy of the soil-sediment sequence infilling the CDs. C-14 and OSL datings of soils and colluvial sediments within the CDs were obtained. For the long-term agricultural used catchment of the CD it was calculated that since 6.31 ± 0.35 ka BP the mean annual soil loss due to water and tillage erosion is 0.63-0.7 t/ha/year or 279.3 mm. In the prehistoric period since 6.31 ± 0.35 ka BP until 1026-1162 AD the mean annual soil erosion rate amounted to 0,10-0.11 t/ha/year or 41.5 mm. During the last ca. 1000 years mean soil erosion rates increased to 3.99-4.63 t/ha/year or 249.2 mm. Results of long-term soil erosion rates (calculated using colluvial sediment sequences in CDs) from agricultural catchments in the loess regions of eastern Poland (this study) and Central Belgium (Gillijns et al. 2005) are quite similar. For the forested catchment

  8. Impact of wind on ambient noise recorded by the "13 BB star" seismic array in northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepore, Simone; Markowicz, Krzysztof; Grad, Marek

    2016-04-01

    corresponding to the best fit between phase slowness and back azimuth. The azimuth was mainly associated to the angle of the highest peak on the vertical component; however, if the related energy was not large enough, the angle of the main noise source on the horizontal component was employed. In some cases, the azimuth of the secondary peak was taken into account, if its energy was strong enough. The results were related to the daily mean wind speed around Europe recorded during the same month. A significant correlation between the daily average level of ambient noise and the mean wind speed was found. The main source of the ambient noise was located in the Atlantic Ocean and in the North Sea: some weaker sources, however, were identified as the Barents, Baltic, Mediterranean, and Black Seas. National Science Centre Poland provided financial support for this work by NCN grant DEC 2011/02/A/ST10/00284.

  9. The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 (Acari, Demodecidae) in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Izdebska, Joanna N; Kozina, Paulina; Fryderyk, Sławomira

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of Demodex kutzeri Bukva, 1987 was examined and compared in red deer coming from different populations--25 red deer from northern Poland (Masurian Lake District) and 25 from southern Poland (Lower Silesia). The total prevalence of infestation in red deer by D. kutzeri was 52% with the mean intensity of 38 individuals and the intensity range of 1-135. Parameters of infestation for red deer from northern Poland were much higher (68%, 49), while for other red deer--lower (36%, 16). Demodectic mites D. kutzeri are associated with common hair follicles, therefore they can be found in different parts of the body, however most of the specimens were found in the head skin. Regardless of the location and the infestation rate (including density of mites in the skin), infestations were not accompanied by symptoms of demodecosis. PMID:24171302

  10. Pharmaceutical lobbying under postcommunism: universal or country-specific methods of securing state drug reimbursement in Poland?

    PubMed

    Ozierański, Piotr; McKee, Martin; King, Lawrence

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to fill in the gap in research on the effect of pharmaceutical lobbying on drug reimbursement policy, particularly in Poland, a post-communist country. To this end, we conducted in-depth, semi-structured, anonymous, elite interviews in Poland, supplemented by a review of legislation, policy documents, official reports and press articles, as well as observations. Overall, 109 representatives of stakeholders involved in reimbursement policy were interviewed. We identified two key lobbying methods: informal persuasion and third-party endorsements. These methods are coupled with two supplementary ones: lobbying through parliament and ministries, as well as diplomatic pressure. Pharmaceutical lobbying methods in Poland clearly resemble those used in other European countries. What is notable about the Polish case is extensive reliance on informal lobbying and diplomatic pressure. PMID:21819633

  11. A U.S. Partnership with India and Poland to Track Acute Chemical Releases to Serve Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Orr, Maureen; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Dewan, Aruna; Kapil, Vikas

    2009-01-01

    We describe a collaborative effort between the U.S., India, and Poland to track acute chemical releases during 2005–2007. In all three countries, fixed facility events were more common than transportation-related events; manufacturing and transportation/warehousing were the most frequently involved industries; and equipment failure and human error were the primary contributing factors. The most commonly released nonpetroleum substances were ammonia (India), carbon monoxide (U.S.) and mercury (Poland). More events in India (54%) resulted in victims compared with Poland (15%) and the U.S. (9%). The pilot program showed it is possible to successfully conduct international surveillance of acute hazardous substances releases with careful interpretation of the findings. PMID:19826549

  12. Analysis of direct costs of hypertension treatment among adolescents in Poland.

    PubMed

    Paczkowska, Anna; Koligat, Dorota; Nowakowska, Elzbieta; Hoffmann, Karolina; Bryl, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    In adolescents, arterial hypertension (AH) is diagnosed much more frequently than previously thought--it affects 3.2% of the population aged 11-18. In Poland, at present, there are no cost analyses of treatment arterial hypertension among adolescents. The aim of the conducted studies was to analyze direct medical and non-medical costs in the time horizon of one calendar year (2010) of AH treatment in adolescents in Poland. A retrospective study from the societal perspective was based on data from 480 patients medical history cards obtained from the archives of the hospital. From this group, according to the criteria for inclusion in the study, a research group was selected consisting of 36 patients aged 16-18 years, with a diagnosed and treated hypertension. Analysis covered direct medical costs (costs of pharmacotherapy, doctors' visits and laboratory tests, hospitalization) and direct non-medical costs (cost of transport to the outpatient clinic). Average annual cost of hypertension treatment per patient was 89.96 Euro. The largest part of the structure of total costs related with hypertension treatment in adolescents in Poland were the costs of medical consultation with lab tests and diagnostic examinations--35.04% and pharmacotherapy costs--32.95%, with hospital stays rating somewhat lower with 19.12%, and the smallest part were the costs of the patient's transportation to the hypertension outpatient clinic--12.89%. Early identification of risk factors of such cardiovascular diseases as hypertension as early as in the developmental age, and their subsequent elimination, should be considered a good investment in the reduction of costs associated with hypertension treatment in adulthood. PMID:24779208

  13. Retrospective evaluation of 131I deposition density and thyroid dose in Poland after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak-Flis, Zofia; Krajewski, Pawel; Radwan, Irena; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2003-06-01

    The 131I deposition in Poland after the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 was evaluated from the determined 129I deposition and the estimated 129I/131I ratio at the time of the arrival of fallout. Concentrations of 129I and 127I were determined by neutron activation analysis in uncultivated soils from 16 locations in Poland. Determination of 137Cs in soils was carried out by gamma spectrometry. The atomic ratio of 129I/131I at the time of fallout arrival was estimated using the 129I/131I ratio at the time of the accident, which, on the basis of the core inventory data, was assumed to be 22.8. It was estimated from the time of fallout arrival and from the weighed mean atomic ratio that the 129I/131I ratio for Poland was 32.8. The calculated 131I deposition ranged from 63.2 to 729 kBq m(-2). High deposition of 131I occurred in the locations with rainfall but occasionally also in locations without rainfall. Committed equivalent doses from 131I were evaluated for 5-y-old children, 10-y-old children, and adults using the computer model CLRP for the situations with and without countermeasures including iodine prophylaxis. The highest thyroid doses from inhalation and ingestion without countermeasures were 178 mSv, 120 mSv, and 45 mSv for 5-y-old children, 10-y-old children, and adults, respectively. The countermeasures reduced these doses by about 30%. PMID:12822579

  14. Ancient DNA Reveals Matrilineal Continuity in Present-Day Poland over the Last Two Millennia

    PubMed Central

    Juras, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Kushniarevich, Alena; Malmström, Helena; Raghavan, Maanasa; Kosicki, Jakub Z.; Metspalu, Ene; Willerslev, Eske; Piontek, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    While numerous ancient human DNA datasets from across Europe have been published till date, modern-day Poland in particular, remains uninvestigated. Besides application in the reconstruction of continent-wide human history, data from this region would also contribute towards our understanding of the history of the Slavs, whose origin is hypothesized to be in East or Central Europe. Here, we present the first population-scale ancient human DNA study from the region of modern-day Poland by establishing mitochondrial DNA profiles for 23 samples dated to 200 BC – 500 AD (Roman Iron Age) and for 20 samples dated to 1000–1400 AD (Medieval Age). Our results show that mitochondrial DNA sequences from both periods belong to haplogroups that are characteristic of contemporary West Eurasia. Haplotype sharing analysis indicates that majority of the ancient haplotypes are widespread in some modern Europeans, including Poles. Notably, the Roman Iron Age samples share more rare haplotypes with Central and Northeast Europeans, whereas the Medieval Age samples share more rare haplotypes with East-Central and South-East Europeans, primarily Slavic populations. Our data demonstrates genetic continuity of certain matrilineages (H5a1 and N1a1a2) in the area of present-day Poland from at least the Roman Iron Age until present. As such, the maternal gene pool of present-day Poles, Czechs and Slovaks, categorized as Western Slavs, is likely to have descended from inhabitants of East-Central Europe during the Roman Iron Age. PMID:25337992

  15. Invasive giant hogweeds in Poland: Risk of burns among forestry workers and plant distribution.

    PubMed

    Rzymski, Piotr; Klimaszyk, Piotr; Poniedziałek, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    The Caucasian giant hogweeds (Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden. and Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier et Lever) are aggressive invaders that are successfully spreading in different parts of the world. Exposure of human skin to these plants may lead to phototoxicity and even chemical burns manifested by cutaneous, full-thickness, and long-lasting dermatitis, and in extreme cases, massive skin necrosis. Forestry workers are a group with potentially increased risk of exposure to these plants because of the outdoor nature of their work and their active involvement in managing invasive species. Therefore, in this study, we aimed at investigating their level of awareness with regard to the giant hogweeds in Poland. The morphology of the plants, health threats, treatment, and control methods were all considered. We also evaluated the distribution of these plants within forest districts in Poland. For this reason, we surveyed 1563 employees (forest rangers, manual workers, and administration staff) of the State Forests National Forest Holding in Poland "State Forests," working in 367 different forest districts. It was initially found that the forestry workers were generally aware of the giant hogweeds' morphology and phototoxicity. More than 20% of the surveyed individuals had been exposed to these plants at least once in their lives, but only less than half of them were aware of proceeding afterward. At the same time, <35% of those surveyed had any knowledge of the control and management of these giant hogweeds. As demonstrated by our study, stands of these species are widely distributed within the Polish forest districts (reported in over 50%). Therefore, there is an urgent need to implement an efficient, multistrategic, and long-term approach to both control their spread and protect human health. PMID:26489718

  16. [THE SCIENTIFIC LEGACY OF JEAN EMMANUEL GILIBERT IN POLAND (COPIES OF HIS WORKS; THEIR RECEPTION)].

    PubMed

    Köhler, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    In order to locate copies of the works of Jean Emmanuel Gilibert (1741-1814) located in Poland, 54 libraries were selected for inquiry, chosen on the basis of their history or of the nature or size of their collections. So far, 27 libraries have responded to the inquiry. There are works of J.E. Gilibert stored in 14 of them (Table 1). To date, 102 copies of different editions catalogued under Gilibert's name have been recorded in libraries in Poland. These books were placed in these libraries in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, mainly as part of donations from private libraries. In Poland, the reception of the botanical works of J.E. Gilibert changed over time. Initially they were accepted uncritically (Stanisław Bonifacy Jundzill, Józef Jundziłł). Over time, and with the increase in floristic data subsequent to the publication of Gilibert's works, his treatises were cited less frequently. As early as the second half of the nineteenth century, Polish botanists mentioned them only occasionally. More accurate works, containing newer taxonomical considerations of species, effectively supplanted the works of Gilibert in scientific circulation. It is worth noting that for contemporary plant taxonomy, the botanical works of Gilibert are of no scientific value. Four of them (Flora lituanica inchoata, Exercitium botanicum, Caroli Linnaei botanicorum principis, Exercitia phytologica) are listed in Appendix V, 'Opera Utique Oppressa', of the 2006 Vienna Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Names appearing in these works in the rankings specified at the end of each listing (species and intraspecific taxa) are not accepted as valid. PMID:26445749

  17. Erratic blocks in NW Poland - geological heritage, conservation and geotourism promotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górska-Zabielska, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Big glacial erratic blocks, transported between 20 ka and 14 ka BP from Scandinavia are still present in the fields and forest of the north-western part of Poland. They present mainly magmatic and metamorphic petrographic types. Among them the most important are indicator erratics, which point to a distinct source region in Sweden, Finland or within the Baltic Sea. The largest boulders, sometimes shrouded in legend, have been protected for ages as natural monuments. Others still wait for such an attention. The largest erratic block in Poland ("Trigław") is located in a small town Tychowo (53°55'42″N 16°15'29″E) in the Middle Pomerania. It is a gneiss with no features pointing to a distinct Scandinavian provenance. Its measurements are: height 7,8 m (3,8 m above surface), length 13,7 m, width 9,3 m, volume around 520 m3, weight 1430 tons. The biggest sedimentary boulder, sandstone ("Mszczonowski Głaz"), is located in a Zawada village (51°54`51,1"N 20°27`16,5"E) in the centre of Poland (beyond the scope of the presentation). Its measurements are: height 3 m, length 12 m, width 3 m, volume around 57 m3, weight 160 tons. The presentation shows the biggest and most interesting Scandinavian boulders blocks from north-western part of Poland, their geological heritage and role, that they play in a local geotourism promotion. Apart from their location in situ, the boulders are also available ex situ, i.e. in erratic gardens. These collections of rocks accompany seats of local nature museums or national parks offices. Also other usage of erratics (stony buildings and road/pavements, fences), known for ages, will be presented. Erratic blocks are favorite destinations for tourists who follow geotouristic trails. The most valuable for a geotourism are these geosites, which are equipped in a board informing about the genesis and geologic value of an erratic. The simpler and more intelligible language, the bigger didactic and touristic value of a geosite.

  18. First isolation of Clostridium difficile PCR-ribotype 027/toxinotype III in Poland.

    PubMed

    Pituch, Hanna; Bakker, Dennis; Kuijper, Ed; Obuch-Woszczatyński, Piotr; Wultańska, Dorota; Nurzyńska, Grazyna; Bielec, Anna; Bar-Andziak, Ewa; Łuczak, Mirosław

    2008-01-01

    Of 175 Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patient hospitalized in one academic hospital in Warsaw between 2005-2006, one isolate belonged to PCR-ribotype 027/toxinotype III. This isolate had tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin genes (cdtA and cdtB), a 18-bp deletion and a 1 bp deletion at 117 position in the tcdC gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests revealed high level resistance to erythromycin, moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. This is a first report of the 027 strain of C. difficile in Poland. PMID:19004250

  19. Discovery of the most distal Ries tektites found in Lower Silesia, southwestern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachaniec, Tomasz; Szopa, Krzysztof; Karwowski, ŁUkasz

    2014-08-01

    We report the first occurrence of moldavites in Poland. This discovery confirms the hypothesis that moldavites could have been distributed up to 500 km from the Ries crater in Germany. The tektites were reworked from Middle Miocene sediments and redeposited in Late Miocene (Pannonian) fluvial deposits of the Gozdnicka Formation in Lower Silesia. The Polish moldavites are represented by nine (<8 mm) fragments with a total of 0.471 g. The lack of the autochthonous tektites indicates that tektites investigated here had to be redeposited in a fluvial environment, probably from the Lusatian area. The chemical composition of the Polish moldavites plots in the same area with those from other localities.

  20. A close-up on the epidemiology and transmission of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jagielski, T; Brzostek, A; van Belkum, A; Dziadek, J; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, E; Zwolska, Z

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a serious challenge to the global control of the disease. The purpose of this study was to characterize MDR-TB patients from Poland and to determine the extent of MDR-TB disease attributable to recent transmission. The study included all 46 patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in Poland in 2004 and followed up for 6 years (until 2011). For each patient, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes, and bacteriological data were collected by the review of medical and laboratory records. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from all patients were characterized using spoligotyping, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and sequencing analysis of drug resistance-associated loci (katG, mabA-inhA, rpoβ, rpsL, and embB). The majority of patients were male (86.9%), 40-64 years of age (60.8%), with a history of TB treatment (84.8%), and producing smear-positive sputa (86.9%). Twenty-two (47.8%) patients suffered from concomitant diseases and 28 (60.8%) were alcohol abusers. Treatment outcome assessment revealed that 8 (17.4%) patients were cured or completed therapy, while 15 (32.6%) died of TB, 11 (23.9%) defaulted, 8 (17.4%) failed, and 1 (2.2%) was transferred and lost to follow-up. Upon genotyping, 10 (21.7%) isolates were allocated in four clusters. These were further subdivided by mutational profiling. Overall, in 6 (13%) patients, MDR-TB was a result of recent transmission. For 4 (8.7%) of these patients, a direct epidemiological link was established. The study shows that the transmission of MDR-TB occurs at a low rate in Poland. Of urgent need is the implementation of a policy of enforced treatment of MDR-TB patients in Poland. PMID:25037868

  1. First report of bovine viral diarrhoea virus-2 infection in cattle in Poland.

    PubMed

    Polak, Mirosław P; Kuta, Aleksandra; Rybałtowski, Wiesław; Rola, Jerzy; Larska, Magdalena; Zmudziński, Jan F

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first identification in Poland of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV)-2 in a dairy herd where severe clinical disease with losses of young animals was observed. The virus was readily cultivated in cell culture and a phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences and secondary structures of the viral genomic 5' untranslated region confirmed virus identity. The economic impact of the infection was significant compared to the previously prevalent BVDV-1 infections confirming that this genotype of BVDV can cause severe sickness in affected herds. The use of BVDV-1 vaccine did not prevent the infection with the BVDV-2 genotype. PMID:25457262

  2. Relationships between selenium and mercury in the fruiting bodies of some mushrooms growing in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falandysz, J.; Kubotal, R.; Kunito, T.; Bielawski, L.; Brzostowski, A.; Gucia, M.; Jedrusiak, A.; Lipka, K.; Tanabe, S.

    2003-05-01

    The relationships between concentrations of total selenium and mercury were investigated for the whole fruiting bodies, caps and/or stalks of King bolete (Boletus edulis), Brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), Poison pax (Paxillus involutus) and Fly agaric (Amatiita niuscaria) collected from the various sites in Poland. The mushroom species examined varied largely due to the contents and proportions between the total selenium and mercury concentrations, what seems to indicate on species-dependent strategy of co-uptake and accumulation of these elements.

  3. Seasonal sub-layer variations of a varved record from the Czechowskie Lake, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, F.; Brademann, B.; Słowiński, M.; Dulski, P.; Plesssen, B.; Blaszkiewicz, M.; Brauer, A.

    2012-04-01

    Most evidences for Late Holocene climate changes in Poland are provided from historical data and model based reconstructions (Luterbacher et al. 2010). In order to determine inter-annual and decadal-scale variability of climate and environmental change on larger timescales we investigated a new varved lake sediment record from Lake Czechowskie, Northern Poland. Analytical procedures included micro-facies analyses together with X-ray fluorescence element scanning (µ-XRF) at sub-mm resolution and carbon and nitrogen analyses (TOC, TC, TN) at five year resolution. The floating chronology comprises 1.500 varve years where abrupt changes in seasonal layer thickness indicate distinct short-term climatic and environmental variability. Detailed microscopic analyses show that biogenic calcite varves are formed by five different sub-layers. A thin layer of chrysophyte cysts deposited in early spring is followed by two calcite layers. A lower coarser-grained (10-20 µm) and an upper fine-grained (2-5 µm) layer. The calcite sub-layers are followed by a distinct diatom layer. The end of annual cycle is marked by a mixed sub-layer consisting of epiphytic diatoms and organic remains. The diatom sub-layer is predominantly responsible for a threefold increase in total varve thickness (approx. 1.4 to 5.0 mm/year) during three distinct periods each with a length of 100 to 200 years. We assume that diatom layer thickness is controlled by lake productivity and thus can be applied as a proxy for water column mixing and nutrient supply. The Lake Czechowskie sediment record and especially variations in diatom layer thickness indicate a high sensitivity of the lake towards changes in wind activity. The aim of the on-going investigations is to disentangle both natural and climate variations and human impact in the lake and its catchment. The Czechowskie varved sediment record extends back at least in to the early Holocene and this has the potential to extend historical climate and

  4. A new hermit crab (Anomura, Paguroidea) from the upper Albian (Cretaceous) of Annopol, Poland.

    PubMed

    Fraaije, René H B; Van Bakel, Barry W M; Jagt, John W M; Machalski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    A new diogenid paguroid, Paguristes liwinskii sp. nov., is described from upper Albian phosphorite-bearing deposits near Annopol, along the east bank of the River Vistula (Wisła), east-central Poland. This new species constitutes an additional example of Early-Mid-Cretaceous macrofaunal shift, from marine reefal limestone to siliciclastic facies, triggered by the worldwide radiation of planktonic organisms. The species described here is the earliest known member of the genus Paguristes, previously recorded from the upper Santonian/lower Campanian to the Recent. PMID:25947874

  5. Tuberculosis in Antelopes in a Zoo in Poland--Problem of Public Health.

    PubMed

    Krajewska, Monika; Załuski, Michał; Zabost, Anna; Orłowska, Blanka; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Anusz, Krzysztof; Lipiec, Marek; Weiner, Marcin; Szulowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious disease that occurs in many species of both domestic and wild animals, as well as those held in captivity. The etiological factor is the acid resistant bacillus (Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium caprae), which is characterized by the major pathogenicity among mycobacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The material from 8 antelopes from the zoo, suspected for tuberculosis were examined, and M. bovis strains were isolated from 6 of them. The spoligotyping method showing spoligo pattern 676763777777600. In Poland, this spoligotype has not been observed so far. PMID:26999962

  6. The emigration potential of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland and Russia: recent survey results.

    PubMed

    Brym, R J

    1992-12-01

    The author reviews recent evidence concerning the emigration potential of Russia and Eastern Europe, using data from a 1991 survey of 4,269 respondents. "It is demonstrated that the proportion of adults wishing to emigrate from each of these countries in February 1991 varied from a low of 2 per cent in Lithuania to a high of 13 per cent in Poland. Total emigration potential from the region is estimated to have been between 10.2 and 16.7 million....A multiple regression analysis indicates that age and pessimism concerning democracy are the main factors that were independently associated with desire to emigrate." PMID:12179890

  7. Particulate matter and student exposure in school classrooms in Lublin, Poland.

    PubMed

    Polednik, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This study reports particle mass (PM) and number (PN) concentrations and student exposure in classrooms in three secondary schools in Lublin, Poland, during the winter (February-March) and summer (May-June) season measurements. The emissions from residential coal combustion and particle generating didactic experiments carried out in the classrooms significantly influenced the particle concentrations. In the winter season the average student exposure to PM and PN was respectively 2.1±0.4 (mean±standard deviation) and 1.5±0.5 times higher than outdoors. PMID:23058371

  8. Science Squared: Teaching Science Visually.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Olga; Savage, Karen; Judice, Michelle

    This paper describes a collection of novel ideas for bulletin board displays that would be useful in supplementing science classroom instruction. Information on women and minorities in science; science concepts in everyday activities such as nutrition, baseball, and ice cream-making; and various holidays and celebratory events is included. Each…

  9. Science Teaching in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Reading the interesting article "Discerning selective traditions in science education" by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of "CSSE," allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must…

  10. Study Case of Air-Mass Modification over Poland and Romania Observed by the Means of Multiwavelength Raman Depolarization Lidars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa-Surós, Montserrat; Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona S.; Nemuc, Anca; Talianu, Camelia; Heese, Birgit; Engelmann, Ronny

    2016-06-01

    An air-mass modification, on its way from Poland to Romania, observed between 19-21 July 2014 is discussed. The air-mass was investigated using data of two multi-wavelength lidars capable of performing regular elastic, depolarization and Raman measurements in Warsaw, Poland, and in Magurele, Romania. The analysis was focused on evaluating optical properties of aerosol in order to search for similarities and differences in the vertical profiles describing the atmospheric layers above the two stations within given period.

  11. Poland in transition to the European union (in the context of meeting standards in occupational safety and health).

    PubMed

    Koradecka, D

    2001-01-01

    Economic transformation has had a positive influence in Poland on statistical indices that characterize occupational safety and health (OSH). Surprisingly, working conditions have not deteriorated. Methodological differences make comparing statistical data in various countries difficult. OHS standards in Poland are harmonized with European and international ones. Testing and certification, quality and OSH management systems are very important, as are education and training in OSH and international cooperation. Increasing unemployment is a significant threat to the development of OSH or even maintenance of its current state. PMID:11743908

  12. Testing the margin of appreciation: therapeutic abortion, reproductive 'rights' and the intriguing case of Tysiqc v. Poland.

    PubMed

    Priaulx, Nicolette

    2008-12-01

    In Tysiac v. Poland (2007) the Strasbourg Court ruled in favour of the applicant (who had been denied access to a lawful therapeutic abortion), finding that Poland had failed to comply with its positive obligations to safeguard the applicant's right to effective respect for her private life under Article 8. Exploring this controversial judgment, the author assesses the claim that Tysiac marks a 'radical shift' on the part of the Court in creating a 'right to abortion'. The author argues that while Tysiac makes an important addition to abortion jurisprudence, the notion it founds such a 'right' greatly overstates the legal significance of this case. PMID:19180977

  13. The Modernization of the Energy Sector in Poland vs. Poland's Energy Security / Modernizacja sektora energii w polsce a bezpieczeństwo energetyczne Polski

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frączek, Paweł; Kaliski, Maciej; Siemek, Paweł

    2013-06-01

    The paper discusses the essence of Poland's energy security, decisive factors for its attainment and the structure of primary energy sources of the country. It describes the main problem areas in functioning of the energy sector in Poland, as well as the conditions for its modernization. The issues of increasing the natural gas share in the country's structure of primary energy sources and a construction of the first nuclear power plant in Poland have been particularly emphasised. The paper stresses that without modernizing actions it will be impossible for Poland to fulfil international obligations concerning changes in the functioning of the energy sector. The study, analysing the conditions for increasing the role of natural gas in Poland, points at the necessity to expand the gas infrastructure, to increase a scale of gas production from domestic deposits and to complete liberalization of the energy industry. It also emphasises that a potential delay in the construction of the country's first nuclear power plant may limit competitiveness of the economy. W artykule omówiono istotę bezpieczeństwa energetycznego Polski, czynniki decydujące o jego osiągnięciu oraz strukturę źródeł energii pierwotnej w kraju. Przedstawiono główne problemy funkcjonowania sektora energii w Polsce oraz uwarunkowania jego modernizacji. Szczególny nacisk położono na kwestie zwiększenia udziału gazu ziemnego w krajowej strukturze źródeł energii pierwotnej oraz budowy pierwszej elektrownii atomowej w Polsce. Podkreślono, że bez podjęcia działań modernizacyjnych niemożliwe będzie wypełnienie zobowiązań międzynarodowych Polski dotyczących zmian w sposobie funkcjonowania sektora energii. Analizując uwarunkowania zwiększenia znaczenia gazu ziemnego w Polsce, wskazano na konieczność rozbudowy infrastruktury gazowniczej, zwiększenia skali wydobycia gazu ziemnego z krajowych złóż oraz na kwestię dokończenia liberalizacji branży. Podkreślono, że dla zwi

  14. Local seismic events in area of Poland based on data from PASSEQ 2006-2008 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkowski, Marcin; Plesiewicz, Beata; Wiszniowski, Jan; Wilde-Piórko, Monika; Passeq Working Group

    2014-05-01

    PASSEQ 2006-2008 (Passive Seismic Experiment in TESZ; Wilde-Piórko et al, 2008) was the biggest so far passive seismic experiment in the area of Central Europe (Poland, Germany, Czech Republic and Lithuania). 196 seismic stations (including 49 broadband seismometers) worked simultaneously for over two years. During experiment multiple types of data recorders and seismometers were used making analysis more complex and time consuming. Dataset was unified and repaired to start the detection of local seismic events. Two different approaches for detection were applied for stations located in Poland. One used standard STA/LTA triggers (Carl Johnson's STA/LTA algorithm) and grid search to classify and locate events. Result was manually verified. Other approach used Real Time Recurrent Network (RTRN) detection (Wiszniowski et al, 2014). Both methods gave similar results showing four previously unknown seismic events located in area of Gulf Of Gdańsk in southern Baltic Sea. The investigation of local seismicity is a good opportunity for verification of new seismic models of lithosphere in the area. In this paper we discuss both detection methods with their pros and cons (accuracy, efficiency, manual work required, scalability). We also show details of all detected and previously unknown events in discussed area. This work was partially supported by NCN grant UMO-2011/01/B/ST10/06653.

  15. The Strongylidae belonging to Strongylus genus in horses from southeastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Studzińska, M B; Tomczuk, K; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, M; Szczepaniak, K

    2012-10-01

    Postmortem parasitic examinations of the large intestines of 725 slaughtered horses from individual farmers in southeastern Poland were carried out. The examinations were carried out monthly since February 2006 until January 2007 (except for August 2007 because of a technological stoppage in the slaughterhouse). The examinations included the intensiveness and extensiveness of the infestation of the Strongylidae belonging to the Strongylus genus. The Strongylidae were found in 26.5% of the examined horses. Strongylus vulgaris was the most dominant nematode and had a 22.8% prevalence, Strongylus edentatus was carried by 18.3% of the horses. Strongylus equinus was identified only in 1.7% of the examined horses. Our findings revealed that combined infestation of S. vulgaris and S. edentatus occurred in 100 (52.1%) of the 725 horses infected by the Strongylidae. The present results indicate that the lowest prevalence of strongyle species except for S. equinus was found in January, February, and March. However, it is difficult to draw a conclusion because of an extremely low extensiveness of infestation. The results indicate that the prevalence of the Strongylidae in horses from southeastern Poland is limited. PMID:22961235

  16. Contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with geohelmints eggs on organic farms in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kłapeć, Teresa; Borecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of vegetables, fruits and soil with zoonotic parasite eggs on organic and conventional farms in south-eastern Poland. To evaluate the contamination with eggs of zoonotic parasites, examinations were conducted on 8 conventional and 11 organic farms in south-eastern Poland from May-October in 2008 and 2009. The following fruit and vegetables were selected for the experiment: strawberry, leek, onion, carrot, zucchini, beetroot, parsley, potatoes, celery, rhubarb, lettuce, cabbage, broccoli, pumpkin, young beetroot leaves, cauliflower, French beans, turnip, fennel and sorrel. A total of 187 samples of vegetables, fruits and soil were examined by means of a modified flotation method according to Quinn et al. (1980). Contamination with Ascaris, Trichuris and Toxocara eggs was found, with a higher number of positive samples revealed on conventional (34.7%), compared to organic farms (18.9%). The level of contamination in soil samples from conventional farms was higher (88.5% positive samples), than of those from organic farms (32.8%). Of the 15 geohelmints eggs, positive samples were found in vegetables: 9 Toxocara eggs, 4 Ascaris eggs and 2 Trichuris eggs. No geohelmints eggs were observed in the strawberry samples. The consumption of vegetables and fruits contaminated with the eggs of parasites may be the cause of parasitoses in humans. Stricter sanitary standards on farms of all types may limit the incidence of parasitic zoonoses. PMID:23020033

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in the last 15 years in West Poland.

    PubMed

    Karpiński, Tomasz M; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Eder, Piotr; Linke, Krzysztof; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Increasing resistance to drugs represents a serious problem in treatment of infections with Helicobacter pylori, providing cause of frequent therapeutic failures. Present study aimed at analysis of changes in resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics in West Poland within the recent 15 years. 108 strains of H. pylori were analysed, isolated from gastric mucosa of adult patients. Group 1 involved 66 strains isolated in years of 1998/1999. Group 2 comprised 42 isolates obtained in years of 2013/2014. Susceptibility to amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CL), tetracycline (TC) and metronidazole (MTZ) was determined by E-test (AB Biodisc). All strains on both studied groups were susceptible to AMX. In group 1 all strains proved to be susceptible to TC, while 9% and 36% of tested strains were resistant to CL and MTZ, respectively. By contrast, in group 2, 31% and 83% of strains were resistant to CL and MTZ, respectively. In parallel, 14% strains were found to be resistant to TC (according to EUCAST interpretations). In West Poland, within recent 15 years a dramatic increase was noted in H. pylori strains resistant to metronidazole. In parallel, a significant increase was noted in proportion of strains resistant to clarithromycin. PMID:26551571

  18. Taxonomy and taphonomy of Cenomanian (Upper Cretaceous) nautilids from Annopol, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machalski, Marcin; Wilmsen, Markus

    2015-12-01

    A nautilid faunule of seven specimens, comprising Eutrephoceras bouchardianum (d'Orbigny, 1840), Cymatoceras deslongchampsianum (d'Orbigny, 1840), and Cymatoceras tourtiae (Schlüter, 1876) is described from a condensed middle Cenomanian interval at Annopol, Poland. C. tourtiae is recorded for the first time in Poland. The studied material consists of reworked phosphatised internal moulds of phragmocones, which may be of early or middle Cenomanian age, given the stratigraphic range of the associated ammonites. The nautilid moulds vary in inferred mode of infilling, and in intensity of abrasion, bioerosion and mineralisation. The sediment entered the phragmocones in two ways: 1) through punctures in the shell, the result of bioerosion or mechanical damage; 2) through siphonal openings by intracameral currents. In contrast to the fossil moulds from the Albian phosphorites of Annopol, which originated via direct precipitation of apatite around and/or inside fossils, the present nautilid moulds seem to have originated through secondary phosphatisation of the initially calcareous moulds. Diversity of taphonomic signatures in nautilid material from the middle Cenomanian interval at Annopol is compatible with the complex, multievent depositional scenario proposed for this level.

  19. Activism, NGOs, and HIV Prevention in Postsocialist Poland: The Role of “Anti-Politics”

    PubMed Central

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2014-01-01

    With the collapse of socialism, the number of nongovernmental organizations in Eastern Europe increased dramatically, as part of democracy and capitalism building. In the West, NGOs have served as key players in shaping the response of the HIV epidemic, reflecting both the withdrawal of the state from service provision in line with neoliberal reforms and the activist roots from which many of these organizations originated. As a result, AIDS NGOs and the people who work in them are often characterized as engaging in an activist endeavor in order to affect social and political change that will enable better prevention and care. This article explores the extent to which a similar framework applies to AIDS NGOs in Poland and Eastern Europe, more generally, where the notion of “anti-politics” and disengagement from political activism remains strong. As they developed in Poland, AIDS NGOs have focused on caring for clients, cultivating a professional identity, and abstaining from politics, to the eschewal of advocacy activities on behalf of their clients. This orientation has implications for the types of HIV prevention programs these organizations offer, as well as the possibilities for collaborating with researchers and service providers from the West. PMID:25308987

  20. The Role Of Management Of The Field-Forest Boundary In Poland's Process Of Agricultural Restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woch, Franciszek; Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work described here has been to point to the relationships between the field-forest boundary and crop productivity as regards the present agrarian land-use structure in Poland, and to provide new opportunities for arranging the agrarian process and the spatial planning of the rural landscape in the context of the sustainable shaping of the field-forest boundary. Impacts of forests and woodlands on crop productivity have been assessed using available data from relevant Polish literature. An assessment of the plot-distribution pattern characterising farms in Poland was made on the basis of reference data from the Agency for the Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture. Finally, the possibility of afforestation of agricultural land has been evaluated within the existing legal framework, and on the basis of available data, with attention paid to the need to include organization of the field-forest boundary within the comprehensive management and planning of rural areas, and to preserve woody elements in patchy landscapes. This all creates an opportunity to test innovative approaches to integrated land use which combines the creation of public goods and local products based on participatory learning processes that bring in local stakeholders and decision-makers.

  1. Prevalence and molecular typing of Giardia duodenalis in wildlife from eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Stojecki, Krzysztof; Sroka, Jacek; Caccio, Simone M; Cencek, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Kusyk, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Faecal samples from 162 wild animals were collected from 32 distinct sites of Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland (eastern Poland). The presence of Giardia duodenalis (Stiles, 1902) was assessed by a Direct Fluorescence Assay (DFA) and by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and sequencing of a fragment of the beta-giardin gene. DFA showed the presence of cysts of G. duodenalis in 12 of 162 faecal samples (7%), namely in four wild boars (15%), four foxes (19%), two roe deer (4%), and two wolves (29%). PCR identified 34 of the 162 (21%) samples as positive, including 11 wild boars (41%), five red deer (18%), 11 roe deer (23%), four moose (17%), two wolves (29%) and a single sample from the European badger. Thus, PCR detected a significantly higher number of infection than DFA (P = 0.0005). However, 14 of 34 PCR products could not be sequenced because of their insufficient amount; the low number of cysts, poor conservation of the faeces or presence of PCR inhibitors may have contributed to weak DNA amplification. Sequence analysis of the remaining 20 products showed the presence of assemblage B in wild boars, red deer and roe deer, whereas samples from wolves were identified as assemblage D. This is the first detection of assemblage B in wild boars and deer. As assemblage B has zoonotic potential, wild animals from eastern Poland may act as reservoirs of cysts of G. duodenalis infectious for humans. PMID:26278650

  2. Epidemiology of human toxocariasis in Poland - A review of cases 1978-2009.

    PubMed

    Borecka, Anna; Kłapeć, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a helminthozoonosis due to the infection of humans with larvae belonging to the Toxocara genus. Humans become infected as a result of accidental consumption of infected eggs containing third stage larvae (L3) nematodes from Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati species. Toxocariasis was recognized for the first time in the early 1950s, and the first cases of toxocariasis in Poland were described a few years later. Toxocariasis is clinically classified into several types: classic and incomplete visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome, ocular larva migrans (OLM) syndrome, neurological toxocariasis (NLM), covert toxocariasis and asymptomatic toxocariasis. In 1994-2005, 18,367 sera of people suspected of being infected with Toxocara were analysed, 1.8-76% had anti- Toxocara antibodies. In the period 1978-2009, 1,022 clinical cases of toxocariasis were recognized in Poland. In the opinion of the authors, in order to reduce the frequency of toxocariasis in human populations, some prophylaxis should undertaken, e.g. public education of zoonotic diseases, systematic control of animal, deworming of pets, cleaning pets' faeces by the owners. PMID:25780823

  3. Cross-border healthcare directive: Assessing stakeholders' perspectives in Poland and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Helena, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Within the context of the EU, a succession of rulings from the European Court of Justice addressed the gap of specific healthcare legislation. These rulings shook the member states assumption of health provision autonomy and led the European Commission to produce a specific directive concerning cross-border healthcare. In spite of different viewpoints of member states, including Poland and Portugal, the directive was approved and expected to be implemented by October 2013. The objective of this study was to analyse stakeholders' perspective towards the directive, unveiling the factors that supported a different viewpoint, and to identify challenges and assess the expected impact associated with the directive implementation on Poland and Portugal, using the WHO health systems conceptual framework. Information was collected through a literature review, identifying potential stakeholders. Primary qualitative analysis was conducted through the dissemination of open-ended questionnaires. Content and critical analysis was performed considering the available literature intertwined with the WHO health systems conceptual framework. The directive appears to be positive regarding patient rights, increased transparency, and potential to set new information technologies and healthcare networks. However, it also seems to potentially generate access inequalities between home and foreign patients, and increase healthcare costs due to the short-term investments needed. PMID:26948704

  4. An integrated approach to health services and manpower development: the experience of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kostrzewski, J

    1980-03-01

    After World War II, a new socio-economic policy stimulated development of industry and the socio-economic reconstruction of Poland. One of the main objectives of the new social policy was to develop the national health service so that it was available to the whole population. The most important decisions made for the health services and health manpower development in Poland were the following: 1945 -- Ministry of Health appointed as superior body responsible for organization and administration of national health services; 1951 -- Medical and Pharmaceutical Faculties become Medical Academies under the administration of the Minister of Health. Medical schools for nurses, midwives, sanitary instructors, and allied health personnel placed under supervision of the Ministry of Health; 1954 -- Sanitary epidemiological services organized and State Sanitary Inspection Act passed; 1956 -- Industrial health service organized; 1960 -- Minister of Health and Social Welfare appointed and charged with the administration of social welfare as well as rehabilitation and employment of invalids; 1971 -- Medical care and medical aid made available free of charge for the entire population, including the rural population previously not covered by health insurance system. In the years 1946--1960, a tendency towards vertical centralization prevailed in the organization and administration of the health services. Subsequently, decentralization has dominated, with a tendency to integrate health services with the social services, especially at the provincial and county levels and, more recently, in the form of the Integrated Health Service Institutions at the local level. PMID:10297735

  5. Activism, NGOs, and HIV Prevention in Postsocialist Poland: The Role of "Anti-Politics"

    PubMed

    Owczarzak, Jill

    2010-01-01

    With the collapse of socialism, the number of nongovernmental organizations in Eastern Europe increased dramatically, as part of democracy and capitalism building. In the West, NGOs have served as key players in shaping the response of the HIV epidemic, reflecting both the withdrawal of the state from service provision in line with neoliberal reforms and the activist roots from which many of these organizations originated. As a result, AIDS NGOs and the people who work in them are often characterized as engaging in an activist endeavor in order to affect social and political change that will enable better prevention and care. This article explores the extent to which a similar framework applies to AIDS NGOs in Poland and Eastern Europe, more generally, where the notion of "anti-politics" and disengagement from political activism remains strong. As they developed in Poland, AIDS NGOs have focused on caring for clients, cultivating a professional identity, and abstaining from politics, to the eschewal of advocacy activities on behalf of their clients. This orientation has implications for the types of HIV prevention programs these organizations offer, as well as the possibilities for collaborating with researchers and service providers from the West. PMID:25308987

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Michał; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Mirosław; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans. PMID:25993468

  7. Occurrence of leptospiral infections in swine population in Poland evaluated by ELISA and microscopic agglutination test.

    PubMed

    Wasiński, B; Pejsak, Z

    2010-01-01

    Swine are one of significant reservoirs and sources of Leptospira infections for man. Serological screenings help to effectively control the epidemiological situation in swine herds and to prevent transmission of Leptospira from animals to man. The purpose of this study was to investigate, by the use of serological methods, the prevalence of infections caused by selected Leptospira serogroups in swine population in Poland. A total of 7112 swine serum samples were examined. The samples were collected from January to October 2008 and came from 280 counties situated in all 16 provinces of Poland. All sera were examined preliminary by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using heat-stable antigenic preparation. The samples positive or doubtful in ELISA were investigated by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) with use of serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, Canicola, Sejroe, Tarassovi and Of the collected sera examined by ELISA 73 (1.02%) samples were positive, 85 (1.20%)--doubtful and 6954--negative. Among ELISA-positive and doubtful sera 64 samples (coming from 14 provinces) were recognized in MAT as positive. Among MAT positive samples 42.19% of sera demonstrated titres with serovar Pomona, 32.81%--with Sejroe, 14.06%--with Icterohaemorrhagiae, 6.25%--with Tarassovi, 3.13%--with Grippotyphosa and 1.56% with Canicola. PMID:21370749

  8. Diversity of Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes among small rodents in southwestern Poland.

    PubMed

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Kváč, Martin; Sak, Bohumil; Hildebrand, Joanna; Leśniańska, Kinga

    2015-12-15

    Diversity of Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes in wild small rodent populations still remains incomplete and only few molecular studies have been conducted among these hosts. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether small rodents, i.e., Apodemus agrarius, Apodemus flavicollis, Mus musculus and Myodes glareolus act as hosts of E. bieneusi and can play an important role in spore spreading in the environment of south-western Poland. Molecular analyses were conducted to determine pathogen genotypes. A total of 191 fecal and 251 spleen samples collected from 311 rodent individuals were examined for the occurrence of E. bieneusi by PCR amplifying ITS gene. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in rodent samples was 38.9%. The nucleotide sequences of ITS region of E. bieneusi revealed the presence a total of 12 genotypes with two being already known, i.e., D and gorilla 1 genotypes. The remaining ten are novel genotypes (WR1-WR10) which segregated into three groups in a neighbor joining phylogeny. This study reports for the first time E. bieneusi occurrence in wild living rodents in Poland and shows extensive genetic diversity within E. bieneusi isolates of rodent origin. PMID:26520234

  9. [Noise-induced risks at workstations in Poland and other European Union countries].

    PubMed

    Augustyńska, Danuta; Pleban, Dariusz; Radosz, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Noise is one of the most common physical risks in the workplace. Long term exposure to its high levels (above 80-85 dB) can pose a significant threat to health of workers, including hearing loss. Noise can also be a burdensome factor hampering work, causing stress and various health problems. In the European Union about 80 million workers (1/3 of total working population) complain about noise. In Poland, there are about 200 thousand workers exposed to noise in excess of MAI values. For years noise-induced hearing loss has been at the top of the list of occupational diseases. This paper presents a review of the data on noise hazards in the EU countries based on the reports of the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions and publications of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. The statistical data on working conditions in Poland (including noise-induced risks) obtained from the Central Statistical Office and statistical data on occupational diseases (including hearing loss) elaborated by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź were the subject of analysis. The article also presents the results of noise measurements and surveys carried out in selected national companies. The obtained results indicate the necessity for both objective and subjective assessments of noise hazards in the workplace. PMID:23394010

  10. Approaches of Rhodiola kirilowii and Rhodiola rosea field cultivation in Poland and their potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Grech-Baran, Marta; Sykłowska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Numerous researches have been carried out on plants of the Rhodiola species, especially Rhodiola kirilowii (Regel) Maxim. and Rhodiola rosea. Various compounds have been reported to be isolated from R. kirilowii and R. rosea, including cyanogenic glycosides, monoterpene alcohols and their glycosides, aryl glycosides, phenylethanoids, phenylpropanoids and their glycosides (salidroside and rosavins respectively), as well as flavonoids, flavonlignans, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid derivatives and the latter have free radical scavenging capacity. The benefits claimed for Rhodiola include adapogenic, neuroprotective, anti-depresive anti-tumour and cardioprotective activities. Currently, the adaptogenic activity of Rhodiola compounds are properties evaluated mainly in human clinical trials. The mechanism of the action of Rhodiola extracts include affecting the levels of cortisol and NO by interactions with glucocorticoid receptors directly or via the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway. However, the natural populations of R. rosea in Poland are threatened; therefore, the cultivation of R. rosea and alternative species R. kirilowii might be a possible solution for producing these kinds of plants in Poland in sufficient quantities and quality for pharmaceutical purposes. Lack of proven interaction with other drugs and no confirmed adverse effects during clinical trials encourages further investigation. These herb preparations ought to be studied extensively to establish their position as potential drugs for a variety of diseases. PMID:26094524

  11. Detection and identification of Chlamydophila psittaci in asymptomatic parrots in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Psittacosis, an avian disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, can manifest as an acute, protracted, or chronic illness, but can also be asymptomatic. C. psittaci can persist in the host for months to years, often without causing obvious illness, and therefore poses a threat for zoonotic outbreak. We investigated the prevalence of C. psittaci from 156 tracheal swab samples from 34 different species of parrots in Poland, and determined the genotype of strains from the positive samples. Results An overall prevalence of 10.3% was observed using two different PCR assays, both providing similar results. Thirteen of the PCR-positive samples were genotype A, two were genotype B, and one could not be classified. Conclusions These results indicate widespread dissemination of C. psittaci in Polish psittacine populations, without any clinical signs of chlamydiosis, and hence could pose a zoonotic hazard. PCR screening provided a definitive diagnosis of psittacosis, and subsequent ompA gene analysis could be helpful for better understanding the epidemiology of the C. psittaci genotypes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the incidence of C. psittaci in parrots in Poland. PMID:23206592

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild boars, red deer and roe deer in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Czopowicz, Michał; Nagy, Dan Alexandru; Potarniche, Adrian Valentin; Aoanei, Monica Adriana; Imomov, Nuriddin; Mickiewicz, Marcin; Welz, Mirosław; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild life, particularly game animals in Poland. Meat juice collected during the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 hunting seasons from 552 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 367 wild boars (Sus scrofa) and 92 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) was tested for T. gondii antibodies using the multi-species ID Screen Toxoplasmosis Indirect kit (IDvet, Montpellier, France). Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 24.1% of red deer (95% CI: 20.7%, 27.8%), 37.6% of wild boar (95% CI: 32.8%, 42.7%) and 30.4% of roe deer (95% CI: 22.0%, 40.5%). To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first epidemiological report of T. gondii prevalence in red deer, roe deer and wild boars in Poland. T. gondii is present in wildlife animal tissues and consumption of the game may be a potential source of infection for humans. PMID:25993468

  13. Dairy farm cost efficiency in leading milk-producing regions in Poland.

    PubMed

    Sobczyński, T; Klepacka, A M; Revoredo-Giha, C; Florkowski, W J

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the cost efficiency of dairy farms in 2 important regions of commercial milk production in Poland (i.e., Wielkopolskie and Podlaskie). Both regions gained importance following the market-driven resource allocation mechanism adopted after Poland's transition to the market economy in 1989 and accession to the European Union (EU) in 2004. The elimination of the dairy quota system in the EU in 2015 offers new expansion opportunities. The analysis of trends in cow numbers, milk production, and yield per cow shows different patterns of expansion of the dairy sector in the 2 regions. We selected dairy farm data from the Farm Accounts Data Network database for both regions and applied the cost frontier estimation model to calculate the relative cost-efficiency index for the period 2004 to 2009. The indexes compare each farm in the sample to the most efficient dairy farm in each region separately. Additionally, the top 5% of dairy farms with the highest relative cost efficiency index from each region were compared in terms of production costs with published results from a study using the representative farm approach. The comparison of results from 2 different studies permits a conclusion that Wielkopolskie and Podlaskie dairy farms are able to compete with farms from the 4 largest milk-producing countries in the EU. Although both regions can improve yields per cow, especially Podlaskie, both regions are likely to take advantage of the expansion opportunities offered by the 2015 termination of the milk quota system. PMID:26476947

  14. [Surveillance of hospital infections in Poland--current condition and prospects].

    PubMed

    Heczko, P; Bulanda, M; Jeljaszewicz, J; Wójkowska-Mach, J

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines the current achievements in the control of hospital acquired infections in modern countries as well as in Poland in recent years. Studies related to the incidence of hospital-acquired infections have been conduced in western Europe, Scandinavia, the United States, and many other countries around the world. Because of these already completed studies, we are able to develop epidemiologic analysis specifically centered upon the incidence and increased costs involved with hospital-acquired infections. In Poland this type of surveillance was unable to be attained until long after its institution. However, over the past few years, the Polish Society of Hospital-Acquired Infection, has worked to bring recognition of the seriousness of this problem to a representative group of Polish hospitals. One of the most important conclusions reached was lack of departmental control which, using standards previously agreed upon by modern countries, could provide the necessary surveillance over hospital-acquired infections. Currently, surveillance is carried out by treating physicians without the help of specially-trained infection control nurses, epidemiologists and medical microbiologists. The basic challenge for the Polish health service is that of the development and realization of a professional infection control team. This professional team would work develop guidelines for the protection of patients and hospital personnel from hospital-acquired infections. PMID:11349587

  15. Social health insurance without corporate actors: changes in self-regulation in Germany, Poland and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Claus; Agartan, Tuba I; Kaminska, Monika Ewa

    2013-06-01

    Social health insurance in Western Europe has for many years been characterized by self-regulation in which specific conditions of healthcare financing and provision have been regulated by social-insurance institutions through mutual self-governance. However, the principle of self-regulation has recently been weakened by increased state regulation and market competition, which were introduced in response to economic and social changes. Even in Germany, which has been regarded as an "ideal-type" health insurance system and in which self-regulation remains at the core of healthcare governance, more direct state intervention has gained in importance. On the other hand, in countries such as Poland and Turkey, where this tradition of self-regulation is missing, social health insurance is deemed a financing instrument but not an instrument of governance and corporate actors are not accorded a significant role in regulation. This article investigates how social health insurance systems are regulated in contexts in which corporate actors' role is either diminishing or absent by focusing on three crucial areas of regulation: financing, the remuneration of medical doctors, and the definition of the healthcare benefit package. In Germany, state regulation has increased in healthcare financing and remuneration while the role of corporate actors has grown in the definition of the benefits package. In Poland and Turkey, on the other hand, reforms have maintained the status quo in terms of the strong regulatory, budgetary, and managerial powers of the state and very limited involvement of corporate actors. PMID:23608097

  16. System for monitoring UV radiation level in phototherapy cabins in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Narbutt, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Mariola; Sysa-Jędrzejowska, Anna; Sobolewski, Piotr; Rajewska-Więch, Bonawentura; Lesiak, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ultraviolet phototherapy (UVP) is widely used in dermatological practice for the treatment of various skin diseases. Numerous studies support its beneficial curing effectiveness; however, overexposure to ultraviolet radiation can cause adverse health effects, such as sunburn reaction, erythema response, cataract, skin aging, etc. For these reasons, it is of special importance to monitor performance of UVP cabins using a calibration system to evaluate the UV doses incident upon the patient. Material and methods A mechanized cabin control system (CCS) is proposed. It consists of radiometers with a wide and narrow field of view to estimate the body irradiation and to identify malfunctioning cabin tubes. Quality control and quality assurance procedures are developed to keep high accuracy of the calibration procedure. The CCS has been used in the examination of two different types of UVP cabins routinely working in Poland. Results It allows precise calculation of UV doses and spatial variability of UV radiance inside the cabin, thus providing uncertainties of the doses assigned by medical staff. The CCS could potentially serve as a primary standard for monitoring various UVP cabins working in Poland. Conclusions The methodology developed to quantify UV doses in UVP cabins may be easily extended to any UV radiation source. PMID:25624865

  17. Occurrence of West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Horses, and Humans in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pancewicz, Sławomir Andrzej; Kozdruń, Wojciech; Czekaj, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29%) out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26%) out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33%) out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland. PMID:25866767

  18. Occurrence of West Nile virus antibodies in wild birds, horses, and humans in Poland.

    PubMed

    Niczyporuk, Jowita Samanta; Samorek-Salamonowicz, Elżbieta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pancewicz, Sławomir Andrzej; Kozdruń, Wojciech; Czekaj, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Serum samples of 474 wild birds, 378 horses, and 42 humans with meningitis and lymphocytic meningitis were collected between 2010 and 2014 from different areas of Poland. West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies were detected using competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays: ELISA-1 ID Screen West Nile Competition, IDvet, ELISA-2 ID Screen West Nile IgM Capture, and ELISA-3 Ingezim West Nile Compac. The antibodies were found in 63 (13.29%) out of 474 wild bird serum samples and in one (0.26%) out of 378 horse serum samples. Fourteen (33.33%) out of 42 sera from patients were positive against WNV antigen and one serum was doubtful. Positive samples obtained in birds were next retested with virus microneutralisation test to confirm positive results and cross-reactions with other antigens of the Japanese encephalitis complex. We suspect that positive serological results in humans, birds, and horses indicate that WNV can be somehow closely related with the ecosystem in Poland. PMID:25866767

  19. Risk of human toxocarosis in Poland due to Toxocara infection of dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Gawor, Jakub; Borecka, Anna; Marczyńska, Magdalena; Dobosz, Sabina; Żarnowska-Prymek, Hanna

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the current data on the risk of toxocarosis in humans in Poland and to give an overview of the clinical and diagnostic aspects of the disease. The number of reported clinical cases of Toxocara infection in children in Poland in medical literature has increased recently. The results of field surveys aimed to evaluate the soil contamination with geohelminth eggs conducted during the last few years showed that Toxocara is the most common zoonotic agent in urban public sites and in rural settlements. The questionnaire revealed rural inhabitants' low awareness of zoonotic parasite threats to humans. In particular parents should be advised as to what proper preventive measures to undertake to eliminate the toxocarosis risk factors for children in rural environment. Prevention of initial environment contamination with Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs, which includes proper treatment regimes to eliminate patent infections in dogs and cats and preventing pets from defecating in public areas and private households is vital. To provide the public with suitably presented information as well as pet owners with uniform recommendations, a close collaboration between veterinary and public health professionals is crucial. PMID:26204025

  20. Tephrostratigraphy of a Lateglacial lake sediment sequence at Węgliny, southwest Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housley, Rupert A.; MacLeod, Alison; Nalepka, Dorota; Jurochnik, Aleksandra; Masojć, Mirosław; Davies, Lauren; Lincoln, Paul C.; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Gamble, Clive S.; Lowe, J. John

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents the first late Quaternary locality in the present-day territories of Poland where multiple cryptotephra layers have been identified. Located near Węgliny in southwest Poland, study of the Lateglacial gyttja deposits reveals the presence of at least four non-visible tephra horizons. Electron microprobe and laser-ablation ICPMS analysis of glass shards suggests products from at least two Icelandic volcanic centres: Katla and Snæsfellsness. Of particular importance is the discovery of two eruptions believed to originate from the east Eifel volcanic field within the Allerød chronozone. One correlates with the well documented Laacher See Tephra (LST) but the second horizon, herein designated T642/T655 would appear to represent an earlier precursor eruption. The chemical composition of the LST and the precursor tephra both appear to match to the Upper Laacher See Tephra (ULST) phase, which previously was thought to have dispersed not to the northeast but in a southerly direction, towards the Alpine foreland. This indicates the eruption dynamics of the Laacher See are more complex than hitherto recognised.

  1. Comparing the characteristics of homeless adults in Poland and the United States.

    PubMed

    Toro, Paul A; Hobden, Karen L; Wyszacki Durham, Kathleen; Oko-Riebau, Marta; Bokszczanin, Anna

    2014-03-01

    This study compared the characteristics of probability samples of homeless adults in Poland (N = 200 from two cities) and the United States (N = 219 from one city), using measures with established reliability and validity in homeless populations. The same measures were used across nations and a systemic translation procedure assured comparability of measurement. The two samples were similar on some measures: In both nations, most homeless adults were male, many reported having dependent children and experiencing out-of-home placements when they themselves were children, and high levels of physical health problems were observed. Significant national differences were also found: Those in Poland were older, had been homeless for longer, showed lower rates on all psychiatric diagnoses assessed (including severe mental and substance abuse disorders), reported less contact with family and supportive network members, were less satisfied when they sought support from their networks, and reported fewer recent stressful life events and fewer risky sexual behaviors. Culturally-informed interpretations of these findings and their implications are presented. PMID:24473922

  2. Deconstructing science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-12-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity, exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and epistemology. I argue that science needs to acknowledge the subjectivity at its core to make space for non-absolute agents and new fields of study.

  3. Science Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Contains 31 activities and experiments from the biological and physical sciences. Addresses such areas as reproduction, biotechnology, ecology, proteins, nitrates, aerosols, metal crystallinity, circuit boards, and photoswitching. (ML)

  4. A consistent course of events or a series of coincidences: nursing in Poland from the 19(th) to the 21(st) century.

    PubMed

    Majda, Anna; Ziarko, Ewa; Zalewska-Puchała, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The development of nursing began in Poland much later than it did elsewhere, for instance in the United Kingdom, the United States, or Germany, and it came up against difficult conditions. After a brief twenty-year period of development between 1918 and 1939, it almost stalled during the war (1939-45), only to be followed by nearly twenty years of chaos. Nursing started to come out of this difficult period at the beginning of the 1960s. The turn of the 21st century saw the emergence of extensive professional development and training opportunities for nurses. This change was brought about as much by political, social and economic issues, health care requirements, and the advancement of science, medicine, the birth of humanitarism, the growth of the feminist movement, the European Agreement on the Instruction and Education of Nurses, the WHO European Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery Education, the Bologna declaration, as well as the activities undertaken by the European Union, the International Council of Nurses, the American and Polish Red Cross, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Polish Association of Nurses, and the professional self-governing body. The transformation of nursing into an independent profession was further boosted by physicians deeply involved in the issue and female pioneers of nursing. PMID:26109382

  5. Paleoenvironmental interpretation based on macro- and microstructure analysis of Pleistocene slope covers: A case study from the Miechów Upland, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawelec, Halina; Drewnik, Marek; Żyła, Marcin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the research was to provide a paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the origin of periglacial slope covers in the Miechów Upland in southern Poland. The investigated site produced data for the analysis of loess, fossil soils, cryogenic structures, as well as slope deposits. Complementary sedimentological and soil analyses served as the basis of the research. In addition to macroscopic research, micromorphological methods were used in the study. Grain size analysis was also performed. Finally, the content of CaCO3, Fe2CO3, and Corg was assessed. The research produced a sequence of paleoenvironmental conditions, which were then compared with dated loess profiles from Western and Central Europe and Russia. It was noted that the sequence of paleoenvironmental conditions determined in this study matched that previously identified for the European loess belt including the period from the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Weichselian glaciation. The research results are a contribution to the discussion of the paleoenvironmental significance of loess, fossil soils, cryogenic structures, and slope deposits. In addition, research has shown that micromorphological analysis is a valuable research tool in soil science and sedimentology.

  6. Differentiation of flea communities infesting small mammals across selected habitats of the Baltic coast, central lowlands, and southern mountains of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Krzysztof; Eichert, Urszula; Bogdziewicz, Michał; Rychlik, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    Only a few studies comparing flea composition on the coast and in the mountains have been conducted. We investigated differences in flea communities infesting small mammals in selected habitats in northern, central, and southern Poland. We predicted (1) a greater number of flea species in the southeastern Poland and a lower number in the north, (2) a greater number of flea species in fertile and wet habitats than in poor and arid habitats, and (3) a low similarity of flea species between flea communities in western and eastern Poland. We found a negative effect of increasing latitude on flea species richness. We suppose that the mountains providing a variety of environments and the limits of the geographic ranges of several flea subspecies in southeastern Poland result in a higher number of flea species. There was a positive effect of increasing wetness of habitat on flea species richness. We found a high diversity in flea species composition between western and eastern Poland (beta diversity = 11) and between central and eastern Poland (beta diversity = 12). Re-colonization of Poland by small mammals and their ectoparasites from different (western and eastern) refugees can affect on this high diversity of flea species. PMID:24619068

  7. Genome Sequence of WAU86/88-1, a New Variant of Vaccinia Virus Lister Strain from Poland.

    PubMed

    Mavian, Carla; López-Bueno, Alberto; Alcamí, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The poxviruses Warsaw Agricultural University 86 (WAU86) and 88-1 (WAU88-1) were isolated in 1986 to 1988 from separate outbreaks in laboratory mice in Poland and described as ectromelia virus isolates. The genome sequences of these poxviruses reveal that they are almost identical and represent a novel variant of the vaccinia virus Lister strain. PMID:24407630

  8. An Investigation of the Neurological and Neuropsychiatric Disturbances in Adults with Undiagnosed and/or Untreated Phenylketonuria in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Artur; Jarochowicz, Sabina; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Gradowska, Wanda; Januszek-Trzciakowska, Aleksandra; O'Malley, Grace; Kwolek, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to determine neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations in a group of patients with previously undiagnosed or untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) in the south-eastern part of Poland. Methods: The study was conducted among 400 adults with severe intellectual disability who were born prior to neonatal screening…

  9. Teaching about Hungarian and Polish Heroes. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 1998 (Hungary/Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radkey, Janet

    This curriculum project about the history and culture of Hungary and Poland is intended for secondary school students. The project features a unit called "Heroes in Our Lives" and points out the sacrifices a few individuals have made for the betterment of all. Students identify heroes and learn about the impact these heroes have made on history…

  10. Evolution of Priorities in Higher Education and R&D in the European Union: Case of Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musialkowska, Ida

    2008-01-01

    After joining the European Union, many aspects of economic and social development are changing in Poland. Change is necessary in many areas, including the areas of research and education and their links to practice as it is broadly understood practice. Some areas seem neglected by the policy-makers. This article will refer to the question of…

  11. The Geographical Distribution Of The Black Locust (Robinia Pseudoacacia L.) In Poland And Its Role On Non-Forest Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojda, Tomasz; Klisz, Marcin; Jastrzębowski, Szymon; Mionskowski, Marcin; Szyp-Borowska, Iwona; Szczygieł, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    The black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) has been present in Poland for more than 200 years now, its range coming to encompass the entire country, albeit with a particular concentration of occurrence in the west. Overall, it is present in 3.4% of the stands making up Poland's "State Forests National Forest Holding" (Państwowe Gospodarstwo Leśne Lasy Państwowe), and is the dominant species in 0.1% of stands. Thanks to its producing durable wood of favourable energetic properties, this species is used in medium-rotation (≤ 40-year) plantations as well as in biomass energy plantations (where there is a 5-7-year rotation). In terms of its nectar production, the black locust is second only to lime as the Polish tree best serving the production of honey. While the species shows marked expansiveness in Poland, it has not thus far been placed on the list of aliens capable of threatening native species or natural habitats. Breeding of the species has been engaged in - if to only a limited extent - in Poland for some 20 years now, and 2 selected seed stands have been registered, as well as 34 plus trees and 2 seed orchards.

  12. Review of Doctoral Research in Second Language Acquisition, Language Learning and Teaching in Poland (2006-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdzial-Szelest, Krystyna; Pawlak, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews 25 doctoral dissertations on second language acquisition (SLA), English language learning and teaching submitted in Poland in the years 2006-2010. The theses were selected for review on the basis of the recommendations of Ph.D. supervisors from leading Polish universities and they are divided into six groups: learner autonomy,…

  13. MBA Teaching Challenges in a Changing Political and Economic Environment: A Case Study of MBA Teachers and Students in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    Master of Business Administration (MBA) education was introduced to Poland in the early 1990s with the purpose of preparing business practitioners for effective management and leadership in a market economy and increasingly globalizing marketplace. Due to individual, institutional, and national factors; adjusting teaching to address the complex…

  14. Definitional-mission report: Clean-coal-technology assistance project in Poland (final report). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    The new impending environmental law in Poland provides for strict environmental guidelines for coal preparation, washing, mine desalination, and application of commercially viable and economical clean coal technologies for utilization of coal. The government of Poland requested the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) carry out a Definitional Mission to Poland to define the requirements of the Polish authorities and to prepare specific recommendations for follow on actions by TDP. The technical assistance package proposed to be funded by TDP includes two specific activities. These are (i) an orientation visit to review selected clean coal technology projects in the U.S., and (ii) preparation of a compendium of the main coal sector requirements in Poland and the types of technologies needed. The Definitional Mission has prepared a Scope of Work which recommends that TDP allocate a fund to finance the cost of the above technical assistance activities. It is further recommended that TDP enlist the assistance of a non-profit trade organization to provide this assistance to the Polish government.

  15. 78 FR 70574 - Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on September 25, 2013 ((78 FR 59059), as revised on October 21, 2013 (78 FR 64011, October 25, 2013)). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on October 25, 2013... COMMISSION Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel From China, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Korea, Poland,...

  16. Hungary and Its Neighbors: The Visegrad Four. Fulbright-Hayes Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2002 (Hungary and Poland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felkay, Andrew

    In the early 1990s, having been freed from Soviet domination, small east central European countries, such as Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Romania, strove to establish democracy and a free market economy, and made a determined effort to join western democracies, by gaining admission to the European Union (EU) and the North…

  17. Incidence of and mortality from breast cancer among women in Poland in the years 2001-2010

    PubMed Central

    Krasomski, Grzegorz; Oszukowski, Przemysław; Stetkiewicz, Tomasz; Woźniak, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumour among women. About 15,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed and more than 5,000 women die in Poland every year. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality rate of breast cancer among women in Poland in the years 2001-2010. Material and methods Analysed data concerning the incidence of and mortality from cancer among women were obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Results The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that reported in 2001 by 3,666. The mortality from breast cancer among women increased by 15.1% by 2009, to subsequently drop by 0.3% in 2010. The standardized incidence rate increased by 7.4 and the standardized mortality rate fell by 1.3 in 2001-2010. Conclusions In the years 2001-2010 the incidence of breast cancer in women in Poland rose by 30.3%, with an increase of 7.4 in the incidence rate. The highest rise in the incidence and mortality of women due to breast cancer in Poland is reported in the Lodz voivodeship. In the years 2001-2009 the number of women's deaths due to breast cancer increased slightly, while the mortality rate dropped. PMID:26327877

  18. Cognitive Style and Socialisation: An Exploration of Learned Sources of Style in Finland, Poland, and the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jeanne; Puurula, Arja; Sitko-Lutek, Agnieszka; Rakowska, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Reports on an exploratory study of 200 managers in Finland, Poland, and the United Kingdom that investigated whether there are national-cultural differences in cognitive style and whether these differences are related to individual, occupational, and cultural aspects of socialization. Shows differences between national groups in cognitive…

  19. Generic versus Specific Competencies of Entry-Level Public Health Graduates: Employers' Perceptions in Poland, the UK, and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesma, Regien G.; Pavlova, Milena; Vaatstra, Rina; van Merode, Godefridus G.; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Smith, Tony; Groot, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Constant changes in society and the public health domain force public health professionals into new roles and the development of new competencies. Public health professionals will need to be trained to respond to this challenge. The aim of this comparative study among Poland, the UK and the Netherlands is to identify competence needs for Master of…

  20. Preliminary Evidence on Impacts of Active Labor Programs in Hungary and Poland. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Christopher J.

    To assist workers dislocated as Hungary and Poland move to market economies, the governments of both countries provide their labor force with unemployment compensation and various active labor programs (ALPs). ALP impacts were examined by surveying four randomly selected samples: 7,228 ALP participants from 10 counties in Hungary; 4,414 Hungarians…