Science.gov

Sample records for scientific publication pitfalls

  1. Pitfalls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triffet, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Though potentially of great benefit to the nation, the experience of the workshop participants and their discussions with Sea Grant and Land Grant officials make it clear that the Space Grant Program must avoid certain pitfalls of the past and present if it is to be successful. The most important of these are listed and briefly discussed.

  2. Ethics and Scientific Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benos, Dale J.; Fabres, Jorge; Farmer, John; Gutierrez, Jessica P.; Hennessy, Kristin; Kosek, David; Lee, Joo Hyoung; Olteanu, Dragos; Russell, Tara; Wang, Kai

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes the major categories of ethical violations encountered during submission, review, and publication of scientific articles. We discuss data fabrication and falsification, plagiarism, redundant and duplicate publication, conflict of interest, authorship, animal and human welfare, and reviewer responsibility. In each section,…

  3. Scientific publications in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Magar, A

    2012-09-01

    Scientific publications have become a mainstay of communication among readers, academicians, researchers and scientists worldwide. Although, its existence dates back to 17 th century in the West, Nepal is still struggling to take few steps towards improving its local science for last 50 years. Since the start of the first medical journal in 1963, the challenges remains as it were decades back regarding role of authors, peer reviewers, editors and even publishers in Nepal. Although, there has been some development in terms of the number of articles being published and appearances of the journals, yet there is a long way to go. This article analyzes the past and present scenario, and future perspective for scientific publications in Nepal. PMID:23281460

  4. Scientific Autonomy and Public Oversight

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    When scientific research collides with social values, science’s right to self-governance becomes an issue of paramount concern. In this article, I develop an account of scientific autonomy within a framework of public oversight. I argue that scientific autonomy is justified because it promotes the progress of science, which benefits society, but that restrictions on autonomy can also be justified to prevent harm to people, society, or the environment, and to encourage beneficial research. I also distinguish between different ways of limiting scientific autonomy, and I argue that government involvement in scientific decision-making should usually occur through policies that control the process of science, rather than policies that control the content of science. PMID:19777124

  5. Accelerating scientific publication in biology

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Ronald D.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific publications enable results and ideas to be transmitted throughout the scientific community. The number and type of journal publications also have become the primary criteria used in evaluating career advancement. Our analysis suggests that publication practices have changed considerably in the life sciences over the past 30 years. More experimental data are now required for publication, and the average time required for graduate students to publish their first paper has increased and is approaching the desirable duration of PhD training. Because publication is generally a requirement for career progression, schemes to reduce the time of graduate student and postdoctoral training may be difficult to implement without also considering new mechanisms for accelerating communication of their work. The increasing time to publication also delays potential catalytic effects that ensue when many scientists have access to new information. The time has come for life scientists, funding agencies, and publishers to discuss how to communicate new findings in a way that best serves the interests of the public and the scientific community. PMID:26508643

  6. Accelerating scientific publication in biology.

    PubMed

    Vale, Ronald D

    2015-11-01

    Scientific publications enable results and ideas to be transmitted throughout the scientific community. The number and type of journal publications also have become the primary criteria used in evaluating career advancement. Our analysis suggests that publication practices have changed considerably in the life sciences over the past 30 years. More experimental data are now required for publication, and the average time required for graduate students to publish their first paper has increased and is approaching the desirable duration of PhD training. Because publication is generally a requirement for career progression, schemes to reduce the time of graduate student and postdoctoral training may be difficult to implement without also considering new mechanisms for accelerating communication of their work. The increasing time to publication also delays potential catalytic effects that ensue when many scientists have access to new information. The time has come for life scientists, funding agencies, and publishers to discuss how to communicate new findings in a way that best serves the interests of the public and the scientific community. PMID:26508643

  7. Going public: good scientific conduct.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem underexposed as ethical challenges. Consequently, individual scientists here tend to be left alone with problems and dilemmas, with no guidance for good conduct. Ideas are presented about how to make up for this omission. Using a practical, ethical approach, the paper attempts to identify ways scientists might deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand, sins of omission-withholding important information from the public-and, on the other hand, abuses of the authority of science in order to gain publicity. Statements from interviews with scientists are used to illustrate how scientists might view the relevance of the issues raised. PMID:21088921

  8. Publication ethics and scientific misconduct.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2010-12-01

    To maintain the readers' trust and to uphold the journal's reputation, it is paramount for the entire research, peer reviewer and publication process to follow ethical principles and decisions. Studies involving humans, animals, medical records and human tissues/organs need to be conducted ethically, and the appropriate approvals obtained. The privacy and confidentiality of patients, authors and reviewers should be respected. When required, rights and permissions should be sought. Common forms of scientific misconduct include misappropriation of ideas, violation of generally accepted research practices, failure to comply with legislative and regulatory requirements, falsification of data, and inappropriate behaviour in relation to misconduct. Authors can expect editorial action to be taken, should duplicate publication, plagiarism and other forms of scientific misconduct be attempted or detected. PMID:21221494

  9. Scientific Culture and Public Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Alberto

    Current science and science-friendly philosophy jointly yield a picture of the world and ourselves in it that is more substantial, detailed and coherent than any other produced before by natural philosophy. When carefully formulated this picture provides us with: (a) an unprecedentedly reliable representation of vast regions of the natural world; and (b) a non-arbitrary public framework for understanding and furthering important areas of public concern. This paper comments on the cultural and educational significance of this picture. Influential arguments against granting a privileged role to serious science on the basis of differential credibility are examined and found wanting. This result is then folded into an analysis of the significance of scientific thought and practice for a cautious conception of the goals and methods of public education.

  10. Public Access to Scientific Data and Publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, L. M.; Bernstein, M.; Allen, G.

    2015-12-01

    NASA has developed a plan for complying with the OSTP requirement on public access to the results of scientific research - including both data and publications. NASA is establishing a single archive for public access to peer-reviewed publications following an appropriate embargo period. NASA has made a great effort to have data from its spacecraft openly available for many years. What is new is that now NASA will require scientists to submit -- at the time the research is proposed - a "data management plan". This plan will be evaluated along with the proposal during the review process. It is expected that the data used in peer-reviewed publications will be archived in a persistent format. Managing data for long-term storage will be a challenge as data volumes grow, formats and media evolve, and people are increasingly mobile. While we now have the capacity to store (cheaply) every bit of data we produce, that is certainly not the right strategy. In this talk, we will give a brief overview of how NASA interprets data publishing.

  11. Human brucellosis in South Africa: Public health and diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Wojno, Justyna Maria; Moodley, Clinton; Pienaar, Jaco; Beylis, Natalie; Jacobsz, Lourens; Nicol, Mark P; Rossouw, Jenny; Bamford, Colleen

    2016-09-01

    Human brucellosis in South Africa (SA) is under-diagnosed and under-reported. This is because many clinicians have little or no experience in managing affected patients, and in part because of the nonspecific and insidious nature of the disease. A case of human brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis in a patient from the Western Cape Province of SA is described, and the resulting exposure of staff members at two medical microbiology laboratories, as well as the public health investigation that was conducted, are discussed. This article aims to highlight the need for strengthening integration between public health, medical and veterinary services and exposing deficiencies in public health, veterinary and laboratory practices. PMID:27601111

  12. Scientific publication: An alternative career in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucko, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    Scientific research could not go forward without scientific dissemination and publication of research results. As a member of the editorial staff of Physical Review Letters, I hope to be able to shed some light on the nature of the role of APS journal editors in the publication process, what the job entails and field questions on this alternative career in science.

  13. Scientific publications: now a marketing decision?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have been publishing in journals related to their disciplines. Now with the advent of the internet, many more options are now available and scientific publication has become a marketing decision. Scientific journals are rated by "impact factor" which is based on the average number of cita...

  14. Retractions of scientific publications: responsibility and accountability

    PubMed Central

    Katavić, Vedran

    2014-01-01

    This evidence-based opinion piece gives a short overview of the increase in retractions of publications in scientific journals and discusses various reasons for that increase. Also discussed are some of the recent prominent cases of scientific misconduct, the number of authors with multiple retractions, and problems with reproducibility of published research. Finally, some of the effects of faulty research on science and society, as well as possible solutions are discussed. PMID:24969915

  15. Ethics of authorship in scientific publications

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Authorship should be based on the contribution provided by each author who has made a significant scientific contribution to a study. Credit of authorship has important academic, social and financial implications and is bound by guidelines, which aid in preserving transparency during writing and publication of research material so as to prevent violation of ethics. PMID:24470992

  16. Acid Precipitation: Scientific Progress and Public Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowling, Ellis B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes certain perspectives on scientific research and on the public debates about acid deposition and its effects. Although primary attention is given to European/North American research, the ideas developed are relevant in any world region sensitive to acid deposition resulting from intense industrialization. (Author/JN)

  17. Ranking of Cities According to Public Health Criteria: Pitfalls and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Sandra A.; Levin, Sarah; Zlot, Amy I.; Andrews, Richard R.; Miles, Rebecca

    2004-01-01

    Popular magazines often rank cities in terms of various aspects of quality of life. Such ranking studies can motivate people to visit or relocate to a particular city or increase the frequency with which they engage in healthy behaviors. With careful consideration of study design and data limitations, these efforts also can assist policymakers in identifying local public health issues. We discuss considerations in interpreting ranking studies that use environmental measures of a city population’s public health related to physical activity, nutrition, and obesity. Ranking studies such as those commonly publicized are constrained by statistical methodology issues and a lack of a scientific basis in regard to design. PMID:15053999

  18. Authorship in scientific publications: analysis and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hess, Christian W; Brückner, Christian; Kaiser, Tony; Mauron, Alex; Wahli, Walter; Wenzel, Uwe Justus; Salathé, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, a Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences working group chaired by Professor Emilio Bossi issued a "Memorandum on scientific integrity and the handling of misconduct in the scientific context", together with a paper setting out principles and procedures concerning integrity in scientific research. In the Memorandum, unjustified claims of authorship in scientific publications are referred to as a form of scientific misconduct - a view widely shared in other countries. In the Principles and Procedures, the main criteria for legitimate authorship are specified, as well as the associated responsibilities. It is in fact not uncommon for disputes about authorship to arise with regard to publications in fields where research is generally conducted by teams rather than individuals. Such disputes may concern not only the question who is or is not to be listed as an author but also, frequently, the precise sequence of names, if the list is to reflect the various authors' roles and contributions. Subjective assessments of the contributions made by the individual members of a research group may differ substantially. As scientific collaboration - often across national boundaries - is now increasingly common, ensuring appropriate recognition of all parties is a complex matter and, where disagreements arise, it may not be easy to reach a consensus. In addition, customs have changed over the past few decades; for example, the practice of granting "honorary" authorship to an eminent researcher - formerly not unusual - is no longer considered acceptable. It should be borne in mind that the publications list has become by far the most important indicator of a researcher's scientific performance; for this reason, appropriate authorship credit has become a decisive factor in the careers of young researchers, and it needs to be managed and protected accordingly. At the international and national level, certain practices have therefore developed concerning the listing of authors

  19. Scientific disintegrity as a public bad.

    PubMed

    Engel, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    In this article, I argue that scientific dishonesty essentially results from an incentive problem; I do so using a standard economic model-the public bad. Arguably, at least in the short run, most scientists would increase their personal utility by being sloppy with scientific standards. Yet, if they do, it becomes more difficult for all scientists to make their voice heard in society, to convince policy makers to assign public funds to academia, and to lead fulfilling academic lives. The nature of the ensuing governance problem (and appropriate policy intervention) hinges on the definition of scientists' utility function. The policy problem is less grave if society attaches disproportionally more weight to severe or widespread violations and if individual scientists do not precisely know in advance when they will quit their academic lives. If most scientists internalize most scientific standards, then the problem is alleviated. However, internalization is immaterial if honorable scientists dislike that others advance their careers by violating those standards. Sanctions are helpful, even if relatively mild. However, it is important to also punish those who do not punish others for breaking the rules or, alternatively, to put some centralized mechanism for vigilance and enforcement into place. PMID:25987515

  20. Genetically Modified Plants: Public and Scientific Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetically modified plants to meet the requirements of growing population is not being recognized at present. This is a consequence of concerns raised by the public and the critics about their applications and release into the environment. These include effect on human health and environment, biosafety, world trade monopolies, trustworthiness of public institutions, integrity of regulatory agencies, loss of individual choice, and ethics as well as skepticism about the real potential of the genetically modified plants, and so on. Such concerns are enormous and prevalent even today. However, it should be acknowledged that most of them are not specific for genetically modified plants, and the public should not forget that the conventionally bred plants consumed by them are also associated with similar risks where no information about the gene(s) transfer is available. Moreover, most of the concerns are hypothetical and lack scientific background. Though a few concerns are still to be disproved, it is viewed that, with proper management, these genetically modified plants have immense potential for the betterment of mankind. In the present paper, an overview of the raised concerns and wherever possible reasons assigned to explain their intensity or unsuitability are reviewed. PMID:25937981

  1. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; di, Zengru

    2014-10-01

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected.

  2. Ranking scientific publications: the effect of nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Liyang; Wei, Tian; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-01-01

    Ranking the significance of scientific publications is a long-standing challenge. The network-based analysis is a natural and common approach for evaluating the scientific credit of papers. Although the number of citations has been widely used as a metric to rank papers, recently some iterative processes such as the well-known PageRank algorithm have been applied to the citation networks to address this problem. In this paper, we introduce nonlinearity to the PageRank algorithm when aggregating resources from different nodes to further enhance the effect of important papers. The validation of our method is performed on the data of American Physical Society (APS) journals. The results indicate that the nonlinearity improves the performance of the PageRank algorithm in terms of ranking effectiveness, as well as robustness against malicious manipulations. Although the nonlinearity analysis is based on the PageRank algorithm, it can be easily extended to other iterative ranking algorithms and similar improvements are expected. PMID:25322852

  3. Positive Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how Cahokia middle and high school students conduct inquiry-based science through a pitfall trap experiment. In a collaborative effort, students designed and conducted pitfall trap investigations that combined their interest in the natural world with their love of technology. The students set up their own experiments to…

  4. The spacelab scientific missions: A comprehensive bibliography of scientific publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Marsha (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    November 1993 represented the 10-year anniversary of the flight of Spacelab 1 mission, with the first precursor mission (OSTA-1) being launched 2 years earlier. Since that time, a total of 27 Shuttle missions has been flown, using the Spacelab system as a facility for conducting scientific research in space. The missions flown to date have allowed a total of approximately 500 Principle Investigator class investigations to be conducted in orbit. These investigations have constituted major scientific efforts in astronomy/astrophysics, atmospheric science, Earth observation, life sciences, microgravity science, and space plasma physics. An initial survey of the scientific products gleaned from Spacelab missions already flown was sent to the Principle Investigators. In that survey, information was gathered from the investigators on the scientific highlights of their investigations and statistical measurements of overall success -- such as papers published. This document is a compilation of the papers that have been published to date in referred literature.

  5. Access to Scientific Publications: The Scientist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Voronin, Yegor; Myrzahmetov, Askar; Bernstein, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Background Scientific publishing is undergoing significant changes due to the growth of online publications, increases in the number of open access journals, and policies of funders and universities requiring authors to ensure that their publications become publicly accessible. Most studies of the impact of these changes have focused on the growth of articles available through open access or the number of open-access journals. Here, we investigated access to publications at a number of institutes and universities around the world, focusing on publications in HIV vaccine research – an area of biomedical research with special importance to the developing world. Methods and Findings We selected research papers in HIV vaccine research field, creating: 1) a first set of 50 most recently published papers with keywords “HIV vaccine” and 2) a second set of 200 articles randomly selected from those cited in the first set. Access to the majority (80%) of the recently published articles required subscription, while cited literature was much more accessible (67% freely available online). Subscriptions at a number of institutions around the world were assessed for providing access to subscription-only articles from the two sets. The access levels varied widely, ranging among institutions from 20% to 90%. Through the WHO-supported HINARI program, institutes in low-income countries had access comparable to that of institutes in the North. Finally, we examined the response rates for reprint requests sent to corresponding authors, a method commonly used before internet access became widespread. Contacting corresponding authors with requests for electronic copies of articles by email resulted in a 55-60% success rate, although in some cases it took up to 1.5 months to get a response. Conclusions While research articles are increasingly available on the internet in open access format, institutional subscriptions continue to play an important role. However, subscriptions do not

  6. Public understanding of science is not scientific literacy

    SciTech Connect

    McGowan, A.

    1995-12-31

    The author notes that public understanding of science has, in many quarters, been taken over by the wrong notion of scientific literacy. The need for the scientific community to develop the language that speaks to the public in general is explored. Methodologies to improve communication to the general public and increase their understanding with clearly developed metaphors are examined.

  7. [Increasing difficulties for scientific publication in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Ryder, Elena

    2014-03-01

    A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers. PMID:24758096

  8. Publication pressure and scientific misconduct in medical scientists.

    PubMed

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Verbeke, Reinout; Smulders, Yvo M

    2014-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that scientific misconduct is more common than previously thought. Strong emphasis on scientific productivity may increase the sense of publication pressure. We administered a nationwide survey to Flemish biomedical scientists on whether they had engaged in scientific misconduct and whether they had experienced publication pressure. A total of 315 scientists participated in the survey; 15% of the respondents admitted they had fabricated, falsified, plagiarized, or manipulated data in the past 3 years. Fraud was more common among younger scientists working in a university hospital. Furthermore, 72% rated publication pressure as "too high." Publication pressure was strongly and significantly associated with a composite scientific misconduct severity score. PMID:25747691

  9. Writing Research Reports and Scholarly Manuscripts for Journal Publication: Pitfalls and Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Frederick D.

    2006-01-01

    Valuable strategies and guidelines for preparing research reports and scholarly manuscripts for publication in refereed journals are presented with the primary aim of helping prospective authors gain acceptance of their manuscripts for publication. The discussion addresses issues such as developing the research idea or problem from a…

  10. Chemistry, Scientific Thought, and Public Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Richard A., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides summaries of presentations given at a symposium organized at the 40th Northwest Regional Conference of the American Chemical Society. The participants addressed the role of scientists involved with educating the public, starting at the third-grade level, and continuing with high school, parents, citizen groups, and the general public. (TW)

  11. The Citation Merit of Scientific Publications

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Juan A.; Ortuño-Ortín, Ignacio; Ruiz-Castillo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method to assess the merit of any set of scientific papers in a given field based on the citations they receive. Given a field and a citation impact indicator, such as the mean citation or the -index, the merit of a given set of articles is identified with the probability that a randomly drawn set of articles from a given pool of articles in that field has a lower citation impact according to the indicator in question. The method allows for comparisons between sets of articles of different sizes and fields. Using a dataset acquired from Thomson Scientific that contains the articles published in the periodical literature in the period 1998–2007, we show that the novel approach yields rankings of research units different from those obtained by a direct application of the mean citation or the -index. PMID:23152867

  12. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of Special Publications, Reference Publications, Conference Publications, and Technical Papers, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This catalog lists 239 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered in the NASA scientific and technical information database during accession year 1987. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  13. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1991-1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This catalog lists 458 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information database during accession year 1991 through 1992. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  14. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1987-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This catalog lists 783 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database during the year's 1987 through 1990. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  15. NASA scientific and technical publications: A catalog of special publications, reference publications, conference publications, and technical papers, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This catalog lists 190 citations of all NASA Special Publications, NASA Reference Publications, NASA Conference Publications, and NASA Technical Papers that were entered into the NASA scientific and technical information database during accession year 1989. The entries are grouped by subject category. Indexes of subject terms, personal authors, and NASA report numbers are provided.

  16. Promises, Pitfalls, and Proposals: Automating Small Public Library Cataloging in a Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Margaret A.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of issues that should be addressed when catalogers in small public libraries begin to automate as part of a consortium uses library cooperatives from Massachusetts (Cape Libraries Automated Materials Sharing, CLAMS) and Florida as examples. Topics discussed include characteristics of the catalogers; cataloging standards; decision…

  17. Improving the Scientific Integrity of Nontechnical Publications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent articles in Rangelands reveal two points about nontechnical publications of the Society for Rangeland Management: 1) the need for a rigorous peer-review process in publishing issue papers, and 2) the need to clearly separate peer-reviewed literature from editorial articles in Rangelands. The...

  18. Knowledge or noise. Scientific publication and the electronic journal.

    PubMed

    McLeod, S D; Gieser, J P

    1996-10-01

    Over the last few years, the Internet has grown exponentially and is developing a role in the exchange of scientific information. However, a number of problematic issues are associated with electronic publications, including limited transmission speed, undependable file longevity, poorly documented postpublication editing, copyright infringement, and cultural impediments to acceptance. By measure of citation frequency, electronic journals seem to have limited influence within scientific discourse, but this medium is as yet in its infancy. Since electronic publication enjoys many potential advantages over traditional print publication, it is expected to gain far greater influence over time. The American Medical Association group of publications recognizes this and intends to develop its electronic publications with attention to maintaining traditional critical scientific standards. PMID:8859092

  19. Digital Format for Depositary Part of Scientific Publications' Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemskov, Andrei; Evstigneeva, Galina

    As a rule, any large library has so called depositary part of collection. Specific circulation of these publications is not high, but preservation, conservation and provision of access to given collection need permanent efforts. The paper presents evaluation of expenses and centralized systems efficiency. These systems (e.g. JSTOR, Backfiles for Future) are publicly accessible collections of full text versions of scientific periodicals.

  20. Politics and the erosion of federal scientific capacity: restoring scientific integrity to public health science.

    PubMed

    Rest, Kathleen M; Halpern, Michael H

    2007-11-01

    Our nation's health and prosperity are based on a foundation of independent scientific discovery. Yet in recent years, political interference in federal government science has become widespread, threatening this legacy. We explore the ways science has been misused, the attempts to measure the pervasiveness of this problem, and the effects on our long-term capacity to meet today's most complex public health challenges. Good government and a functioning democracy require public policy decisions to be informed by independent science. The scientific and public health communities must speak out to defend taxpayer-funded science from political interference. Encouragingly, both the scientific community and Congress are exploring ways to restore scientific integrity to federal policymaking. PMID:17901422

  1. Lead and Cadmium in Public Health in Nigeria: Physicians Neglect and Pitfall in Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2014-01-01

    Low-level heavy metals exposure may contribute much more toward the causation of chronic disease and impaired functioning than previously thought. Among the suggested preventive and intervention measures for the control of renal diseases are the reduction in the exposure to heavy metals. Although these indicate knowledge and awareness of possible role of some heavy metals in the etiogenesis of some chronic diseases by Nigerian Physicians, heavy metal assay as diagnostic guide in patient management is often omitted in most healthcare settings. This is a synoptic capture of the increased incidence and prevalence of some metabolic disorders where heavy metals may be implicated. A search of the terms heavy metal exposure, source, toxicity, metabolic disorders, poisoning in Nigeria, in bibliographical databases (in English language) such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Africa Journal Online (AJOL) digital library was conducted. Leaded gasoline, refuse dumping, absence of poison information centers, and poor record keeping characterize environmental health in Nigeria. Lead and cadmium are of most significant public health importance in Nigeria. The recognition and inclusion of heavy metals assays in the diagnosis of metabolic disorders may ensure early diagnosis and improve management. PMID:24696827

  2. Getting the Public Addicted to Scientific Data Through Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkopf, C. A.; Flasher, J. C.; Lodoysamba, S.

    2013-12-01

    Effectively communicating about a scientific topic to the public can be challenging for scientists for a variety reasons that often boil down to an inadequate bridge between general knowledge and the specialized scientific knowledge needed to understand the context of what a scientist from a particular field wishes to convey. This issue makes it difficult for the public to interpret scientific information and leaves it vulnerable to misinterpretation and misrepresentation. Rather than 'dumb down' scientific information to the public, we believe the most effective way to bridge this gap is to provide a means for the public to have easy access to - and get addicted to! - the actual scientific data itself, presented in a straightforward form. To this end, we will discuss an air quality public awareness campaign that we launched in one of the most polluted cities in the world, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, over the past year. We have installed an air quality instrument at a university in Mongolia, and we automatically post data from the instrument on Facebook (UB Air Quality Info) and Twitter (@UB_Air). We provide infographics on how to understand the data, share relevant articles and local activities, and monitor the sites for questions from the public about the data. We also maintain a website that posts aggregate air quality information (http://ubdata.herokuapp.com) and publicly shares the code that automatically connects our air quality instrument to the social media sites. This social media project, the first of its kind in Mongolia, has been an effective way to provide: (1) a quantifiable context to the public about air pollution issues in Ulaanbaatar, (2) a forum for the public and decision makers - from ambassadors to politicians - to engage with experts in the field and each other, and (3) a device that helps prevent misrepresentation (or fabrication) of data for political ends. We will also discuss the broader utility of our project and possible application to other

  3. The Scientific Basis for Law as a Public Health Tool

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Shawna L.; Popovic, Tanja; Briss, Peter A.; Goodman, Richard A.; Thombley, Melisa L.; Hahn, Robert A.; Fox, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    Systematic reviews are generating valuable scientific knowledge about the impact of public health laws, but this knowledge is not readily accessible to policy makers. We identified 65 systematic reviews of studies on the effectiveness of 52 public health laws: 27 of those laws were found effective, 23 had insufficient evidence to judge effectiveness, 1 was harmful, and 1 was found to be ineffective. This is a valuable, scientific foundation—that uses the highest relevant standard of evidence—for the role of law as a public health tool. Additional primary studies and systematic reviews are needed to address significant gaps in knowledge about the laws’ public health impact, as are energetic, sustained initiatives to make the findings available to public policy makers. PMID:19008510

  4. Importance of scientific resources among local public health practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Robert P.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Duggan, Kathleen; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the perceived importance of scientific resources for decision-making, among local health department (LHD) practitioners in the U.S. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from LHD practitioners (n=849). Respondents ranked important decision-making resources, methods for learning about public health research, and academic journal use. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression was used to measure associations of individual and LHD characteristics with importance of scientific resources. Results Systematic reviews of scientific literature (24.7%) was most frequently ranked as important among scientific resources, followed by scientific reports (15.9%), general literature review articles (6.5%), and one or a few scientific studies (4.8%). Graduate-level education (aORs ranging from 1.7 to 3.5), larger LHD size (aORs ranging from 2.0 to 3.5), and leadership support (aOR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 2.3) were associated with a higher ranking of importance of scientific resources. Conclusions Graduate training, larger LHD size, and leadership that supports a culture of evidence-based decision-making may increase the likelihood of practitioners viewing scientific resources as important. Targeting communication channels that practitioners view as important can also guide research dissemination strategies. PMID:25689176

  5. [Financing of the scientific publication and protection of the scientific knowledge].

    PubMed

    Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Hochman, Bernardo; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of a study is its publication on a scientific journal. Research financing agencies are important institutions so that studies can be developed and published. The most important research financing agencies that are discussed in this article are: "Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior" (CAPES), "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico" (CNPq) and "Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo" (FAPESP). CAPES' activities can be grouped in four different strategy lines: a) it evaluates the stricto sensu, at the post-graduation level; b) it provides access and development of scientific research; c) it provides investment on the development of high qualified human resources in Brazil and abroad, and d) it promotes international scientific cooperation. Although CAPES does not support directly scientific publications, almost all actions of this agency contribute to the development of scientific research and publication. CNPq has two main purposes: financing researches and development of human resources. It provides the researchers with financial aid to scientific publication. The grants for editing were specifically created for supporting the national scientific and technical publications edited by Brazilians institutions or societies. CNPq can also support Congresses, Symposiums and similar short-term courses. The Plataforma Lattes is also a branch of CNPq on which the Curriculum Lattes is available. This site has the curriculum vitae of the scientific community and is of great value for researchers. FAPESP also finances journal publications, articles and books that bring up original results of studies made by researchers from the state of São Paulo. It finances, partially, the travel expenses of innovative papers authors in meetings within the country or abroad. Brazilian authors are increasing the number of international publications. Universities, research institutes, financing agencies and

  6. The public's trust in scientific claims regarding offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Juliet E; Feezell, Jessica T; Michaud, Kristy E H; Smith, Eric R A N; Smith, Leeanna

    2010-09-01

    Our study examines how individuals decide which scientific claims and experts to believe when faced with competing claims regarding a policy issue. Using an experiment in a public opinion survey, we test the source content and credibility hypotheses to assess how much confidence people have in reports about scientific studies of the safety of offshore oil drilling along the California coast. The results show that message content has a substantial impact. People tend to accept reports of scientific studies that support their values and prior beliefs, but not studies that contradict them. Previous studies have shown that core values influence message acceptance. We find that core values and prior beliefs have independent effects on message acceptance. We also find that the sources of the claims make little difference. Finally, the public leans toward believing reports that oil drilling is riskier than previously believed. PMID:21553598

  7. Media Coverage and Public Opinion on Scientific Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Allan

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of media coverage and public opinion in scientific controversy. A survey of coverage of controversies arising regarding sociobiology, water fluoridation, nuclear power and the Three Mile Island disaster indicates that the media play an active role in shaping and constructing controversy rather than just reporting it. (JMF)

  8. A "Sense of Place" in Public Participation in Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Public participation in scientific research (PPSR) within the natural sciences has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to expand cognitive knowledge and understanding of ecology, with implications regarding individual perspectives, attitudes, and behaviors about the environment and feelings about the personal relevance of science. Yet the…

  9. Google Earth for Public Outreach Through Scientific Visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuxen-Bettman, K.

    2008-12-01

    Google Earth Outreach helps non-profit and public benefit groups put their data online in a geographic context using Google Earth and Maps. This improves their outreach and communication with the world, and can effectively impact policy and public understanding of science. We will explore several exceptional examples that use Google Earth and Maps to display scientific data and share it with the world. You will learn what is necessary to get started on building your Earth or Maps application, which can allow your colleagues or the public to access, explore, and understand your data.

  10. 75 FR 60110 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review scientific... the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be identified by name, occupation,...

  11. Fiction and scientific communication about volcanoes for the young public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonach, H.; Drouin, V.

    2003-12-01

    Since January 2002, I have developed a new type of interactive web site for scientific news and communications about volcanic activities on the Earth and in our solar system. With the help of a small team (including an illustrator) based in GEOTOP at the University of Quebec in Montreal, I have created a monthly French language site on volcanoes including ongoing activity. Our multimedia site www.vickivolka.uqam.ca, combines open-style scientific news, including texts and pictures with scientific explanations. The originality lies in both the content and site structure. The monthly renewals inform the public on volcanic news but also on academic research and scientific experiments that young people can perform at home. We thus link breaking volcanic news with a deeper understanding of the processes and knowledge. Another original aspect is the use of fictional characters (Vicki and Anaky) who present the news and describe their adventures during the volcanic trips (volcanological, geographical, historic contents). Additional sections include interactive functions. Based on the success of this web site (published at the moment in French) - as evidenced notably by numerous primary school visits - we are planning to translate it in English very soon. This mixture of fiction with real world stories and scientific knowledge is an unusual effort by practising researchers and collaborators to strengthen links between the academic world and the general public, especially with children and educators.

  12. Roles for scientific societies in promoting integrity in publication ethics.

    PubMed

    Caelleigh, Addeane S

    2003-04-01

    Scientific societies can have a powerful influence on the professional lives of scientists. Using this influence, they have a responsibility to make long-term commitments and investments in promoting integrity in publication, just as in other areas of research ethics. Concepts that can inform the thinking and activities of scientific societies with regard to publication ethics are: the "hidden curriculum" (the message of actions rather than formal statements), a fresh look at the components of acting with integrity, deviancy as a normally occurring phenomenon in human society, and the scientific community as an actual community. A society's first step is to decide what values it will promote, within the framework of present-day standards of good conduct of science and given the society's history and traditions. The society then must create educational programs that serve members across their careers. Scientific societies must take seriously the implications of the problem; set policies and standards for publication ethics for their members; educate about and enforce the standards; bring the issues before the members early and often; and maintain continuing dialogue with editors. PMID:12774655

  13. Toolkit for evaluating impacts of public participation in scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonney, R.; Phillips, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Toolkit for Evaluating Impacts of Public Participation in Scientific Research is being developed to meet a major need in the field of visitor studies: To provide project developers and other professionals, especially those with limited knowledge or understanding of evaluation techniques, with a systematic method for assessing project impact that facilitates longitudinal and cross-project comparisons. The need for the toolkit was first identified at the Citizen Science workshop held at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology in 2007 (McEver et al. 2007) and reaffirmed by a CAISE inquiry group that produced the recent report: "Public Participation in Scientific Research: Defining the Field and Assessing its Potential for Informal Science Education" (Bonney et al. 2009). This presentation will introduce the Toolkit, show how it is intended to be used, and describe ways that project directors can use their programmatic goals and use toolkit materials to outline a plan for evaluating the impacts of their project.

  14. 76 FR 47271 - Implementation of Scientific Integrity Principles: Draft Plan for Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Implementation of Scientific Integrity Principles: Draft Plan for Public Comment AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: National Science Foundation (NSF) Implementation of Scientific Integrity Principles... Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies on Scientific Integrity. Shortly thereafter the Office...

  15. 75 FR 51041 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review the Chlorpyrifos... the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be identified by name, occupation,...

  16. 75 FR 76457 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review the Chlorpyrifos Physiologically... the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be identified by name, occupation,...

  17. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application and... importation of marine mammals for scientific research purposes or for public display. (a)...

  18. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application and... importation of marine mammals for scientific research purposes or for public display. (a)...

  19. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application and... importation of marine mammals for scientific research purposes or for public display. (a)...

  20. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application and... importation of marine mammals for scientific research purposes or for public display. (a)...

  1. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scientific research permits and public... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application and... importation of marine mammals for scientific research purposes or for public display. (a)...

  2. Scientific presentations and publications on odontological research in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Collet, A M; Piloni, M J; Keszler, A

    1997-01-01

    The results of odontological research which are presented at the annual meetings of the Argentine Division of the International Association for Dental Research (A.D.I.A.D.R.) are proof of the scientific production of this country in this area. An analysis of the presentations allows for the quantitative evaluation of the activity of the area. A deeper appraisal of the reality of research, involves the analysis of quality and publication efficiency. A useful indicator is the relationship between the quantity of the presentations and subsequent publications (Publ./Pres. Ratio) in Journals with peer review. In 1990, the authorities of the Division presented an evaluation of the 10 previous years (Acta Odont. Latinoamer. 7(2):39-46, 1993). The current Board of Directors has considered timely to update that information. With this aim in mind the presentations at A.D.I.A.D.R. over the period 1990-1995 were considered. Employing the authors index of the A.D.I.A.D.R. meeting we searched for possible publications in Medline. The references were compared with the data from the presentations, disregarding those which had not been communicated previously in the Division. The data obtained were grouped according to Research Center and subject area. The Publ./Pres. Ratio was calculated. The time to publication and language of publication were considered. Of a total of 506 presentations, 61 were published, Ratio Publ./Pres. 1:8 (12%). Considering each Center individually the ratio was 1:6 for the University of Buenos Aires (UBA), 1:13 for the National University of Córdoba (UNC), 1:3 for the National University of La Plata (UNLP) and 1:2 for the National University of Rosario (UNR). There were no records of publications from the National Universities of Tucumán and of the North-East. The groups of investigation with greater quantity of presentations and better Publ./Pres. Ratio were Dental Mat./Restorative Dent./Endod. (ratio 1:8), Physiol./Pharmacol./Biochem. (Ratio 1:4) and

  3. Misconduct accounts for the majority of retracted scientific publications

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.; Steen, R. Grant; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A detailed review of all 2,047 biomedical and life-science research articles indexed by PubMed as retracted on May 3, 2012 revealed that only 21.3% of retractions were attributable to error. In contrast, 67.4% of retractions were attributable to misconduct, including fraud or suspected fraud (43.4%), duplicate publication (14.2%), and plagiarism (9.8%). Incomplete, uninformative or misleading retraction announcements have led to a previous underestimation of the role of fraud in the ongoing retraction epidemic. The percentage of scientific articles retracted because of fraud has increased ∼10-fold since 1975. Retractions exhibit distinctive temporal and geographic patterns that may reveal underlying causes. PMID:23027971

  4. 76 FR 80417 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Scientific Research ACTION: Notice of Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: The RFI is being extended to... federally funded scientific research. The public input provided through this Notice will inform... federally funded scientific research. The public input provided through this Notice will...

  5. 76 FR 68517 - Request for Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting From Federally Funded Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Scientific Research ACTION: Notice of Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 103... unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific research. The public input provided... unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific research. The public input...

  6. 76 FR 55381 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review scientific... experience, to be capable of providing expert comments on the scientific issues for this meeting....

  7. 76 FR 46798 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review scientific... comments on the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be identified by name,...

  8. 77 FR 8856 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review scientific issues... of providing expert comments on the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be...

  9. 76 FR 26287 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review a set of scientific... training and experience, to be capable of providing expert comments on the scientific issues for...

  10. 75 FR 10255 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review a set of scientific... providing expert comments on the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be identified by...

  11. Air pollution in China: Scientific and Public Policy Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Sever air pollution in China has in recent years caused intensive public, media and governmental attention. Many questions need to be answered about the air pollution in China, such as how harmful is the air pollution, especially PM2.5? Why suddenly so many reports about sever air pollution, is the air in China getting more polluted? How to design a policy that can control the air pollution most efficiently? After updated the national Ambient Air Quality Standards in 2012 and included PM2.5 as one of the critical air pollutants, in 2013, Chinese central government released for the first time the "Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan". The plan has set goals to reduce annual mean concentration of PM2.5 up to 25% in 2017 in different regions in China. If the ambitious goals were achieved, this could be the most significant air pollution reduction in such a short time that affects so many people in human history. To achieve these goals, however, there are enormous scientific and public policy challenges to deal with. For example: Identify the key components, size fraction of PM that have the largest health effects; and identify the sources of PM that has the most harmful effects on human health and ecosystem. Reduce the uncertainty in health risk assessment. Understand complicate chemical transformation processes in air pollution formation with intensive emissions from industry, power plant, vehicles, agriculture. Interactions between air pollution, PBL, and atmospheric circulation at different scales. The accountability, feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of air pollution control policies. Integrate multi-pollutant control and achieve co-benefit with climate and energy policy. Regional coordinated air pollution control. The largest challenge in China for air pollution control remains how to strength the link between science and policy.

  12. Persistent data archives, data publication, authorship and scientific recognition (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, J. H.

    2010-12-01

    Why don’t researchers get nearly as much credit for collecting and publishing high-quality data sets as they do for even a preliminary interpretation of data collected by themselves or by others? That does not seem fair! In the natural sciences, observations collected once can almost never be acquired again, nor can many experiments be repeated. These observations, therefore, are unique by definition, and hence might well become immensely valuable to future scientists. One would think, therefore that a premium should be placed on excellent data science, including peer-review, publication in secure, yet transparently accessible locations, commonly accepted citation standards, and full professional credit and recognition accorded to the practitioners. Technological options opened by today’s management, curation and on-line distribution of multi-disciplinary digital data sets make this an achievable goal. The new ICSU World Data System (WDS) is conceived as a global federated system of long-term data archives and data related services covering a wide spectrum of the sciences, and encouraging interdisciplinary science approaches. Because different disciplines (e.g. seismology, oceanography, astronomy, space sciences, biodiversity, health and social sciences) have developed domain-specific efficient answers to their own data challenges, WDS will by necessity evolve as a system of data systems. Nonetheless, certain overarching principles must be shared by all components: the main focus of WDS is on the long-term stewardship of scientific data (so that the value of data holdings might actually increase with time.) This calls, for instance, for the development and adoption of quality control practices, analysis and metadata services, and data publication services that can be recognized across domain boundaries. The latter will require a strong relationship with science publishers and libraries. Another focus point will be assisting scientists in developing a data

  13. 78 FR 66938 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC OPHPR) Cancellation This... More Information: Marquita Black, Executive Assistant, Office of Science and Public Health Practice... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  14. Public health care in Europe: moral aspirations, ideological obsessions, and structural pitfalls in a post-enlightenment culture.

    PubMed

    Azguridienė, Guoda; Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna

    2015-04-01

    This essay focuses on the challenge European states have imposed on themselves, namely, to provide state-of-the-art health care equally to all and for less than market price. Continued endorsement of that challenge in these states hinges on their character as media democracies: the public is moved by a supposed morally warranted expectation that all should receive adequate health care at no significant personal cost. The structural and economic constraints that hamper such forms of healthcare delivery result in systems that are financially inefficient and fail to provide the quality of treatment patients are led to expect. This essay examines the tension between secular moral claims to social solidarity and the actual limits of accessibility to healthcare services. Its critical focus addresses both the difficulties that result from politicians invoking high moral ideals while framing their decisions around short-term political advantage, and the transformation of the Enlightenment's secular aspirations into a political ideology that distorts such moral ideals. This essay concludes that the commitments to very particular notions of equality and human dignity, which frame contemporary Europe's provision of publicly subsidized health care, have given rise to a governance that is morally incoherent and unsustainable. This failure of public health care in Europe can thus be read as one more belated manifestation of the epistemological and moral failure of the Enlightenment's secularizing project, a failure which should invite contemporary Europeans to honestly face the moral challenge of postmodernity. PMID:25676731

  15. Automatic Extraction of Metadata from Scientific Publications for CRIS Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacevic, Aleksandar; Ivanovic, Dragan; Milosavljevic, Branko; Konjovic, Zora; Surla, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to develop a system for automatic extraction of metadata from scientific papers in PDF format for the information system for monitoring the scientific research activity of the University of Novi Sad (CRIS UNS). Design/methodology/approach: The system is based on machine learning and performs automatic extraction…

  16. 76 FR 16410 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review a set of scientific issues related to Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment strategies (IATA): Use of...

  17. 78 FR 49750 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review RNAi Technology as a... comments on the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be identified by name,...

  18. 76 FR 65722 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... AGENCY Notification of Two Public Teleconferences; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) to discuss its draft review of EPA's Integrated Science... scientific and technical aspects of issues related to the criteria for air quality standards,...

  19. 77 FR 42307 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review the Pollinator Risk... comments on the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be identified by name,...

  20. 78 FR 22873 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review Weight-of-Evidence... experience, to be capable of providing expert comments ] on the scientific issues for this meeting....

  1. 77 FR 20392 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review Problem Formulation... of providing expert comments on the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be...

  2. 78 FR 12311 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review the Endocrine... comments on the scientific issues for this meeting. Nominees should be identified by name,...

  3. 76 FR 70176 - Request For Information: Public Access to Digital Data Resulting from Federally Funded Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Scientific Research; Correction ACTION: Notice of Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: The RFI is being... public access to unclassified digital data that result from federally funded scientific research. The... research. The public input provided through this Notice will inform deliberations of the National...

  4. NASA's Plan for Improving Public Access to Federally Funded Scientific Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.

    2013-12-01

    In February, 2013, OSTP issued a policy to all Federal agencies directing those that engage in $100 million or greater of federally funded research and development expenditures to develop an agency public access plan. The plan must consider both digital scientific data and scientific publications. This talk will review how NASA is currently complying with this OSTP directive, and NASA's plan for improving the public's ability to locate and access digital data and scientific publications resulting from NASA funded research. Updating NASA's policy will occur during FY 2014 and implementation of new policies and guidance will be in place by FY 2015.

  5. [Bad behaviors regarding research and scientific and medical publication].

    PubMed

    Sculier, J P

    2013-01-01

    Since a few years, the number of cases of fraud reported in the scientific and medical literature and retraction of articles has increased exponentially. Such fraud is due to fabrication, falsification, theft, embellishment or retention of data, plagiarism, incorrect list of authors or undisclosed conflicts of interest. This tendency has been explained by the need to publish for career advancement or the future of the department, the search for notoriety, the desire to grow rich and the lack of motivation to seek the truth. This crisis can be controlled by measures at different levels: society, universities, scientific institutions, study promoters, scientific and medical journals. A legal framework at EU level would allow to combat such fraud more efficiently. PMID:24505870

  6. 78 FR 40743 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response, Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC OPHPR) In accordance with... Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR... Address Contact Person for More Information: Marquita Black, Office of Science and Public Health...

  7. 76 FR 77235 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal... of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC, HHS, 1600 Clifton Road...

  8. 78 FR 69682 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal... of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, CDC, HHS, 1600 Clifton Road,...

  9. The Reproduction of Scientific Understanding about Pendulum Motion in the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabu, Sumida

    This paper describes life-span development of understanding about pendulum motion and effects of school science. The subjects were 2,766 people ranging from kindergartners up to 88 years senior citizens. The conflict and consensus between children and their parent's understanding of pendulum motion were also analyzed. The kindergartner's understanding, mostly non-scientific, made a marked developmental change to another type of non-scientific understanding by the time they reach G 4. Parents with scientific understanding do not presumably nurture scientifically minded children,even though about half of them can apply scientific conceptions that shorter pendulums swing faster, and the amplitude and speed of pendulum motion do not depend on its weight. There seems to be another type of developmental change from scientific understanding to non-scientific understanding around their fifties. Itis suggested that the scientific understanding in the public about pendulum motion become predominant due to the educational intervention through school science.

  10. [First scientific research and publications on occupational medicine in Russia].

    PubMed

    Shigan, E E

    2016-01-01

    The article covers data on first in Russian Empire research works and publications on workers' health, occupation-related diseases occurrence, prevention and treatment of such diseases, prophylactic methods. PMID:27164753

  11. 78 FR 19705 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review proposed Endocrine... qualifications, including training and experience, to be capable of providing expert comments on the...

  12. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... network in support of a newly revised National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for 1-hour NO 2 (75 FR... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring... teleconference of the Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS) of the Clean Air Scientific...

  13. Mass Media and Global Warming: A Public Arenas Model of the Greenhouse Effect's Scientific Roots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuzil, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Uses the Public Arenas model to examine the historical roots of the greenhouse effect issue as communicated in scientific literature from the early 1800s to modern times. Utilizes a constructivist approach to discuss several possible explanations for the rise and fall of global warming as a social problem in the scientific arena. (PA)

  14. Seminar on Foci for Progress in Scientific Publications: A Summary and Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH.

    A one-day seminar was convened on November 4, 1969, to consider problems involved in communicating scientific information and the progress that has been made in improving the scientific publication mechanism. Thirty participants representing different types of information producers, users, and organizations contributed to the seminar discussion.…

  15. Self-correction in biomedical publications and the scientific impact

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Ayvazyan, Lilit; Akazhanov, Nurbek A.; Kitas, George D.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To analyze mistakes and misconduct in multidisciplinary and specialized biomedical journals. Methods We conducted searches through PubMed to retrieve errata, duplicate, and retracted publications (as of January 30, 2014). To analyze publication activity and citation profiles of countries, multidisciplinary, and specialized biomedical journals, we referred to the latest data from the SCImago Journal & Country Rank database. Total number of indexed articles and values of the h-index of the fifty most productive countries and multidisciplinary journals were recorded and linked to the number of duplicate and retracted publications in PubMed. Results Our analysis found 2597 correction items. A striking increase in the number of corrections appeared in 2013, which is mainly due to 871 (85.3%) corrections from PLOS One. The number of duplicate publications was 1086. Articles frequently published in duplicate were reviews (15.6%), original studies (12.6%), and case reports (7.6%), whereas top three retracted articles were original studies (10.1%), randomized trials (8.8%), and reviews (7%). A strong association existed between the total number of publications across countries and duplicate (rs = 0.86, P < 0.001) and retracted items (rs = 0.812, P < 0.001). A similar trend was found between country-based h-index values and duplicate and retracted publications. Conclusion The study suggests that the intensified self-correction in biomedicine is due to the attention of readers and authors, who spot errors in their hub of evidence-based information. Digitization and open access confound the staggering increase in correction notices and retractions. PMID:24577829

  16. Publication Bias ( The "File-Drawer Problem") in Scientific Inference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Publication bias arises whenever the probability that a study is published depends on the statistical significance of its results. This bias, often called the file-drawer effect since the unpublished results are imagined to be tucked away in researchers' file cabinets, is potentially a severe impediment to combining the statistical results of studies collected from the literature. With almost any reasonable quantitative model for publication bias, only a small number of studies lost in the file-drawer will produce a significant bias. This result contradicts the well known Fail Safe File Drawer (FSFD) method for setting limits on the potential harm of publication bias, widely used in social, medical and psychic research. This method incorrectly treats the file drawer as unbiased, and almost always miss-estimates the seriousness of publication bias. A large body of not only psychic research, but medical and social science studies, has mistakenly relied on this method to validate claimed discoveries. Statistical combination can be trusted only if it is known with certainty that all studies that have been carried out are included. Such certainty is virtually impossible to achieve in literature surveys.

  17. 42 CFR 82.33 - How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process? 82.33 Section 82.33 Public Health PUBLIC... ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.33 How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the...

  18. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process?...

  19. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process?...

  20. 42 CFR 82.33 - How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process? 82.33 Section 82.33 Public Health PUBLIC... ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.33 How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the...

  1. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process?...

  2. 42 CFR 82.33 - How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process? 82.33 Section 82.33 Public Health PUBLIC... ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.33 How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the...

  3. 42 CFR 82.33 - How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process? 82.33 Section 82.33 Public Health PUBLIC... ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.33 How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the...

  4. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process?...

  5. 42 CFR 82.33 - How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process? 82.33 Section 82.33 Public Health PUBLIC... ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.33 How will NIOSH inform the public of changes to the scientific elements underlying the...

  6. 42 CFR 82.31 - How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can the public recommend changes to scientific... COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.31 How can the public recommend changes to scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process?...

  7. Using Scientific Publications to Identify People with Similar Interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Stanley; Lorenzi, Fabiana; Granada, Roger; Lichtnow, Daniel; Wives, Leandro Krug; Palazzo Moreira de Oliveira, José

    In many situations, related to some types of systems or organizations' tasks, it is necessary to identify people with similar profiles. In the case of a collaborative recommender system, items to be recommended are those associated to similar users. Another example, in the academic environment, is to identify new members to be part of a research group (people with similar profiles). This task of identifying people with similar profiles can be time-consuming. In this sense, this work considers that scientific papers written by people can be used to identify users with similar profiles. Considering this assumption, we have done some experiments to identify which parts of papers, which type of indexes (terms or concepts) and which type of similarity functions (Jaccard or a Fuzzy function) are more suitable to identify similar people. The paper presents the results of some experiments and some application scenarios considering academic environments.

  8. Using Astronomy to Promote a Scientific Culture in the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, O.

    2009-05-01

    The new ``Planetario Habana'' Cultural Centre for Science and Technology under construction is a joint project between the Office of the Historian of the City of Havana and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of Cuba. The whole centre will be aimed at guiding the interest towards basic sciences and astronomical formation of the people, in the most populated and frequented area of the country. A key objective of this project shall be serving as an instructive motivation and entertainment for the casual or habitual visitors to these facilities, offering them the possibility to enjoy vivid representations, play with interactive amusement equipments and listen to instructive presentations on astronomy and related sciences guided by qualified specialists, professors and outstanding university students. Another fundamental purpose shall be the establishment of a plan for educational complementation in coordination with schools in order to allow children and young people to participate in activities enabling them to get into the fascinating world of Astronomy, Exploration of Outer Space and Life as Cosmic Phenomenon. The setting up of the ``Planetario Habana'' Cultural Centre for Science and Technology will show in function the GOTO Planetarium G Cuba custom obtained under a Japanese Cultural Grant Aid. This centre shall develop into a nonpareil pole in the national environment for the scientific outreach and education of these sciences. Surrounded by the attractiveness of the colonial ``ambience'' of the Old Town of Havana, it shall become a centre for dissemination of information about new discoveries and scientific programs developed at national and international level. Here we present a general view of the project, its objectives, and its present and future development.

  9. Seven PC Purchasing Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Explores how to avoid common pitfalls when schools purchase computer equipment. Purchasing tips are provided in the areas of choosing multiple platforms, buying the cheapest model available, choosing a proprietary design, falling for untested technology, purchasing systems that are not upgradable, ignoring extended warranties, and failing to plan…

  10. Open semantic annotation of scientific publications using DOMEO

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our group has developed a useful shared software framework for performing, versioning, sharing and viewing Web annotations of a number of kinds, using an open representation model. Methods The Domeo Annotation Tool was developed in tandem with this open model, the Annotation Ontology (AO). Development of both the Annotation Framework and the open model was driven by requirements of several different types of alpha users, including bench scientists and biomedical curators from university research labs, online scientific communities, publishing and pharmaceutical companies. Several use cases were incrementally implemented by the toolkit. These use cases in biomedical communications include personal note-taking, group document annotation, semantic tagging, claim-evidence-context extraction, reagent tagging, and curation of textmining results from entity extraction algorithms. Results We report on the Domeo user interface here. Domeo has been deployed in beta release as part of the NIH Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF, http://www.neuinfo.org) and is scheduled for production deployment in the NIF’s next full release. Future papers will describe other aspects of this work in detail, including Annotation Framework Services and components for integrating with external textmining services, such as the NCBO Annotator web service, and with other textmining applications using the Apache UIMA framework. PMID:22541592

  11. Offshore scientific and technical publications, February-July, Spring 1989. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The catalog lists all current (1987-1989) scientific and technical publications of the Offshore Minerals Management Program. The catalog is updated and released on a quarterly basis in winter, spring, summer, and fall. Publications available after July 21, 1989, will be listed in the next issue.

  12. PACS pitfalls and bottlenecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. K.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Wong, Albert W. K.

    1997-05-01

    PACS pitfalls are mostly created from human error, whereas bottlenecks are due to imperfect design in either the PACS or image acquisition devices. These drawbacks can only be realized through accumulated clinical experience. Pitfalls due to human error are often initiated at imaging acquisition devices and at workstations. Three major errors at the acquisition devices are entering wrong input parameters, stopping an image transmission process improperly, and incorrect patient positioning. The error occurring most often at the workstation happens when the user enters too many key strokes or clicks the mouse too often before the workstation can respond. Other pitfalls at the workstation unrelated to human error are missing location markers in a CT or MR scout view, images displayed with unsuitable look-up-tables, and white boarders in CR images due to x-ray collimation. Pitfalls created due to human intervention can be minimized by a better quality assurance program and periodic in-service training, and by interfacing image acquisition devices to the HIS/RIS. Bottlenecks affecting the PACS operation include network contention; CR, CT, and MR images stacked up at acquisition devices; slow response from workstations; and long delays for image retrieval from the long term archive. Bottlenecks can be alleviated by improving the system architecture, re- configuring the networks, and streamlining operational procedures through a gradual understanding of the clinical environment. We have identified most of the pitfalls and bottlenecks discussed above in our hospital-integrated PACS based on the past two years of clinical experience. This paper categorizes some of these problems, illustrates their effect on PACS operations, and suggests methods for circumventing them.

  13. Ethics and Scientific Integrity in Public Health, Epidemiological and Clinical Research.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; Barker, Amyre; Dawson, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The ethics and scientific integrity of biomedical and public health research requires that researchers behave in appropriate ways. However, this requires more than following of published research guidelines that seek to prevent scientific misconduct relating to serious deviations from widely accepted scientific norms for proposing, conducting, and reporting research (e.g., fabrication or falsification of research data or failures to report potential conflicts of interest). In this paper we argue for a broader account of scientific integrity, one consistent with that defended by the United States Institute of Medicine, involving a commitment to intellectual honesty and personal responsibility for one's actions as a researcher and to practices consistent with the responsible conduct of research and protection of the research participants. Maintaining high standards of ethical and scientific integrity helps to maintain public trust in the research enterprise. An increasing number of authors have pointed to the importance of mentoring and education in relation to the responsible conduct of science in preventing transgressions of scientific integrity. Just like in clinical research and biomedicine, epidemiologists and other public health researchers have the responsibility to exhibit and foster the very highest standards of scientific integrity. PMID:24532867

  14. Ethics and Scientific Integrity in Public Health, Epidemiological and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Barker, Amyre; Dawson, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The ethics and scientific integrity of biomedical and public health research requires that researchers behave in appropriate ways. However, this requires more than following of published research guidelines that seek to prevent scientific misconduct relating to serious deviations from widely accepted scientific norms for proposing, conducting, and reporting research (e.g., fabrication or falsification of research data or failures to report potential conflicts of interest). In this paper we argue for a broader account of scientific integrity, one consistent with that defended by the United States Institute of Medicine, involving a commitment to intellectual honesty and personal responsibility for one’s actions as a researcher and to practices consistent with the responsible conduct of research and protection of the research participants. Maintaining high standards of ethical and scientific integrity helps to maintain public trust in the research enterprise. An increasing number of authors have pointed to the importance of mentoring and education in relation to the responsible conduct of science in preventing transgressions of scientific integrity. Just like in clinical research and biomedicine, epidemiologists and other public health researchers have the responsibility to exhibit and foster the very highest standards of scientific integrity. PMID:24532867

  15. Scientific publications in international anaesthesiology journals: a 10-year survey.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Qiu, L-X; Wu, F-X; Yang, L-Q; Sun, S; Yu, W F

    2011-03-01

    Significant growth has been seen in the field of anaesthesiology in recent decades. The current geographic distribution of the publications on anaesthesia research may be different from ten years ago. We performed this literature survey to examine the national origin of articles published in international anaesthesiology journals and to evaluate their contribution to anaesthesia research. Articles published in 18 major anaesthesiology journals from 2000 to 2009 were identified from the PubMed database and the Science Citation Index. A total of 30,191 articles were published in the selected 18 journals from 2000 to 2009. The country responsible for the largest number of articles was the United States of America (29.4%), followed by the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Canada, Australia and France. Denmark, Switzerland and Finland had the largest number of articles per capita. Anesthesia & Analgesia published the most number of articles from 2000 to 2009, followed by Anesthesiology, Pain and the British Journal of Anaesthesia. The numbers of clinical studies and randomised controlled trials decreased markedly from 2000 to 2009. PMID:21485677

  16. Trusted Sources: The Role Scientific Societies Can Play in Improving Public Opinions on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, C.; Cairns, A.; Buhrman, J.

    2012-12-01

    Public acceptance of the scientific consensus regarding climate change has eroded and misinformation designed to confuse the public is rapidly proliferating. Those issues, combined with an increase of politically motivated attacks on climate scientists and their research, have led to a place where ideology can trump scientific consensus as the foundation for developing policy solutions. The scientific community has been, thus far, unprepared to respond effectively to these developments. However, as a scientific society whose members engage in climate science research, and one whose organizational mission and vision are centered on the concepts of science for the benefit of humanity and ensuring a sustainable future, the American Geophysical Union can, and should, play an important role in reversing this trend. To that end, in 2011, AGU convened a Leadership Summit on Climate Science Communication, in which presidents, executive directors, and senior public policy staff from 17 scientific organizations engaged with experts in the social sciences regarding effective communication of climate science and with practitioners from agriculture, energy, and the military. The discussions focused on three key issues: the environment of climate science communication; public understanding of climate change; and the perspectives of consumers of climate science-based information who work with specific audiences. Participants diagnosed previous challenges and failings, enumerated the key constituencies that need to be effectively engaged, and identified the critical role played by cultural cognition—the influence of group values, particularly around equality and authority, individualism, and community; and the perceptions of risk. Since that meeting, AGU has consistently worked to identify and explore ways that it, and its members, and improve the effectiveness of their communication with the public about climate change. This presentation will focus on the insights AGU has

  17. Trends in scientific publications of Indian spine surgeons over 14 years (2000–2013)

    PubMed Central

    Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Falavigna, Asdrubal; da Silva, Pedro Guarise; Quadros, Francine Wurzius; Merlin, Luiz Henrique; Radaelli, Lucas; Guyot, Juan Pablo; Dozza, Diego; Riew, Daniel K; Martins, Délio; Yoshiharu, Kawaguchi; Rajasekaran, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: The number and quality of scientific publications reflects the standards of scientific research in a country. However, the contribution of Indian spine surgeons toward global publications is unknown. The goal is to study the publications of Indian spine surgeons between 2000 and 2013. Materials and Methods: A literature search of the publications by Indian spine surgeons was performed using MEDLINE. The search terms used were India and several spine-related terminologies. The main information of the selected papers including the year of publication, scientific journal, type of pathology studied, Neurosurgical or Orthopedic Department where the study was done, type of study, and the type of article was analyzed. Results: A total of 4459 articles were identified using MEDLINE and after exclusion, 507 articles were analyzed. A growth of 440% in the number of publications was observed in the period between 2009 and 2013, during which 60.15% of the articles were published. Clinical studies (n = 492; 97.04) were the most common types of articles, followed by experimental studies and other types. The Neurosurgery department published the majority of the articles (58.2%). The three most common pathologies studied were spinal tumors (17.35%), surgical technique (15.4%), and spinal infection (15.2%). Conclusion: The current study shows that publications in the field of spine surgery have been increasing in the last few years, although it is less. Further efforts such as research training of spine surgeons, inducing collaborations and formulation of multicenter projects and periodically allocating adequate funds are key factors to improve the scientific publications from India. PMID:27293295

  18. Presenting a scientific paper, including the pitfalls.

    PubMed Central

    Lashford, L S

    1995-01-01

    The tone of the presentation is set with the writing of the abstract. Wanting a trip to Vienna is not a good enough reason for framing an abstract unless the data are really interesting. If you don't find them so, you can bet your life that nobody else will. Have you presented the work before? Increasingly, the forms inviting abstracts stipulate that they should contain novel data. This protects the audience from boredom and your reputation from the aspersion that you never have anything new to say. It has been my practice to communicate similar data at a second meeting provided it contains some new results and that it is targeted at a totally unrelated specialist group. Hopefully, no one will have heard the information before. However, it is not acceptable to simply rehash the same abstract but should reflect the special interests of the second group. If one genuinely wants the abstract accepted for oral presentation it must contain a clear hypothesis, a brief description of methods, an exposition of results, and a conclusion. That well worn phrase 'results will be presented' simply raises the suspicion that the author is hoping that the data will be ready by the time that the conference begins. Sometimes, in the rush to meet deadlines for abstract submission, the needs of coauthors are overlooked. This is a sensitive area and can easily temporarily wreck what appeared to be a harmonious collaboration. Do make sure that all coauthors have seen the abstract before submission and are happy with the content--it is good research practice and important to the smooth running of the research group. PMID:7574867

  19. Presenting a scientific paper, including the pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Lashford, L S

    1995-08-01

    The tone of the presentation is set with the writing of the abstract. Wanting a trip to Vienna is not a good enough reason for framing an abstract unless the data are really interesting. If you don't find them so, you can bet your life that nobody else will. Have you presented the work before? Increasingly, the forms inviting abstracts stipulate that they should contain novel data. This protects the audience from boredom and your reputation from the aspersion that you never have anything new to say. It has been my practice to communicate similar data at a second meeting provided it contains some new results and that it is targeted at a totally unrelated specialist group. Hopefully, no one will have heard the information before. However, it is not acceptable to simply rehash the same abstract but should reflect the special interests of the second group. If one genuinely wants the abstract accepted for oral presentation it must contain a clear hypothesis, a brief description of methods, an exposition of results, and a conclusion. That well worn phrase 'results will be presented' simply raises the suspicion that the author is hoping that the data will be ready by the time that the conference begins. Sometimes, in the rush to meet deadlines for abstract submission, the needs of coauthors are overlooked. This is a sensitive area and can easily temporarily wreck what appeared to be a harmonious collaboration. Do make sure that all coauthors have seen the abstract before submission and are happy with the content--it is good research practice and important to the smooth running of the research group. PMID:7574867

  20. [How to increase the visibility of your scientific publication on the Internet?].

    PubMed

    Maczuga, Justyna; Przyłuska, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    New technologies compel the scientists to change their thinking about dissemination of their own publications. In the time of rapid information exchange scientific papers should be available to the largest possible audience, it is therefore of vital importance to prepare them properly. The authors present the ways how to optimize the visibility of scientific publications on the Internet by the use of appropriate choice of words in the title, summary and key words. They discuss the mechanisms of indexing in scientific search engines and bibliographic-abstract databases showing at the same time how to use them in drawing up the paper. They also give an example of two summaries of the same article. The first one comprises the elements of academic search engine optimization (ASEO) while the other one does not follow these principles in the article description. PMID:22994069

  1. The Role of Emotional Factors in Building Public Scientific Literacy and Engagement with Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huann-shyang; Hong, Zuway-R.; Huang, Tai-Chu

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the database from an extensive international study on 15-year-old students (N = 8,815) to analyze the relationship between emotional factors and students' scientific literacy and explore the potential link between the emotions of the students and subsequent public engagement with science. The results revealed that students' scientific literacy is significantly correlated with their interest, enjoyment, and engagement in science learning (p < 0.001). The groups of students with high levels of emotional factors outperform their medium- and low-level counterparts in scientific literacy. Additional comparisons of emotions during science learning between these students and the adult population from another study indicate a number of similarities with the exception that the adults are more involved in learning science through television. It is suggested that improving the emotions that current students experience when learning science is more likely to enhance future public engagement in science-related issues.

  2. 76 FR 66717 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Air Monitoring and Methods Subcommittee (AMMS) to discuss its draft report on EPA's draft Near-Road NO2 Monitoring Technical Assistance...

  3. Presenting Global Warming and Evolution as Public Health Issues to Encourage Acceptance of Scientific Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Shawn K.; McArthur, Laurence B.; Mabry, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence supporting anthropogenic global warming and evolution by natural selection is considerable, the public does not embrace these concepts. The current study explores the hypothesis that individuals will become more receptive to scientific viewpoints if evidence for evolution and implications of global warming are presented as issues…

  4. The Role of Emotional Factors in Building Public Scientific Literacy and Engagement with Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huann-shyang; Hong, Zuway-R.; Huang, Tai-Chu

    2012-01-01

    This study uses the database from an extensive international study on 15-year-old students (N = 8,815) to analyze the relationship between emotional factors and students' scientific literacy and explore the potential link between the emotions of the students and subsequent public engagement with science. The results revealed that students'…

  5. Media Violence and the American Public: Scientific Facts versus Media Misinformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushman, Brad J.; Anderson, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how news coverage on the connections between media violence and aggression have left the public confused, examining whether media violence mirrors real world violence and how news reports about media violence and aggression have changed over time. Highlights the entertainment industry and scientific community, discussing why they often…

  6. English as an International Language of Scientific Publication: A Study of Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Gibson; Perez-Llantada, Carmen; Plo, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on an issue attracting increasing attention: the possible disadvantage inflicted on non-Anglophone academics by the dominance of English in scientific publication and academic exchange. We critically review the evidence for linguistic disadvantage, noting some of its limitations, and critique the native/non-native distinction as…

  7. Attitude of Indian dental professionals toward scientific publications: A questionnaire based study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sachdeva, Suresh K.; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Khosa, Rameen; Basavraju, Suman; Dutta, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to competitiveness and academic benefits, most dental professionals feel an urgent need to increase their publications. Hence, we explored the attitude of students and faculty members toward scientific publications through a questionnaire. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire consisting of 13 questions was sent by e-mails and posting the printed copies to dental postgraduate (PG) students (second and third year) and faculty members (n = 500 each). The returned completed questionnaires were analyzed. Results: About 37% of dental PG faculty and 35.6% PG students responded to the questionnaire, with overall response of 72.6%. Among the PG faculty, professors (P) had more scientific publications, followed by senior lecturers (SL) and readers (R). The publications as first or corresponding author were less among both faculty and PG students while co-authorship was more among PG students compared to faculty members. Awareness about the term “plagiarism” was overall high and relatively highest among R, followed by SL, P and PG students. The percentage of publications in fee charging journals was more among PG students than faculty members and self-funding for publication was observed in 86.4% of PG students and 94-100% among faculty members. Conclusion: About 72.6% of dental professionals were involved in publishing of their research work and the number of publications increased steadily with an increase in their academic experience. All the dental professionals concurred publications as the criteria for academic excellence. PMID:26604598

  8. Media violence and the American public. Scientific facts versus media misinformation.

    PubMed

    Bushman, B J; Anderson, C A

    2001-01-01

    Fifty years of news coverage on the link between media violence and aggression have left the U.S. public confused. Typical news articles pit researchers and child advocates against entertainment industry representatives, frequently giving equal weight to the arguments of both sides. A comparison of news reports and scientific knowledge about media effects reveals a disturbing discontinuity: Over the past 50 years, the average news report has changed from claims of a weak link to a moderate link and then back to a weak link between media violence and aggression. However, since 1975, the scientific confidence and statistical magnitude of this link have been clearly positive and have consistently increased over time. Reasons for this discontinuity between news reports and the actual state of scientific knowledge include the vested interests of the news, a misapplied fairness doctrine in news reporting, and the failure of the research community to effectively argue the scientific case. PMID:11413871

  9. The annotation and the usage of scientific databases could be improved with public issue tracker software

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Olio, Giovanni Marco; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Laayouni, Hafid

    2010-01-01

    Since the publication of their longtime predecessor The Atlas of Protein Sequences and Structures in 1965 by Margaret Dayhoff, scientific databases have become a key factor in the organization of modern science. All the information and knowledge described in the novel scientific literature is translated into entries in many different scientific databases, making it possible to obtain very accurate information on a biological entity like genes or proteins without having to manually review the literature on it. However, even for the databases with the finest annotation procedures, errors or unclear parts sometimes appear in the publicly released version and influence the research of unaware scientists using them. The researcher that finds an error in a database is often left in a uncertain state, and often abandons the effort of reporting it because of a lack of a standard procedure to do so. In the present work, we propose that the simple adoption of a public error tracker application, as in many open software projects, could improve the quality of the annotations in many databases and encourage feedback from the scientific community on the data annotated publicly. In order to illustrate the situation, we describe a series of errors that we found and helped solve on the genes of a very well-known pathway in various biomedically relevant databases. We would like to show that, even if a majority of the most important scientific databases have procedures for reporting errors, these are usually not publicly visible, making the process of reporting errors time consuming and not useful. Also, the effort made by the user that reports the error often goes unacknowledged, putting him in a discouraging position. PMID:21186182

  10. Proposal Pitfalls Plaguing Researchers: Can Technical Communicators Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemanski, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The facts bear out that the odds are against most scientific researchers and scholars--especially those just starting out--in their attempts to win funding for their research projects through their grant proposals. In this article, the author takes a close look at some of the proposal-related problems and pitfalls that have historically challenged…

  11. Bibliometric analysis of regional Latin America's scientific output in Public Health through SCImago Journal & Country Rank

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the greater framework of the essential functions of Public Health, our focus is on a systematic, objective, external evaluation of Latin American scientific output, to compare its publications in the area of Public Health with those of other major geographic zones. We aim to describe the regional distribution of output in Public Health, and the level of visibility and specialization, for Latin America; it can then be characterized and compared in the international context. Methods The primary source of information was the Scopus database, using the category “Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health”, in the period 1996–2011. Data were obtained through the portal of SCImago Journal and Country Rank. Using a set of qualitative (citation-based), quantitative (document recount) and collaborative (authors from more than one country) indicators, we derived complementary data. The methodology serves as an analytical tool for researchers and scientific policy-makers. Results The contribution of Latin America to the arsenal of world science lies more or less midway on the international scale in terms of its output and visibility. Revealed as its greatest strengths are the high level of specialization in Public Health and the sustained growth of output. The main limitations identified were a relative decrease in collaboration and low visibility. Conclusions Collaboration is a key factor behind the development of scientific activity in Latin America. Although this finding can be useful for formulating research policy in Latin American countries, it also underlines the need for further research into patterns of scientific communication in this region, to arrive at more specific recommendations. PMID:24950735

  12. Economic analysis of scientific publications and implications for energy research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, David

    2016-04-01

    The mix of public and private funding in alternative energy research makes isolating the effect of government funding challenging. Factors such as energy prices and environmental policy influence both private and public R&D decisions, and it may take several years for public R&D’s effect on technology to be realized. Here, by combining data on scientific publications for alternative energy technologies with data on government R&D support, I provide information on the lags between research funding and new publications and link these articles to citations in US energy patents. I find that US$1 million in additional government funding leads to one to two additional publications, but with lags as long as ten years between initial funding and publication. Finally, I show that adjustment costs associated with large increases in research funding are of little concern at current levels of public energy R&D support. These results suggest that there is room to expand public R&D budgets for renewable energy, but that the impact of any such expansion may not be realized for some time.

  13. Publication Ethics and the Emerging Scientific Workforce: Understanding ‘Plagiarism’ in a Global Context

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Carrie; Zhao, Hui; McHugh, Michelle K.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific publication has long been dominated by the English language and is rapidly moving towards near complete hegemony of English, while the majority of the world’s publishing scientists are not native English speakers. This imbalance has important implications for training in and enforcement of publication ethics, particularly with respect to plagiarism. A lack of understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and the use of a linguistic support strategy known as patchwriting can lead to inadvertent misuse of source material by non-native speakers writing in English as well as to unfounded accusations of intentional scientific misconduct on the part of these authors. A rational and well-informed dialogue about this issue is needed among both native English speaking and non-native English speaking writers, editors, educators, and administrators. Recommendations for educating and training are provided. PMID:22104051

  14. [Scientific production in nutrition and the public perception of hunger and eating in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Marília; Lucatelli, Márcio

    2006-08-01

    There is a contradiction between the perceptions held by different sectors of the Establishment with regard to the questions of hunger and nutrition in Brazil. On the one hand, the flagship of the present Brazilian government's social policy is the "Fome Zero" program. This program is based on the notion that the condition of hunger is socially relevant in this country. On the other hand, the scientific community in the field of nutrition has, through epidemiological studies, highlighted obesity as one of the most serious public health problems in Brazil. The reason why the public perception is dissociated from the production of knowledge on this subject has old roots that are related to the difficulties in institutionalizing science in Brazil. This has been reflected in a relative lack of legitimacy for scientific discourse. The new factor in this situation is the attainment of greater international visibility by the scientific community in nutritional de epidemiology. The future of the practical application of the results from nutritional epidemiology research in Brazil depends on the dynamics of the political agenda regarding hunger and nutrition, and of the sectors associated with this. The objective of this study was to explore this situation by means of analyzing scientometric data on the scientific production, historical data and documents relating to discourse about hunger. PMID:16924308

  15. Persistent Identifiers in the Publication and Citation of Scientific Data - Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Brase, J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Hildenbrand, B.; Hoeck, H.; Lautenschlager, M.; Sens, I.

    2008-12-01

    In the last decade data driven research has become a third pillar of scientific work alongside with theoretical reasoning and experiment. Greatly increased computing power and storage, together with web services and other electronic resources have facilitated a quantum leap in new research based on the analysis of great amounts of data. However, traditional scientific communication only slowly changes to new media other than an emulation of paper. This leaves many data inaccessible and, in the long run exposes valuable data to the risk of loss. To improve access to data and to create incentives for scientists to make their data accessible, a group of German data centres initiated the project "Publication and Citation of Scientific Data" (STD-DOI) which was funded by the German Science Foundation DFG for the periods 2003-2005 and 2006-2008. In this project the German National Library for Science and Technology (TIB Hannover), together with the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ Potsdam), Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) Bremerhaven, University of Bremen, the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, and the DLR German Remote Sensing Data Center set up the first system to assign DOIs to data sets and for their publication. A prerequisite for data to be made available is a proper citation. This means that all fields mandatory for a bibliographic citation are included. In addition, a mechanism is needed that ensures that the location of the referenced data on the internet can be resolved at any time. In the past, this was a problematic issue because URLs are short-lived, many becoming invalid after only a few months. Data publication on the internet therefore needs a system of reliable pointers to a web publication to make these publications citeable. To achieve this persistence of identifiers for their conventional publications many scientific publishers use Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). The identifier is resolved through

  16. Open access and openly accessible: a study of scientific publications shared via the internet

    PubMed Central

    Wren, Jonathan D

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To determine how often reprints of scientific publications are shared online, whether journal readership level is a predictor, how the amount of file sharing changes with the age of the article, and to what degree open access publications are shared on non-journal websites. Design The internet was searched using an application programming interface to Google, a popular and freely available search engine. Main outcome measures The proportion of reprints of journal articles published between 1994 and 2004 from within 13 subscription based and four open access journals that could be located online at non-journal websites. Results The probability that an article could be found online at a non-journal website correlated with the journal impact factor and the time since initial publication. Papers from higher impact journals and more recent articles were more likely to be located. On average, for the high impact journal articles published in 2003, over a third could be located at non-journal websites. Similar trends were observed for the delayed or full open access publications. Conclusions Decentralised sharing of scientific reprints through the internet creates a degree of de facto open access that, though highly incomplete in its coverage, is none the less biased towards publications of higher popular demand. PMID:15827063

  17. Pitfalls in developmental diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, R S

    1987-01-01

    I have never seen a paper or chapter of a book devoted to pitfalls and mistakes in developmental diagnosis. This paper is designed to try to fill the gap. It concerns the avoidance of mistakes in developmental diagnosis and is based entirely on mistakes that I have made myself and now learned to try to avoid and on mistakes that I have seen, most of them repeatedly. I have made no mention of mistakes that could theoretically be made but that I have not personally seen. I believe that most assessment errors are due to overconfidence and to the view that developmental diagnosis is easy. Many other mistakes are due to reliance on purely objective tests with consequent omission of a detailed history and physical examination, so that factors that profoundly affect development but are not directly related to the child's mental endowment are not weighed up before an opinion is reached. PMID:2444167

  18. A scientific impact indicator based on the latent ``citability'' of a researcher's publications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Joao; Zeng, Xiaohan; Amaral, Luis

    2014-03-01

    How to quantify the impact of a scientist's body of work is currently a matter of great concern. The use of bibliometric indicators, such as the h-index or the Journal Impact Factor, have become widespread despite their known limitations. We surmise that many of the deficiencies of existing bibliometric indicators arise from their heuristic nature. Here, we pursue a principled approach to the development of an indicator to quantify the scientific impact of individual researchers, grounded on the functional form of the distribution of the ultimate number of citations. We validate our approach using the publication records of 1,283 researchers from seven scientific disciplines. Our approach has three distinct advantages. First, it accurately captures the overall scientific impact of researchers, as measured by ultimate citation counts. Second, in contrast to prior bibliometric indicators, our proposed measure does not depend on the number of publications, offering the possibility to compare researchers at different career stages. Third, more than other measures, our index is resistant to manipulation and rewards publication quality over quantity. The authors acknowledge the support of FCT-Portugal grant SFRH/BD/76115/2011 and NSF awards SBE 0624318 and IIS 0830388.

  19. Plagiarism in Scientific Research and Publications and How to Prevent It

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal

  20. Plagiarism in scientific research and publications and how to prevent it.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2014-04-01

    Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal

  1. Improving Scientific Communication and Publication Output in a Multidisciplinary Laboratory: Changing Culture Through Staff Development Workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, Christine F.; Stratton, Kelly G.

    2015-07-13

    Communication plays a fundamental role in science and engineering disciplines. However, many higher education programs provide little, if any, technical communication coursework. Without strong communication skills scientists and engineers have less opportunity to publish, obtain competitive research funds, or grow their careers. This article describes the role of scientific communication training as an innovative staff development program in a learning-intensive workplace – a national scientific research and development laboratory. The findings show that involvement in the workshop has increased overall participating staff annual publications by an average of 61 percent compared to their pre-workshop publishing performance as well as confidence level in their ability to write and publish peer-reviewed literature. Secondary benefits include improved information literacy skills and the development of informal communities of practice. This work provides insight into adult education in the workplace.

  2. Identification of trends in scientific publications related to genetic polymorphisms in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J S; Minasi, L B; da Cruz, A D; Rodrigues, F M

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes is a genetic multifactorial systemic disease that has been extensively studied. Consequently, there is a large volume of scientific literature pertaining to genes associated with gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to characterize the main trends in scientific publications focusing on the associations between genetic polymorphisms and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The related articles were extracted from Scopus using the key words "genetic polymorphism" and "gestational diabetes mellitus"; the collected data focused on various fields (medical, biochemical, etc.) and included papers published within December 2013. One hundred and eighty-three relevant articles published between 1987 and 2013 were identified; we observed a significantly increasing trend in the number of publications pertaining to GDM. A majority of the articles focused on the medical (59.9%), biochemical, and genetics and molecular biological (29.6%) aspects of the disease. The genes coding for transcription factor 7-like 2 and glucokinase (TCF7L2, 29% and GCK, 28%) were predominantly studied and reported. This study helped quantify the growth in research pertaining to GDM; researchers from the USA have published a majority of the publications related to GDM. Several candidate genes have been linked to diabetes; however, the specific gene locus responsible for GDM has not yet been identified. The results of this study could help determine the orientation of future research on genetic factors associated with GDM. PMID:27173344

  3. [History of the Halle Ars medica Judaica. V. Scientific achievements and medical publications of 2 centuries].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1989-05-01

    A medico-scientific journalism of Jewish origin which became increasedly recognizable on the German territory in the second half of the 17th century was at first based on the activities of Spanish-Portuguese exiles. Beginning with the 18th century at first the inaugural papers, but then also the publications of renowned Jewish physicians determined the profile of this literary group. The access to academic teaching professions becoming possible in the 19th century developed concentration points of research engagement, which in this place shall be indicated at the instance of the Medical Faculty of Halle University. PMID:2662660

  4. 75 FR 78338 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board will meet on January 6-7, 2011 at the St.... Global AIDS Coordinator, Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's...

  5. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(3)-1 - Organizations organized and operated for religious, charitable, scientific, testing for public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... purposes, see 26 CFR (1939) 39.101(6)-1 (Regulations 118) as made applicable to the Code by Treasury... 501(c)(3), includes the carrying on of scientific research in the public interest. Research when taken... particular research depends upon the purpose which it serves. For research to be scientific, within...

  6. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(3)-1 - Organizations organized and operated for religious, charitable, scientific, testing for public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... purposes, see 26 CFR (1939) 39.101(6)-1 (Regulations 118) as made applicable to the Code by Treasury... 501(c)(3), includes the carrying on of scientific research in the public interest. Research when taken... particular research depends upon the purpose which it serves. For research to be scientific, within...

  7. Alcohol: a description and comparison of recent scientific vs. public knowledge.

    PubMed

    Buckalew, L W

    1979-04-01

    Sought to survey alcohol research since the "rediscovery" of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and to compare recent scientific knowledge with that of the general public. Research was found to concentrate on searching for explanations of alcohol use and/or abuse and on several areas of biological morphogenesis. Significant documentation exists for FAS and validates both physiological and developmental attributes. As an index of public knowledge, an alcohol questionnaire was administered to 190 high-school, college, and graduate students. True-false items represented statements relative to the nature, etiology, effects, variables, and consequences of alcohol use/abuse. The composite mean of less than 60% correct suggested significant misinformation and misconceptions about alcohol. A summary of the most dramatic informational deficits was presented. There was a positive, though minimal, relationship between alcohol knowledge and education, and both sex and race differences were noted. PMID:457917

  8. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Huamaní, Charles; Romaní, Franco; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Mejia, Miluska O.; Ramos, José Manuel; Espinoza, Manuel; Cabezas, César

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7%) and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country. PMID:25229217

  9. The Disconnect Between Journalism and Science and its Role in Public Misunderstanding of Important Scientific Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulsman, T.

    2006-12-01

    Research shows that Americans' knowledge of science is sorely inaccurate. U.S. adults get most of their knowledge from the popular media, so it has been claimed that problems with media coverage of science are to blame. But this is a simplistic analysis. At their roots, scientific and journalistic modes of inquiry actually share two important normative standards: empiricism and skepticism. On the other hand, news and new scientific knowledge are two very different things. News gathering is guided in large measure by criteria that help journalists decide what is worth covering, as well as by standards of fairness and balance. The overarching goal is to report on things considered newsworthy in a neutral manner. In science, the goal is to ruthlessly discard incorrect ideas to get at the truth about nature. This talk will examine the "good" -- the normative standards that journalists and scientists share, as well as the "bad" -- how the significant disconnects between science and journalism may be contributing to a lack of public understanding of critical scientific issues such as climate change. Among the questions that will be addressed: How do journalists decide what is news? How does science fare when these newsworthiness standards are applied to it? How does the journalistic standard of balance result in inaccurate reporting on climate change? And how might we improve the situation by enhancing communication between scientists and journalist?

  10. The influence of cultural capital on consumption of scientific culture: A survey of visitors to an open house event at a public scientific research institution.

    PubMed

    Kato-Nitta, Naoko

    2013-04-01

    Based on the concept of cultural capital, this study explores the relationship between habitual behaviors of individuals regarding their past accumulation of such capital and current responses to a scientific institute's public outreach activity. At an open house held at the Institute for Molecular Science (IMS), anonymous questionnaires were distributed among 1,350 visitors and collected from 785 of them (collection rate = 58.1%). The results, measuring the past five to six years, showed that the respondents accumulated cultural capital through participation in scientific activities as well as in activities involving art, music, and literature. Given these quantified values, correlations between citizens' levels of accumulated cultural capital and their current scientific consumption behavior were studied. A statistical analysis of the two components of cultural capital (science and technology/art and literature) showed that people's accumulated scientific capital influenced their current behavior and revealed a correlation between the two components. PMID:23833057

  11. Masculine Knowledge, the Public Good, and the Scientific Household of Réaumur.

    PubMed

    Terrall, Mary

    2015-01-01

    In the Royal Academy of Sciences of Paris (founded 1666), expressions of a masculine culture of science echoed contemporary language used to articulate the aristocracy's value to crown and state--even though the academy was not an aristocratic institution as such. In the eighteenth century, the pursuit of science became a new form of manly service to the crown, often described in terms of useful knowledge and benefit to the public good [le bien public]. This article explores the connection of academic scientific knowledge to the domestic spaces where it was made and, in particular, to the household of R.-A. Ferchault de Réaumur, an exemplary academician. Although Réaumur had neither wife nor children, a complex net of affective ties, some of them familial, linked the members of the household, which accommodated women (the artist Hélène Dumoustier and her female relatives) as well as men (a series of assistants, many of whom eventually entered the academy). As head of this dynamic household, Réaumur produced not only scientific results but also future academicians. PMID:27066624

  12. Scientific composition and review of manuscripts for publication in peer-reviewed dental journals.

    PubMed

    Bayne, Stephen C; McGivney, Glen P; Mazer, Sarah C

    2003-02-01

    This article provides an extensive tutorial for writers and reviewers involved with the preparation and evaluation of manuscripts submitted for publication in dental journals. The contents were compiled from the Instructions for Authors printed in various peer-reviewed dental journals and from feedback from 10 workshops conducted for the Editorial Review Board of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. The 10 major sections of a scientific manuscript are reviewed in detail in terms of content, format, and common errors; examples of good content are provided. The review process is described, and instructions on conducting fair and expeditious manuscript evaluations are provided for reviewers. In addition, a number of special topics are addressed, including potential conflicts of interest for an author, institutional review of experiments that involve human subjects or animals, and the reproduction of photographs and other images in color versus black and white. In summary, this article presents key guidelines to ensure compliance with the principles of sound scientific writing and the expeditious review of manuscripts prepared for publication in peer-reviewed dental journals. PMID:12616242

  13. The Scientific Publications of Richard H. Dalitz, FRS (1925-2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Aitchison, Ian J.R.; Close, Frank E.; Gal, Avraham; Millener, D.John

    2006-03-29

    Professor Richard H. Dalitz passed away on January 13, 2006. He was almost 81 years old and his outstanding contributions are intimately connected to some of the major breakthroughs of the 20th century in particle and nuclear physics. These outstanding contributions go beyond the Dalitz Plot, Dalitz Pair and CDD poles that bear his name. He pioneered the theoretical study of strange baryon resonances, of baryon spectroscopy in the quark model, and of hypernuclei, to all of which he made lasting contributions. His formulation of the ''{theta} - {tau} puzzle'' led to the discovery that parity is not a symmetry of the weak interactions. A brief scientific evaluation of Dalitz's major contributions to particle and nuclear physics is hereby presented, followed by the first comprehensive list of his scientific publications, as assembled from several sources. The list is divided into two categories: the first, main part comprises Dalitz's research papers and reviews, including topics in the history of particle physics, biographies and reminescences; the second part lists book reviews, public lectures and obituaries authored by Dalitz, and books edited by him. This provides the first necessary step towards a more systematic research of the Dalitz heritage in modern physics.

  14. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community. PMID:27124610

  15. Clustering Scientific Publications Based on Citation Relations: A Systematic Comparison of Different Methods.

    PubMed

    Šubelj, Lovro; van Eck, Nees Jan; Waltman, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Clustering methods are applied regularly in the bibliometric literature to identify research areas or scientific fields. These methods are for instance used to group publications into clusters based on their relations in a citation network. In the network science literature, many clustering methods, often referred to as graph partitioning or community detection techniques, have been developed. Focusing on the problem of clustering the publications in a citation network, we present a systematic comparison of the performance of a large number of these clustering methods. Using a number of different citation networks, some of them relatively small and others very large, we extensively study the statistical properties of the results provided by different methods. In addition, we also carry out an expert-based assessment of the results produced by different methods. The expert-based assessment focuses on publications in the field of scientometrics. Our findings seem to indicate that there is a trade-off between different properties that may be considered desirable for a good clustering of publications. Overall, map equation methods appear to perform best in our analysis, suggesting that these methods deserve more attention from the bibliometric community. PMID:27124610

  16. 76 FR 52731 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... open to the public. The meeting will be hosted by the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief...

  17. 77 FR 55891 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... public. The meeting will be hosted by the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, and led by Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief...

  18. 78 FR 55326 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... is open to the public. The meeting will be hosted by the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, and led by Ambassador Eric Goosby, who leads implementation of the President's Emergency Plan for...

  19. 76 FR 76725 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone... Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the CASAC Ozone Review Panel to conduct a peer review of EPA's Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants...

  20. 77 FR 6796 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    .... The CASAC Ozone Review Panel held a face-to- face meeting on January 9-10, 2012 (as noticed in 76 FR... AGENCY Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC); Ozone... Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the CASAC Ozone Review Panel...

  1. Pitfalls in penetrating trauma.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, A B

    2003-08-01

    In Western Europe the most frequent cause of multiple injuries is blunt trauma. Only few of us have experience with penetrating trauma, without exception far less than in the USA or South-Africa. In Rotterdam, the Erasmus Medical Centre is a level I trauma centre, situated directly in the town centre. All penetrating traumas are directly presented to our emergency department by a well organized ambulance service supported by a mobile medical team if necessary. The delay with scoop and run principles is very short for these cases, resulting in severely injured reaching the hospital alive in increasing frequency. Although the basic principles of trauma care according to the guidelines of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) (1-2) are the same for blunt and penetrating trauma with regard to priorities, diagnostics and primary therapy, there are some pitfalls in the strategy of management in penetrating trauma one should be aware of. Simple algorithms can be helpful, especially in case of limited experience (3). In case of life-saving procedures, the principles of Damage Control Surgery (DCS) must be followed (4-5). This approach is somewhat different from "traditional" surgical treatment. In the Ist phase prompt interventions by emergency thoracotomy and laparotomy are carried out, with only two goals to achieve: surgical control of haemorrhage and contamination. After temporary life-saving procedures, the 2nd phase is characterized by intensive care treatment, dealing with hypothermia, metabolic acidosis and clotting disturbances. Finally in the 3rd phase, within 6-24 hours, definitive surgical care takes place. In this overview, penetrating injuries of neck, thorax, abdomen and extremities will be outlined. Penetrating cranial injuries, as a neurosurgical emergency with poor prognosis, are not discussed. History and physical examination remain the corner stones of good medical praxis. In a work-up according to ATLS principles airway, breathing and circulation

  2. Disasters related to droughts and public health - a review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Alpino, Tais Ariza; de Sena, Aderita Ricarda Martins; de Freitas, Carlos Machado

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, the history of droughts has been marked by constant social and health tragedies, with estimates of up to 3 million deaths from the early 19th century until the late 20th century. There is a record of nearly 32,000 events related to the above and more than 96 million people were affected between 1991 and 2010. Although droughts have historically brought disasters to Brazil, which was noted in the scientific expeditions of Arthur Neiva and Belisario Penna that documented these droughts, there have not been many studies on them. The objective of this paper is to present a revision of the scientific articles related to droughts and public health. The following databases were used: PubMed, the Preparation and Response to Disasters Portal from BVS and the Capes Periodical Portal. The descriptors drought and health were used to search titles and summaries of articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Among the repercussions related to health that were discovered: malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, mental health problems, issues relating to water and air quality and commitments made concerning access to health services. As there is a trend for more intense droughts and a scarcity of water until 2030, there is an urgent need for more research and studies in these areas. PMID:26960093

  3. Art, Aesthetics, Design, And Data: Reaching The Public Through Scientific Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmon, R.; Allen, J.; Ward, K.; Carlowicz, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The primary challenge in science communication is attracting a broad audience while maintaining technical accuracy. Scientific topics are often and reflexively considered boring, dry, or difficult by non-scientists. One way to overcome this hurdle and gain the public's attention is through beautiful and striking imagery. Imaging techniques borrowed from art and design can generate interest in technical or abstract concepts. NASA's Earth Observatory routinely uses imagery to communicate current Earth science research. Earth Observatory designers collaborate with NASA scientists to produce imagery using the principles of data visualization. Curiously, the popularity of images tends to be inversely correlated with the scientific content. Simple photographs and illustrations tend to be viewed more often, and more widely shared, than maps and graphs. However, maps of tree density and melt on the Greenland ice sheet are among the most popular images published on the Earth Observatory. These graphics share some features both with each other and our most-viewed natural-color images: clear, relatable themes, intuitive color palettes, and a clean aesthetic. These similarities may explain their success, and provide a roadmap for future data-rich visualizations that engage viewers while communicating complex science.This map of tree density in the united states, based on the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD) is one of the NASA Earth Observatory's most popular data-based images. (Map by Robert Simmon, based on data from Woods Hole Research Center.)

  4. The Einstein Observatory: A New Public/Private Observatory Complex for Community Education and Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowell, J.

    1999-12-01

    The Development Authority of Cherokee County (Georgia) is leading a public/private partnership of business/industry professionals, educators, and university scientists that seeks to develop a national prototype educational and scientific research facility for grades K-12, as well as college-level research, that will inspire our youth to become literate in science and technology. In particular, the goal is to make this complex a science, math, and engineering magnet learning facility and to raise the average SAT scores of local area students by 100 points. A dark-site mountain, nestled on the foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains at the northern-most edge of Atlanta, will become the home for the "Einstein" Observatory. The complex will have four telescopes: one 50-inch, one 24-inch, and two 16-inch telescopes. Each telescope will have digital cameras and an optic-fiber feed to a single, medium-resolution spectroscope. All four telescopes will be electronically accessible from local schools. Professional astronomers will establish suitable observational research projects and will lead K-12 and college students in the acquisition and analysis of data. Astronomers will also assist the local area schoolteachers in methods for nurturing children's scientific inquiry. The observatory mountain will have 100 platform locations for individual viewing by visiting families, school groups, and amateur astronomers. The Atlanta Astronomer Club will provide numerous evening programs and viewing opportunities for the general public. An accompanying Planetarium & Science Center will be located on the nearby campus of Reinhardt College. The Planetarium & Science Center will be integrated with Reinhardt College's theme of learning focused upon studying the past and present as a basis for projecting the future.

  5. 42 CFR 82.30 - How will NIOSH inform the public of any plans to change scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... change scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process to maintain methods reasonably current with scientific progress? 82.30 Section 82.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.30 How will NIOSH inform...

  6. 42 CFR 82.30 - How will NIOSH inform the public of any plans to change scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... change scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process to maintain methods reasonably current with scientific progress? 82.30 Section 82.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.30 How will NIOSH inform...

  7. 42 CFR 82.30 - How will NIOSH inform the public of any plans to change scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... change scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process to maintain methods reasonably current with scientific progress? 82.30 Section 82.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.30 How will NIOSH inform...

  8. 42 CFR 82.30 - How will NIOSH inform the public of any plans to change scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... change scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process to maintain methods reasonably current with scientific progress? 82.30 Section 82.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.30 How will NIOSH inform...

  9. 42 CFR 82.30 - How will NIOSH inform the public of any plans to change scientific elements underlying the dose...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... change scientific elements underlying the dose reconstruction process to maintain methods reasonably current with scientific progress? 82.30 Section 82.30 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... 2000 Updating the Scientific Elements Underlying Dose Reconstructions § 82.30 How will NIOSH inform...

  10. [Evaluation of scientific production in different subareas of Public Health: limits of the current model and contributions to the debate].

    PubMed

    Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira; Martin, Denise; Camargo Jr, Kenneth Rochel de; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Cláudia Medina

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the limits of the quantitative evaluation model for scientific production in Public Health. An analysis of the scientific production of professors from the various subareas of Public Health was performed for 2010-2012. Distributions of the mean annual score for professors were compared according to subareas. The study estimated the likelihood that 60% of the professors in the graduate studies programs scored P50 (Very Good) or higher in their area. Professors of Epidemiology showed a significantly higher median annual score. Graduate studies programs whose faculty included at least 60% of Epidemiology professors and fewer than 10% from the subarea Social and Human Sciences in Health were significantly more likely to achieve a "Very Good" classification. The observed inequalities in scientific production between different subareas of Public Health point to the need to rethink their evaluation in order to avoid reproducing iniquities that have harmful consequences for the field's diversity. PMID:26735381

  11. Enhancing Scientific Collaboration, Transparency, and Public Access: Utilizing the Second Life Platform to Convene a Scientific Conference in 3-D Virtual Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies reveal a general mistrust of science as well as a distorted perception of the scientific method by the public at-large. Concurrently, the number of science undergraduate and graduate students is in decline. By taking advantage of emergent technologies not only for direct public outreach but also to enhance public accessibility to the science process, it may be possible to both begin a reversal of popular scientific misconceptions and to engage a new generation of scientists. The Second Life platform is a 3-D virtual world produced and operated by Linden Research, Inc., a privately owned company instituted to develop new forms of immersive entertainment. Free and downloadable to the public, Second Life offers an imbedded physics engine, streaming audio and video capability, and unlike other "multiplayer" software, the objects and inhabitants of Second Life are entirely designed and created by its users, providing an open-ended experience without the structure of a traditional video game. Already, educational institutions, virtual museums, and real-world businesses are utilizing Second Life for teleconferencing, pre-visualization, and distance education, as well as to conduct traditional business. However, the untapped potential of Second Life lies in its versatility, where the limitations of traditional scientific meeting venues do not exist, and attendees need not be restricted by prohibitive travel costs. It will be shown that the Second Life system enables scientific authors and presenters at a "virtual conference" to display figures and images at full resolution, employ audio-visual content typically not available to conference organizers, and to perform demonstrations or premier three-dimensional renderings of objects, processes, or information. An enhanced presentation like those possible with Second Life would be more engaging to non- scientists, and such an event would be accessible to the general users of Second Life, who could have an

  12. The rate of growth in scientific publication and the decline in coverage provided by Science Citation Index

    PubMed Central

    von Ins, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The growth rate of scientific publication has been studied from 1907 to 2007 using available data from a number of literature databases, including Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Traditional scientific publishing, that is publication in peer-reviewed journals, is still increasing although there are big differences between fields. There are no indications that the growth rate has decreased in the last 50 years. At the same time publication using new channels, for example conference proceedings, open archives and home pages, is growing fast. The growth rate for SCI up to 2007 is smaller than for comparable databases. This means that SCI was covering a decreasing part of the traditional scientific literature. There are also clear indications that the coverage by SCI is especially low in some of the scientific areas with the highest growth rate, including computer science and engineering sciences. The role of conference proceedings, open access archives and publications published on the net is increasing, especially in scientific fields with high growth rates, but this has only partially been reflected in the databases. The new publication channels challenge the use of the big databases in measurements of scientific productivity or output and of the growth rate of science. Because of the declining coverage and this challenge it is problematic that SCI has been used and is used as the dominant source for science indicators based on publication and citation numbers. The limited data available for social sciences show that the growth rate in SSCI was remarkably low and indicate that the coverage by SSCI was declining over time. National Science Indicators from Thomson Reuters is based solely on SCI, SSCI and Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). Therefore the declining coverage of the citation databases problematizes the use of this source. PMID:20700371

  13. Connecting the Public to Scientific Research Data - Science On a Sphere°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, M. A.; Russell, E. L.; Science on a Sphere Datasets

    2011-12-01

    Connecting the Public to Scientific Research Data - Science On a Sphere° Maurice Henderson, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Elizabeth Russell, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, University of Colorado Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences Science On a Sphere° is a six foot animated globe developed by the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration, NOAA, as a means to display global scientific research data in an intuitive, engaging format in public forums. With over 70 permanent installations of SOS around the world in science museums, visitor's centers and universities, the audience that enjoys SOS yearly is substantial, wide-ranging, and diverse. Through partnerships with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA, the SOS Data Catalog (http://sos.noaa.gov/datasets/) has grown to a collection of over 350 datasets from NOAA, NASA, and many others. Using an external projection system, these datasets are displayed onto the sphere creating a seamless global image. In a cross-site evaluation of Science On a Sphere°, 82% of participants said yes, seeing information displayed on a sphere changed their understanding of the information. This unique technology captivates viewers and exposes them to scientific research data in a way that is accessible, presentable, and understandable. The datasets that comprise the SOS Data Catalog are scientific research data that have been formatted for display on SOS. By formatting research data into visualizations that can be used on SOS, NOAA and NASA are able to turn research data into educational materials that are easily accessible for users. In many cases, visualizations do not need to be modified because SOS uses a common map projection. The SOS Data Catalog has become a "one-stop shop" for a broad range of global datasets from across NOAA and NASA, and as a result, the traffic on the site is more than just SOS users. While the target audience for this site is SOS users, many

  14. Personnel Pitfalls in Cyberworld

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Thomas E., III

    2007-01-01

    In May 2006 administrators in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District learned that Tamara Hoover, an art teacher at Austin High School, was the subject of several explicit photographs that had been posted on Flickr, a public photograph-sharing website. Purportedly these photographs were posted on Flickr by the teacher's partner without her…

  15. Tackling the "so what" problem in scientific research: a systems-based approach to resource and publication tracking.

    PubMed

    Harris, Paul A; Kirby, Jacqueline; Swafford, Jonathan A; Edwards, Terri L; Zhang, Minhua; Yarbrough, Tonya R; Lane, Lynda D; Helmer, Tara; Bernard, Gordon R; Pulley, Jill M

    2015-08-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are one measure of scientific productivity. From a project, program, or institutional perspective, publication tracking provides the quantitative data necessary to guide the prudent stewardship of federal, foundation, and institutional investments by identifying the scientific return for the types of support provided. In this article, the authors describe the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research's (VICTR's) development and implementation of a semiautomated process through which publications are automatically detected in PubMed and adjudicated using a "just-in-time" workflow by a known pool of researchers (from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine and Meharry Medical College) who receive support from Vanderbilt's Clinical and Translational Science Award. Since implementation, the authors have (1) seen a marked increase in the number of publications citing VICTR support, (2) captured at a more granular level the relationship between specific resources/services and scientific output, (3) increased awareness of VICTR's scientific portfolio, and (4) increased efficiency in complying with annual National Institutes of Health progress reports. They present the methodological framework and workflow, measures of impact for the first 30 months, and a set of practical lessons learned to inform others considering a systems-based approach for resource and publication tracking. They learned that contacting multiple authors from a single publication can increase the accuracy of the resource attribution process in the case of multidisciplinary scientific projects. They also found that combining positive (e.g., congratulatory e-mails) and negative (e.g., not allowing future resource requests until adjudication is complete) triggers can increase compliance with publication attribution requests. PMID:25901872

  16. 75 FR 22783 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...There will be a 1-day meeting of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review a set of scientific issues related to the Comparative Adult and Juvenile Sensitivity Toxicity Protocols for...

  17. Chaos: A New Scientific Paradigm--Or Science by Public Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresden, Max

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of chaos as a major scientific subject and its place in historical, scientific, and technological context. Three sections provide (1) an overview of the scientific paradigm; (2) a review of the ideology of classical mechanics; and (3) examples of classical systems behaving in peculiar, nonintuitive manners. (MDH)

  18. Are Lipases Still Important Biocatalysts? A Study of Scientific Publications and Patents for Technological Forecasting.

    PubMed

    Daiha, Karina de Godoy; Angeli, Renata; de Oliveira, Sabrina Dias; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2015-01-01

    The great potential of lipases is known since 1930 when the work of J. B. S. Haldane was published. After eighty-five years of studies and developments, are lipases still important biocatalysts? For answering this question the present work investigated the technological development of four important industrial sectors where lipases are applied: production of detergent formulations; organic synthesis, focusing on kinetic resolution, production of biodiesel, and production of food and feed products. The analysis was made based on research publications and patent applications, working as scientific and technological indicators, respectively. Their evolution, interaction, the major players of each sector and the main subject matters disclosed in patent documents were discussed. Applying the concept of technology life cycle, S-curves were built by plotting cumulative patent data over time to monitor the attractiveness of each technology for investment. The results lead to a conclusion that the use of lipases as biocatalysts is still a relevant topic for the industrial sector, but developments are still needed for lipase biocatalysis to reach its full potential, which are expected to be achieved within the third, and present, wave of biocatalysis. PMID:26111144

  19. Are Lipases Still Important Biocatalysts? A Study of Scientific Publications and Patents for Technological Forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Daiha, Karina de Godoy; Angeli, Renata; de Oliveira, Sabrina Dias; Almeida, Rodrigo Volcan

    2015-01-01

    The great potential of lipases is known since 1930 when the work of J. B. S. Haldane was published. After eighty-five years of studies and developments, are lipases still important biocatalysts? For answering this question the present work investigated the technological development of four important industrial sectors where lipases are applied: production of detergent formulations; organic synthesis, focusing on kinetic resolution, production of biodiesel, and production of food and feed products. The analysis was made based on research publications and patent applications, working as scientific and technological indicators, respectively. Their evolution, interaction, the major players of each sector and the main subject matters disclosed in patent documents were discussed. Applying the concept of technology life cycle, S-curves were built by plotting cumulative patent data over time to monitor the attractiveness of each technology for investment. The results lead to a conclusion that the use of lipases as biocatalysts is still a relevant topic for the industrial sector, but developments are still needed for lipase biocatalysis to reach its full potential, which are expected to be achieved within the third, and present, wave of biocatalysis. PMID:26111144

  20. 75 FR 54146 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting on September 29-30, 2010, of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Ambient Air Monitoring & Methods Subcommittee (AAMMS) to provide advice concerning the development of a guidance document on network design for near-road ambient air monitoring and the......

  1. 78 FR 31626 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... will be hosted by the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, and led by Dr. Amy DuBois, who is the.... The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning...

  2. 78 FR 33144 - Notice of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... of Public Meeting of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory... will be hosted by the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator, and led by Dr. Amy DuBois, who is the.... The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator in a solely advisory capacity concerning...

  3. Group Projects as a Method of Promoting Student Scientific Communication and Collaboration in a Public Health Microbiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Kristen L. W.; Baker, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    Communication of scientific and medical information and collaborative work are important skills for students pursuing careers in health professions and other biomedical sciences. In addition, group work and active learning can increase student engagement and analytical skills. Students in our public health microbiology class were required to work…

  4. Utilizing Public Scientific Web Lectures to Teach Contemporary Physics at the High School Level: A Case Study of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapon, Shulamit; Ganiel, Uri; Eylon, Bat Sheva

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a teaching experiment designed to examine the learning (i.e., retention of content and conceptual development) that takes place when public scientific web lectures delivered by scientists are utilized to present advanced ideas in physics to students with a high school background in physics. The students watched an exemplary…

  5. The Big Bang-steady state controversy: Cosmology in public and scientific forums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Craig Sean

    A highly visible debate emerged in the 1950s and 1960s over two rival cosmologies, the big bang and the steady state. Cosmologists operated in three distinct forums of discourse---a specialists' forum in cosmology, a general science forum, and a diverse popular science forum. Each forum had its own implicit standards and conventions of argument which collectively shaped the development of cosmology. I argue that the popular forum framed the debate in the early 1950s, when the paucity of cosmologically significant evidence discouraged the involvement of most members of the physical-science community, who felt that cosmological theories lacked testability, the hallmark of respectable science. The conventions of the popular forum, in contrast welcomed cosmological arguments and subsequently shaped the expectations for the eventual resolution of the debate in all three forums. The debate was resolved in favor of the big bang in the 1960s and 1970s on the basis of a number of novel cosmologically relevant observations. Many publications in the popular science forum, however, marked the discovery of the cosmic background radiation in 1965 as the watershed moment that settled the dispute, casting the observation in the narrative framework of a crucial experiment. In the specialists' and general science forums final resolution came later, more gradually, and on the basis of a variety of evidence; yet many historians and cosmologists subsequently adopted the myth of the crucial experiment. This dissertation documents the influence of popular discussion in the 1950s on narratives of resolution in the 1970s and beyond, and recaptures the gradual process of resolution, a process that proceeded at different rates in different quarters. Unlike controversies in the history of science that have been resolved by a small "core-set" of specialists, the big bang-steady state debate was resolved in the general science forum by hundreds of interested participants who had come to see

  6. Cannabidiol: Promise and Pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Welty, Timothy E.; Luebke, Adrienne; Gidal, Barry E.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, increasing public and political pressure has supported legalization of medical marijuana. One of the main thrusts in this effort has related to the treatment of refractory epilepsy—especially in children with Dravet syndrome—using cannabidiol (CBD). Despite initiatives in numerous states to at least legalize possession of CBD oil for treating epilepsy, little published evidence is available to prove or disprove the efficacy and safety of CBD in patients with epilepsy. This review highlights some of the basic science theory behind the use of CBD, summarizes published data on clinical use of CBD for epilepsy, and highlights issues related to the use of currently available CBD products. Cannabidiol is the major nonpsychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. Over the centuries, a number of medicinal preparations derived from C. sativa have been employed for a variety of disorders, including gout, rheumatism, malaria, pain, and fever. These preparations were widely employed as analgesics by Western medical practitioners in the 19th century (1). More recently, there is clinical evidence suggesting efficacy in HIV-associated neuropathic pain, as well as spasms associated with multiple sclerosis (1). PMID:25346628

  7. Cannabidiol: promise and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Welty, Timothy E; Luebke, Adrienne; Gidal, Barry E

    2014-09-01

    Over the past few years, increasing public and political pressure has supported legalization of medical marijuana. One of the main thrusts in this effort has related to the treatment of refractory epilepsy-especially in children with Dravet syndrome-using cannabidiol (CBD). Despite initiatives in numerous states to at least legalize possession of CBD oil for treating epilepsy, little published evidence is available to prove or disprove the efficacy and safety of CBD in patients with epilepsy. This review highlights some of the basic science theory behind the use of CBD, summarizes published data on clinical use of CBD for epilepsy, and highlights issues related to the use of currently available CBD products. Cannabidiol is the major nonpsychoactive component of Cannabis sativa. Over the centuries, a number of medicinal preparations derived from C. sativa have been employed for a variety of disorders, including gout, rheumatism, malaria, pain, and fever. These preparations were widely employed as analgesics by Western medical practitioners in the 19(th) century (1). More recently, there is clinical evidence suggesting efficacy in HIV-associated neuropathic pain, as well as spasms associated with multiple sclerosis (1). PMID:25346628

  8. Modeling the Uptake of Scientific Information by the Public and Opinion Flow in Society (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Brown, G. D.; Cook, J.

    2013-12-01

    Improved communication of scientific findings requires knowledge not only of how people process information, but also how such information spreads through society and how people's opinions are shaped by those of others. Recent advances in cognitive science have yielded mathematical modeling techniques that permit the detailed analysis of individuals' cognition as well as the behavior of communities in the aggregate. We present two case studies that highlight the insights that can be derived from mathematical models of cognition: We show how rational processing of information (i.e., Bayesian hypothesis revision) can nonetheless give rise to seemingly 'irrational' belief updating, as for example when acceptance of human-caused global warming decreases among conservatives in response to evidence for human-caused global warming. We also show in an agent-based simulation how social norms can lead to polarization of societies. The model assumes that agents located within a social network observe the behavior of neighbours and infer from their behavior the social distribution of particular attitudes (e.g. towards climate change). Agents are assumed to dislike behaviours that are extreme within their neighbourhood (social extremeness aversion), and hence have a tendency to conform. However, agents are also assumed to prefer choices that are consistent with their own true beliefs (authenticity preference). Expression of attitudes reflects a compromise between these opposing principles. The model sheds light on the role of perceived rather than actual social consensus on attitudes to climate change. This is particularly relevant given the widespread perception among those who reject climate science that the percentage of the public that is sharing their beliefs is much higher than it actually is.

  9. 77 FR 68773 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...There will be a 4-day meeting of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review scientific issues associated with Prioritizing the Universe of Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Chemicals Using Computational Toxicology...

  10. 75 FR 33300 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...There will be a 4-day meeting of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review a set of scientific issues related to the Re- Evaluation of Human Health Effects of Atrazine: Review of Non-Cancer Effects and Drinking Water Monitoring...

  11. 75 FR 22779 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...There will be a 3-day meeting of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review a set of scientific issues related to review of SHEDs-Multimedia version 4, Peer consult on PBPK Modeling, and a SHEDS- PBPK Permethrin...

  12. Stanford-Based HighWire Press Transforms the Publication of Scientific Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    1997-01-01

    In two years, HighWire Press at Stanford University (California) has revolutionized online scientific publishing; electronic journals are reaching readers faster, are easier to search, and are entering new foreign markets. The largest scientific publishers will put about 200 journals online in 1997. Other changes foreseen include immediate rather…

  13. The Scientific Creationist Challenge to the Treatment of Evolution in the Public School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kube-McDowell, Michael P.

    The purpose of the study was to identify and analyze the scientific elements of the creationist position, and to provide information and recommendations to educators facing the question of adding creationism to the science curriculum. The claim that creationism is of equal scientific status with evolution is examined in the first part of the…

  14. Communicating Scientific Findings to Lawyers, Policy-Makers, and the Public (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, W.; Velsko, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the authors' collaborative research on inferential errors, bias and communication difficulties that have arisen in the area of WMD forensics. This research involves analysis of problems that have arisen in past national security investigations, interviews with scientists from various disciplines whose work has been used in WMD investigations, interviews with policy-makers, and psychological studies of lay understanding of forensic evidence. Implications of this research for scientists involved in nuclear explosion monitoring will be discussed. Among the issues covered will be: - Potential incompatibilities between the questions policy makers pose and the answers that experts can provide. - Common misunderstandings of scientific and statistical data. - Advantages and disadvantages of various methods for describing and characterizing the strength of scientific findings. - Problems that can arise from excessive hedging or, alternatively, insufficient qualification of scientific conclusions. - Problems that can arise from melding scientific and non-scientific evidence in forensic assessments.

  15. Apollo telescope mount. A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations, supplement 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) are presented. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) journal publications, (2) journal publications submitted, (3) other publications, (4) presentations - national and international meetings; and (5) other presentations.

  16. 78 FR 938 - Notification of a Public Meeting and a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Committee Lead Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA... Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Lead Review Panel to conduct a peer review of EPA's Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Third External Review Draft--November 2012) and EPA's...

  17. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation.

    PubMed

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as "individual publications"). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, P<0.0001), and publicly viewed (11.1% vs 1.3%, P=0.05) than individual publications. These results support the importance of multidisciplinary research groups in the impact of scientific literature; the interaction and synergy among the research participants allowed the obtainment of high impact-literature in the field of personalized pain medicine. Finally, our findings demonstrate the potential of altmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group. PMID:27358575

  18. 77 FR 1677 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...There will be a 2-day meeting of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review Methods for Efficacy Testing of Bed Bug Pesticide...

  19. 76 FR 71023 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ...There will be a 3-day meeting of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel (FIFRA SAP) to consider and review Common Effects Assessment Methodology developed in the Office of Pesticide Programs and Office of...

  20. Does a research group increase impact on the scientific community or general public discussion? Alternative metric-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    De Gregori, Manuela; Scotti, Valeria; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Curti, Moreno; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo; Schatman, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of scientific publications of the Italian SIMPAR (Study In Multidisciplinary PAin Research) group by using altmetrics, defined as nontraditional metrics constituting an alternative to more traditional citation-impact metrics, such as impact factor and H-index. By correlating traditional and alternative metrics, we attempted to verify whether publications by the SIMPAR group collectively had more impact than those performed by its individual members, either in solo publications or in publications coauthored by non-SIMPAR group investigators (which for the purpose of this study we will refer to as “individual publications”). For all the 12 members of the group analyzed (pain therapists, biologists, and pharmacologists), we created Open Researcher and Contributor ID and Impact Story accounts, and synchronized these data. Manually, we calculated the level metrics for each article by dividing the data obtained from the research community by those obtained from the public community. We analyzed 759 articles, 18 of which were published by the SIMPAR group. Altmetrics demonstrated that SIMPAR group publications were more likely to be saved (77.8% vs 45.9%), discussed (61.1% vs 1.1%, P<0.0001), and publicly viewed (11.1% vs 1.3%, P=0.05) than individual publications. These results support the importance of multidisciplinary research groups in the impact of scientific literature; the interaction and synergy among the research participants allowed the obtainment of high impact-literature in the field of personalized pain medicine. Finally, our findings demonstrate the potential of altmetrics in estimating the value of the research products of a group. PMID:27358575

  1. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) which gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974 is presented. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations - National International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is also included.

  2. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations, supplement 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Fields, S. A. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Skylab solar observatory facility that gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974 are presented. The analysis of these data is presently under way. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) journal publications; (2) journal publications submitted; (3) other publications; (4) presentations-national and international meetings; and (5) other presentations.

  3. 78 FR 56235 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response, (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health... Science and Public Health Practice, Executive Assistant, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,...

  4. 78 FR 15369 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal..., Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), concerning strategies and goals for the... following topics: Public Health Preparedness and Response Policy Updates; improving critical...

  5. 77 FR 14783 - Notification of a Public Meeting and Two Public Teleconferences for the Clean Air Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ...) Lead Review Panel to conduct a peer review of EPA's Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Second... CASAC Lead Review Panel will hold a face-to-face public meeting to peer review EPA's second external... Advisory Committee's Review of EPA's Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY:...

  6. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications, supplement 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Reports are compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) that gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed in this report are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations--National and International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is included together with errata for the first report.

  7. Scientific Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodstein, David

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of fraud in the presentation of results of scientific research cites cases looks at variations in the degree of misrepresentation, kinds and intents of fraud, attention given by public agencies (National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Public Health Service), and differences between scientific and civil fraud. (MSE)

  8. 75 FR 56101 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Rescheduled Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...The Agency is issuing this notice to reschedule the 3-day meeting of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) to consider and review the Chlorpyrifos Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) Modeling linked to the Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System (CARES). The meeting, originally scheduled for October......

  9. 78 FR 68439 - FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel; Notice of Rescheduled Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... notice was published in the Federal Register on October 28, 2013 (78 FR 64211) (FRL-9902-06). All other information provided in the Federal Register on August 9, 2013 (78 FR 48672) (FRL-9394-3) remains unchanged...) to consider and review, Scientific Uncertainties Associated with Corn Rootworm Resistance...

  10. Bisphenol A (BPA) in food contact materials - new scientific opinion from EFSA regarding public health risk.

    PubMed

    Ćwiek-Ludwicka, Kazimiera

    2015-01-01

    The wide use of bisphenol A (BPA) as a monomer in plastics manufacture or epoxy resins intended for food contact materials (FCM) has triggered numerous concerns due to toxicological findings indicating possible endocrine disrupting properties. This article traces the evolution of the scientific opinions since 1986 when the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for BPA and its specific migration limit (SML) from plastic FCM into food were proposed for the first time by the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). Resent extensive scientific studies concerning refined data on toxicity and exposure to BPA from food and non-food sources (eg. dust, cosmetics, thermal paper), including the most vulnerable groups of population, allowed the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to reduce the TDI of BPA from previously 50 µg/kg bw/day to now 4 µg/kg bw/day. EFSA's latest scientific opinion published in 2015 concludes that basing on the current estimations of total exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources for infants, children and adolescents is below the temporary TDI of 4 μg/kg bw/day. EFSA has also underlined that BPA poses no health risk at the estimated exposure levels of any population age group, including unborn children and the elderly. However, EFSA has indicated that some data on exposure and toxicological effects still require clarifications. PMID:26656411

  11. Analysis of Research Collaboration between Universities and Private Companies in Spain Based on Joint Scientific Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmeda-Gómez, Carlos; Ovalle-Perandones, María Antonia; de Moya-Anegón, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The article presents the results of a study on scientific collaboration between Spanish universities and private enterprise, measured in terms of the co-authorship of papers published in international journals. Method: Bibliometric analysis of papers published in journals listed in Scopus in 2003-2011. Indicators were calculated for…

  12. 78 FR 27234 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... solicited nominations for the CASAC NO X Primary NAAQS Review Panel on October 17, 2012 (77 FR 63827-63828...); Oxides of Nitrogen Primary NAAQS Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Oxides of Nitrogen (NO X ) Primary...

  13. Golden rice: scientific, regulatory and public information processes of a genetically modified organism.

    PubMed

    Moghissi, A Alan; Pei, Shiqian; Liu, Yinzuo

    2016-01-01

    Historically, agricultural development evolved in three phases. During the first phase the plants were selected on the basis of the availability of a plant with desirable properties at a specific location. The second phase provided the agricultural community with crossbreeding plants to achieve improvement in agricultural production. The evolution of biological knowledge has provided the ability to genetically engineer (GE) crops, one of the key processes within genetically modified organisms (GMO). This article uses golden rice, a species of transgenic Asian rice which contains a precursor of vitamin A in the edible part of the plant as an example of GE/GMO emphasizing Chinese experience in agricultural evolution. It includes a brief review of agricultural evolution to be followed by a description of golden rice development. Golden rice was created as a humanitarian project and has received positive comments by the scientific community and negative voices from certain environmental groups. In this article, we use the Best Available Science (BAS) Concept and Metrics for Evaluation of Scientific Claims (MESC) derived from it to evaluate claims and counter claims on scientific aspects of golden rice. This article concludes that opposition to golden rice is based on belief rather than any of its scientifically derived nutritional, safety or environmental properties. PMID:25603722

  14. 76 FR 37356 - 2011 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Resistance Monitoring System; Public Meeting; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Monitoring System.'' The topic to be discussed is animal and retail sampling methods for the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). Date and Time: The public meeting will be held on July...

  15. 76 FR 18221 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10 (a) (2) of the Federal... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  16. 77 FR 37410 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response; Meeting In accordance with section 10 (a) (2) of the Federal... Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), concerning... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  17. 77 FR 20823 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  18. 76 FR 76416 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  19. 76 FR 53474 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Public Health Preparedness and Response (BSC, OPHPR) In accordance with section 10 (a)(2) of the Federal..., Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), concerning strategies and goals for the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  20. Pitfalls in archaeoastronomy: with examples from Mesoamerica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, U.

    The kinds of pitfalls to be treated in this paper have been grouped into three categories: uncritical postulation of astronomical links, overinterpretation of alignments, and ethnocentric application of recent European concepts of space and time.

  1. [Generalists or Specialists? Interdisciplinarity in, and Scientific Development of, Public Health in Germany].

    PubMed

    Razum, O; Dockweiler, C

    2015-11-01

    Interdisciplinarity is not only a constitutive element of public health; it also contributes significantly to the solution of complex public health problems. Only through the cooperation of different disciplines and professions can the diverse social and methodological-technical challenges of developing, implementing and evaluating health-related interventions be solved. In this context, public health in Germany is facing challenges in its further development, two of which we discuss here. Firstly, there is a gap between aspiration and reality of interdisciplinary research and teaching of public health. Secondly, related to that, there is an increasingly difficult balance between professional breadth and specialisation in the university education of future public health experts. PMID:25643291

  2. Calibrated fair measure of particle physics publications: indices to quantify an individual's scientific research output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, A.

    2015-07-01

    Are existing ways of measuring scientific quality reflecting disadvantages of not being part of giant collaborations? How could possible discrimination be avoided? We propose indices defined for each discipline (subfield) and which count the plausible contributions added up by collaborators maintaining the spirit of interdependency. Based on the growing debate about defining potential biases and detecting unethical behavior, a standardized method to measure contributions of the astronomical number of coauthors is introduced.

  3. 75 FR 16817 - 2010 Scientific Meeting of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... for Veterinary Medicine (HFV- 12), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD... the day of the public meeting will be provided on a space available basis beginning at 8 a.m. on...

  4. Bibliography of scientific publications and presentations relating to planetary quarantine: 1966 - 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, F. D.; Nadel, M. R.

    1973-01-01

    A bibliography, which is a compilation of citations relating to planetary quarantine, previously listed in similar publications since 1967, is presented to provide a reference for reviewing planetary quarantine research and development.

  5. Scientific publications in pediatrics over the last ten years in Turkey and worldwide.

    PubMed

    Altun, Demet; Dabak, Orçun; Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu Övünç

    2015-01-01

    In keeping with the large area of interest comprised within the field of pediatrics, the number and diversity of publications in this field has gradually increased over the last ten years in our country as well as worldwide. The objective of this paper is to offer an analysis of the status of pediatrics publications during those ten years. The publications analyzed were listed in the Thomson Reuters Web of Science and/or published in journals included in the Science Citation Index, the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Sciences Citation Index. All of these publications appeared in journals in which at least one pediatrics specialist published between the years 2004 and 2013. It may be seen that Turkey is in fifth place worldwide in terms of the number of studies published in these journals, with 6,134 such publications. The conclusion is that it is necessary for more Turkish studies to be multicenter, to involve international participation and to receive more citations; importance must be attached to the objective of transforming of the knowledge produced by Turkish researchers into a greater number of publications of increased quality. PMID:26690590

  6. [Modern aspects of combat maxillofacial trauma (review of foreign scientific-medical publications during 2012-2013)].

    PubMed

    Grebnev, G A; Bolekhan, V N; Golota, A S; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Parfenov, V D; Rezvantsev, M V

    2013-04-01

    The current article is dedicated to the modern aspects of combat maxillofacial trauma as they have been presented in 2012-2013 scientific publications. It has been shown that due to employment of more and more powerful explosive devices the facial trauma over the last decade has occurred more frequently and become more severe. Some new methods of facial injuries treatment are being tested now, among them KSL-W antimicrobial decapeptide, new bone regenerative biocompatible materials, scar-healing mesenchymal and adipose-derived stem cells, and a custom automated face dressing platform. PMID:24000612

  7. Who's the Boss?: The Possibilities and Pitfalls of Collaborative Administration for Untenured WPAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Eileen E.

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes scholarship on administrative leadership styles. Describes the writing program co-directorship model the author and a colleague developed at a Southern public university, and offers a critical analysis of both the possibilities and pitfalls of collaborative administration for untenured writing program administrators. Points out ways in…

  8. Hubble Space Telescope - Scientific, Technological and Social Contributions to the Public Discourse on Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has unified the world with a sense of awe and wonder for 2 I years and is currently more scientifically powerful than ever. I will present highlights of discoveries made with the Hubble Space Telescope, including details of planetary weather, star formation, extra-solar planets, colliding galaxies, and a universe expanding with the acceleration of dark energy. I will also present the unique technical challenges and triumphs of this phenomenal observatory, and discuss how our discoveries in the cosmos affect our sense of human unity, significance, and wonder.

  9. Scientific publications in nursing journals from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong: a 10-year survey of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background: China has witnessed remarkable progress in scientific performance in recent years. However, the quantity and quality of nursing publications from three major regions (Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong) have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scientific research productivity from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in the field of nursing. Methods: Articles published in the 110 nursing journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong between 2005 and 2014 were retrieved from the Web of Science. The total number of articles published, the impact factor, and the citation count were analyzed. Results: There were 2,439 publications between 2005 and 2014 from China, including 438 from Mainland China, 1,506 from Taiwan, and 495 from Hong Kong. There was a significant increase in publications for these three regions (p < 0.05), especially for Mainland China, with a 59.50-fold increase experienced. From 2011, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded that from Hong Kong. Taiwan had the highest total journal impact factor (2,142.81), followed by Hong Kong (720.39) and Mainland China (583.94). The mean journal impact factor from Hong Kong (1.46) was higher than that from Taiwan (1.42) and Mainland China (1.33). Taiwan had the highest total citation count (8,392), followed by Hong Kong (3,785) and Mainland China (1,493). The mean citation count from Hong Kong (7.65) was higher than that from Taiwan (5.57) and Mainland China (3.41). The Journal of Clinical Nursing was the most popular journal in the three regions. Discussion: Chinese contributions to the field of nursing have significantly increased in the past ten years, particularly from Mainland China. Taiwan is the most productive region in China. Hong Kong had the highest-quality research output, according to mean journal impact factor and mean citation count. PMID:26989631

  10. Seabird databases and the new paradigm for scientific publication and attribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    For more than 300 years, the peer-reviewed journal article has been the principal medium for packaging and delivering scientific data. With new tools for managing digital data, a new paradigm is emerging—one that demands open and direct access to data and that enables and rewards a broad-based approach to scientific questions. Ground-breaking papers in the future will increasingly be those that creatively mine and synthesize vast stores of data available on the Internet. This is especially true for conservation science, in which essential data can be readily captured in standard record formats. For seabird professionals, a number of globally shared databases are in the offing, or should be. These databases will capture the salient results of inventories and monitoring, pelagic surveys, diet studies, and telemetry. A number of real or perceived barriers to data sharing exist, but none is insurmountable. Our discipline should take an important stride now by adopting a specially designed markup language for annotating and sharing seabird data.

  11. Conflicting stories about public scientific controversies: Effects of news convergence and divergence on scientists' credibility.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jakob D; Hurley, Ryan J

    2012-08-01

    Surveys suggest that approximately one third of news consumers have encountered conflicting reports of the same information. News coverage of science is especially prone to conflict, but how news consumers perceive this situation is currently unknown. College students (N = 242) participated in a lab experiment where they were exposed to news coverage about one of two scientific controversies in the United States: dioxin in sewage sludge or the reintroduction of gray wolves to populated areas. Participants received (a) one news article (control), (b) two news articles that were consistent (convergent), or (c) two news articles that conflicted (divergent). The effects of divergence induced uncertainty differed by news story. Greater uncertainty was associated with increased scientists' credibility ratings for those reading dioxin regulation articles and decreased scientists' credibility ratings for those reading wolf reintroduction articles. Unlike other manifestations of uncertainty in scientific discourse, conflicting stories seem to generate effects that vary significantly by topic. Consistent with uncertainty management theory, uncertainty is embraced or rejected by situation. PMID:23832155

  12. New linked data on research investments: scientific workforce, productivity, and public value

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Julia; Owen-Smith, Jason; Rosen, Rebecca; Weinberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal micro-data derived from transaction level information about wage and vendor payments made by federal grants on multiple U.S. campuses are being developed in a partnership involving researchers, university administrators, representatives of federal agencies, and others. This paper describes the UMETRICS data initiative that has been implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation. The resulting data set reflects an emerging conceptual framework for analyzing the process, products, and impact of research. It grows from and engages the work of a diverse and vibrant community. This paper situates the UMETRICS effort in the context of research evaluation and ongoing data infrastructure efforts in order to highlight its novel and valuable features. Refocusing data construction in this field around individuals, networks, and teams offers dramatic possibilities for data linkage, the evaluation of research investments, and the development of rigorous conceptual and empirical models. Two preliminary analyses of the scientific workforce and network approaches to characterizing scientific teams ground a discussion of future directions and a call for increased community engagement. PMID:26335785

  13. Smart Sensors: Advantages and Pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Paddy James

    For almost 50 years, silicon sensors have been on the market. There have been many examples of success stories for simple silicon sensors, such as the Hall plate and photo-diode. These have found mass-market applications. The development of micromachining techniques brought pressure sensors and accelerometers into the market and later the gyroscope. These have also achieved mass-market. The remaining issue is how far to integrate. Many of the devices on the market use a simple sensor with external electronics or read-out electronics in the same package (system-in-a-package). However, there are also many examples of fully integrated sensors (smart sensors) where the whole system is integrated into a single chip. If the application and the device technology permit this, there can be many advantages. A broader look at sensors shows a wealth of integrated devices. The critical issues are reliability and packaging if these devices are to find the applications. A number of silicon sensors and actuators have shown great commercial success, but still many more have to find their way out of the laboratory. This paper will examine the development of the technologies, some of the success stories and the opportunities for integrated Microsystems as well as the pitfalls.

  14. 76 FR 51365 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    .... The Lead Review Panel held a face-to-face meeting on July 20-21, 2011 (as noticed in 76 FR 36120-36121...) Lead Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the CASAC Lead Review...

  15. 77 FR 64334 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... Panel held a face-to- face meeting on September 11-13, 2012 (as noticed in 77 FR 46755-46756) to review...) Ozone Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public teleconference of the CASAC Ozone...

  16. Public Communication of Science in Blogs: Recontextualizing Scientific Discourse for a Diversified Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzón, María José

    2013-01-01

    New media are having a significant impact on science communication, both on the way scientists communicate with peers and on the dissemination of science to the lay public. Science blogs, in particular, provide an open space for science communication, where a diverse audience (with different degrees of expertise) may have access to science…

  17. Citizen Groups and Scientific Decisionmaking: Does Public Participation Influence Environmental Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Dorothy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the influence of local community groups on agency decisionmaking at hazardous waste sites nationwide. The central purpose of this research is to examine the relative influence of two forms of public participation at Superfund sites: Community Advisory Groups (CAGs) and Technical Assistance Grants (TAGs). When citizens mobilize…

  18. Managing scientific complexity in public policy: the case of U.S. climate change legislation in the 111th Congress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, J. A.; Runci, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    The recent passage of the American Climate and Energy Security Act by the U.S. House of Representatives in June of this year was a landmark in U.S. efforts to move climate change legislation through Congress. Although an historic achievement, the bill (and surrounding debate) highlights many concerns about the processes by which lawmakers and the public inform themselves about scientifically relevant problems and, subsequently, by which policy responses are crafted in a context of complexity, uncertainty, and competition for resources and attention. In light of the ever-increasing specialization of expertise in the sciences and other technical fields, and the inherent complexity of scientifically relevant problems such as climate change, society faces significant hurdles in its efforts to integrate knowledge and develop sufficient understanding of these problems to which it must respond with legislation or other effective collective or individual action. The emergence of a new class of experts who act as science-policy brokers may not be sufficient to cross these hurdles. Herein, we explore how society and the scientific community in particular can work toward closing the ever-growing gap between technical knowledge and society’s ability to comprehend and use it. Both authors are currently legislative fellows working on energy and climate change issues in the U.S. Senate.

  19. Public Private Partnerships, Corporate Welfare or Building the Nation's Scientific Infrastructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, C. V.

    1996-03-01

    A debate is taking place in the U.S. concerning the investment of scarce Federal funds in science and technology research. Clouding this discussion is the proliferation of extreme views illustrated in the title of this talk. The impacts of the end of the cold war, the globalization of the economy and the realities of the budget deficit create a situation that cries out for a new social contract between scientists and taxpayers. We need to examine the successes and failures of the last 50 years to form the basis for a set of principles to enable the creation of a new consensus to define the roles of industry, government, universities and national laboratories in the research enterprise. The scientific infrastructure, and by extension, the economic vitality of the U.S., are at risk.

  20. [Pneumonia awareness year, 2004: scientific impact through publications in Archivos de Bronconeumología].

    PubMed

    Rajas Naranjo, Olga; Aspa Marco, Javier

    2006-10-01

    Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious infectious disease. Morbidity and mortality rates continue to be high in spite of major advances and steady progress in diagnosis and treatment. The economic impact of the disease is also great. It is therefore necessary to enlist the public, primary care and emergency physicians, and public policy administrators to join forces to treat and prevent pneumonia for the common good. The annual incidence of pneumonia in the population over the age of 14 years is 1.6 to 2.6 episodes/1000 inhabitants. The mortality rate is 14.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the associated costs are 115 million euros annually. The RESPIRA Foundation and the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) declared 2004 to be pneumonia awareness year with the aim of coordinating efforts to raise awareness, distribute information, and foster debate. PMID:17067522

  1. Contemporary Cuban Physics Through Scientific Publications: An Insider’s View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Ernesto

    In a previous paper, the author reached some conclusions on the tendencies of the publications by Cuban physicists in international journals (Altshuler, Rev Cub Fís 22(2):173-182, 2005) and called for a systematic bibliometric study of the subject. Such a study has now been undertaken (a contribution to this volume entitled "Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics" by Werner Marx and Manuel Cardona, referred to in this paper as Marx and Cardona) and supports the main conclusions of the former work. The scenario of Cuban physics since 1995 has been conditioned by two main facts interacting in a nontrivial way: the serious material shortages affecting local physics laboratories and bibliographic resources, and an increase in the country's international collaboration. As a positive result, the total volume of Cuban publications in international physics journals has increased since 1995, perhaps reaching a peak around the year 2000, while the number of citations of Cuban papers and the impact of the journals in which they were published have continued to increase since the mid-1990s. Theoretical work produced by physicists from a number of Cuban institutions in international collaborations strongly contribute to those numbers. In the last years, international publications suggest a `self-organized' opening of Cuban physics towards interdisciplinary subjects, which is increasing the `bibliometric visibility' of autochthonous experimental work.

  2. Bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on waterpipe (narghile, shisha, hookah) tobacco smoking during the period 2003-2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking has spread worldwide. However, the evaluation of scientific output in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking has not been studied yet. The main objectives of this study were to analyze worldwide research output in the waterpipe tobacco smoking field, and to examine the authorship pattern and the citations retrieved from the Scopus database for over a decade. Methods Data from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were searched for documents with specific words regarding waterpipe tobacco smoking as “keywords” in the title. Scientific output was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies: (a) total and trends of contributions in waterpipe tobacco smoking research between 2003 and 2012; (b) authorship patterns and research productivity; (c) collaboration patterns; (d) the citations received by the publications; and (e) areas of interest of the published papers. Results Worldwide there were 334 publications that met the criteria during the study period. The largest number of publications in waterpipe tobacco smoking were from the United States of America (USA) (33.5%), followed by Lebanon (15.3%), and France (10.5%). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (October 18, 2013) was 4,352, with an average of 13 citations per document and a median (interquartile range) of 4.0 (1.0–16.0). The h-index of the retrieved documents was 34. The highest h-index by country was 27 for the USA, followed by 20 for Syrian Arab Republic and Lebanon. Conclusions The present data reveal a promising rise and a good start for research activity in the field of waterpipe tobacco smoking. More effort is needed to bridge the gap in waterpipe smoking-based research and to promote better evaluation of waterpipe smoking, risks, health effects, or control services worldwide. PMID:24725483

  3. Legalization, decriminalization & medicinal use of cannabis: a scientific and public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Svrakic, Dragan M; Lustman, Patrick J; Mallya, Ashok; Lynn, Taylor Andrea; Finney, Rhonda; Svrakic, Neda M

    2012-01-01

    Empirical and clinical studies clearly demonstrate significant adverse effects of cannabis smoking on physical and mental health as well as its interference with social and occupational functioning. These negative data far outweigh a few documented benefits for a limited set of medical indications, for which safe and effective alternative treatments are readily available. If there is any medical role for cannabinoid drugs, it lies with chemically defined compounds, not with unprocessed cannabis plant. Legalization or medical use of smoked cannabis is likely to impose significant public health risks, including an increased risk of schizophrenia, psychosis, and other forms of substance use disorders. PMID:22675784

  4. Byssinosis: a role for public health in the face of scientific uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Wegman, D H; Levenstein, C; Greaves, I A

    1983-02-01

    Byssinosis, a lung disease caused by cotton dust, has been the subject of recent controversy. Debates over the nature of the disease, possible interactions with cigarette smoking, and the proposed reevaluation of the cotton dust standard by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration have tended to overlook the plight of affected workers and to obscure the most effective means for preventing the disease. The present lack of definitive information is no reason for inaction, nor for depriving disabled workers of adequate financial compensation. In this respect, byssinosis is no different from other public health hazards for which action must often be taken on the basis of incomplete evidence. PMID:6217757

  5. Byssinosis: a role for public health in the face of scientific uncertainty.

    PubMed Central

    Wegman, D H; Levenstein, C; Greaves, I A

    1983-01-01

    Byssinosis, a lung disease caused by cotton dust, has been the subject of recent controversy. Debates over the nature of the disease, possible interactions with cigarette smoking, and the proposed reevaluation of the cotton dust standard by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration have tended to overlook the plight of affected workers and to obscure the most effective means for preventing the disease. The present lack of definitive information is no reason for inaction, nor for depriving disabled workers of adequate financial compensation. In this respect, byssinosis is no different from other public health hazards for which action must often be taken on the basis of incomplete evidence. PMID:6217757

  6. [Qualitative dimensions of the scientific, technological and innovation production at Public Health].

    PubMed

    Luz, Madel Therezinha; Mattos, Rafael da Silva

    2010-07-01

    This article shows the results of a qualitative evaluation on the expansion of the Collective Health area according with the production of the triennial Collective Health Congresses Annals which happen between 1997 to 2006, promoted by Abrasco - Brazilian Association of Collective Health. The specific objective was to estimate the growth of importance of the area in the scientific as well as in the social Brazilian scenario in the last decennary through the analysis of aspects and substantive dimensions. The methodological strategy of the study was to consider the complexity and data profusion referred to the dimensions of this multidisciplinary field (more and more interdisciplinary) of knowledge and intervention. From this perspective, analysis and interpretations of document sources were done, applying theoretical, methodological and analytical referential of the social science and X statistics techniques. It could be observed that: (1) in the last decade, the Collective Health area expanded into its three subareas (Epidemiology, Planning/Management and Health Services and, Human Sciences); (2) there is a tendency of more interactivity among the programs and with their communities and the institutions; (3) there is a growth in the quantity of authors writing about the field and different authors by article; (4) it is being elaborated a big internal specialization into the subareas. PMID:20694318

  7. Challenging Expertise: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on democracy, public participation and scientific authority: Paul Feyerabend vs. Harry Collins & Robert Evans on scientific authority and public participation.

    PubMed

    Sorgner, Helene

    2016-06-01

    This paper compares Feyerabend's arguments in Science in a Free Society to the controversial theory of expertise proposed by Harry Collins and Robert Evans as a Third Wave of Science Studies. Is the legitimacy of democratic decisions threatened by the unquestioned authority of scientific advice? Or does, on the contrary, science need protection from too much democratic participation in technical decisions? Where Feyerabend's political relativism envisions democratic society as inherently pluralist and demands equal contribution of all traditions and worldviews to public decision-making, Collins and Evans hold a conception of elective modernism, defending the reality and value of technical expertise and arguing that science deserves a privileged status in modern democracies, because scientific values are also democratic values. I will argue that Feyerabend's political relativism provides a valuable framework for the evaluation of Collins' and Evans' theory of expertise. By constructing a dialog between Feyerabend and this more recent approach in Science and Technology Studies, the aim of this article is not only to show where the two positions differ and in what way they might be reconciled, but also how Feyerabend's philosophy provides substantial input to contemporary debate. PMID:27269270

  8. Public Understanding of Science as Seen by the Scientific Community: Do We Need To Re-Conceptualize the Challenge and To Re-Examine Our Own Assumptions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobern, William W.

    This paper addresses the question of how the scientific community views the public understanding of science and whether there needs to be a re-conceptualization of the challenge to foster the public understanding of science, as well as whether there is a need to re-examine assumptions. It is argued that the science community's historic perspective…

  9. The Scientific Field during Argentina's Latest Military Dictatorship (1976-1983): Contraction of Public Universities and Expansion of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekerman, Fabiana

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina's scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research…

  10. Firearms injuries and deaths: a critical public health issue. American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The prevention of firearm deaths and injuries is one of the most complex and controversial issues facing the public health profession in recent years. Laws have been enacted to control or discourage private gun ownership, and especially to eliminate guns from the hands of criminals, but the laws' effects in reducing crime and firearm-related injuries and deaths have been disappointing. Gunshot wounds are the 12th leading cause of death in the United States and more than half of all suicides are committed with guns. There are virtually no reliable data on the number of nonfatal firearm injuries. One of the most troubling aspects of handgun violence is that children often are the victims. Educational efforts have been attempted to promote the safer use of firearms, but they have not led to a significant reduction in the number of fatalities, since most firearm incidents are intended to do harm. PMID:2495544